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Sample records for howard pat dale

  1. Dale Evarts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dale leads the Climate, International, and Multimedia Group in the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) at the US EPA. His group is also leading efforts to address and exploit the linkages between climate change and air quality.

  2. Dale Sayers Festschrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Edward A.

    2007-02-01

    This Festschrift is in honor of Dale Sayers who passed away in November 2004. Dale played a pivotal role in initiating the modern era of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) 35 years ago. The prehistory of XAFS before the modern era consisted of 40 years of confusion caused by Kronig's two different theories of the extended XAFS (EXAFS), the Short-Range Order (SRO) and Long-Range Order (LRO) theories. Dale's PhD thesis on EXAFS led to the idea of a Fourier transform to definitely prove that SRO is the correct theory and then to the development of XAFS as a structure determination technique.

  3. Edgar Dale: Scholar, Teacher, Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chall, Jeanne S.

    1987-01-01

    Dale's impact on the author's personal and professional development during their 40-year association is described. His teaching style, approach to scholarship, and emphasis on writing are discussed; as well as his contributions to educational research, which include the Dale-Chall Readability Formula. (IAH)

  4. Shana Dale Senate Confirmation Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-01

    Shana Dale testifies at her confirmation hearing before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Nov. 1, 2005, on Capitol Hill in Washington. Dale was nominated by President Bush to be the deputy administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Pat Mora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Pat Mora's career as a children's book author and aspects of her work: the Latino experience, bilingualism, family life, desert landscape, and folk tales. Provides classroom activities in art, creative writing, social studies, geography, drama. Provides a selected bibliography of Mora's work. (PEN)

  6. Pat Mora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Pat Mora's career as a children's book author and aspects of her work: the Latino experience, bilingualism, family life, desert landscape, and folk tales. Provides classroom activities in art, creative writing, social studies, geography, drama. Provides a selected bibliography of Mora's work. (PEN)

  7. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  8. John Galen Howard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Joan

    1979-01-01

    A biographical sketch of John Galen Howard, founder of the Department of Architecture at the University of California at Berkeley, is presented. Howard's conservative outlook and idealistic nature are examined and his influence on the curriculum at the university is traced. (PHR)

  9. John Galen Howard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Joan

    1979-01-01

    A biographical sketch of John Galen Howard, founder of the Department of Architecture at the University of California at Berkeley, is presented. Howard's conservative outlook and idealistic nature are examined and his influence on the curriculum at the university is traced. (PHR)

  10. Dale Gladden: An Omega Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Dale Gladden, who has worked as emergency medical technician, paramedic, and emergency room nurse. Focuses on Gladden's experiences as paramedic and looks ahead to further studies he has since pursued. Gladden explains how he chose to become paramedic, describes what characteristics make a good paramedic, and discusses…

  11. Who was John Howard?

    PubMed

    Lasure, E A

    1999-08-01

    John Howard was an 18th-century English philanthropist who made significant contributions in prison reform. Despite personal tragedy and an oppositional social climate, he became an early promoter of humane treatment for prisoners. Other reformers followed John Howard, making valuable contributions, but many challenges remain in the management of forensic hospitals and prison systems. Howard's legacy is not only the modernization of prison structures and programs, but also the work of numerous worldwide societies and associations that provide services for communities and prisoners.

  12. The Howard Zinn Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2012-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" is the nation's best-known work of American history. It is also the nation's best-selling survey of American history, having sold two million copies since its publication in 1980 and still selling about 125,000 paperback copies yearly. The fifth and current edition covers America up…

  13. The Howard Zinn Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2012-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" is the nation's best-known work of American history. It is also the nation's best-selling survey of American history, having sold two million copies since its publication in 1980 and still selling about 125,000 paperback copies yearly. The fifth and current edition covers America up…

  14. Dale Sayers' Scientific Legacy in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesler, M. A.; Washington, J. S.

    2007-02-01

    From the time he joined the NC State faculty in 1976 until his untimely death in 2004, Dale Sayers enthusiastically offered the strengths of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to colleagues with a wide variety of interests. A master collaborator. Dale teamed with researchers from disciplines as far ranging as solid state physics, biochemistry, electrical engineering, medicine and geology. In this talk, offered as a tribute to these efforts, I will highlight a small subset of Dale's many collaborations with other North Carolina faculty. The few cited examples chosen from a host of collaborations reveal the strength of Dale's science and the breadth of his vision. I will also tell of Dale's efforts to build a synchrotron on our campus in an effort that nearly succeeded despite ill-timed political adversity and ultimately tragic obstacles.

  15. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  16. Howard Zinn on Democratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps no other historian has had a more profound and revolutionary impact on American education than Howard Zinn. This is the first book devoted to his views on education and its role in a democratic society. "Howard Zinn on Democratic Education" describes what is missing from school textbooks and in classrooms--and how we move beyond these…

  17. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner works to deploy a large stinger device designed for locking onto the orbiting satellites via entering a spent engine's nozzle.

  18. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  19. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  20. Implementing PAT with Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  1. STS129 Visit to Howard University

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-12

    STS-129 Mission Specialist Leland Melvin speaks to students at the Howard University Middle School of Math and Science, Tuesday, Jan. 12, 2010, on the campus of Howard University in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  2. Profiles in Research: Howard Wainer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Robinson interviews Howard Wainer, a scientist, who graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1965 and Princeton in 1968 with degrees in mathematics and psychometrics, respectively. He taught at Temple University and The University of Chicago before moving to the Bureau of Social Science Research during the Carter Administration. Wainer…

  3. Howard Gardner Talks about Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Howard Gardner advises teachers and trainers to use technology as a tool that can be used to educate, but one that shouldn't dictate educational goals. He suggests that goals must be determined before a particular technology can be embraced. Electronic media potentially will accommodate personal learning styles and intelligences. (JOW)

  4. Howard Gardner Talks about Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Ruth Palombo

    2000-01-01

    Howard Gardner advises teachers and trainers to use technology as a tool that can be used to educate, but one that shouldn't dictate educational goals. He suggests that goals must be determined before a particular technology can be embraced. Electronic media potentially will accommodate personal learning styles and intelligences. (JOW)

  5. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-05-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  6. Typhoon Pat, western Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-03

    51I-35-075 (30 Aug 1985) --- Typhoon Pat was photographed on the morning of August 30th at a position of approximately 25 degrees N, 131 degrees E. Stereoscopically-overlapping photographs taken by the 51I crew provide much more detail of the three-dimensional structure of tropical cyclones than can be determined from data returned from meteorological satellites. The 51I shuttle mission was launched on August 27 and landed September 3. The mission was flown in the space shuttle orbiter Discovery.

  7. Howard Zinn and the Socially Conscious Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKivigan, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades many people came to know Howard Zinn for his outspoken advocacy on a wide range of progressive causes, including civil rights, free speech, workers' rights, education reform, and opposition to U.S. imperialism. The author's own first encounter with Howard Zinn's special combination of scholarship and activism occurred several…

  8. STS129 Visit to Howard University

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-12

    STS-129 Mission Specialist Leland Melvin, left. looks on as Mission Specialist Robert Satcher answers a question during a presentation to students at the Howard University Middle School of Math and Science, Tuesday, Jan. 12, 2010, on the campus of Howard University in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  9. STS129 Visit to Howard University

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-12

    STS-129 Mission Specialist Leland Melvin speaks to a class room of students at the Howard University Middle School of Math and Science, Tuesday, Jan. 12, 2010, on the campus of Howard University in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Howard University Assembles Fund-Raising Juggernaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    As a dental student 35 years ago, Leo E. Rouse and his Howard University classmates learned to fill cavities and cap teeth by crowding around one faculty member and angling for a clear view of the day's demonstration. Today students at Howard's College of Dentistry, where Dr. Rouse is now the dean, get an unobstructed view of dental procedures…

  11. Howard University Assembles Fund-Raising Juggernaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    As a dental student 35 years ago, Leo E. Rouse and his Howard University classmates learned to fill cavities and cap teeth by crowding around one faculty member and angling for a clear view of the day's demonstration. Today students at Howard's College of Dentistry, where Dr. Rouse is now the dean, get an unobstructed view of dental procedures…

  12. Howard University: A Comparative Fiscal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Deborah; And Others

    This report presents a fiscal analysis of Howard University (District of Columbia) including: (1) general education revenues; (2) education and general expenditures; and (3) faculty salaries. The study compared Howard University to four different groups of higher education institutions: similar private institutions with hospitals; public…

  13. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  14. Water Quality Assessment Dale Hollow Lake and Its Inflows,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS-1963-A I B US Army Corps of Engineers Nashville District Water Quality Assessment Dale Hollow Lake and Its Inflows March...PERIOD COVERED Water Quality Assessment Final Report Dale Hollow Lake and Its Inflows 6. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) 6. CONTRACT OR... Water Resources Center, Tennessee Tech. Univ. Box 5082 Cookeville, TN 38505 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE U.S. Army Engineer

  15. The early education of a Nobel laureate: Henry Dale's schooldays.

    PubMed

    Tansey, E M

    2011-12-20

    This paper examines the early schooling, in London and in Cambridge, of the later Nobel laureate and President of the Royal Society, the physiologist Sir Henry Dale (1875-1968). The influence of key teachers who directed the boy's interest towards science, and the impact of his schooling on his university education and later scientific career, are examined in particular. The significance of the zoologist Edward Butler of Tollington Park College, who taught Dale in his early teenage years, is highlighted.

  16. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science - XX: Dale Cruikshank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2013-04-01

    In this interview, Dale Cruikshank (Fig. 1) explains how as an undergraduate at Iowa State University he was a summer student at Yerkes Observatory where he assisted Gerard Kuiper in work on his Photographic Lunar Atlas. Upon completing his degree, Dale went to graduate school at the University of Arizona with Kuiper where he worked on the IR spectroscopy of the lunar surface. After an eventful 1968 trip to Moscow via Prague, during which the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia, Dale assumed a postdoc position with Vasili Moroz at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute and more observational IR astronomy. Upon returning to the United States and after a year at Arizona, Dale assumed a position at the University of Hawai'i that he held for 17 years. During this period Dale worked with others on thermal infrared determinations of the albedos of small bodies beyond the asteroid Main Belt, leading to the recognition that low-albedo material is prevalent in the outer solar system that made the first report of complex organic solids on a planetary body (Saturn's satellite Iapetus). After moving to Ames Research Center, where he works currently, he continued this work and became involved in many outer solar system missions. Dale has served the community through his involvement in developing national policies for science-driven planetary exploration, being chair of the DPS 1990-1991 and secretary/treasurer for 1982-1985. He served as president of Commission 16 (Physics of Planets) of the IAU (2001-2003). He received the Kuiper prize in 2006.

  17. 76 FR 53964 - Dale J. Bingham, P.A.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Enforcement Administration Dale J. Bingham, P.A.; Revocation of Registration On February 4, 2011, the Deputy... Show Cause to Dale J. Bingham, P.A. (Registrant), of Ash Fork, Arizona. The Show Cause Order proposed... Registration MB1048746, issued to Dale J. Bingham, P.A., be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order...

  18. Professor Howard Mason and oxygen activation.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Michael R

    2005-12-09

    Our understanding of the classification, function, mechanism, and structure of the enzymes which incorporate atoms of oxygen from atmospheric molecular oxygen during catalysis is based on the thoughtful and technically challenging experiments of two giants in the field of Biochemistry, Howard Mason and Osamu Hayaishi. This volume celebrates the 50th anniversary of the discovery and characterization of these "oxygenase" enzymes and provides a broad view of how far this area of research has advanced. Professor Hayaishi describes herein his perspective on the background and major discoveries which led to the development of this field. Regrettably Howard Mason passed away at age 88 in 2003. I am indeed fortunate to have been a Ph.D. student with Howard and to have the opportunity to briefly review his role in the development of this field for this special commemorative issue of BBRC.

  19. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  20. Aesthetics at the Impasse: The Unresolved Property of Dale Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    "Soil Depositions" was an art activist project that responded to the 2011 Irish Traveller eviction at Dale Farm in Essex when three resident women donated small amounts of soil from the site of their former home. The soil was subsequently deposited, framed and documented in various national and international locations. This article…

  1. Dale Chihuly: An Inspiration in Art, Science, and Math!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Connecting students to the arts in a concrete way can be an effective teaching tool. In this article, the author describes how Dale Chihuly's "Hart Window," which features hand-blown glass disks affixed to the framework of the window, can be an inspiration for interdisciplinary connections in art, science and math. (Contains 4 online resources.)

  2. Aesthetics at the Impasse: The Unresolved Property of Dale Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    "Soil Depositions" was an art activist project that responded to the 2011 Irish Traveller eviction at Dale Farm in Essex when three resident women donated small amounts of soil from the site of their former home. The soil was subsequently deposited, framed and documented in various national and international locations. This article…

  3. Dale Chihuly: An Inspiration in Art, Science, and Math!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Connecting students to the arts in a concrete way can be an effective teaching tool. In this article, the author describes how Dale Chihuly's "Hart Window," which features hand-blown glass disks affixed to the framework of the window, can be an inspiration for interdisciplinary connections in art, science and math. (Contains 4 online resources.)

  4. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  5. 105. Photocopy of plate opposite page 105 in Robert Dale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. Photocopy of plate opposite page 105 in Robert Dale Owen, Hints on Public Architecture (New York, G. P. Putnam, 1849). GROUND-PLANS, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Howard Parnes, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Howard Parnes received a BA from Cornell University in 1977 and an MD from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in 1981. He trained in internal medicine at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 1981 to 1984 followed by a medical oncology fellowship at the University of Maryland Cancer Center (UMCC) from 1984 to 1987. |

  7. Howard Hughes and His Colorful Aircraft Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwatka, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The HK-1 "Hercules" airplane made its maiden flight over 60 years ago, and it still holds the record as the airplane with the largest wingspan that ever flew. Powered by eight massive 28-cylinder engines, it was piloted by Howard Hughes during its one brief flight in California. A large portion of the airplane was made of wood, which…

  8. Howard Zinn: Historian/Teacher as Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Nathalia E.

    2009-01-01

    Few scholars have achieved the level of recognition and respect among the wider public as Howard Zinn. This should not come as a surprise, given the "unconventional" ways that Zinn embodied and enacted his scholarship. He often took his teaching and writing into those seemingly restricted spaces of popular protest, converting words into…

  9. Howard Hughes and His Colorful Aircraft Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwatka, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The HK-1 "Hercules" airplane made its maiden flight over 60 years ago, and it still holds the record as the airplane with the largest wingspan that ever flew. Powered by eight massive 28-cylinder engines, it was piloted by Howard Hughes during its one brief flight in California. A large portion of the airplane was made of wood, which…

  10. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    PubMed

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  11. Commentary: medicine, law, and Howard Zonana.

    PubMed

    Fox, Patrick K

    2010-01-01

    Collaboration between physicians and attorneys seems inherently unnatural because of the traditionally disparate aspects of the human condition that each addresses, with the health of mind and body the domain of Medicine, and the preservation of rights and property the considered realm of Law. At a time when it was not en vogue for physicians and attorneys to work together, Howard Zonana recognized the value of this partnership and fostered a model of collaboration from which society has greatly benefited.

  12. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-11-14

    51A-104-049 (14 Nov. 1984) --- Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days aboard the Earth-orbiting Discovery, holds up a for sale sign. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, who also participated in the two EVA, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft. Dr. Allen, standing on the mobile foot restraint, connected to the remote manipulator system. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Howard University Engineers Success: Interdisciplinary Study Keeps Howard on the Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Cassie M.

    2004-01-01

    According to Engineering Workforce Commission annual reports, in 1999 Howard University graduated 108 students, 92 of whom were African American, in its chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering programs and computer science programs. After two more years of graduating approximately 100 students across programs, in 2002, according to…

  14. Howard University Engineers Success: Interdisciplinary Study Keeps Howard on the Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Cassie M.

    2004-01-01

    According to Engineering Workforce Commission annual reports, in 1999 Howard University graduated 108 students, 92 of whom were African American, in its chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering programs and computer science programs. After two more years of graduating approximately 100 students across programs, in 2002, according to…

  15. Dale's Cone Revisited: Critically Examining the Misapplication of a Nebulous Theory to Guide Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak, Prem

    2003-01-01

    Edgar Dale's (1946) Cone of Experience model-and various adaptations-have been used by practitioners for decades. However, little has been accomplished by way of examining and refining the model (and its associated theories). This article suggests several philosophical perspectives by which gaps in the prevalent version of Dale's Cone could be…

  16. Howard H. Kendler (1919-2011).

    PubMed

    Foley, John M

    2012-09-01

    Presents an obituary for Howard H. Kendler. Kendler was born in New York City on June 9, 1919, and died in Santa Barbara, California, on February 17, 2011. Kendler majored in psychology at Brooklyn College, where he was an assistant to Abraham Maslow, the father of humanistic psychology, and did a research project on the psychology of thinking under the supervision of Solomon Asch, a leading Gestalt psychologist. Howard Kendler's career was characterized by insightful experiments and a consistent analysis of the fundamental issues of the nature of our science, its methods, and its role in the community. The breadth of his knowledge and the depth of his thinking on these issues are rare. Although he did not settle these issues, he brought them into clear focus and forcefully advocated for his point of view. He was a visiting professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and Tel-Aviv University and was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He held the offices of president of the Western Psychological Association, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Psychonomic Society, and president of the Division of General Psychology and the Division of Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association.

  17. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  18. James Newton Howard: JAMs with TRI-M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reninger, Rosemary D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with James Newton Howard, a film composer. Provides background information on Howard. Addresses topics such as his most challenging and rewarding scores, his musical background, and the benefits of being associated with the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). (CMK)

  19. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  20. Linkage map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAT.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J M; Holloway, B W

    1978-01-01

    The locations of new markers relative to markers previously mapped on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAT were defined by generalized transduction with phage F116L and F1083. Although the marker orders of the various marker groups were deduced mainly from the results of two-factor crosses, the locations of a number of markers were confirmed by three-factor crosses. A linkage map of the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAT was constructed which shows the relative locations of 50 genes. From the available data, the linkage maps of P. aeruginosa strains PAO and PAT appear to be similar. PMID:101525

  1. Cecil H. "Pat" Patterson (1912-2006).

    PubMed

    Rose, Anthony L

    2007-09-01

    Cecil Holden "Pat" Patterson, 93, passed away on May 26, 2006, at his home in Asheville, North Carolina. A fellow of APA's Divisions of Counseling Psychology (17), Rehabilitation Psychology (22), and Psychotherapy (29), Pat was elected president of APA Division 17 in 1972. In recognition of his lifelong commitment to the field, he received the Division 17 Leona Tyler Award in 1994. Cecil H. "Pat" Patterson will be remembered as much for his love of family and the genuine personal interest he took in everyone he met as he will for his outstanding professional achievements.

  2. Change Strategies Used by a Proprietary School: The Dale Carnegie Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent developments regarding proprietary schools: recognition by accrediting associations, increased federal aid, and increased need for the specific training offered by these schools. Uses the Dale Carnegie organization as an example. (JOW)

  3. Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Chen, Yifu; Wang, Luo; Sun, Yeqing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the distribution, source, and ecological risk of heavy metals in Daling River basin, 28 surface sediments collected in this region were analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods. Seven heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, Cd, and Zn, were detected in all samples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the ecological risks of these heavy metals. It was found that the pollution of Cd was the most serious; the ecological risks in Daling River and Bohai Bay were significantly higher than those in estuary, Bohai Sea, and wetland, but overall, the ecological risks of these heavy metals were low to aquatic organisms in Daling River basin at present. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that these heavy metals might originate from the same pollution sources located near Daling River and Bohai Bay.

  4. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, C. Howard Crane Office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, C. Howard Crane Office Drawing of 1919. Courtesy Smith, Hinchman & Grylls Inc., Detroit, 1973 BASEMENT PLAN - Orchestra Hall, 3711 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI

  5. Obituary: Howard H. Lanning, 1946-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Richard A.; MacConnell, D. Jack

    2009-01-01

    Howard H. Lanning died 20 December 2007 in Tucson, Arizona. He was a Software Quality Assurance Engineer for the Data Products Program at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory [NOAO] in Tucson, having returned to his native West after twenty years at the Space Telescope Science Institute [STScI] in Baltimore, Maryland. Throughout his career in roles supporting other astronomers, Howard steadily and persistently worked at his own research programs, most notably the identification and study of UV-bright sources in the Sandage Two-Color Survey of the Galactic Plane. Minor planet 2000 QJ248 has been named (61913) Lanning in recognition of his contributions. The son of James Clyde Lanning and Ethel Malan Lanning, Howard was born 26 May 1946, in Brawley, a small community near Calipatria, California. His parents worked for the local school district where his late father was Superintendent of Maintenance and Grounds and his mother was a school principal. After graduating from high school in a class of 52, Howard earned his A.A. degree at Imperial Valley Junior College, majoring in Astronomy and minoring in Mathematics. He completed his A.B. degree in Applied Arts and Sciences at San Diego State University [SDSU] in 1969 with the same major and minor. In 1974, he completed his M.S. in Astronomy at SDSU with a thesis on the period variation of the white-dwarf eclipsing binary BD +16∘516. During his time at SDSU Lanning was a Research Assistant/Observer at the former Hale Observatories, working on the optical identification of X-ray sources under the direction of Allan Sandage. His second refereed paper, the first of several finding lists of UV-bright stars arising from this work, appeared in 1973. Fellow students and faculty remember that he was a self-starter, initiating many observing projects of his own at Mount Laguna Observatory and encouraging others to do the same. For more than a decade Lanning was an observer and night assistant at Mount Wilson Observatory

  6. Time-dependent brittle creep in Darley Dale sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Meredith, P. G.; Bell, A. F.; Main, I. G.

    2009-07-01

    The characterization of time-dependent brittle rock deformation is fundamental to understanding the long-term evolution and dynamics of the Earth's crust. The chemical influence of pore water promotes time-dependent deformation through stress corrosion cracking that allows rocks to deform at stresses far below their short-term failure strength. Here, we report results from a study of time-dependent brittle creep in water-saturated samples of Darley Dale sandstone (initial porosity, 13%) under triaxial stress conditions. Results from conventional creep experiments show that axial strain rate is heavily dependent on the applied differential stress. A reduction of only 10% in differential stress results in a decrease in strain rate of more than two orders of magnitude. However, natural sample variability means that multiple experiments must be performed to yield consistent results. Hence we also demonstrate that the use of stress-stepping creep experiments can successfully overcome this issue. We have used the stress-stepping technique to investigate the influence of confining pressure at effective confining pressures of 10, 30, and 50 MPa (while maintaining a constant 20 MPa pore fluid pressure). Our results demonstrate that the stress corrosion process appears to be significantly inhibited at higher effective pressures, with the creep strain rate reduced by multiple orders of magnitude. The influence of doubling the pore fluid pressure, however, while maintaining a constant effective confining pressure, is shown to influence the rate of stress corrosion within the range expected from sample variability. We discuss these results in the context of microstructural analysis, acoustic emission hypocenter locations, and fits to proposed macroscopic creep laws.

  7. Speaking Out against the Silence: Pat Griffin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Penelope A.; Carlson, Teresa B.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cultural diversity from the point of view of Pat Griffin, a lesbian feminist and associate professor of physical education. To her, cultural diversity includes religion, race, gender, physical and mental ability, class, and sexual orientation. She emphasizes the latter because it is often ignored in the school environment. (SM)

  8. A Poetry Workshop in Print: Pat Mora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    2006-01-01

    After a successful career as a writer for adults, Pat Mora began creating books for children. Her first picture book, "Tomas and The Library Lady" (Knopf, 1997) is a tender story of a young migrant worker who unearths new worlds when he discovers the magic a public library holds. The text, cleverly interspersed with foreign words, became a…

  9. Antimatter/HiPAT Support Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Raymond A.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques were developed for trapping normal matter in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT). Situations encountered included discharge phenomena, charge exchange and radial diffusion processes. It is important to identify these problems, since they will also limit the performance in trapping antimatter next year.

  10. A Poetry Workshop in Print: Pat Mora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    2006-01-01

    After a successful career as a writer for adults, Pat Mora began creating books for children. Her first picture book, "Tomas and The Library Lady" (Knopf, 1997) is a tender story of a young migrant worker who unearths new worlds when he discovers the magic a public library holds. The text, cleverly interspersed with foreign words, became a…

  11. The correspondence of Thomas Dale (1700-1750): Botany in the transatlantic Republic of Letters.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a full account of the life and career of Dr. Thomas Dale (1700-1750), with particular reference to his botanical works and correspondence. Born in Hoxton, London, Dale studied medicine at Leiden and engaged fully in the social, literary and epistolary network in which botany was practised in eighteenth-century England. In 1730, however, Dale relocated to the British colonial port of Charles Town, South Carolina. Here he continued to engage in a transatlantic network of botanical exchange and discussion, corresponding on equal and reciprocal terms with his former colleagues in England. Where Dale differs from naturalists in South Carolina before him is that his motives for pursuing botany and for corresponding with English naturalists were located firmly in the New World. Such a conclusion forms a valuable, albeit small contribution to models for the development of national scientific cultures in the imperial world. Similarly, Dale's pursuit of botanical information in South Carolina provides a small amount of material with which to illustrate currently fashionable models for the mediated exchange and circulation of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Study on specificity of acupuncture effect of Shenmen (HT 7) and Daling (PC 7)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Jing; Sun, Zhong-Ren; Sun, Chen-Yi; Tong, Xin

    2012-04-01

    To observe the effect of acupunture at Shenmen (HT 7) and Daling (PC 7) on different cerebral functional regions by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and discuss the relative specificity of effect of these two acupoints. Ten healthy right-handed volunteers were enrolled in this research. Under the scan of fMRI with the pattern of "rest-stimulation-rest-stimulation-rest", acupuncture stimulation was given at Shenmen (HT 7) and Daling (PC 7) on the right side, and all the data were analyzed with Matlab software and SPM5 package to observe the activated cerebral regions. The activated brodmann areas by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT 7) were mainly BA10 BA13, BA47, BA22 on the left side and BA40 BA44 on the right side, while the activated areas by acupunoture at Daling (PC7) were BA46, BA47, BA22 BA10. BA45 on the left side and BA44 BA9, BA6. BA40 on the right side. The activated cerebral functional regions of acupuncture stimulation at Shenmen (HT 7) and Daling (PC 7) are not exactly the same, which indicates that the acupuncture effects of the two acupoints are specific. With the same activated areas of language and cognitive function, the Shenmen (HT 7) specializes in emotion control while the Daling (PC 7) could active the autonomic nerve function area.

  13. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  14. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  15. PatA and PatB form a functional heterodimeric ABC multidrug efflux transporter responsible for the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Boncoeur, Emilie; Durmort, Claire; Bernay, Benoît; Ebel, Christine; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Croizé, Jacques; Vernet, Thierry; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-02

    All bacterial multidrug ABC transporters have been shown to work as either homodimers or heterodimers. Two possibly linked genes, patA and patB from Streptococcus pneumococcus, that encode half-ABC transporters have been shown previously to be involved in fluoroquinolone resistance. We showed that the ΔpatA, ΔpatB, or ΔpatA/ΔpatB mutant strains were more sensitive to unstructurally related compounds, i.e., ethidium bromide or fluoroquinolones, than the wild-type R6 strain. Inside-out vesicles prepared from Escherichia coli expressing PatA and/or PatB transported Hoechst 33342, a classical substrate of multidrug transporters, only when both PatA and PatB were coexpressed. This transport was inhibited either by orthovanadate or by reserpine, and mutation of the conserved Walker A lysine residue of either PatA or PatB fully abrogated Hoechst 33342 transport. PatA, PatB, and the PatA/PatB heterodimer were purified from detergent-solubilized E. coli membrane preparations. Protein dimers were identified in all cases, albeit in different proportions. In contrast to the PatA/PatB heterodimers, homodimers of PatA or PatB failed to show a vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. Thus, PatA and PatB need to interact together to make a functional drug efflux transporter, and they work only as heterodimers.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in Daling River adjacent to fluorine industrial parks: implication from industrial emission.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-01-01

    The pollution level and source of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mainstream and tributary of Daling River in northeast China were investigated in present study. Concentrations of PFASs in surface water and sediment ranged from 4.6 to 3,410 ng/L and from 0.08 to 2.6 ng/g dry weight, respectively. The lowest levels of PFASs were found in vicinity of a drinking water source located in upstream of Daling River. Xihe tributary, which is adjacent to two local fluorine industrial parks, contained the highest level of PFASs. Short-chain PFASs, including perfluorobutanoic acid and perfluorobutane sulfonate, were of higher levels due to their emerging as alternative products for perfluorooctane sulfonate. High level of perfluorooctanoic acid was also found in Daling River. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the relatively severe pollutions of Xihe tributary were caused by long-term development of the two local fluorine industry parks.

  17. Dale Avenue Performance Objective Model Pre-Primary-Primary Performance Objectives Prekindergarten Through Grade Three: Manual; Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helen B.; Gavzy, Rita

    The Dale Avenue Early Childhood Education Project was developed in the Dale Avenue School in Paterson, New Jersey through funding from the Elementary Secondary Education Act Title III. The Project was validated in 1973 by the standards and guidelines of the U.S. Office of Education as innovative, successful, cost effective, and exportable. As a…

  18. B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower; Howard Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Junction Substation & Interlocking Tower; Howard Street Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 95.85 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Evaluation of the Howard Hughes Science Grant Project, Year One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Natalie; Wade, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Howard Hughes Science Institute (HHMI) supported science program is to train one staff member to become a science lead within each of the elementary schools in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) district. The specific objectives of the first year of HHMI grant project were to: (1) provide approximately 20…

  20. A Review of Howard University's Financial Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey-Taliefero, Debby; Kelly, Lynne; Brent, William; Price, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates a financial literacy curriculum at the Howard University (HU) School of Business, by measuring the financial knowledge acquired after participating in a variety of programs. To evaluate the HU curriculum, the National Jump$tart Coalition (NJC) survey was administered to collect data on financial knowledge and demographic…

  1. Rise of Human Intelligence: Comments on Howard (1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobet, Fernand; Campitelli, Guillermo; Waters, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Finds several difficulties with the theory advanced by R. Howard and shows that alternative explanations relating to changes in the chess environment, including increased access to chess knowledge, offer better explanations for the increased presence of young players at top-level chess. (SLD)

  2. Howard University Students and Civil Rights Activism, 1934-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the complex contexts and relationships that enabled student civil rights advocates to emerge at Howard University in the 1930s and 1940s. Such histories are valuable given their realistic portrayal of the daily challenges, interpersonal collisions, collaborations, and organizational positioning that made some human rights…

  3. Judicial Management: The Achievements of Chief Justice William Howard Taft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Illuminates the importance of Chief Justice William Howard Taft in creating the modern administrative role of the Chief Justice of the United States. Specifically, the article examines the Act of 14 September 1922 that Taft championed in Congress to give the Chief Justice better tools for managing the judiciary. (DSK)

  4. Undue Certainty: Where Howard Zinn's "A People's History" Falls Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History" of the United States has few peers among contemporary historical works. With more than 2 million copies in print, "A People's History" is more than a book. It is a cultural icon. While most historians aim to examine the full historical record, Zinn picks and chooses from it. Writing persuasively, he hides the…

  5. A tribute to Robert Edwards and Howard Jones Jr

    PubMed Central

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    “2010 was a fascinating year. Robert Edwards finally received the Nobel prize for Medicine and his friend in the United States, Howard W. Jones Jr. was honored in Denver by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) upon his Centennial Birthday. He turned 100 on December 30th” PMID:24753845

  6. 77 FR 29456 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard... Industrial Lead, between mileposts 55.66 and 58.5 in Howard County, Ind.\\1\\ The line traverses United States...--Abandonment Exemption--in Howard County, Ind., AB 511 (Sub-No. 5X) (STB served July 22, 2010). That...

  7. Composing a "National Negro Theater": Playwriting Courses at Howard University in the 1920s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaluda, Scott

    Educators today may find a historical review of the Howard Players at Howard University (Washington, D.C.) in the 1920s important because of its implicit commentary on what constitutes community. While the Howard Players are generally written about in terms of the development of an African-American theater, historians ought also to think of their…

  8. Previous Attempts to Debunk the Mythical Retention Chart and Corrupted Dale's Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    Critics have been attempting to debunk the mythical retention chart at least since 1971. The earliest critics, David Curl and Frank Dwyer, were addressing just the retention data. Beginning around 2002, a new generation of critics has taken on the illegitimate combination of the retention chart and Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience--the corrupted…

  9. The Mythical Retention Chart and the Corruption of Dale's Cone of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    In response to the wide-scale proliferation of "the cone of learning"--a fanciful retention chart confounded with Dale's Cone of Experience--the authors make four major claims debunking this fantasy and provide documentary evidence to support these claims. The first claim is that the data in the mythical retention chart do not make…

  10. The Relationship of Media and ISD Theory: The Unrealized Promise of Dale's Cone of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seels, Barbara

    Instructional systems design (ISD) is the integration of general systems theory, instructional theory, and communications theory. Edgar Dale, a leader in the fields of reading and journalism and a pioneer in the humanistic/communications tradition of the field of instructional technology, related the concrete to abstract continuum to media…

  11. Dewey, Dale, and Bruner: Educational Philosophy, Experiential Learning, and Library School Cataloging Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, LeAnn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses educational philosophies of John Dewey, Edgar Dale, and Jerome Bruner dealing with experience and learning and describes experiential learning activities within the curriculum of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Hawaii. Results of a study examining student attitudes toward experiential learning are…

  12. Astronaut Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, wearing the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) approaching the spinng Westar VI satellite over Bahama Banks. Gardner uses a large tool called the apogee kick motor capture device (ACD) to enter the nozzle of the spent Westar engine and stabilize the satellite to capture it for return to Earth.

  13. Astronat Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronat Dale A. Gardner appears to be under the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector as he makes a turn in space and preapares to use the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to travel to Westar VI satellite. The 'stinger' he carries will enter the communications satellite through the nozzle of the spent motor.

  14. Astronaut Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, wearing the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) approaching the spinng Westar VI satellite over Bahama Banks. The end effector of the remote manipulator system (RMS) controlled by Dr. Anna L. Fisher inside Discovery's cabin, awaits its duty at right.

  15. Dewey, Dale, and Bruner: Educational Philosophy, Experiential Learning, and Library School Cataloging Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, LeAnn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses educational philosophies of John Dewey, Edgar Dale, and Jerome Bruner dealing with experience and learning and describes experiential learning activities within the curriculum of the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of Hawaii. Results of a study examining student attitudes toward experiential learning are…

  16. Astronaut Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, wearing the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) approaching the spinng Westar VI satellite over Bahama Banks. Gardner uses a large tool called the apogee kick motor capture device (ACD) to enter the nozzle of the spent Westar engine and stabilize the satellite to capture it for return to Earth.

  17. Astronaut Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, wearing the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) approaching the spinng Westar VI satellite over Bahama Banks. The end effector of the remote manipulator system (RMS) controlled by Dr. Anna L. Fisher inside Discovery's cabin, awaits its duty at right.

  18. Astronat Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronat Dale A. Gardner appears to be under the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector as he makes a turn in space and preapares to use the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to travel to Westar VI satellite. The 'stinger' he carries will enter the communications satellite through the nozzle of the spent motor.

  19. Previous Attempts to Debunk the Mythical Retention Chart and Corrupted Dale's Cone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramony, Deepak Prem; Molenda, Michael; Betrus, Anthony K.; Thalheimer, Will

    2014-01-01

    Critics have been attempting to debunk the mythical retention chart at least since 1971. The earliest critics, David Curl and Frank Dwyer, were addressing just the retention data. Beginning around 2002, a new generation of critics has taken on the illegitimate combination of the retention chart and Edgar Dale's Cone of Experience--the corrupted…

  20. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  1. The evaluation of Pat-Pat related injuries in the western black sea region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accidents caused by motorized vehicle in the agricultural sector are frequently observed. In Turkey; accidents arising from motorized vehicles, named Pat-Pat, which are used by farmers in the Western Black Sea region is not unusual. Methods One hundred five patients who were brought into the Emergency Department of Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 due to Pat-Pat related accidents were evaluated. Results The cases consisted of 73 (69.5%) males and 32 (30.5%) females, ranging from 2 to 73 years of age. In the 10-39 age group, a total of 63 (60.0%) cases were determined. The months when the greatest rate of cases applied to the hospital consisted of July, August, September and the season is summer. The cases were exposed to trauma in roads in 54 (51.4%), and 51 (48.6%) occurred in agricultural area without roads. Eighty seven (82.9%) cases were injured due to the overturning of vehicle. The patients were brought to the hospital using a private vehicle in 54 (51.4%) of the cases and in 51 (48.6%) cases, 112 ambulance system was used. The cases were determined to apply to the hospital most frequently between 6 pm-12 am. The injuries frequently consisted of head-neck and spine traumas, thorax traumas and upper extremity traumas. In 55 (52.4%) cases, open wound-laceration was determined. Seventy five (71.4%) cases were treated in the Emergency Department, and 28 (26.7%) were hospitalized. Three (2.9%) cases were deceased. Conclusions Serious injuries can occur in Pat-Pat related accidents, and careful systematic physical examination should be conducted. In order to prevent these accidents, education of farm operators and engineering studies on the mechanics and safety of these vehicles should be taken and legal regulations should be created. PMID:21699689

  2. The evaluation of Pat-Pat related injuries in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karapolat, Sami; Saritas, Ayhan; Kandis, Hayati; Cikman, Mehmet; Gezer, Suat; Ozaydin, Ismet; Iskender, Abdulkadir; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Baltaci, Davut; Uslu, Mustafa; Karapolat, Banu; Dumlu, Talha

    2011-06-23

    Accidents caused by motorized vehicle in the agricultural sector are frequently observed. In Turkey; accidents arising from motorized vehicles, named Pat-Pat, which are used by farmers in the Western Black Sea region is not unusual. One hundred five patients who were brought into the Emergency Department of Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 due to Pat-Pat related accidents were evaluated. The cases consisted of 73 (69.5%) males and 32 (30.5%) females, ranging from 2 to 73 years of age. In the 10-39 age group, a total of 63 (60.0%) cases were determined. The months when the greatest rate of cases applied to the hospital consisted of July, August, September and the season is summer. The cases were exposed to trauma in roads in 54 (51.4%), and 51 (48.6%) occurred in agricultural area without roads. Eighty seven (82.9%) cases were injured due to the overturning of vehicle. The patients were brought to the hospital using a private vehicle in 54 (51.4%) of the cases and in 51 (48.6%) cases, 112 ambulance system was used. The cases were determined to apply to the hospital most frequently between 6 pm-12 am. The injuries frequently consisted of head-neck and spine traumas, thorax traumas and upper extremity traumas. In 55 (52.4%) cases, open wound-laceration was determined. Seventy five (71.4%) cases were treated in the Emergency Department, and 28 (26.7%) were hospitalized. Three (2.9%) cases were deceased. Serious injuries can occur in Pat-Pat related accidents, and careful systematic physical examination should be conducted. In order to prevent these accidents, education of farm operators and engineering studies on the mechanics and safety of these vehicles should be taken and legal regulations should be created.

  3. STS-105 Crew Interview: Pat Forrester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-105 Mission Specialist Pat Forrester is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, training for the mission, and his role in the mission's activities. He gives details on the mission's goals, which include the transfer of supplies from the Discovery Orbiter to the International Space Station (ISS) and the change-over of the Expedition 2 and Expedition 3 crews (the resident crews of ISS). Forrester discusses the importance of the ISS in the future of human spaceflight.

  4. Dr. Howard Jones, Jr. (1910-2015): In Memoriam

    PubMed Central

    Oehninger, S.; Kruger, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    We honor the life of Howard W. Jones, Jr., MD, 104, a pioneer and visionary in reproductive medicine, a dedicated mentor, internationally renowned gynecological surgeon, and the father of in vitro fertilization IVF) in the United States. Dr. Jones founded the Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, in Norfolk, Virginia, at Eastern Virginia Medical School, in 1983. Today, IVF has grown exponentially not only in its direct application but also in the development of newer techniques would have been unimaginable a couple of decades ago. Throughout the years Dr. Howard has been a teacher and a mentor to many around the world. To us he also was a friend, a supporter at the time of difficult decisions, someone who would inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instill a love of learning and untangling some of the complexities of the field, even of the human condition. His leadership, vision, knowledge, enthusiasm and inquisitive mind will be missed.

  5. Temperature Analysis: Howard A. Hanson Reservoir, Washington. Mathematical Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    were reached by Dortch (1981) in his investigation of Kinzua Dam in Pennsylvania and by Peters (1978) in his report of modifications to Flaming Gorge ...Vicksburg, MS. Peters, J. C. 1978. "Modification of Intakes at Flaming Gorge Dam , Utah, to Improve Water Temperature in the Green River," Proceedings...system to maintain downstream temperature objectives. Project Description 2. Howard A. Hanson Dam is located 65 miles upstream from the mouth of the

  6. HCMR interview: Pat N. Groner. Interview by Montague Brown.

    PubMed

    Groner, P N

    1992-01-01

    Pat N. Groner, President Emeritus, Baptist Health Care, Pensacola, Florida, is a man of ideas and action. Pat has ably led his hospital, was founder of the Hospital Research and Development Institute and Voluntary Hospitals of America, and is now a leader in higher education. Whenever and wherever Pat sees an opportunity to improve things, he jumps in with a hundred ideas, most of them real winners. He engages others and fights for constructive change. For all who seek models for the full life well lived, look at Pat Groner.

  7. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The purpose of this SAR Addendum is to incorporate plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. The Pu metal is packed in an inner container (designated the T-Ampoule) that replaces the PC-1 inner container. The documentation and results from analysis contained in this addendum demonstrate that the replacement of the PC-1 and associated packaging material with the T-Ampoule and associated packaging with the addition of the plutonium metal content are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system and prevention of criticality when the package is subjected to the tests specified in 10 CFR 71.71, 71.73 and 71.74.

  8. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-03-06

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the "Mothership." A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible.

  9. Astronaut Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-11-14

    51A-39-034 (14 Nov. 1984) --- A 70mm frame of astronaut Dale A. Gardner, wearing the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) approaching the spinning WESTAR VI satellite over Bahama Banks. The end effector of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) controlled by Dr. Anna L. Fisher inside the space shuttle Discovery's cabin, awaits its duty at right. Gardner made a hard dock with the stinger at 6:32 a.m. (CST). Photo credit: NASA

  10. Differential expression of proton-assisted amino acid transporters (PAT[1] and PAT[2]) in tissues of neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The PATs have been identified as growth-regulatory nutrient sensors in Drosophila and as activators of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in mammalian cell cultures. These studies suggest that, beyond their classical function as transporters of simple amino acids (AA), the PATs act as tranceptors,...

  11. Foundations of educational psychology: Howard Gardner's neoclassical psyche.

    PubMed

    Diessner, R

    2001-12-01

    This article is a theoretical examination of the implications of Howard Gardner's work in developmental and educational psychology (1983, 1993, 1999a, 1999b) for the structure of the psyche. The author accepts as axiomatic, in the context of this article, Gardner's educational manifesto (1999a) that all students should be taught disciplinary understandings of truth, beauty, and goodness. Rational inferences are then made indicating that the psyche that Gardner intends to educate and help develop is in the form of a neoclassical psyche and that it is structured by the capacities to know truth, to love beauty, and to will goodness.

  12. Validation of Watch-PAT-200 Against Polysomnography During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Shelgikar, Anita V.; Chames, Mark C.; Armitage, Roseanne; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the relationships between key variables obtained from ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and the wrist-worn Watch-PAT 200 device in pregnant women. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, women in their third trimester of pregnancy underwent full overnight home PSG using the 22-channel MediPalm system and the Watch-PAT 200 device. PSGs were scored by a blinded, experienced technologist using AASM 2007 criteria; the Watch-PAT was scored automatically by the manufacturer's proprietary software. Results: A total of 31 pregnant women were studied. Mean age was 30.2 ± 7.1 years; mean gestational age was 33.4 ± 3.0 weeks; mean BMI was 31.9 ± 8.1 kg/m2; 39% of women were nulliparous. Key variables generated by PSG and Watch-PAT correlated well over a wide range, including the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, r = 0.76, p < 0.001); respiratory disturbance index (RDI, r = 0.68, p < 0.001), mean oxygen saturation (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), and minimum oxygen saturation (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). The area under the curve for AHI ≥ 5 and RDI ≥ 10 were 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. Association between stage 3 sleep on PSG and deep sleep on Watch-PAT was poor. Watch-PAT tended to overscore RDI, particularly as severity increased. Conclusions: Among pregnant women, Watch-PAT demonstrates excellent sensitivity and specificity for identification of obstructive sleep apnea, defined as AHI ≥ 5 on full PSG. Watch-PAT may overestimate RDI somewhat, especially at high RDI values. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Shelgikar AV; Chames MC; Armitage R; Chervin RD. Validation of Watch-Pat-200 against polysomnography during pregnancy. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):287-294. PMID:22701386

  13. Analysis of Employee Supply and Demand in Howard County--A Pilot Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Coll. at Big Spring, TX.

    A survey developed by the Occupational Education Division of Howard University to determine employee supply and demand in Howard County, Texas, involved both employees and employers. Employer data were compiled from interviews with 319 out of a possible 409 employers who employed three or more people. Conclusions and recommendations for the…

  14. Howard's End: A Narrative Memoir of Political Contrivance, Neoconservative Ideology and the Australian History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tony

    2009-01-01

    In August 2006, Australia's conservative prime minister John Howard convened a history summit in Canberra. The purported goal of the summit was the framing of a nationally-acceptable curriculum in Australian history. However, as this article suggests, Howard's hidden intention was to use the summit as a device for introducing a narrowly…

  15. Start/Pat; A parallel-programming toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbe, B.; Smith, K. ); McDowell, C. )

    1989-07-01

    How can you make Fortran code parallel without isolating the programmer from learning to understand and exploit parallelism effectively. With an interactive toolkit that automates parallelization as it educates. This paper discusses the Start/Pat toolkit.

  16. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  17. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  18. The forensic anthropology legacy of T. Dale Stewart (1901-1997).

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, D H

    2000-03-01

    T. Dale Stewart (1901-1997) began his Smithsonian career as a temporary aide to Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) in 1924. At the time of his death in 1997, he was regarded world-wide as an authority who led the professional development of American forensic anthropology. He was a prodigious researcher, best known for his meticulous attention to detail, balanced scientific judgment, keen sense of research design, and ability for synthesis. Stewart's publications, extensive casework for the FBI and others, his court testimony, publications, professional contacts, and organizational activity merit him a prominent place in the history of American forensic anthropology.

  19. Astronat Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-11-14

    51A-104-008 (14 Nov 1984) --- Astronaut Dale A. Gardner appears to be under the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector as he makes a turn in space and prepared to traverse, using the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) backpack, to the nearby Westar VI to "Sting" it with the device he carries. The stringer will enter the communications satellite through the nozzle of the spent motor. Gardner achieved a hard dock at 6:32 A.M. and this picture was photographed about five minutes earlier, on Nov. 14, 1984.

  20. Research on Coupling Method of Watershed Initial Water Rights Allocation in Daling River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhua; Wu, Fengping

    2017-05-01

    As a typical abnormal, nonlinear and multidimensional system decision-making problem, watershed initial water rights allocation involves various resource distribution, economic, social and environment objectives. Because of the large subjectivity of weight determination, different from the traditional methods, we adopt a new coupling method which is a dimension reduction method in this study to solve the watershed initial water rights allocation problem. The data allocated in Daling watershed can be calculated in optimum projection direction to gain the watershed initial water rights allocation scheme in low-dimensional space.

  1. Typhoons Pat and Odessa in the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-08-30

    51I-35-078 (30 Aug 1985) --- Typhoons Pat (left) and Odessa in the western Pacific. Of the many tropical cyclones photographed by the STS 51-I crew, the dual typhoons of Pat and Odessa were the most unusual. The twin typhoons constitute a Fujiwara system of connected cyclones first described by the Japanese meteorologist after whom the phenomena has been named. Never before have such paired typhoons been photographed from orbit.

  2. The Planetary and Eclipse Oil Paintings of Howard Russell Butler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    The physics-trained artist Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) has inspired many astronomy students through his planetary and eclipse paintings that were long displayed at the Hayden Planetarium in New York, the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, and the Buffalo Museum of Science. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs (1918, 1923, and 1925) at each of those institutions but also his paintings of Mars as seen from Phobos and from Deimos (with landscapes of those moons in the foreground depicted in additional oils hung at Princeton University) and the Earth from our Moon. We also describe his involvement with astronomy and his unique methodology that allowed him to surpass the effects then obtainable with photography, as well as his inclusion in a U.S. Naval Observatory eclipse expedition in 1918, as well as his auroral, solar-prominence, and 1932-eclipse paintings.

  3. Overexpression of patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Mark I; Baylay, Alison J; Wong, Ryan L; Piddock, Laura J V

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC transporters. Overexpression was observed in 14 of the 15 isolates that were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and dyes and in only 3 of 24 of those resistant to fluoroquinolones only. Isolates overexpressing patA and patB accumulated significantly less of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 than wild-type isolates, suggesting that PatA and PatB are involved in efflux. Inactivation of patA and patB by in vitro mariner mutagenesis conferred hypersusceptibility to ethidium bromide and acriflavine in all isolates tested and lowered the MICs of ciprofloxacin in the patAB-overproducing and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. These data represent the first observation of overexpression of patA and patB in clinical isolates and show that PatA and PatB play a clinically relevant role in fluoroquinolone resistance.

  4. Overexpression of patA and patB, Which Encode ABC Transporters, Is Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Baylay, Alison J.; Wong, Ryan L.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based on their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin and the dyes ethidium bromide and acriflavine. Comparative reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine the level of expression of the genes patA and patB, which encode putative ABC transporters. Overexpression was observed in 14 of the 15 isolates that were resistant to both fluoroquinolones and dyes and in only 3 of 24 of those resistant to fluoroquinolones only. Isolates overexpressing patA and patB accumulated significantly less of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 than wild-type isolates, suggesting that PatA and PatB are involved in efflux. Inactivation of patA and patB by in vitro mariner mutagenesis conferred hypersusceptibility to ethidium bromide and acriflavine in all isolates tested and lowered the MICs of ciprofloxacin in the patAB-overproducing and/or fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. These data represent the first observation of overexpression of patA and patB in clinical isolates and show that PatA and PatB play a clinically relevant role in fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20937787

  5. Mechanism of the Schultz-Dale Reaction in the Denervated Diaphragmatic Muscle of the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-deFlorida, F.; del Castillo, J.; García, Xaviera; Gijón, E.

