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Sample records for hpge detector efficiencies

  1. A software package using a mesh-grid method for simulating HPGe detector efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, Russell E; Jackman, Kevin R; Biegalski, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin's Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end. and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown. this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  2. A Software Package Using a Mesh-grid Method for Simulating HPGe Detector Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jackman

    2009-10-01

    Traditional ways of determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are often time consuming, cost prohibitive, or not feasible. A software package, KMESS (Kevin’s Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to assist in predicting these efficiencies. It uses a semiempirical mesh-grid method and works for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a large enough collection of point sources. The code is readily adaptable, has a web-based graphical front-end, and could easily be coupled to a 3D scanner. As will be shown, this software can estimate absolute full-energy peak efficiencies with good accuracy in reasonable computation times. It has applications to the field of gamma-ray spectroscopy because it is a quick and accurate way to assist in performing quantitative analyses using HPGe detectors.

  3. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aucott, Timothy; Brand, Alexander; DiPrete, David

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  4. Evaluation of ANGLE(R), a code for calculating HPGe detector efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, Victoria M

    2010-10-25

    This paper evaluates the ANGLE(reg sign) software package, an advanced efficiency calibration software for high purity germanium detectors that is distributed by ORTEC(reg sign). ANGLE(reg sign) uses a semi-empirical approach, by way of the efficiency transfer method, based on the calculated effective solid angle. This approach would have an advantage over the traditional relative and stochastic methods by decreasing the chances for systematic errors and reducing sensitivity to uncertainties in detector parameters. For experimental confirmation, a closed-end coaxial HPGe detector was used with sample geometries frequently encountered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results obtained were sufficient for detector-source configurations which included intercepting layers of plexiglass and carbon graphite, but somewhat insufficient for bare source configurations.

  5. Experimental HPGe coaxial detector response and efficiency compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Nora L; Vanin, Vito R; García-Alvarez, Juan A; Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    The peak efficiency for photons hitting the frontal surface of a medium volume n-type HPGe coaxial detector is mapped using acutely collimated beams of energies between 31 and 383 keV from a (133)Ba radioactive source. Simulated values obtained with the Monte Carlo radiation transport code penelope, using a model that respected actual detector dimensions and physical constants while varying dead-layer thicknesses, allowed us to fit the experimental results in the detector bulk but not near its rim. The spectra of a (137)Cs source were measured using the detector shielded from the natural background radiation, with and without a broad angle collimator. The corresponding simulated spectra, using the fitted dead-layer thicknesses, underestimate the continuum component of the spectra and overestimate the peak efficiency, by less than ten percent in the broad angle collimator arrangement. The simulated results are sensitive to the photon attenuation coefficients.

  6. New approach for calibration the efficiency of HpGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Siong, W. B.; Elias, M. S.

    2014-02-12

    This work evaluates the efficiency calibrating of HpGe detector coupled with Canberra GC3018 with Genie 2000 software and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C with Gamma Vision software; available at Neutron activation analysis laboratory in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The efficiency calibration curve was constructed from measurement of an IAEA, standard gamma–point sources set composed by {sup 214}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The efficiency calibrations were performed for three different geometries: 5, 10 and 15 cm distances from the end cap detector. The polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points. The efficiency equation was established from the known fitted parameters which allow for the efficiency evaluation at particular energy of interest. The study shows that significant deviations in the efficiency, depending on the source-detector distance and photon energy.

  7. Close-geometry efficiency calibration of p-type HPGe detectors with a Cs-134 point source.

    PubMed

    DeFelice, P; Fazio, A; Vidmar, T; Korun, M

    2006-01-01

    When close-geometry detector calibration is required in gamma-ray spectrometry, single-line emitters are usually used in order to avoid true coincidence summing effects. We managed to overcome this limitation by developing a method for the determination of the efficiency of p-type HPGe detectors in close-geometry with a calibrated Cs-134 point source. No separate determination of coincidence summing correction factors is required and a single measurement furnishes the full-energy-peak efficiencies in the 475-1365 keV energy range.

  8. Efficiency transfer in the calibration of a coaxial p-type HpGe detector using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M Jurado; Díaz, N Cornejo; Sánchez, D Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the efficiency transfer exercise described in the EUROMET428 project (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55 (2001) 493), evaluating the peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices. The efficiency values were derived in two ways: (a) by direct calculation taking into account the physical dimensions of the detector provided by the supplier, and (b) by means of relative computation (efficiency transfer) taking also into consideration the known efficiency values for a reference point source. As expected, some significant discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values were found when a direct computation was made using the data provided by the supplier. On the contrary, the results for the peak efficiency derived by relative calculation by means of an efficiency transfer were in good agreement with the experimental values. The deviations found with this last procedure were generally below 5% for all the geometries considered, which is entirely satisfactory for the purposes of routine measurements.

  9. Monte Carlo based geometrical model for efficiency calculation of an n-type HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Fatima Padilla; Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Bernal-Castillo, Jose Luis; Martinez-Palenzuela, Yisel; Aguilar-Mena, Jimmy; D'Alessandro, Katia; Arbelo, Yuniesky; Corrales, Yasser; Diaz, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    A procedure to optimize the geometrical model of an n-type detector is described. Sixteen lines from seven point sources ((241)Am, (133)Ba, (22)Na, (60)Co, (57)Co, (137)Cs and (152)Eu) placed at three different source-to-detector distances (10, 20 and 30 cm) were used to calibrate a low-background gamma spectrometer between 26 and 1408 keV. Direct Monte Carlo techniques using the MCNPX 2.6 and GEANT 4 9.2 codes, and a semi-empirical procedure were performed to obtain theoretical efficiency curves. Since discrepancies were found between experimental and calculated data using the manufacturer parameters of the detector, a detail study of the crystal dimensions and the geometrical configuration is carried out. The relative deviation with experimental data decreases from a mean value of 18-4%, after the parameters were optimized.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the HPGe detector efficiency for radioactivity measurement of large volume environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Azbouche, Ahmed; Belgaid, Mohamed; Mazrou, Hakim

    2015-08-01

    A fully detailed Monte Carlo geometrical model of a High Purity Germanium detector with a (152)Eu source, packed in Marinelli beaker, was developed for routine analysis of large volume environmental samples. Then, the model parameters, in particular, the dead layer thickness were adjusted thanks to a specific irradiation configuration together with a fine-tuning procedure. Thereafter, the calculated efficiencies were compared to the measured ones for standard samples containing (152)Eu source filled in both grass and resin matrices packed in Marinelli beaker. From this comparison, a good agreement between experiment and Monte Carlo calculation results was obtained highlighting thereby the consistency of the geometrical computational model proposed in this work. Finally, the computational model was applied successfully to determine the (137)Cs distribution in soil matrix. From this application, instructive results were achieved highlighting, in particular, the erosion and accumulation zone of the studied site.

  11. Precise efficiency calibration of an HPGe detector up to 3.5 MeV, with measurements and Monte Carlo calculations.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R G; Nica, N; Hardy, J C; Iacob, V E

    2004-01-01

    Previously we used relative and absolute efficiency measurements combined with Monte Carlo calculations to define the efficiency of an HPGe gamma-ray detector with 0.2% accuracy from 50 to 1400 keV. This work has been extended to 4.8 MeV with measurements of relative efficiencies from 24Na, 56Co, and 66Ga sources. The combined results of experiment and calculation yield an efficiency curve up to 3.5 MeV with 0.4% accuracy. Single- and double-escape peak contributions also agree with calculation if positron annihilation-in-flight is incorporated.

  12. Monte Carlo analysis of the influence of germanium dead layer thickness on the HPGe gamma detector experimental efficiency measured by use of extended sources.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; García, F Piñero; El Bardouni, T; Ferro-García, M Angeles; Azahra, M; Benaalilou, K; Krikiz, M; Elyaakoubi, H; El Bakkali, J; Kaddour, M

    2014-09-22

    We have carried out a study to figure out the influence of crystal inactive-layer thickness on gamma spectra measured by an HPGe detector. The thickness of this dead layer (DL) is not known (no information about it was delivered by the manufacturer) due to the existence of a transition zone where photons are increasingly absorbed. To perform this analyses a virtual model of a Canberra HPGe detector was produced with the aid of MCNPX 2.7 code. The main objective of this work is to produce an optimal modeling for our GPGe detector. To this end, the study included the analysis of the total inactive germanium layer thickness and the active volume that are needed in order to obtain the smallest discrepancy between calculated and experimental efficiencies. Calculations and measurements were performed for all of the radionuclides included in a standard calibration gamma cocktail solution. Different geometry sources were used: a Marinelli and two other new sources represented as S(1) and S(2). The former was used for the determination of the active volume, whereas the two latter were used for the determination of the face and lateral DL, respectively. The model was validated by comparing calculated and experimental full energy peak efficiencies in the 50-1900keV energy range. the results show that the insertion of the DL parameter in the modeling is absolutely essential to reproduce the experimental results, and that the thickness of this DL varies from one position to the other on the detector surface.

  13. Inverted Coaxial HPGe Segmented Point Contact Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salathe, Marco; Crawford, Heather; Cooper, Ren; Radford, David

    2016-09-01

    The inverted coaxial segmented HPGe point contact detector is a new device being characterized for use in gamma-ray tracking arrays. It is expected to have an excellent position resolution, particularly for simultaneously occurring multiple interactions. However, the characteristic long charge carrier drift path of this technology, combined with trapping and loss of charge carriers, leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A prototype produced from n-type material, consisting of 20 segments, has been characterized in a lab environment with a variety of collimated and uncollimated sources. Results from this study show that the signal decomposition from this detector not only allows the reconstruction of the interaction positions, but also can be used to correct the degraded energy resolution and restore the characteristic HPGe resolution. This work is supported by LBNL-LDRD funding under LDRD #NS16-128, and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  14. Spectroscopy of Actinide Nuclei - Perspectives with Position Sensitive HPGe Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Kotthaus, T.

    Recent advances in in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of actinide nuclei are based on highly efficient arrays of escape-suppressed spectrometers. The sensitivity of these detector arrays is greatly enhanced by the combination with powerful mass separators or particle detector systems. This technique is demonstrated by an experiment to investigate excited states in 234U after the one-neutron-transfer reaction 235U(d,t). In coincidence with the outgoing tritons, γ-rays were detected with the highly efficient MINIBALL spectrometer. In the near future an even enhanced sensitivity will be achieved by utilizing position sensitive HPGe detectors which will exploit the novel detection method of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented germanium detectors. An example for this novel approach is the investigation neutron-rich actinide Th and U nuclei after multi nucleon transfer reactions employing the AGATA demonstrator and PRISMA setup at LNL, Italy. A primary 136Xe beam hitting a 238U target was used to produce the nuclei of interest. Beam-like reaction products after neutron transfer were selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. Coincident γ-rays from excited states in beam and target like particles were measured with the position sensitive AGATA HPGe detectors. Improved Doppler correction and quality of the γ-spectra is based on the novel γ-ray tracking technique, which was successfully exploited in this region.

  15. Characterization and modeling of a low background HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokania, N.; Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S.; Nanal, V.; Pal, S.; Pillay, R. G.

    2014-05-01

    A high efficiency, low background counting setup has been made at TIFR consisting of a special HPGe detector (~ 70 %) surrounded by a low activity copper+lead shield. Detailed measurements are performed with point and extended geometry sources to obtain a complete response of the detector. An effective model of the detector has been made with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations which agrees with experimental data within 5%. This setup will be used for qualification and selection of radio-pure materials to be used in a cryogenic bolometer for the study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in 124Sn as well as for other rare event studies. Using this setup, radio-impurities in the rock sample from India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) site have been estimated.

  16. Gamma-ray imaging with coaxial HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Schmid, G J; Beckedahl, D; Kammeraad, J; Blair, J

    2005-04-12

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of Compton imaging of gamma rays with a single coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. This imaging capability is realized by two-dimensional segmentation of the outside contact in combination with digital pulse-shape analysis, which enables to image gamma rays in 4{pi} without employing a collimator. We are able to demonstrate the ability to image the 662keV gamma ray from a {sup 137}Cs source with preliminary event selection with an angular accuracy of 5 degree with an relative efficiency of 0.2%. In addition to the 4{pi} imaging capability, such a system is characterized by its excellent energy resolution and can be implemented in any size possible for Ge detectors to achieve high efficiency.

  17. Compton imaging with a highly-segmented, position-sensitive HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, T.; Hirsch, R.; Reiter, P.; Birkenbach, B.; Bruyneel, B.; Eberth, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Lewandowski, L.; Maier, L.; Schlarb, M.; Weiler, B.; Winkel, M.

    2017-02-01

    A Compton camera based on a highly-segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) was developed, tested, and put into operation; the origin of γ radiation was determined successfully. The Compton camera is operated in two different modes. Coincidences from Compton-scattered γ-ray events between DSSD and HPGe detector allow for best angular resolution; while the high-efficiency mode takes advantage of the position sensitivity of the highly-segmented HPGe detector. In this mode the setup is sensitive to the whole 4π solid angle. The interaction-point positions in the 36-fold segmented large-volume HPGe detector are determined by pulse-shape analysis (PSA) of all HPGe detector signals. Imaging algorithms were developed for each mode and successfully implemented. The angular resolution sensitively depends on parameters such as geometry, selected multiplicity and interaction-point distances. Best results were obtained taking into account the crosstalk properties, the time alignment of the signals and the distance metric for the PSA for both operation modes. An angular resolution between 13.8° and 19.1°, depending on the minimal interaction-point distance for the high-efficiency mode at an energy of 1275 keV, was achieved. In the coincidence mode, an increased angular resolution of 4.6° was determined for the same γ-ray energy.

  18. Support of low-level instrument background for HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. D.; Starostin, A. S.; Kuzmenko, V. I.; Rozite, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    The development results for the cryostats with the low-level of instrument background supported by special design, the reduction of mass of the materials surrounding detector and application of the materials with very low content of radiation impurities are presented. The development results for HPGe detector with ultra low-level of instrument background for gamma spectrometer under the GEMMA project for investigation of the neutrino magnetic moment are presented. (authors)

  19. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Alnour, I. A. E-mail: ibrahim.elnour@yahoo.com; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S.; Siong, W. B.

    2016-01-22

    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  20. A repair station for HpGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, Robert; Lister, Christopher; Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, Patrick; Jepeal, Steven; Chowdhury, Partha

    2013-10-01

    Hyper-pure Germanium detectors (HpGe) offer the highest energy resolution for gamma-ray nuclear spectroscopy (about 1.5 keV @ 1 MeV), and are used in all the world's leading detector arrays such as GammaSphere, AGATA and GRETINA. The detector crystals are operated in cryostats at 100 K to reduce thermal noise. To maintain low leakage current and low operating temperatures, cryostat hygiene is very important. Detectors must be regularly maintained by using a high-vacuum, oil-free annealing station. At elevated temperatures above 373 K the process of pumping and baking can also anneal away neutron damage to the detector crystals. This poster will show the design and building of a new HpGe repair station at U. Mass Lowell, and make comparisons of results obtained from this new station to the Gammasphere annealing factory at Argonne. This research is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Safety Administration and the Office of Science.