    1968-01-01

    The mechanism of the contractions elicited by specific antigens in immunologically sensitized muscle tissue (Schultz-Dale responses) has been investigated on single fibers of denervated guinea pig hemidiaphragms. This preparation can be either actively or passively allergized, showing Schultz-Dale responses similar to those of visceral muscle. Specific antigens were applied with an electrically operated microtap to discrete areas of the cell surface while recording the electrical activity with intracellular microelectrodes. In this manner, a depolarizing action of the antigens on the muscle membrane was demonstrated. Brief applications of antigen gave rise to phasic potential changes (antigen potentials) similar to those elicited in the same fibers with acetylcholine-filled microtaps. However, antigen potentials occur only in denervated fibers sensitized to the specific antigen or closely related proteins; they are not seen in either innervated fibers of allergized animals or in denervated, nonallergized fibers. Repeated antigen application to the same area of the fiber causes a local irreversible desensitization. The antigen potentials are associated with a reduction in the resistance of the muscle membrane, similar to that caused by acetylcholine. It is concluded that besides causing the liberation of biogenic amines from the mast cells, antigens exert a direct action on the permeability of the muscle membrane; the molecules of antibody adsorbed to the cells appear to act as specific chemoreceptors for the antigen. PMID:19873612

  6. Becoming respectable: T. Dale Stewart and the acceptance of forensic anthropology in the academic community.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A

    2000-03-01

    Before World War II, forensic anthropology was of peripheral interest to a few anthropologists willing to assist in investigations by law enforcement agencies. A strong bias that "police work" was unbecoming to the scholarly pursuits of academics persisted into the post-war years. Changes took place as a consequence of T. Dale Stewart's case work in the identification of human remains with the FBI from 1943 to 1969, his directorship of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) beginning in 1962, and his work with the Armed Forces after 1948. This paper discusses the historic period of transition of attitudes and practices in the contexts of Stewart's contributions and the cases and teaching programs of one of his contemporaries. Theodore D. McCown at the University of California at Berkeley, during the period of 1939 to 1969. The establishment of the Physical Anthropology Section within the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972 and the creation of the T. Dale Stewart award for distinguished service in forensic anthropology advanced those laboratory research programs and medical-legal investigations conducted by present-day forensic anthropologists.

  7. Unto the least of these: the Howard Association and yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Newsom, E Y

    1992-06-01

    Epidemics of yellow fever in mid-19th century America caused, in the port cities of the South, devastation and death almost unequalled in this country's history. In response to this horror, a benevolent organization of young men was formed to minister to the unfortunate victims through visitations, nursing care, supplies, and compassion. The group adopted the name Howard Association in honor of the British philanthropist and reformer, John Howard. This paper is an attempt to introduce this little-known society to 20th century readers by taking a brief look at some of the records of Howard Associations in several southern cities: New Orleans, Memphis, Norfolk, and Charleston.

  8. Database of patterns PROF_PAT for detecting local similarities.

    PubMed

    Nizolenko, Lily P; Bachinsky, Alexander G; Naumochkin, Andrey N; Yarigin, Andrey A; Grigorovich, Dmitry A

    2003-01-01

    We have developed PROF_PAT, a database of patterns, constructed for groups of related proteins and designed to maximize representation of amino acid sequences from the SWISS-PROT database. The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate that PROT_PAT is not only as good as known analogs but surpasses them in some features. 10938 new amino acid sequences from the SWISS-PROT bank were compared with patterns constructed for protein families in the PROF_PAT 1.10 bank. The aim of the comparisons was to estimate some threshold values of "Score" parameter to distinguish random similarities from significant ones. From the 10938 new sequences, 638 did not reveal any similarities with PROF_PAT patterns. Cases of found similarities were divided into three sets: 'positive', 'putative' (or 'unknown'), and 'false positive', containing 7719, 2297 and 284 sequences respectively. Using 20 amino acid sequences from the TrEMBL bank that have no descriptions, PROF_PAT demonstrated specificity at a level that was as good as the best-known "secondary" banks. At the same time, its pattern content and variety of included proteins was significantly richer, and its search speed was 3-10 times higher than those of any other protein family bank used for comparison.

  9. Cosmopolitanism and Our Descriptions of Ethics and Ontology: A Response to Dale Snauwaert's "The Ethics and Ontology of Cosmopolitanism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years scholars across the humanities and social sciences have revitalized the ancient concept of cosmopolitanism. Dale Snauwaert illuminates why this is so in his thoughtful article on what it might mean to educate for a shared humanity. Snauwaert shows why many people find so-called "realism" an unsatisfactory political and moral…

  10. Macquarie Island: the introduction of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) as a possible vector for myxomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobey, W. R.; Adams, K. M.; Johnston, G. C.; Gould, L. R.; Simpson, K. N. G.; Keith, K.

    1973-01-01

    The European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) was first released on Macquarie Island in December 1968. The flea has survived and bred on the island and about 30% of the rabbits sampled from the original release area in January 1972 were flea-infested. ImagesPlate 1Plate 1 PMID:4515880

  11. Commission on the Future of Howard Community College, Progress Report 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. Office of Planning and Evaluation.

    Presents the Commission on the Future of Howard Community College's (HCC) (Maryland) progress report 2000. Section 1, "Creating a World Class Learning Organization," presents strategic process and tactical action recommendations. Section 2, "Collaboration with Other Educational Organizations," discusses curricular and…

  12. Synchrotron resource of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudenmann, J.-L.; Hendrickson, W. A.; Abramowitz, R.

    1989-07-01

    The Synchrotron Resource of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute will be dedicated to structural analyses of biological macromolecules, primarily through crystallography. This facility is under construction at the X4 port of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and it will comprise three beamlines. The first line to be built has been devised to apply the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method which provides direct estimates for the phases of reflections. The second line will be devoted to rapid and essentially routine diffraction measurements, mainly through the rotation method. These two experimental stations are contained within refrigerated radiation enclosures that will maintain clean environments, narrowly defined constant temperatures, and protection against biohazard at biosafety level BL-2. At the same time as the second line will be developed, the swath center is planned to first serve as a monitor of the white x-ray beam vertical stability. This project will be done in collaboration with accelerator physicists of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Later, this third line will be equipped for Laue experiments to study, for instance, dynamical processes in proteins.

  13. Howard University Energy Expert Systems Institute Summer Program (EESI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Chuku, Arunsi; Abban, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Howard University, under the auspices of the Center for Energy Systems and Controls runs the Energy Expert Systems Institute (EESI) summer outreach program for high school/pre-college minority students. The main objectives are to introduce precollege minority students to research in the power industry using modern state-of-the-art technology such as Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neural Networks; to involve minority students in space power management, systems and failure diagnosis; to generate interest in career options in electrical engineering; and to experience problem-solving in a teamwork environment consisting of faculty, senior research associates and graduate students. For five weeks the students are exposed not only to the exciting experience of college life, but also to the inspiring field of engineering, especially electrical engineering. The program consists of lectures in the fundamentals of engineering, mathematics, communication skills and computer skills. The projects are divided into mini and major. Topics for the 1995 mini projects were Expert Systems for the Electric Bus and Breast Cancer Detection. Topics on the major projects include Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Solar Dynamics and Distribution Automation. On the final day, designated as 'EESI Day' the students did oral presentations of their projects and prizes were awarded to the best group. The program began in the summer of 1993. The reaction from the students has been very positive. The program also arranges field trips to special places of interest such as the NASA Goddard Space Center.

  14. The Solar Eclipse Mural Series by Howard Russell Butler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich trove of astronomical phenomena in works of art by artists from the greater New York area, a trend that is even more pronounced in the oeuvres of New York City residents through the present day. A case in point is the trio of oil paintings by artist (and former physics professor) Howard Russell Butler depicting total solar eclipses in 1918, 1923, and 1925 that are based on his own observations. They were long displayed in the former art-deco building of the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, the location of this conference. (The Museum also has nine other Butler paintings, none of which are currently exhibited.) Since the eclipse paintings have been in storage for many years, these once famous works are now virtually forgotten. Based on our research as an astronomer who has seen sixty-two solar eclipses and an art historian who has written extensively about astronomical imagery, we will discuss Butler's Solar Eclipse Triptych to explore its place in the history of astronomical imaging.

  15. Howard Russell Butler's Oil Paintings of Solar Eclipses and Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934) was invited to join the US Naval Observatory expedition to the total solar eclipse of 1918 because of his ability to paint astronomical phenomena based on quickly-made notes about spatial and color details. His giant triptych of the total eclipses of 1918, 1923, and 1925 was proposed for a never-built astronomical center at the American Museum of Natural History and wound up at their Hayden Planetarium when it was constructed in the mid-1930s. Half-size versions are installed at the Fels Planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and at the Firestone Library of Princeton University, whose newly conserved canvases were recently hung; the Buffalo Museum of Science has another half-size version in storage. We discuss not only the eclipse triptychs but also the series of large oil paintings he made of solar prominences (in storage at the American Museum of Natural History) and of his 1932-eclipse and other relevant works.JMP was supported for this work in part by Division III Discretionary Funds and the Brandi Fund of Williams College. His current eclipse research is supported by grants AGS-1047726 from the Solar Research Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

  16. Howard University Energy Expert Systems Institute Summer Program (EESI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Chuku, Arunsi; Abban, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Howard University, under the auspices of the Center for Energy Systems and Controls runs the Energy Expert Systems Institute (EESI) summer outreach program for high school/pre-college minority students. The main objectives are to introduce precollege minority students to research in the power industry using modern state-of-the-art technology such as Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Artificial Neural Networks; to involve minority students in space power management, systems and failure diagnosis; to generate interest in career options in electrical engineering; and to experience problem-solving in a teamwork environment consisting of faculty, senior research associates and graduate students. For five weeks the students are exposed not only to the exciting experience of college life, but also to the inspiring field of engineering, especially electrical engineering. The program consists of lectures in the fundamentals of engineering, mathematics, communication skills and computer skills. The projects are divided into mini and major. Topics for the 1995 mini projects were Expert Systems for the Electric Bus and Breast Cancer Detection. Topics on the major projects include Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Solar Dynamics and Distribution Automation. On the final day, designated as 'EESI Day' the students did oral presentations of their projects and prizes were awarded to the best group. The program began in the summer of 1993. The reaction from the students has been very positive. The program also arranges field trips to special places of interest such as the NASA Goddard Space Center.

  17. Research on Coupling Method of Watershed Initial Water Rights Allocation in Daling River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Fengping, W.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is now a common occurrence in many countries. The situation of watershed initial water rights allocation has caused many benefit conflicts among regions and regional water sectors of domestic and ecology environment and industries in China. This study aims to investigate the method of watershed initial water rights allocation in the perspective of coupling in Daling River Watershed taking provincial initial water rights and watershed-level governmental reserved water as objects. First of all, regarding the allocation subsystem of initial water rights among provinces, this research calculates initial water rights of different provinces by establishing the coupling model of water quantity and quality on the principle of "rewarding efficiency and penalizing inefficiency" based on the two control objectives of water quantity and quality. Secondly, regarding the allocation subsystem of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights, the study forecasts the demand of watershed-level governmental reserved water rights by the combination of case-based reasoning and water supply quotas. Then, the bilaterally coupled allocation model on water supply and demand is designed after supply analysis to get watershed-level governmental reserved water rights. The results of research method applied to Daling River Watershed reveal the recommended scheme of watershed initial water rights allocation based on coordinated degree criterion. It's found that the feasibility of the iteration coupling model and put forward related policies and suggestions. This study owns the advantages of complying with watershed initial water rights allocation mechanism and meeting the control requirements of water quantity, water quality and water utilization efficiency, which help to achieve the effective allocation of water resources.

  18. Biased inheritance of the protein PatN frees vegetative cells to initiate patterned heterocyst differentiation.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Wong, Francis C Y; Meeks, John C

    2012-09-18

    Heterocysts, cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, appear singly in a nonrandom spacing pattern along the chain of vegetative cells. A two-stage, biased initiation and competitive resolution model has been proposed to explain the establishment of this spacing pattern. There is substantial evidence that competitive resolution of a subset of cells initiating differentiation occurs by interactions between a self-enhancing activator protein, HetR, and a diffusible pentapeptide inhibitor PatS-5 (RGSGR). Results presented here show that the absence of a unique membrane protein, PatN, in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 leads to a threefold increase in heterocyst frequency and a fourfold decrease in the vegetative cell interval between heterocysts. A PatN-GFP translational fusion shows a pattern of biased inheritance in daughter vegetative cells of ammonium-grown cultures. Inactivation of another heterocyst patterning gene, patA, is epistatic to inactivation of patN, and transcription of patA increases in a patN-deletion strain, implying that patN may function by modulating levels of patA. The presence of PatN is hypothesized to decrease the competency of a vegetative cell to initiate heterocyst differentiation, and the cellular concentration of PatN is dependent on cell division that results in cells transiently depleted of PatN. We suggest that biased inheritance of cell-fate determinants is a phylogenetic domain-spanning paradigm in the development of biological patterns.

  19. Pat Mora, Fiction/Nonfiction Writer and Poet (Profile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Rosalinda B.

    1998-01-01

    Offers a profile of Pat Mora, a writer whose work crosses the boundaries of audience, genre, and language. Notes that woven through her works are topics drawn from her life experience. Looks at her recent accomplishments and forthcoming books. Discusses her advocacy for cultural and linguistic diversity, and for more Latinos in all phases of…

  20. Stimulant-Related Reductions of Growth Rates in the PATS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James; Greenhill, Laurence; Wigal, Tim; Kollins, Scott; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Abikoff, Howard; Oatis, Melvin; McCracken, James; McGough, James; Riddle, Mark; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Wigal, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) before and after initiation of treatment with methylphenidate at titrated doses (average, 14.2 mg/day) administered three times daily, 7 days/week for approximately equal to 1 year. Method: The heights and…

  1. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  2. Stable phantoms for characterization of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Van de Sompel, Dominique; Bodapati, Sandhya; Kothapalli, Sri Rajasekhar; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging modality that combines the high contrast of optical imaging, with the spatial resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound, by exploiting the photoacoustic effect. As with any new imaging modality, reliable physical phantoms are needed to: calibrate instruments; validate performance; optimize signal-to-noise; perform routine quality control; and compare systems. Phantom materials for testing small animal PAT systems should also mimic both the optical and acoustic properties of soft tissue, while for calibration purposes should be resistant to degradation over long time periods. We show here that polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) phantoms enable calibration and performance validation using two PAT systems with distinct designs (Visualsonics Vevo LAZR and Endra Nexus 128) across a wavelength range of 680 nm - 950 nm. Inclusions between 2 and 3.2 mm in diameter were fabricated from PVCP using a range of dye concentrations (0 % to 0.256 % Black Plastic Color, BPC) in a custom mold. A calibration phantom was imaged repeatedly on both systems, over time scales of minutes, hours and days, to assess system stability. Both systems demonstrated good reproducibility over time, with the coefficient of variation in the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) being less than 15% over the course of 30 days. Imaging performance was optimized by plotting SNR as a function of different system parameters. The visualization of objects embedded in optically absorbing and scattering backgrounds was also assessed. PVCP is easy to work with and provides stable phantoms for assessing PAT system performance.

  3. 10. GLASS, SCHNEIDER & REZNER BRIDGE PATENT MODEL, PAT. NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GLASS, SCHNEIDER & REZNER BRIDGE PATENT MODEL, PAT. NO. 71, 868, DECEMBER 10, 1867. THIS MODEL IS ONE OF A FEW THAT SURVIVED THE PATENT OFFICE FIRE OF 1877. IF REPRODUCED, CREDIT SHOULD BE GIVEN TO THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, NEGATIVE NO. 48660-D. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  4. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  5. Bacillus anthracis acetyltransferases PatA1 and PatA2 modify the secondary cell wall polysaccharide and affect the assembly of S-layer proteins.

    PubMed

    Lunderberg, J Mark; Nguyen-Mau, Sao-Mai; Richter, G Stefan; Wang, Ya-Ting; Dworkin, Jonathan; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-03-01

    The envelope of Bacillus anthracis encompasses a proteinaceous S-layer with two S-layer proteins (Sap and EA1). Protein assembly in the envelope of B. anthracis requires S-layer homology domains (SLH) within S-layer proteins and S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs), which associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP), an acetylated carbohydrate that is tethered to peptidoglycan. Here, we investigated the contributions of two putative acetyltransferases, PatA1 and PatA2, on SCWP acetylation and S-layer assembly. We show that mutations in patA1 and patA2 affect the chain lengths of B. anthracis vegetative forms and perturb the deposition of the BslO murein hydrolase at cell division septa. The patA1 and patA2 mutants are defective for the assembly of EA1 in the envelope but retain the ability of S-layer formation with Sap. SCWP isolated from the patA1 patA2 mutant lacked acetyl moieties identified in wild-type polysaccharide and failed to associate with the SLH domains of EA1. A model is discussed whereby patA1- and patA2-mediated acetylation of SCWP enables the deposition of EA1 as well as BslO near the septal region of the B. anthracis envelope.

  6. Rapid Response to the Howard Hanson Dam Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Carter, G.; White, A.; Neiman, P. J.; King, C.; Jankov, I.; Colman, B.; Cook, K.; Buehner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Dedicated in 1962, the Howard A. Hanson Dam (HHD) brought necessary flood relief to the Green River Valley in the Metropolitan Area of Seattle, Washington, and opened the way for increased valley development. For example, the flood damage prevented by HHD during the extreme precipitation event in early January 2009 is estimated to be about $4 billion. However, following the record high level of water behind HHD caused by this event, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) became concerned about the Dam’s safety. Despite short-term measures to improve HHD during 2009, the chance for a significant Green River Valley flood event was estimated by the ACE to be 1 in 25 for the 2009/10 winter season. In response to this elevated risk, NOAA organized a coordinated effort across research and forecast operations to implement new observations, modeling and dissemination tools, and knowledge of the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in producing extreme precipitation, prototyped in California within NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov). Fortunately, although seasonal observed precipitation (October 2009 through March 2010) in the Seattle area was slightly greater than normal (e.g., 112% of normal at the Seattle National Weather Service Forecast Office), there were no threatening floods observed along the Green River. This outcome was influenced by a synoptic pattern that was progressive, i.e., storms did not stall over this vulnerable watershed, which reduced the chance for an extensive (time and space) extreme event. More than a decade of West Coast winter storm research conducted primarily in California by NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division (ESRL/PSD) has identified atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow regions of enhanced water vapor transport, as the culprits that cause extreme precipitation events, such as the January 2009 event that stressed HHD. ESRL/PSD extended this AR research to the coast of Washington by deploying a

  7. Obtaining the Thermal Efficiency of a Steam Railroad Machine Toy According Dale's Cone of Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista-Hernandez, Omar Tomas; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gregorio

    2011-03-01

    Physics is crucial to understanding the world around us, the world inside us, and the world beyond us. It is the most basic and fundamental science, hence, our interest in developing innovative strategies supported by the imagination and knowledge to make the learning process funny, attractive and interesting to people, so, we can help to change the general idea that Physics is an abstract and complicated science. We all know this instinctively, however, turn-of-the-century educationist Edgar Dale illustrated this with research when he developed the Cone of Learning - which states that after two weeks we remember only 10% of what we read, but we remember 90% of what we do. Based on that theory, we obtain the thermal efficiency of a steam railroad machine -this is a toy train that could be bought at any department store-, and show you the great percentage of energy lost when moving this railroad machine, just as the real life is. While doing this practice we don't focus on the results itself, instead, we try to demostrate that physics is funny and it is not difficult to learn. We must stress that this practice was done with pre-universitary and univesitary students, however, can be shown to the community in general.

  8. Acoustic Emission and Micromechanical Studies of Hydrofractures In Darley Dale Sandstone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazzard, J.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.

    Fundamental understanding of how micro-hydrofractures progressively nucleate and propagate is crucial to understanding a range of crustal weakening processes. We re- port measurements of acoustic emissions generated during formation and growth of hydrofractures in cylindrical samples of Darley Dale sandstone (100mm long x 40mm diameter) that were co-axially pre-drilled with an 8mm hole in order to allow an inter- nal pressure to be applied. The experiments were performed in a triaxial cell at a con- fining pressure of 20MPa. Hydrofractures formed at internal pressures around 40MPa, and were distinguished by four sub-orthogonal fractures across the samples. Time dis- tributions of acoustic emissions show two distinct bursts of activity, supporting the idea of two sequential pairs of fractures systems propagating across the samples. A Particle Flow Code (PFC) has been used to model the micro-mechanical behaviour of hydrofracturing in sandstone. The model is created by specifying micro-parameters (i.e. particle stiffness and bond strength) related to the macro-parameters (rock mod- ulus and strength) measured in the laboratory. The PFC model confirms four distinct radial fractures growing from the centre to the edge of the sample, suggesting that fractures could grow almost simultaneously.

  9. Edgar Dale's Pyramid of Learning in medical education: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Masters, Ken

    2013-11-01

    Edgar Dale's Pyramid of Learning and percentages of retained learning are cited in educational literature in a range of disciplines. The sources of the Pyramid, however, are misleading. To examine the evidence supporting the Pyramid and the extent to which it is cited in medical education literature. A review of literature (1946-2012) based on a search utilising Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and Google Scholar conducted from September to November 2012. A total of 43 peer-reviewed medical education journal articles and conference papers were found. While some researchers had been misled by their sources, other authors' interpretations of the citations did not align with the content of those citations, had no such citations, had circular references, or consulted questionable sources. There was no agreement on the percentages of learning retention, in spite of many researchers' citing primary texts. The inappropriate citing of the Pyramid and its associated percentages in medical education literature is widespread and continuous. This citing undermines much of the published work, and impacts on research-based medical education literature. While the area of learning/teaching strategies and amount of retention from each is an area for future research, any reference to the Pyramid should be avoided.

  10. Modelling the effects of stranding on the Atlantic salmon population in the Dale River, Norway.

    PubMed

    Sauterleute, Julian F; Hedger, Richard D; Hauer, Christoph; Pulg, Ulrich; Skoglund, Helge; Sundt-Hansen, Line E; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Ugedal, Ola

    2016-12-15

    Rapid dewatering in rivers as a consequence of hydropower operations may cause stranding of juvenile fish and have a negative impact on fish populations. We implemented stranding into an Atlantic salmon population model in order to evaluate long-term effects on the population in the Dale River, Western Norway. Furthermore, we assessed the sensitivity of the stranding model to dewatered area in comparison to biological parameters, and compared different methods for calculating wetted area, the main abiotic input parameter to the population model. Five scenarios were simulated dependent on fish life-stage, season and light level. Our simulation results showed largest negative effect on the population abundance for hydropeaking during winter daylight. Salmon smolt production had highest sensitivity to the stranding mortality of older juvenile fish, suggesting that stranding of fish at these life-stages is likely to have greater population impacts than that of earlier life-stages. Downstream retention effects on the ramping velocity were found to be negligible in the stranding model, but are suggested to be important in the context of mitigation measure design.

  11. Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and their transition in the Daling Thrust (DT) zone, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Dasgupta, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    The Daling Thrust (DT) delineates a zone of intense shear localization in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. From microstructural studies of deformed quartzite samples, we show a transition in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism with increasing distance from the DT, dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) recrystallization closest to the DT, and progressively replaced by sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization away from the thrust. The transition is marked by a characteristic variation in the fractal dimension (D) of grain boundaries, estimated from the area-perimeter method. For the BLG regime, D ≈ 1.046, which decreases significantly to a value as low as 1.025 for the SGR regime. Using the available thermal data for BLG and SGR recrystallization, we infer increasing deformation temperatures away from the DT in the hanging wall. Based on the quartz piezometer our estimates reveal strong variations in the flow stress (59.00 MPa to 16.00 MPa) over a distance of ~ 1.2 km from the DT. Deformation mechanism maps constructed for different temperatures indicate that the strain rates (10- 12 S- 1 to 10- 14 S- 1) comply with the geologically possible range. Finally, we present a mechanical model to provide a possible explanation for the cause of stress intensification along the DT.

  12. Dale Schumacher on strategic quality planning and research. Interview by Joann Grenovich-Richards.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Dale N. Schumacher, MD MPH, is president of the Rockburn Institute, a not-for-profit health services research and consulting organization. Dr. Schumacher has 25 years' experience in the fields of medicine, health services research, and consulting. He spent 3 years in the U.S. Public Health Service, where he coordinated the development of the Sickness Index Profile, an early health status measure. Dr. Schumacher also helped establish the Center for Hospital Finance and Management at The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, where he was an associate director. He has held senior management positions or consulted with the Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation, Holy Cross Health System, Alexian Brothers Health System, Catholic Medical Center, and Northwestern Healthcare. Currently, he is senior medical advisor to the National Business Coalition on Health and serves as clinical informatics officer for Crozer-Keystone Health System in Philadelphia. He is a board member at Kaleida Health System, Buffalo, NY. Dr. Schumacher has written more than 40 publications in the areas of medical education, medical care, quality-of-care assessment, healthcare data analysis, and reliability of chart-review data. Dr. Schumacher earned his medical degree from the University of Illinois and his master of public health degree from The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, and was a postdoctoral fellow there in the departments of health services administration and epidemiology. He trained at The Johns Hopkins/Baltimore City Hospitals and St. Agnes Hospital. Dr. Schumacher is board certified in internal medicine.

  13. Dividing the pie: differential dung pat size utilization by sympatric Haematobia irritans and Musca autumnalis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, F E; Mullens, B A

    2016-06-01

    Horn flies [Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (L.)] and face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) De Geer] use the same larval resource, but their interactions are poorly studied. Dung pats (n = 350) were core sampled in the summers of 2012 and 2013 from irrigated pastures in Pomona, California, U.S.A. (34°03'N, 117°48'W) and held for face fly and horn fly emergence. Surface areas and estimated weights were recorded for each whole pat. Almost half (42.0%) of the pat cores yielded neither fly, 29.7% yielded horn flies only, 12.9% yielded face flies only and 15.4% yielded both flies. Of the fly-positive pats, surface area and mass were larger for face fly-occupied pats, whereas horn fly-occupied pats were smaller. Pats shared by the two species were intermediate. Horn flies per positive core were unaffected by the absence/presence of face flies, but half as many face flies emerged when pats were co-inhabited by horn flies. Face flies inhabited larger pats, which might better resist heating and drying, to which they are susceptible; horn flies inhabited a broad pat size range. Horn fly tolerance of lower dung moisture probably allows horn flies to colonize and survive in a wide range of pats in dry areas like southern California.

  14. ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase for synchronous fission yeast meiosis at physiological temperature

    PubMed Central

    Cipak, Lubos; Hyppa, Randy; Smith, Gerald; Gregan, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    To study meiosis, synchronous cultures are often indispensable, especially for physical analyses of DNA and proteins. A temperature-sensitive allele of the Pat1 protein kinase (pat1-114) has been widely used to induce synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, but pat1-114-induced meiosis differs from wild-type meiosis, and some of these abnormalities might be due to higher temperature needed to inactivate the Pat1 kinase. Here, we report an ATP analog-sensitive allele of Pat1 [Pat1(L95A), designated pat1-as2] that can be used to generate synchronous meiotic cultures at physiological temperature. In pat1-as2 meiosis, chromosomes segregate with higher fidelity, and spore viability is higher than in pat1-114 meiosis, although recombination is lower by a factor of 2–3 in these mutants than in starvation-induced pat1+ meiosis. Addition of the mat-Pc gene improved chromosome segregation and spore viability to nearly the level of starvation-induced meiosis. We conclude that pat1-as2 mat-Pc cells offer synchronous meiosis with most tested properties similar to those of wild-type meiosis. PMID:22487684

  15. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O'Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been evaluated in

  16. Shut out of medicine in Canada, Dr. Leonora Howard King blazed a trail in China.

    PubMed Central

    Negodaeff-Tomsik, M

    1996-01-01

    After being denied the opportunity to study medicine and work at home, Dr. Leonora Howard King became Canada's first female medical missionary to China. Although she attempted to wear both the religious and secular hats handed her by the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, Howard King found that she was too busy meeting the medical needs of destitute women and children to proselytize. She won the favour of Chinese royalty, and after treating hundreds of wounded soldiers during the 1894-95 war with Japan became the first Western woman to become a mandarin, an honour bestowed by her adopted country. Images p1742-a PMID:8976342

  17. Overview of the High Performance Antiproton (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Fant, Wallace E.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of matter with antimatter represents the highest energy density of any known reaction, producing 10(exp 8) MJ/g, approximately 10 orders of magnitude more energy per unit mass than chemical based combustion. To take the first step towards using this energy for propulsion applications the NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has initiated a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. Storage was identified as a key enabling technology since it builds the experience base necessary to understand the handling of antiprotons for virtually all utilization and high-density storage concepts. To address this need, a device referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is under development at the NASA MSFC PRC. The HiPAT is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system (operation up to 20 KV), and an ultra high vacuum test section (operating in the 10(exp -12) torr range). The system was designed to be portable with an ultimate goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle. These normal ions provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. The ions are produced external to HiPAT using two hydrogen ion sources, with adjustable beam energy and current. Ion are transported in a beam line and controlled through the use of electrostatic optics. These optics serve to both focus and gate the incoming ions, providing microsecond-timed pulses that are dynamically captured by cycling the HiPAT electric containment field like a 'trap door'. The layout of this system more closely simulates the operations expected at an actual antiproton production facility where 'packets' of antiprotons with pulse widths measured in

  18. 78 FR 35659 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Tipton and Howard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Tipton and Howard Counties, Ind. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a verified notice of...), in Tipton and Howard Counties, Ind. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 46068..., 2013. By the Board, Rachel D. Campbell, Director, Office of Proceedings. Derrick A. Gardner, Clearance...

  19. Involvement of the Putative ATP-Dependent Efflux Proteins PatA and PatB in Fluoroquinolone Resistance of a Multidrug-Resistant Mutant of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Marrer, Estelle; Schad, Karen; Satoh, Andreas T.; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant mutant Streptococcus pneumoniae M22 constitutively overexpresses two genes (patA and patB) that encode proteins homologous to known efflux proteins belonging to the ABC transporter family. It is shown here that PatA and PatB were strongly induced by quinolone antibiotics and distamycin in fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PatA was very important for growth of S. pneumoniae, and it could not be disrupted in strain M22. PatB appeared to control metabolic activity, particularly in amino acid biosynthesis, and it may have a pivotal role in coordination of the response to quinolone antibiotics. The induction of PatA and PatB by antibiotics showed a pattern similar to that exhibited by SP1861, a homologue of ABC-type transporters of choline and other osmoprotectants. A second group of quinolone-induced transporter genes comprising SP1587 and SP0287, which are homologues of, respectively, oxalate/formate antiporters and xanthine or uracil permeases belonging to the major facilitator family, showed a different pattern of induction by other antibiotics. There was no evidence for the involvement of PmrA, the putative proton-dependent multidrug transporter that has been implicated in norfloxacin resistance, in the response to quinolone antibiotics in either the resistant mutant or the fluoroquinolone-sensitive strains. PMID:16436727

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of Fluid-Pressure Driven Fractures in Darley dale Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinciguerra, S.; Meredith, P. G.; Hazzard, J.

    2004-05-01

    Fundamental understanding of how fluid-pressure driven fractures progressively nucleate and propagate is crucial to understanding a range of crustal weakening processes. We report measurements of acoustic emissions generated during formation and growth of fluid-pressure driven fractures in cylindrical samples of Darley Dale sandstone (100mm long x 40mm diameter) that were co-axially pre-drilled with an 8mm hole in order to allow an internal pressure to be applied. The experiments were performed in a triaxial cell at a confining pressure of 6.5MPa. A set of 3 to 6 fractures initiate at the wall of the internal bore at a fluid pressure around three times that of the confining pressure, but only 3 propagate to the outer wall of the sample at approximately 120o to each other. Time and spatial distributions of acoustic emissions show two distinct bursts of activity, associated with initiation and propagation, respectively.A Particle Flow Code (PFC) has been used to model the micro-mechanical behaviour of hydrofracturing in sandstone. Micro parameters (particle stiffness, bond strengths, particle packing, etc.) dictate the macro behavior of the material. The models are fully dynamic, and an explicit calculation scheme is used such that stored strain energy can be released from contacts when bonds break and simulated AE can propagate through the system. The numerical model quantitatively reproduces the most important features of the time and spatial distribution of AE observed in the laboratory experiments. This suggests that, for a relatively homogeneous rock in an axisymmetric stress field, the propagation of three evenly distributed radial fractures may represent the most efficient geometry for energy dissipation.

  1. The cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor Pat1 is required for rRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Muppavarapu, Mridula; Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Intriguingly, we identified a novel genetic relationship between Pat1 and the rRNA decay machinery, specifically the exosome and the TRAMP complex. While the pre-rRNA processing intermediates that accumulate in the pat1 deletion mutant are, at least to some extent, recognized as aberrant by the rRNA degradation machinery, it is unlikely that these accumulations are the cause of their synthetic sick relationship. Here, we show that the dysregulation of the levels of mRNAs related to ribosome biogenesis could be the cause of the accumulation of the pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Although our results support a role for Pat1 in transcription, they nevertheless suggest that the primary cause of the dysregulated mRNA levels is most likely due to Pat1's role in mRNA decapping and mRNA degradation. PMID:26918764

  2. The cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor Pat1 is required for rRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Muppavarapu, Mridula; Huch, Susanne; Nissan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Pat1 is a key cytoplasmic mRNA degradation factor, the loss of which severely increases mRNA half-lives. Several recent studies have shown that Pat1 can enter the nucleus and can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. As a result, many nuclear roles have been proposed for Pat1. In this study, we analyzed four previously suggested nuclear roles of Pat1 and show that Pat1 is not required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing or pre-mRNA decay in yeast. However, lack of Pat1 results in accumulation of pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Intriguingly, we identified a novel genetic relationship between Pat1 and the rRNA decay machinery, specifically the exosome and the TRAMP complex. While the pre-rRNA processing intermediates that accumulate in the pat1 deletion mutant are, at least to some extent, recognized as aberrant by the rRNA degradation machinery, it is unlikely that these accumulations are the cause of their synthetic sick relationship. Here, we show that the dysregulation of the levels of mRNAs related to ribosome biogenesis could be the cause of the accumulation of the pre-rRNA processing intermediates. Although our results support a role for Pat1 in transcription, they nevertheless suggest that the primary cause of the dysregulated mRNA levels is most likely due to Pat1's role in mRNA decapping and mRNA degradation.

  3. The Evolution of Creativity, Giftedness, and Multiple Intelligences: An Interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner. Winner is Professor of Psychology at Boston College, and Senior Research Associate at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on learning and cognition in the arts in typical and gifted children. She is the author of over 100 articles and…

  4. Principles and Practices Fostering Inclusive Excellence: Lessons from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Capstone Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie; Gross, Deborah; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Iverson, Ellen; Cooke, David B., III; Davis, Gregory K.; Davidson, Cameron; Hertz, Paul E.; Hibbard, Lisa; Ireland, Shubha K.; Mader, Catherine; Pai, Aditi; Raps, Shirley; Siwicki, Kathleen; Swartz, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones…

  5. Project Probes Digital Media's Effect on Ethics: Howard Gardner Leads Team Studying Youths' Web Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Noted Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner is leading a team studying the social and ethical norms of young people on the Web. Known as the "GoodPlay Project," the study is being financed with a grant from the Chicago-based Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. What researchers hope to do through the project is fill a gap in the burgeoning research…

  6. Growing into Public Service: William Howard Taft's Boyhood Home. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, E. Ray

    1994-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan based on primary sources about the home in which William Howard Taft was born and grew up. Provides student objectives, instructional procedures, and suggested student activities. Includes two documents, two map exhibits, three student readings, and two photographs. (CFR)

  7. 75 FR 44936 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 146 (Friday, July 30, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 44936] [FR Doc No: C1-2010-17803] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS Correction...

  8. The influence of the Adirondacks on the wilderness preservation contributions of Robert Marshall and Howard Zahniser

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Dawson; Ed Zahniser

    2000-01-01

    Two wilderness visionaries, Robert Marshall and Howard Zahniser, were influenced by their personal wilderness experiences in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the “forever wild” legislation that protected those Forest Preserve areas. Both learned from and contributed to the wilderness preservation movement in the Adirondacks and the nation. The wilderness...

  9. Critical Uses of History: A Memory of Howard Zinn and Video Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Todd Alan

    2009-01-01

    In the following article I reflect on a few of the lessons provided by the late historian Howard Zinn, both his close reading of history, but even more so his critical insight "that history is made, not only received". Zinn used history much like a muckraking joumalist would: he wrote history not only "through" the eyes of common people, but "for"…

  10. Lost Voices of the Harlem Renaissance: Writing Assigned at Howard University, 1919-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaluda, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Examines writing assignments, articles, textbooks, and other expressions of faculty thinking from courses about relationships among education, writing, and society in philosophy, English, history, and sociology at Howard University, a historically black university. Finds writing assignments at once conservative, subversive, and creative, in a…

  11. Project Probes Digital Media's Effect on Ethics: Howard Gardner Leads Team Studying Youths' Web Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Noted Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner is leading a team studying the social and ethical norms of young people on the Web. Known as the "GoodPlay Project," the study is being financed with a grant from the Chicago-based Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. What researchers hope to do through the project is fill a gap in the burgeoning research…

  12. The Evolution of Creativity, Giftedness, and Multiple Intelligences: An Interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ellen Winner and Howard Gardner. Winner is Professor of Psychology at Boston College, and Senior Research Associate at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research focuses on learning and cognition in the arts in typical and gifted children. She is the author of over 100 articles and…

  13. Revitalizing Politics Now and Then: Howard Zinn on Dissent, Democracy, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of Howard Zinn's intellectual and political ideas. Through the analysis of selections from his immense body of work, several interrelated themes emerge. Drawing more attention to these notions of dissent and democracy is crucial to revitalizing education at all levels and vital to advancing the public discourse…

  14. Team Teaching Verbal, Mathematics, and Learning Skills. Howard University. The Center for Academic Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Joan; Byrd, Roland

    Team teaching was used in three undergraduate courses to explore its potential for enhancing students' academic development. The courses were part of a program offered to freshmen with unrealized academic potential through the Howard University (District of Columbia) Center for Academic Reinforcement (CAR). A three-hour block of time was set aside…

  15. Development of the Right of Publicity Since Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Karen K.

    This paper deals with the development of the right of publicity since "Zacchini v Scripps-Howard," a case in which the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Hugo Zacchini, a "human cannonball" who had charged that his professional property had been unlawfully appropriated by a television station that had filmed and shown his performance without…

  16. Principles and Practices Fostering Inclusive Excellence: Lessons from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Capstone Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie; Gross, Deborah; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Iverson, Ellen; Cooke, David B., III; Davis, Gregory K.; Davidson, Cameron; Hertz, Paul E.; Hibbard, Lisa; Ireland, Shubha K.; Mader, Catherine; Pai, Aditi; Raps, Shirley; Siwicki, Kathleen; Swartz, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones…

  17. Three Years and Still Going: Howard Community College's Institutional Effectiveness System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrill, Dwight; And Others

    In 1991, Howard Community College (HCC), in Maryland, implemented an institutional effectiveness plan that attempted to apply lessons from the previous 10 years of college planning. This paper focuses on the problems and issues encountered during implementation of the plan and is designed to provide general recommendations for others establishing…

  18. Howard Zinn and the Struggle for Real History in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, James Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Criticisms of Howard Zinn's work on U.S. History are examined in the context of increasing emphasis on the idea of "American exceptionalism" in contemporary political and cultural discourse, and particularly the insertion of American exceptionalism into revised social studies standards for the state of Texas. Analysis focusing on the…

  19. Howard Gardner: Knowledge, Learning and Development in Drama and Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Bill; Davis, David

    2000-01-01

    Notes that Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) has afforded support to educators and parents who want to see their children as equals no matter in what area of ability they develop competence. Explains the usefulness of Gardner's approach, based on Kantian notions of the power of mind to give order to the world. Discusses the…

  20. 75 FR 18826 - Mr. Howard Rosenfeld; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... kilowatt-hours (kWh), which would be used by the applicant on-site or distributed to the power grid and... 22, 2010, Mr. Howard Rosenfeld filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power... distribution line owned by Connecticut Power & Light and adjacent to the applicant's property; and...

  1. Commission on the Future of Howard Community College Progress Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD. Office of Planning and Evaluation.

    This Howard Community College (HCC) (Maryland) 2001 Progress Report makes assessments and recommendations in the following areas: (1) creating a world class learning organization; (2) collaboration with other educational organizations; (3) collaboration with business and industry; (4) economics and workforce development; (5) preparing students as…

  2. Report of the Survey of Howard University: The Graduate School and Selected Ph.D. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Results of the Office of Education's Bureau of Higher and Continuing Education's inspection of Howard University's Graduate School and the Ph.D. program are presented. The inspection was performed by conducting a survey of the administrative staff, the faculty, and student body, and by examining relevant facilities, laboratories, equipment,…

  3. Howard Community College Follow-Up of 1984 Entrants. Research Report Number 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seboda, Barbara L.

    In spring 1988, a follow-up study was conducted of students who first attended Howard Community College (HCC) in fall 1984. The primary objectives of the survey were to determine the students' educational and career achievements subsequent to attending HCC and to assess the effectiveness of the college from the students' perspective. All other…

  4. Growing into Public Service: William Howard Taft's Boyhood Home. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, E. Ray

    1994-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan based on primary sources about the home in which William Howard Taft was born and grew up. Provides student objectives, instructional procedures, and suggested student activities. Includes two documents, two map exhibits, three student readings, and two photographs. (CFR)

  5. Black, White, Greek...Like Who?: Howard University Student Perceptions of a White Fraternity on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 2, 1867, the Historically Black College or University (HBCU) Howard University (HU) was founded in Washington, D. C. Almost exactly one year later, the all white fraternity of Pi Kappa Alpha was founded at the University of Virginia. Over 100 years later, on February 18 2006, fifty-five HU students became charter members of Pi Kappa Alpha…

  6. The Pragmatic Idealist: Valerie Gross--Howard County Library, Columbia, MD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the two years since Valerie Gross became director of the Howard County Library (HCL), it has won the county's Community Organization of the Year award, its Accessibility Award, and its Chamber of Commerce's Non-Profit Business of the Year ACE award for contributions to education, economic development, and quality of life. And for the first…

  7. Written Assignments for Abnormal Psychology at Howard Community College, Fall 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James

    Designed for students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course at Howard Community College (Maryland), this booklet explains the requirements for the course's writing assignments, which are designed to teach the skills of comparison and contrast, analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis. Following an overview of class assignments and…

  8. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Muriel Howard on Public Higher Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Nearly a year ago, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends, and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs, and practices. In this installment, DiSalvio interviews Muriel A. Howard, president of the American Association of State Colleges and…

  9. Thermodynamics and Chemistry by Howard DeVoe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislason, Eric A.

    2001-09-01

    Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001. 439 pp. ISBN 0-02-328741-1. $90.00. Thermodynamics is a deceptively difficult subject that few people master in their first exposure (typically in the junior-level physical chemistry course). Because of this, a clear, well-written textbook is always welcome to help students and teachers master this material. Such a book is Thermodynamics and Chemistry, by Howard DeVoe of the University of Maryland. This book is written as a one-semester textbook for senior undergraduates and graduate students who have had a previous course on the topic. This is a long book (400 pages of text, 25 pages of appendices), and it is unlikely that an instructor can cover everything in one semester. On the other hand this length does allow the author to cover topics such as a "liquid solution in a centrifugal field" that shorter books would omit. All important topics in chemical thermodynamics are covered. After two introductory chapters, the three laws of thermodynamics are taken up in Chapters 3 and 4. Pure substances, including phase transitions, are treated in Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter 7, "Mixtures," is a long chapter that covers, among other topics, partial molar quantities, activities, and activity coefficients. Chemical reactions are treated in Chapter 8 and there is a detailed discussion of equilibrium in various multicomponent systems in Chapter 9. The book is completed with a discussion of the phase rule (Chapter 10) and a brief chapter on galvanic cells. There are a number of things I like about this book. First, DeVoe takes great care in defining important thermodynamic words such as the thermodynamic state of a system. Similarly, he makes the distinction between process and path understandable, and this allows him to clearly define a reversible process as well as spontaneous and impossible processes. Section 4.1 then contains the sentence "An irreversible process is a spontaneous process whose reverse is an impossible process." This

  10. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceutical products: Part II. Concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Read, E K; Shah, R B; Riley, B S; Park, J T; Brorson, K A; Rathore, A S

    2010-02-01

    Implementing real-time product quality control meets one or both of the key goals outlined in FDA's PAT guidance: "variability is managed by the process" and "product quality attributes can be accurately and reliably predicted over the design space established for materials used, process parameters, manufacturing, environmental, and other conditions." The first part of the paper presented an overview of PAT concepts and applications in the areas of upstream and downstream processing. In this second part, we present principles and case studies to illustrate implementation of PAT for drug product manufacturing, rapid microbiology, and chemometrics. We further present our thoughts on how PAT will be applied to biotech processes going forward. The role of PAT as an enabling component of the Quality by Design framework is highlighted. Integration of PAT with the principles stated in the ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidance documents is also discussed.

  11. PhyloPat: phylogenetic pattern analysis of eukaryotic genes

    PubMed Central

    Hulsen, Tim; de Vlieg, Jacob; Groenen, Peter MA

    2006-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic patterns show the presence or absence of certain genes or proteins in a set of species. They can also be used to determine sets of genes or proteins that occur only in certain evolutionary branches. Phylogenetic patterns analysis has routinely been applied to protein databases such as COG and OrthoMCL, but not upon gene databases. Here we present a tool named PhyloPat which allows the complete Ensembl gene database to be queried using phylogenetic patterns. Description PhyloPat is an easy-to-use webserver, which can be used to query the orthologies of all complete genomes within the EnsMart database using phylogenetic patterns. This enables the determination of sets of genes that occur only in certain evolutionary branches or even single species. We found in total 446,825 genes and 3,164,088 orthologous relationships within the EnsMart v40 database. We used a single linkage clustering algorithm to create 147,922 phylogenetic lineages, using every one of the orthologies provided by Ensembl. PhyloPat provides the possibility of querying with either binary phylogenetic patterns (created by checkboxes) or regular expressions. Specific branches of a phylogenetic tree of the 21 included species can be selected to create a branch-specific phylogenetic pattern. Users can also input a list of Ensembl or EMBL IDs to check which phylogenetic lineage any gene belongs to. The output can be saved in HTML, Excel or plain text format for further analysis. A link to the FatiGO web interface has been incorporated in the HTML output, creating easy access to functional information. Finally, lists of omnipresent, polypresent and oligopresent genes have been included. Conclusion PhyloPat is the first tool to combine complete genome information with phylogenetic pattern querying. Since we used the orthologies generated by the accurate pipeline of Ensembl, the obtained phylogenetic lineages are reliable. The completeness and reliability of these phylogenetic

  12. Unpacking Pat Parker: Intersections and Revolutions in "Movement in Black".

    PubMed

    Washburn, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This article explores Pat Parker's poem "Movement in Black." It examines the ways in which she emblematizes intersectionality and simultaneity as forms of revolution in struggles of self and society. It begins with a theoretical and historical apparatus to contextualize Parker as an artist and activist. Then it offers a literary analysis of the poem, focusing on themes of time and space, marginalization and movement, difference and power, visibility and invisibility, and history and memory. It argues that Parker uses autobiographical writing to fuse personal and political sites of resistance.

  13. Myxomatosis: the introduction of the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) into wild rabbit populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1971-09-01

    1. The European rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) bred successfully in wild rabbits on three properties in New South Wales and, within two breeding seasons, almost every rabbit shot within a quarter of a mile of a release site was infested.2. It was demonstrated that the flea transmitted myxoma virus in the field.3. In areas where more than 75% of the rabbits shot at the beginning of the breeding season were flea-infested and myxoma virus was present, populations failed to show the expected summer build-up.

  14. Flood-Inundation Maps for a 1.6-Mile Reach of Salt Creek, Wood Dale, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.6-mile reach of Salt Creek from upstream of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad to Elizabeth Drive, Wood Dale, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the DuPage County Stormwater Management Division. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage on Salt Creek at Wood Dale, Illinois (station number 05531175). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05531175. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional unsteady flow Full EQuations (FEQ) model. The unsteady flow model was verified by comparing the rating curve output for a September 2008 flood event to discharge measurements collected at the Salt Creek at Wood Dale gage. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 14 water-surface profiles for gage heights at 0.5-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from less than bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The areal extent of the inundation was verified with high-water marks from a flood in July 2010 with a peak gage height of 14.08 ft recorded at the Salt Creek at Wood Dale gage. The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as

  15. The Efflux Pump Inhibitor Reserpine Selects Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains That Overexpress the ABC Transporters PatA and PatB▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Mark I.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2008-01-01

    One way to combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms is the use of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Spontaneous mutants resistant to the EPI reserpine selected from Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465 and R6 at a frequency suggestive of a single mutational event were also multidrug resistant. No mutations in pmrA (which encodes the efflux protein PmrA) were detected, and the expression of pmrA was unaltered in all mutants. In the reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant mutants, the overexpression of both patA and patB, which encode ABC transporters, was associated with accumulation of low concentrations of antibiotics and dyes. The addition of sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of ABC efflux pumps, or the insertional inactivation of either gene restored wild-type antibiotic susceptibility and wild-type levels of accumulation. Only when patA was insertionally inactivated were both multidrug resistance and reserpine resistance lost. Strains in which patA was insertionally inactivated grew significantly more slowly than the wild type. These data indicate that the overexpression of both patA and patB confers multidrug resistance in S. pneumoniae but that only patA is involved in reserpine resistance. The selection of reserpine-resistant multidrug-resistant pneumococci has implications for analogous systems in other bacteria or in cancer. PMID:18362193

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Daling River with concentrated fluorine industries in China: seasonal variation, mass flow, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated concentrations and composition profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water from the Daling River in different seasons. The highest concentration of ΣPFASs (9540 ng L(-1)) and dominant homologues were found in surface water collected in summer. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs in four seasons with a total contribution of over 90%. The discharge of two fluorine chemical industry parks was predicted to be the main contamination source of PFASs in the study area. The daily and annual mass flows were calculated according to data of detected PFAS concentrations and water discharge, and the annual mass loading of PFASs into the Bohai Sea from the Daling River reached to 461 kg year(-1). Hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFASs in study area had little risk to aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, the multiple health risk would be relatively high if the water was served as drinking water in the study area.

  17. The ABC transporter proteins Pat1 and Pat2 are required for import of long-chain fatty acids into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hettema, E H; van Roermund, C W; Distel, B; van den Berg, M; Vilela, C; Rodrigues-Pousada, C; Wanders, R J; Tabak, H F

    1996-01-01

    Peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the exclusive site of fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have found that fatty acids reach the peroxisomal matrix via two independent pathways. The subcellular site of fatty acid activation varies with chain length of the substrate and dictates the pathway of substrate entry into peroxisomes. Medium-chain fatty acids are activated inside peroxisomes hby the acyl-CoA synthetase Faa2p. On the other hand, long-chain fatty acids are imported from the cytosolic pool of activated long-chain fatty acids via Pat1p and Pat2p, peroxisomal membrane proteins belonging to the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Pat1p and Pat2p are the first examples of membrane proteins involved in metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Images PMID:8670886

  18. The role of the encyclopedic Howard System in the professionalization of chiropractic National College, 1906-1981.

    PubMed

    Beideman, R P

    1996-12-01

    D.D. Palmer, chiropractic's discoverer and nomenclator, lost his Palmer School to his son, B.J., in 1906. That same year, a Palmer graduate, John Fitz Alan Howard, founded the National School of Chiropractic in the Ryan Building in Davenport. In 1908, he moved National to Chicago to secure the clinical, laboratory, dissection, hospital, facilities, licensure and other advantages in Illinois. Within two years, Howard's commonsensical, science-based lectures encompassed virtually every major characteristic of the chiropractic profession as it stands today. Dr. Howard called it the "Howard System" of Chiropractic. National's presidents (Dr.s. Schulze and Janse) led faculty who continued to raise educational standards. Gradually, other surviving colleges embraced most of NCC's first seventy-five years of philosophic, scientific and artistic educational innovations, and thus the profession emerged.

  19. Short-Term Memory after All: Comment on Sederberg, Howard, and Kahana (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Marius; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Haarmann, Henk J.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2008-01-01

    P. B. Sederberg, M. W. Howard, and M. J. Kahana have proposed an updated version of the temporal-context model (TCM-A). In doing so, they accepted the challenge of developing a single-store model to account for the dissociations between short- and long-term recency effects that were reviewed by E. J. Davelaar, Y. Goshen-Gottstein, A. Ashkenazi, H.…

  20. Special Article: Howard Dittrick: curator to the McMechans' legacy journal.

    PubMed

    Bause, George S; Edmonson, James M

    2012-12-01

    A noted medical historian and museum curator, Canadian American Howard Dittrick was a Cleveland gynecologist who served as Directing Editor of Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1940-1954). In the aftermath of World War II, even after Congresses of Anesthetists had resumed, Dittrick and his editorial board allowed their yellow, then tan-covered journal, the so-called "yellow peril," to languish into near irrelevance.

  1. Short-Term Memory after All: Comment on Sederberg, Howard, and Kahana (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Marius; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Haarmann, Henk J.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2008-01-01

    P. B. Sederberg, M. W. Howard, and M. J. Kahana have proposed an updated version of the temporal-context model (TCM-A). In doing so, they accepted the challenge of developing a single-store model to account for the dissociations between short- and long-term recency effects that were reviewed by E. J. Davelaar, Y. Goshen-Gottstein, A. Ashkenazi, H.…

  2. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  3. Rationale, Design, and Methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Cunningham, Charles; Bauzo, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with…

  4. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  5. The Relationship between School Climate, PATS Program Participation, and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Gordon E.; Butler, E. Dean

    In 1987, a school-university collaborative project, Positive Attitudes in Tennessee Schools (PATS), was established to improve school-learning environments. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the effect of school participation in PATS on school climate. A secondary focus was to determine which school-climate variables could…

  6. Rationale, Design, and Methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Cunningham, Charles; Bauzo, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with…

  7. The Underappreciated Doctors of The American Civil Rights Movement. Part I: Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard, MD.

    PubMed

    deShazo, Richard D; Parker, Sara B

    2017-07-01

    During the fight to end segregation in the United States, most of the 25 or so black physicians who had not already left Mississippi took risks to become active in civil rights locally and nationally. One of the first was T.R.M. Howard, MD, whose life story is both an encouragement and warning for today's physicians. Howard, the protégé of a white Adventist physician, became active in civil rights during medical school. While serving as chief surgeon of the all-black hospital in Mississippi, he formed his own civil rights organization in 1951 and worked to solve the shootings of 2 of its members, George Lee and Gus Courts, and the murder of Emmett Till in 1955. His reports of these events and collaborations with other civil rights icons helped trigger the modern civil rights movement. At the same time, he became a nationally known proponent of abortion rights and then fled to Chicago in 1956, after arming his Delta mansion with long guns and a Thompson machine gun. Howard will be remembered for many things, including his activism for the social determinants of health as president of the National Medical Association. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From rat pathophysiology to genomic medicine: an interview with Howard Jacob

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Howard Jacob is best known for pioneering genomic sequencing of a patient to solve a mysterious pediatric case in 2010. With roots in pharmacology and cardiovascular disease, however, his career has largely been dedicated to dissecting the physiology and genetics of the rat to help understand complex human diseases. Howard was Director of the Human and Molecular Genetics Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin for 16 years, during which time he applied a combination of approaches, including quantitative genetics, integrative physiology and next-generation sequencing, in rat models to shed light on cardiovascular, metabolic and renal disorders. He was a key contributor to the genomic toolbox for rat research, and generated the first targeted-knockout rat models using zinc-finger-nuclease technology. He also contributed to sequencing of the rat genome and establishment of the Rat Genome Database. In this interview, Howard provides his perspectives on the past, present and future of rat-based translational research and explains why, despite his many successes as the leader of a rat group, he recently made the transition to clinical genomics. PMID:27736743

  9. Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Francisca F; Rahbek, Jesper P; Mortensen, Asmus R; Pedersen, Mette T; Felizardo, Pedro M; Bro, Rasmus; Mealy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Significant improvements can be realized by converting conventional batch processes into continuous ones. The main drivers include reduction of cost and waste, increased safety, and simpler scale-up and tech transfer activities. Re-designing the process layout offers the opportunity to incorporate a set of process analytical technologies (PAT) embraced in the Quality-by-Design (QbD) framework. These tools are used for process state estimation, providing enhanced understanding of the underlying variability in the process impacting quality and yield. This work describes a road map for identifying the best technology to speed-up the development of continuous processes while providing the basis for developing analytical methods for monitoring and controlling the continuous full-scale reaction. The suitability of in-line Raman, FT-infrared (FT-IR), and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for real-time process monitoring was investigated in the production of 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene. The synthesis consists of three consecutive reaction steps including the formation of an unstable diazonium salt intermediate, which is critical to secure high yield and avoid formation of by-products. All spectroscopic methods were able to capture critical information related to the accumulation of the intermediate with very similar accuracy. NIR spectroscopy proved to be satisfactory in terms of performance, ease of installation, full-scale transferability, and stability to very adverse process conditions. As such, in-line NIR was selected to monitor the continuous full-scale production. The quantitative method was developed against theoretical concentration values of the intermediate since representative sampling for off-line reference analysis cannot be achieved. The rapid and reliable analytical system allowed the following: speeding up the design of the continuous process and a better understanding of the manufacturing requirements to ensure optimal yield and avoid unreacted raw materials

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of oocyte-specific Pat1a in Rana rugosa frogs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoriko; Iwasaki, Takehiro; Umei, Yosuke; Saotome, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Yukiko; Kitahara, Shoichi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Oike, Akira; Kodama, Maho; Nakamura, Masahisa

    2015-10-01

    The Pat1 gene is expressed in the immature oocytes of Xenopus, and is reportedly involved in regulating the translation of maternal mRNAs required for oocyte-maturation. However, it is still unknown when Pat1a first appears in the differentiating ovary of amphibians. To address this issue, we isolated the full-length Pat1a cDNA from the frog Rana rugosa and examined its expression in the differentiating ovary of this frog. Among eight different tissues examined, the Pat1a mRNA was detectable in only the ovary. When frozen sections from the ovaries of tadpoles at various stages of development were immunostained for Vasa-a germ cell-specific protein-and Pat1a, Vasa-immunopositive signals were observed in all of the germ cells, whereas Pat1a signals were confined to the growing oocytes (50-200 μm in diameter), and absent from small germ cells (<50 μm in diameter). Forty days after testosterone injection into tadpoles to induce female-to-male sex-reversal, Pat1a-immunoreactive oocytes had disappeared completely from the sex-reversed gonad, but Vasa-positive small germ cells persisted. Thus, Pat1a would be a good marker for identifying the sexual status of the sex-reversing gonad in amphibians. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed Pat1a to have an autosomal locus, suggesting that Pat1a transcription is probably regulated by a tissue-specific transcription factor in R. rugosa.

  11. Public Speaking on the Streets and in the Ivory Tower: A Comparison of the Dale Carnegie Course and the Academic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christine M.

    Many speech communication educators and researchers look upon Dale Carnegie's public speaking course with derision for its methods as well as its motives. A comparison of Carnegie's course with university courses in speech communication reveals a number of differences between the two, which in part explains this attitude. Carnegie began his course…

  12. Title III Project Annual Report, 1971-72: Dale Avenue Early Childhood Education Project. Research Bulletin, Volume 2, Number 4, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson Board of Education, NJ.

    The Dale Avenue Early Childhood Education Center, opened in September 1969 and funded under Title III of the 1965 Elementary Secondary Education Act, features a program set up for kindergarten through third grade but basically ungraded. Each child is allowed to move at his own pace within the range of his own abilities. Furthermore, the child's…

  13. Structural insights into HetR−PatS interaction involved in cyanobacterial pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hai-Xi; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Zhao, Meng-Xi; Cai, Kun; Liu, Sanling; Wen, Bin; Lv, Pei; Zhang, Yonghui; Peng, Junhui; Zhong, Hui; Yu, Hong-Mei; Ren, Yan-Min; Zhang, Zhiyong; Tian, Changlin; Wu, Qingfa; Oliveberg, Mikael; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The one-dimensional pattern of heterocyst in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is coordinated by the transcription factor HetR and PatS peptide. Here we report the complex structures of HetR binding to DNA, and its hood domain (HetRHood) binding to a PatS-derived hexapeptide (PatS6) at 2.80 and 2.10 Å, respectively. The intertwined HetR dimer possesses a couple of novel HTH motifs, each of which consists of two canonical α-helices in the DNA-binding domain and an auxiliary α-helix from the flap domain of the neighboring subunit. Two PatS6 peptides bind to the lateral clefts of HetRHood, and trigger significant conformational changes of the flap domain, resulting in dissociation of the auxiliary α-helix and eventually release of HetR from the DNA major grove. These findings provide the structural insights into a prokaryotic example of Turing model. PMID:26576507

  14. PAT4 is abundantly expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roshanbin, Sahar; Hellsten, Sofie V; Tafreshiha, Atieh; Zhu, Yinan; Raine, Amanda; Fredriksson, Robert

    2014-04-04

    PAT4, the fourth member of the SLC36/proton dependent amino acid transporter (PAT) family, is a high-affinity, low capacity electroneutral transporter of neutral amino acids like proline and tryptophan. It has also been associated with the function of mTORC1, a complex in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistological analysis to determine the expression profile of PAT4, as well as an RT-PCR study on tissue from mice exposed to leucine. We performed a phylogenetic analysis to determine the evolutionary origin of PAT4. The in situ hybridization and the immunohistochemistry on mouse brain sections and hypothalamic cells showed abundant PAT4 expression in the mouse brain intracellularly in both inhibitory and excitatory neurons, partially co-localizing with lysosomal markers and epithelial cells lining the ventricles. Its location in epithelial cells around the ventricles indicates a transport of substrates across the blood brain barrier. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PAT4 belongs to an evolutionary old family most likely predating animals, and PAT4 is the oldest member of that family.

  15. Issues in development, evaluation, and use of the NASA Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Norman E.; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) is intended to reduce or alleviate space adaptation syndrome by providing opportunities for portions of that adaptation to occur under normal gravity conditions prior to space flight. Since the adaptation aspects of the PAT objectives involve modification not only of the behavior of the trainee, but also of sensiomotor skills which underly the behavioral generation, the defining of training objectives of the PAT utilizes four mechanisms: familiarization, demonstration, training and adaptation. These mechanisms serve as structural reference points for evaluation, drive the content and organization of the training procedures, and help to define the roles of the PAT instructors and operators. It was determined that three psychomotor properties are most critical for PAT evaluation: reliability; sensitivity; and relevance. It is cause for concern that the number of measures available to examine PAT effects exceed those that can be properly studied with the available sample sizes; special attention will be required in selection of the candidate measure set. The issues in PAT use and application within a training system context are addressed through linking the three training related mechanisms of familiarization, demonstration and training to the fourth mechanism, adaptation.

  16. Dale Reed with X-38 and a Subscale Model Used in Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Dale Reed, a NASA engineer who worked on the original lifting-body research programs in the 1960s and 1970s, stands with a scale-model X-38 that was used in 1995 research flights, with a full-scale X-38 (80 percent of the size of a potential Crew Return Vehicle) behind him. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space

  17. Dale Reed with X-38 and a Subscale Model Used in Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Dale Reed, a NASA engineer who worked on the original lifting-body research programs in the 1960s and 1970s, stands with a scale-model X-38 that was used in 1995 research flights, with a full-scale X-38 (80 percent of the size of a potential Crew Return Vehicle) behind him. The X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) research project is designed to develop the technology for a prototype emergency crew return vehicle, or lifeboat, for the International Space Station. The project is also intended to develop a crew return vehicle design that could be modified for other uses, such as a joint U.S. and international human spacecraft that could be launched on the French Ariane-5 Booster. The X-38 project is using available technology and off-the-shelf equipment to significantly decrease development costs. Original estimates to develop a capsule-type crew return vehicle were estimated at more than $2 billion. X-38 project officials have estimated that development costs for the X-38 concept will be approximately one quarter of the original estimate. Off-the-shelf technology is not necessarily 'old' technology. Many of the technologies being used in the X-38 project have never before been applied to a human-flight spacecraft. For example, the X-38 flight computer is commercial equipment currently used in aircraft and the flight software operating system is a commercial system already in use in many aerospace applications. The video equipment for the X-38 is existing equipment, some of which has already flown on the space shuttle for previous NASA experiments. The X-38's primary navigational equipment, the Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System, is a unit already in use on Navy fighters. The X-38 electromechanical actuators come from previous joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy research and development projects. Finally, an existing special coating developed by NASA will be used on the X-38 thermal tiles to make them more durable than those used on the space

  18. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  19. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  20. Pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) subsystems and components for optical space communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, R. H.; Kugel, U.

    1989-10-01

    The pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) subsystem that will be incorporated by optical space communications transceivers must furnish very precise beam steering due to the highly collimated nature of the laser beams employed. The PAT subsystem must also be able to cover an angular rate of more than a full hemisphere, if it is intended for use on a LEO satellite which communicates with another in GEO. The present PAT is composed of a coarse-pointing assembly, a fine-pointing assembly, and a point-ahead assembly; their interactive operation is managed by a control law electronics unit. A CO2 laser is assumed to be the transmitter.

  1. Oracle Applications Patch Administration Tool (PAT) Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-04

    PAT is a Patch Administration Tool that provides analysis, tracking, and management of Oracle Application patches. This includes capabilities as outlined below: Patch Analysis & Management Tool Outline of capabilities: Administration Patch Data Maintenance -- track Oracle Application patches applied to what database instance & machine Patch Analysis capture text files (readme.txt and driver files) form comparison detail report comparison detail PL/SQL package comparison detail SQL scripts detail JSP module comparison detail Parse and load the current applptch.txt (10.7) or load patch data from Oracle Application database patch tables (11i) Display Analysis -- Compare patch to be applied with current Oracle Application installed Appl_top code versions Patch Detail Module comparison detail Analyze and display one Oracle Application module patch. Patch Management -- automatic queue and execution of patches Administration Parameter maintenance -- setting for directory structure of Oracle Application appl_top Validation data maintenance -- machine names and instances to patch Operation Patch Data Maintenance Schedule a patch (queue for later execution) Run a patch (queue for immediate execution) Review the patch logs Patch Management Reports

  2. PAT for vaccines: the first stage of PAT implementation for development of a well-defined whole-cell vaccine against whooping cough disease.

    PubMed

    Streefland, Mathieu; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Happé, Hester; van der Pol, Leo A; Beuvery, E Coen; Tramper, Johannes; Martens, Dirk E

    2007-04-20

    Since variation in process time and process output is commonly accepted to be inevitable for biological processes, application of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) on these processes is challenging. In this paper the applicability of PAT on the cultivation of Bordetella pertussis bacteria as part of the manufacture of a vaccine against whooping cough disease is investigated. Scrutinizing and eliminating the most prominent sources of variance make the cultivation process step highly reproducible. Furthermore, the use of DNA microarrays allows investigation of how disturbances influence cellular physiology and product quality. Marker genes for product quality were identified, providing the means to quantitatively assess product quality, which is hardly possible using the mandatory animal tests for product quality. The tools and results described in this paper, combined with suitable on line measurements, can make full PAT application for this process step possible. Ultimately, the process can be designed and controlled towards consistent end product quality.

  3. The Louis Stokes Health Sciences Library: the Howard University move experience

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Darcel A.

    2004-01-01

    The Louis Stokes Health Sciences Library attributes its successful move to early planning and preparation. Professional literature on the subject as well as consultation with other experienced library personnel also proved beneficial. Utilizing these resources, the committees devised a strategy that supported the library's mission to provide excellent and complete information services for the advancement of health sciences. This paper describes the Howard University Health Sciences Library move experience and offers practical advice for planning a library move. We hope that the information shared will assist other libraries facing a similar challenge. PMID:15098055

  4. Howard Young Brings Light to the Serious Side of Science | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You know what they say about all work and no play. And without a doubt, science requires constant hard work. But the NCI at Frederick has an antidote to the serious side of science: Howard Young. Young, Ph.D., Senior Investigator, Cancer and Inflammation Program, is a serious scientist in his own right. He was part of the team that characterized and cloned the RAS oncogene, he developed a mouse model of lupus, and he was the first to show a clear sex bias, similar to that seen in patients, in what has been called the best mouse model for primary biliary cholangitis.

  5. Howard Andrew Knox and the origins of performance testing on Ellis Island, 1912-1916.

    PubMed

    Richardson, John T E

    2003-05-01

    Howard Andrew Knox was Assistant Surgeon at the immigration station at Ellis Island, New York, between April 1912 and May 1916. In response to public disquiet that the physicians at Ellis Island were failing to prevent mentally retarded people from entering the country, Knox and his colleagues assembled a collection of performance tests that could be administered to potential immigrants with little knowledge of the English language. They were subsequently used in clinical practice and in educational, psychological, and social research. Because of the early work done at Ellis Island, it is nowadays taken for granted that any adequate measure of intelligence must include both verbal and performance subtests.

  6. HOWARD EISEN, JPL'S LEAD MECHANICAL TECHNICIAN, HOLDS MARS PATHFINDER 'SOJOURNER' ROVER 1:1 SCALE DU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder 'Sojourner' rover l:l scale duplicate test vehicle is held by Howard Eisen, its lead mechanical technician from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building looming in the background. The launch of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket is scheduled for Monday, Dec. 2, at 2:09:11 a.m. EST. This is a single instantaneous target launch time without a second opportunity on that day. Liftoff will occur from Pad B at Launch Complex 17 on Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla. There is a 24-day launch opportunity which extends through Dec. 31.

  7. Solid state laser communications in space (SOLACOS) position, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) subsystem implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemmig, Joerg; Pribil, Klaus

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the concept and implementation aspects of the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking Subsystem (PAT) which is developed in the frame of the SOLACOS (Solid State Laser Communications in Space) program.

  8. Heterogeneous distributions of Escherichia coli O157 within naturally infected bovine faecal pats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Susan E; Brown, Patrick E; John Wright, E; Bennett, Malcolm; Hart, C Anthony; French, Nigel P

    2005-03-15

    Escherichia coli O157 is an important human pathogen for which cattle are considered a reservoir. This paper describes and models the variation in counts of E. coli O157 that exists within individual bovine faecal pats. The presence and concentration of E. coli O157 in faecal samples was determined using a combination of direct spiral plating followed by a more sensitive isolation procedure. The data were modelled using multilevel random effect models, in which the random effects were allowed to be correlated to allow for the fact that pooled and individual samples come from the same pat. Up to a two log difference in the concentration of E. coli O157 was demonstrated in samples from different areas within a faecal pat. Pooling of individual samples from throughout the faecal pat and processing it as one composite sample allows this heterogeneity to be overcome.

  9. Synchronized fission yeast meiosis using an ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W.; Smith, Gerald R.; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous cultures are often indispensable for studying meiosis. Here, we present an optimized protocol for induction of synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical inactivation of an ATP analog-sensitive form of the Pat1 kinase (pat1-as2) by adding the ATP-analog 1-NM-PP1 in G1-arrested cells allows induction of synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature (25 °C). Importantly, this protocol eliminates detrimental effects of elevated temperature (34 °C) which is required to inactivate the commonly used temperature-sensitive Pat1 kinase mutant (pat1-114). Addition of the mat-Pc gene to a mat1-M strain further improves chromosome segregation and spore viability. Thus, our protocol offers highly synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature with most characteristics similar to those of wild-type meiosis. The synchronization protocol can be completed in 5 days. PMID:24385151

  10. Test results of the optical PAT test bed for satellite laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Liu, Liren; Zhou, Yu; Liu, De'an

    2008-08-01

    Satellite laser communication systems offer many advantages such as high data rate, small sized equipment, low consumption electric power and others. Recent successful demonstrations of laser communications have demonstrated the feasibility of some of the key aspects of this technology. Sub-microradian pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT) functions are key issue to establish the laser communication system in space. The terminals must perform a series of onground test to evaluate characteristics of The PAT performances before flight test. So an optical dynamical PAT test bed is developed to perform ground test of a laser terminal. In this paper, we detail the separate test and the system test results of the optical dynamical PAT test bed. The test was carried out by auto-collimation method, the precision deflect accuracy, scan accuracy and deflect scan accuracy are obtained.

  11. GeoPAT: A toolbox for pattern-based information retrieval from large geospatial databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiewicz, Jarosław; Netzel, Paweł; Stepinski, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Geospatial Pattern Analysis Toolbox (GeoPAT) is a collection of GRASS GIS modules for carrying out pattern-based geospatial analysis of images and other spatial datasets. The need for pattern-based analysis arises when images/rasters contain rich spatial information either because of their very high resolution or their very large spatial extent. Elementary units of pattern-based analysis are scenes - patches of surface consisting of a complex arrangement of individual pixels (patterns). GeoPAT modules implement popular GIS algorithms, such as query, overlay, and segmentation, to operate on the grid of scenes. To achieve these capabilities GeoPAT includes a library of scene signatures - compact numerical descriptors of patterns, and a library of distance functions - providing numerical means of assessing dissimilarity between scenes. Ancillary GeoPAT modules use these functions to construct a grid of scenes or to assign signatures to individual scenes having regular or irregular geometries. Thus GeoPAT combines knowledge retrieval from patterns with mapping tasks within a single integrated GIS environment. GeoPAT is designed to identify and analyze complex, highly generalized classes in spatial datasets. Examples include distinguishing between different styles of urban settlements using VHR images, delineating different landscape types in land cover maps, and mapping physiographic units from DEM. The concept of pattern-based spatial analysis is explained and the roles of all modules and functions are described. A case study example pertaining to delineation of landscape types in a subregion of NLCD is given. Performance evaluation is included to highlight GeoPAT's applicability to very large datasets. The GeoPAT toolbox is available for download from

  12. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  13. Diauxic shift-dependent relocalization of decapping activators Dhh1 and Pat1 to polysomal complexes

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Sheona P.; Hildyard, John; Firczuk, Helena; Reamtong, Onrapak; Li, Ning; Kannambath, Shichina; Claydon, Amy J.; Beynon, Robert J.; Eyers, Claire E.; McCarthy, John E. G.

    2011-01-01

    Dhh1 and Pat1 in yeast are mRNA decapping activators/translational repressors thought to play key roles in the transition of mRNAs from translation to degradation. However, little is known about the physical and functional relationships between these proteins and the translation machinery. We describe a previously unknown type of diauxic shift-dependent modulation of the intracellular locations of Dhh1 and Pat1. Like the formation of P bodies, this phenomenon changes the spatial relationship between components involved in translation and mRNA degradation. We report significant spatial separation of Dhh1 and Pat1 from ribosomes in exponentially growing cells. Moreover, biochemical analyses reveal that these proteins are excluded from polysomal complexes in exponentially growing cells, indicating that they may not be associated with active states of the translation machinery. In contrast, under diauxic growth shift conditions, Dhh1 and Pat1 are found to co-localize with polysomal complexes. This work suggests that Dhh1 and Pat1 functions are modulated by a re-localization mechanism that involves eIF4A. Pull-down experiments reveal that the intracellular binding partners of Dhh1 and Pat1 change as cells undergo the diauxic growth shift. This reveals a new dimension to the relationship between translation activity and interactions between mRNA, the translation machinery and decapping activator proteins. PMID:21712243

  14. The efficacy of Watch PAT in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Körkuyu, Emine; Düzlü, Mehmet; Karamert, Recep; Tutar, Hakan; Yılmaz, Metin; Çiftçi, Bülent; Güven, Selma Fırat

    2015-01-01

    Polysomnography is currently considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). But high expense and the backlog of the sleep centers have resulted in a search for an alternative method of diagnosis. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and reliability of Watch PAT as an alternate option in OSAS diagnosis. The patients have worn a Watch PAT(®) 200 device in the sleep laboratory during a standard polysomnography. The correlation in REM and Non-REM AHI scores, sleep periods and the mean O2 saturation percentage between Watch PAT and PSG sleep studies were assessed. There was a statistically significant very strong correlation between PSG and Watch PAT AHI scores (Spearman's rho = 0.802 p < 0.001). The mean recording time with PSG and Watch PAT was 463.06 ± 37.08 and 469.33 ± 72.81 min, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.068). However, there was a statistically significant difference between two methods regarding the average sleep time and REM sleep period. No statistically significant difference was revealed in the mean O2 saturation percentage (p < 0.001). Watch PAT is an efficient device and is considered to be an adjunctive diagnostic method for PSG in diagnosis of OSAS.

  15. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  16. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  17. Profile and bioconcentration of minerals by King Bolete (Boletus edulis) from the Płocka Dale in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frankowska, Aneta; Ziółkowska, Joanna; Bielawski, Leszek; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to provide basic data on the composition of metallic elements, including toxicologically important Cd and Hg, in popular and prized wild King Bolete mushrooms. We investigated the importance of soil substratum as a source of these metals. ICP-OES and CV-AAS were applied to determine the profile of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn in caps and stipes of King Bolete mushroom and in the surface layer of soil (0-10 cm) from the Płocka Dale area of Poland. Hg, Cu, Cd, Zn, Mg and K exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) > 1. Specifically, Hg, Cu and Cd (mean BCFs for caps were 110, 19 and 16, respectively) were efficiently bioconcentrated by King Bolete, while other elements were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Cadmium was present in the caps at mean levels of 5.5 ± 2.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) and mercury at levels of 4.9 ± 1.4 mg kg(-1) dw, both occurring at elevated concentrations in those King Bolete mushrooms surveyed.

  18. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset. PMID:25984347

  19. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  20. Assessment of EndoPAT scores in men with vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mehta, A; Miner, M; Sigman, M

    2013-01-01

    The role of endothelial function testing using peripheral artery tonometry (PAT) in the evaluation of ED is not well established. Endothelial dysfunction is expected to be more common in men presenting with general or vasculogenic ED, compared with men who develop ED after prostatectomy. This study evaluated whether PAT could help identify men in whom endothelial cell dysfunction was the underlying cause of ED. A chart review of 194 men with general ED and 98 men with postprostatectomy ED was performed to abstract data on demographics, medical comorbidities, SHIM-5 scores and EndoPAT scores. Patients with preoperative ED were excluded. Statistical analysis using Student's t-test and Chi-squared analysis was performed to compare the two groups of men with respect to these variables. EndoPAT scores were not significantly different between men with general vs. postprostatectomy ED (1.97 vs. 2.08, p = 0.074). There was no relationship between EndoPAT and SHIM-5 scores in the general ED cohort. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular (CV) disease was similar between the two groups, but diabetes and hypogonadism were more prevalent in men with general ED (21% vs. 9%, and 28% vs. 7%, p < 0.015). Overall, EndoPAT scores in postprostatectomy men with at least one risk factor were not significantly different compared with men with general ED with the same comorbidity, or a combination of two or more comorbidities. The value of EndoPAT testing in the clinical evaluation of ED patients is questionable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Characterization of the plasmid encoded virulence region pat-1 of phytopathogenic Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Dreier, J; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R

    1997-03-01

    The tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382, causing bacterial wilt and canker, harbors two plasmids, pCM1 (27.5 kb) and pCM2 (72 kb), carrying genes involved in virulence. The region of plasmid pCM2 encoding the pathogenicity locus pat-1 was mapped by deletion analysis and complementation studies to a 1.5-kb Bg/II/SmaI DNA fragment. Introduction of the pat-1 region into endophytic, plasmid-free isolates of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis converted these bacteria into virulent pathogens. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the pat-1 region, an open reading frame (ORF1) can be predicted, coding for a protein of 280 amino acids and 29.7 kDa with homology to serine proteases. Introduction of a frame-shift mutation in ORF1 leads to a loss of the pathogenic phenotype. Northern (RNA) hybridizations identified an 1.5-knt transcript of the pat-1 structural gene. The site of transcription initiation was mapped by primer extension and a typical -10/-35 region was located with significant homology to the consensus Escherichia coli sigma 70 and Bacillus subtilis sigma 43 promoters. Downstream of the pat-1 structural gene, a peculiar repetitive sequence motif (pat-1rep) is located, consisting of 20 direct tandem repeats preceded by a run of 14 guanosine residues. DNA sequences homologous to pat-1rep were isolated and characterized from four virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains exhibiting a high extent of structural conservation. The deletion of this repetitive sequence reduced virulence significantly but did not lead to a complete loss of the virulence phenotype.

  2. The gene pat-2, which induces natural parthenocarpy, alters the gibberellin content in unpollinated tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, M; Nuez, F; García-Martínez, J L

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA(3) application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA(3). Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA(3). The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(1), GA(3), GA(8), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(53), and, tentatively, GA(81)) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(9) and GA(34)) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA(20) content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA(19) content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA(20) is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA(20), the precursor of an active GA.

  3. Sertraline inhibits the transport of PAT1 substrates in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, C U; Frølund, S; Abdulhadi, S; Sari, H; Langthaler, L; Nøhr, M K; Kall, M A; Brodin, B; Holm, R

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intestinal nutrient transporters may mediate the uptake of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sertraline interacts with the intestinal proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 PAT1 (SLC36A1). Experimental Approach In vitro investigations of interactions between sertraline and human (h)PAT1, hSGLT1 (sodium-glucose linked transporter 1) and hPepT1 (proton-coupled di-/tri-peptide transporter 1) were conducted in Caco-2 cells using radiolabelled substrates. In vivo pharmacokinetic investigations were conducted in male Sprague–Dawley rats using gaboxadol (10 mg·kg−1, p.o.) as a PAT1 substrate and sertraline (0–30.6 mg·kg−1). Gaboxadol was quantified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography followed by MS/MS detection. Key Results Sertraline inhibited hPAT1-mediated L-[3H]-Pro uptake in Caco-2 cells. This interaction between sertraline and PAT1 appeared to be non-competitive. The uptake of the hSGLT1 substrate [14C]-α–methyl-D-glycopyranoside and the hPepT1 substrate [14C]-Gly-Sar in Caco-2 cells was also decreased in the presence of 0.3 mM sertraline. In rats, the administration of sertraline (0.1–10 mM, corresponding to 0.3–30.6 mg·kg−1, p.o.) significantly reduced the maximal gaboxadol plasma concentration and AUC after its administration p.o. Conclusions and Implications Sertraline is an apparent non-competitive inhibitor of hPAT1-mediated transport in vitro. This inhibitory effect of sertraline is not specific to hPAT1 as substrate transport via hPepT1 and hSGLT1 was also reduced in the presence of sertraline. In vivo, sertraline reduced the amount of gaboxadol absorbed, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of sertraline on PAT1 occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, sertraline could alter the bioavailability of drugs absorbed via PAT1. PMID:23962042

  4. Sertraline inhibits the transport of PAT1 substrates in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C U; Frølund, S; Abdulhadi, S; Sari, H; Langthaler, L; Nøhr, M K; Kall, M A; Brodin, B; Holm, R

    2013-11-01

    Intestinal nutrient transporters may mediate the uptake of drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sertraline interacts with the intestinal proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 PAT1 (SLC36A1). In vitro investigations of interactions between sertraline and human (h)PAT1, hSGLT1 (sodium-glucose linked transporter 1) and hPepT1 (proton-coupled di-/tri-peptide transporter 1) were conducted in Caco-2 cells using radiolabelled substrates. In vivo pharmacokinetic investigations were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats using gaboxadol (10 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) as a PAT1 substrate and sertraline (0-30.6 mg·kg(-1)). Gaboxadol was quantified by hydrophilic interaction chromatography followed by MS/MS detection. Sertraline inhibited hPAT1-mediated L-[(3)H]-Pro uptake in Caco-2 cells. This interaction between sertraline and PAT1 appeared to be non-competitive. The uptake of the hSGLT1 substrate [(14)C]-α-methyl-D-glycopyranoside and the hPepT1 substrate [(14)C]-Gly-Sar in Caco-2 cells was also decreased in the presence of 0.3 mM sertraline. In rats, the administration of sertraline (0.1-10 mM, corresponding to 0.3-30.6 mg·kg(-1), p.o.) significantly reduced the maximal gaboxadol plasma concentration and AUC after its administration p.o. Sertraline is an apparent non-competitive inhibitor of hPAT1-mediated transport in vitro. This inhibitory effect of sertraline is not specific to hPAT1 as substrate transport via hPepT1 and hSGLT1 was also reduced in the presence of sertraline. In vivo, sertraline reduced the amount of gaboxadol absorbed, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of sertraline on PAT1 occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, sertraline could alter the bioavailability of drugs absorbed via PAT1. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Clinical Usefulness of Watch-PAT for Assessing the Surgical Results of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Yoon; Hong, Joon Hyeong; Lee, Jae Heon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Cho, Hyun Sang; Lim, Su Jin; Kwak, Jin Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn device that is based on peripheral arterial tonometry (watch-PAT) to evaluate the surgical results of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome subjects. Study Design and Method: Thirty-five subjects who were diagnosed with OSA and underwent sleep surgeries such as septoplasty, tonsillectomy, or uvuloplasty to correct their airway collapse, participated in this study; the watch-PAT-derived respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), lowest oxygen saturation, and valid sleep time were measured after the sleep surgery. Results: The present study showed that RDI (32.8 ± 10.7 vs 14.8 ± 7.5), AHI (30.3 ± 8.6 vs 13.4 ± 8.2 events/h), lowest oxygen saturation (78.2% ± 8.4% vs 90.5% ± 7.1%), and valid sleep time (329.1 ± 47.2 min and a postoperative value of 389.1 ± 50.1 min) recovered to within a normal range after surgery in 28 subjects. In addition, good agreement was found between watch-PAT-derived factors and visual analogue scales for changes in subjective symptoms, such as snoring, apnea, and daytime somnolence. Seven of the 35 subjects showed no improvement for their subjective symptoms and complained of snoring and apnea after surgery. We found that the RDI and AHI of those 7 subjects were not reduced, and the changes between pre- and postoperative values which were measured with watch-PAT were minimal. Their postoperative lowest oxygen saturation and valid sleep time were not elevated per the watch-PAT. The results support a strong correlation between the findings from watch-PAT and improved symptoms after surgical correction of an airway collapse. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that the factors measured by the watch-PAT might be reliable indicators of symptomatic changes in OSA subjects after sleep surgery and also shows that the watch-PAT is a highly sensitive portable device for estimating treatment results in OSA. Citation: Park CY

  6. The Power-Load-Margin Formula of Howard Y. McClusky as the Basis for a Model of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Keith

    1979-01-01

    Examines the writings of Howard McClusky and his power-load-margin (PLM) formula as the nucleus for a teaching-learning model that fosters mutual respect, shared responsibility, and a spirit of mutual inquiry in small groups or individualized learning experiences. Four phases which form the syntax of the PLM model are presented. (LRA)

  7. 77 FR 76457 - Howard Hughes Medical Institute, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Chase, MD 20815. Instrument: Micro-litre and nanolite dispensing system. Manufacturer: TTP Labtech Ltd...: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Instrument: Micro-litre and nanolitre dispensing...: SPECS Surface Nano Analysis, GmbH, Germany. Intended Use: See notice at 77 FR 70141-42. Comments:...

  8. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  9. 77 FR 72349 - SBI International, Inc. v. Mr. Howard Finkel c/o Cosco Container Lines; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION SBI International, Inc. v. Mr. Howard Finkel c/o Cosco Container Lines; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment Notice is given that a complaint has been filed with the Federal Maritime Commission...

  10. Communicating with New and Existing Markets. A Task Force of Howard Community College's 1998-1999 Commission on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This is a report from a task force formed by Howard Community College (Maryland) to examine existing and future markets. The task force also explored ways to use marketing strategies to attract potential customers to the college. The task force recommends that the college use its strengths to attract customers, such as its commitment to open…

  11. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  12. Howard Joseph McKee, Jr., Winnebago Traditionalist. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes Howard Joseph McKee, Jr, an American Indian elder who teaches the Winnebago language and is developing a system for translating it into English. Mr. McKee's photograph and a map of Nebraska reservations are included. A teaching guide following the bibliography contains learning objectives and…

  13. The Power-Load-Margin Formula of Howard Y. McClusky as the Basis for a Model of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Keith

    1979-01-01

    Examines the writings of Howard McClusky and his power-load-margin (PLM) formula as the nucleus for a teaching-learning model that fosters mutual respect, shared responsibility, and a spirit of mutual inquiry in small groups or individualized learning experiences. Four phases which form the syntax of the PLM model are presented. (LRA)

  14. Howard Joseph McKee, Jr., Winnebago Traditionalist. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes Howard Joseph McKee, Jr, an American Indian elder who teaches the Winnebago language and is developing a system for translating it into English. Mr. McKee's photograph and a map of Nebraska reservations are included. A teaching guide following the bibliography contains learning objectives and…

  15. Report of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's workshop on the performance of laboratory chemical hoods.

    PubMed

    DiBerardinis, Louis J; First, Melvin W; Party, Esmeralda; Smith, Thomas C; Warfield, Cheryl A; Carpenter, J Patrick; Cook, J Lindsay; Walters, Douglas B; Flynn, Michael R; Galson, Edgar L; Greenley, Pamela L; Hitchings, Dale T; Knutson, Gerhard W; Price, John M; Baum, Janet S; Burton, Jeff D; Finucane, Matthew D; Ghidoni, Daniel A; Koenigsberg, Jerry; Lyons, Mark; Memarzadeh, Farhad; Norton, David C; Schuyler, Glen; Zboralski, Jon; Barkley, W Emmett

    2003-01-01

    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute sponsored a workshop on laboratory chemical hoods on June 8, 9, and 10, 1998, that brought together 24 experts in the field of laboratory chemical hoods to critically assess the information known about hood performance. Workshop participants developed 31 consensus statements that reflect their collective views on the body of knowledge or lack thereof, for laboratory chemical hoods. The consensus statements fall into four broad categories: (1) hood selection, use, and operation; (2) hood and laboratory design issues; (3) ventilation system design issues; and (4) hood performance testing. The consensus statements include 26 statements on what is known and unknown about the performance of laboratory chemical hoods, 2 statements of definition, and 3 statements that reflect the participants' agreement not to agree. The brief commentary that follows each consensus statement provides guidance and recommendations.

  16. The Academic Tree of Howard V. Malmstadt: From Early Scientific Exploration to Modern Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Andrew P; Hieftje, Gary M

    2016-12-01

    Over the last several decades, science has benefited tremendously by the implementation of digital electronic components for analytical instrumentation. A pioneer in this area of scientific inquiry was Howard Malmstadt. Frequently, such revolutions in scientific history can be viewed as a series of discoveries without a great deal of attention as to how mentorship shapes the careers and methodologies of those who made great strides forward for science. This paper focuses on the verifiable relationships of those who are connected through the academic tree of Malmstadt and how their experiences and the context of world events influenced their scientific pursuits. Particular attention is dedicated to the development of American chemistry departments and the critical role played by many of the individuals in the tree in this process.

  17. Mosquitoes, flies and dental cavities: Dr. Howard Riley Raper's public campaign to prevent toothache.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Howard Riley Raper (1886-1978) was an early oral health pioneer and dental roentgenology faculty member of the Indiana Dental College (IDC) who single-handedly introduced key concepts in radiology to dentistry. Due to his efforts, IDC became in 1910-11 the first dental school to have a regular course in dental radiology. Virtually all American dental schools soon added this subject to their regular curriculum. Raper's text, Elementary and Dental Radiography (1913) became the first comprehensive student textbook of dental X-ray diagnosis. In his 1933 Blue Book entitled, The New Aim in the Care of the Teeth, Raper elaborated upon his mission to prevent caries, by comparing the insidious damages of tooth decay with the threat of insect-borne disease.

  18. 'Dale': an interpretative phenomenological analysis of a service user's experience with a crisis resolution/home treatment team in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L J; Miller, P K; Ashman, D

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: This paper describes crisis resolution/home treatment (CRHT) teams, which are part of mental health services in the United Kingdom. CRHT is expected to assist individuals in building resilience and work within a recovery approach. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper arises from an interview with one individual, Dale, as part of a larger study exploring service users' experiences of CRHT. It adds to the body of narrative knowledge in CRHT through Dale's co-authorship of this paper, reflecting on his original interview 4 years later, with co-authors providing critical interpretation of his experience, in turn supported by cognate literature. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Implications for practice are considered, themselves mediated through Dale's own descriptions of how CRHT interventions impacted upon him. These impacts are analysed with respect to three themes: Resilience, Recovery and Power. It is centrally contended that clinicians need to more clearly comprehend three core matters. First, what resilience 'is' for service users as well as the complex process through which these individuals move in developing resilience. Second, the distinction that service users might make between 'recovery' and 'functionality', and how this in turn can impact on individuals both in personal and socioeconomic sense. Finally, the mechanics of power within CRHT contexts and how these interpersonal dynamics can affect the relationship between service user and clinician in practice. Introduction and Aim The central purpose of this paper, part of a larger study exploring the experiences of Service Users (SUs) with CRHT, is to emphasise the importance of the SU voice itself within the domain. Following an interrogation of the historical contexts of CRHT. Method This paper uses interpretative phenomological approach around detailed thematic examination of an extended, semi-structured with a single SU: Dale. Moreover, four

  19. A game theoretic model of kleptoparasitism with strategic arrivals and departures of beetles at dung pats.

    PubMed

    Barker, Heather A; Broom, Mark; Rychtář, Jan

    2012-05-07

    Dung beetles Onthophagus taurus lay their eggs in brood balls within dung pats. The dung that is used must be sufficiently fresh, and so beetles must keep moving from pat to pat to find fresh dung. If another beetle finds a brood ball it will usually eat the egg inside and lay its own egg in the brood ball instead of constructing its own ball. Thus, beetles will often stay near their eggs to guard them. We model a population of beetles where the times of arrival and departure from pats are strategic choices, and investigate optimal strategies depending upon environmental conditions, which can be reduced to two key parameters, the cost of brood ball construction and the ease of finding balls to parasitise. We predict that beetles should follow one of three distinct behaviors; stay in patches for only short periods, arrive late and be purely parasitic, remain in pats for longer periods in order to guard their brood balls. Under different conditions populations can consist of the first of these types only, a combination of the first and second types, or a combination of all three types.

  20. PAT: a protein analysis toolkit for integrated biocomputing on the web

    PubMed Central

    Gracy, Jérôme; Chiche, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    PAT, for Protein Analysis Toolkit, is an integrated biocomputing server. The main goal of its design was to facilitate the combination of different processing tools for complex protein analyses and to simplify the automation of repetitive tasks. The PAT server provides a standardized web interface to a wide range of protein analysis tools. It is designed as a streamlined analysis environment that implements many features which strongly simplify studies dealing with protein sequences and structures and improve productivity. PAT is able to read and write data in many bioinformatics formats and to create any desired pipeline by seamlessly sending the output of a tool to the input of another tool. PAT can retrieve protein entries from identifier-based queries by using pre-computed database indexes. Users can easily formulate complex queries combining different analysis tools with few mouse clicks, or via a dedicated macro language, and a web session manager provides direct access to any temporary file generated during the user session. PAT is freely accessible on the Internet at . PMID:15980554

  1. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization.

    PubMed

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-09-18

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism.

  2. PAT proteins, an ancient family of lipid droplet proteins that regulate cellular lipid stores.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Perry E; Tansey, John T; Welte, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    The PAT family of lipid droplet proteins includes 5 members in mammals: perilipin, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47), S3-12, and OXPAT. Members of this family are also present in evolutionarily distant organisms, including insects, slime molds and fungi. All PAT proteins share sequence similarity and the ability to bind intracellular lipid droplets, either constitutively or in response to metabolic stimuli, such as increased lipid flux into or out of lipid droplets. Positioned at the lipid droplet surface, PAT proteins manage access of other proteins (lipases) to the lipid esters within the lipid droplet core and can interact with cellular machinery important for lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic variations in the gene for the best-characterized of the mammalian PAT proteins, perilipin, have been associated with metabolic phenotypes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we discuss how the PAT proteins regulate cellular lipid metabolism both in mammals and in model organisms.

  3. PAT proteins, an ancient family of lipid droplet proteins that regulate cellular lipid stores

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Perry E.; Tansey, John T.; Welte, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PAT family of lipid droplet proteins includes 5 members in mammals: perilipin, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), tail-interacting protein of 47 kiloDaltons (TIP47), S3-12, and OXPAT. Members of this family are also present in evolutionarily distant organisms, including insects, slime molds and fungi. All PAT proteins share sequence similarity and the ability to bind intracellular lipid droplets, either constitutively or in response to metabolic stimuli, such as increased lipid flux into or out of lipid droplets. Positioned at the lipid droplet surface, PAT proteins manage access of other proteins (lipases) to the lipid esters within the lipid droplet core and can interact with cellular machinery important for lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic variations in the gene for the best characterized of the mammalian PAT proteins, perilipin, have been associated with metabolic phenotypes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we discuss how the PAT proteins regulate cellular lipid metabolism both in mammals and in model organisms. PMID:19375517

  4. The Protein Acetyltransferase PatZ from Escherichia coli Is Regulated by Autoacetylation-induced Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    de Diego Puente, Teresa; Gallego-Jara, Julia; Castaño-Cerezo, Sara; Bernal Sánchez, Vicente; Fernández Espín, Vanesa; García de la Torre, José; Manjón Rubio, Arturo; Cánovas Díaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification in the metabolic regulation of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli, PatZ (formerly YfiQ) is the only known acetyltransferase protein and is responsible for acetyl-CoA synthetase acetylation. In this study, we demonstrated PatZ-positive cooperativity in response to acetyl-CoA and the regulation of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity by the acetylation level. Furthermore, functional analysis of an E809A mutant showed that the conserved glutamate residue is not relevant for the PatZ catalytic mechanism. Biophysical studies demonstrated that PatZ is a stable tetramer in solution and is transformed to its octameric form by autoacetylation. Moreover, this modification is reversed by the sirtuin CobB. Finally, an in silico PatZ tetramerization model based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is proposed and validated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic analysis. These data reveal, for the first time, the structural regulation of an acetyltransferase by autoacetylation in a prokaryotic organism. PMID:26251518

  5. Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, M.; Demoz, B. B.; Whiteman, D. N.; Venable, D. D.; Joseph E.; Gambacorta, A.; Wei, J.; Shephard, M. W.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Barnet, C. D.; Herman, R. L.; Fitzgibbon, J.; Connell, R.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of water vapor mixing ratio using the Howard University Raman Lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: i) performance of the lidar against collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, ii) investigation of the atmospheric state variables when poor agreement between lidar and radiosondes values occurred and iii) a comparison with satellite-based measurements. The measurements were acquired during the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Sondes/Satellites 2006 field campaign. Ensemble averaging of water vapor mixing ratio data from ten night-time comparisons with Vaisala RS92 radiosondes shows on average an agreement within 10 % up to approx. 8 km. A similar analysis of lidar-to-lidar data of over 700 profiles revealed an agreement to within 20 % over the first 7 km (10 % below 4 km). A grid analysis, defined in the temperature - relative humidity space, was developed to characterize the lidar - radiosonde agreement and quantitatively localizes regions of strong and weak correlations as a function of altitude, temperature or relative humidity. Three main regions of weak correlation emerge: i) regions of low relative humidity and low temperature, ii) moderate relative humidity at low temperatures and iii) low relative humidity at moderate temperatures. Comparison of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder and Tropospheric Emission Sounder satellites retrievals of moisture with that of Howard University Raman Lidar showed a general agreement in the trend but the formers miss a lot of the details in atmospheric structure due to their low resolution. A relative difference of about 20 % is usually found between lidar and satellites measurements.

  6. A novel gene amplification causes upregulation of the PatAB ABC transporter and fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Baylay, Alison J; Ivens, Alasdair; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the ABC transporter genes patA and patB confers efflux-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and is also linked to pneumococcal stress responses. Although upregulation of patAB has been observed in many laboratory mutants and clinical isolates, the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of these genes are unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify the cause of high-level constitutive overexpression of patAB in M184, a multidrug-resistant mutant of S. pneumoniae R6. Using a whole-genome transformation and sequencing approach, we identified a novel duplication of a 9.2-kb region of the M184 genome which included the patAB genes. This duplication did not affect growth and was semistable with a low segregation rate. The expression levels of patAB in M184 were much higher than those that could be fully explained by doubling of the gene dosage alone, and inactivation of the first copy of patA had no effect on multidrug resistance. Using a green fluorescent protein reporter system, increased patAB expression was ascribed to transcriptional read-through from a tRNA gene upstream of the second copy of patAB. This is the first report of a large genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae and also of a genomic duplication causing antibiotic resistance by a promoter switching mechanism.