  1. A novel technique for detection efficiency determination of HPGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, Pouneh; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Tabasi, Mohsen; Afarideh, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present an experimental method to determine the detection efficiency of HPGe when the reference source according to the geometry of interest is not accessible. We use known activity point sources (PS) of 152Eu, 137Cs, 241Am and 133Ba to find the detection efficiency for disc source (DS) geometry. It can be assumed that a DS consists of several PS's. Mapping the detector surface by means of 137Cs PS shows that there is radial symmetry for detection efficiency vs. energy. Each radial distance on the detector surface contains some points, which can be considered as a PS. By selecting two points in two different radii and central point, the DS efficiency is obtained. To ensure that the method is correct, we measure the activity of a known activity DS considering DS efficiency obtained by PS's. The DS comprises 137Cs, 133Ba and 60Co. The relative difference between the measured and the reported activity of DS in most energies is less than 5%.

  2. Pulse shape analysis and position determination in segmented HPGe detectors: The AGATA detector library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyneel, B.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.

    2016-03-01

    The AGATA Detector Library (ADL) was developed for the calculation of signals from highly segmented large volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. ADL basis sets comprise a huge amount of calculated position-dependent detector pulse shapes. A basis set is needed for Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). By means of PSA the interaction position of a γ-ray inside the active detector volume is determined. Theoretical concepts of the calculations are introduced and cover the relevant aspects of signal formation in HPGe. The approximations and the realization of the computer code with its input parameters are explained in detail. ADL is a versatile and modular computer code; new detectors can be implemented in this library. Measured position resolutions of the AGATA detectors based on ADL are discussed.

  3. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  4. Efficiency transfer using the GEANT4 code of CERN for HPGe gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chagren, S; Ben Tekaya, M; Reguigui, N; Gharbi, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we apply the GEANT4 code of CERN to calculate the peak efficiency in High Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry using three different procedures. The first is a direct calculation. The second corresponds to the usual case of efficiency transfer between two different configurations at constant emission energy assuming a reference point detection configuration and the third, a new procedure, consists on the transfer of the peak efficiency between two detection configurations emitting the gamma ray in different energies assuming a "virtual" reference point detection configuration. No pre-optimization of the detector geometrical characteristics was performed before the transfer to test the ability of the efficiency transfer to reduce the effect of the ignorance on their real magnitude on the quality of the transferred efficiency. The obtained and measured efficiencies were found in good agreement for the two investigated methods of efficiency transfer. The obtained agreement proves that Monte Carlo method and especially the GEANT4 code constitute an efficient tool to obtain accurate detection efficiency values. The second investigated efficiency transfer procedure is useful to calibrate the HPGe gamma detector for any emission energy value for a voluminous source using one point source detection efficiency emitting in a different energy as a reference efficiency. The calculations preformed in this work were applied to the measurement exercise of the EUROMET428 project. A measurement exercise where an evaluation of the full energy peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices was performed.

  5. Calculation of Coincidence Summing Correction Factors for an HPGe detector using GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Giubrone, G; Ortiz, J; Gallardo, S; Martorell, S; Bas, M C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to calculate the True Coincidence Summing Correction Factors (TSCFs) for an HPGe coaxial detector in order to correct the summing effect as a result of the presence of (88)Y and (60)Co in a multigamma source used to obtain a calibration efficiency curve. Results were obtained for three volumetric sources using the Monte Carlo toolkit, GEANT4. The first part of this paper deals with modeling the detector in order to obtain a simulated full energy peak efficiency curve. A quantitative comparison between the measured and simulated values was made across the entire energy range under study. The True Summing Correction Factors were calculated for (88)Y and (60)Co using the full peak efficiencies obtained with GEANT4. This methodology was subsequently applied to (134)Cs, and presented a complex decay scheme.

  6. Gamma-gamma coincidence performance of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors vs HPGe detectors in high count-rate scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Drescher, A.; Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S.; ...

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a radiation detection system consisting of two cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors in a gamma-gamma coincidence configuration has been used to demonstrate the advantages that coincident detection provides relative to a single detector, and the advantages that LaBr3:Ce detectors provide relative to high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Signal to noise ratios of select photopeak pairs for these detectors have been compared to high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in both single and coincident detector configurations in order to quantify the performance of each detector configuration. The efficiency and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce detectors have been determined andmore » compared to HPGe detectors. Coincident gamma-ray pairs from the radionuclides 152Eu and 133Ba have been identified in a sample that is dominated by 137Cs. Gamma-gamma coincidence successfully reduced the Compton continuum from the large 137Cs peak, revealed several coincident gamma energies characteristic of these nuclides, and improved the signal-to-noise ratio relative to single detector measurements. LaBr3:Ce detectors performed at count rates multiple times higher than can be achieved with HPGe detectors. The standard background spectrum consisting of peaks associated with transitions within the LaBr3:Ce crystal has also been significantly reduced. Finally, it is shown that LaBr3:Ce detectors have the unique capability to perform gamma-gamma coincidence measurements in very high count rate scenarios, which can potentially benefit nuclear safeguards in situ measurements of spent nuclear fuel.« less

  7. Gamma-gamma coincidence performance of LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors vs HPGe detectors in high count-rate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Drescher, A; Yoho, M; Landsberger, S; Durbin, M; Biegalski, S; Meier, D; Schwantes, J

    2017-04-01

    A radiation detection system consisting of two cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors in a gamma-gamma coincidence configuration has been used to demonstrate the advantages that coincident detection provides relative to a single detector, and the advantages that LaBr3:Ce detectors provide relative to high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Signal to noise ratios of select photopeak pairs for these detectors have been compared to high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in both single and coincident detector configurations in order to quantify the performance of each detector configuration. The efficiency and energy resolution of LaBr3:Ce detectors have been determined and compared to HPGe detectors. Coincident gamma-ray pairs from the radionuclides (152)Eu and (133)Ba have been identified in a sample that is dominated by (137)Cs. Gamma-gamma coincidence successfully reduced the Compton continuum from the large (137)Cs peak, revealed several coincident gamma energies characteristic of these nuclides, and improved the signal-to-noise ratio relative to single detector measurements. LaBr3:Ce detectors performed at count rates multiple times higher than can be achieved with HPGe detectors. The standard background spectrum consisting of peaks associated with transitions within the LaBr3:Ce crystal has also been significantly reduced. It is shown that LaBr3:Ce detectors have the unique capability to perform gamma-gamma coincidence measurements in very high count rate scenarios, which can potentially benefit nuclear safeguards in situ measurements of spent nuclear fuel.

  8. HPGe well-type detectors for neutron activation measurements on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bertalot, L.; Damiani, M.; Esposito, B.; Lagamba, L.; Podda, S.; Batistoni, P.; De Felice, P.; Biagini, R.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an improvement of the neutron activation system in operation on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) tokamak for the measurement of the total neutron yield. A HPGe well-type detector (200 cm{sup 3} active volume) is used to detect the photoemission from neutron activated samples ({sup 115m}In336.2 keV {gamma} rays from DD neutrons on indium for FTU). Due to their high geometrical efficiency, HPGe well-type detectors are particularly suited to the FTU low-level activity measurements. A particular effort has been devoted to the calibration of the measuring system. In particular, a multi-{gamma} calibration source (59{endash}1332 keV energy range) with a density of 7.31 g/cm{sup 3} consisting of a stack of indium foils has been prepared. This assures that the shape and volume of the calibration source are the same as those of the samples used in the actual measurements. The full-energy-peak efficiency at the {sup 115m}In336.2 keV line is 0.197 with an overall uncertainty of 2{percent} (1{sigma}). For a better characterization of the detector response as a function of the sample density, a further calibration source with the same geometry has been prepared in a gel aqueous solution (density {approximately}1 g/cm{sup 3}). The calibration curves for the well-type detector at the two different density values are compared. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques applied to the study of an HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, E. do; Vanin, V. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Silva, T. F.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.

    2013-05-06

    Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy of the large Ge crystal of an HPGe detector was performed using positrons from pair production of 6.13 MeV {gamma}-rays from the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction. Two HPGe detectors facing opposite sides of the Ge crystal acting as target provided both coincidence and singles spectra. Changes in the shape of the annihilation peak were observed when the high voltage applied to the target detector was switched on or off, amounting to somewhat less than 20% when the areas of equivalent energy intervals in the corresponding normalized spectra are compared.

  10. Theoretical consideration of the energy resolution in planar HPGe detectors for low energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, theoretical consideration of the processes in planar High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors for low energy X-rays using the random stochastic processes formalism was carried out. Using the random stochastic processes formalism, the generating function of the processes of X-rays registration in a planar HPGe detector was derived. The power serial expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage were derived. The coefficients of these expansions allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, nonuniformity of the trap density, and other characteristics of the semiconductor material. (authors)

  11. Application of GEANT4 simulation on calibration of HPGe detectors for cylindrical environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J D; Jokovic, D; Todorovic, D; Rajacic, M

    2014-06-01

    The determination of radionuclide activity concentration requires a prior knowledge of the full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency at all photon energies for a given measuring geometry. This problem has been partially solved by using procedures based on Monte Carlo simulations, developed in order to complement the experimental calibration procedures used in gamma-ray measurements of environmental samples. The aim of this article is to apply GEANT4 simulation for calibration of two HPGe detectors, for measurement of liquid and soil-like samples in cylindrical geometry. The efficiencies obtained using a simulation were compared with experimental results, and applied to a realistic measurement. Measurement uncertainties for both simulation and experimental values were estimated in order to see whether the results of the realistic measurement fall within acceptable limits. The trueness of the result was checked using the known activity of the measured samples provided by IAEA.

  12. HPGe detector shielding optimization with MCNPX for the MEDINA PGNAA cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste repositories must guarantee the non-toxicity of the waste in the long term, not only regarding radioactivity but also regarding other environmental contamination such as toxic chemicals. Analytical methods already exist for chemical characterization (ICP-MS, ICP-AES...) but they are based on test sampling. A possible alternative, for waste packages with an appropriate gamma radiation level, is to use Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), a non-destructive measurement technique sensitive to several toxic chemicals. In view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France, collaboration between the CEA Cadarache (France) and the Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany) was initiated a few years ago. FZJ holds a PGNAA graphite cell called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), allowing the characterization of 225 L drums. Fast neutrons are emitted from a D-T pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator and thermalized in graphite to induced radiative captures in the waste materials. Prompt capture gamma rays are detected using a 104% relative efficiency n-type HPGe. However, HPGe crystal is sensitive to fast neutron damage and to thermal neutron activation. A thermal neutron shield made of lithium fluorine and lithium carbonate is already used around the detector. In order to further decrease the current of fast and thermal neutrons coming into the crystal without penalizing MEDINA sensitivity (by decreasing the thermal neutron flux and neutron die away time of the cell, the gamma detection efficiency, or increasing the gamma background), some configurations based on easy-to-implement modifications of MEDINA have been simulated with MCNPX with a model of the cell already validated by experiments. Results show that fast and thermal neutron incoming current in the HPGe could easily be reduced by about a factor of 2 by additional quantities of graphite and by replacing lithium carbonate by lithium

  13. New analytical approach to calibrate the co-axial HPGe detectors including correction for source matrix self-attenuation.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Mohamed S; Gouda, Mona M; Nafee, Sherif S; El-Khatib, Ahmed M; El-Mallah, Ekram A

    2012-12-01

    To calibrate the co-axial HPGe semiconductor detectors, we introduce a new theoretical approach based on the Direct Statistical method proposed by Selim and Abbas (1995, 1996) to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency for cylindrical detectors. The present method depends on the accurate analytical calculation of the average path length covered by the photon inside the detector active volume and the geometrical solid angle Ω, to obtain a simple formula for the efficiency. In addition, the self attenuation coefficient of the source matrix (with a radius greater than the detector's radius), the attenuation factors of the source container and the detector housing materials are also treated by calculating the average path length within these materials. (152)Eu aqueous radioactive sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. Remarkable agreement between the measured and the calculated efficiencies was achieved with discrepancies less than 2%.

  14. Phenomenological Model for Predicting the Energy Resolution of Neutron-Damaged Coaxial HPGe Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    C. DeW. Van Siclen; E. H. Seabury; C. J. Wharton; A. J. Caffrey

    2012-10-01

    The peak energy resolution of germanium detectors deteriorates with increasing neutron fluence. This is due to hole capture at neutron-created defects in the crystal which prevents the full energy of the gamma-ray from being recorded by the detector. A phenomenological model of coaxial HPGe detectors is developed that relies on a single, dimensionless parameter that is related to the probability for immediate trapping of a mobile hole in the damaged crystal. As this trap parameter is independent of detector dimensions and type, the model is useful for predicting energy resolution as a function of neutron fluence.

  15. Comparison of the NDA of HEU Oxide between the AWCC and the HPGe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L. G.; Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Dukes, E. E.; Akin, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper compares the performance of the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) with the performance of high resolution gamma spectrometry using an HPGe detector to nondestructively assay highly enriched (HEU) oxide. Traditionally the AWCC was considered to be the more appropriate instrument for this measurement. Although the AWCC had a high degree of precision, the HPGe provided the more accurate measurement of this material. The AWCC determines mass of U-235 from the coincident pairs of neutron detections, or doubles rate. The HPGe determines the mass of both U-235 and U238, the enrichment, and the quantity of other radioisotopes. The Tl-208 gamma rays were used to verify the amount of attenuation for the HPGe analysis. Fifty-four cans of enriched U3O8 were shipped to the Y-12 National Security Complex from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under Scrap Declaration LANL-45. The declared values for net weight, mass of uranium, mass of U-235, and enrichment (percent mass of U-235 to total uranium) are shown in Table A-1. The masses of U-235 range from 104g to 2404g and the enrichment varies from 20% to 98%.

  16. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bounds, John Alan

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  17. Axes determination for segmented true-coaxial HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, J.; Majorovits, B.; Petrov, P.; Volynets, O.

    2012-03-01

    A fast method to determine the crystallographic axes of segmented true-coaxial high-purity germanium detectors is presented. It is based on the analysis of segment-occupancy patterns obtained by irradiation with radioactive sources. The measured patterns are compared to predictions for different axes orientations. The predictions require a simulation of the trajectories of the charge carriers taking the transverse anisotropy of their drift into account.

  18. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  19. Half-life measurements of lutetium-176 using underground HPGe-detectors.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Vidmar, Tim; Rosengård, Ulf; Marissens, Gerd; Lutter, Guillaume; Sahin, Namik

    2014-05-01

    The half-life of (176)Lu was determined by measuring the (176)Lu activity in metallic lutetium foils. Three different HPGe-detectors located 225 m underground were employed for the study. Measurements using the sum-peak method were performed and resulted in an average massic activity of (52.61±0.36) Bq g(-1). The foils were of natural isotopic abundance so using the massic activity and the value of the natural isotopic abundance of (2.59±0.01)%, a half-life of (3.722±0.029)×10(10)a could be calculated.