  7. Overview of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Sims, W. Herbert; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace; Rodgers, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment is presented. The topics include: 1) Why Antimatter? 2) HiPAT Applicability; 3) Approach-Goals; 4) HiPAT General Layout; 5) Sizing For Containment; 6) Laboratory Operations; 7) Vacuum System Cleaning; 8) Ion Production Via Electron Gun; 9) Particle Capture Via Ion Sources; 10) Ion Beam Steering/Focusing; 11) Ideal Ion Stacking Sequence; 12) Setup For Dynamic Capture; 13) Dynamic Capture of H(+) Ions; 14) Dynamic Capture; 15) Radio Frequency Particle Detection; 16) Radio Frequency Antenna Modeling; and 17) R.F. Stabilization-Low Frequencies. A short presentation of propulsion applications of Antimatter is also given. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. RF Manipulation and Detection of Protons in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond A.; Pearson, J. Boise; Sims, W. Herb; Chakrabarti, Suman; Fant, Wallace E.; Stan McDonald

    2003-01-01

    HiPAT is a Penning-Malmberg trap designed to contain 10(exp 12) particles diagnostics of the plasma. Destructive particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and colliding them with a microchannel plate detector (providing number and energy information). The improved RF system has been used to detect various plasma modes for both electron and ion plasmas in the two traps at MSFC, including axd, cyclotron, and diocotron modes. New diagnostics are also being added to HiPAT to measure the axial density distribution of the trapped cloud to match measured RF plasma modes to plasma conditions. In addition, plasma modeling efforts have been started using the XOOPIC code.

  9. RF Manipulation and Detection of Protons in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond A.; Pearson, J. Boise; Sims, W. Herb; Chakrabarti, Suman; Fant, Wallace E.; Stan McDonald

    2003-01-01

    HiPAT is a Penning-Malmberg trap designed to contain 10(exp 12) particles diagnostics of the plasma. Destructive particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and colliding them with a microchannel plate detector (providing number and energy information). The improved RF system has been used to detect various plasma modes for both electron and ion plasmas in the two traps at MSFC, including axd, cyclotron, and diocotron modes. New diagnostics are also being added to HiPAT to measure the axial density distribution of the trapped cloud to match measured RF plasma modes to plasma conditions. In addition, plasma modeling efforts have been started using the XOOPIC code.

  10. Assessment of family psychosocial functioning in survivors of pediatric cancer using the PAT2.0.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Jordan; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Brand, Sarah; Griffin, Anya; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Meacham, Lillian; Mertens, Ann

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine clinical validity and utility of a screening measure for familial psychosocial risk, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), among pediatric cancer survivors participating in long-term survivorship care. Caregivers (N=79) completed the PAT2.0 during their child's survivorship appointment. Caregivers also reported on family engagement in outpatient mental health treatment. Medical records were reviewed for treatment history and oncology provider initiated psychology consults. The internal consistency of the PAT2.0 total score in this survivorship sample was strong. Psychology was consulted by the oncology provider to see 53% of participant families, and families seen by psychology had significantly higher PAT2.0 total scores than families without psychology consults. PAT2.0 total scores and corresponding subscales were higher for patients, parents, and siblings enrolled in outpatient mental health services since treatment completion. Results were consistent with psychosocial risk categories presented within the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model. Fifty-one percent of families presenting for survivorship care scored in the "universal" category, 34% scored in the "targeted" category, and 15% scored in the "clinical" category. Data indicate that the overall proportions of families experiencing "universal", "targeted", and "clinical" levels of familial distress may be constant from the time of diagnosis into survivorship care. Overall, the PAT2.0 demonstrated strong psychometric properties among survivors of pediatric cancer and shows promise as a psychosocial screening measure to facilitate more effective family support in survivorship care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The effects of PAT on the Savannah River ecosystem, particularly fisheries

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the pre-startup activities at K-Reactor, i.e., Power Ascension Testing (PAT), have caused damage because of temperature rises in the Savannah River. Therefore, the biological studies were mainly aimed at providing information as to changes that might cause the damage of the fish population, and to other important organisms in the ecosystem. To determine if deleterious effects had occurred, one had to review the past studies to determine the condition and diversity of aquatic life before these PAT studies started. Therefore old reports were reviewed and a current study made in 1992.

  12. RNA-related nuclear functions of human Pat1b, the P-body mRNA decay factor.

    PubMed

    Marnef, Aline; Weil, Dominique; Standart, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Pat1 proteins are P-body components recently shown to play important roles in cytoplasmic gene expression control. Using human cell lines, we demonstrate that human Pat1b is a shuttling protein whose nuclear export is mediated via a consensus NES sequence and Crm1, as evidenced by leptomycin B (LMB) treatment. However, not all P-body components are nucleocytoplasmic proteins; rck/p54, Dcp1a, Edc3, Ge-1, and Xrn1 are insensitive to LMB and remain cytoplasmic in its presence. Nuclear Pat1b localizes to PML-associated foci and SC35-containing splicing speckles in a transcription-dependent manner, whereas in the absence of RNA synthesis, Pat1b redistributes to crescent-shaped nucleolar caps. Furthermore, inhibition of splicing by spliceostatin A leads to the reorganization of SC35 speckles, which is closely mirrored by Pat1b, indicating that it may also be involved in splicing processes. Of interest, Pat1b retention in these three nuclear compartments is mediated via distinct regions of the protein. Examination of the nuclear distribution of 4E-T(ransporter), an additional P-body nucleocytoplasmic protein, revealed that 4E-T colocalizes with Pat1b in PML-associated foci but not in nucleolar caps. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that Pat1b participates in several RNA-related nuclear processes in addition to its multiple regulatory roles in the cytoplasm.

  13. The PATS Peer Support Program: Prevention/Early Intervention for Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, John; Bond, Lyndal; O'Brien, Matt; Forer, Danielle; Davies, Liz

    2008-01-01

    PATS (Paying Attention to Self) is a peer support program for adolescent children of parents with a diagnosed mental illness. The program aims to promote positive mental health, reduce the likelihood of mental health difficulties, increase young people's coping skills and empower them to meet their own and their families' needs. PATS combines peer…

  14. Identification of homologues to the pathogenicity factor Pat-1, a putative serine protease of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Burger, Annette; Gräfen, Ines; Engemann, Jutta; Niermann, Erik; Pieper, Martina; Kirchner, Oliver; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis total DNA against the pathogenicity gene pat-1 indicated the presence of pat-1 homologous nucleotide sequences on the chromosome and on plasmid pCM2. Isolation of the corresponding DNA fragments and nucleotide sequence determination showed that there are three pat-1 homologous genes: chpA (chromosome) and phpA and phpB (plasmid pCM2). The gene products share common characteristics, i.e. a signal sequence for Sec-dependent secretion, a serine protease motif, and six cysteine residues at conserved positions. Gene chpA located on the chromosome is a pseudogene since it contains a translational stop codon after 97 of 280 amino acids. In contrast to pat-1, cloning of the plasmid encoded homologs phpA and phpB into the avirulent plasmid free Cmm strain CMM100 did not result in a virulent phenotype. So far, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for Pat-1, however, site specific mutagenesis of pat-1 showed that the serine residue in the motif GDSGG is required for the virulent phenotype of pat-1 and thus Pat-1 could be a functional protease.

  15. Project-based Modules from two STEM Learning Teams in Howard County, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, L. N.; Bradley, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, two Maryland school districts-Howard County Public School System and Prince George's County Public Schools-and the Goddard Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnered with the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF) to develop NASA 21st Century Learning Studios. In 2010, NCTAF expanded the program to include Learning Studios at two additional Maryland school districts (Anne Arundel County Public Schools and Baltimore County Public Schools), partnering with the United States Naval Academy and the University of Maryland. Overall, the focus of these Learning Studios is to combine the expertise of scientists with that of educators through Learning Teams to improve teaching and learning in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, while delivering project-based modules to be implemented in other school districts. The focus of this paper is to summarize the experience and outcomes from two Learning Teams from the Howard County Public School System. STEM Learning Teams were established at Centennial High School and Hammond High School in Maryland. Each Team worked together for two years to create interdisciplinary units of study for their students with a focus on Earth Science. To maximize student interest, teachers worked with NASA scientists five times a year to develop four learning modules using practical examples and incorporating real scientific observations. A weathering and erosion module challenges students to collect appropriate field observations and determine erosion and deposition rates in a nearby lake. A plate tectonics module requires students to use measures of plate motion from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to estimate rates of convergence in southern Asia. A third module for lessons in climate change requires students to find open source climate data, determine changes in the atmosphere and estimate anthropogenic impacts. A follow

  16. Quantifying beetle-mediated effects on gas fluxes from dung pats.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Atte; Slade, Eleanor M; Simojoki, Asko; Riutta, Terhi; Minkkinen, Kari; Roslin, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment--a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June-July), total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research.

  17. PAT-Tree-Based Adaptive Keyphrase Extraction for Intelligent Chinese Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Lee-Feng

    1999-01-01

    Considers the need for keyphrase-extraction techniques in intelligent Chinese information retrieval and presents a PAT-tree-based adaptive approach, developed from the PATRICIA Algorithm (Practical Algorithm to Retrieve Information Coded in Alphanumeric). Discusses Internet utilization, automatic term suggestion, domain-specific lexicon…

  18. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker's "Regeneration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadjadi, Bakhtiar; Esmkhani, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker's "Regeneration" in terms of Cathy Caruth's psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker's novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the…

  19. Synchronized fission yeast meiosis using an ATP analog-sensitive Pat1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W; Smith, Gerald R; Gregan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous cultures are often indispensable for studying meiosis. Here we present an optimized protocol for induction of synchronous meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical inactivation of an ATP analog-sensitive form of the Pat1 kinase (pat1-as2) by adding the ATP analog 1-NM-PP1 in G1-arrested cells allows the induction of synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature (25°C). Importantly, this protocol eliminates detrimental effects of elevated temperature (34°C), which is required to inactivate the commonly used temperature-sensitive Pat1 kinase mutant (pat1-114). The addition of the mat-Pc gene to a mat1-M strain further improves chromosome segregation and spore viability. Thus, our protocol offers highly synchronous meiosis at optimal temperature, with most characteristics similar to those of wild-type meiosis. The synchronization protocol can be completed in 5 d (not including strain production, which may take as long as 2 or 3 months).

  20. Design and Fabrication of Cryostat Interface and Electronics for High Performance Antimatter Trap (HI-PAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    Included in Appendix I to this report is a complete set of design and assembly schematics for the high vacuum inner trap assembly, cryostat interfaces and electronic components for the MSFC HI-PAT. Also included in the final report are summaries of vacuum tests, and electronic tests performed upon completion of the assembly.

  1. Pat Conroy's "Gutter Language": "Prince of Tides" in a Lowcountry High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the controversy sparked by Pat Conroy's novel "The Prince of Tides" when it was included in a reading list for an advanced-placement eleventh grade English class. Discusses Conroy's approach to writing and his experience as an unconventional teacher. (PRA)

  2. Teacher's PAT? Multiple-Role Principal-Agent Theory, Education Politics, and Bureaucrat Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanhuysse, Pieter; Sulitzeanu-Kenan, Raanan

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to current debates about political power and agency relationships in education and other public sectors. In a recent clarion call for a major redirection of political principal-agent theories (PAT), Terry Moe has argued that standard information asymmetries ought no longer to be regarded as the sole foundation of…

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae Strain PAT 1T

    PubMed Central

    Kutumbaka, Kirthi K.; Pasmowitz, Joshua; Mategko, James; Reyes, Dindo; Friedrich, Alex; Han, Sukkyun; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Janagama, Harish K.; Nadala, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    The genus Megasphaera harbors important spoilage organisms that cause beer spoilage by producing off flavors, undesirable aroma, and turbidity. Megasphaera cerevisiae is mainly found in nonpasteurized low-alcohol beer. In this study, we report the draft genome of the type strain of the genus, M. cerevisiae strain PAT 1T. PMID:26358606

  4. Reconstruction of undersampled radial PatLoc imaging using Total Generalized Variation

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Florian; Schultz, Gerrit; Bredies, Kristian; Gallichan, Daniel; Zaitsev, Maxim; Hennig, Jürgen; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    In the case of radial imaging with nonlinear spatial encoding fields, a prominent star-shaped artifact has been observed if a spin distribution is encoded with an undersampled trajectory. This work presents a new iterative reconstruction method based on the total generalized variation (TGV), which reduces this artifact. For this approach, a sampling operator (as well as its adjoint) is needed that maps data from PatLoc k-space to the final image space. It is shown that this can be realized as a Type-3 non-uniform FFT, which is implemented by a combination of a Type-1 and Type-2 non-uniform FFT. Using this operator, it is also possible to implement an iterative conjugate gradient (CG) SENSE based method for PatLoc reconstruction, which leads to a significant reduction of computation time in comparison to conventional PatLoc image reconstruction methods. Results from numerical simulations and in-vivo PatLoc measurements with as few as 16 radial projections are presented, which demonstrate significant improvements in image quality with the TGV based approach. PMID:22847824

  5. Measuring psychosocial risk in families caring for a child with cancer: the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT2.0).

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maria C; Clarke, Naomi E; Vance, Alasdair; Ashley, David M; Heath, John A; Anderson, Vicki A

    2009-07-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0) is a recently developed screening measure for assessing psychosocial risk in families caring for a child with cancer. This study aimed to assess the external validity of the PAT2.0 in an Australian pediatric oncology sample. Further aims included examining mothers' and fathers' PAT2.0 scores, change in psychosocial risk over time, and the relationship between treatment intensity and psychosocial risk. Parents of 143 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed the PAT2.0 at diagnosis (T1) and 6-8 months later (T2). A treatment intensity measure (ITR-2) was completed by two clinical oncologists. The PAT2.0 stratified families into a 3-tiered risk framework and was consistent with existing data from the authors of the scale. The majority of families were stratified into the Universal (lowest risk) category; more than one-third of families had some elevated psychosocial risk. PAT2.0 scores of mothers and fathers were correlated and psychosocial risk remained relatively stable between T1 and T2. Treatment intensity scores were not related to PAT2.0 scores at T2. Findings support the external validity of the PAT2.0 as a psychosocial screener. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of risk are similar; however, multi-informant use of the PAT2.0 may be clinically useful. Psychosocial risk, as measured by the PAT2.0, is a relatively stable construct over the first months of treatment and is independent of treatment intensity. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. FunPat: function-based pattern analysis on RNA-seq time series data.

    PubMed

    Sanavia, Tiziana; Finotello, Francesca; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic expression data, nowadays obtained using high-throughput RNA sequencing, are essential to monitor transient gene expression changes and to study the dynamics of their transcriptional activity in the cell or response to stimuli. Several methods for data selection, clustering and functional analysis are available; however, these steps are usually performed independently, without exploiting and integrating the information derived from each step of the analysis. Here we present FunPat, an R package for time series RNA sequencing data that integrates gene selection, clustering and functional annotation into a single framework. FunPat exploits functional annotations by performing for each functional term, e.g. a Gene Ontology term, an integrated selection-clustering analysis to select differentially expressed genes that share, besides annotation, a common dynamic expression profile. FunPat performance was assessed on both simulated and real data. With respect to a stand-alone selection step, the integration of the clustering step is able to improve the recall without altering the false discovery rate. FunPat also shows high precision and recall in detecting the correct temporal expression patterns; in particular, the recall is significantly higher than hierarchical, k-means and a model-based clustering approach specifically designed for RNA sequencing data. Moreover, when biological replicates are missing, FunPat is able to provide reproducible lists of significant genes. The application to real time series expression data shows the ability of FunPat to select differentially expressed genes with high reproducibility, indirectly confirming high precision and recall in gene selection. Moreover, the expression patterns obtained as output allow an easy interpretation of the results. A novel analysis pipeline was developed to search the main temporal patterns in classes of genes similarly annotated, improving the sensitivity of gene selection by integrating the

  7. Healing mysteries: An interview with Howard Hall, PhD, PsyD. Interview by Sheldon Lewis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Dr Howard Hall is an associate professor in the department of pediatrics at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and an attending doctor in the division of behavioral pediatrics at Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr Hall holds a PhD in Experimental Psychology from Princeton University and a PsyD in Clinical Psychology from Rutgers University. He has conducted research and taught courses in clinical and multicultural psychology and maintains a clinical practice using hypnosis and other mind-body approaches to healing at CWRU. Howard Hall has been recognized as a leader in the field of clinical psychoneuroimmunology and conducted pioneering research on the effects of hypnosis on immune responses. In recent years, he has studied energy-based rapid wound healing as demonstrated by Sufi practitioners. Recently, Sheldon Lewis, Editor-in-Chief of Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, spoke with Dr Hall about his work.

  8. 2002 Report to Congress: Evaluating the Consensus Best Practices Developed through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Collaborative Hazardous Waste Management Demonstration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report discusses a collaborative project initiated by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to establish and evaluate a performance-based approach to management of hazardous wastes in the laboratories of academic research institutions.

  9. Howard A. Kelly's development as an academician: some insights from his letters to Robert P. Harris.

    PubMed

    Longo, Lawrence D

    2002-12-01

    Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), Professor and Gynecologist in Chief at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, is widely known as an innovator in operative gynecology, urology, and abdominal surgery. He was also a first-rate naturalist and bibliographer. Less is known, however, about his formative years as a young surgeon in Philadelphia. During a four-month period, from May to September 1886, while on a trip to Europe, Kelly wrote his senior colleague and friend Robert Patterson Harris (1822-1899) almost three dozen letters. These letters trace the development of Kelly's ideas as he visited a number of medical luminaries in the major medical centers of Germany, England, Scotland, and France. Overall, the letters give considerable insight into the development of Kelly as a young physician (age 28), inspired by what he saw in the German Frauenkliniks to build a program of excellence in the treatment of diseases of women in America. In addition, the letters help to illustrate the role Harris played in the development of this icon of contemporary medicine, who, with others, worked to place the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine at the forefront of medical education and research in this country and the world.

  10. B. C. Canyon field, Howard County, Texas: An ancient analogy to modern tropical tower karst terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Mozynski, D.C.; Reid, A.M. )

    1992-04-01

    Late in the early deposition of sediments in Canyon field, a series of glacio-eustatically controlled sea level lowstands resulted in a carbonate buildup seaward of the Horseshoe Atoll in Howard County, Texas. The resulting satellite reef tract consists of fringing boundstone; high-energy shelf grainstones; lower energy shelf packstones and wackestones; and thin, highstand, black shales and mudstones. The original extent and thickness of deposits were extensively modified during karstification coincident with successive sea level lowstands. The resulting paleotopographic landforms appear to be similar to tower karst features of Puerto Rico. During the beginning of each sea level highstand, the paleoterrain was modified by erosion. The basinal foreshelf conglomerates resulting from initial highstand erosion contain dipping strata that commonly can be detected by the dipmeter tool. The mechanism for the formation of these strata may be depositional or the result of diagenetic alteration of the rock fabric in the burial environment. Using dipmeter data, an uneconomic producer has been offset by one of the better producing wells in the field.

  11. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard Field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing US Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2300 to 3200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are areally discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity develoment and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/degree/E to N85/degree/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of waterflood operations at Iatan East Howard field, Mitchell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.P.; Mitchell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc. completed a reservoir description study on Iatan East Howard field in Mitchell County, Texas, in 1984. The application of study results has improved subsequent development drilling and waterflood operations. Lease production has doubled within two years with the drilling of 40 producers and 13 injection wells. The field produces from thin (2 to 40 ft) porosity stringers in fractured Permian age San Angelo and Clearfork dolomites at 2,300 to 3,200 ft in depth. Reservoirs are really discontinuous due to original depositional controls on porosity development and distribution. Pay zone reservoir parameters such as porosity and permeability vary from 4 to 17% and 0.1 to 120 md, respectively. The presence of a fracture orientation at N60/sup 0/E to N85/sup 0/E has caused producing wells to experience early breakthrough of injection water when in line with injectors and the fracture direction. Waterflows have also occurred in drilling wells when similarly aligned. Recognition of this fracture overprint has dictated the use of a staggered line drive injection pattern parallel to the fracture trend to improve sweep efficiency. Reservoir matrix can be swept more uniformly as rows of injectors pressurize those aligned fractures and move oil perpendicular to the fracture trend and toward the rows of producers.

  13. Cannabis careers revisited: applying Howard S. Becker's theory to present-day cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The C-terminal α–α superhelix of Pat is required for mRNA decapping in metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joerg E; Tritschler, Felix; Haas, Gabrielle; Igreja, Cátia; Truffault, Vincent; Weichenrieder, Oliver; Izaurralde, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Pat proteins regulate the transition of mRNAs from a state that is translationally active to one that is repressed, committing targeted mRNAs to degradation. Pat proteins contain a conserved N-terminal sequence, a proline-rich region, a Mid domain and a C-terminal domain (Pat-C). We show that Pat-C is essential for the interaction with mRNA decapping factors (i.e. DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1–7), whereas the P-rich region and Mid domain have distinct functions in modulating these interactions. DCP2 and EDC4 binding is enhanced by the P-rich region and does not require LSm1–7. LSm1–7 binding is assisted by the Mid domain and is reduced by the P-rich region. Structural analysis revealed that Pat-C folds into an α–α superhelix, exposing conserved and basic residues on one side of the domain. This conserved and basic surface is required for RNA, DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1–7 binding. The multiplicity of interactions mediated by Pat-C suggests that certain of these interactions are mutually exclusive and, therefore, that Pat proteins switch decapping partners allowing transitions between sequential steps in the mRNA decapping pathway. PMID:20543818

  15. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  16. Application of a novel phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (RePAT) gene in developing glufosinate-resistant rice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Liu, Ziduo; Li, Yue; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, only few glufosinate-resistant genes are available for commercial application. Thus, developing novel glufosinate-resistant genes with commercial feasibility is extremely important and urgent for agricultural production. In this study, we transferred a newly isolated RePAT gene into a japonica rice variety Zhonghua11, resulting in a large number of independent T0 transgenic plants, most of which grew normally under high-concentration glufosinate treatment. Four transgenic plants with one intact RePAT expression cassette integrated into the intergenic region were selected. Agronomic performances of their T2 progenies were investigated, and the results suggested that the expression of RePAT had no adverse effect on the agronomic performance. Definite glufosinate resistance of the selected transgenic plants was further confirmed to be related to the expression of RePAT by assay on the medium and qRT-PCR. The inheritance and expression of RePAT in two transgenic plants were confirmed to be stable. Finally, the two-year field assay of glufosinate resistance suggested that the agronomic performance of the transgenic plant (PAT11) was not affected by high dosage of glufosinate (5000 g/ha). Collectively, our study proves the high resistance of a novel gene RePAT to glufosinate and provides a glufosiante-resistant rice variety with agricultural application potential. PMID:26879398

  17. Pat1 protects centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cse4 from Psh1-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Guo, Jiasheng; Dittman, Lauren E; Haase, Julian; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry; Basrai, Munira A

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionarily conserved histone H3 variant Cse4 and its homologues are essential components of specialized centromere (CEN)-specific nucleosomes and serve as an epigenetic mark for CEN identity and propagation. Cse4 is a critical determinant for the structure and function of the kinetochore and is required to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. The kinetochore protein Pat1 regulates the levels and spatial distribution of Cse4 at centromeres. Deletion of PAT1 results in altered structure of CEN chromatin and chromosome segregation errors. In this study, we show that Pat1 protects CEN-associated Cse4 from ubiquitination in order to maintain proper structure and function of the kinetochore in budding yeast. PAT1-deletion strains exhibit increased ubiquitination of Cse4 and faster turnover of Cse4 at kinetochores. Psh1, a Cse4-specific E3-ubiquitin ligase, interacts with Pat1 in vivo and contributes to the increased ubiquitination of Cse4 in pat1∆ strains. Consistent with a role of Psh1 in ubiquitination of Cse4, transient induction of PSH1 in a wild-type strain resulted in phenotypes similar to a pat1∆ strain, including a reduction in CEN-associated Cse4, increased Cse4 ubiquitination, defects in spatial distribution of Cse4 at kinetochores, and altered structure of CEN chromatin. Pat1 interacts with Scm3 and is required for its maintenance at kinetochores. In conclusion, our studies provide novel insights into mechanisms by which Pat1 affects the structure of CEN chromatin and protects Cse4 from Psh1-mediated ubiquitination for faithful chromosome segregation. © 2015 Mishra et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. An Evaluation of the LOS Alamos Precision Automated Turning System (pats) as a Production Tool for Atlas Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W.; Day, R.; Hatch, D.; Gore, R.; Machen, D.; Bartos, J.; Salazar, M.; Hannah, P.

    2004-11-01

    The PATS is proposed as a possible means for efficient production of precision liners for Atlas [1]. The Los Alamos National Laboratory's High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) program supported an evaluation of this prospect over the last two years. The machine operations have been carefully mapped out, the status of the controllers and on-machine gauging evaluated, and dynamic error addressed. The PATS has been used to generate diamond turned liners with dimensions similar to those proposed for Atlas. In the mean time, Atlas liner criteria have become even more stringent. This paper will evaluate the known status of the PATS in view of current liner designs for Atlas.

  19. Principles and Practices Fostering Inclusive Excellence: Lessons from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Capstone Institutions.

    PubMed

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie; Gross, Deborah; Manduca, Cathryn A; Iverson, Ellen; Cooke, David B; Davis, Gregory K; Davidson, Cameron; Hertz, Paul E; Hibbard, Lisa; Ireland, Shubha K; Mader, Catherine; Pai, Aditi; Raps, Shirley; Siwicki, Kathleen; Swartz, Jim E

    Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones represent a range of institutional missions, student profiles, and geographical locations. Each successfully directed activities toward persistence of STEM students, especially those from traditionally underrepresented groups, through a set of common elements: mentoring programs to build community; research experiences to strengthen scientific skill/identity; attention to quantitative skills; and outreach/bridge programs to broaden the student pool. This paper grounds these program elements in learning theory, emphasizing their essential principles with examples of how they were implemented within institutional contexts. We also describe common assessment approaches that in many cases informed programming and created traction for stakeholder buy-in. The lessons learned from our shared experiences in pursuit of inclusive excellence, including the resources housed on our companion website, can inform others' efforts to increase access to and persistence in STEM in higher education. © 2016 P. M. DiBartolo, L. Gregg-Jolly, D. Gross, C. A. Manduca, E. Iverson, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. A numerical model characterizing the experimental performance of the Howard University Raman Lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Rasheen M.

    At the Howard University Atmospheric Observatory in Beltsville, MD, a Raman Lidar System was developed to provide both daytime and nighttime measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and cirrus clouds with 60 s temporal and 7.5 m spatial resolution in the lower and upper troposphere. This system analyzes signals at three wavelengths associated with Rayleigh/Mie scattering for aerosols and cirrus clouds at 354.7 nm, Raman scattering for nitrogen at 386.7 nm, and water vapor at 407.5 nm. The transmitter is a triple harmonic Nd: YAG solid state laser. The receiver is a 40 cm Cassegrain telescope. The detector system consists of a multi-channel wavelength separator unit and data acquisition system. This thesis develops a numerical model to provide a realistic representation of the system behavior. The variants of the lidar equation in the model use system parameters to solve and determine the return signals for the lidar system. This dissertation describes four case studies being investigated: clear sky, polluted, wet, and cirrus cloud atmospheric conditions. The first simulations are based on a standard atmosphere, which assumes an unpolluted (aerosol-free) dry-air atmosphere. The second and third sets of simulations are based on polluted and cirrus cloud atmospheric conditions, where aerosols and cirrus clouds are added to Case Study I. The last set of simulations is based on a wet atmosphere, where the troposphere is comprised of the same mixture of gases in Case Study II, with the addition of atmospheric water vapor. Lidar signals are simulated over the altitude range covered by our measurements (up to 14 km). Results of our simulations show that the measured and modeled signals agree within 10% over an extended period of time when the system (i.e., such as alignment, filter tuning, etc.) has not changed.

  1. Childhood family living arrangements and blood pressure in black men: the Howard University Family Study.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Debbie S; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Rotimi, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Black men have higher blood pressure (BP) levels and consequently higher prevalence of hypertension compared with men from other ethnic groups in the United States. Socio-familial factors in childhood have been found to play an important role in hypertension, but few studies have examined this relationship among black men. We investigated whether childhood family living arrangements are independently associated with mean BP and hypertension in a cross-sectional sample of 515 unrelated black male participants aged ≥20 years enrolled in the Howard University Family Study between 2001 and 2008. Black men who lived with both parents compared with the reference group of men who never lived with both parents during their lifetime had lower systolic BP (-4.4 mm Hg [95% confidence interval {CI}, -7.84 to -0.96]), pulse pressure (-3.9 mm Hg [95% CI, -6.28 to -1.51]), and mean arterial BP (-2.0 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.44 to 0.51]). This protective effect was more pronounced among men who lived with both parents for 1 to 12 years of their lives; they had decreased systolic BP (-6.5 mm Hg [95% CI, -10.99 to -1.95]), pulse pressure (-5.4 mm Hg [95% CI, -8.48 to -2.28]), mean arterial pressure (-3.3 mm Hg [95% CI, -6.56 to 0.00]), and a 46% decreased odds of developing hypertension (odds ratio=0.54; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.99). No statistically significant associations were found for diastolic BP. These results provide preliminary evidence that childhood family structure exerts a long-term influence on BP among black men.

  2. The PAT family of lipid droplet proteins in heart and vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Antoni; Chan, Lawrence; Bickel, Perry E

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are organelles in which cells store neutral lipids for use as an energy source in times of need, but they also play important roles in the regulation of key metabolic processes. Although LDs are essential for normal cell function, excess accumulation of intracellular lipid is associated with several metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. The function of LDs is regulated by their associated proteins, including the members of the PAT family: perilipin, adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein, tail-interacting protein 47, S3-12, and OXPAT/myocardial LD protein/lipid-storage droplet protein 5. In this review we discuss the PAT proteins in two cardiovascular contexts: 1) in the atherosclerotic vessel wall, where LDs within macrophage foam cells store cholesteryl esters derived from modified lipoproteins, and 2) in the myocardium, where LDs store fatty acids, the major energy substrate for normal heart function, as triglyceride.

  3. The PAT Family of Lipid Droplet Proteins in Heart and Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Antoni; Chan, Lawrence; Bickel, Perry E.

    2010-01-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) are organelles in which cells store neutral lipids for use as an energy source in times of need, but they also play important roles in the regulation of key metabolic processes. Although LDs are essential for normal cell function, excess accumulation of intracellular lipid is associated with several metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. The function of LDs is regulated by their associated proteins, including the members of the PAT family: perilipin, adipophilin/adipose differentiation–related protein, tail-interacting protein 47, S3-12, and OXPAT/myocardial LD protein/lipid-storage droplet protein 5. In this review we discuss the PAT proteins in two cardiovascular contexts: 1) in the atherosclerotic vessel wall, where LDs within macrophage foam cells store cholesteryl esters derived from modified lipoproteins, and 2) in the myocardium, where LDs store fatty acids, the major energy substrate for normal heart function, as triglyceride. PMID:18959832

  4. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air-Transportable Model 2) safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.; Davis, E.J.; Duffey, T.A.; Dupree, S.A.; George, O.L. Jr.; Ortiz, Z.

    1981-07-01

    The PAT-2 package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. This SAR presents design and oprational information including evaluations and analyses, test results, operating procedures, maintenance, and quality assurance information.

  5. A cost-effective functional connectivity photoacoustic tomography (fcPAT) of the mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Ali; Fatima, Afreen; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    The study of functional connectivity among different regions of the brain is tremendously valuable in the diagnosis and monitoring of various neurological disorders. While the conventional techniques fail to provide optimum results in terms of resolution, field of view and efficiency, Photo-acoustic based imaging is being considered as an alternative and complimentary modality. The cost and size are the factors that limit the further research and clinical advancements of fcPAT. Therefore we proposed an inexpensive fcPAT system. We determined its feasibility by imaging a graphite leads embedded in an agar phantom and demonstrated its application by imaging a microtubes filled with blood embedded in the chicken's breast at a scan time of 50 seconds and number of angles as 300.

  6. PAT-1 safety analysis report addendum author responses to request for additional information.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Schmale, David T.; Kalan, Robert J.; Akin, Lili A.; Miller, David Russell; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert; Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki; Lopez, Carlos; Harding, David Cameron; Jones, Perry L.; Morrow, Charles W.

    2010-09-01

    The Plutonium Air Transportable Package, Model PAT-1, is certified under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) per Certificate of Compliance (CoC) USA/0361B(U)F-96 (currently Revision 9). The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) submitted SAND Report SAND2009-5822 to NRC that documented the incorporation of plutonium (Pu) metal as a new payload for the PAT-1 package. NRC responded with a Request for Additional Information (RAI), identifying information needed in connection with its review of the application. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide the authors responses to each RAI. SAND Report SAND2010-6106 containing the proposed changes to the Addendum is provided separately.

  7. PAT tools for the control of co-extrusion implants manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Krier, Fabrice; Mantanus, Jérôme; Sacré, Pierre-Yves; Chavez, Pierre-François; Thiry, Justine; Pestieau, Aude; Rozet, Eric; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte

    2013-12-15

    Hot melt extrusion is a novel pharmaceutical manufacturing process technique. In this study, we identified four Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) of the implant manufacturing process by hot melt extrusion: the implant diameter, the quantity of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API), the homogeneity distribution of API and the thickness of the membrane. We controlled the implant diameter and the quantity of API in-line with a laser measurement, NIR and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. These two different spectroscopic techniques provided comparable results. In fact, the RMSEC and RMSECV were very close in each PAT technique but NIR spectroscopy was easier to use and less sensitive to external changes. For the control of the homogeneity of API distribution and the thickness of the membrane, we used successfully Raman spectroscopy imaging. These PAT tools help reducing analysis time.

  8. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Pearson, J. Boise; Sims, W. Herb; Chakrabarti, Suman; Fant, Wallace E.; McDonald, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Many space propulsion concepts exist that use matter-antimatter reactions. Current antiproton production rates are enough to conduct proof-of-principle evaluation of these concepts. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, to transport antiprotons to experimental facilities. To address this need, HiPAT is being developed, with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. HiPAT is a Penning-Malmberg trap with a 4 Tesla superconductor, 20kV electrodes, radio frequency (RF) network, and 10(exp -13) Torr vacuum. 'Normal' matter is being used to evaluate the system. An electron beam ionizes background gas in situ, and particle beams are captured dynamically. The experiment examines ion storage lifetimes, RF plasma diagnostics, charge exchange with background gases, and dynamic ion beam capture.

  9. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Pearson, J. Boise; Sims, W. Herb; Chakrabarti, Suman; Fant, Wallace E.; McDonald, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Many space propulsion concepts exist that use matter-antimatter reactions. Current antiproton production rates are enough to conduct proof-of-principle evaluation of these concepts. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, to transport antiprotons to experimental facilities. To address this need, HiPAT is being developed, with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. HiPAT is a Penning-Malmberg trap with a 4 Tesla superconductor, 20kV electrodes, radio frequency (RF) network, and 10(exp -13) Torr vacuum. 'Normal' matter is being used to evaluate the system. An electron beam ionizes background gas in situ, and particle beams are captured dynamically. The experiment examines ion storage lifetimes, RF plasma diagnostics, charge exchange with background gases, and dynamic ion beam capture.

  10. Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats

    PubMed Central

    Penttilä, Atte; Slade, Eleanor M.; Simojoki, Asko; Riutta, Terhi; Minkkinen, Kari; Roslin, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO2 and lower amounts of CH4 per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N2O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment – a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June–July), total emissions of CH4 proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N2O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research. PMID:23940758

  11. Physical basis and corresponding instruments for PAT performance testing of inter-satellite laser communication terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren; Wang, Lijuan; Luan, Zhu; Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Anhu; Liu, De'an

    2006-08-01

    The propagation of laser beam in inter-satellite laser communications belongs to the far-field diffraction, but in the optical test and verification of pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) function on the laboratory the beam from a terminal propagates within the near-field. In this paper, in terms of the Fresnel diffraction theory the inherent difference is found that in the far-field diffraction the optical tracking position error is resulted from both the mutual movement between two laser communication terminals and the tilting of the receiver terminal, but the tilting of the transmitter has no effect on the error position; and that in the near-field diffraction the position error is caused by the tilting of the transmitter or the receiver, but the mutual movement has no effect. It is furthermore found that the use of a beam scanner in the test in the near-field can simulate exactly the mutual movement of satellites in the far-field, and the trajectory formula for the beam scanning is deduced that is the same as the mutual angular trajectory from one satellite to another. Therefore a practical PAT test bed of a double-focus laser collimator, a beam scanner and a fine beam steering device is developed by us to test and verify the PAT function of inter-satellite laser communication terminals. The optical aperture is about φ440mm for this use. And a test bed for concurrent test and verification of both PAT function and communication performance is also demonstrated. The test bed consists of a conventional laser collimator, an optical scanner and a far-field beam transmission simulator, which is a combination of a Fourier-transform lens an a followed multiple-stage imaging amplifier. The details of configurations are given. It is clear that these test beds can be also used to test and verify the functions of laser radar, passive optical tracker, and so on.

  12. PatMatch: a program for finding patterns in peptide and nucleotide sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Thomas; Yoo, Danny; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Mueller, Lukas A.; Weems, Dan C.; Weng, Shuai; Cherry, J. Michael; Rhee, Seung Y.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we present PatMatch, an efficient, web-based pattern-matching program that enables searches for short nucleotide or peptide sequences such as cis-elements in nucleotide sequences or small domains and motifs in protein sequences. The program can be used to find matches to a user-specified sequence pattern that can be described using ambiguous sequence codes and a powerful and flexible pattern syntax based on regular expressions. A recent upgrade has improved performance and now supports both mismatches and wildcards in a single pattern. This enhancement has been achieved by replacing the previous searching algorithm, scan_for_matches [D'Souza et al. (1997), Trends in Genetics, 13, 497–498], with nondeterministic-reverse grep (NR-grep), a general pattern matching tool that allows for approximate string matching [Navarro (2001), Software Practice and Experience, 31, 1265–1312]. We have tailored NR-grep to be used for DNA and protein searches with PatMatch. The stand-alone version of the software can be adapted for use with any sequence dataset and is available for download at The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) at . The PatMatch server is available on the web at for searching Arabidopsis thaliana sequences. PMID:15980466

  13. X-PAT: a multiplatform patient referral data management system for small healthcare institution requirements.

    PubMed

    Masseroli, Marco; Marchente, Mario

    2008-07-01

    We present X-PAT, a platform-independent software prototype that is able to manage patient referral multimedia data in an intranet network scenario according to the specific control procedures of a healthcare institution. It is a self-developed storage framework based on a file system, implemented in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and PHP Hypertext Preprocessor Language, and addressed to the requirements of limited-dimension healthcare entities (small hospitals, private medical centers, outpatient clinics, and laboratories). In X-PAT, healthcare data descriptions, stored in a novel Referral Base Management System (RBMS) according to Health Level 7 Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 (CDA R2) standard, can be easily applied to the specific data and organizational procedures of a particular healthcare working environment thanks also to the use of standard clinical terminology. Managed data, centralized on a server, are structured in the RBMS schema using a flexible patient record and CDA healthcare referral document structures based on XML technology. A novel search engine allows defining and performing queries on stored data, whose rapid execution is ensured by expandable RBMS indexing structures. Healthcare personnel can interface the X-PAT system, according to applied state-of-the-art privacy and security measures, through friendly and intuitive Web pages that facilitate user acceptance.

  14. Ion Dynamic Capture Experiments With The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond; Chakrabarti, Suman; Sims, William H.; Pearson, J. Boise; Fant, Wallace E.

    2002-01-01

    To take the first step towards using the energy produced from the matter-antimatter annihilation for propulsion applications, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) has initiated a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage electrode confinement system, and an ultra high vacuum test section. It has been designed with an ultimate goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being evaluated experimentally using normal matter ions that are cheap to produce, relatively easy to handle, and provide a good indication of overall trap behavior (with the exception of assessing annihilation losses). The ions are produced via a positive hydrogen ion source and transported to HiPAT in a beam line equipped with electrostatic optics. The optics serve to both focus and gate the incoming ions, providing microsecond-timed beam pulses that are dynamically captured by cycling the HiPAT forward containment field like a "trap door". Initial dynamic capture experiments have been successfully performed with beam energy and currents set to 1.9 kV and 23 micro-amps, respectively. At these settings up to 2x10(exp 9) ions have been trapped during a single dynamic cycle.

  15. Bioprocess monitoring and computer control: key roots of the current PAT initiative.

    PubMed

    Junker, B H; Wang, H Y

    2006-10-05

    This review article has been written for the journal, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, to commemorate the 70th birthday of Daniel I.C. Wang, who served as doctoral thesis advisor to each of the co-authors, but a decade apart. Key roots of the current PAT initiative in bioprocess monitoring and control are described, focusing on the impact of Danny Wang's research as a professor at MIT. The history of computer control and monitoring in biochemical processing has been used to identify the areas that have already benefited and those that are most likely to benefit in the future from PAT applications. Past applications have included the use of indirect estimation methods for cell density, expansion of on-line/at-line and on-line/in situ measurement techniques, and development of models and expert systems for control and optimization. Future applications are likely to encompass additional novel measurement technologies, measurements for multi-scale and disposable bioreactors, real time batch release, and more efficient data utilization to achieve process validation and continuous improvement goals. Dan Wang's substantial contributions in this arena have been one key factor in steering the PAT initiative towards realistic and attainable industrial applications.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of PAT-POPS and ManChEWS for admissions of children from the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Cotterill, Sarah; Rowland, Andrew G; Kelly, Jacqueline; Lees, Helen; Kamara, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background The Pennine Acute Trust (PAT) Paediatric Observation Priority Score (PAT-POPS) is a specific emergency department (ED) physiological and observational aggregate scoring system, with scores of 0–18. A higher score indicates greater likelihood of admission. The Manchester Children's Early Warning System (ManChEWS) assesses six physiological observations to create a trigger score, classified as Green, Amber or Red. Methods Prospectively collected data were used to calculate PAT-POPS and ManChEWS on 2068 patients aged under 16 years (mean 5.6 years, SD 4.6) presenting over 1 month to a UK District General Hospital Paediatric ED. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) comparison, using STATA V.13, was used to investigate the ability of ManChEWS and PAT-POPS to predict admission to hospital within 72 h of presentation to the ED. Results Comparison of the area under the ROC curve indicates that the ManChEWS ROC is 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) and the PAT-POPS ROC is 0.72 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.75). The difference is statistically significant. At a PAT-POPS cut-off of ≥2, 80% of patients had their admission risk correctly classified (positive likelihood ratio 3.40, 95% CI 2.90 to 3.98) whereas for ManChEWS with a cut off of ≥Amber only 71% of patients were correctly classified (positive likelihood ratio 2.18, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.45). Conclusions PAT-POPS is a more accurate predictor of admission risk than ManChEWS. Replacing ManChEWS with PAT-POPS would appear to be clinically appropriate in a paediatric ED. This needs validation in a multicentre study. PMID:27068865

  17. Ion Storage Tests with the High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centers (NASA/MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is evaluating an antiproton storage system, referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT). This interest stems from the sheer energy represented by matter/antimatter annihilation process with has an energy density approximately 10 order of magnitude above that of chemical propellants. In other terms, one gram of antiprotons contains the equivalent energy of approximately 23 space shuttle external tanks or ET's (each ET contains roughly 740,000 kgs of fuel and oxidizer). This incredible source of stored energy, if harnessed, would be an enabling technology for deep space mission where both spacecraft weight and propulsion performance are key to satisfying aggressive mission requirements. The HiPAT hardware consists of a 4 Tesla superconductor system, an ultra high vacuum test section (vacuum approaching 10(exp -12) torr), and a high voltage confinement electrode system (up to 20 kvolts operation). The current laboratory layout is illustrated. The HiPAT designed objectives included storage of up to 1 trillion antiprotons with corresponding lifetimes approaching 18 days. To date, testing has centered on the storage of positive hydrogen ions produced in situ by a stream of high-energy electrons that passes through the trapping region. However, due to space charge issues and electron beam compression as it passes through the HiPAT central field, current ion production is limited to less then 50,000 ions. Ion lifetime was determined by counting particle populations at the end of various storage time intervals. Particle detection was accomplished by destructively expelling the ions against a micro-channel plate located just outside the traps magnetic field. The effect of radio frequency (RF) stabilization on the lifetime of trapped particles was also examined. This technique, referred to as a rotating wall, made use of a segmented electrode located near the center of the trap

  18. Ion Storage Tests with the High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centers (NASA/MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is evaluating an antiproton storage system, referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT). This interest stems from the sheer energy represented by matter/antimatter annihilation process with has an energy density approximately 10 order of magnitude above that of chemical propellants. In other terms, one gram of antiprotons contains the equivalent energy of approximately 23 space shuttle external tanks or ET's (each ET contains roughly 740,000 kgs of fuel and oxidizer). This incredible source of stored energy, if harnessed, would be an enabling technology for deep space mission where both spacecraft weight and propulsion performance are key to satisfying aggressive mission requirements. The HiPAT hardware consists of a 4 Tesla superconductor system, an ultra high vacuum test section (vacuum approaching 10(exp -12) torr), and a high voltage confinement electrode system (up to 20 kvolts operation). The current laboratory layout is illustrated. The HiPAT designed objectives included storage of up to 1 trillion antiprotons with corresponding lifetimes approaching 18 days. To date, testing has centered on the storage of positive hydrogen ions produced in situ by a stream of high-energy electrons that passes through the trapping region. However, due to space charge issues and electron beam compression as it passes through the HiPAT central field, current ion production is limited to less then 50,000 ions. Ion lifetime was determined by counting particle populations at the end of various storage time intervals. Particle detection was accomplished by destructively expelling the ions against a micro-channel plate located just outside the traps magnetic field. The effect of radio frequency (RF) stabilization on the lifetime of trapped particles was also examined. This technique, referred to as a rotating wall, made use of a segmented electrode located near the center of the trap

  19. Expression of PAT and NPT II proteins during the developmental stages of a genetically modified pepper developed in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Si Myung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ryu, Tae Hun; Suh, Seok Cheol; Cho, Hyun Suk

    2010-10-27

    Estimation of the protein levels introduced in a biotechnology-derived product is conducted as part of an overall safety assessment. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) protein expression in a genetically modified (GM) pepper plant developed in Korea. PAT and NPT II expression levels, based on both dry weight and fresh weight, were variable among different plant generations and plant sections from isolated genetically modified organism (GMO) fields at four developmental stages. PAT expression was highest in leaves at anthesis (11.44 μg/gdw and 2.17 μg/gfw) and lowest in roots (0.12 μg/gdw and 0.01 μg/gfw). NPT II expression was also highest in leaves at anthesis (17.31 μg/gdw and 3.41 μg/gfw) and lowest in red pepper (0.65 μg/gdw and 0.12 μg/gfw). In pollen, PAT expression was 0.59-0.62 μg/gdw, while NPT II was not detected. Both PAT and NPT II showed a general pattern of decreased expression with progression of the growing season. As expected, PAT and NPT II protein expression was not detectable in control pepper plants.

  20. Performance characterization of low-cost, high-speed, portable pulsed laser diode photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system.

    PubMed

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2015-10-01

    Photoacoustic tomography systems that uses Q-switched Nd:YAG/OPO pulsed lasers are expensive, bulky, and hence limits its use in clinical applications. The low pulse repetition rate of these lasers makes it unsuitable for real-time imaging when used with single-element ultrasound detector. In this work, we present a pulsed laser diode photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system that integrates a compact PLD inside a single-detector circular scanning geometry. We compared its performance against the traditional Nd:YAG/OPO based PAT system in terms of imaging depth, resolution, imaging time etc. The PLD provides near-infrared pulses at ~803 nm wavelength with pulse energy ~1.4 mJ/pulse at 7 kHz repetition rate. The PLD-PAT system is capable of providing 2D image in scan time as small as 3 sec with a signal-to-noise ratio ~30. High-speed and deep-tissue imaging is demonstrated on phantoms and biological samples. The PLD-PAT system is inexpensive, portable, allows high-speed PAT imaging, and its performance is as good as traditional expensive OPO based PAT system. Therefore, it holds promises for future translational biomedical imaging applications.

  1. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex promotes viral RNA translation and replication by differential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jungfleisch, Jennifer; Chowdhury, Ashis; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Tharun, Sundaresan; Díez, Juana

    2015-08-01

    The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds to the 3' end of cellular mRNAs and promotes 3' end protection and 5'-3' decay. Interestingly, this complex also specifically binds to cis-acting regulatory sequences of viral positive-strand RNA genomes promoting their translation and subsequent recruitment from translation to replication. Yet, how the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex regulates these two processes remains elusive. Here, we show that Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex acts differentially in these processes. By using a collection of well-characterized lsm1 mutant alleles and a system that allows the replication of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) in yeast we show that the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex integrity is essential for both, translation and recruitment. However, the intrinsic RNA-binding ability of the complex is only required for translation. Consistent with an RNA-binding-independent function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex on BMV RNA recruitment, we show that the BMV 1a protein, the sole viral protein required for recruitment, interacts with this complex in an RNA-independent manner. Together, these results support a model wherein Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds consecutively to BMV RNA regulatory sequences and the 1a protein to promote viral RNA translation and later recruitment out of the host translation machinery to the viral replication complexes.

  2. Comparative sound velocity measurements between porous rock and fully-dense material under crustal condition: The cases of Darley Dale sandstone and copper block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, J.; Chien, Y. V.; Wu, W.; Dong, J.; Chang, Y.; Tsai, C.; Yang, M.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies showed that the voids and their geometry in the sedimentary rocks have great influence on the compressibility of rock, which reflects on its elastic velocities. Some models were developed to discuss the relations among velocity, porosity and void geometry. Therefore, the information of porosity, and void geometry and its distribution in rock is essential for understanding how the elastic properties of porous rocks affected by their poregeometry. In this study, we revisited a well-studied porous rock, Darley Dale sandstone, which has been studied by different groups with different purposes. Most of them are the deformation experiments. Different from previous studies, we measured the sound velocity of Darley dale sandstone under hydrostatic conditions. Also, we employed different techniques to investigate the pore geometry and porosity of Darley Dale sandstone to gain the insight of velocity changing behavior under the crustal conditions. Here, we measured a fully-dense copper block for a comparison. We performed X-ray CT scanning (XCT) to image the pore space of sandstone to construct the 3-D image of pore geometry, distribution and the pore size. The CT image data are allowed us to estimate the porosity of sandstone, too. One the other hand, the porosity of sample was measured using imbibitions method at ambient conditions and helium porosimeter at high pressure (up to 150 MPa). A set of specimens were cored from Darley Dale sandstone block. P and S wave velocities of specimens were measured at ambient conditions. We also performed high pressure velocity measurements on a selected rock specimen and a copper block up to 150 MPa under dry condition. Porosity of a set of rock specimens measured by imbibitions method was spanned from 6% to 15%, largely distributed within a range of 8%-11%. Compared the porosity obtained from three different techniques, imbibitions method, helium porosimeter and XCT, values from those measurements are in good agreement

  3. Social contract of academic medical centres to the community: Dr Howard Atwood Kelly (1858-1943), a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Allen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Academic medical centres have traditionally been bastions of teaching and research. Outreach to the community at large and involvement in community affairs have sometimes been lacking in the overall mission and activities of academic medical centres. This paper provides an historical perspective first on the numerous achievements of a physician and surgeon and then on the topic of involvement in community affairs by reviewing the many contributions of America's pioneer gynaecological surgeon and one of the four physician founders of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine in 1889 - Dr Howard Atwood Kelly.

  4. National Dam Safety Program. Rogers Dam (MO 10370), Missouri - Kansas City Basin, Howard County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Section of Dam 3 Details-Service Spillway 4 Stilling Basin -Service Spillway S APPENDIX B Geological Survey Letter 1 1934 Cross Section & Dam Site 2...S L BRADY DACW43-78-C 0166 UNCLASSIFIED NL MISSOURI - KANSAS CITY BASIN ,~ ROGERS DAM tCE HOWARD COUNTY, MISSOURI P2 J ~ MO 10370 PHASE I INSPECTION...embankment and especially in the area of the primary spillway stilling basin . Also, the outlet pipe for the drainage blanket drain pipe could not be found

  5. 100th anniversary of the death of Ricketts: Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910). The namesake of the Rickettsiaceae family.

    PubMed

    Gross, Dominik; Schäfer, Gereon

    2011-01-01

    The US American pathologist and microbiologist Howard Taylor Ricketts died 100 years ago. He is renowned for discovering the causative organism and the transmission route of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and of tabardillo--an epidemic louse-borne typhus occurring especially in Mexico. He also found that both diseases were caused by related infectious agents (Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia prowazekii). The scientific community therefore named both a taxonomic family (Rickettsiaceae) and an order (Rickettsiales) after the scientist. Ricketts' work on immunity and serums became the basis for further advances in vaccine development.

  6. Coupled production and emission of short chain perfluoroalkyl acids from a fast developing fluorochemical industry: Evidence from yearly and seasonal monitoring in Daling River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Li, Qifeng; Meng, Jing; Su, Hongqiao; Johnson, Andrew C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    Short chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been developed since 2002 by the major manufacturers to replace the conventional C8 and higher homologues, with much of the world production shifted to China in recent years. In this study, we conducted a continuous monitoring program over the period 2011-2014 with seasonal monitoring in 2013 for PFAAs emitted from two rapidly developing fluorochemical industry parks located in the Daling River Basin, Northern China. The trend of PFAA contamination was identified, dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with the maximum concentrations of 3.78 μg/L, 3.70 μg/L, and 1.95 μg/L, respectively. Seasonal monitoring uncovered the occasional emission of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Construction trends of new facilities and associated manufacturing capacity of the main products were also analyzed to assess correlations with PFAA emissions. An assessment of the data over the period 2011-2014 found a positive correlation with fluorocarbon alcohol (FCA) production and emission of PFAAs. Groundwater and tap water around the main source indicated that the dominant PFAAs had different diffusion behaviors. PFBS levels were higher in surface water, while PFBA was dominant in groundwater and tap water, with PFOA levels being higher in downstream groundwater. Considering the continuous expansion and development of fluorochemical industry in the Daling River Basin, this study will provide abundant information on the effectiveness of risk assessment and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of tomato carpel development reveals alterations in ethylene and gibberellin synthesis during pat3/pat4 parthenocarpic fruit set

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Laura; Blanca, Jose M; Cañizares, Joaquin; Nuez, Fernado

    2009-01-01

    Background Tomato fruit set is a key process that has a great economic impact on crop production. We employed the Affymetrix GeneChip Tomato Genome Array to compare the transcriptome of a non-parthenocarpic line, UC82, with that of the parthenocarpic line RP75/59 (pat3/pat4 mutant). We analyzed the transcriptome under normal conditions as well as with forced parthenocarpic development in RP75/59, emasculating the flowers 2 days before anthesis. This analysis helps to understand the fruit set in tomato. Results Differentially expressed genes were extracted with maSigPro, which is designed for the analysis of single and multiseries time course microarray experiments. 2842 genes showed changes throughout normal carpel development and fruit set. Most of them showed a change of expression at or after anthesis. The main differences between lines were concentrated at the anthesis stage. We found 758 genes differentially expressed in parthenocarpic fruit set. Among these genes we detected cell cycle-related genes that were still activated at anthesis in the parthenocarpic line, which shows the lack of arrest in the parthenocarpic line at anthesis. Key genes for the synthesis of gibberellins and ethylene, which were up-regulated in the parthenocarpic line were also detected. Conclusion Comparisons between array experiments determined that anthesis was the most different stage and the key point at which most of the genes were modulated. In the parthenocarpic line, anthesis seemed to be a short transitional stage to fruit set. In this line, the high GAs contends leads to the development of a parthenocarpic fruit, and ethylene may mimic pollination signals, inducing auxin synthesis in the ovary and the development of a jelly fruit. PMID:19480705

  8. Petrology and Geochemistry of LEW 88663 and PAT 91501: High Petrologic L Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Field, S. W.

    1993-07-01

    Primitive achondrites (e.g., Acapulco, Lodran) are believed to be highly metamorphosed chondritic materials, perhaps up to the point of anatexis in some types. Low petrologic grade equivalents of these achondrites are unknown, so the petrologic transition from chondritic to achondritic material cannot be documented. However, there are rare L chondrites of petrologic grade 7 that may have experienced igneous processes, and study of these may yield information relevant to the formation of primitive achondrites, and perhaps basaltic achondrites, from chondritic precursors. We have begun the study of the L7 chondrites LEW 88663 and PAT 91501 as part of our broader study of primitive achondrites. Here, we present our preliminary petrologic and geochemical data on these meteorites. Petrology and Mineral Compositions: LEW 88663 is a granular achondrite composed of equant, subhedral to anhedral olivine grains poikilitically enclosed in networks of orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Small grains of clinopyroxene are spatially associated with orthopyroxene. Troilite occurs as large anhedral and small rounded grains. The smaller troilite grains are associated with the orthopyroxene-plagioclase networks. PAT 91501 is a vesicular stone containing centimeter-sized troilite +/- metal nodules. Its texture consists of anhedral to euhedral olivine grains, anhedral orthopyroxene grains (some with euhedral clinopyroxene overgrowths), anhedral to euhedral clinopyroxene, and interstitial plagioclase and SiO2-Al2O3-K2O- rich glass. In some areas, olivine is poikilitically enclosed in orthopyroxene. Fine-grained troilite, metal, and euhedral chromite occur interstitial to the silicates. Average mineral compositions for LEW 88663 are olivine Fo(sub)75.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)3.4En(sub)76.2Fs(sub)20.4, clinopyroxene Wo(sub)42.6En(sub)47.8Fs(sub)9.6, plagioclase Ab(sub)75.0An(sub)21.6Or(sub)3.4. Mineral compositions for PAT 91501 are olivine Fo(sub)73.8, orthopyroxene Wo(sub)4.5En(sub)74.8Fs

  9. Howard I. Maibach: extraordinary leadership in integrating key concepts underpinning our understanding of percutaneous absorption and occupational dermatology.

    PubMed

    Surber, C; Elsner, P; Singh, J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to briefly highlight some contributions of Prof. Howard I. Maibach to the field of dermatology. After a few introducing remarks regarding Howard's personal career, the article specifically reviews contributions to the understanding of percutaneous absorption and to occupational dermatology. He and his companions/coworkers established and introduced experimental prerequisites to better study and understand percutaneous absorption - both in vitro and in vivo. Not less influential was his contribution to occupational dermatology acting as a founding member of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group and coinaugurating the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. These groups have been very active ever since. As an academic teacher, he inspired young colleagues to perform original research work and to establish their own working groups. He has done this most successfully with many fellows who worked with him over the years, and who are now leading departments or companies dedicated to dermatological research all over the world. Probably this is his most important and lasting achievement.

  10. Integrin α PAT-2/CDC-42 signaling is required for muscle-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiao-Han; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Jiang, Hang-Shiang; Wu, Yi-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Clearance of apoptotic cells by engulfment plays an important role in the homeostasis and development of multicellular organisms. Despite the fact that the recognition of apoptotic cells by engulfment receptors is critical in inducing the engulfment process, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we characterize a novel cell corpse engulfment pathway mediated by the integrin α subunit PAT-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans and show that it specifically functions in muscle-mediated engulfment during embryogenesis. Inactivation of pat-2 results in a defect in apoptotic cell internalization. The PAT-2 extracellular region binds to the surface of apoptotic cells in vivo, and the intracellular region may mediate signaling for engulfment. We identify essential roles of small GTPase CDC-42 and its activator UIG-1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor, in PAT-2-mediated cell corpse removal. PAT-2 and CDC-42 both function in muscle cells for apoptotic cell removal and are co-localized in growing muscle pseudopods around apoptotic cells. Our data suggest that PAT-2 functions through UIG-1 for CDC-42 activation, which in turn leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement and apoptotic cell internalization by muscle cells. Moreover, in contrast to PAT-2, the other integrin α subunit INA-1 and the engulfment receptor CED-1, which signal through the conserved signaling molecules CED-5 (DOCK180)/CED-12 (ELMO) or CED-6 (GULP) respectively, preferentially act in epithelial cells to mediate cell corpse removal during mid-embryogenesis. Our results show that different engulfing cells utilize distinct repertoires of receptors for engulfment at the whole organism level.

  11. The Gene pat-2, Which Induces Natural Parthenocarpy, Alters the Gibberellin Content in Unpollinated Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA3. Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA3. The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA53, and, tentatively, GA81) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA9 and GA34) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA20 content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA19 content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA20 is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA20, the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition

    PubMed Central

    Arnieri, Fabrizio; Caprio, Enrico; Nervo, Beatrice; Pelissetti, Simone; Palestrini, Claudia; Roslin, Tomas; Rolando, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles). In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux–an effect potentially traceable to the species’ nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%). As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems. PMID:28700590

  13. Community-based parenteral anti-infective therapy (CoPAT). Pharmacokinetic and monitoring issues.

    PubMed

    Williams, D N; Raymond, J L

    1998-07-01

    Community-based parenteral anti-infective therapy (CoPAT) has, over the past 20 years, increased rapidly in many parts of the world including North America, Europe, South America and Australia. CoPAT is a multidisciplinary activity demanding close cooperation between nurses, pharmacists and physicians, as well as with the patient. The selection of an anti-infective drug for use outside the hospital setting must take into account not only the therapeutic effectiveness, cost effectiveness and safety of the drug, but also pharmacological factors such as the dosage schedule and the stability of the drug. Dosage schedules vary with pharmacokinetic factors (e.g. the use of drugs with long half-lives are favoured by CoPAT programmes) and pharmacodynamic features (e.g. once daily gentamicin therapy is attractive and practical because of concentration-dependent bactericidal killing and prolonged post-antibiotic effect). With selected drugs, the renal and, to a lesser degree, liver function of the patient will influence the dosage schedule. The mode of intravenous (i.v.) drugs administration will vary with volume considerations (limiting the use of syringe-infusion therapy for some drugs), stability issues (prevents drugs that are stable at room temperature for less than 24 hours from being used in multidose computerised delivery systems), as well as patient factors (ability to self administer an i.v. drug). Monitoring serum anti-microbial concentrations is undertaken to assure effectiveness and avoid toxicity, and is indicated for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as the aminoglycosides. With the advent of the single daily dose administration of aminoglycosides, checking serum concentrations at the mid-point, i.e. 6 to 14 hours following administration of the first dose, is one approach. Because the toxic effects of vancomycin have been overstated, serum concentrations should only be obtained for defined indications primarily to assure therapeutic effectiveness.

  14. Dispersion and Transport of Cryptosporidium Oocysts from Fecal Pats under Simulated Rainfall Events

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Cheryl M.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Kaucner, Christine; Krogh, Martin; Altavilla, Nanda; Deere, Daniel A.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion and initial transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts from fecal pats were investigated during artificial rainfall events on intact soil blocks (1,500 by 900 by 300 mm). Rainfall events of 55 mm h−1 for 30 min and 25 mm h−1 for 180 min were applied to soil plots with artificial fecal pats seeded with approximately 107 oocysts. The soil plots were divided in two, with one side devoid of vegetation and the other left with natural vegetation cover. Each combination of event intensity and duration, vegetation status, and degree of slope (5° and 10°) was evaluated twice. Generally, a fivefold increase (P < 0.05) in runoff volume was generated on bare soil compared to vegetated soil, and significantly more infiltration, although highly variable, occurred through the vegetated soil blocks (P < 0.05). Runoff volume, event conditions (intensity and duration), vegetation status, degree of slope, and their interactions significantly affected the load of oocysts in the runoff. Surface runoff transported from 100.2 oocysts from vegetated loam soil (25-mm h−1, 180-min event on 10° slope) to up to 104.5 oocysts from unvegetated soil (55-mm h−1, 30-min event on 10° slope) over a 1-m distance. Surface soil samples downhill of the fecal pat contained significantly higher concentrations of oocysts on devegetated blocks than on vegetated blocks. Based on these results, there is a need to account for surface soil vegetation coverage as well as slope and rainfall runoff in future assessments of Cryptosporidium transport and when managing pathogen loads from stock grazing near streams within drinking water watersheds. PMID:14766600

  15. Simulation of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system in COMSOL and comparison of two popular reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowmiya, C.; Thittai, Arun K.

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a molecular cum functional imaging modality based on differential optical absorption of the incident laser pulse by the endogeneous tissue chromophores. Several numerical simulations and finite element models have been developed in the past to describe and study Photoacoustic (PA) signal generation principles and study the effect of variation in PA parameters. Most of these simulation work concentrate on analyzing extracted 1D PA signals and each of them mostly describe only few of the building blocks of a Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) imaging system. Papers describing simulation of the entire PAT system in one simulation platform, along with reconstruction is seemingly rare. This study attempts to describe how a commercially available Finite Element software (COMSOL(R)), can serve as a single platform for simulating PAT that couples the electromagnetic, thermodynamic and acoustic pressure physics involved in PA phenomena. Further, an array of detector elements placed at the boundary in the FE model can provide acoustic pressure data that can be exported to Matlab(R) to perform tomographic image reconstruction. The performance of two most commonly used image reconstruction techniques; namely, Filtered Backprojection (FBP) and Synthetic Aperture (SA) beamforming are compared. Results obtained showed that the lateral resolution obtained using FBP vs. SA largely depends on the aperture parameters. FBP reconstruction was able to provide a slightly better lateral resolution for smaller aperture while SA worked better for larger aperture. This interesting effect is currently being investigated further. Computationally FBP was faster, but it had artifacts along the spherical shell on which the data is projected.

  16. A micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Y.; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Lihong V.; Zou, Jun

    2015-03-01

    To achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT), massive transducer arrays and data acquisition (DAQ) electronics are needed to receive the PA signals simultaneously, which results in complex and high-cost ultrasound receiver systems. To address this issue, we have developed a new PA data acquisition approach using acoustic time delay. Optical fibers were used as parallel acoustic delay lines (PADLs) to create different time delays in multiple channels of PA signals. This makes the PA signals reach a single-element transducer at different times. As a result, they can be properly received by single-channel DAQ electronics. However, due to their small diameter and fragility, using optical fiber as acoustic delay lines poses a number of challenges in the design, construction and packaging of the PADLs, thereby limiting their performances and use in real imaging applications. In this paper, we report the development of new silicon PADLs, which are directly made from silicon wafers using advanced micromachining technologies. The silicon PADLs have very low acoustic attenuation and distortion. A linear array of 16 silicon PADLs were assembled into a handheld package with one common input port and one common output port. To demonstrate its real-time PAT capability, the silicon PADL array (with its output port interfaced with a single-element transducer) was used to receive 16 channels of PA signals simultaneously from a tissue-mimicking optical phantom sample. The reconstructed PA image matches well with the imaging target. Therefore, the silicon PADL array can provide a 16× reduction in the ultrasound DAQ channels for real-time PAT.

  17. NeuPAT: an intranet database supporting translational research in neuroblastic tumors.

    PubMed

    Villamón, Eva; Piqueras, Marta; Meseguer, Javier; Blanquer, Ignacio; Berbegall, Ana P; Tadeo, Irene; Hernández, Vicente; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Translational research in oncology is directed mainly towards establishing a better risk stratification and searching for appropriate therapeutic targets. This research generates a tremendous amount of complex clinical and biological data needing speedy and effective management. The authors describe the design, implementation and early experiences of a computer-aided system for the integration and management of data for neuroblastoma patients. NeuPAT facilitates clinical and translational research, minimizes the workload in consolidating the information, reduces errors and increases correlation of data through extensive coding. This design can also be applied to other tumor types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Killer Will Remain Free: On Pat Parker and the Poetics of Madness.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kazim

    2015-01-01

    Poet and scholar Kazim Ali reads Pat Parker's Movement in Black intimately, one poet to another, uncovering the shadow-fact of the lives of most people of color: not only the anger that is somehow sublimated into every part of our lives but also the issue that carrying this feeling around has on our mental health itself-that "anger" and "madness" might have sources in one another. Ali concludes that Parker offers a brutal and clear-eyed and ultimately hopeful assessment of the conditions that were faced at the time, and even now, by communities of color.

  19. Stacking Multiple Ion Captures in The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise; Fant, Wallace E.

    2004-01-01

    The High performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) research project was initiated by the Marshall Space Flight Center's propulsion Research Center to examining the fundamental behavior of low energy antiprotons. Stored antiproton would ultimately be used for experimental demonstration of basic propulsive concepts. Matter-antimatter annihilation produces approximately 10(exp 8) MJ/g nearly 10 orders of magnitude more energy per unit mass than chemical based combustion, hence NASA's interest. To achieve containment, HiPAT utilizes a type of electromagnetic bottle know as a Penning trap positioned within an ultrahigh vacuum test section. Recently, the HiPAT hardware configuration has been enhanced to facilitate the capture of multiple normal matter ion burst. This endeavor is often referred to as "stacking" and used to increasing the number of captured particles. A prior normal matter experimental effort, successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of single burst capture. The stacking process is accomplished by manipulating the electric field generated by the confinement electrodes i.e. adjusting the well potential depth. These potential well values are initially configured to maximize the quantity of captured ions per burst; shallow wells with a depth of 100 volt or less (referenced to the incoming ion beam energy) are typically selected. Once captured, a cooling interval is required to reduce the energy of trapped particles below the lower extent of the "trap door" (or leading electrode) ion emitting potential. This is necessary such that a new burst of hot ions can be introduced while preventing those already inside from escaping. The cooling time is driven by a combination of mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation, background gas scattering, and resistive damping in a time scale on the order of minutes. A potential for reducing this hold period is to actively manipulate the electric field shape, using the power supply control system, to produce a deeper potential

  20. EARLY IMPACT MELTING AND SPACE EXPOSURE HISTORY OF THE PAT91501 LCHONDRITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2004-01-01

    Collisions probably occurred frequently in the early history of the asteroid belt. Their effects, which should be recorded in meteorites, must have included heating and melting along with shock alteration of mineral textures. Some non-chondritic meteorite types e.g., eucrites and IIE and IAB irons - do indeed give evidence of extensive impact heating more than 3.4 Gyr ago. The ordinary chondrites, in contrast, show little evidence of early impact heating. The Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of ordinary chondrites that experienced intense shock are for the most part relatively young, many less than 1.5 Gyr. The numerous L-chondrites with Ar- Ar ages clustering near 0.5 Gy are a well-known example. One of them, the 105-kg Chico Lchondrite, shows the effects of unusually intense heating. It is approximately 60% impact melt and likely formed as a dyke beneath a large crater when the L-chondrite parent body underwent a very large impact approximately 0.5 Gyr ago. In rare instances, older shock dates are indicated for ordinary chondrites. Dixon et al show early impact resetting of Ar-Ar ages of a few LL-chondrites including MIL 99301 at 4.23 0.03 Gyr, but in none of these stones did shock lead to extensive melting. As of 2003, searches for chondritic melts attributable to early shock had turned up only the Shaw L-chondrite, which has an Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.42 Gyr. PAT91501 is an 8.55-kg L-chondrite containing vesicles and metal-troilite nodules. It is a unique, near-total impact melt, unshocked, depleted in siderophile and chalcophile elements, and contains only approximately 10% relic chondritic material. The authors conclude that PAT91501 crystallized rapidly and from a much more homogeneous melt than did Shaw. They suggest that PAT resembles Chico and likely formed as an impact melt vein within an impact crater. To define the history of PAT, we have determined its Ar-39-Ar-40 age and measured several radioactive and stable nuclides produced during its space exposure to

  1. Toward Higher QA: From Parametric Release of Sterile Parenteral Products to PAT for Other Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Hock, Sia Chong; Constance, Neo Xue Rui; Wah, Chan Lai

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most ideal approach for determining the pharmaceutical quality of the finished dosage form. In the case of terminally sterilized parenteral products, the limitations of conventional batch testing have been successfully addressed with the application of parametric release (the release of a product based on control of process parameters instead of batch sterility testing at the end of the manufacturing process). Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in applying parametric release to other pharmaceutical dosage forms, beyond terminally sterilized parenteral products. For parametric release to be possible, manufacturers must be capable of designing quality into the product, monitoring the manufacturing processes, and controlling the quality of intermediates and finished products in real-time. Process analytical technology (PAT) has been thought to be capable of contributing to these prerequisites. It is believed that the appropriate use of PAT tools can eventually lead to the possibility of real-time release of other pharmaceutical dosage forms, by-passing the need for end-product batch testing. Hence, this literature review attempts to present the basic principles of PAT, introduce the various PAT tools that are currently available, present their recent applications to pharmaceutical processing, and explain the potential benefits that PAT can bring to conventional ways of processing and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. Last but not least, current regulations governing the use of PAT and the manufacturing challenges associated with PAT implementation are also discussed. Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most

  2. Master's Theses on Afro-French and Afro-Hispanic Literatures and Cultures and African American Images in French and Spanish Literatures Produced by Howard University's Department of Romance Languages from 1933-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James J.

    This paper focuses on the production of Master's theses at Howard University, Department of Romance Languages, over 60 years on the African diaspora, specifically on Black studies and themes in French and Spanish literature from 1930-1960. Howard University was the first of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) to offer graduate…

  3. Combining two open source tools for neural computation (BioPatRec and Netlab) improves movement classification for prosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Prahm, Cosima; Eckstein, Korbinian; Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Dorffner, Georg; Kaniusas, Eugenijus; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2016-08-31

    Controlling a myoelectric prosthesis for upper limbs is increasingly challenging for the user as more electrodes and joints become available. Motion classification based on pattern recognition with a multi-electrode array allows multiple joints to be controlled simultaneously. Previous pattern recognition studies are difficult to compare, because individual research groups use their own data sets. To resolve this shortcoming and to facilitate comparisons, open access data sets were analysed using components of BioPatRec and Netlab pattern recognition models. Performances of the artificial neural networks, linear models, and training program components were compared. Evaluation took place within the BioPatRec environment, a Matlab-based open source platform that provides feature extraction, processing and motion classification algorithms for prosthetic control. The algorithms were applied to myoelectric signals for individual and simultaneous classification of movements, with the aim of finding the best performing algorithm and network model. Evaluation criteria included classification accuracy and training time. Results in both the linear and the artificial neural network models demonstrated that Netlab's implementation using scaled conjugate training algorithm reached significantly higher accuracies than BioPatRec. It is concluded that the best movement classification performance would be achieved through integrating Netlab training algorithms in the BioPatRec environment so that future prosthesis training can be shortened and control made more reliable. Netlab was therefore included into the newest release of BioPatRec (v4.0).

  4. HetF and PatA control levels of HetR in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2008-12-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that differentiates heterocysts in response to deprivation of combined nitrogen. A hetF deletion strain lacked heterocysts and had aberrant cell morphology. Site-directed mutagenesis of the predicted active-site histidine and cysteine residues of this putative caspase-hemoglobinase fold protease abolished HetF function, supporting the hypothesis that HetF is a protease. Deletion of patA, which is necessary for the formation of most intercalary heterocysts, or hetF resulted in an increase in HetR protein, and extra copies of hetF on a plasmid functionally bypassed the deletion of patA. A hetR-gfp translational fusion expressed from an inducible promoter demonstrated that hetF-dependent downregulation of HetR levels occurs rapidly in vegetative cells, as well as developing heterocysts. "Mosaic" filaments in which only one cell of a filament had a copy of hetR or hetF indicated that hetF is required for differentiation only in cells that will become heterocysts. hetF was required for transcription from a hetR-dependent transcription start point of the hetR promoter and induction of transcription from the patS promoter. The inverse correlation between the level of HetR protein and transcription from hetR-dependent promoters suggests that the transcriptional activity of HetR is regulated by HetF and PatA.

  5. A controlled comparison of brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry (PAT) in the assessment of endothelial function in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Aizer, J; Karlson, E W; Chibnik, L B; Costenbader, K H; Post, D; Liang, M H; Gall, V; Gerhard-Herman, M D

    2009-03-01

    The utility of flow mediated dilation (FMD) a measure of endothelial function is limited by operator dependence. Pulse amplitude tonometry (PAT) is a novel, less operator-dependent technique to assess endothelial function. This study compares PAT to FMD in SLE and controls. Thirty women with SLE and 31 controls were enrolled. Medications, cardiovascular disease and risk factors, SLE activity (SLAM-R) and damage (SLICC-DI) were recorded. FMD and PAT were performed simultaneously. Endothelium-independent function was assessed with nitroglycerin. Average age was 48.3 +/- 10.1 years, SLE duration 16.2 years, SLAM-R 8.3 and SLICC-DI 1.0. Framingham Risk Scores were < or =2% in most subjects. There were no differences between SLE cases and controls in FMD, PAT or response to nitroglycerin. This study found no association between FMD and PAT in SLE or controls. In the 17 SLE cases with a history of Raynaud's, correlation between FMD and PAT was 0.50 (P = 0.04). There was no difference in endothelial function assessed by FMD or PAT in SLE cases versus controls. FMD did not correlate with PAT except in SLE cases with a history of Raynaud's. Correlation between FMD and PAT may be stronger in populations with greater variation in endothelial function and more cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    PubMed

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bridging the gap between PAT concepts and implementation: An integrated software platform for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Gomes, James; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-01-01

    Bioreactor control significantly impacts both the amount and quality of the product being manufactured. The complexity of the control strategy that is implemented increases with reactor size, which may vary from thousands to tens of thousands of litres in commercial manufacturing. The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative has highlighted the need for having robust monitoring tools and effective control schemes that are capable of taking real time information about the critical quality attributes (CQA) and the critical process parameters (CPP) and executing immediate response as soon as a deviation occurs. However, the limited flexibility that present commercial software packages offer creates a hurdle. Visual programming environments have gradually emerged as potential alternatives to the available text based languages. This paper showcases development of an integrated programme using a visual programming environment for a Sartorius BIOSTAT® B Plus 5L bioreactor through which various peripheral devices are interfaced. The proposed programme facilitates real-time access to data and allows for execution of control actions to follow the desired trajectory. Major benefits of such integrated software system include: (i) improved real time monitoring and control; (ii) reduced variability; (iii) improved performance; (iv) reduced operator-training time; (v) enhanced knowledge management; and (vi) easier PAT implementation.

  8. Prediction of quality attributes of continuously produced granules using complementary pat tools.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Soares, Sandra; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Peeters, Elisabeth; Burggraeve, Anneleen; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Sandler, Niklas; De Beer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Manufacturers of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms aim for a reduced production time and a shorter "time-to-market." Therefore, continuous manufacturing gains increasing interest in the pharmaceutical industry. For continuous manufacturing, the quality of produced pharmaceuticals should be assessed in real-time (in-line, on-line, and at-line) and not via the traditional off-line, often destructive and time-consuming analysis methods that supply the desired information only hours after sampling. This research paper evaluates three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools for the real-time at-line analysis of granules, which were produced using a continuous wet twin-screw granulator being part of a from powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25). A Raman and NIR spectrometer were used together with a photometric imaging technique in order to acquire solid-state information and granule size data. These multivariate data were then used to predict the granules' moisture content, tapped and bulk density, and flowability. The three PAT tools provided complementary information for predicting these quality attributes of the continuously produced granules. The residual moisture content was mostly correlated with the spectroscopic data, whereas the imaging data had the highest predictive capability for the flowability of the granules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated. PMID:25484206

  10. The Howard Gardner School: A Portrait of a Small Progressive, Independent and Alternative High School for Bright, Creative Non-Traditional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakeford, Jocelyn G.

    2010-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences has impacted the educational community since its inception in 1983. The theory became the framework for Gifted and Talented Education, in that it broaden the scope of giftedness to be defined in the context of students being identified with nontraditional gifts and talents as well as combinations…

  11. "Sophisticated Pedagogical Underpinnings"? A Response to Roper and Davis's "Howard Gardner: Knowledge, Learning and Development in Drama and Arts Education" (RIDE, 5[2]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Juliana; Miller, Carole

    2001-01-01

    Responds to an article in the previous issue of this journal discussing Howard Gardner's work and its relation to drama education. Suggests that when Gardner's multiple intelligences theory is applied in teaching, differences are valued and communities are strengthened. Concludes that Gardner's theory helps to validate the practice and place of…

  12. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  13. Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools, and Why We Need to "Get This Right": A Conversation with Dr. Tyrone Howard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Pat; Zygmunt, Eva; Howard, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Tyrone Howard is Professor of Education at UCLA; Associate Dean of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion; and former Director of Center X, which is where UCLA's teacher education program is housed. Center X provides a unique setting where researchers and practitioners collaborate to design and conduct programs that prepare and support K-12 teachers and…

  14. Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools, and Why We Need to "Get This Right": A Conversation with Dr. Tyrone Howard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Pat; Zygmunt, Eva; Howard, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Tyrone Howard is Professor of Education at UCLA; Associate Dean of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion; and former Director of Center X, which is where UCLA's teacher education program is housed. Center X provides a unique setting where researchers and practitioners collaborate to design and conduct programs that prepare and support K-12 teachers and…

  15. The Howard Gardner School: A Portrait of a Small Progressive, Independent and Alternative High School for Bright, Creative Non-Traditional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drakeford, Jocelyn G.

    2010-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences has impacted the educational community since its inception in 1983. The theory became the framework for Gifted and Talented Education, in that it broaden the scope of giftedness to be defined in the context of students being identified with nontraditional gifts and talents as well as combinations…

  16. "Sophisticated Pedagogical Underpinnings"? A Response to Roper and Davis's "Howard Gardner: Knowledge, Learning and Development in Drama and Arts Education" (RIDE, 5[2]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Juliana; Miller, Carole

    2001-01-01

    Responds to an article in the previous issue of this journal discussing Howard Gardner's work and its relation to drama education. Suggests that when Gardner's multiple intelligences theory is applied in teaching, differences are valued and communities are strengthened. Concludes that Gardner's theory helps to validate the practice and place of…

  17. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  18. How Did Howard University, One of the Leading Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Develop as an Academic Institution during the Period 1967 through 1997?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sharon

    This paper reviews the Development of Howard University (District of Columbia) during the period 1967-1997 as the institution adapted to broad social, cultural, and intellectual changes shaping the country during this period. The study's conceptual framework followed Mysers' theory of the six stages of the education of Blacks, especially the…

  19. Detecting REM sleep from the finger: an automatic REM sleep algorithm based on peripheral arterial tone (PAT) and actigraphy.

    PubMed

    Herscovici, Sarah; Pe'er, Avivit; Papyan, Surik; Lavie, Peretz

    2007-02-01

    Scoring of REM sleep based on polysomnographic recordings is a laborious and time-consuming process. The growing number of ambulatory devices designed for cost-effective home-based diagnostic sleep recordings necessitates the development of a reliable automatic REM sleep detection algorithm that is not based on the traditional electroencephalographic, electrooccolographic and electromyographic recordings trio. This paper presents an automatic REM detection algorithm based on the peripheral arterial tone (PAT) signal and actigraphy which are recorded with an ambulatory wrist-worn device (Watch-PAT100). The PAT signal is a measure of the pulsatile volume changes at the finger tip reflecting sympathetic tone variations. The algorithm was developed using a training set of 30 patients recorded simultaneously with polysomnography and Watch-PAT100. Sleep records were divided into 5 min intervals and two time series were constructed from the PAT amplitudes and PAT-derived inter-pulse periods in each interval. A prediction function based on 16 features extracted from the above time series that determines the likelihood of detecting a REM epoch was developed. The coefficients of the prediction function were determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimizing process tuned to maximize a price function depending on the sensitivity, specificity and agreement of the algorithm in comparison with the gold standard of polysomnographic manual scoring. Based on a separate validation set of 30 patients overall sensitivity, specificity and agreement of the automatic algorithm to identify standard 30 s epochs of REM sleep were 78%, 92%, 89%, respectively. Deploying this REM detection algorithm in a wrist worn device could be very useful for unattended ambulatory sleep monitoring. The innovative method of optimization using a genetic algorithm has been proven to yield robust results in the validation set.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of PAT-POPS and ManChEWS for admissions of children from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cotterill, Sarah; Rowland, Andrew G; Kelly, Jacqueline; Lees, Helen; Kamara, Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    The Pennine Acute Trust (PAT) Paediatric Observation Priority Score (PAT-POPS) is a specific emergency department (ED) physiological and observational aggregate scoring system, with scores of 0-18. A higher score indicates greater likelihood of admission. The Manchester Children's Early Warning System (ManChEWS) assesses six physiological observations to create a trigger score, classified as Green, Amber or Red. Prospectively collected data were used to calculate PAT-POPS and ManChEWS on 2068 patients aged under 16 years (mean 5.6 years, SD 4.6) presenting over 1 month to a UK District General Hospital Paediatric ED. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) comparison, using STATA V.13, was used to investigate the ability of ManChEWS and PAT-POPS to predict admission to hospital within 72 h of presentation to the ED. Comparison of the area under the ROC curve indicates that the ManChEWS ROC is 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) and the PAT-POPS ROC is 0.72 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.75). The difference is statistically significant. At a PAT-POPS cut-off of ≥2, 80% of patients had their admission risk correctly classified (positive likelihood ratio 3.40, 95% CI 2.90 to 3.98) whereas for ManChEWS with a cut off of ≥Amber only 71% of patients were correctly classified (positive likelihood ratio 2.18, 95% CI 1.94 to 2.45). PAT-POPS is a more accurate predictor of admission risk than ManChEWS. Replacing ManChEWS with PAT-POPS would appear to be clinically appropriate in a paediatric ED. This needs validation in a multicentre study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT2.0): Psychometric Properties of a Screener for Psychosocial Distress in Families of Children Newly Diagnosed with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ahna L. H.; Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; McSherry, Mary; Beele, David; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), a brief screener for psychosocial risk in families of children with cancer, are presented. Methods Female (N =132) and male (N =72) caregivers of 141 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed the PAT2.0 and measures of child behavior symptoms, anxiety, acute stress, and family functioning to establish validity. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the PAT2.0 were also examined. Results Internal consistency and two-week test–retest for the PAT2.0 Total score was strong. Validity for the PAT2.0 was supported by significant correlations between the PAT2.0 subscales and measures of corresponding constructs. PAT2.0 Total scores were correlated with acute stress and child behavior symptoms for both mothers and fathers. Receiver-Operating Characteristic curves provided preliminary support for the proposed cutoffs. Conclusion The PAT2.0 Total score is a useful screening tool for family psychosocial risk in the pediatric oncology population. PMID:17609228

  2. Validation study of portable device for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea according to the new AASM scoring criteria: Watch-PAT 100.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Eun Joong; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, June; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Lee, Heung Man; Lee, Sang Hag; Shin, Chol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Watch-PAT may provide an accurate and clinically effective portable monitoring method for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was designed to assess the accuracy and clinical efficacy of a wrist-worn portable device (Watch-PAT 100) to diagnose OSA. Twenty-seven participants with suspected OSA underwent full polysomnography (PSG). Finally, 25 subjects successfully underwent portable monitoring using Watch-PAT after full PSG. The study population consisted of 21 males and 4 females, mean age 40.9 +/- 11.2 years (range 21-59). Mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2) (range 21.2-32.3). All PSG were manually scored according to the new scoring manual of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007) and the Watch-PAT data were analyzed by the automatic algorithm. There was a high correlation of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = 0.94, p < 0.001) and lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) (r = 0.90, p < 0.001) between the PSG and the Watch-PAT. A good agreement was also found between PSG AHI, PSG LSAT and PAT AHI, PAT LSAT, respectively. There was a significantly high concordance of the severity of AHI (Kendall tau-b = 0.897, p < 0.001) between the PSG and the Watch-PAT.

  3. Modification of physico-chemical and colour parameters during the marketing of 'paté'.

    PubMed

    Perlo, F; Gago-Gago, A; Rosmini, M; Cervera-Perez, R; Perez-Alvarez, J; Pagan-Moreno, M; Lopez-Santovena, F; Aranda-Catala, V

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of different physico-chemical parameters (iodine number, TBA test, residual nitrite level, pH and moisture) and CIE L (∗)a (∗)b (∗) colour evolution, in pork liver 'pate', with and without sodium ascorbate addition, were studied. The samples were stored in an illuminated display cabinet at different lux intensities and in the dark. The regression equations were obtained for each one of the parameters under study, from the first day of exposure to light. The sodium ascorbate showed a protective effect on the photo-oxidation mechanism (measured by TBA test), but it did not have an influence on the samples in darkness. In both types of paté exposed to light, fading takes place and the most important variations in colour parameters are produced during the first 24 h of exposure to light.

  4. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. "Anything That Gets Me in My Heart": Pat Parker's Poetry of Justice.

    PubMed

    Green, David B

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that love and justice are interlocking themes that undergird and motivate the poetry and activism of the Black lesbian feminist Pat Parker. Parker was a prolific working-class poet, a committed Black lesbian feminist, and an international trailblazer whose poems, like her famous "Womanslaughter" discussed in this article, document the many injustices that Black women endured in an anti-Black, rabidly homophobic, and patriarchal U.S. during the last decades of the twentieth century. In a political moment where righteous cries of #BlackLivesMatter are heard across the United States I use this article to remind us all of the historical importance that Black lesbians played and continue to play in the struggles of anti-racist justice in America.

  6. PAT1.1; Pinellas Action Tracking System; Tracks Audit Findings and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mellican, P.L.

    1993-04-09

    PAT was derived from a system that began at the Rocky Flats Plant and was further enhanced at the Mound Plant. Pinellas Plant obtained this system in 1990 to track Tiger Team Findings; it has been expanded to include new modules which encompass a wide range of related functions. Functionality includes tracking of findings and associated corrective actions from various sources such as line operations, self-assessments, oversight assessments, and external organizations. Other functionality includes Management Walk-About tracking, NEPA prioritization, Occurrence/incident Report corrective action tracking, and Management Action Item Tracking. The system utilizes state of the art relational database technology with pop-up windows for table lookups and entry of descriptive text. Standards such as assessment identification numbers, area designations, and finding category codes have been developed to provide enhanced query capabilities and the ability to group findings for trending purposes on a plant-wide basis.

  7. Reduced-size plutonium sample processing and packaging for the PAT-2 package

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Aigner, H.; Andersen, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A light-water container for the air transport of plutonium safeguards samples, the PAT-2 package, has been developed in the USA and is now licensed by the US NRC (Certificate of Compliance) and the US DOT (IAEA Certificate of Competent Authority). The very limited available space in this package for plutonium-bearing samples required the design of small-size canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards. The suitability of a new small canister and vial for powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister and quartz vial can be used successfully for containing small size PuO/sub 2/ powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliguands of plutonium nitrate solutions.

  8. RF Manipulation of Ions in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of antimatter provides the highest mass specific energy of any other known reaction. Proper harnessing of this energy holds great promise for future space propulsion systems. Many different propulsion concepts have been proposed that take advantage of antimatter, either using matter-antimatter as the primary fuel, or as a 'spark plug' for fusion and fission systems. In order to begin to address these concepts experimentally, a method of storing and transporting antimatter must be developed. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is a first-generation storage and transportation device designed to store and transport 10(exp 12) antiprotons with a storage half-life of 18 days. It uses a Penning-Malmberg ion trap with a 4T magnetic field and 20 kV potential. This will enable researchers much more flexibility in the design of antimatter experiments related to propulsion. Ions cannot be stored indefinitely in a real trap, as ion cloud instabilities develop from imperfections in manufacturing and misalignments in assembly. Previous work has been done at both the National Institute of Standards and University of California in San Diego in using RF (radio frequency) signals to both diagnose and confine the ion cloud. Two electrodes in the trap have been segmented to allow both reception and transmission of RF waves in the ion cloud. Experiments are underway to determine the number of ions and density in the cloud by "listening" to protons contained in the HiPAT. Currently we believe the density of ions stored in the trap is roughly 10(exp 15) m(exp -3). Development of non-destructive techniques is vital to the project goals, enabling continuous monitoring of the quantities stored in the system. Experimental work is also being done in identifying RF transmission frequencies that can manipulate the density of the cloud, by exchanging energy and momentum between the RF wave and the ions. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated this interaction.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity and PAT determine hierarchical resource partitioning and ramet development along Fragaria stolons.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Christopher J; Else, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    Co-ordination of metabolic and physiological activity between plant parts is key to the control of growth and development. Here the movement of resources and their allocation between mother plants and daughter ramets along Fragaria stolons was quantified with respect to hierarchy. Gradients of internodal ramet leaf water potential (ψ) and stolon and ramet hydraulic conductivities (L) were measured together with apparent stolon IAA movement via the polar auxin transport pathway (PAT). These processes are linked with measurements of stolon vascular development. The pattern of tissue differentiation and lignification in sequential stele sections of stolons demonstrated the rapid acquisition of the capacity for water transport, with transpiration potentially varying systematically with stolon lignification and the acropetal decline in stolon xylem ψ. Stolon and ramet L declined acropetally, with L across older ramets being significantly lower than that of the connecting stolons. The capacity for polar IAA transport increased with stolon age; this was due to increased transport intensity in older tissues. The partitioning of dry matter was strongly hierarchical with younger ramets smaller than older ramets, while foliar concentrations of N, P, and K were greater for the younger ramets. The results show that stolon anatomy develops rapidly at the apical end, facilitating hierarchical ramet development, which is evident as a basipetal increase in L. The rapid development of transport tissue functionality enables young unrooted ramets to acquire water, in order to supply an expanding leaf area, as well as mineral ions disproportionally with respect to older ramets. This facilitates colonization and self-rooting of apical ramets. The unidirectional increase in basipetal PAT along stolons facilitates hierarchical ramet development.

  10. RF Manipulation of Ions in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Martin, James J.; Sims, William H.; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond A.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of antimatter provides the highest mass specific energy of any other known reaction. Proper harnessing of this energy holds great promise for future space propulsion systems. Many different propulsion concepts have been proposed that take advantage of antimatter, either using matter-antimatter as the primary fuel, or as a 'spark plug' for fusion and fission systems. In order to begin to address these concepts experimentally, a method of storing and transporting antimatter must be developed. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is a first-generation storage and transportation device designed to store and transport 10(exp 12) antiprotons with a storage half-life of 18 days. It uses a Penning-Malmberg ion trap with a 4T magnetic field and 20 kV potential. This will enable researchers much more flexibility in the design of antimatter experiments related to propulsion. Ions cannot be stored indefinitely in a real trap, as ion cloud instabilities develop from imperfections in manufacturing and misalignments in assembly. Previous work has been done at both the National Institute of Standards and University of California in San Diego in using RF (radio frequency) signals to both diagnose and confine the ion cloud. Two electrodes in the trap have been segmented to allow both reception and transmission of RF waves in the ion cloud. Experiments are underway to determine the number of ions and density in the cloud by "listening" to protons contained in the HiPAT. Currently we believe the density of ions stored in the trap is roughly 10(exp 15) m(exp -3). Development of non-destructive techniques is vital to the project goals, enabling continuous monitoring of the quantities stored in the system. Experimental work is also being done in identifying RF transmission frequencies that can manipulate the density of the cloud, by exchanging energy and momentum between the RF wave and the ions. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated this interaction.

  11. At-line process analytical technology (PAT) for more efficient scale up of biopharmaceutical microfiltration unit operations.

    PubMed

    Watson, Douglas S; Kerchner, Kristi R; Gant, Sean S; Pedersen, Joseph W; Hamburger, James B; Ortigosa, Allison D; Potgieter, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    Tangential flow microfiltration (MF) is a cost-effective and robust bioprocess separation technique, but successful full scale implementation is hindered by the empirical, trial-and-error nature of scale-up. We present an integrated approach leveraging at-line process analytical technology (PAT) and mass balance based modeling to de-risk MF scale-up. Chromatography-based PAT was employed to improve the consistency of an MF step that had been a bottleneck in the process used to manufacture a therapeutic protein. A 10-min reverse phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) assay was developed to provide at-line monitoring of protein concentration. The method was successfully validated and method performance was comparable to previously validated methods. The PAT tool revealed areas of divergence from a mass balance-based model, highlighting specific opportunities for process improvement. Adjustment of appropriate process controls led to improved operability and significantly increased yield, providing a successful example of PAT deployment in the downstream purification of a therapeutic protein. The general approach presented here should be broadly applicable to reduce risk during scale-up of filtration processes and should be suitable for feed-forward and feed-back process control. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. mini-PAT (Peer Assessment Tool): A Valid Component of a National Assessment Programme in the UK?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julian; Norcini, John; Southgate, Lesley; Heard, Shelley; Davies, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To design, implement and evaluate a multisource feedback instrument to assess Foundation trainees across the UK. Methods: mini-PAT (Peer Assessment Tool) was modified from SPRAT (Sheffield Peer Review Assessment Tool), an established multisource feedback (360 [degree]) instrument to assess more senior doctors, as part of a blueprinting…

  13. CIO of the Year 2006: Pat Renzulli--The School District of Philadelphia's Top Technology Officer Puts Students First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Pat Renzulli, CIO for the School District of Philadelphia, who was selected as David Kearns CIO of the Year 2006. Among other accomplishments, she developed a process for principals to receive key performance indicators, lead the implementation of an instructional management system, rolled out a district-wide technology…

  14. The phylogenetic placement of Picoa, with a first report on Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire (=Phaeangium lefebvrei) from Iran

    Treesearch

    A. Ammarellou; M.E. Smith; M.A. Tajick; J.M. Trappe

    2011-01-01

    Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. In this paper we document the presence of Picoa lefebvrei (Pat.) Maire (=Phaeangium lefebvrei) in Iran and use phylogenetic...

  15. Simultaneous binding of the anti-cancer IgM monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 to low density lipoproteins and GRP78.

    PubMed

    Rosenes, Zachary; Mok, Yee-Foong; Yang, Shuo; Griffin, Michael D W; Mulhern, Terrence D; Hatters, Danny M; Hensel, Frank; Howlett, Geoffrey J

    2013-01-01

    The tumour-derived monoclonal IgM antibody PAT-SM6 specifically kills malignant cells by an apoptotic mechanism linked to the excessive uptake of plasma lipids. The mechanism is postulated to occur via the multi-point attachment of PAT-SM6 to the unfolded protein response regulator GRP78, located on the surface of tumour cells, coupled to the simultaneous binding of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). We prepared and characterised LDL and oxidized LDL using sedimentation velocity and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) techniques indicated apparent dissociation constants of approximately 20 nM for the binding of LDL or oxidized LDL to PAT-SM6. ELISA experiments showed cross competition with LDL inhibiting PAT-SM6 binding to immobilised GRP78, while, in the reverse experiment, GRP78 inhibited PAT-SM6 binding to immobilized LDL. In contrast to the results of the ELISA experiments, sedimentation velocity experiments indicated relatively weak interactions between LDL and PAT-SM6, suggesting immunoabsorbance to the microtiter plate is driven by an avidity-based binding mechanism. The importance of avidity and the multipoint attachment of antigens to PAT-SM6 was further investigated using antigen-coated polystyrene beads. Absorption of GRP78 or LDL to polystyrene microspheres led to an increase in the inhibition of PAT-SM6 binding to microtiter plates coated with GRP78 or LDL, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the biological action of PAT-SM6 in tumour cell apoptosis depends on the multivalent nature of PAT-SM6 and the ability to interact simultaneously with LDL and multiple GRP78 molecules clustered on the tumour cell surface.

  16. Clinically relevant fluoroquinolone resistance due to constitutive overexpression of the PatAB ABC transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by disruption of a transcriptional attenuator.