  20. True coincidence summing corrections for an extended energy range HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Venegas-Argumedo, Y.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2015-07-23

    True coincidence summing (TCS) effect for natural radioactive families of U-238 and Th-232 represents a problem when an environmental sample with a close source-detector geometry measurement is performed. By using a certified multi-nuclide standard source to calibrate an energy extended range (XtRa) HPGe detector, it is possible to obtain an intensity spectrum slightly affected by the TCS effect with energies from 46 to 1836 keV. In this work, the equations and some other considerations required to calculate the TCS correction factor for isotopes of natural radioactive chains are described. It is projected a validation of the calibration, performed with the IAEA-CU-2006-03 samples (soil and water)

  1. Field analyses of (238)U and (226)Ra in two uranium mill tailings piles from Niger using portable HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Déjeant, Adrien; Bourva, Ludovic; Sia, Radia; Galoisy, Laurence; Calas, Georges; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The radioactivities of (238)U and (226)Ra in mill tailings from the U mines of COMINAK and SOMAÏR in Niger were measured and quantified using a portable High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The (238)U and (226)Ra activities were measured under field conditions on drilling cores with 600s measurements and without any sample preparation. Field results were compared with those obtained by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and emanometry techniques. This comparison indicates that gamma-ray absorption by such geological samples does not cause significant deviations. This work shows the feasibility of using portable HPGe detector in the field as a preliminary method to observe variations of radionuclides concentration with the aim of identifying samples of interest. The HPGe is particularly useful for samples with strong secular disequilibrium such as mill tailings.

  2. Estimation of background spectrum in a shielded HPGe detector using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Medhat, M E; Wang, Yifang

    2014-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are powerful tools used to estimate the background γ-radiation detected by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems with a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector contained inside a lead shield. The purpose of this work was to examine the applicability of Monte Carlo simulations to predict the optimal lead thickness necessary to reduce the background effect in spectrometer measurements. GEANT4 code was applied to simulate the background radiation spectrum at different thicknesses of lead. The simulated results were compared with experimental measurements of background radiation taken at the same shielding thickness. The results show that the background radiation detected depends on the thickness, size and lining of the shield. Simulation showed that 12 cm lead thick is the optimal shielding thickness.

  3. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-11-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 {plus_minus} 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 {plus_minus} 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual {sup 137}Cs concentration was 25 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the exposed sediment and 50 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from {sup 137}Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was {sup 60}Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for {sup 137}Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and {sup 137}Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations ({mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the {mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it.

  4. A primary standard source of radon-222 based on the HPGe detector.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, M Y A; Vasyanovich, M; Zhukovsky, M

    2017-02-01

    The present paper describes the prototype of a calibration standard system for radon concentrations to be used in establishing the traceability of radon concentration measurements in dwellings. Radon gas was generated with a radium-226 solid source in a certified volume as a closed system. The activity of the radon that was released in the closed system was determined from the difference between the absolute activity of the standard radium solid source and the residual radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). A high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, which was calibrated using gamma reference standard sources, was used to measure the activity of a radium solid source and radon decay products ((214)Bi or (214)Pb). The emanation factor of the (226)Ra source was controlled online with the HPGe detector. Radon activity was achieved at ~1500±45Bq from the radium source at 3.95±0.2kBq under equilibrium conditions. After this activity, the radon gas was transferred into the closed system producing radon activity concentrations of 31.1±0.3kBq/m(3). Systematic errors were found of less than 4% with a random error around 0.5%. The random error is generally associated with the estimation of the count rate of the measured radon progenies ((214)Po and (214)Po for alpha measurements or (214)Pb and (214)Bi for gamma measurements), but systematic errors are associated with the errors introduced by the instrumentation and measurement technique. The system that was developed has a high degree of accuracy and can be recommended as a national or regional prototype standard of radon activity concentration to calibrate different working radon measurement devices.

  5. Identifying and quantifying short-lived fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.

    2013-03-01

    Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify short-lived fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.

  6. A method for considering the spatial variations of dead layer thickness in HPGe detectors to improve the FEPE calculation of bulky samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarresi, S. Mohammad; Masoudi, S. Farhad; Karimi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    A method for considering the spatial variation of deal layer (DL) thickness at the lateral and top surfaces of HPGe detectors is proposed. Instead of considering the exact variation of DL thickness at detector surface, the lateral surface is divided into 12 segments, assuming each segments covers 30 degrees of the detector lateral surface and has a different DL thickness. Then, using Am-241 source at 12 positions on lateral surface and also on top surface of a HPGe detector, the nearest DL thickness for each segment can be selected through estimation of Full Energy Peak Efficiency (FEPE). This is the case in both experimental and simulation sides. The proposed detector can be used for FEPE calculation of bulk samples geometries such as Marinelli beaker containers. In order to check the suitability of proposed detector for bulky samples, a Marinelli beaker containing a set of standard radiation source solution with specified activities is considered. The experimental and simulation results of FEPE show good agreement with minimum 2% to maximum 6% relative difference from low (59.5 keV) to high energy (1.33 MeV) gamma ray.

  7. Evaluation of radioactive background rejection in 76Ge neutrino-lessdouble-beta decay experiments using a highly segmented HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yuen-Dat; Campbell, D.B.; Vetter, K.; Henning, R.; Lesko, K.; Chan, Y.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Perry, M.; Hurley, D.; Smith, A.R.

    2007-02-05

    A highly segmented coaxial HPGe detector was operated in a low background counting facility for over 1 year to experimentally evaluate possible segmentation strategies for the proposed Majorana neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment. Segmentation schemes were evaluated on their ability to reject multi-segment events while retaining single-segment events. To quantify a segmentation scheme's acceptance efficiency the percentage of peak area due to single segment events was calculated for peaks located in the energy region 911-2614 keV. Single interaction site events were represented by the double-escape peak from the 2614 keV decay in {sup 208}Tl located at 1592 keV. In spite of its prototypical nature, the detector performed well under realistic operating conditions and required only minimal human interaction. Though the energy resolution for events with interactions in multiple segments was impacted by inter-segment cross-talk, the implementation of a cross-talk correlation matrix restored acceptable resolution. Additionally, simulations utilizing the MaGe simulation package were performed and found to be in good agreement with experimental observations verifying the external nature of the background radiation.

  8. Estimation of immediate fallout after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant by using HPGe detector and EGS5 code.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Yunoki, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio

    2013-11-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, we managed to carry out emergency measurements of the radioactive fallout. The included nuclides were identified via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Quantifications of each radionuclide in the fallout were determined based on the efficiency calibrations and relevant corrections. The collected samples had a variety of shapes, densities, and compositions. EGS5 Monte Carlo code was used for the flexible estimation of these parameters. The measurement results show the temporal changes in the fallout quantity about a month after the accident.

  9. In-beam measurements of sub-nanosecond nuclear lifetimes with a mixed array of HPGe and LaBr3:Ce detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mărginean, N.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bucurescu, D.; Lalkovski, S.; Atanasova, L.; Căta-Danil, G.; Căta-Danil, I.; Daugas, J. M.; Deleanu, D.; Detistov, P.; Deyanova, G.; Filipescu, D.; Georgiev, G.; Ghiţă, D.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Lozeva, R.; Glodariu, T.; Ivaşcu, M.; Kisyov, S.; Mihai, C.; Mărginean, R.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Radulov, D.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Suliman, G.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fast-timing method to determine lifetimes of nuclear states in the sub-nanosecond domain is presented. It is based on in-beam measurements of triple-gamma coincidences in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions, performed with an array of HPGe and LaBr3:Ce detectors. The high-energy resolution HPGe detectors are used to define de-exciting cascades, while the fast LaBr3:Ce detectors are used to determine the decay time spectra of selected levels fed by these cascades. A special method to treat the time information of an array of fast detectors is employed in order to fully use the efficiency of the array. Two measurements are presented to illustrate the method: a re-determination of the known half-life ensuremath T_{1/2}=0.7 ns of the ensuremath E_x=205 keV, ensuremath J^{π}=7/2^+ level in 107Cd (test experiment), and the determination of a half-life ensuremath T_{1/2}=47 ps for the ensuremath E_x=367 keV, ensuremath J^{π}=3/2^+ state of 199Tl.

  10. Double {beta} experiments with the help of scintillation and HPGe detectors at Gran Sasso

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A.; Konovalov, S. I.; Umatov, V. I.; Belli, P.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Kudovbenko, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Podviyanuk, R. B.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vyshnevskyi, I. M.; Yurchenko, S. S.; Brudanin, V. B.; and others

    2011-12-16

    A search for double beta decay of {sup 64,70}Zn, {sup 180,186}W was carried out by using low background ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators, while a CeCl{sub 3} scintillation detector was applied to investigate 2{beta} processes in {sup 136,138,142}Ce. A search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 96,104}Ru, {sup 156,158}Dy, {sup 190,198}Pt and study of 2{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the first excited 0{sup +} level of {sup 100}Ru were realized by ultra-low background HPGe {gamma} spectrometry. Moreover, CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators from enriched {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd isotopes were developed to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 106}Cd and {sup 116}Cd. Finally, experiments aimed to investigate {sup 96,104}Ru and {sup 116}Cd are in progress and a new phase of the experiment to search for 2{beta} processes in {sup 106}Cd is in preparation.

  11. An investigation of the performance of a coaxial HPGe detector operating in a magnetic resonance imaging field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cole, P.; Cresswell, J. R.; Filmer, F.; Jones, M.; Judson, D. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Sampson, J. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Slee, M. J.; Bimson, W. E.; Kemp, G. J.; Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Cooper, R. J.

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear medical imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography are used to probe physiological functions of the body by detecting gamma rays emitted from biologically targeted radiopharmaceuticals. A system which is capable of simultaneous data acquisition for nuclear medical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging is highly sought after by the medical imaging community. Such a device could provide a more complete medical insight into the functions of the body within a well-defined structural context. However, acquiring simultaneous nuclear/MRI sequences are technically challenging due to the conventional photomultiplier tube readout employed by most existing scintillator detector systems. A promising solution is a nuclear imaging device composed of semiconductor detectors that can be operated with a standard MRI scanner. However, the influence of placing a semiconductor detector such as high purity germanium (HPGe) within or close to the bore of an MRI scanner, where high magnetic fields are present, is not well understood. In this paper, the performance of a HPGe detector operating in a high strength static ( BS) MRI field along with fast switching gradient fields and radiofrequency from the MRI system has been assessed. The influence of the BS field on the energy resolution of the detector has been investigated for various positions and orientations of the detector within the magnetic field. The results have then been interpreted in terms of the influence of the BS field on the charge collection properties. MRI images have been acquired with the detector situated at the entrance of the MRI bore to investigate the effects of simultaneous data acquisition on detector performance and MRI imaging.

  12. Study of the response of an ORTEC GMX45 HPGe detector with a multi-radionuclide volume source using Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, A; Oliveira, C; Reis, M; Portugal, L; Paiva, I; Cruz, C

    2016-07-01

    A model of an n-type ORTEC GMX45 HPGe detector was created using the MCNPX and the MCNP-CP codes. In order to validate the model, experimental efficiency was compared with the Monte Carlo simulations results. The reference source is a NIST traceable multi-gamma volume source in a water-equivalent epoxy resin matrix (1.15gcm(-3) density) containing several radionuclides: (210)Pb, (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co in a cylinder shape container. Two distances of source bottom to end cap front surface of the detector have been considered. The efficiency for the nearest distance is higher than for longer distance. The relative difference between the measured and the simulated full-energy peak efficiency is less than 4.0% except for the 46.5keV energy peak of (210)Pb for the longer distance (6.5%) allowing to consider the model validated. In the absence of adequate standard calibration sources, efficiency and efficiency transfer factors for geometry deviations and matrix effects can be accurately computed by using Monte Carlo methods even if true coincidence could occur as is the case when the (60)Co radioisotope is present in the source.

  13. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A.; Quintana, B.; Martìn, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  14. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  15. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  16. Wilcoxon signed-rank-based technique for the pulse-shape analysis of HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, S.; Quintana, B.; Barrientos, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characterization of the electric response of segmented-contact high-purity germanium detectors requires scanning systems capable of accurately associating each pulse with the position of the interaction that generated it. This process requires an algorithm sensitive to changes above the electronic noise in the pulse shapes produced at different positions, depending on the resolution of the Ge crystal. In this work, a pulse-shape comparison technique based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test has been developed. It provides a method to distinguish pulses coming from different interaction points in the germanium crystal. Therefore, this technique is a necessary step for building a reliable pulse-shape database that can be used later for the determination of the position of interaction for γ-ray tracking spectrometry devices such as AGATA, GRETA or GERDA. The method was validated by comparison with a χ2 test using simulated and experimental pulses corresponding to a Broad Energy germanium detector (BEGe).

  17. A Multi-Contact, Low Capacitance HPGe Detector for High Rate Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Christopher

    2014-12-04

    The detection, identification and non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials and nuclear fission by-products are critically important activities in support of nuclear non-proliferation programs. Both national and international nuclear safeguard agencies recognize that current accounting methods for spent nuclear fuel are inadequate from a safeguards perspective. Radiation detection and analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in this field, but no instrument exists that can deliver the required performance (energy resolution and detection sensitivity) in the presence of very high background count rates encountered in the nuclear safeguards arena. The work of this project addresses this critical need by developing a unique gamma-ray detector based on high purity germanium that has the previously unachievable property of operating in the 1 million counts-per-second range while achieving state-of-the-art energy resolution necessary to identify and analyze the isotopes of interest. The technical approach was to design and fabricate a germanium detector with multiple segmented electrodes coupled to multi-channel high rate spectroscopy electronics. Dividing the germanium detector’s signal electrode into smaller sections offers two advantages; firstly, the energy resolution of the detector is potentially improved, and secondly, the detector is able to operate at higher count rates. The design challenges included the following; determining the optimum electrode configuration to meet the stringent energy resolution and count rate requirements; determining the electronic noise (and therefore energy resolution) of the completed system after multiple signals are recombined; designing the germanium crystal housing and vacuum cryostat; and customizing electronics to perform the signal recombination function in real time. In this phase I work, commercial off-the-shelf electrostatic modeling software was used to develop the segmented germanium crystal geometry

  18. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-07

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of {epsilon} = A{Epsilon}{sup a}+B{Epsilon}{sup b}, where {epsilon} is efficiency, {Epsilon} is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a ''knee'' at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  19. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B; Paik, T

    2006-07-26

    computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation

  20. Peak-to-valley ratios for three different HPGe detectors for the assessment of 137Cs deposition on the ground and the impact of the detector field-of-view.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer; Mattsson, Sören; Rääf, Christopher L

    2017-02-01

    The peak-to-valley (PTV) method was investigated experimentally comparing PTV ratios for three HPGe detectors, with complementary Monte Carlo simulations of scatter in air for larger source-detector distances. The measured PTV ratios for 137Cs in air were similar for three different detectors for incident angles between 0 and 90°. The study indicated that the PTV method can differentiate between surface and shallow depth sources if the detector field of view is limited to a radius of less than 3.5m.

  1. Search for double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd with enriched {sup 106}CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A. Chernyak, D. M.; Mokina, V. M.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D’Angelo, S.; Brudanin, V. B.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M.; Incicchitti, A.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.

    2015-10-28

    A radiopure cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator, enriched in {sup 106}Cd ({sup 106}CdWO{sub 4}), was used to search for double beta decay processes in {sup 106}Cd in coincidence with an ultra-low background set-up containing four high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a single cryostat. The experiment has been completed after 13085 h of data taking. New improved limits on most of the double beta processes in {sup 106}Cd have been set on the level of 10{sup 20}−10{sup 21} yr. Tn particular, the half-life limit on the two neutrino electron capture with positron emission, T{sub 1/2} ≥ 1.8 × 10{sup 21} yr, reached the region of theoretical predictions.