    PubMed

    Baylay, Alison J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-03-01

    Constitutive overexpression of patAB has been observed in several unrelated fluoroquinolone-resistant laboratory mutants and clinical isolates; therefore, we sought to identify the cause of this overexpression. Constitutive patAB overexpression in two clinical isolates and a laboratory-selected mutant was investigated using a whole-genome transformation approach. To determine the effect of the detected terminator mutations, the WT and mutated patA leader sequences were cloned upstream of a GFP reporter. Finally, mutation of the opposing base in the stem-loop structure was carried out. We identified three novel mutations causing up-regulation of patAB. All three of these were located in the upstream region of patA and affected the same Rho-independent transcriptional terminator structure. Each mutation was predicted to destabilize the terminator stem-loop to a different degree, and there was a strong correlation between predicted terminator stability and patAB expression level. Using a GFP reporter of patA transcription, these terminator mutations led to increased transcription of a downstream gene. For one mutant sequence, terminator stability could be restored by mutation of the opposing base in the stem-loop structure, demonstrating that transcriptional suppression of patAB is mediated by the terminator stem-loop structure. This study showed that a mutation in a Rho-independent transcriptional terminator structure confers overexpression of patAB and fluoroquinolone resistance. Understanding how levels of the PatAB efflux pump are regulated increases our knowledge of pneumococcal biology and how the pneumococcus can respond to various stresses, including antimicrobials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  17. P-body components, Dhh1 and Pat1, are involved in tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hurto, Rebecca L.; Hopper, Anita K.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution of tRNA depends on the balance between tRNA nuclear export/re-export and retrograde tRNA nuclear import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of tRNA is sensitive to nutrient availability as cells deprived of various nutrients exhibit tRNA nuclear accumulation. Starvation induces numerous events that result in translational repression and P-body formation. This study investigated the possible coordination of these responses with tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic distribution. Dhh1 and Pat1 function in parallel to promote translation repression and P-body formation in response to starvation. Loss of both, Dhh1 and Pat1, results in a failure to repress translation and to induce P-body formation in response to glucose starvation. This study reports that nutrient deprived dhh1 pat1 cells also fail to accumulate tRNA within nuclei. Conversely, inhibition of translation initiation and induction of P-body formation by overproduction of Dhh1 or Pat1 cause tRNA nuclear accumulation in nutrient-replete conditions. Also, loss of the mRNA decapping activator, Lsm1, causes tRNA nuclear accumulation. However, the coordination between P-body formation, translation repression, and tRNA distribution is limited to the early part of the P-body formation/translation repression pathway as loss of mRNA decapping or 5′ to 3′ degradation does not influence tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics. The data provide the first link between P-body formation/translation initiation and tRNA nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics. The current model is that Dhh1 and Pat1 function in parallel to promote starvation-induced tRNA nuclear accumulation. PMID:21398402

  18. Alpha synchronization as a brain model for unconscious defense: An overview of the work of Howard Shevrin and his team.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    Howard Shevrin and his team have developed a stringent subliminal priming methodology, which experimentally approximates a situation of an internal, mental triggering of unconscious defense. Through a series of four studies they thus are able to bring evidence for this type of unconscious defense. With event-related potentials, three clinical studies show how synchronization of a specific brain wave, the alpha wave, known for its inhibitory function, is also induced by subliminally presented conflictual subject-specific stimuli. Therefore, alpha synchronization could serve as the brain mechanism of unconscious defense. The results only make sense if we suppose the existence of a dynamic unconscious, which has inherited childhood conflicts, and with privileged connections to neurotic symptom characteristics. Moreover, by showing that the unconscious conflict phrases, inferred by clinicians from clinical interviews, have a similar brain behavior, Shevrin and his team provide evidence that these inferences are not simply clinician-dependent subjective interpretations but also imply some form of independent mental reality. Finally, interpretation of the results has led us to propose two distinct physiological mechanisms for defense: one, unconscious defense, by alpha synchronization in connection with the drive derivatives, and another, repression, based on the indications of reality in connection with the ego. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-88-311-0000, Office of Disability Determination, The Howard Building, Tampa, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, P.; Lushniak, B.

    1989-01-01

    In response to a request from the Area Manager of the Office of Disability Determination, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Howard Building, Tampa, Florida. Particular concern was voiced with regard to eye irritation, headaches, and fatigue with a possible connection to water leakage into the offices and pigeon nesting areas above suspended ceilings. Studies indicated no carbon-monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, or formaldehyde concentration in the building. Carbon dioxide levels of 1000 parts per million or above were recorded which were indicative of inadequate air exchange between a building and the outdoors. An area was found along the south wall of the building with gross contamination by bird droppings and other debris. Rainwater leakage above the areas where the birds had nested washed the excrement and debris down over the office walls. As much as 2 inches of bird droppings were found on some suspended tiles. The crawl space above the first floor was observed to have health and safety hazards. Some of the symptoms were likely allergic rhinitis while others may have resulted from a lack of fresh outdoor air. Specific measures should be taken to safely remove the bird debris, prevent additional bird inhabitation, improve drainage of condensate water, and provide an outdoor air-supply system.

  20. Effects of temperature and packaging types on ergosterol and Howard mold count values of tomato paste during storage.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Kadakal, Çetin; Otağ, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temperature and packaging on ergosterol and Howard mold count (HMC) changes of tomato paste during storage. The other purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of ergosterol stability in tomato paste can be useful for the assessment of microbiological quality of tomato paste as related to the storage temperature (4, 20, 28, or 37°C) and time. Ergosterol analysis was done by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Tomato paste samples were packaged in either aseptic bags or tin boxes and stored at 4, 20, 28, or 37°C for a period of 10 months. The detection limit of ergosterol was 0.1 mg/kg. Measurements showed that packaging and storage temperatures of 28 and 37°C have a considerable influence on ergosterol and HMC changes in the product. The poor precision of the "percentage of discarded fruits" and HMC methods has increased the importance of ergosterol for the microbiological quality evaluation of tomato and tomato products. This article reports the data from what we believe to be the first survey for the influence of storage temperature and packaging material on ergosterol and HMC changes of tomato paste during storage.

  1. Principles and Practices Fostering Inclusive Excellence: Lessons from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Capstone Institutions

    PubMed Central

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie; Gross, Deborah; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Iverson, Ellen; Cooke, David B.; Davis, Gregory K.; Davidson, Cameron; Hertz, Paul E.; Hibbard, Lisa; Ireland, Shubha K.; Mader, Catherine; Pai, Aditi; Raps, Shirley; Siwicki, Kathleen; Swartz, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones represent a range of institutional missions, student profiles, and geographical locations. Each successfully directed activities toward persistence of STEM students, especially those from traditionally underrepresented groups, through a set of common elements: mentoring programs to build community; research experiences to strengthen scientific skill/identity; attention to quantitative skills; and outreach/bridge programs to broaden the student pool. This paper grounds these program elements in learning theory, emphasizing their essential principles with examples of how they were implemented within institutional contexts. We also describe common assessment approaches that in many cases informed programming and created traction for stakeholder buy-in. The lessons learned from our shared experiences in pursuit of inclusive excellence, including the resources housed on our companion website, can inform others’ efforts to increase access to and persistence in STEM in higher education. PMID:27562960

  2. BioPatRec: A modular research platform for the control of artificial limbs based on pattern recognition algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Processing and pattern recognition of myoelectric signals have been at the core of prosthetic control research in the last decade. Although most studies agree on reporting the accuracy of predicting predefined movements, there is a significant amount of study-dependent variables that make high-resolution inter-study comparison practically impossible. As an effort to provide a common research platform for the development and evaluation of algorithms in prosthetic control, we introduce BioPatRec as open source software. BioPatRec allows a seamless implementation of a variety of algorithms in the fields of (1) Signal processing; (2) Feature selection and extraction; (3) Pattern recognition; and, (4) Real-time control. Furthermore, since the platform is highly modular and customizable, researchers from different fields can seamlessly benchmark their algorithms by applying them in prosthetic control, without necessarily knowing how to obtain and process bioelectric signals, or how to produce and evaluate physically meaningful outputs. Results BioPatRec is demonstrated in this study by the implementation of a relatively new pattern recognition algorithm, namely Regulatory Feedback Networks (RFN). RFN produced comparable results to those of more sophisticated classifiers such as Linear Discriminant Analysis and Multi-Layer Perceptron. BioPatRec is released with these 3 fundamentally different classifiers, as well as all the necessary routines for the myoelectric control of a virtual hand; from data acquisition to real-time evaluations. All the required instructions for use and development are provided in the online project hosting platform, which includes issue tracking and an extensive “wiki”. This transparent implementation aims to facilitate collaboration and speed up utilization. Moreover, BioPatRec provides a publicly available repository of myoelectric signals that allow algorithms benchmarking on common data sets. This is particularly useful for

  3. Investigating 3-body Decays of Cluster States with the PAT-TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Lisa; Ayyad Limonge, Y.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bradt, J.; Cortesi, M.; Mittig, W.; Ahn, T.; Kolata, J. J.; Meisel, Z.; Bechetti, F. D.; Fritsch, A.; Howard, A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent model calculations with most advanced methods for cluster states have shown the need of experimental data to probe the structure of light exotic nuclei, including those with α-clustering, such as 14C. The Prototype Active Target Time Projection Chamber (PAT-TPC) allows us to investigate these types of structures, giving access to the full excitation function with a single beam energy. This type of experiment measures resonances in 14C that can be compared to the models. With an improved Micromegas pad plane with a circular backgammon design we are able to investigate 3-body decays in addition to 2-body scattering. The measurements were carried out by resonant alpha-scattering on 10Be beam delivered by the TwinSol facility at the University of Notre Dame. We also observed the 3-body decay of the Hoyle State in 12C from a 12N or 12B beam with the same device. Preliminary results will be presented. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  4. Ion Storage with the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Lewis, Raymond; Chakrabarti, Suman; Pearson, Boise

    2002-01-01

    The matter antimatter reaction represents the densest form of energy storage/release known to modern physics: as such it offers one of the most compact sources of power for future deep space exploration. To take the first steps along this path, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a goal of maintaining 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. Experiments have been performed with this hardware using normal matter (positive hydrogen ions) to assess the device's ability to hold charged particles. These ions are currently created using an electron gun method to ionize background gas; however, this technique is limited by the quantity that can be captured. To circumvent this issue, an ion source is currently being commissioned which will greatly increase the number of ions captured and more closely simulate actual operations expected at an antiproton production facility. Ions have been produced, stored for various time intervals, and then extracted against detectors to measure species, quantity and energy. Radio frequency stabilization has been tested as a method to prolong ion lifetime: results show an increase in the baseline 1/e lifetime of trapped particles from hours to days. Impurities in the residual background gas (typically carbon-containing species CH4, CO, CO2, etc.) present a continuing problem by reducing the trapped hydrogen population through the mechanism of ion charge exchange.

  5. Inline monitoring and a PAT strategy for pharmaceutical hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick R; Treffer, Daniel; Mohr, Stefan; Roblegg, Eva; Koscher, Gerold; Khinast, Johannes G

    2013-10-15

    Implementation of continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry requires tight process control. This study focuses on a PAT strategy for hot melt extrusion of vegetable calcium stearate (CaSt) as matrix carrier and paracetamol as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The extrusion was monitored using in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A NIR probe was located in the section between the extrusion screws and the die, using a novel design of the die channel. A chemometric model was developed based on premixes at defined concentrations and was implemented in SIPAT for real time API concentration monitoring. Subsequently, step experiments were performed for different API concentrations, screw speeds and screw designs. The predicted API concentration was in good agreement with the pre-set concentrations. The transition from one API plateau to another was a smooth curve due to the mixing behaviour of the extruder. The accuracy of the model was confirmed via offline HPLC analysis. The screw design was determined as the main influential factor on content uniformity (CU). Additionally the influence of multiple feeders had a significant impact on CU. The results demonstrate that in-line NIR measurements is a powerful tool for process development (e.g., mixing characterization), monitoring and further control strategies.

  6. Network and user interface for PAT DOME virtual motion environment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worthington, J. W.; Duncan, K. M.; Crosier, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME PAT) provides astronauts a virtual microgravity sensory environment designed to help alleviate tye symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS). The system consists of four microcomputers networked to provide real time control, and an image generator (IG) driving a wide angle video display inside a dome structure. The spherical display demands distortion correction. The system is currently being modified with a new graphical user interface (GUI) and a new Silicon Graphics IG. This paper will concentrate on the new GUI and the networking scheme. The new GUI eliminates proprietary graphics hardware and software, and instead makes use of standard and low cost PC video (CGA) and off the shelf software (Microsoft's Quick C). Mouse selection for user input is supported. The new Silicon Graphics IG requires an Ethernet interface. The microcomputer known as the Real Time Controller (RTC), which has overall control of the system and is written in Ada, was modified to use the free public domain NCSA Telnet software for Ethernet communications with the Silicon Graphics IG. The RTC also maintains the original ARCNET communications through Novell Netware IPX with the rest of the system. The Telnet TCP/IP protocol was first used for real-time communication, but because of buffering problems the Telnet datagram (UDP) protocol needed to be implemented. Since the Telnet modules are written in C, the Adap pragma 'Interface' was used to interface with the network calls.

  7. Adoption of PERILIPIN as a unifying nomenclature for the mammalian PAT-family of intracellular lipid storage droplet proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Alan R.; Brasaemle, Dawn L.; McAndrews-Hill, Monica; Sztalryd, Carole; Londos, Constantine

    2010-01-01

    The PAT family of proteins has been identified in eukaryotic species as diverse as vertebrates, insects, and amebazoa. These proteins share a highly conserved sequence organization and avidity for the surfaces of intracellular, neutral lipid storage droplets. The current nomenclature of the various members lacks consistency and precision, deriving more from historic context than from recognition of evolutionary relationship and shared function. In consultation with the Mouse Genomic Nomenclature Committee, the Human Genome Organization Genomic Nomenclature Committee, and conferees at the 2007 FASEB Conference on Lipid Droplets: Metabolic Consequences of the Storage of Neutral Lipids, we have established a unifying nomenclature for the gene and protein family members. Each gene member will incorporate the root term PERILIPIN (PLIN), the founding gene of the PAT family, with the different genes/proteins numbered sequentially. PMID:19638644

  8. Effects of EPA and DHA on lipid droplet accumulation and mRNA abundance of PAT proteins in caprine monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Invernizzi, Guido; Agazzi, Alessandro; Modina, Silvia; Sartorelli, Paola; Savoini, Giovanni; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro effects on caprine monocytes of two ω-3 PUFAs, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on lipid droplet formation, an emerging process of fundamental importance in innate immunity regulation. The mRNA abundance of PAT protein family (PLIN1, PLIN2 and PLIN3), involved in the formation and trafficking of the droplets, was also assessed. The effects of EPA and DHA on monocyte apoptosis were studied as well. The number of lipid droplets per cell was found to be dependent on both type and concentration of fatty acid. ω-3 PUFAs upregulated PLIN3 and PLIN2 gene expression, as well as apoptosis rate. The present findings suggest that PUFA might modify innate immune functions of goat monocytes by interfering with the formation of lipid droplets and by upregulating proteins belonging to PAT protein family.

  9. Comprehensive clinical studies in 34 patients with molecularly defined UPD(14)pat and related conditions (Kagami-Ogata syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Masayo; Kurosawa, Kenji; Miyazaki, Osamu; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2015-11-01

    Paternal uniparental disomy 14 (UPD(14)pat) and epimutations and microdeletions affecting the maternally derived 14q32.2 imprinted region lead to a unique constellation of clinical features such as facial abnormalities, small bell-shaped thorax with a coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly, and polyhydramnios. In this study, we performed comprehensive clinical studies in patients with UPD(14)pat (n=23), epimutations (n=5), and microdeletions (n=6), and revealed several notable findings. First, a unique facial appearance with full cheeks and a protruding philtrum and distinctive chest roentgenograms with increased coat-hanger angles to the ribs constituted the pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood. Second, birth size was well preserved, with a median birth length of ±0 SD (range, -1.7 to +3.0 SD) and a median birth weight of +2.3 SD (range, +0.1 to +8.8 SD). Third, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability was invariably present, with a median developmental/intellectual quotient of 55 (range, 29-70). Fourth, hepatoblastoma was identified in three infantile patients (8.8%), and histological examination in two patients showed a poorly differentiated embryonal hepatoblastoma with focal macrotrabecular lesions and well-differentiated hepatoblastoma, respectively. These findings suggest the necessity of an adequate support for developmental delay and periodical screening for hepatoblastoma in the affected patients, and some phenotypic overlap between UPD(14)pat and related conditions and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. On the basis of our previous and present studies that have made a significant contribution to the clarification of underlying (epi)genetic factors and the definition of clinical findings, we propose the name 'Kagami-Ogata syndrome' for UPD(14)pat and related conditions.

  10. Comprehensive clinical studies in 34 patients with molecularly defined UPD(14)pat and related conditions (Kagami–Ogata syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kagami, Masayo; Kurosawa, Kenji; Miyazaki, Osamu; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Paternal uniparental disomy 14 (UPD(14)pat) and epimutations and microdeletions affecting the maternally derived 14q32.2 imprinted region lead to a unique constellation of clinical features such as facial abnormalities, small bell-shaped thorax with a coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly, and polyhydramnios. In this study, we performed comprehensive clinical studies in patients with UPD(14)pat (n=23), epimutations (n=5), and microdeletions (n=6), and revealed several notable findings. First, a unique facial appearance with full cheeks and a protruding philtrum and distinctive chest roentgenograms with increased coat-hanger angles to the ribs constituted the pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood. Second, birth size was well preserved, with a median birth length of ±0 SD (range, −1.7 to +3.0 SD) and a median birth weight of +2.3 SD (range, +0.1 to +8.8 SD). Third, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability was invariably present, with a median developmental/intellectual quotient of 55 (range, 29–70). Fourth, hepatoblastoma was identified in three infantile patients (8.8%), and histological examination in two patients showed a poorly differentiated embryonal hepatoblastoma with focal macrotrabecular lesions and well-differentiated hepatoblastoma, respectively. These findings suggest the necessity of an adequate support for developmental delay and periodical screening for hepatoblastoma in the affected patients, and some phenotypic overlap between UPD(14)pat and related conditions and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. On the basis of our previous and present studies that have made a significant contribution to the clarification of underlying (epi)genetic factors and the definition of clinical findings, we propose the name ‘Kagami–Ogata syndrome' for UPD(14)pat and related conditions. PMID:25689926

  11. [The Patient Rights Act (PatRG)--Part 3: Burden of proof in liability questions and critical resumé].

    PubMed

    Parzeller, Markus; Zedler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the new regulations in the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - BGB), which came into effect in Germany as the Patient Rights Act (PatRG) on the 2/26/2013. In the third part, the burden of proof in liability questions (and 630h BGB) are discussed and critically analysed. In the discussion and a final resume points of criticism of the new law are pointed out.

  12. The structure of the cyanobactin domain of unknown function from PatG in the patellamide gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Greg; Koehnke, Jesko; Bent, Andrew F.; Graham, Rachael; Houssen, Wael; Jaspars, Marcel; Schwarz-Linek, Uli; Naismith, James H.

    2014-11-14

    The highly conserved domain of unknown function in the cyanobactin superfamily has a novel fold. The protein does not appear to bind the most plausible substrates, leaving questions as to its role. Patellamides are members of the cyanobactin family of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified cyclic peptide natural products, many of which, including some patellamides, are biologically active. A detailed mechanistic understanding of the biosynthetic pathway would enable the construction of a biotechnological ‘toolkit’ to make novel analogues of patellamides that are not found in nature. All but two of the protein domains involved in patellamide biosynthesis have been characterized. The two domains of unknown function (DUFs) are homologous to each other and are found at the C-termini of the multi-domain proteins PatA and PatG. The domain sequence is found in all cyanobactin-biosynthetic pathways characterized to date, implying a functional role in cyanobactin biosynthesis. Here, the crystal structure of the PatG DUF domain is reported and its binding interactions with plausible substrates are investigated.

  13. High-speed pre-clinical brain imaging using pulsed laser diode based photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising biomedical imaging modality for small animal imaging, breast cancer imaging, monitoring of vascularisation, tumor angiogenesis, blood oxygenation, total haemoglobin concentration etc. The existing PAT systems that uses Q-switched Nd:YAG and OPO nanosecond lasers have limitations in clinical applications because they are expensive, non-potable and not suitable for real-time imaging due to their low pulse repetition rate. Low-energy pulsed near-infrared diode laser which are low-cost, compact, and light-weight (<200 grams), can be used as an alternate. In this work, we present a photoacoustic tomography system with a pulsed laser diode (PLD) that can nanosecond pulses with pulse energy 1.3 mJ/pulse at ~803 nm wavelength and 7000 Hz repetition rate. The PLD is integrated inside a single-detector circular scanning geometric system. To verify the high speed imaging capabilities of the PLD-PAT system, we performed in vivo experimental results on small animal brain imaging using this system. The proposed system is portable, low-cost and can provide real-time imaging.

  14. Pulsed laser diode photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system for fast in vivo imaging of small animal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Kalva, Sandeep Kumar; Moothanchery, Mohesh; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, high-repetition rate pulsed laser diode (PLD) was used as an alternative to the Nd:YAG lasers for photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The use of PLD makes the overall PAT system, a low-cost, portable, and high frame rate imaging tool for preclinical applications. In this work, we will present a portable in vivo pulsed laser diode based photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system. The PLD is integrated inside a circular scanning geometry. The PLD can provide near-infrared ( 803 nm) pulses with pulse duration 136 ns, and pulse energy 1.4 mJ / pulse at 7 kHz repetition rate. The system will be demonstrated for in vivo fast imaging of small animal brain. To enhance the contrast of brain imaging, experiments will be carried out using contrast agents which have strong absorption around laser excitation wavelength. This low-cost, portable small animal brain imaging system could be very useful for brain tumor imaging and therapy.

  15. Overview of PAT process analysers applicable in monitoring of film coating unit operations for manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Korasa, Klemen; Vrečer, Franc

    2017-10-08

    Over the last two decades, regulatory agencies have demanded better understanding of pharmaceutical products and processes by implementing new technological approaches, such as process analytical technology (PAT). Process analysers present a key PAT tool, which enables effective process monitoring, and thus improved process control of medicinal product manufacturing. Process analysers applicable in pharmaceutical coating unit operations are comprehensibly described in the present article. The review is focused on monitoring of solid oral dosage forms during film coating in two most commonly used coating systems, i.e. pan and fluid bed coaters. Brief theoretical background and critical overview of process analysers used for real-time or near real-time (in-, on-, at- line) monitoring of critical quality attributes of film coated dosage forms are presented. Besides well recognized spectroscopic methods (NIR and Raman spectroscopy), other techniques, which have made a significant breakthrough in recent years, are discussed (terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI), chord length distribution (CLD) analysis, and image analysis). Last part of the review is dedicated to novel techniques with high potential to become valuable PAT tools in the future (optical coherence tomography (OCT), acoustic emission (AE), microwave resonance (MR), and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Impact of the Water for All Program (PAT) on childhood morbidity and mortality from diarrhea in the Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rasella, Davide

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the Water for All Program (PAT), launched in Bahia State, Brazil, with the objective of expanding coverage of the water supply and sanitation in areas with high vulnerability to waterborne diseases. A total of 224 municipalities (counties) with adequate vital statistics were selected. A controlled before-and-after study design was used, performing analyses with multivariate negative binomial regression with fixed effects, from 2005 to 2008. PAT coverage - as a continuous variable - was negatively associated (p < 0.01) with the under-five mortality rate. Municipalities with coverage ≥ 10% showed a reduction of 39% (p < 0.05) in mortality from diarrhea, under-five mortality of 14% (p < 0.01), and hospitalizations from diarrhea of 6% (p < 0.05) when compared to municipalities without PAT or with lower coverage, having adjusted for confounding. No effects were found on external causes of mortality, used as a control. When focused on highly vulnerable areas, water and sanitation programs can have an important impact in reducing health inequalities in the population.

  17. Introducing uncertainty analysis of nucleation and crystal growth models in Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design of crystallization processes.

    PubMed

    Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Abdul; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the application of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis as part of a systematic model-based process monitoring and control (PAT) system design framework for crystallization processes. For the uncertainty analysis, the Monte Carlo procedure is used to propagate input uncertainty, while for sensitivity analysis, global methods including the standardized regression coefficients (SRC) and Morris screening are used to identify the most significant parameters. The potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystallization process is used as a case study, both in open-loop and closed-loop operation. In the uncertainty analysis, the impact on the predicted output of uncertain parameters related to the nucleation and the crystal growth model has been investigated for both a one- and two-dimensional crystal size distribution (CSD). The open-loop results show that the input uncertainties lead to significant uncertainties on the CSD, with appearance of a secondary peak due to secondary nucleation for both cases. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important parameters affecting the CSDs are nucleation order and growth order constants. In the proposed PAT system design (closed-loop), the target CSD variability was successfully reduced compared to the open-loop case, also when considering uncertainty in nucleation and crystal growth model parameters. The latter forms a strong indication of the robustness of the proposed PAT system design in achieving the target CSD and encourages its transfer to full-scale implementation.

  18. Is the role of Health Extension Workers in the delivery of maternal and child health care services a significant attribute? The case of Dale district, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Abel; Girma, Gedion

    2017-09-11

    The Health Extension Program (HEP) is one of the most innovative community based health program launched by the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health to make health services accessible to rural communities by setting-out women Health Extension Workers (HEWs) in rural Health Posts. The HEWs are premised to provide basic, largely preventive, primary health services to rural villages and the program gives special attention to children and mothers. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution made by the Health Extension Workers in maternal and child health care service delivery in Dale district, southern Ethiopia. Using a community based cross-sectional data; the study assessed the status of mother's health service utilization and estimated the role of HEWs in maternal and child health care delivery. Mothers of reproductive age (15-49), having at least one under-five age child, were eligible for the study. The total sample size was 617 and systemic random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from each randomly selected kebeles (lower administrative units). Structured questionnaire was applied to collect data through interviewing of the selected mothers and the data were analysed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Health Posts are important health care delivery settings and their share from the overall service delivery of ANC, Family planning and child treatment services were pivotal. However, overall service coverage of ANC (four and more visits), delivery and PNC services were low in the district as compared to the national status; and the input from the HEWs, in this regard, was unsatisfactory. The number of home visits was also inadequate for the necessary support of the mothers. The results of the multiple logistic regression indicated that mothers who listen to the radio (AOR 4.62; CI 1.66-12.85) and who had received information about the MCH services by HEWs (AOR 2.09; CI 1.06-4.14) were significantly associated with good

  19. Proton-assisted amino acid transporter PAT1 complexes with Rag GTPases and activates TORC1 on late endosomal and lysosomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Ögmundsdóttir, Margrét H; Heublein, Sabine; Kazi, Shubana; Reynolds, Bruno; Visvalingam, Shivanthy M; Shaw, Michael K; Goberdhan, Deborah C I

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by growth factor-regulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Rheb signalling and extracellular amino acids (AAs) to promote growth and proliferation. These AAs induce translocation of mTOR to late endosomes and lysosomes (LELs), subsequent activation via mechanisms involving the presence of intralumenal AAs, and interaction between mTORC1 and a multiprotein assembly containing Rag GTPases and the heterotrimeric Ragulator complex. However, the mechanisms by which AAs control these different aspects of mTORC1 activation are not well understood. We have recently shown that intracellular Proton-assisted Amino acid Transporter 1 (PAT1)/SLC36A1 is an essential mediator of AA-dependent mTORC1 activation. Here we demonstrate in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells that PAT1 is primarily located on LELs, physically interacts with the Rag GTPases and is required for normal AA-dependent mTOR relocalisation. We also use the powerful in vivo genetic methodologies available in Drosophila to investigate the regulation of the PAT1/Rag/Ragulator complex. We show that GFP-tagged PATs reside at both the cell surface and LELs in vivo, mirroring PAT1 distribution in several normal mammalian cell types. Elevated PI3K/Akt/Rheb signalling increases intracellular levels of PATs and synergistically enhances PAT-induced growth via a mechanism requiring endocytosis. In light of the recent identification of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase as another Rag-interacting component, we propose a model in which PATs function as part of an AA-sensing engine that drives mTORC1 activation from LEL compartments.

  20. Topoisomerase II-associated protein PAT1H1 is involved in the root stem cell niche maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qianqian; Liu, Jiajia; Zheng, Huihui; Jia, Yuebin; Tian, Huiyu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-06-01

    PAT1H1, one of the homologues of Topoisomerase II-associated protein, is involved in the maintenance of root stem cell niche through the interaction with NINJA. The root stem cell niche, which possesses four mitotically inactive quiescent cells (QC) and the surrounding mitotically active stem cells, is critical for root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the molecular regulation of the maintenance of root stem cell niche identity is still not fully understood. Here we show that one of the homologues of Topoisomerase II-associated protein, here named as PAT1H1, could regulate root stem cell niche identity. The pat1h1 mutant showed higher frequency of QC cell division and root distal stem cell (DSC) differentiation. With a high expression in roots, PAT1H1 was found to interact with the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling negative regulator Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA) and thus regulate root DSC niche identity. Consistent with the active QC cell division, which rarely occurs in wild-type controls, the pat1h1 mutant displayed higher expression of CYCB1 in the root stem cell niche. Together our data reveals that PAT1H1 maintains root stem cell niche stability through the interaction with NINJA and the regulation of cell division.

  1. The effect of glycerol on the activity of beta-glucosidase from Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    PubMed Central

    Umezurike, G M

    1988-01-01

    1. In the activity of the high-Mr beta-glucosidase A (beta-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) obtained from culture filtrates of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. on o-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrate, both Vmax. and Km increased non-linearly with increasing concentration of glycerol, and the Vmax./Km(app.) ratio decreased non-linearly with increasing concentration of glycerol. 2. No increase in rate was observed with phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrate in the presence of up to 250 mM-glycerol, indicating that glucosylation is rate-limiting with this substrate. 3. With o-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside and phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrates, kappa cat. values of 793.7 s-1, 62.8 s-1 and 5.4 s-1 respectively were calculated. 4. With o-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside and phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside as substrate, alpha-deuterium kinetic isotope effects of 1.9 +/- 0.03 and 1.01 +/- 0.01 respectively were found; in the presence of 200 mM-glycerol the values were 1.21 +/- 0.03 and 1.02 +/- 0.01 respectively. 5. In the presence of a large excess of o-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside [( S] = 35.7 Km), the amount of o-nitrophenol and also of the transglucosylation product formed by beta-glucosidase action increased non-linearly, whereas that of glucose formed decreased non-linearly with increasing glycerol concentration. 6. All these results were found to fit the data calculated from rate equations derived on the basis of the proposed mechanism of enzyme action involving two ion-pair intermediates and a covalent alpha-D-glucosyl-enzyme in the reaction sequence [Umezurike (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 455-462]. PMID:3140799

  2. Function and expression of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter PAT1 along the rat gastrointestinal tract: implications for intestinal absorption of gaboxadol

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, ML; Holm, R; Tønsberg, H; Frølund, S; Ewon, KB; Nielsen, AL; Brodin, B; Jensen, A; Kall, MA; Christensen, KV; Nielsen, CU

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Intestinal absorption via membrane transporters may determine the pharmacokinetics of drug compounds. The hypothesis is that oral absorption of gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo [5,4-c] pyridine-3-ol) in rats occurs via the proton-coupled amino acid transporter, rPAT1 (encoded by the gene rSlc36a1). Consequently, we aimed to elucidate the in vivo role of rPAT1 in the absorption of gaboxadol from various intestinal segments obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The absorption of gaboxadol was investigated following its administration into four different intestinal segments. The intestinal expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the hPAT1-/rPAT1-mediated transport of gaboxadol or L-proline was studied in hPAT1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and excised segments of the rat intestine. KEY RESULTS The absorption fraction of gaboxadol was high (81.3–91.3%) following its administration into the stomach, duodenum and jejunum, but low (4.2%) after administration into the colon. The pharmacokinetics of gaboxadol were modified by the co-administration of L-tryptophan (an hPAT1 inhibitor) and L-proline (an hPAT1 substrate). The in vitro carrier-mediated uptake rate of L-proline in the excised intestinal segments was highest in the mid jejunum and lowest in the colon. The in vitro uptake and the in vivo absorption correlated with the expression of rSlc36a1 mRNA along the rat intestine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that PAT1 mediates the intestinal absorption of gaboxadol and therefore determines its oral bioavailability. This has implications for the in vivo role of PAT1 and may have an influence on the design of pharmaceutical formulations of PAT1 substrates. PMID:22577815

  3. Helicopter AFMAG (ZTEM) EM and magnetic results over sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) lead-zinc deposits at Howard's Pass in Selwyn Basin, Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Latrous, Ali; Zhao, Shengkai; Bournas, Nasreddine; Plastow, Geoffrey C.; Xue, Gabriel Guang

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, a regional scale 24,675 line-km survey covering a 25,000 km2 area (1 km line spacing) was flown in the Selwyn Basin. The survey footprint straddles east-central Yukon and overlaps into the western North-west Territories. In March 2013, Yukon Geological Survey purchased the survey data and, in November 2013, released the data publicly. The Selwyn Basin area is prospective for sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX)-style Pb-Zn-Ag mineralisation and the z-axis tipper electromagnetic (ZTEM) survey data provide insights into regional structures and plutons in the region. The survey overflew the Howard's Pass SEDEX deposits at the south-eastern edge of the Selwyn Basin survey area that hosts a ~250 million tonne resource with ~4.5% Zn and ~1.5% Pb. Airborne geophysics has not been extensively used in SEDEX exploration of the Selwyn Basin and the ZTEM survey is one of the few publicly available airborne audio-frequency magnetic (AFMAG) EM-magnetic datasets that offer the opportunity to study the deposit response at Howard's Pass in close detail. Rock physical properties indicate that the lowest resistivities are associated with the Road River Group that contains the Pb-Zn mineralised horizon at Howard's Pass, but also include graphitic shales in the same formation. Major NW-SE to ESE and minor NNW-SSE linear conductive trends correlate with known regional geologic, structural and inferred mineral trends that were previously not visible in magnetic results. At the deposit scale, a thin NW-SE trending conductive lineament extends along the > 37-km-long `Zinc Corridor' horizon at Howard's Pass, but must include both the Pb-Zn sulphide mineralisation deposit horizon as well as the surrounding graphitic black shales. 2D and 3D ZTEM inversions reveal zones of enhanced conductivity along strike and at depth that appear to correlate with the clustering of Pb-Zn deposits, which had not been previously noticed.

  4. Ways of knowing: Howard Stein's border-crossing use of poetry to interrogate clinical medicine, medical education, and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    This article explores how medical anthropologist Howard Stein's poetry and his unique practice of sharing this poetry with the patients, physicians, and administrators who inspired it create ways of knowing that are at once revelatory and emancipatory. Stein's writing shows readers that poetry can be considered as a form of data and as a method of investigation into the processes of the human soul. Furthermore, it represents a kind of intervention that invites health professional readers toward connection, bridge building, and solidarity with their patients and with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Some implications for the study of the doctor-patient interaction: power, structure, and agency in the works of Howard Waitzkin and Arthur Kleinman.

    PubMed

    Pappas, G

    1990-01-01

    This article critiques two major theoretical perspectives concerning the doctor-patient interaction in medical anthropology represented by the work of Howard Waitzkin and Arthur Kleinman. In his work on the doctor-patient interaction Waitzkin has tended to draw on structural explanations which subordinate the role of agency. Kleinman's work emphasizes agency without satisfactorily integrating structural or social causality in his work on the doctor-patient interaction. The work of Anthony Giddens and others has clarified the structure/agency dichotomy in social science to which the nature of power is central.

  6. Kinderhookian (Lower Mississippian) calcareous rocks of the Howard Pass quadrangle, western Brooks Range: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.

    1997-01-01

    Calcareous rocks of Kinderhookian (early Early Mississippian) age are widely distributed across the Howard Pass quadrangle in the western Brooks Range. Most occur in the lower part of the Lisburne Group (herein called the Rough Mountain Creek unit) and the upper part of the Endicott Group (Kayak Shale) in two sequences (Key Creek and Aniuk River) of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Kinderhookian strata are also found in the Kelly River allochthon (Utukok Formation?) and in sections of uncertain stratigraphic affinity and structural level spatially associated with mafic volcanic rocks.Predominant Kinderhookian lithologies in the Lisburne Group are skeletal supportstone (rich in pelmatozoans, bryozoans, and brachiopods) and lesser spiculite; skeletal supportstone and calcarenite are the chief calcareous rock types in the Kayak Shale. Conodont and brachiopod faunas indicate that all of the Rough Mountain Creek unit and much of the Kayak Shale in the study area are of late Kinderhookian age. Lithologic and paleontologic data suggest that Kinderhookian strata in the Howard Pass quadrangle were deposited largely in inner- and middle-shelf settings with normal marine salinity and locally high energy. Overall, calcareous beds in the Rough Mountain Creek unit accumulated in a wider range of environments, less subject to siliciclastic input, than did calcareous beds in the Kayak, and Kinderhookian beds of both units in the Key Creek sequence formed in less diverse, somewhat shallower environments than correlative rocks in the Aniuk River sequence. Lithofacies patterns and contact relations imply that decreased siliciclastic influx, perhaps accompanied by relative sea-level rise, initiated deposition of the Rough Mountain Creek unit; relative sea-level rise and concurrent circulatory restriction most likely ended its deposition.Kinderhookian calcareous rocks in the Howard Pass quadrangle have several implications for middle Paleozoic paleogeography of the western Brooks

  7. Howard University Symposium on Nonlinear Semigroups, Partial Differential Equations and Attractors (2nd) Held in Washington, D. C. on 3-7 August 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    Building GENERAL INTEREST Chairman: Luis Vazquez, Universidad Complutense , Madrid 8:30 - 9:15 a.m. Robert Sternberg, ONR, Boston "Symmetry in Geometrical...Universite de Paris VI "Some Remarks on Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations" 10:45 - 11:15 a.m. Coffee Break 11:15 - 12:00 noon Luis Vazquez, Universidad ... Complutense , MTadrid "The Finite Difference Method in the Quantum Theory" 12:00 - 12:45 p.m. Walter Miller, Howard University "Dynamics of Periodically

  8. Photon activated therapy (PAT) using monochromatic Synchrotron x-rays and iron oxide nanoparticles in a mouse tumor model: feasibility study of PAT for the treatment of superficial malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background X-rays are known to interact with metallic nanoparticles, producing photoelectric species as radiosensitizing effects, and have been exploited in vivo mainly with gold nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of sensitizing effect of iron oxide nanoparticles for photon activated therapy. Methods X-rays photon activated therapy (PAT) was studied by treating CT26 tumor cells and CT26 tumor-bearing mice loaded with 13-nm diameter FeO NP, and irradiating them at 7.1 keV near the Fe K-edge using synchrotron x-rays radiation. Survival of cells was determined by MTT assay, and tumor regression assay was performed for in vivo model experiment. The results of PAT treated groups were compared with x-rays alone control groups. Results A more significant reduction in viability and damage was observed in the FeO NP-treated irradiated cells, compared to the radiation alone group (p < 0.04). Injection of FeO NP (100 mg/kg) 30 min prior to irradiation elevated the tumor concentration of magnetite to 40 μg of Fe/g tissue, with a tumor-to-muscle ratio of 17.4. The group receiving FeO NP and radiation of 10 Gy showed 80% complete tumor regression (CTR) after 15–35 days and relapse-free survival for up to 6 months, compared to the control group, which showed growth retardation, resulting in 80% fatality. The group receiving radiation of 40 Gy showed 100% CTR in all cases irrespective of the presence of FeO NP, but CTR was achieved earlier in the PAT-treated group compared with the radiation alone group. Conclusions An iron oxide nanoparticle enhanced therapeutic effect with relatively low tissue concentration of iron and 10 Gy of monochromatic X-rays. Since 7.1 keV X-rays is attenuated very sharply in the tissue, FeO NP-PAT may have promise as a potent treatment option for superficial malignancies in the skin, like chest wall recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:23111059

  9. Photon activated therapy (PAT) using monochromatic synchrotron X-rays and iron oxide nanoparticles in a mouse tumor model: feasibility study of PAT for the treatment of superficial malignancy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi-Hwan; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hong; Kim, Hong-Tae; Park, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-10-31

    X-rays are known to interact with metallic nanoparticles, producing photoelectric species as radiosensitizing effects, and have been exploited in vivo mainly with gold nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of sensitizing effect of iron oxide nanoparticles for photon activated therapy. X-rays photon activated therapy (PAT) was studied by treating CT26 tumor cells and CT26 tumor-bearing mice loaded with 13-nm diameter FeO NP, and irradiating them at 7.1 keV near the Fe K-edge using synchrotron x-rays radiation. Survival of cells was determined by MTT assay, and tumor regression assay was performed for in vivo model experiment. The results of PAT treated groups were compared with x-rays alone control groups. A more significant reduction in viability and damage was observed in the FeO NP-treated irradiated cells, compared to the radiation alone group (p < 0.04). Injection of FeO NP (100 mg/kg) 30 min prior to irradiation elevated the tumor concentration of magnetite to 40 μg of Fe/g tissue, with a tumor-to-muscle ratio of 17.4. The group receiving FeO NP and radiation of 10 Gy showed 80% complete tumor regression (CTR) after 15-35 days and relapse-free survival for up to 6 months, compared to the control group, which showed growth retardation, resulting in 80% fatality. The group receiving radiation of 40 Gy showed 100% CTR in all cases irrespective of the presence of FeO NP, but CTR was achieved earlier in the PAT-treated group compared with the radiation alone group. An iron oxide nanoparticle enhanced therapeutic effect with relatively low tissue concentration of iron and 10 Gy of monochromatic X-rays. Since 7.1 keV X-rays is attenuated very sharply in the tissue, FeO NP-PAT may have promise as a potent treatment option for superficial malignancies in the skin, like chest wall recurrence of breast cancer.

  10. Validation of Repeated Endothelial Function Measurements Using EndoPAT in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Aina S; Butt, Jawad H; Holm-Yildiz, Sonja; Karlsson, William; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Decreased endothelial function (EF) may be a prognostic marker for stroke. Measuring pharmacological effects on EF may be of interest in the development of personalized medicine for stroke prevention. In this study, we assessed the reliability of repeated EF measurements using a pulse amplitude tonometry technology in acute stroke patients. Similarly, reliability was tested in healthy subjects devoid of vascular disease to estimate reactivity and reliability in a younger non-stroke population. EF was assessed using the EndoPAT2000 in 20 healthy volunteers (men 50%, mean age 35.85 ± 3.47 years) and 21 stroke patients (men 52%, mean age 66.38 ± 2.85 years, and mean NIHSS 4.09 ± 0.53) under standardized conditions. EF was measured as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), logarithm of RHI (lnRHI), and Framingham RHI (fRHI). Measurements were separated by 1.5 and 24 h to assess same-day and day-to-day reliability, respectively. Fair to moderate correlations of measurements [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)same-day 0.29 and ICCday-to-day 0.52] were detected in healthy subjects. In stroke patients, we found moderate to substantial correlation of both same-day and day-to-day repeated measurements (ICCsame-day 0.40 and ICCday-to-day 0.62). fRHI compared with RHI and lnRHI showed best reliability. Repeated measurements of fRHI in stroke patients show moderate reliability on same-day and substantial on day-to-day measurements. Likewise, in healthy subjects there was substantial reliability on day-to-day measurement, but only moderate on same-day measurements. In general, day-to-day correlation of repeated EF measurements was far better than that of same-day measurements, which ranged from poor to moderate depending on the specific outcome measure of EF. A possible carryover effect should be considered if same-day repeated testing of drug effects is applied in future studies.

  11. The Formation and Chronology of the PAT 91501 Impact-Melt L-Chondrite with Vesicle-Metal-Sulfide Assemblages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2007-01-01

    The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 41 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up approximately 2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. Ar-39-Ar-40 measurements date the time of impact at 4.461 +/- 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and Be-10 and Al-2l activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S2 (approximately 15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over approximately 2 hours. During this time, approximately 90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced the unique assemblage observed in PAT 91501.

  12. Discharge diversion in the Patía River delta, the Colombian Pacific: Geomorphic and ecological consequences for mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Cantera, Jaime R.

    2013-10-01

    In the Patía River delta, the best-developed delta on the western margin of South America, a major water diversion started in 1972. The diversion of the Patía flow to the Sanquianga River, the latter a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands, shifted the active delta plain from the south to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. The Sanquianga Mangrove National Park, a mangrove reserve measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of geomorphic changes along distributary channels and ecological impacts on mangrove ecosystems are evidenced by: (1) distributary channel accretion by operating processes such as sedimentation, overbank flow, increasing width of levees, sedimentation in crevasses, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanquianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the upper estuarine region (salinity <1%) downstream; (3) downstream advance of freshwater vegetation, which is invading channel banks in the lower and mixing estuarine zones; (4) die-off of approximately 5200 ha of mangrove near the delta apex at Bocas de Satinga, where the highest sediment accumulation rates occur; and (5) recurrent periods of mangrove defoliation due to a worm plague. Further analyses indicate strong mangrove erosion along transgressive barrier islands on the former delta plain. Here tectonic-induced subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and sediment starving conditions due to the channel diversion, are the main causes of the observed retreating conditions of mangrove communities. Our data also indicate that the Patía River has the highest sediment load (27 × 106 t yr-1) and basin-wide sediment yield (1500 t km-2 yr-1) on the west coast of South America. Erosion rates from the Pat

  13. A Scintillation Counter System Design To Detect Antiproton Annihilation using the High Performance Antiproton Trap(HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Stanojev, Boris

    2003-01-01

    The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT), a system designed to hold up to l0(exp 12) charge particles with a storage half-life of approximately 18 days, is a tool to support basic antimatter research. NASA's interest stems from the energy density represented by the annihilation of matter with antimatter, 10(exp 2)MJ/g. The HiPAT is configured with a Penning-Malmberg style electromagnetic confinement region with field strengths up to 4 Tesla, and 20kV. To date a series of normal matter experiments, using positive and negative ions, have been performed evaluating the designs performance prior to operations with antiprotons. The primary methods of detecting and monitoring stored normal matter ions and antiprotons within the trap includes a destructive extraction technique that makes use of a micro channel plate (MCP) device and a non-destractive radio frequency scheme tuned to key particle frequencies. However, an independent means of detecting stored antiprotons is possible by making use of the actual annihilation products as a unique indicator. The immediate yield of the annihilation event includes photons and pie mesons, emanating spherically from the point of annihilation. To "count" these events, a hardware system of scintillators, discriminators, coincident meters and multi channel scalars (MCS) have been configured to surround much of the HiPAT. Signal coincidence with voting logic is an essential part of this system, necessary to weed out the single cosmic ray events from the multi-particle annihilation shower. This system can be operated in a variety of modes accommodating various conditions. The first is a low-speed sampling interval that monitors the background loss or "evaporation" rate of antiprotons held in the trap during long storage periods; provides an independent method of validating particle lifetimes. The second is a high-speed sample rate accumulating information on a microseconds time-scale; useful when trapped antiparticles are extracted

  14. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  15. A Scintillation Counter System Design To Detect Antiproton Annihilation using the High Performance Antiproton Trap(HiPAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Lewis, Raymond A.; Stanojev, Boris

    2003-01-01

    The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT), a system designed to hold up to l0(exp 12) charge particles with a storage half-life of approximately 18 days, is a tool to support basic antimatter research. NASA's interest stems from the energy density represented by the annihilation of matter with antimatter, 10(exp 2)MJ/g. The HiPAT is configured with a Penning-Malmberg style electromagnetic confinement region with field strengths up to 4 Tesla, and 20kV. To date a series of normal matter experiments, using positive and negative ions, have been performed evaluating the designs performance prior to operations with antiprotons. The primary methods of detecting and monitoring stored normal matter ions and antiprotons within the trap includes a destructive extraction technique that makes use of a micro channel plate (MCP) device and a non-destractive radio frequency scheme tuned to key particle frequencies. However, an independent means of detecting stored antiprotons is possible by making use of the actual annihilation products as a unique indicator. The immediate yield of the annihilation event includes photons and pie mesons, emanating spherically from the point of annihilation. To "count" these events, a hardware system of scintillators, discriminators, coincident meters and multi channel scalars (MCS) have been configured to surround much of the HiPAT. Signal coincidence with voting logic is an essential part of this system, necessary to weed out the single cosmic ray events from the multi-particle annihilation shower. This system can be operated in a variety of modes accommodating various conditions. The first is a low-speed sampling interval that monitors the background loss or "evaporation" rate of antiprotons held in the trap during long storage periods; provides an independent method of validating particle lifetimes. The second is a high-speed sample rate accumulating information on a microseconds time-scale; useful when trapped antiparticles are extracted

  16. PAT4 levels control amino-acid sensitivity of rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 from the Golgi and affect clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, S-J; Snell, C; Turley, H; Li, J-L; McCormick, R; Perera, S M W; Heublein, S; Kazi, S; Azad, A; Wilson, C; Harris, A L; Goberdhan, D C I

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cells can use strategies that make them resistant to nutrient deprivation to outcompete their neighbours. A key integrator of the cell's responses to starvation and other stresses is amino-acid-dependent mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Activation of mTORC1 on late endosomes and lysosomes is facilitated by amino-acid transporters within the solute-linked carrier 36 (SLC36) and SLC38 families. Here, we analyse the functions of SLC36 family member, SLC36A4, otherwise known as proton-assisted amino-acid transporter 4 (PAT4), in colorectal cancer. We show that independent of other major pathological factors, high PAT4 expression is associated with reduced relapse-free survival after colorectal cancer surgery. Consistent with this, PAT4 promotes HCT116 human colorectal cancer cell proliferation in culture and tumour growth in xenograft models. Inducible knockdown in HCT116 cells reveals that PAT4 regulates a form of mTORC1 with two distinct properties: first, it preferentially targets eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and second, it is resistant to rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, in HCT116 cells two non-essential amino acids, glutamine and serine, which are often rapidly metabolised by tumour cells, regulate rapamycin-resistant mTORC1 in a PAT4-dependent manner. Overexpressed PAT4 is also able to promote rapamycin resistance in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. PAT4 is predominantly associated with the Golgi apparatus in a range of cell types, and in situ proximity ligation analysis shows that PAT4 interacts with both mTORC1 and its regulator Rab1A on the Golgi. These findings, together with other studies, suggest that differentially localised intracellular amino-acid transporters contribute to the activation of alternate forms of mTORC1. Furthermore, our data predict that colorectal cancer cells with high PAT4 expression will be more resistant to depletion of serine and glutamine, allowing them to

  17. Cloning and characterization of a new gene from the PAT protein family, in a marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart (Sminthopsis macroura).