  2. Applying a low energy HPGe detector gamma ray spectrometric technique for the evaluation of Pu/Am ratio in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, I S; Mishra, Lokpati; Yadav, J R; Nadar, M Y; Rao, D D; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2015-10-01

    The estimation of Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological samples is an important input for the assessment of internal dose received by the workers. The radiochemical separation of Pu isotopes and (241)Am in a sample followed by alpha spectrometry is a widely used technique for the determination of Pu/(241)Am ratio. However, this method is time consuming and many times quick estimation is required. In this work, Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological sample was estimated with HPGe detector based measurements using gamma/X-rays emitted by these radionuclides. These results were compared with those obtained from alpha spectroscopy of sample after radiochemical analysis and found to be in good agreement.

  3. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation.

  4. A noninvasive dose estimation system for clinical BNCT based on PG-SPECT--conceptual study and fundamental experiments using HPGe and CdTe semiconductor detectors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Sakurai, Y; Ishikawa, M

    2000-09-01

    A noninvasive method for measuring the absorbed dose distribution during the administration of clinical boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using an online three-dimensional (3D) imaging system is presented. This system is designed to provide more accurate information for treatment planning and dosimetry. The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technique is combined with prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) to provide an ideal dose estimation system for BNCT. This system is termed PG-SPECT. The fundamental feasibility of the PG-SPECT system for BNCT is confirmed under the following conditions: (1) a voxel size of 1 x 1 x 1 cm3, comparable to the spatial resolution of our standard dosimetric technique using gold wire activation, where data are available for every 5-10 mm of wire length; (2) a reaction rate of 10B(n,alpha)7Li within the measurement volume is greater than 1.1 x l0(6) interactions/cm3/s, corresponding to a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10(8) n/cm2/s and a 10B concentration of greater than 10 ppm for the deepest part of the tumor volume under typical BNCT clinical conditions; (3) statistical uncertainty of the count rate for 10B(n,alpha)7Li prompt gamma rays is 10% or less. The desirable characteristics of a detector for the PG-SPECT system were determined by basic experiments using both HPGe and CdTe semiconductor detectors. The CdTe semiconductor detector has the greatest potential for this system because of its compactness and simplicity of maintenance.

  5. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, O.; Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  6. Simulation of background reduction and Compton suppression in a low-background HPGe spectrometer at a surface laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Shun-Li; Cai, Xiao; Wu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Fang, Jian; Sun, Xi-Lei; Sun, Li-Jun; Liu, Ying-Biao; Gao, Long; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Hang; Zhou, Li; Lü, Jun-Guang; Hu, Tao

    2015-08-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are well suited to analyse the radioactivity of samples. In order to reduce the environmental background for an ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer, low-activity lead and oxygen free copper are installed outside the probe to shield from gamma radiation, with an outer plastic scintillator to veto cosmic rays, and an anti-Compton detector to improve the peak-to-Compton ratio. Using Geant4 tools and taking into account a detailed description of the detector, we optimize the sizes of these detectors to reach the design requirements. A set of experimental data from an existing HPGe spectrometer was used to compare with the simulation. For the future low-background HPGe detector simulation, considering different thicknesses of BGO crystals and anti-coincidence efficiency, the simulation results show that the optimal BGO thickness is 5.5 cm, and the peak-to-Compton ratio of 40K is raised to 1000 when the anti-coincidence efficiency is 0.85. In the background simulation, 15 cm oxygen-free copper plus 10 cm lead can reduce the environmental gamma rays to 0.0024 cps/100 cm3 Ge (50 keV-2.8 MeV), which is about 10-5 of the environmental background.

  7. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2016-07-01

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the "best" spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. "Best" is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  8. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-08-01

    We have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional {sup 3}He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene, and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the {sup 252}Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. We will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results.

  9. Development of a HPGe shielding system for radioactivity measurements at Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. I.; Huh, J. Y.; Lee, E. K.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. W.; Park, S. Y.; Yoo, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    We constructed an underground laboratory called Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory (CURL) for measuring the radioactivity levels of various samples by using HPGe detectors. CURL is located underground at a depth of 1000-m water equivalent in the Cheongpyeong Pumped Storage Power Plant. We developed a shielding system, which consists of 15-cm-thick Pb blocks and 5-cm-thick Cu blocks and completely surrounds a 100% HPGe detector. We measured the background radiations and the gamma peaks from sources with and without the shield. The shielding efficiencies were also estimated using MCNP5 simulations, and they were compared to our measured data. The shielding system blocked more than 99.99% of gamma rays with energies up to 3.0 MeV. The HPGe detector with the shielding system at CURL blocked both high-energy cosmic rays and background radiation from surrounding rocks and materials. Our CURL detector system was optimized for gamma-ray measurements of meterials with ultra-low radioactivity.

  10. Determination of Barium and selected rare-earth elements in geological materials employing a HpGe detector by radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Preiss, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    The laterite material (geological) from Cerro Impacto was first studied by air radiometric techniques in the 1970's and was found to have an abnormally high radioactive background. Further studies showed this deposit to be rich in thorium, columbium, barium and rare-earth elements (mostly La, Ce, Pr and Nd). A similar work has been reported for the analysis of Brazil's lateritic material from Morro do Ferro to determine elemental compositions (including barium and rare-earth elements) and its relationship to the mobilization of thorium from the deposit using a Co-57 radioisotope source. The objective of this work was to develop an analytical method to determine barium and rare-earth element present in Venezuelan lateritic material from Cerro Impacto. We have employed a method before, employing a Si(Li) detector, but due to the low detection efficiencies in the rare-earth K-lines region (about 30 KeV - 40 KeV), we have decided to study the improvement in sensitivities and detection limits using an hyperpure germanium detector.

  11. Material screening with HPGe counting station for PandaX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Fu, C.; Ji, X.; Liu, X.; Mao, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.; Xie, P.; Zhang, T.

    2016-12-01

    A gamma counting station based on high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was set up for the material screening of the PandaX dark matter experiments in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Low background gamma rate of 2.6 counts/min within the energy range of 20 to 2700 keV is achieved due to the well-designed passive shield. The sentivities of the HPGe detetector reach mBq/kg level for isotopes like K, U, Th, and even better for Co and Cs, resulted from the low-background rate and the high relative detection efficiency of 175%. The structure and performance of the counting station are described in this article. Detailed counting results for the radioactivity in materials used by the PandaX dark-matter experiment are presented. The upgrading plan of the counting station is also discussed.

  12. Measurement of radionuclide activities induced in target components of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 by gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe and LaBr3: Ce detectors.

    PubMed

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Cyclotrons are used worldwide to produce radiopharmaceuticals by proton irradiation of a suitable target. The intense secondary neutron beam generated by proton interactions with the target induce high radionuclide activities in the target assembly parts that may result in an exposure to high dose levels of the operators during maintenance. The main goal of this work is to evaluate gamma-emitting radionuclide activities induced in Havar foils and titanium windows of a target assembly and carousel stripper forks of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. The knowledge of radionuclide inventory for each component is required by many companies to assess risk for operators before waste handling and disposal. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were carried out with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors. HPGe is the most used detector for its high energy resolution although it is more suitable for use in a laboratory. The use of LaBr3:Ce can be considered a viable option, particularly in realizing a portable spectrometric system to perform "on-site" measurements and a fast dose rate evaluation before the disposal of activated parts. Due to a high activity of target assembly components replaced after a typical irradiation cycle (about 5000 μAh integrated beam current), gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed at a large distance from the detector, even more than 100 cm, or by using a purposely realized Lead-walled collimator. The identification of some key-radionuclides allows to evaluate through simple formulations the dose rate behavior for each component as function of decay time from the last irradiation. The knowledge of the dose rate behavior is a significant piece of information to health physicists for waste handling with safety at work. For an Havar™ foil, the dose rate will be reduced to about 1/1,000 of the starting value after a decay period of approximately 4 y (about 1,500 d), with a relatively safety at

  13. Evaluation of the neutron background in an HPGe target for WIMP direct detection when using a reactor neutrino detector as a neutron veto system

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Xiangpan; Xu, Ye Lin, Junsong; Feng, Yulong; Li, Haolin

    2013-11-15

    A direct WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) detector with a neutron veto system is designed to better reject neutrons. The experimental configuration is studied in this paper involves 984 Ge modules placed inside a reactor-neutrino detector. The neutrino detector is used as a neutron veto device. The neutron background for the experimental design is estimated using the Geant4 simulation. The results show that the neutron background can decrease to O(0.01) events per year per tonne of high-purity germanium and it can be ignored in comparison with electron recoils.

  14. Novel HPGe Probe solution for Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, J.; Pirard, B.; Menaa, N.; Quirin, P.; Flamanc, J.; Marian, V.; Lampert, M.O.

    2015-07-01

    In situ measurement is a privileged way of monitoring radioactive contamination compared to analyzing samples in a distant, specialized laboratory. Scintillators based spectrometers offer small footprints and are easy to easy to use, however they do not provide an accurate nuclide identification capability and activities measurement because notably of their limited energy resolution, for instance when low minimum detectable activity (MDA) are required, or in complex mixture of sources. On the other hand, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors provide unmatched nuclide identification capability with the lowest MDA but they are not always of practical use on the field because the crystal needs to be cooled down to liquid nitrogen temperature, increasing the overall weight, bulkiness and complexity of the measurement. This paper presents the configuration and performance of a novel turnkey and compact HPGe solution developed by Canberra for radionuclide identification under harsh environments. Radio-contaminations surveys now can be undertaken outdoor under various weather conditions, in contaminated areas, underground or underwater locations (including under sea water), with fast on site deployment. The spectrometer is also designed in a small diameter tubular shape to offer minimal footprint for an operation in narrow and confined spaces. Besides, this innovative design does not mitigate the performances nor the reliability experienced with standard laboratory-grade HPGe spectrometers. This achievement relies on advanced technologies such as the encapsulation of the crystal in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) which provides higher robustness and does not requires thermal cycles faced with regular HPGe equipment. It also relies on a low vibration, low consumption electrical cooler so that no liquid nitrogen is being used. The detector is connected to a state-of-the-art digital spectroscopy suite embedded in an autonomous acquisition station monitoring the cryo-cooler and

  15. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-02-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

  16. Development of compact high efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, D. S.; Bellinger, S. L.; Fronk, R. G.; Henson, L.; Huddleston, D.; Ochs, T.; Shultis, J. K.; Sobering, T. J.; Taylor, R. D.

    2015-11-01

    Semiconductor diode detectors coated with neutron reactive materials are generally fashioned as planar diodes coated with 10B, 6LiF, or Gd. Planar detectors coated with 10B or 6LiF are limited to less than 5% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency. Detectors coated with Gd can achieve higher efficiencies, but the low-energy signatures are problematic in the presence of background radiations. Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) can now achieve a tenfold increase in neutron detection efficiency over the planar diode designs. These semiconductor neutron detectors are fashioned with a matrix of microstructured patterns etched deeply into the semiconductor substrate and, subsequently, backfilled with neutron reactive materials. Intrinsic thermal-neutron detection efficiencies exceeding 35% have been achieved with devices no thicker than 1 mm while operating on less than 5 V, now allowing for instrumentation to be realized with similar performance as 3He gas-filled detectors.

  17. Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James

    1998-01-01

    The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.

  18. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  19. Hit efficiency study of CMS prototype forward pixel detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dongwook; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author describes the measurement of the hit efficiency of a prototype pixel device for the CMS forward pixel detector. These pixel detectors were FM type sensors with PSI46V1 chip readout. The data were taken with the 120 GeV proton beam at Fermilab during the period of December 2004 to February 2005. The detectors proved to be highly efficient (99.27 {+-} 0.02%). The inefficiency was primarily located near the corners of the individual pixels.

  20. Testing the Ge detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; ...

    2015-03-24

    High purity germanium (HPGe) crystals will be used for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, where they serve as both the source and the detector for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is crucial for the experiment to understand the performance of the HPGe crystals. A variety of crystal properties are being investigated, including basic properties such as energy resolution, efficiency, uniformity, capacitance, leakage current and crystal axis orientation, as well as more sophisticated properties, e.g. pulse shapes and dead layer and transition layer distributions. In this talk, we will present our measurements that characterize the HPGe crystals. We will also discuss the ourmore » simulation package for the detector characterization setup, and show that additional information can be extracted from data-simulation comparisons.« less

  1. Testing the Ge detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W.P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-03-24

    High purity germanium (HPGe) crystals will be used for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, where they serve as both the source and the detector for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is crucial for the experiment to understand the performance of the HPGe crystals. A variety of crystal properties are being investigated, including basic properties such as energy resolution, efficiency, uniformity, capacitance, leakage current and crystal axis orientation, as well as more sophisticated properties, e.g. pulse shapes and dead layer and transition layer distributions. In this talk, we will present our measurements that characterize the HPGe crystals. We will also discuss the our simulation package for the detector characterization setup, and show that additional information can be extracted from data-simulation comparisons.

  2. GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three different size filters for the peak search, where the largest filter provides best sensitivity for identifying low-level peaks and the smallest filter has the best resolution for distinguishing peaks within a multiplet. GRABGAM basically generates an integral probability F-function for each singlet or multiplet peak analysis, bypassing the usual peak fitting analysis for a differential f-function probability model. Because F is defined by the peak data, statistical limitations for peak fitting are avoided; however, the F-function does provide generic values for peak centroid, full width at half maximum, and tail that are consistent with a Gaussian formalism. GRABGAM has successfully analyzed over 10,000 customer samples, and it interfaces with a variety of supplementary codes for deriving detector efficiencies, backgrounds, and quality checks.

  3. Isotopic Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel with an Ultra-High Rate HPGe Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wood, Lynn S.

    2014-06-06

    A longstanding challenge is the assay of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Determining the isotopic content of SNF requires gamma-ray spectroscopy. PNNL has developed new digital filtering and analysis techniques to produce an ultra high-rate gamma-ray spectrometer from a standard coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystal. This ~40% efficient detector has been operated for SNF measurements at a throughput of about 400k gamma-ray counts per second (kcps) at an input rate of 1.3 Mcps. Optimized filtering algorithms preserve the spectroscopic capability of the system even at these high rates. This talk will present the results of a SNF measurement with aged SNF pellets at PNNL’s Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, first results with a FPGA front end processor capable of processing the data in real time, and the development path toward a multi-element system to assay fuel assemblies.

  4. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  5. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-08-16

    Here, we report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h- 10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h- 10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical “photoconductor-type” detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h- BN was observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h- BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h- 10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.

  6. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; ...

    2016-08-16

    Here, we report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h- 10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h- 10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical “photoconductor-type” detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h- BN wasmore » observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h- BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h- 10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.« less

  7. Realization of highly efficient hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, A.; Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2016-08-01

    We report the achievement of highly efficient 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN) direct conversion neutron detectors. These detectors were realized from freestanding 4-in. diameter h-10BN wafers 43 μm in thickness obtained from epitaxy growth and subsequent mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Both sides of the film were subjected to ohmic contact deposition to form a simple vertical "photoconductor-type" detector. Transport measurements revealed excellent vertical transport properties including high electrical resistivity (>1013 Ω cm) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) products. A much larger μτ product for holes compared to that of electrons along the c-axis of h-BN was observed, implying that holes (electrons) behave like majority (minority) carriers in undoped h-BN. Exposure to thermal neutrons from a californium-252 (252Cf) source moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator reveals that 43 μm h-10BN detectors possess 51.4% detection efficiency at a bias voltage of 400 V, which is the highest reported efficiency for any semiconductor-based neutron detector. The results point to the possibility of obtaining highly efficient, compact solid-state neutron detectors with high gamma rejection and low manufacturing and maintenance costs.