    PubMed

    Au, Phil Chi Khang; Selwood, Lynne; Familari, Mary

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies of PAT proteins in Drosophila and Xenopus have revealed significant roles for this family of proteins in the polarized transport of lipid droplets and maternal determinants during early embryogenesis. In mammals, PAT proteins are known to function mainly in lipid metabolism, yet research has yet to establish a role for PAT proteins in mammalian embryogenesis. Oocytes and early cleavage stages in Sminthopsis macroura show obvious polarized cytoplasmic distribution of organelles, somewhat similar to Drosophila and Xenopus, suggesting that a PAT protein may also be involved in S. macroura embryonic development. In the present study, we identified a new marsupial gene for PAT family proteins, DPAT, from S. macroura. Expression analyses by RT-PCR and whole mount fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that DPAT expression was specific to oocytes and cleavage stage conceptuses. Analysis of the localization of lipid droplets during S. macroura early embryonic development found a polarized distribution of lipid droplets at the two- and four-cell stage, and an asymmetric enrichment in blastomeres on one side of conceptuses from two- to eight-cell stage. Lipid droplets largely segregate to pluriblast cells at the 16-cell stage, suggesting a role in pluriblast lineage allocation.

  18. Crocin and quercetin prevent PAT-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells: Involvement of ROS-mediated ER stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Boussabbeh, Manel; Prola, Alexandre; Ben Salem, Intidhar; Guilbert, Arnaud; Bacha, Hassen; Lemaire, Christophe; Abis-Essefi, Salwa

    2015-08-27

    Patulin (PAT) is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys that can be found in rotting fruits, especially in apples and apple-based products. Exposure to this mycotoxin has been reported to induce intestinal and kidney injuries. The mechanism underlying such toxicity has been linked to the induction of apoptosis which occurred with reactive oxygen species production and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the two common dietary compounds Quercetin (QUER), a natural flavonoid, and Crocin (CRO), a natural carotenoid, on PAT-induced toxicity in human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). We showed that antioxidant properties of QUER and CRO help to prevent ER stress activation and lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the reduction in GRP78 and GADD34 expressions and the decrease in malondialdehyde production. Furthermore, we demonstrated their ability to re-establish the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential to inhibit caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.

  19. Strategic funding priorities in the pharmaceutical sciences allied to Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Aksu, Buket; De Beer, Thomas; Folestad, Staffan; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Lindén, Hans; Lopes, Joao Almeida; de Matas, Marcel; Oostra, Wim; Rantanen, Jukka; Weimer, Marco

    2012-09-29

    Substantial changes in Pharmaceutical R&D strategy are required to address existing issues of low productivity, imminent patent expirations and pressures on pricing. Moves towards personalized healthcare and increasing diversity in the nature of portfolios including the rise of biopharmaceuticals however have the potential to provide considerable challenges to the establishment of cost effective and robust supply chains. To guarantee product quality and surety of supply for essential medicines it is necessary that manufacturing science keeps pace with advances in pharmaceutical R&D. In this position paper, the EUFEPS QbD and PAT Sciences network make recommendations that European industry, academia and health agencies focus attention on delivering step changes in science and technology in a number of key themes. These subject areas, all underpinned by the sciences allied to QbD and PAT, include product design and development for personalized healthcare, continuous-processing in pharmaceutical product manufacture, quantitative quality risk assessment for pharmaceutical development including life cycle management and the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical products. Plans are being established to gain commitment for inclusion of these themes into future funding priorities for the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural basis for selective recognition of acyl chains by the membrane-associated acyltransferase PatA

    PubMed Central

    Albesa-Jové, David; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Tersa, Montse; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Carreras-González, Ana; Bonnet, Pascal; Arrasate, Pedro; Eguskiza, Ander; Angala, Shiva K.; Cifuente, Javier O.; Korduláková, Jana; Jackson, Mary; Mikušová, Katarína; Guerin, Marcelo E.

    2016-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phospholipids and glycolipids are critical pathways for virtually all cell membranes. PatA is an essential membrane associated acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs). The enzyme transfers a palmitoyl moiety from palmitoyl–CoA to the 6-position of the mannose ring linked to 2-position of inositol in PIM1/PIM2. We report here the crystal structures of PatA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in the presence of its naturally occurring acyl donor palmitate and a nonhydrolyzable palmitoyl–CoA analog. The structures reveal an α/β architecture, with the acyl chain deeply buried into a hydrophobic pocket that runs perpendicular to a long groove where the active site is located. Enzyme catalysis is mediated by an unprecedented charge relay system, which markedly diverges from the canonical HX4D motif. Our studies establish the mechanistic basis of substrate/membrane recognition and catalysis for an important family of acyltransferases, providing exciting possibilities for inhibitor design. PMID:26965057

  1. Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Neukomm, L J; Zeng, S; Frei, A P; Huegli, P A; Hengartner, M O

    2014-06-01

    The rapid clearance of dying cells is important for the well-being of multicellular organisms. In C. elegans, cell corpse removal is mainly mediated by three parallel engulfment signaling cascades. These pathways include two small GTPases, MIG-2/RhoG and CED-10/Rac1. Here we present the identification and characterization of CDC-42 as a third GTPase involved in the regulation of cell corpse clearance. Genetic analyses performed by both loss of cdc-42 function and cdc-42 overexpression place cdc-42 in parallel to the ced-2/5/12 signaling module, in parallel to or upstream of the ced-10 module, and downstream of the ced-1/6/7 module. CDC-42 accumulates in engulfing cells at membranes surrounding apoptotic corpses. The formation of such halos depends on the integrins PAT-2/PAT-3, UNC-112 and the GEF protein UIG-1, but not on the canonical ced-1/6/7 or ced-2/5/12 signaling modules. Together, our results suggest that the small GTPase CDC-42 regulates apoptotic cell engulfment possibly upstream of the canonical Rac GTPase CED-10, by polarizing the engulfing cell toward the apoptotic corpse in response to integrin signaling and ced-1/6/7 signaling in C. elegans.

  2. Human induced discharge diversion in a tropical delta and its environmental implications: The Patía River, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kettner, Albert

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe Patía River, the number one in terms of sediment yield ˜1500 t km-2 yr-1 draining the western South America, has the most extensive and well developed delta on the Pacific coast, measuring 1700 km2. During the Holocene, nature forced the Patía delta to the south; however, a major water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, the latter, a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands. This human induced discharge diversion shifted the active delta plain back to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of morphological changes along the delta coast and distributary channels, are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe; 63% of the southern shoreline is retreating at maximum rates of 7 m yr-1, with a corresponding coastal land loss of 106 m yr-1; (2) transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; (3) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated closing of inlets and formation of ebb tidal deltas; (4) breaching events on barrier islands; and (5) distributary channel accretion in the northern delta plain by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove. The Sanguianga Mangrove National Park (SMNP), the largest mangrove reserve in Colombia, measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Observed environmental changes in the SMNP, include (1) seaward advance of the sub-aqueous delta front at the Sanquianga inlet evidenced by an increase in tidal flat area from 5.4 Mm2 in 1986 to 14 Mm2 in 2001; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the

  3. The mini-PAT as a multi-source feedback tool for trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry: assessing whether it is fit for purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Gill; Pugsley, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the research supporting the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) for doctors and describes the mini-Peer Assessment Tool (mini-PAT), the MSF instrument currently used to assess trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. The relevance of issues raised in the literature about MSF tools in general is examined in relation to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry as well as the appropriateness of the mini-PAT for this group. Suggestions for change including modifications to existing MSF tools or the development of a specialty-specific MSF instrument are offered. PMID:28400971

  4. PAT (2009)--revisions to the Paddington Alcohol Test for early identification of alcohol misuse and brief advice to reduce emergency department re-attendance.

    PubMed

    Touquet, Robin; Brown, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT) has evolved over 15 years as a clinical tool to facilitate emergency physicians and nurses giving brief advice and the offer of an appointment for brief intervention by an alcohol nurse specialist. Previous work has shown that unscheduled emergency department re-attendance is reduced by 'making the connection' between alcohol misuse and resultant problems necessitating emergency care. The revised 'PAT (2009)' now includes education on clinical signs of alcohol misuse and advice on when to request a blood alcohol concentration.

  5. PAT (2009)—Revisions to the Paddington Alcohol Test for Early Identification of Alcohol Misuse and Brief Advice to Reduce Emergency Department Re-attendance

    PubMed Central

    Touquet, Robin; Brown, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT) has evolved over 15 years as a clinical tool to facilitate emergency physicians and nurses giving brief advice and the offer of an appointment for brief intervention by an alcohol nurse specialist. Previous work has shown that unscheduled emergency department re-attendance is reduced by ‘making the connection’ between alcohol misuse and resultant problems necessitating emergency care. The revised ‘PAT (2009)’ now includes education on clinical signs of alcohol misuse and advice on when to request a blood alcohol concentration. PMID:19329654

  6. The formation and chronology of the PAT 91501 impact-melt L chondrite with vesicle metal sulfide assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; Ketcham, R. A.; Wilson, L.; McCoy, T. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Herzog, G. F.; Xue, S.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    2008-05-01

    The L chondrite Patuxent Range (PAT) 91501 is an 8.5-kg unshocked, homogeneous, igneous-textured impact melt that cooled slowly compared to other meteoritic impact melts in a crater floor melt sheet or sub-crater dike [Mittlefehldt D. W. and Lindstrom M. M. (2001) Petrology and geochemistry of Patuxent Range 91501 and Lewis Cliff 88663. Meteoritics Planet. Sci. 36, 439-457]. We conducted mineralogical and tomographic studies of previously unstudied mm- to cm-sized metal-sulfide-vesicle assemblages and chronologic studies of the silicate host. Metal-sulfide clasts constitute about 1 vol.%, comprise zoned taenite, troilite, and pentlandite, and exhibit a consistent orientation between metal and sulfide and of metal-sulfide contacts. Vesicles make up ˜2 vol.% and exhibit a similar orientation of long axes. 39Ar- 40Ar measurements probably date the time of impact at 4.461 ± 0.008 Gyr B.P. Cosmogenic noble gases and 10Be and 26Al activities suggest a pre-atmospheric radius of 40-60 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 25-29 Myr, similar to ages of a cluster of L chondrites. PAT 91501 dates the oldest known impact on the L chondrite parent body. The dominant vesicle-forming gas was S 2 (˜15-20 ppm), which formed in equilibrium with impact-melted sulfides. The meteorite formed in an impact melt dike beneath a crater, as did other impact melted L chondrites, such as Chico. Cooling and solidification occurred over ˜2 h. During this time, ˜90% of metal and sulfide segregated from the local melt. Remaining metal and sulfide grains oriented themselves in the local gravitational field, a feature nearly unique among meteorites. Many of these metal-sulfide grains adhered to vesicles to form aggregates that may have been close to neutrally buoyant. These aggregates would have been carried upward with the residual melt, inhibiting further buoyancy-driven segregation. Although similar processes operated individually in other chondritic impact melts, their interaction produced

  7. The Rising Cost of Higher Education: Charles Eliot's "Free Money" Strategy and the Beginning of Howard Bowen's "Revenue Theory of Cost," 1869-1979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explain the rising cost of higher education, economist Howard Bowen in 1980 proposed his "famous law" of institutional finance. Bowen based his "revenue theory of cost" on a study of aggregate quantitative data extending from 1929 to 1979. Neither he nor subsequent economists asked whether or how that…

  8. The Rising Cost of Higher Education: Charles Eliot's "Free Money" Strategy and the Beginning of Howard Bowen's "Revenue Theory of Cost," 1869-1979

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explain the rising cost of higher education, economist Howard Bowen in 1980 proposed his "famous law" of institutional finance. Bowen based his "revenue theory of cost" on a study of aggregate quantitative data extending from 1929 to 1979. Neither he nor subsequent economists asked whether or how that…

  9. Characterisation of the metabolites of an antibacterial endophyte Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. of Dracaena draco L. by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Ahmed M; Moharram, Ahmad M; Davis, Richard; Panizzi, Peter; Makboul, Makboul A; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-01-01

    Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. belongs to the endophytic fungi that live within the tissues of medicinal plants and produce bioactive natural products. The endophyte was isolated from the leaves of Dracaena draco L. The LC-MS-based metabolite fingerprinting of the ethyl acetate extract of B. theobromae with antibacterial activity led to the identification of 13 metabolites pertaining to various classes: dipeptides (maculosin and L,L-cyclo(leucylprolyl), alkaloid (norharman), coumarin and isocoumarins (bergapten, meranzin and monocerin), sesquiterpene (dihydrocumambrin A), aldehyde (formyl indanone), fatty alcohol (halaminol A) and fatty acid amide (palmitoleamide, palmitamide, capsi-amide and oleamide). This study reports for the first time, the LC-MS and LC-MS/MS identification of 13 known bioactive metabolites from the antibacterial ethyl acetate extract of B.theobromae isolated from the leaves of D. draco L.

  10. Patent information analysis methods and their effective use : A study through activities of PAT-LIST Research Workshop adviser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Sakae

    For effective use of technical information, various analytical tools and methods (e.g., patent map analysis) have been proposed. It was against this background that the “PAT-LIST Research Workshop” (supported by Raytec Co., Ltd.) was established in 2006. This article discusses, as an example, some actual research subject that the author as an adviser to the forum has studied through our activities in the past six years, especially the subject for 2010 (unveiling intellectual property strategies of specified enterprises from technical information analysis results). Practically useful analysis methods will be proposed showing some points of notes in analysis about the methods. What is also introduced is macroanalysis using text mining tools and the significance of controlled technical classification in a problem/solution map for determining critical fields.

  11. Hybrid modeling for quality by design and PAT-benefits and challenges of applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    von Stosch, Moritz; Davy, Steven; Francois, Kjell; Galvanauskas, Vytautas; Hamelink, Jan-Martijn; Luebbert, Andreas; Mayer, Martin; Oliveira, Rui; O'Kennedy, Ronan; Rice, Paul; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-06-01

    This report highlights the drivers, challenges, and enablers of the hybrid modeling applications in biopharmaceutical industry. It is a summary of an expert panel discussion of European academics and industrialists with relevant scientific and engineering backgrounds. Hybrid modeling is viewed in its broader sense, namely as the integration of different knowledge sources in form of parametric and nonparametric models into a hybrid semi-parametric model, for instance the integration of fundamental and data-driven models. A brief description of the current state-of-the-art and industrial uptake of the methodology is provided. The report concludes with a number of recommendations to facilitate further developments and a wider industrial application of this modeling approach. These recommendations are limited to further exploiting the benefits of this methodology within process analytical technology (PAT) applications in biopharmaceutical industry.

  12. Technical scheme and corresponding experiment for the PAT performance of a lasercom using an integrated test-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Liu, Liren; Wang, Lijuan; Luan, Zhu; Liu, De'an; Xu, Nan; Zhong, Xianghong

    2007-09-01

    Recent successful demonstrations of laser communications have demonstrated the feasibility of some of the key aspects of this technology. The demonstrations can not success without the full-up ground test and validation. So an integrate test-bed was build in build to test the technical parameters and to verify the working performance for the optical pointing, acquisition and tracking (PAT) of various inter-satellite lasercom terminals. In this paper, we detail the test technical scheme (TTS) and the corresponding experiments. The integrate test-bed is a high quality optical system that will measure the key characteristics of lasercom terminals, such as point error, tracking error, acquisition possibility etc.. The test-bed can operate over the relative wavelength range. Through quantitative tests, the terminal could be optimized base on the test results.

  13. Strategic framework for education and training in Quality by Design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    de Matas, Marcel; De Beer, Thomas; Folestad, Staffan; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Lindén, Hans; Lopes, João Almeida; Oostra, Wim; Weimer, Marco; Öhrngren, Per; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-07-30

    The regulatory and technical landscape of the pharmaceutical field is rapidly evolving from one focused predominantly on development of small molecules, using well established manufacturing technologies towards an environment in which biologicals and complex modalities are being developed using advanced science and technology coupled with the application of modern Quality by Design (QbD) principles. In order that Europe keeps pace with these changes and sustains its position as major player in the development and commercialization of medicines, it is essential that measures are put in place to maintain a highly skilled workforce. A number of challenges however exist to equipping academic, industrial and health agency staff with the requisite knowledge, skills and experience to develop the next generation of medicines. In this regard, the EUFEPS QbD and PAT Sciences Network has proposed a structured framework for education, training and continued professional development, which comprises a number of pillars covering the fundamental principles of modern pharmaceutical development including the underpinning aspects of science, engineering and technology innovation. The framework is not prescriptive and is not aimed at describing specific course content in detail. It should however be used as a point of reference for those institutions delivering pharmaceutical based educational courses, to ensure that the necessary skills, knowledge and experience for successful pharmaceutical development are maintained. A positive start has been made and a number of examples of formal higher education courses and short training programs containing elements of this framework have been described. The ultimate vision for this framework however, is to see widespread adoption and proliferation of this curriculum with it forming the backbone of QbD and PAT science based skills development.

  14. A Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach to control a new API manufacturing process: development, validation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Cédric; Clicq, David; Lecomte, Clémence; Merschaert, Alain; Norrant, Edith; Fotiadu, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality-by-Design (QbD) concepts promoted by the regulatory agencies, aiming the building of the quality directly into the product by combining thorough scientific understanding and quality risk management. An analytical method based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed as a PAT tool to control on-line an API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) manufacturing crystallization step during which the API and residual solvent contents need to be precisely determined to reach the predefined seeding point. An original methodology based on the QbD principles was designed to conduct the development and validation of the NIR method and to ensure that it is fitted for its intended use. On this basis, Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed and optimized using chemometrics methods. The method was fully validated according to the ICH Q2(R1) guideline and using the accuracy profile approach. The dosing ranges were evaluated to 9.0-12.0% w/w for the API and 0.18-1.50% w/w for the residual methanol. As by nature the variability of the sampling method and the reference method are included in the variability obtained for the NIR method during the validation phase, a real-time process monitoring exercise was performed to prove its fit for purpose. The implementation of this in-process control (IPC) method on the industrial plant from the launch of the new API synthesis process will enable automatic control of the final crystallization step in order to ensure a predefined quality level of the API. In addition, several valuable benefits are expected including reduction of the process time, suppression of a rather difficult sampling and tedious off-line analyses. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations and Bovine-Associated Source-Tracking Markers in Freshly Deposited Cow Pats

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, Adelumola; Bohrmann, Thomas; Wong, Kelvin; Purucker, S. T.; Bradshaw, Ken; Brown, Reid; Snyder, Blake

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about their survival in intact cow pats deposited on pastures. We conducted a study to determine decay rates of fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and bovine-associated MST markers (CowM3, Rum-2-bac, and GenBac) in 18 freshly deposited cattle feces from three farms in northern Georgia. Samples were randomly assigned to shaded or unshaded treatment in order to determine the effects of sunlight, moisture, and temperature on decay rates. A general linear model (GLM) framework was used to determine decay rates. Shading significantly decreased the decay rate of the E. coli population (P < 0.0001), with a rate of −0.176 day−1 for the shaded treatment and −0.297 day−1 for the unshaded treatment. Shading had no significant effect on decay rates of enterococci, CowM3, Rum-2-bac, and GenBac (P > 0.05). In addition, E. coli populations showed a significant growth rate (0.881 day−1) in the unshaded samples during the first 5 days after deposition. UV-B was the most important parameter explaining the decay rate of E. coli populations. A comparison of the decay behaviors among all markers indicated that enterococcus concentrations exhibit a better correlation with the MST markers than E. coli concentrations. Our results indicate that bovine-associated MST markers can survive in cow pats for at least 1 month after excretion, and although their decay dynamic differs from the decay dynamic of E. coli populations, they seem to be reliable markers to use in combination with enterococci to monitor fecal pollution from pasture lands. PMID:24141130

  16. Decay of fecal indicator bacterial populations and bovine-associated source-tracking markers in freshly deposited cow pats.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, Adelumola; Bohrmann, Thomas; Wong, Kelvin; Purucker, S T; Bradshaw, Ken; Brown, Reid; Snyder, Blake; Molina, Marirosa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about their survival in intact cow pats deposited on pastures. We conducted a study to determine decay rates of fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and bovine-associated MST markers (CowM3, Rum-2-bac, and GenBac) in 18 freshly deposited cattle feces from three farms in northern Georgia. Samples were randomly assigned to shaded or unshaded treatment in order to determine the effects of sunlight, moisture, and temperature on decay rates. A general linear model (GLM) framework was used to determine decay rates. Shading significantly decreased the decay rate of the E. coli population (P < 0.0001), with a rate of -0.176 day(-1) for the shaded treatment and -0.297 day(-1) for the unshaded treatment. Shading had no significant effect on decay rates of enterococci, CowM3, Rum-2-bac, and GenBac (P > 0.05). In addition, E. coli populations showed a significant growth rate (0.881 day(-1)) in the unshaded samples during the first 5 days after deposition. UV-B was the most important parameter explaining the decay rate of E. coli populations. A comparison of the decay behaviors among all markers indicated that enterococcus concentrations exhibit a better correlation with the MST markers than E. coli concentrations. Our results indicate that bovine-associated MST markers can survive in cow pats for at least 1 month after excretion, and although their decay dynamic differs from the decay dynamic of E. coli populations, they seem to be reliable markers to use in combination with enterococci to monitor fecal pollution from pasture lands.

  17. A double-focus collimator system for full PAT performance testing of inter-satellite laser communication terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Luan, Zhu; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Liu, De'an; Liu, Liren

    2006-08-01

    A laser collimator is necessary for the testing and verification of the PAT performance of inter-satellite laser communication terminals. However, the terminals mostly have a large field of view for the acquisition and a high angular accuracy for the fine tracking needed to be examined. A single collimator has the conflict to reach at both a large field of view and a fine resolution. To compromise, a double-focus laser collimator is proposed. The collimator is mainly composed of a primary lens, a beam splitter, a secondary lens and some reflectors. The primary lens with a 9.9m focal length directly forms the long focal length arm of the collimator. The combination of the primary lens and the secondary lens has a new focal length of 1.3m and constructs the short focal length arm of the collimator. With two CMOS imaging sensors, the collimator can realize a 1.1mrad field of view with a <1μrad resolution in the focal plane of the long focal length arm and a 8.3mrad field of view with a 8.2μrad resolution in the focal plane of the short focal length arm. In combination with a coarse beam scanner (+/-15°) and a fine beam scanner (1mrad) to simulate the mutual angular movement between two satellites, the united system is capable to test the full PAT performance of inter-satellite laser communication terminals. The optical layouts of the collimator and two detecting units are illustrated. The optical design of the collimator is detailed. The mechanical design of the collimator is given.

  18. A Tale of Two Melt Rocks: Equilibration and Metal/Sulfide-Silicate Segregation in the L7 Chondrites PAT 91501 and LEW 88663

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, R. P.

    1993-07-01

    Type 7 ordinary chondrites have experienced temperatures near or beyond those necessary for partial melting. Two recently collected Antarctic specimens, PAT91501 (PAT) and LEW88663 (LEW), have been tentatively identified as L7 chondrites based on mineral and oxygen isotope compositions [1,2]. The petrology and mineralogy of these meteorites suggests that they have undergone significant metal/sulfide-silicate segregation, with implications for meteorite parent bodies. PAT consists of an equigranular contact-framework of nearly euhedral olivine grains, with interstitial spaces filled by plagioclase, pyroxenes, and several minor phases. Ortho- and clinopyroxene occur in an exsolution relationship. Olivine and pyroxene are highly equilibrated, varying <<1% in Fe-endmember content. Pyroxene equilibration temperatures calculated for PAT using the methods of [3] are self-consistent at about 1180 degrees C. In thin section, PAT contains only traces of metal, as tiny isolated blebs in sulfide grains; large (>1 cm) globular sulfide inclusions are seen in hand-sample [1], but are not present in the section examined. LEW was originally classified as an achondrite with olivine and pyroxene compositions similar to those in L chondrites [2]. Metal is absent in LEW, although the specimen is small and heavily rusted, making it impossible to gauge the original metal content. Olivine grains are commonly rounded in shape and seldom in contact with more than a few other grains. LEW olivine and pyroxene are also highly equilibrated. Veins of Ni-bearing metal oxides and sulfides are common. Both low- and high-Ca pyroxene occur as discrete grains, orthopyroxene often poikilitically enclosing olivine. Pyroxene equilibration temperatures for LEW are more variable than those for PAT and consistently lower, with an average around 900 degrees C. The various textural and compositional characteristics of PAT and LEW suggest they have experienced partial melting to varying degrees. Both visually

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Prehospital Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock: Outcomes of the Cal-PAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Neeki, Michael M.; Dong, Fanglong; Toy, Jake; Vaezazizi, Reza; Powell, Joe; Jabourian, Nina; Jabourian, Alex; Wong, David; Vara, Richard; Seiler, Kathryn; Pennington, Troy W.; Powell, Joe; Yoshida-McMath, Chris; Kissel, Shanna; Schulz-Costello, Katharine; Mistry, Jamish; Surrusco, Matthew S.; O’Bosky, Karen R.; Van Stralen, Daved; Ludi, Daniel; Sporer, Karl; Benson, Peter; Kwong, Eugene; Pitts, Richard; Culhane, John T.; Borger, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The California Prehospital Antifibrinolytic Therapy (Cal-PAT) study seeks to assess the safety and impact on patient mortality of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in cases of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. The current study further aimed to assess the feasibility of prehospital TXA administration by paramedics within the framework of North American emergency medicine standards and protocols. Methods This is an ongoing multi-centered, prospective, observational cohort study with a retrospective chart-review comparison. Trauma patients identified in the prehospital setting with signs of hemorrhagic shock by first responders were administered one gram of TXA followed by an optional second one-gram dose upon arrival to the hospital, if the patient still met inclusion criteria. Patients administered TXA make up the prehospital intervention group. Control group patients met the same inclusion criteria as TXA candidates and were matched with the prehospital intervention patients based on mechanism of injury, injury severity score, and age. The primary outcomes were mortality, measured at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 28 days. Secondary outcomes measured included the total blood products transfused and any known adverse events associated with TXA administration. Results We included 128 patients in the prehospital intervention group and 125 in the control group. Although not statistically significant, the prehospital intervention group trended toward a lower 24-hour mortality rate (3.9% vs 7.2% for intervention and control, respectively, p=0.25), 48-hour mortality rate (6.3% vs 7.2% for intervention and control, respectively, p=0.76), and 28-day mortality rate (6.3% vs 10.4% for intervention and control, respectively, p=0.23). There was no significant difference observed in known adverse events associated with TXA administration in the prehospital intervention group and control group. A reduction in total blood product usage was observed following the

  20. Loss of the anion exchanger DRA (Slc26a3), or PAT1 (Slc26a6), alters sulfate transport by the distal ileum and overall sulfate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2017-09-01

    The ileum is considered the primary site of inorganic sulfate ([Formula: see text]) absorption. In the present study, we explored the contributions of the apical chloride/bicarbonate (Cl(-)/[Formula: see text]) exchangers downregulated in adenoma (DRA; Slc26a3), and putative anion transporter 1 (PAT1; Slc26a6), to the underlying transport mechanism. Transepithelial (35)[Formula: see text] and (36)Cl(-) fluxes were determined across isolated, short-circuited segments of the distal ileum from wild-type (WT), DRA-knockout (KO), and PAT1-KO mice, together with measurements of urine and plasma sulfate. The WT distal ileum supported net sulfate absorption [197.37 ± 13.61 (SE) nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)], but neither DRA nor PAT1 directly contributed to the unidirectional mucosal-to-serosal flux ([Formula: see text]), which was sensitive to serosal (but not mucosal) DIDS, dependent on Cl(-), and regulated by cAMP. However, the absence of DRA significantly enhanced net sulfate absorption by one-third via a simultaneous rise in [Formula: see text] and a 30% reduction to the secretory serosal-to-mucosal flux ([Formula: see text]). We propose that DRA, together with PAT1, contributes to [Formula: see text] by mediating sulfate efflux across the apical membrane. Associated with increased ileal sulfate absorption in vitro, plasma sulfate was 61% greater, and urinary sulfate excretion (USO4) 2.2-fold higher, in DRA-KO mice compared with WT controls, whereas USO4 was increased 1.8-fold in PAT1-KO mice. These alterations to sulfate homeostasis could not be accounted for by any changes to renal sulfate handling suggesting that the source of this additional sulfate was intestinal. In summary, we characterized transepithelial sulfate fluxes across the mouse distal ileum demonstrating that DRA (and to a lesser extent, PAT1) secretes sulfate with significant implications for intestinal sulfate absorption and overall homeostasis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sulfate is an essential anion that is

  1. 3D noninvasive, high-resolution imaging using a photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system and rapid wavelength-cycling lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.

    2015-05-01

    Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.

  2. Monitoring ibuprofen-nicotinamide cocrystal formation during solvent free continuous cocrystallization (SFCC) using near infrared spectroscopy as a PAT tool.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A L; Gough, T; Dhumal, R S; Halsey, S A; Paradkar, A

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this work was to explore NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor the formation of ibuprofen and nicotinamide cocrystals during extrusion based solvent free continuous cocrystallization (SFCC). Drug and co-former were gravimetrically fed into a heated co-rotating twin screw extruder to form cocrystals. Real-time process monitoring was performed using a high temperature NIR probe in the extruder die to assess cocrystal content and subsequently compared to off-line powder X-ray diffraction measurements. The effect of processing variables, such as temperature and mixing intensity, on the extent of cocrystal formation was investigated. NIR spectroscopy was sensitive to cocrystal formation with the appearance of new peaks and peak shifts, particularly in the 4800-5200 cm(-1) wave-number region. PXRD confirmed an increased conversion of the mixture into cocrystal with increase in barrel temperature and screw mixing intensity. A decrease in screw rotation speed also provided improved cocrystal yield due to the material experiencing longer residence times within the process. A partial least squares analysis in this region of NIR spectrum correlated well with PXRD data, providing a best fit with cocrystal conversion when a limited range of process conditions were considered, for example a single set temperature. The study suggests that NIR spectroscopy could be used to monitor cocrystal purity on an industrial scale using this continuous, solvent-free process.

  3. Multivariate analysis in the pharmaceutical industry: enabling process understanding and improvement in the PAT and QbD era.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana P; Tobyn, Mike

    2015-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, chemometrics is rapidly establishing itself as a tool that can be used at every step of product development and beyond: from early development to commercialization. This set of multivariate analysis methods allows the extraction of information contained in large, complex data sets thus contributing to increase product and process understanding which is at the core of the Food and Drug Administration's Process Analytical Tools (PAT) Guidance for Industry and the International Conference on Harmonisation's Pharmaceutical Development guideline (Q8). This review is aimed at providing pharmaceutical industry professionals an introduction to multivariate analysis and how it is being adopted and implemented by companies in the transition from "quality-by-testing" to "quality-by-design". It starts with an introduction to multivariate analysis and the two methods most commonly used: principal component analysis and partial least squares regression, their advantages, common pitfalls and requirements for their effective use. That is followed with an overview of the diverse areas of application of multivariate analysis in the pharmaceutical industry: from the development of real-time analytical methods to definition of the design space and control strategy, from formulation optimization during development to the application of quality-by-design principles to improve manufacture of existing commercial products.

  4. Advanced retorting, microwave assisted thermal sterilization (MATS), and pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) to process meat products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Medina-Meza, Ilce; Candoğan, Kezban; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Conventional thermal processes have been very reliable in offering safe sterilized meat products, but some of those products are of questionable overall quality. Flavor, aroma, and texture, among other attributes, are significantly affected during such processes. To improve those quality attributes, alternative approaches to sterilizing meat and meat products have been explored in the last few years. Most of the new strategies for sterilizing meat products rely on using thermal approaches, but in a more efficient way than in conventional methods. Some of these emerging technologies have proven to be reliable and have been formally approved by regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Additional work needs to be done in order for these technologies to be fully adopted by the food industry and to optimize their use. Some of these emerging technologies for sterilizing meat include pressure assisted thermal sterilization (PATS), microwaves, and advanced retorting. This review deals with fundamental and applied aspects of these new and very promising approaches to sterilization of meat products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PAtCh-Cap: input strategy for improving analysis of ChIP-exo data sets and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Terooatea, Tommy W.; Pozner, Amir; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a number of advances have been implemented into the core ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing) methodology to streamline the process, reduce costs or improve data resolution. Several of these emerging ChIP-based methods perform additional chemical steps on bead-bound immunoprecipitated chromatin, posing a challenge for generating similarly treated input controls required for artifact removal during bioinformatics analyses. Here we present a versatile method for producing technique-specific input controls for ChIP-based methods that utilize additional bead-bound processing steps. This reported method, termed protein attached chromatin capture (PAtCh-Cap), relies on the non-specific capture of chromatin-bound proteins via their carboxylate groups, leaving the DNA accessible for subsequent chemical treatments in parallel with chromatin separately immunoprecipitated for the target protein. Application of this input strategy not only significantly enhanced artifact removal from ChIP-exo data, increasing confidence in peak identification and allowing for de novo motif searching, but also afforded discovery of a novel CTCF binding motif. PMID:27550178

  6. Energy status regulates disease development and respiratory metabolism of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl.-infected longan fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shen; Lin, Hetong; Lin, Yifen; Lin, Yixiong; Hung, Yen-Con; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Hui; Shi, John

    2017-09-15

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff. & Maubl. is a major pathogen causing decay of harvested longan fruit. The roles of energy status regulated by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in disease development regarding respiratory metabolism of L. theobromae-inoculated "Fuyan" longan fruit were studied. Compared with L. theobromae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment could promote the index of fruit disease, accelerate the decrease in energy charge, increase respiration rate and the activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO, AAO and PPO, elevate contents of NAD and NADH, but decrease NAD kinase activity, as well as contents of NADP and NADPH; however, exogenous ATP supply acted contrarily. Above results suggested the different energy status caused by DNP and ATP treatments accelerated or delayed the disease development of L. theobromae-inoculated longans via regulating Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and activities of respiratory terminal oxidases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A methodology to optimize design pattern context size for higher sensitivity to hotspot detection using pattern association tree (PAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, Shikha; Pathak, Piyush; Verma, Piyush; Madhavan, Sriram; Capodieci, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Pattern based design rule checks have emerged as an alternative to the traditional rule based design rule checks in the VLSI verification flow [1]. Typically, the design-process weak-points, also referred as design hotspots, are classified into patterns of fixed size. The size of the pattern defines the radius of influence for the process. These fixed sized patterns are used to search and detect process weak points in new designs without running computationally expensive process simulations. However, both the complexity of the pattern and different kinds of physical processes affect the radii of influence. Therefore, there is a need to determine the optimal pattern radius (size) for efficient hotspot detection. The methodology described here uses a combination of pattern classification and pattern search techniques to create a directed graph, referred to as the Pattern Association Tree (PAT). The pattern association tree is then filtered based on the relevance, sensitivity and context area of each pattern node. The critical patterns are identified by traversing the tree and ranking the patterns. This method has plausible applications in various areas such as process characterization, physical design verification and physical design optimization. Our initial experiments in the area of physical design verification confirm that a pattern deck with the radius optimized for each pattern is significantly more accurate at predicting design hotspots when compared to a conventional deck of fixed sized patterns.

  8. 'DIRTY WORK', BUT SOMEONE HAS TO DO IT: HOWARD P. ROBERTSON AND THE REFEREEING PRACTICES OF PHYSICAL REVIEW IN THE 1930S.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Roberto

    2016-06-20

    In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories. By exploring the tension between Robertson's idealized picture about how the referee should behave and the desire to promote his intellectual agenda, I show that the evaluation criteria that Robertson employed were contextually dependent and I argue that, in the 1930s, through his reports the referee had an enormous power in defining what direction future research should take.

  9. Revolutionary changes in medicine and ophthalmology--the St. Louis, MO, effect: Homer G. Phillips Hospital and Dr. Howard Phillip venable.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew S.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide information on the revolutionary changes in medicine, particularly on the development of African-Americans in ophthalmology, created by Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis and the late Dr. Howard Phillip Venable. METHODS: Very little has been written about Homer G. Phillips Hospital and Dr. H. Phillip Venable. Through personal interviews with physicians trained by Dr. Venable and literature review, I was able to obtain information on Homer G. Phillips Hospital and Dr. Venable's influence in breaking the color line in medicine and ophthalmology. RESULTS: Homer G. Phillips Hospital in St. Louis was a major teaching hospital for African-American doctors. Dr. Venable was one of a few African-American ophthalmologists in the 1940s. Dr. Venable then trained approximately 40 African-American ophthalmologists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital between 1943 to 1979, when the hospital closed. CONCLUSION: The ophthalmologists trained by Dr. Venable have gone forward to treat thousands of patients with blinding eye diseases such as glaucoma and diabetes, and to influence others to become ophthalmologists. Although the hospital has closed and Dr. Venable has passed away, their existence has reformed the medical treatment received by African-Americans and other people. Images p484-a PMID:12856914

  10. Psychological keys in the study of African American religious folk songs in the early work of Howard W. Odum (1884-1954).

    PubMed

    Bernal-Marcos, Marcos José; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge; Loredo-Narciandi, José Carlos

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the early work of Howard W. Odum (1884-1954) and the examination of the psychological aspects that marked his reflection on African American music. This analysis reveals many of the aspects that were generically shared by the psychological agenda of the period when analyzing aesthetic experience and activity. Outstanding among these are the relationship of the musical phenomenon with very basic or primary affective-emotional dimensions, the conception of the musical phenomenon as an indicator of the cognitive-affective development of human groups, its expression in the form of cultural and complex intersubjective products, or its possible participation in the technoscientific design of social reform and progress. The simultaneous treatment of all of these aspects in Odum's work brings to light the interdisciplinary framework in which early psychology moved, while revealing the theoretical and ideological contradictions and controversies that enveloped the discipline, above all, at the point where it attempted to place itself at the service of the constitution of self-governed individuals. All in all, Odum's work also reflects the crucial role that early psychology attributed to art as a privileged medium to give meaning to experience and the human being's vital purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Psychology, not educational neuroscience, is the way forward for improving educational outcomes for all children: Reply to Gabrieli (2016) and Howard-Jones et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    In Bowers (2016), I argued that there are (a) practical problems with educational neuroscience (EN) that explain why there are no examples of EN improving teaching and (b) principled problems with the logic motivating EN that explain why it is likely that there never will be. In the following article, I consider the main responses raised by both Gabrieli (2016) and Howard-Jones et al. (2016) and find them all unconvincing. Following this exchange, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to teaching in the classroom, there are still no examples of EN providing new insights to remedial instructions for individuals, and, as I detail in this article, there is no evidence that EN is useful for the diagnosis of learning difficulties. The authors have also failed to address the reasons why EN is unlikely to benefit educational outcomes in the future. Psychology, by contrast, can (and has) made important discoveries that can (and should) be used to improve teaching and diagnostic tests for learning difficulties. This is not a debate about whether science is relevant to education, rather it is about what sort of science is relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. ‘Dirty work’, but someone has to do it: Howard P. Robertson and the refereeing practices of Physical Review in the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the 1930s the mathematical physicist Howard P. Robertson was the main referee of the journal Physical Review for papers concerning general relativity and related subjects. The rich correspondence between Robertson and the editors of the journal enables a historical investigation of the refereeing process of Physical Review at the time that it was becoming one of the most influential physics periodicals in the world. By focusing on this case study, the paper investigates two complementary aspects of the evolution of the refereeing process: first, the historical evolution of the refereeing practices in connection with broader contextual changes, and second, the attempts to define the activity of the referee, including the epistemic virtues required and the journal's functions according to the participants' categories. By exploring the tension between Robertson's idealized picture about how the referee should behave and the desire to promote his intellectual agenda, I show that the evaluation criteria that Robertson employed were contextually dependent and I argue that, in the 1930s, through his reports the referee had an enormous power in defining what direction future research should take. PMID:27386715

  13. 5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan alters gaboxadol pharmacokinetics in rats: involvement of PAT1 and rOat1 in gaboxadol absorption and elimination.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mie; Holm, René; Jensen, Klaus Gjervig; Sveigaard, Christina; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2010-01-31

    The aim was to investigate the effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) on gaboxadol pharmacokinetics in rats. As both 5-HTP and gaboxadol bind to the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1, a drug-drug interaction at the level of intestinal absorption might occur. The in vitro transport of gaboxadol was measured across the hPAT1-expressing cell line Caco-2, and via the rat organic anion transporter, rOat1, in Xenopus oocytes pre-injected with rOat1 cRNA. The in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol after oral administration to rats was investigated in the absence and presence of a pre-dose of 5-HTP. In Caco-2 cell monolayers >80% of the absorptive gaboxadol transport was suggested to be hPAT1-mediated. In rats, the initial absorption rate of gaboxadol was decreased in the presence of 5-HTP. The AUC of gaboxadol was increased by a factor of 3.6-5.5 when rats were pre-dosed with 5-HTP. Gaboxadol was a substrate for the renal transporter rOat1 with a K(m)-value of 151 microM. 5-HTP did not interact with rOat1. In conclusion, gaboxadol acts as a substrate for hPAT1 and is a substrate of rOat1. In rats, 5-HTP decreased the initial absorption rate and increased AUC of gaboxadol. 5-HTP thus had a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic profile of gaboxadol. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal gaboxadol absorption via PAT1 (SLC36A1): modified absorption in vivo following co-administration of L-tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, M; Holm, R; Jensen, KG; Brodin, B; Nielsen, CU

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gaboxadol has been in development for treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. The clinical use of gaboxadol has revealed that adverse effects seem related to peak serum concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption of gaboxadol in vitro and in vivo. Experimental approach: In vitro transport investigations were performed in Caco-2 cell monolayers. In vivo pharmacokinetic investigations were conducted in beagle dogs. Gaboxadol doses of 2.5 mg·kg−1 were given either as an intravenous injection (1.0 mL·kg−1) or as an oral solution (5.0 mL·kg−1). Key results: Gaboxadol may be a substrate of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1 and it inhibited the hPAT1-mediated L-[3H]proline uptake in Caco-2 cell monolayers with an inhibition constant Ki of 6.6 mmol·L−1. The transepithelial transport of gaboxadol was polarized in the apical to basolateral direction, and was dependent on gaboxadol concentration and pH of the apical buffer solution. In beagle dogs, the absorption of gaboxadol was almost complete (absolute bioavailability, Fa, of 85.3%) and Tmax was 0.46 h. Oral co-administration with 2.5–150 mg·kg−1 of the PAT1 inhibitor, L-tryptophan, significantly decreased the absorption rate constant, ka, and Cmax, and increased Tmax of gaboxadol, whereas the area under the curve and clearance of gaboxadol were constant. Conclusions and implications: The absorption of gaboxadol across the luminal membrane of the small intestinal enterocytes is probably mediated by PAT1. This knowledge is useful for reducing gaboxadol absorption rates in order to decrease peak plasma concentrations. PMID:19594759

  15. Effects of the Activity of Coprophagous Insects on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Cattle Dung Pats and Changes in Amounts of Nitrogen, Carbon, and Energy.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Moki, Yukari; Takahashi, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Effects of coprophagous insects on greenhouse gas emissions from cattle dung pats were investigated during the initial stage in the decomposition of dung, with accompanying changes in nitrogen, carbon, and energy content. We set up three treatments with adults of Caccobius jessoensis Harold (dung beetle) and larvae of the fly Neomyia cornicina (F.): 1) dung with dung beetles; 2) dung with fly larvae; and 3) dung without insects. In these treatments, the gas flux was measured from air flow exiting the glass containers connected with an in vitro continuous gas analysis system. Total gas fluxes from dung pats with fly larvae were lowest in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The presence of dung beetles significantly increased CO2 flux from dung, but reduced CH4 flux compared with dung without insects. Fluxes of N2O from dung pats with dung beetles and without insects had distinct peaks at different times after the start of the experiment, while N2O from dung with fly larvae was emitted in extremely low levels throughout the experiment. Carbon (C) content in dung with beetles was significantly lower than that of untreated dung pats designated as fresh dung, whereas that of dung with fly larvae was higher than dung with beetles and without insects. Nitrogen (N) content was significantly lower in dung with fly larvae than the other treatments. Contents of C and N in fly pupae were 35.87 and 8.05%, respectively. During the larval growth of the fly, energy accumulated in the fly body was 2,830 J/g.

  16. MiSynPat: An integrated knowledge base linking clinical, genetic, and structural data for disease-causing mutations in human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Moulinier, Luc; Ripp, Raymond; Castillo, Gaston; Poch, Olivier; Sissler, Marie

    2017-10-01

    Numerous mutations in each of the mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) have been implicated in human diseases. The mutations are autosomal and recessive and lead mainly to neurological disorders, although with pleiotropic effects. The processes and interactions that drive the etiology of the disorders associated with mitochondrial aaRSs (mt-aaRSs) are far from understood. The complexity of the clinical, genetic, and structural data requires concerted, interdisciplinary efforts to understand the molecular biology of these disorders. Toward this goal, we designed MiSynPat, a comprehensive knowledge base together with an ergonomic Web server designed to organize and access all pertinent information (sequences, multiple sequence alignments, structures, disease descriptions, mutation characteristics, original literature) on the disease-linked human mt-aaRSs. With MiSynPat, a user can also evaluate the impact of a possible mutation on sequence-conservation-structure in order to foster the links between basic and clinical researchers and to facilitate future diagnosis. The proposed integrated view, coupled with research on disease-related mt-aaRSs, will help to reveal new functions for these enzymes and to open new vistas in the molecular biology of the cell. The purpose of MiSynPat, freely available at http://misynpat.org, is to constitute a reference and a converging resource for scientists and clinicians. © 2017 The Authors. Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. PAT-seq: a method to study the integration of 3′-UTR dynamics with gene expression in the eukaryotic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Paul F.; Powell, David R.; Clancy, Jennifer L.; Preiss, Thomas; Boag, Peter R.; Traven, Ana; Seemann, Torsten; Beilharz, Traude H.

    2015-01-01

    A major objective of systems biology is to quantitatively integrate multiple parameters from genome-wide measurements. To integrate gene expression with dynamics in poly(A) tail length and adenylation site, we developed a targeted next-generation sequencing approach, Poly(A)-Test RNA-sequencing. PAT-seq returns (i) digital gene expression, (ii) polyadenylation site/s, and (iii) the polyadenylation-state within and between eukaryotic transcriptomes. PAT-seq differs from previous 3′ focused RNA-seq methods in that it depends strictly on 3′ adenylation within total RNA samples and that the full-native poly(A) tail is included in the sequencing libraries. Here, total RNA samples from budding yeast cells were analyzed to identify the intersect between adenylation state and gene expression in response to loss of the major cytoplasmic deadenylase Ccr4. Furthermore, concordant changes to gene expression and adenylation-state were demonstrated in the classic Crabtree–Warburg metabolic shift. Because all polyadenylated RNA is interrogated by the approach, alternative adenylation sites, noncoding RNA and RNA-decay intermediates were also identified. Most important, the PAT-seq approach uses standard sequencing procedures, supports significant multiplexing, and thus replication and rigorous statistical analyses can for the first time be brought to the measure of 3′-UTR dynamics genome wide. PMID:26092945

  18. ePAT: A simple method to tag adenylated RNA to measure poly(A)-tail length and other 3′ RACE applications

    PubMed Central

    Jänicke, Amrei; Vancuylenberg, John; Boag, Peter R.; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of a poly(A)-tail to the 3′ termini of RNA molecules influences stability, nuclear export, and efficiency of translation. In the cytoplasm, dynamic changes in the length of the poly(A)-tail have long been recognized as reflective of the switch between translational silence and activation. Thus, measurement of the poly(A)-tail associated with any given mRNA at steady-state can serve as a surrogate readout of its translation-state. Here, we describe a simple new method to 3′-tag adenylated RNA in total RNA samples using the intrinsic property of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I to extend an RNA primer using a DNA template. This tag can serve as an anchor for cDNA synthesis and subsequent gene-specific PCR to assess poly(A)-tail length. We call this method extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT). The ePAT approach is as efficient as traditional Ligation-Mediated Poly(A) Test (LM-PAT) assays, avoids problems of internal priming associated with oligo-dT-based methods, and allows for the accurate analysis of both the poly(A)-tail length and alternate 3′ UTR usage in 3′ RACE applications. PMID:22543866

  19. ePAT: a simple method to tag adenylated RNA to measure poly(A)-tail length and other 3' RACE applications.

    PubMed

    Jänicke, Amrei; Vancuylenberg, John; Boag, Peter R; Traven, Ana; Beilharz, Traude H

    2012-06-01

    The addition of a poly(A)-tail to the 3' termini of RNA molecules influences stability, nuclear export, and efficiency of translation. In the cytoplasm, dynamic changes in the length of the poly(A)-tail have long been recognized as reflective of the switch between translational silence and activation. Thus, measurement of the poly(A)-tail associated with any given mRNA at steady-state can serve as a surrogate readout of its translation-state. Here, we describe a simple new method to 3'-tag adenylated RNA in total RNA samples using the intrinsic property of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I to extend an RNA primer using a DNA template. This tag can serve as an anchor for cDNA synthesis and subsequent gene-specific PCR to assess poly(A)-tail length. We call this method extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT). The ePAT approach is as efficient as traditional Ligation-Mediated Poly(A) Test (LM-PAT) assays, avoids problems of internal priming associated with oligo-dT-based methods, and allows for the accurate analysis of both the poly(A)-tail length and alternate 3' UTR usage in 3' RACE applications.

  20. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a quorum sensing system regulates the transfer of the pAt megaplasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Yahiaoui, Noura; Mondy, Samuel; Hue, Nathalie; Pélissier, Franck; Faure, Denis; Dessaux, Yves

    2016-08-20

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain P4 is atypical, as the strain is not pathogenic and produces a for this species unusual quorum sensing signal, identified as N-(3-hydroxy-octanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3OH,C8-HSL). By sequence analysis and cloning, a functional luxI-like gene, named cinI, has been identified on the At plasmid of A. tumefaciens strain P4. Insertion mutagenesis in the cinI gene and transcriptome analyses permitted the identification of 32 cinI-regulated genes in this strain, most of them encoding proteins responsible for the conjugative transfer of pAtP4. Among these genes were the avhB genes that encode a type 4 secretion system (T4SS) involved in the formation of the conjugation apparatus, the tra genes that encode the DNA transfer and replication (Dtr) machinery and cinI and two luxR orthologs. These last two genes, cinR and cinX, exhibit an unusual organization, with the cinI gene surrounded by the two luxR orthologs. Conjugation experiments confirmed that the conjugative transfer of pAtP4 is regulated by 3OH,C8-HSL. Root colonization experiments indicated that the quorum sensing regulation of the conjugation of the pAtP4 does not confer a gain or a loss of fitness to the bacterial host in the tomato plant rhizosphere. This work is the first identification of the occurrence of a quorum sensing regulation of the pAt conjugation phenomenon in Agrobacterium.