  8. Measurement and simulation of the segmented Germanium-Detector's Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Shadi

    This paper presents the methods to determine the detection efficiency of the segmented germanium detector. Two methods are given for the investigating the detection efficiency of the semiconductor segmented-germanium detector. Experimental measurements using radioactive sources are reported. The radioactive sources, which were involved, can give us the opportunity to cover the photon energy ranging up to hundreds of keV. A useful compilation is included of the latest values of the emission rates per decay for the following radioactive sources: 241Am and 133Ba. The second method, the simulation of the efficiency is involved for comparison purposes. A good agreement between the measurements and the simulation is obtained.

  9. Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe γ-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.

    PubMed

    Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy γ-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the γ-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations.

  10. Obelix, a new low-background HPGe at Modane Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza, P.; Piquemal, F.; Warot, G.; Zampaolo, M.

    2015-08-17

    An ultra-low background coaxial HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with a relative efficiency of 160%, corresponding to a 600 cm{sup 3} Ge crystal, was installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (4800 m.w.e). To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination. A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. We present the constructional details which lead to a remarkable low detector background of 73 cts/kg·d in [40, 3000] keV. Measured samples showed that sensitivities about 100 μBq/kg in {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th are reached for samples of some kg and 30 days of lifetime.

  11. Implementation of a Portable HPGe for Field Contamination Assay.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Using MCNP to construct a detector model based initially on x-ray images of a portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector followed by normalizing covering material values to also agree with check source responses, a validation of the model was attained. By calibrating the detector parameters using large count spectra, rigorous reproducibility is attained for high activity measurements but does not prevent deviations from normality in error distributions at the very low count events where spectral peaks are not always identifiable. The resulting model was created to allow operational assay of contamination over large areal distributions that could not otherwise be measured, such as the exhaust shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results indicate that contamination levels of activity in the exhaust shaft can be assayed to within a factor of 2. Detection limits are evaluated to be well below the contamination levels, which would constitute a legal environmental release if unfiltered ventilation of the underground facility were used.

  12. Improved photon counting efficiency calibration using superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Haiyong; Xu, Nan; Li, Jianwei; Sun, Ruoduan; Feng, Guojin; Wang, Yanfei; Ma, Chong; Lin, Yandong; Zhang, Labao; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2015-10-01

    The quantum efficiency of photon counters can be measured with standard uncertainty below 1% level using correlated photon pairs generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. Normally a laser in UV, blue or green wavelength range with sufficient photon energy is applied to produce energy and momentum conserved photon pairs in two channels with desired wavelengths for calibration. One channel is used as the heralding trigger, and the other is used for the calibration of the detector under test. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector with advantages such as high photon counting speed (<20 MHz), low dark count rate (<50 counts per second), and wideband responsivity (UV to near infrared) is used as the trigger detector, enabling correlated photons calibration capabilities into shortwave visible range. For a 355nm single longitudinal mode pump laser, when a superconducting nanowire single photon detector is used as the trigger detector at 1064nm and 1560nm in the near infrared range, the photon counting efficiency calibration capabilities can be realized at 532nm and 460nm. The quantum efficiency measurement on photon counters such as photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiodes can be then further extended in a wide wavelength range (e.g. 400-1000nm) using a flat spectral photon flux source to meet the calibration demands in cutting edge low light applications such as time resolved fluorescence and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, super resolution microscopy, deep space observation, and so on.

  13. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  14. Determination of the Quantum Efficiency of a Light Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2008-01-01

    The "quantum efficiency" (QE) is an important property of a light detector. This quantity can be determined in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The experimentally determined QE of a silicon photodiode appeared to be in reasonable agreement with expected values. The experiment confirms the quantum properties of light and seems to be a useful…

  15. Efficiency Studies for the new Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Hannah; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a new detector subsystem in STAR at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MTD will contribute to studies of the matter being created in heavy-ion collisions by allowing measurements of the J/Psi meson and the different Upsilon states over a broad transverse momentum range via the reconstruction of their di-muon decays. Simulations to estimate the efficiency of the MTD for detecting muons were performed. The results of these simulations will be presented.

  16. Neutron efficiency of LaBr3:Ce detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebran, A.; Roig, O.; Méot, V.; Delaune, O.

    2014-12-01

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in a LaBr3 detector in the energy range 0.1-2 MeV. The experiment was carried out using a 4 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator which provided monoenergetic neutrons from T(p,n)3He and 7Li(p,n)7Be reactions. The five most intense γ-rays from the LaBr3(n, n ‧ γ) reaction have been studied to deduce the neutron sensitivity of the detector. GEANT4 simulations with different nuclear data libraries have been done and a comparison with the data is provided.

  17. Efficiency and spatial resolution of the CASCADE thermal neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Allmendinger, F.; Häußler, W.; Schröder, T.; Klein, M.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, U.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the CASCADE project - a detection system, which has been designed for the purposes of neutron Spin Echo spectroscopy and which is continuously further developed and adapted to various applications. It features 2D spatially resolved detection of thermal neutrons at high rates. The CASCADE detector is composed of a stack of solid 10B coated Gas Electron Multiplier foils, which serve both as a neutron converter and as an amplifier for the primary ionization deposited in the standard counting gas environment. This multi-layer setup efficiently increases the detection efficiency and by extracting the signal of the charge traversing the stack the conversion layer can be identified allowing a precise determination of the time-of-flight. The spatial resolution is found by optical contrast determination to be σ =(1.39 ± 0.05) mm and by divergence corrected aperture measurements σ =(1.454 ± 0.007) mm , which is in agreement with the simulated detector model. Furthermore this enabled to investigate and describe the non-Gaussian resolution function. At the HEiDi diffractometer the absolute detection efficiency has been studied. At 0.6 Å for the 6 layer detector, which is currently part of the RESEDA spectrometer, an efficiency of 7.8% has been measured, which by means of Monte Carlo simulations translates to (21.0±1.5)% for thermal neutrons at 1.8 Å and (46.9±3.3)% at 5.4 Å.

  18. Germanium Detectors in Homeland Security at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stave, Sean C.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADES HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.

  19. Germanium detectors in homeland security at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stave, S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADES HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.

  20. Germanium detectors in homeland security at PNNL

    DOE PAGES

    Stave, S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray detection is used for non-proliferation and national security applications. While lower energy resolution detectors such as NaI(Tl) have their place, high purity germanium (HPGe) also has a role to play. A detection with HPGe is often a characterization due to the very high energy resolution. However, HPGe crystals remain small and expensive leaving arrays of smaller crystals as an excellent solution. PNNL has developed two similar HPGe arrays for two very different applications. One array, the Multisensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a fieldable array that has been tested on trucks, boats, and helicopters. The CASCADESmore » HPGe array is an array designed to assay samples in a low background environment. The history of HPGe arrays at PNNL and the development of MARS and CASCADES will be detailed in this paper along with some of the other applications of HPGe at PNNL.« less

  1. Investigation of the quantum efficiency of optical heterodyne detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchman, T. E.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency response and quantum efficiency of optical photodetectors for heterodyne receivers is investigated. The measurements utilized two spectral lines from the output of two lasers as input to the photodetectors. These lines are easily measurable in power and frequency and hence serve as known inputs. By measuring the output current of the photodetector the quantum efficiency is determined as a function of frequency separation between the two input signals. An investigation of the theoretical basis and accuracy of this type of measurement relative to similar measurements utilizing risetime is undertaken. A theoretical study of the heterodyne process in photodetectors based on semiconductor physics is included so that higher bandwidth detectors may be designed. All measurements are made on commercially available detectors and manufacturers' specifications for normal photodetector operation are compared to the measured heterodyne characteristics.

  2. H2RG detector characterization for RIMAS and instrument efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Vicki L.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Capone, John I.; Hams, Thomas; Robinson, F. D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2016-08-01

    The Rapid infrared IMAger-Spectrometer (RIMAS) is a near-infrared (NIR) imager and spectrometer that will quickly follow up gamma-ray burst afterglows on the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). RIMAS has two optical arms which allows simultaneous coverage over two bandpasses (YJ and HK) in either imaging or spectroscopy mode. RIMAS utilizes two Teledyne HgCdTe H2RG detectors controlled by Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. (ARC/Leach) drivers. We report the laboratory characterization of RIMAS's detectors: conversion gain, read noise, linearity, saturation, dynamic range, and dark current. We also present RIMAS's instrument efficiency from atmospheric transmission models and optics data (both telescope and instrument) in all three observing modes.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of the response of a plastic scintillator and an HPGe spectrometer in coincidence.

    PubMed

    Joković, D R; Dragić, A; Udovicić, V; Banjanac, R; Puzović, J; Anicin, I

    2009-05-01

    A simulation programme based on the Geant4 toolkit has been developed to simulate the coincident responses of a plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector to the cosmic-ray muons. The detectors are situated in a low-level underground laboratory (25 m.w.e). Primary positions, momentum directions and energies of the muons are sampled from the angular and energy distributions of the cosmic-ray muons at the shallow underground level. Obtained coincident spectra of both detectors are presented and discussed.

  4. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  5. On the Charge Collection Efficiency of the PERCIVAL Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, J.; Marras, A.; Wunderer, C. B.; Göttlicher, P.; Lange, S.; Reza, S.; Shevyakov, I.; Tennert, M.; Niemann, M.; Hirsemann, H.; Smoljanin, S.; Supra, J.; Xia, Q.; Zimmer, M.; Allahgholi, A.; Gloskovskii, A.; Viefhaus, J.; Scholz, F.; Seltmann, J.; Klumpp, S.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Khromova, A.; Menk, R.; Pinaroli, G.; Stebel, L.; Rinaldi, S.; Zema, N.; Catone, D.; Pedersen, U.; Tartoni, N.; Guerrini, N.; Marsh, B.; Sedgwick, I.; Nicholls, T.; Turchetta, R.; Hyun, H. J.; Kim, K. S.; Rah, S. Y.; Hoenk, M. E.; Jewell, A. D.; Jones, T. J.; Nikzad, S.; Graafsma, H.

    2016-12-01

    The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager is being developed by DESY, RAL, Elettra, DLS, and PAL to address the challenges at high brilliance Light Sources such as new-generation Synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. Typical requirements for detector systems at these sources are high frame rates, large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, high quantum efficiency, and (multi)-mega-pixel arrangements. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor, based on CMOS technology. It is designed for the soft X-ray regime and, therefore, it is post-processed in order to achieve high quantum efficiency in its primary energy range (250 eV to 1 keV) . This work will report on the latest experimental results on charge collection efficiency obtained for multiple back-side-illuminated test sensors during two campaigns, at the P04 beam-line at PETRA III, and the CiPo beam-line at Elettra, spanning most of the primary energy range as well as testing the performance for photon-energies below 250 eV . In addition, XPS surface analysis was used to cross-check the obtained results.

  6. Spent Fuel Assay with an Ultra-High Rate HPGe Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James; Fulsom, Bryan; Pitts, Karl; VanDevender, Brent; Wood, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    Traditional verification of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) includes determination of initial enrichment, burnup and cool down time (IE, BU, CT). Along with neutron measurements, passive gamma assay provides important information for determining BU and CT. Other gamma-ray-based assay methods such as passive tomography and active delayed gamma offer the potential to measure the spatial distribution of fission products and the fissile isotopic concentration of the fuel, respectively. All fuel verification methods involving gamma-ray spectroscopy require that the spectrometers manage very high count rates while extracting the signatures of interest. PNNL has developed new digital filtering and analysis techniques to produce an ultra-high rate gamma-ray spectrometer from a standard coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystal. This 37% relative efficiency detector has been operated for SNF measurements at input count rates of 500-1300 kcps and throughput in excess of 150 kcps. Optimized filtering algorithms preserve the spectroscopic capability of the system even at these high rates. This paper will present the results of both passive and active SNF measurement performed with this system at PNNL. (authors)

  7. Development of the ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX at Modane underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Hodák, R.; Klimenko, A. A.; Loaiza, P.; Mamedov, F.; Piquemal, F.; Rukhadze, E.; Rukhadze, N.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Warot, G.; Yakushev, E. A.; Zampaolo, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new ultra low-background spectrometer based on a HPGe detector with a sensitive volume of 600 cm3 was developed to investigate rare nuclear processes, such as resonant neutrino-less double electron capture (0νEC/EC) and double beta decay processes (2ν2β‑, 2νβ+EC, 2νEC/EC) to the excited states of daughter nuclei. The spectrometer was installed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). Sensitivity of the spectrometer and its background were tested. A new method for the efficiency calibration in measurements of low-active samples was developed. The spectrometer was used for the measurements of low active materials and samples. Results obtained in 395 h investigation of resonant 0νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2718 keV and 2741 keV excited states of 106Pd with ~23.2 g of enriched 106Cd and 2ν2β‑ decay of 100Mo sample with a mass of 2588 g to the 0+, 1130 keV and 2+, 539.5 keV excited states of 100Ru are presented.

  8. An efficient repeating signal detector to investigate earthquake swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive earthquake swarms have been recognized as key signatures in fluid injection induced seismicity, precursors to volcanic eruptions, and slow slip events preceding megathrust earthquakes. We investigate earthquake swarms by developing a Repeating Signal Detector (RSD), a computationally efficient algorithm utilizing agglomerative clustering to identify similar waveforms buried in years of seismic recordings using a single seismometer. Instead of relying on existing earthquake catalogs of larger earthquakes, RSD identifies characteristic repetitive waveforms by rapidly identifying signals of interest above a low signal-to-noise ratio and then grouping based on spectral and time domain characteristics, resulting in dramatically shorter processing time than more exhaustive autocorrelation approaches. We investigate seismicity in four regions using RSD: (1) volcanic seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, California, (2) subduction-related seismicity in Oaxaca, Mexico, (3) induced seismicity in Central Alberta, Canada, and (4) induced seismicity in Harrison County, Ohio. In each case, RSD detects a similar or larger number of earthquakes than existing catalogs created using more time intensive methods. In Harrison County, RSD identifies 18 seismic sequences that correlate temporally and spatially to separate hydraulic fracturing operations, 15 of which were previously unreported. RSD utilizes a single seismometer for earthquake detection which enables seismicity to be quickly identified in poorly instrumented regions at the expense of relying on another method to locate the new detections. Due to the smaller computation overhead and success at distances up to ~50 km, RSD is well suited for real-time detection of low-magnitude earthquake swarms with permanent regional networks.

  9. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

    2013-09-03

    Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to

  10. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  11. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-01

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm2 are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm2 silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σE = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  13. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example 106Cd and 156Dy) and rare β decays (96Zr, 180mTa , etc ) are under study.

  14. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, G. W.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-17

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.

  15. Improved plutonium identification and characterization results with NaI(Tl) detector using ASEDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R.; Sjoden, G.; Baciak, J.; LaVigne, E.

    2008-04-01

    The ASEDRA algorithm (Advanced Synthetically Enhanced Detector Resolution Algorithm) is a tool developed at the University of Florida to synthetically enhance the resolved photopeaks derived from a characteristically poor resolution spectra collected at room temperature from scintillator crystal-photomultiplier detector, such as a NaI(Tl) system. This work reports on analysis of a side-by-side test comparing the identification capabilities of ASEDRA applied to a NaI(Tl) detector with HPGe results for a Plutonium Beryllium (PuBe) source containing approximately 47 year old weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu), a test case of real-world interest with a complex spectra including plutonium isotopes and 241Am decay products. The analysis included a comparison of photopeaks identified and photopeak energies between the ASEDRA and HPGe detector systems, and the known energies of the plutonium isotopes. ASEDRA's performance in peak area accuracy, also important in isotope identification as well as plutonium quality and age determination, was evaluated for key energy lines by comparing the observed relative ratios of peak areas, adjusted for efficiency and attenuation due to source shielding, to the predicted ratios from known energy line branching and source isotopics. The results show that ASEDRA has identified over 20 lines also found by the HPGe and directly correlated to WGPu energies.

  16. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I.; Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  17. 2E1 Ar(17+) decay and conventional radioactive sources to determine efficiency of semiconductor detectors.

    PubMed

    Lamour, Emily; Prigent, Christophe; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Rozet, Jean Pierre; Vernhet, Dominique

    2009-02-01

    Although reliable models may predict the detection efficiency of semiconductor detectors, measurements are needed to check the parameters supplied by the manufacturers, namely, the thicknesses of dead layer, beryllium window, and crystal active area. The efficiency of three silicon detectors has been precisely investigated in their entire photon energy range of detection. In the zero to a few keV range, we developed a new method based on the detection of the 2E1 decay of the metastable Ar(17+) 2s-->1s transition. Very good theoretical knowledge of the energetic distribution of the 2E1 decay mode enables precise characterization of the absorbing layers in front of the detectors. In the high-energy range (>10 keV), the detector crystal thickness plays a major role in the detection efficiency and has been determined using a (241)Am source.

  18. Mathematical method to calculate full-energy peak efficiency of detectors based on transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, M. M.; Hamzawy, A.; Badawi, M. S.; El-Khatib, A. M.; Thabet, A. A.; Abbas, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The full-energy peak efficiency of high-purity germanium well-type detector is extremely important to calculate the absolute activities of natural and artificial radionuclides for samples with low radioactivity. In this work, the efficiency transfer method in an integral form is proposed to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency and to correct the coincidence summing effect for a high-purity germanium well-type detector. This technique is based on the calculation of the ratio of the effective solid angles subtended by the well-type detector with cylindrical sources measured inside detector cavity and an axial point source measured out the detector cavity including the attenuation of the photon by the absorber system. This technique can be easily applied in establishing the efficiency calibration curves of well-type detectors. The calculated values of the efficiency are in good agreement with the experimental calibration data obtained with a mixed γ-ray standard source containing 60Co and 88Y.

  19. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, S.

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  20. Thin film CdTe based neutron detectors with high thermal neutron efficiency and gamma rejection for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Murphy, J. W.; Kim, J.; Rozhdestvenskyy, S.; Mejia, I.; Park, H.; Allee, D. R.; Quevedo-Lopez, M.; Gnade, B.

    2016-12-01

    Solid-state neutron detectors offer an alternative to 3He based detectors, but suffer from limited neutron efficiencies that make their use in security applications impractical. Solid-state neutron detectors based on single crystal silicon also have relatively high gamma-ray efficiencies that lead to false positives. Thin film polycrystalline CdTe based detectors require less complex processing with significantly lower gamma-ray efficiencies. Advanced geometries can also be implemented to achieve high thermal neutron efficiencies competitive with silicon based technology. This study evaluates these strategies by simulation and experimentation and demonstrates an approach to achieve >10% intrinsic efficiency with <10-6 gamma-ray efficiency.

  1. Efficiency of Moderated Neutron Lithium Glass Detectors Using Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Due to national security concerns over the smuggling of special nuclear materials and the small supply of He-3 for use in neutron detectors, there is a great need for a new kind of neutron detector. Using Monte Carlo techniques I have been studying the use of lithium glass in varying configurations for neutron detectors. My research has included the effects of using a detector with two thin sheets of lithium at varying distances apart. I have also researched the effects of varying amounts of shielding a californium source with varying amounts of water. This is important since shielding would likely be used to make nuclear material more difficult to detect. The addition of one sheet of lithium-6 glass on the front surface of the detector significantly improves the efficiency for the detection of neutrons from a moderated fission source.

  2. Characteristics of GRIFFIN high-purity germanium clover detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, U.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Chester, A.; Domingo, T.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Rand, E. T.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Voss, P.; Williams, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. The performance of the 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover detectors that will make up the GRIFFIN spectrometer is reported. The energy resolution, efficiency, timing resolution, crosstalk and preamplifier properties of each crystal were measured using a combination of analog and digital data acquisition techniques. The absolute efficiency and add-back factors are determined for the energy range of 80-3450 keV. The detectors show excellent performance with an average over all 64 crystals of a FWHM energy resolution of 1.89(6) keV and relative efficiency with respect to a 3 in . × 3 in . NaI detector of 41(1)% at 1.3 MeV.

  3. Algorithms for calculating detector efficiency normalization coefficients for true coincidences in 3D PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, R. D.; Lodge, M. A.; Marsden, P. K.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate normalization of lines of response in 3D PET is a prerequisite for quantitative reconstruction. Most current methods are component based, calculating a series of geometric and intrinsic detector efficiency factors. We have reviewed the theory behind several existing algorithms for calculating detector efficiency factors in 2D and 3D PET, and have extended them to create a range of new algorithms. Three of the algorithms described are `fully 3D' in that they make use of data from all detector rings for the calculation of the efficiencies of any one line of response. We have assessed the performance of the new and existing methods using simulated and real data, and have demonstrated that the fully 3D algorithms allow the rapid acquisition of crystal efficiency normalization data using low-activity sources. Such methods enable the use of scatter-free scanning line sources or the use of very short acquisitions of cylindrical sources for routine normalization.

  4. Fabrication process development for high-purity germanium radiation detectors with amorphous semiconductor contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looker, Quinn

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) radiation detectors are well established as a valuable tool in nuclear science, astrophysics, and nuclear security applications. HPGe detectors excel in gamma-ray spectroscopy, offering excellent energy resolution with large detector sizes for high radiation detection efficiency. Although a robust fabrication process has been developed, improvement is needed, especially in developing electrical contact and surface passivation technology for position-sensitive detectors. A systematic study is needed to understand how the detector fabrication process impacts detector performance and reliability. In order to provide position sensitivity, the electrical contacts are segmented to form multiple electrodes. This segmentation creates new challenges in the fabrication process and warrants consideration of additional detector effects related to the segmentation. A key area of development is the creation of the electrical contacts in a way that enables reliable operation, provides low electronic noise, and allows fine segmentation of electrodes, giving position sensitivity for radiation interactions in the detector. Amorphous semiconductor contacts have great potential to facilitate new HPGe detector designs by providing a thin, high-resistivity surface coating that is the basis for electrical contacts that block both electrons and holes and can easily be finely segmented. Additionally, amorphous semiconductor coatings form a suitable passivation layer to protect the HPGe crystal surface from contamination. This versatility allows a simple fabrication process for fully passivated, finely segmented detectors. However, the fabrication process for detectors with amorphous semiconductors is not as highly developed as for conventional technologies. The amorphous semiconductor layer properties can vary widely based on how they are created and these can translate into varying performance of HPGe detectors with these contacts. Some key challenges include

  5. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  6. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  7. Quantum efficiency performances of the NIR European Large Format Array detectors tested at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.

    2015-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/12/2015, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 10/23/2015. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. The Payload Technology Validation Section (SRE-FV) at ESTEC has the goal to validate new technology for future or on-going mission. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near-infrared (NIR) detectors has been created. In the context of the NIR European Large Format Array ("LFA"), 3 deliverables detectors coming from SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side were characterized. The quantum efficiency of an HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne was as well measured. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers is a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication will present the quantum efficiency results of a HAWAII-2RG detector from Teledyne with a 2.5um cut off compared to the LFA European detectors prototypes developed independently by SELEX-UK/ATC (UK) on one side, and CEA/LETI- CEA/IRFU-SOFRADIR (FR) on the other side.

  8. Improving Light Collection Efficiency in HAWC Detector Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudler-Flam, Jonah; HAWC Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory was designed to detect air showers produced by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. The detector is composed of 300 water tanks with four photomultipliers (PMTs) located at the bottom of each tank. When charged particles from air showers enter the tanks, the Cherenkov light produced by the particles is detected by the PMTs. However, much of the Cherenkov light is lost due to the small collection areas of the PMTs. To increase the collection area of the photosensors, we investigate light collectors composed of wavelength-shifting fibers. We have constructed a simple concentrator in the lab using two silicon photomultipliers and 1 mm optical fibers coated with a wavelength-shifting layer, and simulated the response of the setup using PVTrace, a Python package designed to raytrace photons in luminescent concentrators. We compare our simulations to results obtained in the laboratory and find that the concentration gain of the fiber system scales linearly with the number of fibers. This project was supported in part by NSF grant NSF-PHY 1460352.

  9. Bell inequalities violated using detectors of low efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás

    2015-11-01

    We define a family of binary-outcome n -party m ≤n settings per party Bell inequalities whose members require the least detection efficiency for their violation among all known inequalities of the same type. This gives upper bounds for the minimum value of the critical efficiency—below which no violation is possible—achievable for such inequalities. For m =2 , our family reduces to the one given by Larsson and Semitecolos in 2001 [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022117 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.022117]. For m >2 , a gap remains between these bounds and the best lower bounds. The violating state near the threshold efficiency always approaches a product state of n qubits.

  10. Low-cost fabrication of high efficiency solid-state neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia-Woei; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Weltz, Adam; English, Erik; Hella, Mona M.; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-05-01

    The development of high-efficiency solid state thermal neutron detectors at low cost is critical for a wide range of civilian and defense applications. The use of present neutron detector system for personal radiation detection is limited by the cost, size, weight and power requirements. Chip scale solid state neutron detectors based on silicon technology would provide significant benefits in terms of cost, volume, and allow for wafer level integration with charge preamplifiers and readout electronics. In this paper, anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers was used to replace deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to produce microstructured neutron detectors with lower cost and compatibility with mass production. Deep trenches were etched by 30 wt% KOH at 85°C with a highest etch ratio of (110) to (111). A trench-microstructure thermal neutron detector described by the aforementioned processes was fabricated and characterized. The detector—which has a continuous p+-n junction diode—was filled with enriched boron (99% of 10B) as a neutron converter material. The device showed a leakage current of ~ 6.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -1V and thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~16.3%. The detector uses custom built charge pre-amplifier, a shaping amplifier, and an analogto- digital converter (ADC) for data acquisition.

  11. Geometric efficiency for a circular detector and a ring source of arbitrary orientation and position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, John T.

    2011-06-01

    Two distinct axisymmetric radiation vector potentials are derived for a circular ring source, both of which are given in terms of elliptic integrals. In combination with Stokes's theorem these potentials reduce the surface integral for the geometric efficiency of a ring source and a general detector to a line integral, though only a circular detector is analyzed in detail here. One of the potentials is bounded as the axis of symmetry is approached and it can also be expressed as an integral of Bessel functions. It is used to derive the ring source analogue of Ruby's formula and its noncoaxial generalization. A trigonometric integral is given for the general noncoaxial case and closed form solutions are given for the coaxial case and the case where the ring source is in the detector plane. Numerical data is given for these cases. The second potential is singular along the entire ring axis and Stokes's theorem must be modified when using it whenever the ring axis intersects the detector or its boundary. This potential is used to derive a trigonometric integral for the geometric efficiency of the ring source and a circular detector in the general case where the source and the detector have arbitrary relative position and angular orientation. Numerical data is given for selected geometric parameters when the planes of the ring and disk are perpendicular and for the general case. The intersection of some results for point source radiation vector potentials with vector potentials arising in diffraction theory is given in an Appendix.

  12. Energy resolution and efficiency of phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors for light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Di Domizio, S.; Castellano, M. G.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-31

    The development of sensitive cryogenic light detectors is of primary interest for bolometric experiments searching for rare events like dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay. Thanks to their good energy resolution and the natural multiplexed read-out, Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are particularly suitable for this purpose. To efficiently couple KIDs-based light detectors to the large crystals used by the most advanced bolometric detectors, active surfaces of several cm{sup 2} are needed. For this reason, we are developing phonon-mediated detectors. In this paper, we present the results obtained with a prototype consisting of four 40 nm thick aluminum resonators patterned on a 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} silicon chip, and calibrated with optical pulses and X-rays. The detector features a noise resolution σ{sub E} = 154 ± 7 eV and an (18 ± 2)% efficiency.

  13. Detection efficiency, spatial and timing resolution of thermal and cold neutron counting MCP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Hull, J. S.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron counting detectors with boron or gadolinium doped microchannel plates (MCPs) have very high detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution, and have a very low readout noise. In this paper we present the results of both theoretical predictions and experimental evaluations of detection efficiency and spatial resolution measured at cold and thermal neutron beamlines. The quantum detection efficiency of a detector (not fully optimized) was measured to be 43% and 16% for the cold and thermal beamlines, respectively. The experiments also demonstrate that the spatial resolution can be better than 15 μm—highest achievable with the particular MCP pore dimension used in the experiment, although more electronics development is required in order to increase the counting rate capabilities of those <15 μm resolution devices. The timing accuracy of neutron detection is on the scale of few μs and is limited by the neutron absorption depth in the detector. The good agreement between the predicted and measured performance allows the optimization of the detector parameters in order to achieve the highest spatial resolution and detection efficiency in future devices.

  14. Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Oliver; Ferrari, Simone; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Goltsman, Gregory N.; Korneev, Alexander; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, compatibility with an integrated optical platform is a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. Here we present SNSPDs embedded in nanophotonic integrated circuits which achieve internal quantum efficiencies close to unity at 1550 nm wavelength. This allows for the SNSPDs to be operated at bias currents far below the critical current where unwanted dark count events reach milli-Hz levels while on-chip detection efficiencies above 70% are maintained. The measured dark count rates correspond to noise-equivalent powers in the 10−19 W/Hz−1/2 range and the timing jitter is as low as 35 ps. Our detectors are fully scalable and interface directly with waveguide-based optical platforms. PMID:26061283

  15. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  16. Comparison of two HPGe counting system used in activation studies for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2014-05-09

    The activation method is a widely used technique to measure charged-particle induced cross sections for astrophys-ical applications. This two step technique is used for example to measure alpha-induced cross sections in γ-process related studies. The first step – in which a target is irradiated with a proton/alpha beam – is followed by the determination of the produced activity. Especially in p-process related studies in the heavier mass range, the produced radioactive nuclei decays mainly with electron-capture, resulting intense x-rays. The activity of the reaction products hence can be determine via the counting of these x-rays, and not only by counting the usually much weaker γ-rays. In this paper we compare the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used for x- and γ-ray counting in activation experiments.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the SINBAD code on complex HPGe gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Rohee, E.; Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Carrel, F.; Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.; Montagu, T.; Jammes, C.