  1. Real-time determination of critical quality attributes using near-infrared spectroscopy: a contribution for Process Analytical Technology (PAT).

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcel; González, Josep M; Alcalà, Manel

    2012-08-15

    Process Analytical Technology (PAT) is playing a central role in current regulations on pharmaceutical production processes. Proper understanding of all operations and variables connecting the raw materials to end products is one of the keys to ensuring quality of the products and continuous improvement in their production. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used to develop faster and non-invasive quantitative methods for real-time predicting critical quality attributes (CQA) of pharmaceutical granulates (API content, pH, moisture, flowability, angle of repose and particle size). NIR spectra have been acquired from the bin blender after granulation process in a non-classified area without the need of sample withdrawal. The methodology used for data acquisition, calibration modelling and method application in this context is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented by most pharmaceutical laboratories. For this purpose, Partial Least-Squares (PLS) algorithm was used to calculate multivariate calibration models, that provided acceptable Root Mean Square Error of Predictions (RMSEP) values (RMSEP(API)=1.0 mg/g; RMSEP(pH)=0.1; RMSEP(Moisture)=0.1%; RMSEP(Flowability)=0.6 g/s; RMSEP(Angle of repose)=1.7° and RMSEP(Particle size)=2.5%) that allowed the application for routine analyses of production batches. The proposed method affords quality assessment of end products and the determination of important parameters with a view to understanding production processes used by the pharmaceutical industry. As shown here, the NIRS technique is a highly suitable tool for Process Analytical Technologies.

  2. PAT-Based Control of Fluid Bed Coating Process Using NIR Spectroscopy to Monitor the Cellulose Coating on Pharmaceutical Pellets.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Venkata Ramana; Deshpande, Rucha S; Syed, Moinuddin R; Deoghare, Piyush; Singh, Dharamvir; Wakte, Pravin S

    2016-12-19

    Current endeavor was aimed towards monitoring percent weight build-up during functional coating process on drug-layered pellets. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an emerging process analytical technology (PAT) tool which was employed here within quality by design (QbD) framework. Samples were withdrawn after spraying every 15-Kg cellulosic coating material during Wurster coating process of drug-loaded pellets. NIR spectra of these samples were acquired using cup spinner assembly of Thermoscientific Antaris II, followed by multivariate analysis using partial least squares (PLS) calibration model. PLS model was built by selecting various absorption regions of NIR spectra for Ethyl cellulose, drug and correlating the absorption values with actual percent weight build up determined by HPLC. The spectral regions of 8971.04 to 8250.77 cm(-1), 7515.24 to 7108.33 cm(-1), and 5257.00 to 5098.87 cm(-1) were found to be specific to cellulose, where as the spectral region of 6004.45 to 5844.14 cm(-1)was found to be specific to drug. The final model gave superb correlation co-efficient value of 0.9994 for calibration and 0.9984 for validation with low root mean square of error (RMSE) values of 0.147 for calibration and 0.371 for validation using 6 factors. The developed correlation between the NIR spectra and cellulose content is useful in precise at-line prediction of functional coat value and can be used for monitoring the Wurster coating process.

  3. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement.

    PubMed

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-10-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g/l, corresponding to 6% of the covered biomass range. Moreover, by using multiple sensors it was possible to check the quality of the individual predictions and switch between the sensors in real time.

  4. Re-Os systematics and age of pyrite associated with stratiform Zn-Pb mineralization in the Howards Pass district, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Selby, David; Falck, Hendrik; Slack, John F.

    2017-03-01

    Stratiform Zn-Pb deposits hosted in unmetamorphosed carbonaceous and siliceous mudstones of the Ordovician to Silurian Duo Lake Formation define the Howards Pass district in Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, western Canada. Collectively, the deposits are amongst the largest in the world, containing drill-indicated and inferred resources of 423 Mt at 4.84 % Zn and 1.59 % Pb. Sulphide textures include (a) fine-scale laminations of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite from <0.05 mm to 1 cm thick, interbedded with carbonaceous sedimentary rock; (b) layers of coarse sulphide that are structurally controlled by microfolds; and (c) veins that cut bedding and sulphide laminations. The finely interlaminated nature of sulphides with mudstone has been used as evidence for syngenetic mineralizing processes, whereas paleomagnetic data determined on coarse layered sulphides suggest a Middle Jurassic age of mineralization. Here, we present new rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotopic data for 12 pyrite separates obtained from 4 laminated sulphide-rich samples from the XY Central (XYC) and Don (DON) deposits and for 1 unmineralized organic-rich mudstone ˜20 m stratigraphically below the sulphide-bearing zone. Pyrite separates that lack mudstone inclusions ("pure") from the XYC deposit contain 2.2 to 4.0 ppb Re and 93.4 to 123.4 ppt Os; pure pyrite from the DON deposit is significantly more enriched in Re and Os (34-37 ppb Re; 636.8-694.9 ppt Os). The 187Re/188Os values of pure pyrite separates from the XYC and DON deposits range from 137.6 to 197 and 182.1 to 201.4, respectively. Regression of all pure pyrite Re-Os data from both deposits yields an isochron age of 442 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 7.4) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) value of 0.71 ± 0.07. The Re-Os age indicates that the early phase of pyrite precipitation (and by inference, sphalerite and galena) occurred during the early Silurian, consistent with biostratigraphic ages of the host rocks. The Osi value of ˜0.8 for earliest

  5. Re-Os systematics and age of pyrite associated with stratiform Zn-Pb mineralization in the Howards Pass district, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Selby, David; Falck, Hendrik; Slack, John F.

    2016-05-01

    Stratiform Zn-Pb deposits hosted in unmetamorphosed carbonaceous and siliceous mudstones of the Ordovician to Silurian Duo Lake Formation define the Howards Pass district in Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, western Canada. Collectively, the deposits are amongst the largest in the world, containing drill-indicated and inferred resources of 423 Mt at 4.84 % Zn and 1.59 % Pb. Sulphide textures include (a) fine-scale laminations of sphalerite, galena, and pyrite from <0.05 mm to 1 cm thick, interbedded with carbonaceous sedimentary rock; (b) layers of coarse sulphide that are structurally controlled by microfolds; and (c) veins that cut bedding and sulphide laminations. The finely interlaminated nature of sulphides with mudstone has been used as evidence for syngenetic mineralizing processes, whereas paleomagnetic data determined on coarse layered sulphides suggest a Middle Jurassic age of mineralization. Here, we present new rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotopic data for 12 pyrite separates obtained from 4 laminated sulphide-rich samples from the XY Central (XYC) and Don (DON) deposits and for 1 unmineralized organic-rich mudstone ˜20 m stratigraphically below the sulphide-bearing zone. Pyrite separates that lack mudstone inclusions ("pure") from the XYC deposit contain 2.2 to 4.0 ppb Re and 93.4 to 123.4 ppt Os; pure pyrite from the DON deposit is significantly more enriched in Re and Os (34-37 ppb Re; 636.8-694.9 ppt Os). The 187Re/188Os values of pure pyrite separates from the XYC and DON deposits range from 137.6 to 197 and 182.1 to 201.4, respectively. Regression of all pure pyrite Re-Os data from both deposits yields an isochron age of 442 ± 14 Ma (MSWD = 7.4) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) value of 0.71 ± 0.07. The Re-Os age indicates that the early phase of pyrite precipitation (and by inference, sphalerite and galena) occurred during the early Silurian, consistent with biostratigraphic ages of the host rocks. The Osi value of ˜0.8 for earliest

  6. Geochemistry of host rocks in the Howards Pass district, Yukon-Northwest Territories, Canada: implications for sedimentary environments of Zn-Pb and phosphate mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Falck, Hendrik; Kelley, Karen D.; Xue, Gabriel G.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed lithogeochemical data are reported here on early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks that host the large Howards Pass stratiform Zn-Pb deposits in Yukon-Northwest Territories. Redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, Re, V, U) and Ce anomalies in members of the Duo Lake Formation record significant environmental changes. During the deposition of lower footwall units (Pyritic siliceous and Calcareous mudstone members), bottom waters were anoxic and sulphidic, respectively; these members formed in a marginal basin that may have become increasingly restricted with time. Relative to lower members, a major environmental change is proposed for deposition of the overlying Lower cherty mudstone member, which contains phosphorite beds up to ∼0.8 m thick in the upper part, near the base of the Zn-Pb deposits. The presence of these beds, together with models for modern phosphorite formation, suggests P input from an upwelling system and phosphorite deposition in an upper slope or outer shelf setting. The overlying Active mudstone member contains stratabound to stratiform Zn-Pb deposits within black mudstone and gray calcareous mudstone. Data for unmineralized black mudstone in this member indicate deposition under diverse redox conditions from suboxic to sulphidic. Especially distinctive in this member are uniformly low ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are unique within the Duo Lake Formation, attributed here to the dissolution of sedimentary apatite by downward-percolating acidic metalliferous brines. Strata that overlie the Active member (Upper siliceous mudstone member) consist mainly of black mudstone with thin (0.5–1.5 cm) laminae of fine-grained apatite, recording continued deposition on an upper slope or outer shelf under predominantly suboxic bottom waters. Results of this study suggest that exploration for similar stratiform sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposits should include the outer parts of ancient continental margins, especially at and near

  7. Geochemistry of host rocks in the Howards Pass district, Yukon-Northwest Territories, Canada: implications for sedimentary environments of Zn-Pb and phosphate mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Falck, Hendrik; Kelley, Karen D.; Xue, Gabriel G.

    2016-10-01

    Detailed lithogeochemical data are reported here on early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks that host the large Howards Pass stratiform Zn-Pb deposits in Yukon-Northwest Territories. Redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, Re, V, U) and Ce anomalies in members of the Duo Lake Formation record significant environmental changes. During the deposition of lower footwall units (Pyritic siliceous and Calcareous mudstone members), bottom waters were anoxic and sulphidic, respectively; these members formed in a marginal basin that may have become increasingly restricted with time. Relative to lower members, a major environmental change is proposed for deposition of the overlying Lower cherty mudstone member, which contains phosphorite beds up to ˜0.8 m thick in the upper part, near the base of the Zn-Pb deposits. The presence of these beds, together with models for modern phosphorite formation, suggests P input from an upwelling system and phosphorite deposition in an upper slope or outer shelf setting. The overlying Active mudstone member contains stratabound to stratiform Zn-Pb deposits within black mudstone and gray calcareous mudstone. Data for unmineralized black mudstone in this member indicate deposition under diverse redox conditions from suboxic to sulphidic. Especially distinctive in this member are uniformly low ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are unique within the Duo Lake Formation, attributed here to the dissolution of sedimentary apatite by downward-percolating acidic metalliferous brines. Strata that overlie the Active member (Upper siliceous mudstone member) consist mainly of black mudstone with thin (0.5-1.5 cm) laminae of fine-grained apatite, recording continued deposition on an upper slope or outer shelf under predominantly suboxic bottom waters. Results of this study suggest that exploration for similar stratiform sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposits should include the outer parts of ancient continental margins, especially at and near stratigraphic

  8. Geochemistry of host rocks in the Howards Pass district, Yukon-Northwest Territories, Canada: implications for sedimentary environments of Zn-Pb and phosphate mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Falck, Hendrik; Kelley, Karen D.; Xue, Gabriel G.

    2017-04-01

    Detailed lithogeochemical data are reported here on early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks that host the large Howards Pass stratiform Zn-Pb deposits in Yukon-Northwest Territories. Redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, Re, V, U) and Ce anomalies in members of the Duo Lake Formation record significant environmental changes. During the deposition of lower footwall units (Pyritic siliceous and Calcareous mudstone members), bottom waters were anoxic and sulphidic, respectively; these members formed in a marginal basin that may have become increasingly restricted with time. Relative to lower members, a major environmental change is proposed for deposition of the overlying Lower cherty mudstone member, which contains phosphorite beds up to ˜0.8 m thick in the upper part, near the base of the Zn-Pb deposits. The presence of these beds, together with models for modern phosphorite formation, suggests P input from an upwelling system and phosphorite deposition in an upper slope or outer shelf setting. The overlying Active mudstone member contains stratabound to stratiform Zn-Pb deposits within black mudstone and gray calcareous mudstone. Data for unmineralized black mudstone in this member indicate deposition under diverse redox conditions from suboxic to sulphidic. Especially distinctive in this member are uniformly low ratios of light to heavy rare earth elements that are unique within the Duo Lake Formation, attributed here to the dissolution of sedimentary apatite by downward-percolating acidic metalliferous brines. Strata that overlie the Active member (Upper siliceous mudstone member) consist mainly of black mudstone with thin (0.5-1.5 cm) laminae of fine-grained apatite, recording continued deposition on an upper slope or outer shelf under predominantly suboxic bottom waters. Results of this study suggest that exploration for similar stratiform sediment-hosted Zn-Pb deposits should include the outer parts of ancient continental margins, especially at and near stratigraphic

  9. Seasonal migration and environmental conditions of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, elucidated from pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loher, T.; Seitz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags were used to study the fall migration of halibut in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We tagged 6 Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis on summer feeding grounds in the eastern GOA and another 6 in the western GOA from June 13 to August 6, 2002. The tags were programed to be released from the fish on January 15, 2003, at the height of the winter spawning season: 10 tags successfully detached, transmitted archived environmental data (depth and temperature), and generated accurate latitude-longitude coordinates shortly after pop-up; 2 tags deployed off SE Alaska were lost. The tags revealed that 6 fish had moved a considerable distance (>200 km) between tagging and pop-up, and all of these had moved northward to some extent. The longest of the observed migrations was from the southern Alaska Peninsula to Yakutat Bay, a linear displacement of 1153 km; 4 fish showed little evidence of geographic displacement, exhibiting migrations that ranged only from 30 to 69 km. Although 2 fish had moved inshore by the end of the tagging period, all other fish had moved offshore regardless of their overall migration distance. The precise timing of offshore movements varied, beginning as early as August and as late as January. These observations generally corroborate conventional tagging, indicating migration of halibut toward winter spawning grounds in the northern GOA, and movement of fish to deep water in fall. However, no single stereotypic migration behavior was apparent, and a variety of vertical movement patterns and temperature profiles were observed. Halibut spent most time in waters of 5 to 7??C, but experienced temperatures ranging from 2.6 to 11.6??C. Depth observations ranged from 0 to 736 m, with summertime activity concentrated in depths from 0 to 400 m, and halibut that exhibited offshore movement were typically observed at 300 to 700 m by mid-winter. Vertical movement (short-period changes in depth) varied among fish and over time

  10. Effect of Ivabradine on Endothelial Function in Patients with Stable Angina Pectoris: Assessment with the Endo-PAT 2000 Device.

    PubMed

    Jedlickova, Lucia; Merkovska, Lucia; Jackova, Lucia; Janicko, Martin; Fedacko, Jan; Novakova, Bozena; Chmelarova, Anna; Majernik, Jaroslav; Pella, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Ivabradine has opened up new possibilities for treating stable angina and chronic heart failure by lowering heart rate. Ivabradine lowers heart rate by selectively inhibiting the I f current in the sinoatrial node. This study aimed to determine whether the decrease in heart rate achieved with ivabradine was accompanied by hemodynamic changes that might lead to an enhancement of endothelial function. Thirty patients with stable angina pectoris were included in the study. Ivabradine (5 mg bid) was added to the recommended standard treatment. Endothelial function was assessed at baseline and after 3 months of ivabradine therapy, with an Endo-PAT 2000 device (Itamar Medical, Israel). This device was recently developed for the noninvasive assessment for endothelial dysfunction. We evaluated reactive hyperemia index (RHI), which reflects endothelial function, and augmentation index (AI), which provides an indication of arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 25 (83.3%) men and five (16.7%) women. The mean age of the patients was 65.4 ± 6.7 years. Twenty-eight (93.3%) patients had a history of myocardial infarction (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction), 23 (76.6%) had undergone revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft), 16 (53.3%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 29 (96.6%) had arterial hypertension. The mean resting heart rate decreased significantly, from 77 ± 7 bpm at the start of the study to 65 ± 6 bpm after treatment (P < 0.0001). Endothelial function was found to have improved significantly after 3 months of ivabradine therapy. Mean RHI before treatment was 1.54 ± 0.30, suggesting probable endothelial dysfunction, whereas mean RHI at the end of the study was 1.83 ± 0.36 (P < 0.0001). AI also improved significantly on treatment, from 21 ± 20% to 10 ± 21% (P < 0.0001). The addition of ivabradine to the treatment regimen of patients with stable

  11. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be

  12. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags: A method to investigate the migration and behavior of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, Andrew C.; Wilson, Derek; Norcross, Brenda L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags provide a fisheries-independent method of collecting environmental preference data (depth and ambient water temperature) and migration distance. In this study, we evaluate the use of pop-up archival transmitting tags as a method to investigate demersal fish. We report the results from eight pop-up archival transmitting tagged Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis (from 107 to 165 cm FL) that were released in and around Resurrection Bay, Alaska. Commercial fishermen recovered three tags, while five tags transmitted data to Argos satellites. Horizontal migration was not consistent among fish as four Pacific halibut remained in the vicinity of release while the other four traveled up to 358 km from the release site. Vertical movement was not consistent among fish or over time; however, they spent most of their time at depths of 150 to 350 m. The minimum and maximum depths reached by any of the Pacific halibut were 2 m and 502 m, respectively. The fish preferred water temperatures of approximately 6°C, but experienced temperatures between 4.3 and 12.2°C. Light attenuation with depth prevented geolocation software and light sensing hardware from accurately estimating geoposition for the majority of days. The methods, adapted from investigations on large pelagic fish, proved to be effective for studying Pacific halibut in the northern Gulf of Alaska. PAT tags allowed us to obtain high accuracy locations of the fish at the end of the tag deployments as well as preliminary data to identify approximate seasonal locations and to characterize their depth and temperature characteristics. By using PAT tags, we will be able to ensure tag returns during the winter season (which is closed to fishing) and gain valuable biological information even if fish migrate large distances or to unexpected locations.

  13. Biomanufacturing process analytical technology (PAT) application for downstream processing: Using dissolved oxygen as an indicator of product quality for a protein refolding reaction.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Shelly A; Dinges, Rachel; Adams, Rachel; Sanchez, Ailen; Winter, Charles

    2009-10-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT) is an initiative from the US FDA combining analytical and statistical tools to improve manufacturing operations and ensure regulatory compliance. This work describes the use of a continuous monitoring system for a protein refolding reaction to provide consistency in product quality and process performance across batches. A small-scale bioreactor (3 L) is used to understand the impact of aeration for refolding recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) in a reducing environment. A reverse-phase HPLC assay is used to assess product quality. The goal in understanding the oxygen needs of the reaction and its impact to quality, is to make a product that is efficiently refolded to its native and active form with minimum oxidative degradation from batch to batch. Because this refolding process is heavily dependent on oxygen, the % dissolved oxygen (DO) profile is explored as a PAT tool to regulate process performance at commercial manufacturing scale. A dynamic gassing out approach using constant mass transfer (k(L)a) is used for scale-up of the aeration parameters to manufacturing scale tanks (2,000 L, 15,000 L). The resulting DO profiles of the refolding reaction show similar trends across scales and these are analyzed using rpHPLC. The desired product quality attributes are then achieved through alternating air and nitrogen sparging triggered by changes in the monitored DO profile. This approach mitigates the impact of differences in equipment or feedstock components between runs, and is directly inline with the key goal of PAT to "actively manage process variability using a knowledge-based approach." (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Constitutive expression of McCHIT1-PAT enhances resistance to rice blast and herbicide, but does not affect grain yield in transgenic glutinous rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Fang; Li, Lei; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To produce new rice blast- and herbicide-resistant transgenic rice lines, the McCHIT1 gene encoding the class I chitinase from Momordica charantia and the herbicide resistance gene PAT were introduced into Lailong (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica), a glutinous local rice variety from Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China. Transgenic lines were identified by ß-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining, PCR, and Southern blot analyses. Agronomic traits, resistance to rice blast and herbicide, chitinase activities, and transcript levels of McCHIT1 were assessed in the T2 progeny of three transgenic lines (L1, L8, and L10). The results showed that the introduction of McCHIT1-PAT into Lailong significantly enhanced herbicide and blast resistance. After infection with the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, all of the T2 progeny exhibited less severe lesion symptoms than those of wild type. The disease indices were 100% for wild type, 65.66% for T2 transgenic line L1, 59.69% for T2 transgenic line L8, and 79.80% for T2 transgenic line L10. Transgenic lines expressing McCHIT1-PAT did not show a significant difference from wild type in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves. However, after inoculation with M. oryzae, transgenic plants showed significantly higher SOD and PPO activities and lower MDA contents in leaves, compared with those in wild-type leaves. The transgenic and the wild-type plants did not show significant differences in grain yield parameters including plant height, panicles per plant, seeds per panicle, and 1000-grain weight. Therefore, the transgenic plants showed increased herbicide and blast resistance, with no yield penalty.

  15. The world-class Howard's Pass SEDEX Zn-Pb district, Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Part II: the roles of thermochemical and bacterial sulfate reduction in metal fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, Michael G.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Peter, Jan M.; Paradis, Suzanne; Jonasson, Ian R.

    2017-03-01

    The Howard's Pass district of sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Zn-Pb deposits is located in Yukon Territory and comprises 14 Zn-Pb deposits that contain an estimated 400.7 Mt of sulfide mineralization grading 4.5 % Zn and 1.5 % Pb. Mineralization is hosted in carbonaceous and calcareous and, to a lesser extent, siliceous mudstones. Pyrite is a minor but ubiquitous mineral in the host rocks stratigraphically above, within, and below mineralization. Petrographic analyses reveal that pyrite has a complex and protracted growth history, preserving multiple generations of pyrite within single grains. Sulfur isotope analysis of paragenetically complex pyrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals that sulfur isotope compositions vary with textural zonation. Within the Zn-Pb deposits, framboidal pyrite is the earliest pyrite generation recognized, and this exclusively has negative δ34S values (mean = -16.6 ± 4.1 ‰; n = 55), whereas paragenetically later pyrite and galena possess positive δ34S values (mean = 29.1 ± 7.5 and 22.4 ± 3.0 ‰, n = 13 and 13, respectively). Previous studies found that sphalerite and galena mineral separates have exclusively positive δ34S values (mean = 16.8 ± 3.3 and 12.7 ± 2.8 ‰, respectively; Goodfellow and Jonasson 1986). These distinct sulfur isotope values are interpreted to reflect varying contributions of bacterially reduced seawater sulfate (negative; framboidal pyrite) and thermochemically reduced seawater sulfate and/or hydrothermal sulfate (positive; galena, sphalerite, later forms of pyrite). Textural evidence indicates that framboidal pyrite predates galena and sphalerite deposition. Collectively, the in situ and bulk sulfur isotope data are much more complex than δ34S values permitted by prevailing genetic models that invoke only biogenically reduced sulfur and coeval deposition of galena, sphalerite, and framboidal pyrite within a euxinic water column, and we present several lines of evidence that argue

  16. Abnormal calcium metabolism in myotonic dystrophy as shown by the Ellsworth-Howard test and its relation to CTG triplet repeat length.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, M; Komori, T; Ohtake, T; Takahashi, R; Nagasawa, R; Hirose, K

    1997-10-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by peculiar clinical features. Its molecular basis is the unstable expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in the gene encoding myotonin protein kinase (Mt-PK), the nucleotide sequence of which has extensive homology to the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase gene. Extensive efforts have been made to clarify the signal transduction pathway in which the responsible gene operates, but confirming evidence has yet to be obtained. Because some symptoms in DM are similar to those in hypoparathyroidism, we divided 24 DM patients into two groups on the basis of their serum calcium levels; Group 1, those with normocalcemia (11 patients), and group 2, those with hypocalcemia (13 patients). The highly sensitive parathyroid hormone (HS-PTH) plasma levels in group 1 were within normal limits, whereas those in group 2 were abnormally high. Laboratory findings for the group 2 patients resembled those for pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), whereas those for group 1 patients were normal. The Ellsworth-Howard (EH) test was used to determine which type of PHP the group 2 patients belonged to. Both the phosphaturic (delta P) and urinary cAMP (UcAMP) responses were estimated. The delta P responses in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1, but their UcAMP responses did not differ. This is evidence that group 2 patients had PHP type II, whereas group 1 patients were normal. We also investigated whether the disease severity differed between the groups. Cataracts, ectopic calcifications, and ossifications, which are associated with PHP, were more frequent in group 2. In addition, the mean IQ in that group was significantly lower. Clinically, the group 2 signs agreed well with those of PHP, whereas for group 1 there was only a slight similarity. These results are additional evidence that the patients in group 2 have abnormal calcium metabolism, the abnormality being in the postadenylate cyclase

  17. The world-class Howard's Pass SEDEX Zn-Pb district, Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Part II: the roles of thermochemical and bacterial sulfate reduction in metal fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadd, Michael G.; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Peter, Jan M.; Paradis, Suzanne; Jonasson, Ian R.

    2016-07-01

    The Howard's Pass district of sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Zn-Pb deposits is located in Yukon Territory and comprises 14 Zn-Pb deposits that contain an estimated 400.7 Mt of sulfide mineralization grading 4.5 % Zn and 1.5 % Pb. Mineralization is hosted in carbonaceous and calcareous and, to a lesser extent, siliceous mudstones. Pyrite is a minor but ubiquitous mineral in the host rocks stratigraphically above, within, and below mineralization. Petrographic analyses reveal that pyrite has a complex and protracted growth history, preserving multiple generations of pyrite within single grains. Sulfur isotope analysis of paragenetically complex pyrite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals that sulfur isotope compositions vary with textural zonation. Within the Zn-Pb deposits, framboidal pyrite is the earliest pyrite generation recognized, and this exclusively has negative δ34S values (mean = -16.6 ± 4.1 ‰; n = 55), whereas paragenetically later pyrite and galena possess positive δ34S values (mean = 29.1 ± 7.5 and 22.4 ± 3.0 ‰, n = 13 and 13, respectively). Previous studies found that sphalerite and galena mineral separates have exclusively positive δ34S values (mean = 16.8 ± 3.3 and 12.7 ± 2.8 ‰, respectively; Goodfellow and Jonasson 1986). These distinct sulfur isotope values are interpreted to reflect varying contributions of bacterially reduced seawater sulfate (negative; framboidal pyrite) and thermochemically reduced seawater sulfate and/or hydrothermal sulfate (positive; galena, sphalerite, later forms of pyrite). Textural evidence indicates that framboidal pyrite predates galena and sphalerite deposition. Collectively, the in situ and bulk sulfur isotope data are much more complex than δ34S values permitted by prevailing genetic models that invoke only biogenically reduced sulfur and coeval deposition of galena, sphalerite, and framboidal pyrite within a euxinic water column, and we present several lines of evidence that argue

  18. Matrix notation for efficient development of first-principles models within PAT applications: integrated modeling of antibiotic production with Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Sin, Gürkan; Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Gernaey, Krist V

    2008-09-01

    A matrix notation coupled to macroscopic principles is introduced as a means to develop first- principles models in an efficient and structured way within PAT applications. The notation was evaluated for developing an integrated biological, chemical (pH modeling) and physical (gas-liquid exchange) model for describing antibiotic production with Streptomyces coelicolor in batch fermentations. The model provided statistically adequate fits to all the monitored macroscopic biological, chemical and physical data of the process, except the phosphate uptake dynamics. This phosphate discrepancy is hypothesized to result from the internal storage of phosphate as polyphosphate prior to the exponential growth phase. The antibiotic production was associated with the stationary phase and its kinetics was adequately described using a modified Luedeking-Piret equation. Further, the maintenance was best described by employing a combination of Pirt and Herbert models, a result that was supported by a model-based hypothesis testing. Overall the process knowledge currently incorporated in the model is believed to be useful both for process optimization purposes and for further testing of hypotheses aiming at improving the mechanistic understanding of antibiotic production with S. coelicolor. Last but not least, the matrix notation is believed to be a promising supporting tool for efficient development and communication of complex dynamic models within a PAT framework.

  19. Quality-by-Design (QbD): An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and process design space development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiquan; White, Maury; Khan, Mansoor A

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this work was to develop an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and design space development. A dynamic co-precipitation process by gradually introducing water to the ternary system of naproxen-Eudragit L100-alcohol was monitored at real-time in situ via Lasentec FBRM and PVM. 3D map of count-time-chord length revealed three distinguishable process stages: incubation, transition, and steady-state. The effects of high risk process variables (slurry temperature, stirring rate, and water addition rate) on both derived co-precipitation process rates and final chord-length-distribution were evaluated systematically using a 3(3) full factorial design. Critical process variables were identified via ANOVA for both transition and steady state. General linear models (GLM) were then used for parameter estimation for each critical variable. Clear trends about effects of each critical variable during transition and steady state were found by GLM and were interpreted using fundamental process principles and Nyvlt's transfer model. Neural network models were able to link process variables with response variables at transition and steady state with R(2) of 0.88-0.98. PVM images evidenced nucleation and crystal growth. Contour plots illustrated design space via critical process variables' ranges. It demonstrated the utility of integrated PAT approach for QbD development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the in-line monitoring and understanding of a powder blending process.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Bodson, C; Dejaegher, B; Walczak, B; Vercruysse, P; Burggraeve, A; Lemos, A; Delattre, L; Heyden, Y Vander; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Baeyens, W R G

    2008-11-04

    The aim of this study is to propose a strategy to implement a PAT system in the blending step of pharmaceutical production processes. It was examined whether Raman spectroscopy can be used as PAT tool for the in-line and real-time endpoint monitoring and understanding of a powder blending process. A screening design was used to identify and understand the significant effects of two process variables (blending speed and loading of the blender) and of a formulation variable (concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API): diltiazem hydrochloride) upon the required blending time (response variable). Interactions between the variables were investigated as well. A Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to determine the homogeneity of the blends in-line and real-time using Raman spectroscopy in combination with a fiber optical immersion probe. One blending experiment was monitored using Raman and NIR spectroscopy simultaneously. This was done to verify whether two independent monitoring tools can confirm each other's endpoint conclusions. The analysis of the experimental design results showed that the measured endpoints were excessively rounded due to the large measurement intervals relative to the first blending times. This resulted in effects and critical effects which cannot be interpreted properly. To be able to study the effects properly, the ratio between the blending times and the measurement intervals should be sufficiently high. In this study, it anyway was demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable PAT tool for the endpoint control of a powder blending process. Raman spectroscopy not only allowed in-line and real-time monitoring of the blend homogeneity, but also helped to understand the process better in combination with experimental design. Furthermore, the correctness of the Raman endpoint conclusions was demonstrated for one process by using a second independent endpoint monitoring tool (NIR spectroscopy

  1. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Singdevsachan, Sameer Kumar; Parida, Umesh Kumar; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, green synthesis and cost effective approach of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India is reported. The biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle analyser and scanning electron microscopy studies. It was found by dynamic light scattering analysis, that the average size and charges of the AgNPs were 133.0 ± 0.361 nm and -6.01 ± 5.30 mV, respectively. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared study was also conducted to identify the biomolecules or functional groups responsible for the reduction of Ag and stabilisation of the AgNPs. The potential biomedical application with reference to antimicrobial activity of the synthesised AgNPs was investigated against some pathogenic microorganisms viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri.

  2. Kagami-Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-02-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name 'Kagami-Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial 'gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  3. Kagami–Ogata syndrome: a clinically recognizable upd(14)pat and related disorder affecting the chromosome 14q32.2 imprinted region

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tsutomu; Kagami, Masayo

    2016-01-01

    Human chromosome 14q32.2 carries paternally expressed genes including DLK1 and RTL1, and maternally expressed genes including MEG3 and RTL1as, along with the germline-derived DLK1-MEG3 intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) and the postfertilization-derived MEG3-DMR. Consistent with this, paternal uniparental disomy 14 (upd(14)pat), and epimutations (hypermethylations) and microdeletions affecting the IG-DMR and/or the MEG3-DMR of maternal origin, result in a unique phenotype associated with characteristic face, a small bell-shaped thorax with coat-hanger appearance of the ribs, abdominal wall defects, placentomegaly and polyhydramnios. Recently, the name ‘Kagami–Ogata syndrome' (KOS) has been approved for this clinically recognizable disorder. Here, we review the current knowledge about KOS. Important findings include the following: (1) the facial ‘gestalt' and the increased coat-hanger angle constitute pathognomonic features from infancy through childhood/puberty; (2) the unmethylated IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR of maternal origin function as the imprinting control centers in the placenta and body respectively, with a hierarchical interaction regulated by the IG-DMR for the methylation pattern of the MEG3-DMR in the body; (3) RTL1 expression level becomes ~2.5 times increased in the absence of functional RTL1as-encoded microRNAs that act as a trans-acting repressor for RTL1; (4) excessive RTL1 expression and absent MEG expression constitute the primary underlying factor for the phenotypic development; and (5) upd(14)pat accounts for approximately two-thirds of KOS patients, and epimutations and microdeletions are identified with a similar frequency. Furthermore, we refer to diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26377239

  4. Increased heterocyst frequency by patN disruption in Anabaena leads to enhanced photobiological hydrogen production at high light intensity and high cell density.

    PubMed

    Masukawa, Hajime; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Hausinger, Robert P; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2017-03-01

    The effects of increasing the heterocyst-to-vegetative cell ratio on the nitrogenase-based photobiological hydrogen production by the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were studied. Using the uptake hydrogenase-disrupted mutant (ΔHup) as the parent, a deletion-insertion mutant (PN1) was created in patN, known to be involved in heterocyst pattern formation and leading to multiple singular heterocysts (MSH) in Nostoc punctiforme strain ATCC 29133. The PN1 strain showed heterocyst differentiation but failed to grow in medium free of combined-nitrogen; however, a spontaneous mutant (PN22) was obtained on prolonged incubation of PN1 liquid cultures and was able to grow robustly on N2. The disruption of patN was confirmed in both PN1 and PN22 by PCR and whole genome resequencing. Under combined-nitrogen limitation, the percentage of heterocysts to total cells in the PN22 filaments was 13-15 and 16-18% under air and 1% CO2-enriched air, respectively, in contrast to the parent ΔHup which formed 6.5-11 and 9.7-13% heterocysts in these conditions. The PN22 strain exhibited a MSH phenotype, normal diazotrophic growth, and higher H2 productivity at high cell concentrations, and was less susceptible to photoinhibition by strong light than the parent ΔHup strain, resulting in greater light energy utilization efficiency in H2 production on a per unit area basis under high light conditions. The increase in MSH frequency shown here appears to be a viable strategy for enhancing H2 productivity by outdoor cultures of cyanobacteria in high-light environments.

  5. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    PubMed

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Hormone signaling linked to silkmoth sex pheromone biosynthesis involves Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the insect PAT family protein Bombyx mori lipid storage droplet protein-1(BmLsd)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  7. CaMKII-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE BOMBYX MORI LIPID STORAGE DROPLET PROTEIN-1 (BmLsd1), AN INSECT PAT FAMILY PROTEIN, IS ESSENTIAL FOR SILKMOTH SEX PHEROMONE BIOSYNTHESIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  8. Polymorphic amplified typing sequences (PATS) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) yield comparable results in the strain typing of a diverse set of bovine Escherichia coli O157 isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The PCR-based Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strain typing system, Polymorphic Amplified Typing Sequences (PATS), targets insertions-deletions (Indels) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the XbaI and AvrII(BlnI) restriction enzyme sites, respectively, besides amplifying four known virulenc...

  9. Prospects for multivariate classification of a pharmaceutical intermediate with near-infrared spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) production control supplement.

    PubMed

    Märk, Julia; Andre, Max; Karner, Martin; Huck, Christian W

    2010-10-01

    NIR spectroscopy was applied to develop a fast and reliable quality control system for a pharmaceutical substance to support information obtained through PAT surveillance of its manufacturing process. After calculating different quantitative calibrations of the substance's key quality parameters, a general classification model has been derived to capture the over-all product grade. The final spectral quality conformity model consisting of 96 representative batches - covering high process variability - was sensibilized toward five important quality parameters by their incorporation as PLS responses. The model characteristics were extensively investigated and interpreted to derive a reasonable limit for the reduced chemometric summary quality measure (Hotteling's T(2)). Through this parameter new batches can be assessed easily by their NIR spectra, using versatile test batches for confirmation. Different sets of good quality batches, bad production batches beyond the respective chemical quality limit and synthetic batches exactly at the limit could be accurately assigned through their multivariate evaluation to a large extend. However, high model sensitivity to non-relevant product properties can lead to limited applicability of the model. This may be caused by restricted bandwidth of quality parameters in production environment for calibration, repack effects and high process instability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality by design (QbD), Process Analytical Technology (PAT), and design of experiment applied to the development of multifunctional sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Ariede, Maira Bueno; Candido, Thalita Marcilio; de Almeida, Tania Santos; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Consiglieri, Vladi Olga; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Baby, André Rolim

    2017-02-01

    Multifunctional formulations are of great importance to ensure better skin protection from harm caused by ultraviolet radiation (UV). Despite the advantages of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology approaches to the development and optimization of new products, we found in the literature only a few studies concerning their applications in cosmetic product industry. Thus, in this research work, we applied the QbD and PAT approaches to the development of multifunctional sunscreens containing bemotrizinol, ethylhexyl triazone, and ferulic acid. In addition, UV transmittance method was applied to assess qualitative and quantitative critical quality attributes of sunscreens using chemometrics analyses. Linear discriminant analysis allowed classifying unknown formulations, which is useful for investigation of counterfeit and adulteration. Simultaneous quantification of ethylhexyl triazone, bemotrizinol, and ferulic acid presented at the formulations was performed using PLS regression. This design allowed us to verify the compounds in isolation and in combination and to prove that the antioxidant action of ferulic acid as well as the sunscreen actions, since the presence of this component increased 90% of antioxidant activity in vitro.

  11. Attitudes of GPs to the diagnosis and management of impaired glucose tolerance: the practitioners' attitudes to hyperglycaemia (PAtH) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Fearn-Smith, J D G; Evans, P H; Harding, G; Campbell, J L

    2007-02-01

    To develop and pilot a survey instrument assessing general practitioners' (GP) attitudes to the diagnosis and management of one form of pre-diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to assess the performance of the questionnaire. Qualitative data together with an audit were used to generate questionnaire items, which were then subjected to a process of pre-piloting and piloting to generate a finalised item list. The pilot questionnaire was sent to 222 principal GPs in three PCTs in South West England. The first fifty responders were asked to complete the questionnaire again 2 weeks later. Principal components analysis with a Varimax rotation was used to detect latent factors within the data that may help to explain the attitudes of GPs. The response rate after one reminder was 54.1%. Four robust factors were identified which were internally consistent (range of Cronbach's alpha=0.79-0.65), homogeneous (item-total correlations=0.60-0.21), and stable (test-retest correlation=0.74-0.58) accounting for 31.1% of the variance. The predictive validity of the item list was assessed (P=0.02 for factor 1). The PAtH questionnaire identifies four factors that help to describe GPs attitudes to the diagnosis and management of IGT.

  12. Quality-by-Design (QbD): an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for real-time monitoring and mapping the state of a pharmaceutical coprecipitation process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiquan; Khan, Mansoor A

    2010-03-01

    In this work, an integrated PAT approach was developed for monitoring a pharmaceutical (naproxen) and a polymer (eudragit) coprecipitation process: real-time in-line near-infrared (NIR) absorbance monitoring, real-time on-line turbidity monitoring, and in situ crystal size monitoring. The data and information obtained through these three monitoring techniques confirmed the observation of the onsets of three distinct stages: incubation, nucleation, and crystal growth. The process trajectory constructed based on results of applying principal component analysis (PCA) to either process NIR spectra data or process turbidity profile, clearly demonstrated that various distinguishable process events, including incubation, nucleation, and crystal growth, could be accurately tracked and differentiated. These findings were further supported by process knowledge and information, such as process design, process sequence, thermodynamic and mass-transfer analysis. Therefore, this work provides a case study that illustrated a rational approach to develop a science-based and knowledge-based process monitoring strategy, which is essential for establishing both a suitable process control strategy and an operational process space for a pharmaceutical unit operation. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Combining microwave resonance technology to multivariate data analysis as a novel PAT tool to improve process understanding in fluid bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Vera; Herdling, Thorsten; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Lochmann, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A set of 192 fluid bed granulation batches at industrial scale were in-line monitored using microwave resonance technology (MRT) to determine moisture, temperature and density of the granules. Multivariate data analysis techniques such as multiway partial least squares (PLS), multiway principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate batch control charts were applied onto collected batch data sets. The combination of all these techniques, along with off-line particle size measurements, led to significantly increased process understanding. A seasonality effect could be put into evidence that impacted further processing through its influence on the final granule size. Moreover, it was demonstrated by means of a PLS that a relation between the particle size and the MRT measurements can be quantitatively defined, highlighting a potential ability of the MRT sensor to predict information about the final granule size. This study has contributed to improve a fluid bed granulation process, and the process knowledge obtained shows that the product quality can be built in process design, following Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) principles.

  14. A PAT approach to improve process understanding of high shear wet granulation through in-line particle measurement using FBRM C35.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Kaul, Goldi; Utz, Julia; Hernandez, Pedro; Wong, Victor; Bradley, Daragh; Nagi, Arwinder; O'Grady, Des

    2010-07-01

    This article summarizes the investigation of in-line particle characterization during high shear wet granulation (HSWG) using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) for enhanced process understanding, which is part of an effort to develop this drug product within the framework of quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT). Traditionally, the effectiveness of in-line monitoring of HSWG processes is hindered by wet and sticky material fouling the probe resulting in inconsistent and erroneous data collection. For this study, a FBRM C35 probe was used which incorporates a scraping mechanism to maintain a clean probe window ensuring consistent measurements throughout each batch. The evaluations were conducted on nine scale-up DOE development batches and eight clinical sub-lots. In the DOE campaign, the purpose of FBRM was used to study the impact of varying water amount and wet massing time on granule dimension and count during granulation, while batch-to-batch variation or batch reproducibility was evaluated under the same process conditions for the clinical batches. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the most optimal probe position was conducted. The results indicate that FBRM is capable of monitoring the rate and degree of change to granule dimension/count during HSWG, and could be a potential technique for granulation endpoint determination.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Watch-PAT 200 Is Independently Associated With an Increase in Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Never-Treated Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Mahn-Won; Her, Sung-Ho; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Tae-Seok

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and morning blood pressure surge in never-treated patients with essential hypertension. This prospective study included a total of 58 patients (mean age, 51.7 years; 55.2% men) with never-treated essential hypertension. The patients were divided into non-OSA (n=23, 49.3±12.7 years) and OSA (n=35, 53.2±9.8 years) groups. The OSA group was defined as having an apnea-hypopnea index level >5 as measured by the Watch-PAT 200. The authors collected 24-hour ambulatory BP, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma renin activity data from all of the patients. The measured sleep-trough morning systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases were higher in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (28.7±11.8 mm Hg vs 19.6±12.8 mm Hg, P=.008). The sleep-trough morning SBP increase was inversely correlated with the lowest oxygen saturation (r=-0.272, P=.039). OSA known to be associated with increased daytime and nocturnal sympathetic activity was associated with significantly higher sleep-trough morning SBP levels in this study.

  16. Implementation of an artificial neural network as a PAT tool for the prediction of temperature distribution within a pharmaceutical fluidized bed granulator.

    PubMed

    Korteby, Yasmine; Mahdi, Yassine; Azizou, Amel; Daoud, Kamel; Regdon, Géza

    2016-06-10

    In this study, a novel in-line measurement technique of the air temperature distribution during a granulation process using a conical fluidized bed was designed and built for the purpose of measuring the temperature under the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and introduced to predict the establishment of temperature profiles. Three sets of thermocouples were used, placed at different positions covering the whole operating range, connected to data acquisition measurement hardware, allowing an in-line acquisition and recording of temperatures every second. The measurements throughout the fluidized bed were performed in a steady state by spraying a solution of PVP onto a lactose monohydrate powder bed in order to make predictions of the temperature distribution and the hydrodynamics of the bed during the granulation process using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and to establish the different temperature profiles for different process conditions through the precise predicted information by the constructed, trained, validated and tested neural network. The model's testing results showed a strong prediction capacity of the effects of process variables. Indeed, the predicted temperature values obtained with the ANN model were in good agreement with the values measured with in-line reference method and hence the method can have an application as a predictive control tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new PAT/QbD approach for the determination of blend homogeneity: combination of on-line NIRS analysis with PC Scores Distance Analysis (PC-SDA).

    PubMed

    Puchert, T; Holzhauer, C-V; Menezes, J C; Lochmann, D; Reich, G

    2011-05-01

    A novel and straightforward multivariate analytical tool for the qualitative determination of powder blend uniformity using on-line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is presented. The approach combines current chemometric methods, e.g. spectral pre-processing and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), with (1) a new approach of data analysis to determine the end-point of the blending process, (2) building a design space (DS) for blend homogeneity and (3) developing a solid statistical rationale to stop blending according to Quality-by-Design (QbD) principles of FDA's Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative. The new approach comprises calculation of Euclidean distances between PCA scores in a multidimensional space and determination of Moving Block Standard Deviations (MBSDs) of successive Principal Component (PC) scores distances to estimate a time-window during blending where spectral variability decreases to a preset minimum. Hotelling's T(2) statistics is then used to monitor and report blend homogeneity. This technique is called "Principal Component Scores Distance Analysis" (PC-SDA). A Central Composite Design resulting in 10 batches mixed in a bin-blender (same composition, different blender fill level, different number of revolutions) was executed. NIR Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) in combination with Symmetry Parameter Image Analysis (SPIA) was used to verify the NIRS analyzer response and assess homogeneity of all NIR-active components. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Both Sm-domain and C-terminal extension of Lsm1 are important for the RNA-binding activity of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ashis; Raju, Kalidindi K; Kalurupalle, Swathi; Tharun, Sundaresan

    2012-05-01

    Lsm proteins are a ubiquitous family of proteins characterized by the Sm-domain. They exist as hexa- or heptameric RNA-binding complexes and carry out RNA-related functions. The Sm-domain is thought to be sufficient for the RNA-binding activity of these proteins. The highly conserved eukaryotic Lsm1 through Lsm7 proteins are part of the cytoplasmic Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, which is an activator of decapping in the conserved 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway. This complex also protects mRNA 3'-ends from trimming in vivo. Purified Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is able to bind RNA in vitro and exhibits a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNA (over polyadenylated and unadenylated RNA). Lsm1 is a key subunit that determines the RNA-binding properties of this complex. The normal RNA-binding activity of this complex is crucial for mRNA decay and 3'-end protection in vivo and requires the intact Sm-domain of Lsm1. Here, we show that though necessary, the Sm-domain of Lsm1 is not sufficient for the normal RNA-binding ability of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Deletion of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Lsm1 (while keeping the Sm-domain intact) impairs mRNA decay in vivo and results in Lsm1-7-Pat1 complexes that are severely impaired in RNA binding in vitro. Interestingly, the mRNA decay and 3'-end protection defects of such CTD-truncated lsm1 mutants could be suppressed in trans by overexpression of the CTD polypeptide. Thus, unlike most Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 uniquely requires both its Sm-domain and CTD for its normal RNA-binding function.

  19. Development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) for in-line monitoring of film thickness and mass of coating materials during a pan coating operation.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Genty, Muriel; Boiret, Mathieu; Julien, Marc; Meunier, Loïc; Lecoq, Olivier; Baron, Michel; Chaminade, Pierre; Péan, Jean Manuel

    2011-07-17

    The aim of this study was to perform in-line Near Infrared (NIR) measurements inside a pan coater to monitor a coating operation in real-time, by predicting the increases in mass of coating materials and coating thickness. A polymer combination of ethylcellulose/poly(vinyl-alcohol)-poly(ethylene-glycol) graft copolymer was used as functional aqueous coating. Coated tablets were sampled at regular intervals during the coating operation, then subjected to either simple and fast weighing (n=50) or accurate and non-destructive Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) measurements (n=3). Off-line NIR spectra analysis revealed that the coating operation could efficiently be controlled by focusing on two distinct NIR regions, related to absorption bands of ethylcellulose. Principal component analysis of in-line NIR spectra gave a clear classification of the collected coated tablets. Real-time quantitative monitoring of the coating operation was successfully performed from partial least square calibration models built using either TPI or weighing as reference method. Coating thicknesses as well as mass of coating materials used as primary values provided accurate NIR predictions. A comparison study demonstrated that both reference methods led to reliable and accurate real-time monitoring of the coating operation. This work demonstrated that in-line NIR measurements associated with multivariate analyses can be implemented to monitor in real-time a pan coating operation in order to fulfil the expectations of ICH Q8 guideline on pharmaceutical development, especially in terms of PAT control strategy and reduced end-product testing.

  20. The H+/K+-ATPase inhibitory activities of Trametenolic acid B from Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, and its effects on gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Huang, Nianyu; Wang, Junzhi; Luo, Huajun; He, Haibo; Ding, Mingruo; Deng, Wei-Qiao; Zou, Kun

    2013-09-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB), the bioactive component in the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat, was reported to possess cytotoxic activities and thrombin inhibiting effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of TAB on H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and gastric cancer. The H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity was determined by gastric parietal cells. Compared to the normal control group, TAB (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL) inhibited the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by 15.97, 16.96, 24.86 and 16.25%, respectively. In the study, 36 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, TAB-L (TAB, 5 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-M (TAB, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.), TAB-H (TAB, 40 mg/kg/day, i.g.) and omeprazole (OL, 10 mg/kg/day, i.g.). All mice except the control group were administrated with anhydrous alcohol (5.0 mL/kg, i.g.) for induced gastric-ulcer 1h after the 5th day. At the same time, the control mice were given the same volume of physiological saline. After 4h, TAB was evaluated for H(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of ulcerative gaster, gastric ulcer index and ulcer inhibition. In vitro, the anti-proliferation effect of TAB to gastric cancer cell (HGC-27) in acid environment was detected by MTT, and the apoptosis morphological changes were also observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay. The results indicated that TAB inhibited moderately H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro. Compared to the model group, TAB showed anti-ulcer effects in gastric tissue with the dosages of 20 and 5 mg/kg in vivo. Apart from that, TAB could selectively inhibit gastric cancer cell viability and reduce cell apoptosis against HGC-27 cells at low doses in acid environment.