    2015-07-01

    Radionuclides identification and quantification is a serious concern for many applications as safety or security of nuclear power plant or fuel cycle facility, CBRN risk identification, environmental radioprotection and waste measurements. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detectors is a performing solution for all these topics. During last decades, a great number of software has been developed to improve gamma spectra analysis. However, some difficulties remain in the analysis when photoelectric peaks are folded together with a high ratio between theirs amplitudes, when the Compton background is much larger compared to the signal of a single peak and when spectra are composed of a great number of peaks. This study deals with the comparison between conventional methods in radionuclides identification and quantification and the code called SINBAD ('Spectrometrie par Inference Non parametrique Bayesienne Deconvolutive'). For many years, SINBAD has been developed by CEA LIST for unfolding complex spectra from HPGe detectors. Contrary to conventional methods using fitting procedures, SINBAD uses a probabilistic approach with Bayesian inference to describe spectrum data. This conventional fitting method founded for example in Genie 2000 is compared with the nonparametric SINBAD approach regarding some key figures of merit as the peak centroid evaluation (identification) and peak surface evaluation (quantification). Unfriendly cases are studied for nuclides detection with closed gamma-rays energies and high photoelectric peak intensity differences. Tests are performed with spectra from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for gamma spectra analysis software benchmark and with spectra acquired at the laboratory. Results show that SINBAD and Genie 2000 performances are quite similar with sometimes best results for SINBAD with the important difference that to achieve same performances the nonparametric method is user-friendly compared to the

  18. The effect of magnetic field on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Renema, J. J.; Rengelink, R. J.; Komen, I.; Wang, Q.; Kes, P.; Aarts, J.; Exter, M. P. van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaudio, R.; Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Fiore, A.; Sahin, D.; Driessen, E. F. C.

    2015-03-02

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a magnetic field on photon detection in superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). At low fields, the effect of a magnetic field is through the direct modification of the quasiparticle density of states of the superconductor, and magnetic field and bias current are interchangeable, as is expected for homogeneous dirty-limit superconductors. At the field where a first vortex enters the detector, the effect of the magnetic field is reduced, up until the point where the critical current of the detector starts to be determined by flux flow. From this field on, increasing the magnetic field does not alter the detection of photons anymore, whereas it does still change the rate of dark counts. This result points at an intrinsic difference in dark and photon counts, and also shows that no enhancement of the intrinsic detection efficiency of a straight SSPD wire is achievable in a magnetic field.

  19. Development of a high efficiency personal/environmental radon dosimeter using polycarbonate detectors.

    PubMed

    Taheri, M; Jafarizadeh, M; Baradaran, S; Zainali, Gh

    2006-12-01

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are widely used for the assessment of radon exposure. These methods are often applied in radon dosimetry for long periods of time. In this research work, we have developed a highly efficient method of personal/environmental radon dosimetry that is based upon the detection of alpha particles from radon daughters, (218)Po and (214)Po, using a polycarbonate detector (PC). The radon daughters are collected on the filter surface by passing a fixed flow of air through it and the PC detector, placed at a specified distance from the filter, is simultaneously exposed to alpha particles. After exposure, the latent tracks on the detector are made to appear by means of an electrochemical etching process; these are proportional to the radon dose. The air flow rate and the detector-filter distance are the major factors that can affect the performance of the dosimeter. The results obtained in our experimental investigations have shown that a distance of 1.5 cm between the detector and the filter, an absorber layer of Al with a thickness of 12 microm and an air flow rate of 4 l min(-1) offer the best design parameters for a high efficiency radon dosimeter. Then, the designed dosimeter was calibrated against different values of radon exposures and the obtained sensitivity was found to be 2.1 (tracks cm(-2)) (kBq h m(-3))(-1). The most important advantages of this method are that it is reliable, fast and convenient when used for radon dose assessment. In this paper, the optimized parameters of the dosimeter structure and its calibration procedure are presented and discussed.

  20. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  1. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  2. Detection efficiency calculation for photons, electrons and positrons in a well detector. Part I: Analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2009-06-01

    An analytical model is presented to calculate the total detection efficiency of a well-type radiation detector for photons, electrons and positrons emitted from a radioactive source at an arbitrary position inside the well. The model is well suited to treat a typical set-up with a point source or cylindrical source and vial inside a NaI well detector, with or without lead shield surrounding it. It allows for fast absolute or relative total efficiency calibrations for a wide variety of geometrical configurations and also provides accurate input for the calculation of coincidence summing effects. Depending on its accuracy, it may even be applied in 4π-γ counting, a primary standardisation method for activity. Besides an accurate account of photon interactions, precautions are taken to simulate the special case of 511 keV annihilation quanta and to include realistic approximations for the range of (conversion) electrons and β -- and β +-particles.

  3. A Mechanically-Cooled, Highly-Portable, HPGe-Based, Coded-Aperture Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Coded-aperture gamma-ray imaging is a mature technology that is capable of providing accurate and quantitative images of nuclear materials. Although it is potentially of high value to the safeguards and arms-control communities, it has yet to be fully embraced by those communities. One reason for this is the limited choice, high-cost, and low efficiency of commercial instruments; while instruments made by research organizations are frequently large and / or unsuitable for field work. In this paper we present the results of a project that mates the coded-aperture imaging approach with the latest in commercially-available, position-sensitive, High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detec-tors. The instrument replaces a laboratory prototype that, was unsuitable for other than demonstra-tions. The original instrument, and the cart on which it is mounted to provide mobility and pointing capabilities, has a footprint of ~ 2/3 m x 2 m, weighs ~ 100 Kg, and requires cryogen refills every few days. In contrast, the new instrument is tripod mounted, weighs of order 25 Kg, operates with a laptop computer, and is mechanically cooled. The instrument is being used in a program that is ex-ploring the use of combined radiation and laser scanner imaging. The former provides information on the presence, location, and type of nuclear materials while the latter provides design verification information. To align the gamma-ray images with the laser scanner data, the Ge imager is fitted and aligned to a visible-light stereo imaging unit. This unit generates a locus of 3D points that can be matched to the precise laser scanner data. With this approach, the two instruments can be used completely independently at a facility, and yet the data can be accurately overlaid based on the very structures that are being measured.

  4. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors for direct 3He replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronk, R. G.; Bellinger, S. L.; Henson, L. C.; Huddleston, D. E.; Ochs, T. R.; Sobering, T. J.; McGregor, D. S.

    2015-04-01

    High-efficiency Microstructured Semiconductor Neutron Detectors (MSNDs) have been tiled and arranged in a cylindrical form factor in order to serve as a direct replacement to aging and increasingly expensive 3He gas-filled proportional neutron detectors. Two 6-in long by 2-in diameter cylinders were constructed and populated with MSNDs which were then directly compared to a 4 atm Reuter Stokes 3He detector of the same dimensions. The Generation 1 MSND-based 3Helium-Replacement (HeRep Mk I) device contained sixty-four 1-cm2 active-area MSNDs, each with an intrinsic neutron detection efficiency of approximately 7%. A Generation 2 device (the HeRep Mk II) was populated with thirty 4-cm2 active-area MSNDs, with an intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of approximately 30%. The MSNDs of each HeRep were integrated to count as a single device. The 3He proportional counter and the HeRep devices were tested while encased in a cylinder of high-density polyethylene measuring a total of 6-in by 9-in. The 3He counter and the HeRep Mk II were each placed 1 m from a 54-ng 252Cf source and tested for efficiency. The 3He proportional counter had a net count rate of 17.13±0.10 cps at 1 m. The HeRep Mk II device had a net count rate of 17.60±0.10 cps, amounting to 102.71±2.65% of the 3He gas counter while inside of the moderator. Outside of moderator, the 3He tube had a count rate of 3.35±0.05 cps and the HeRep Mk II device reported 3.19±05, amounting to 95.15±9.04% of the 3He neutron detector.

  5. Direct-Reaction Studies by Particle-Gamma Coincidence Spectroscopy Using HPGe-CsI and HPGe-Si Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, James M

    2013-01-01

    Particle- and particle- - coincidence spectroscopy has several advantages in the study of direct reactions(particularly in inverse kinematics) since it can generally allow determination of: decay paths; high-precision level energies; multipolarities of transitions; and cross sections. Techniques for studying direct reactions by particle- coincidence spectroscopy are presented for two cases: (1) heavy-ion reactions with HPGe-CsI, and (2) light-ion reactions with HPGe-Si. Future direct-reaction studies with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) will mostly involve low beam intensities and inverse kinematics (i.e., Abeam>Atarget), which eliminates the traditional use of magnetic spectrometers. Particle- coincidence spectroscopy currently provides the most viable method to study direct reactions with nuclei of any level density. In the present study, the capabilities and limitations of the technique are explored.

  6. Direct-reaction studies by particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy using Csi-Hpge and Si-Hpge arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Allmond, J. M.

    2013-04-19

    Particle-{gamma} and particle-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy has several advantages in the study of direct reactions (particularly in inverse kinematics) since it can generally allow determination of: decay paths; high-precision level energies; multipolarities of transitions; and cross sections. Techniques for studying direct reactions by particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy are presented for two cases: (1) heavy-ion reactions with CsI-HPGe, and (2) light-ion reactions with Si-HPGe. Future direct-reaction studies with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) will mostly involve low beam intensities and inverse kinematics (i.e., A{sub beam}>A{sub target}), which eliminates the traditional use of magnetic spectrometers. Particle-{gamma} coincidence spectroscopy currently provides the most viable method to study direct reactions with nuclei of any level density. In the present study, the capabilities and limitations of the technique are explored.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray interactions in an over-square high-purity germanium detector for in-vivo measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saizu, Mirela Angela

    2016-09-01

    The developments of high-purity germanium detectors match very well the requirements of the in-vivo human body measurements regarding the gamma energy ranges of the radionuclides intended to be measured, the shape of the extended radioactive sources, and the measurement geometries. The Whole Body Counter (WBC) from IFIN-HH is based on an “over-square” high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) to perform accurate measurements of the incorporated radionuclides emitting X and gamma rays in the energy range of 10 keV-1500 keV, under conditions of good shielding, suitable collimation, and calibration. As an alternative to the experimental efficiency calibration method consisting of using reference calibration sources with gamma energy lines that cover all the considered energy range, it is proposed to use the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of the WBC using the radiation transport code MCNP5. The HPGe detector was modelled and the gamma energy lines of 241Am, 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co, and 152Eu were simulated in order to obtain the virtual efficiency calibration curve of the WBC. The Monte Carlo method was validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements using point-like sources. For their optimum matching, the impact of the variation of the front dead layer thickness and of the detector photon absorbing layers materials on the HPGe detector efficiency was studied, and the detector’s model was refined. In order to perform the WBC efficiency calibration for realistic people monitoring, more numerical calculations were generated simulating extended sources of specific shape according to the standard man characteristics.

  8. Note: Determining the detection efficiency of excited neutral atoms by a microchannel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ben; Zohrabi, M.; Hayes, D.; Ablikim, U.; Jochim, Bethany; Severt, T.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-04-15

    We present a method for determining the detection efficiency of neutral atoms relative to keV ions. Excited D* atoms are produced by D{sub 2} fragmentation in a strong laser field. The fragments are detected by a micro-channel plate detector either directly as neutrals or as keV ions following field ionization and acceleration by a static electric field. Moreover, we propose a new mechanism by which neutrals are detected. We show that the ratio of the yield of neutrals and ions can be related to the relative detection efficiency of these species.

  9. Detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Single-photon-counting (SPC) x-ray imaging has the potential to improve image quality and enable novel energy-dependent imaging methods. Similar to conventional detectors, optimizing image SPC quality will require systems that produce the highest possible detective quantum efficiency (DQE). This paper builds on the cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) framework to develop a comprehensive description of the DQE of SPC detectors that implement adaptive binning. Methods: The DQE of SPC systems can be described using the CSA approach by propagating the probability density function (PDF) of the number of image-forming quanta through simple quantum processes. New relationships are developed to describe PDF transfer through serial and parallel cascades to accommodate scatter reabsorption. Results are applied to hypothetical silicon and selenium-based flat-panel SPC detectors including the effects of reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons from photoelectric and Compton interactions, stochastic conversion of x-ray energy to secondary quanta, depth-dependent charge collection, and electronic noise. Results are compared with a Monte Carlo study. Results: Depth-dependent collection efficiency can result in substantial broadening of photopeaks that in turn may result in reduced DQE at lower x-ray energies (20–45 keV). Double-counting interaction events caused by reabsorption of characteristic/scatter photons may result in falsely inflated image signal-to-noise ratio and potential overestimation of the DQE. Conclusions: The CSA approach is extended to describe signal and noise propagation through photoelectric and Compton interactions in SPC detectors, including the effects of escape and reabsorption of emission/scatter photons. High-performance SPC systems can be achieved but only for certain combinations of secondary conversion gain, depth-dependent collection efficiency, electronic noise, and reabsorption characteristics.

  10. A robust approach to measuring the detective quantum efficiency of radiographic detectors in a clinical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael C.; Kim, H. K.; Henry, J. R.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2012-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely accepted as a primary measure of x-ray detector performance in the scientific community. A standard method for measuring the DQE, based on IEC 62220-1, requires the system to have a linear response meaning that the detector output signals are proportional to the incident x-ray exposure. However, many systems have a non-linear response due to characteristics of the detector, or post processing of the detector signals, that cannot be disabled and may involve unknown algorithms considered proprietary by the manufacturer. For these reasons, the DQE has not been considered as a practical candidate for routine quality assurance testing in a clinical setting. In this article we described a method that can be used to measure the DQE of both linear and non-linear systems that employ only linear image processing algorithms. The method was validated on a Cesium Iodide based flat panel system that simultaneously stores a raw (linear) and processed (non-linear) image for each exposure. It was found that the resulting DQE was equivalent to a conventional standards-compliant DQE with measurement precision, and the gray-scale inversion and linear edge enhancement did not affect the DQE result. While not IEC 62220-1 compliant, it may be adequate for QA programs.

  11. Detective quantum efficiency: a standard test to ensure optimal detector performance and low patient exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, Terenz R.; Nano, Tomi F.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE), expressed as a function of spatial frequency, describes the ability of an x-ray detector to produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images. While regulatory and scientific communities have used the DQE as a primary metric for optimizing detector design, the DQE is rarely used by end users to ensure high system performance is maintained. Of concern is that image quality varies across different systems for the same exposures with no current measures available to describe system performance. Therefore, here we conducted an initial DQE measurement survey of clinical x-ray systems using a DQE-testing instrument to identify their range of performance. Following laboratory validation, experiments revealed that the DQE of five different systems under the same exposure level (8.0 μGy) ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 at low spatial frequencies, and 0.02 to 0.4 at high spatial frequencies (3.5 cycles/mm). Furthermore, the DQE dropped substantially with decreasing detector exposure by a factor of up to 1.5x in the lowest spatial frequency, and a factor of 10x at 3.5 cycles/mm due to the effect of detector readout noise. It is concluded that DQE specifications in purchasing decisions, combined with periodic DQE testing, are important factors to ensure patients receive the health benefits of high-quality images for low x-ray exposures.

  12. A comparison of emerging gamma detector technologies for airborne radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. J.; Aitken-Smith, P.; Beeke, S.; Collins, S. M.; Regan, P. H.; Shearman, R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of new and emerging gamma detector technologies that have the potential to improve in-situ dose and radioactivity-in-air measurements for national monitoring networks. Five detectors were chosen for investigation; LaBr3(Ce), CeBr3, SiPM-CsI(Tl), Cd(Zn)Te and electromechanically-cooled HPGe. These detectors represent the full range of the price-performance matrix. Comparisons have been made of energy resolution, detection efficiency and minimum detectable activity by exposing each detector to a mixed radionuclide source drop-deposited across a filter. Other factors, such as internal radioactivity, linearity, size and cost have also been considered.

  13. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  14. Analysis of the detective quantum efficiency of a developmental detector for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Williams, M B; Simoni, P U; Smilowitz, L; Stanton, M; Phillips, W; Stewart, A

    1999-11-01

    We are developing a modular detector for applications in full field digital mammography and for diagnostic breast imaging. The detector is based on a design that has been refined over the past decade for applications in x-ray crystallography [Kalata et al., Proc. SPIE 1345, 270-279 (1990); Phillips et al. ibid. 2009, 133-138 (1993), Phillips et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. A 334, 621-630 (1993)]. The full field mammographic detector, currently undergoing clinical evaluation, is formed from a 19 cm x 28 cm phosphor screen, read out by a 2 x 3 array of butted charge-coupled device (CCD) modules. Each 2k x 2k CCD is optically coupled to the phosphor via a fiber optic taper with dimensions of 9.4 cm x 9.4cm at the phosphor. This paper describes the imaging performance of a two-module prototype, built using a similar design. In this paper we use cascaded linear systems analysis to develop a model for calculating the spatial frequency dependent noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector using the measured modulation transfer function (MTF). We compare results of the calculation with the measured NPS and DQE of the prototype. Calculated and measured DQEs are compared over a range of clinically relevant x-ray exposures and kVps. We find that for x-ray photon energies between 10 and 28 keV, the detector gain ranges between 2.5 and 3.7 CCD electrons per incident x-ray, or approximately 5-8 electrons per absorbed x ray. Using a Mo/Mo beam and acrylic phantom, over a detector entrance exposure range of approximately 10 to 80 mR, the volume under the measured 2-d NPS of the prototype detector is proportional to the x-ray exposure, indicating quantum limited performance. Substantial agreement between the calculated and measured values was obtained for the frequency and exposure dependent NPS and DQE over a range of tube voltage from 25 to 30 kVp.

  15. High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, W.H.P.; Schuck, C.; Minaeva, O.; Li, M.; Goltsman, G.N.; Sergienko, A.V.; Tang, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast, high-efficiency single-photon detectors are among the most sought-after elements in modern quantum optics and quantum communication. However, imperfect modal matching and finite photon absorption rates have usually limited their maximum attainable detection efficiency. Here we demonstrate superconducting nanowire detectors atop nanophotonic waveguides, which enable a drastic increase of the absorption length for incoming photons. This allows us to achieve high on-chip single-photon detection efficiency up to 91% at telecom wavelengths, repeatable across several fabricated chips. We also observe remarkably low dark count rates without significant compromise of the on-chip detection efficiency. The detectors are fully embedded in scalable silicon photonic circuits and provide ultrashort timing jitter of 18 ps. Exploiting this high temporal resolution, we demonstrate ballistic photon transport in silicon ring resonators. Our direct implementation of a high-performance single-photon detector on chip overcomes a major barrier in integrated quantum photonics. PMID:23271658

  16. Potential of combining iterative reconstruction with noise efficient detector design: aggressive dose reduction in head CT

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B; Schabel, C; Fenchel, M; Ernemann, U; Korn, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With further increase of CT numbers and their dominant contribution to medical exposure, there is a recent quest for more effective dose control. While reintroduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) has proved its potential in many applications, a novel focus is placed on more noise efficient detectors. Our purpose was to assess the potential of IR in combination with an integrated circuit detector (ICD) for aggressive dose reduction in head CT. Methods: Non-contrast low-dose head CT [190 mAs; weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), 33.2 mGy] was performed in 50 consecutive patients, using a new noise efficient detector and IR. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with standard dose acquisitions (320 mAs; CTDIvol, 59.7 mGy) using a conventional detector and filtered back projection. Results: By combining ICD and IR in low-dose examinations, the signal to noise was improved by about 13% above the baseline level in the standard-dose control group. Both, contrast-to-noise ratio (2.02 ± 0.6 vs 1.88 ± 0.4; p = 0.18) and objective measurements of image sharpness (695 ± 84 vs 705 ± 151 change in Hounsfield units per pixel; p = 0.79) were fully preserved in the low-dose group. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the grading of several subjective image quality parameters when both noise-reducing strategies were used in low-dose examinations. Conclusion: Combination of noise efficient detector with IR allows for meaningful dose reduction in head CT without compromise of standard image quality. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of almost 50% dose reduction in head CT dose (1.1 mSv per scan) through combination of novel dose-reducing strategies. PMID:25827204

  17. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  18. Development of Highly Efficient and High Speed X-ray Detectors Using Modern Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Cholewa, Marian; Moser, Herbert O.; Lau, Shu Ping; Gao Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Polak, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Stachura, Zbigniew

    2007-01-19

    The secondary electron emission (SEE) yield of heterostructures of ZnO nanoneedles coaxially coated with AlN or GaN has been studied for the first time using electron, ion, and X-ray beams. The SEE yield of the heterostructures is enhanced significantly by the intrinsic nanostructure of the ZnO nanoneedle templates as compared to the AlN and GaN thin films on Si substrates. These findings open up a way to develop new universal highly efficient radiation detectors based on the SEE principle by incorporating these one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures as a material of choice.

  19. Scintillation efficiency for low energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Xiong, Xiaonu; Ji, Xiangdong

    2015-02-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the scintillation efficiency of the low energy region crucial for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. We develop a computer program to simulate the cascading process of the recoiling xenon nucleus in liquid xenon and calculate the nuclear quenching effect due to atomic collisions. We use the electronic stopping power extrapolated from experimental data to the low energy region, and take into account the effects of electron escape from electron-ion pair recombination using the generalized Thomas-Imel model fitted to scintillation data. Our result agrees well with the experiments from neutron scattering and vanishes rapidly as the recoil energy drops below 3 keV.

  20. The trigger system of the Pierre Auger Surface Detector: operation, efficiency and stablility

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, D.; Armengaud, E.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Bertou, Xavier; Billoir, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dorofeev, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gorgi, A.; Hamilton, J.C.; Harton, J.

    2005-08-01

    The trigger system of the Surface Detector (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is described, from the identification of candidate showers (E > 1 EeV) at the level of a single station, among a huge background (mainly single muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences at a higher central trigger level (including the reconstruction accuracy). Efficiency of a single station trigger is evaluated using real data, and the high performance of event selection hierarchy will be demonstrated.

  1. Efficiency Studies and Simulations of a Neutron Background Veto for Dark Matter Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, Shawn; Shields, Emily; Xu, Jingke; Calaprice, Frank

    2013-04-01

    In direct WIMP dark matter detection experiments, neutrons from cosmogenic sources and nuclear reactions in detector materials can provide backgrounds indistinguishable from WIMP signals. To reduce this background, an active neutron veto filled with a boron-loaded scintillator is being developed. The scintillator used will be pseudocumene, mixed with trimethyl borate as a boron source, and a PPO wavelength shifter. Such a veto would detect neutrons in the volume surrounding the detector, allowing coincident background events in the detector to be rejected. Neutrons are captured by the ^10B with a high cross section, resulting in an α and ^7Li. The scintillation from the nuclear products is heavily quenched to an equivalent electron energy as low as 50 keV. To detect this, it is necessary to have high light collection efficiency. To model the neutron veto concept, light yield measurements were taken for a small prototype filled with the scintillator mixture and lined with a Lumirror reflector. These results were reproduced in GEANT4 and in an independent simulation. We then applied the simulations to the DarkSide-50 neutron veto to predict its neutron rejection power. Results from measurements taken with the prototype and from the simulation will be presented.

  2. Efficiency as a function of MEQ-CWT for large area germanium detectors using LLNL phantom.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Brindha, J Thulasi; Sreedevi, K R; Hegde, A G

    2012-01-01

    The lung counting system at Kalpakkam, India, used for the estimation of transuranics deposited in the lungs of occupational workers, consists of an array of three large area germanium detectors fixed in a single assembly. The efficiency calibration for low energy photons was carried out using ²⁴¹Am and ²³²Th lung sets of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom. The muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (MEQ-CWT) was derived for the three energies 59.5, 75.95 (average energy of ²³²Th) and 238.9 keV for the series of overlay plates made of different adipose mass ratios. Efficiency as a function of MEQ-CWT was calculated for individual detectors for the three energies. Variation of MEQ-CWT from 16 to 40 mm resulted in an efficiency variation of around 40 % for all the three energies. The array efficiency for different MEQ-CWT ranged from 1.4×10⁻³ to 3.2×10⁻³, 1.5×10⁻³ to 3.3×10⁻³ and 1.1×10⁻³ to 2.3×10⁻³ for 59.5, 75.95 and 238.9 keV, respectively. In the energy response, efficiency was observed to be maximum for 75.95 keV compared with 59.5 and 238.9 keV.

  3. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B.; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous WSi and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of $0.6\\times10^4$ photons/(s$\\cdot$mW$\\cdot$MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  4. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-15

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous tungsten silicide and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of 0.6×104 photons/(s·mW·MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  5. Minimum length Pb/SCIN detector for efficient cosmic ray identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. David

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the performance of a minimal length cosmic ray shower detector that would be light enough for space flight and would provide efficient identification of positions and protons. Cosmic ray positions are mainly produced in the decay chain of: Pion yields Muon yields Positron and they provide a measure of the matter density traversed by primary protons. Present positron flux measurements are consistent with the Leaky Box and Halo models for sources of cosmic rays. Abundant protons in the space environment are a significant source of background that would wash out the positron signal. Protons and positrons produced very distictive showers of particles when they enter matter; many studies have been published on their behavior on large calorimeter detectors. The challenge is to determine the minimal material necessary (minimal calorimeter depth) for positive particles identification. The primary instrument for the investigation is the Monte Carlo code GEANT, a library of programs from CERN that can be used to model experimental geometry, detector responses and particle interaction processes. The use of the Monte Carlo approach is crucial since statistical fluctuations in shower shape are significant. Studies conducted during the 1988 summer program showed that straightforward approaches to the problem achieved 85 to 90 percent correct identification, but left a residue of 10 to 15 percent misidentified particles. This percentage improved to a few percent when multiple shower-cut criteria were applied to the data. This summer, the same study was extended to employ several physical and statistical methods of identifying response of the calorimeter and the efficiency of the optimal shower cuts to off-normal incidence particle was determined.

  6. ELENA MCP detector: absolute detection efficiency for low-energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J. A.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-09-01

    Microchannel Plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission of ESA to Mercury to be launched in 2015. ELENA is a Time of Flight (TOF) sensor, based on a novel concept using an ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section), which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop detector. The scientific objective of ELENA is to detect energetic neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 76° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the plasma environment and the planet’s surface, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles released from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (< 1eV - < 100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E < 30 eV) is a crucial point for this investigation. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different types of MCP (with and without coating) have been performed providing the detection efficiencies in the energy range 10eV - 1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are discussed here.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Pillar Structured Solid State Thermal Neutron Detector Efficiency and Gamma Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, A; Wang, T; Deo, N; Cheung, C; Nikolic, R

    2008-06-24

    This work reports numerical simulations of a novel three-dimensionally integrated, {sup 10}boron ({sup 10}B) and silicon p+, intrinsic, n+ (PIN) diode micropillar array for thermal neutron detection. The inter-digitated device structure has a high probability of interaction between the Si PIN pillars and the charged particles (alpha and {sup 7}Li) created from the neutron - {sup 10}B reaction. In this work, the effect of both the 3-D geometry (including pillar diameter, separation and height) and energy loss mechanisms are investigated via simulations to predict the neutron detection efficiency and gamma discrimination of this structure. The simulation results are demonstrated to compare well with the measurement results. This indicates that upon scaling the pillar height, a high efficiency thermal neutron detector is possible.

  8. Analysis of factors affecting the light collection efficiency in CT detector: CWO+PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Sung W.; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Ho K.; Cho, Gyuseong; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Goh, Sung Min; Lee, Yoon; Park, Jung Byung

    2002-05-01

    The solid-state detector(SSD) for X-CT consists of photodiode coupled to CdWO4$(CWO. It is important to maximize the light collection in respect of a patient's dose, radiation effect and X-ray efficiency. The factors affecting the light collection efficiency are analyzed and optimized by using experimental data and appropriate simulation code. Quantum nomogram is used to investigate the signal propagation characteristics of optimally designed solid-state detector and to ensure at which stage quantum sink occurs. This paper shows that the part of SSD, the CWO of treatment with ground top/ground side yields higher quanta than that of ground top/polish side, which is different from the result of previous studies. We also shows that optimum thickness of SiN passivation and p-layer is 0.12mm and 0.1mm, respectively. From the quantum nomogram calculated for optimal design, it is predicted that the most serious signal degradation occurs at the photodiode.

  9. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  10. Maximizing the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate detectors - The collection of photoelectrons from the interchannel web using an electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Hettrick, M. C.; Malina, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    High quantum efficiency and two-dimensional imaging capabilities make the microchannel plate (MCP) a suitable detector for a sky survey instrument. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite, to be launched in 1987, will use MCP detectors. A feature which limits MCP efficiency is related to the walls of individual channels. The walls are of finite thickness and thus form an interchannel web. Under normal circumstances, this web does not contribute to the detector's quantum efficiency. Panitz and Foesch (1976) have found that in the case of a bombardment with ions, electrons were ejected from the electrode material coating the web. By applying a small electric field, the electrons were returned to the MCP surface where they were detected. The present investigation is concerned with the enhancement of quantum efficiencies in the case of extreme UV wavelengths. Attention is given to a model and a computer simulation which quantitatively reproduce the experimental results.

  11. Measurement of the photon identification efficiencies with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run-1 data.

    PubMed

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Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    The algorithms used by the ATLAS Collaboration to reconstruct and identify prompt photons are described. Measurements of the photon identification efficiencies are reported, using 4.9 fb[Formula: see text] of pp collision data collected at the LHC at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The efficiencies are measured separately for converted and unconverted photons, in four different pseudorapidity regions, for transverse momenta between 10 [Formula: see text] and 1.5 [Formula: see text]. The results from the combination of three data-driven techniques are compared to the predictions from a simulation of the detector response, after correcting the electromagnetic shower momenta in the simulation for the average differences observed with respect to data. Data-to-simulation efficiency ratios used as correction factors in physics measurements are determined to account for the small residual efficiency differences. These factors are measured with uncertainties between 0.5% and 10% in 7 [Formula: see text] data and between 0.5% and 5.6% in 8 [Formula: see text] data, depending on the photon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity.

  12. Measurement of the photon identification efficiencies with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Nedden, M. zur; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-12-01

    The algorithms used by the ATLAS Collaboration to reconstruct and identify prompt photons are described. Measurements of the photon identification efficiencies are reported, using 4.9 fb^{-1} of pp collision data collected at the LHC at √{s} = 7 {TeV} and 20.3 fb^{-1} at √{s} = 8 {TeV}. The efficiencies are measured separately for converted and unconverted photons, in four different pseudorapidity regions, for transverse momenta between 10 {GeV} and 1.5 {TeV}. The results from the combination of three data-driven techniques are compared to the predictions from a simulation of the detector response, after correcting the electromagnetic shower momenta in the simulation for the average differences observed with respect to data. Data-to-simulation efficiency ratios used as correction factors in physics measurements are determined to account for the small residual efficiency differences. These factors are measured with uncertainties between 0.5% and 10% in 7 {TeV} data and between 0.5% and 5.6% in 8 {TeV} data, depending on the photon transverse momentum and pseudorapidity.

  13. A high efficiency veto to increase the sensitivity of ZEPLIN-III, a WIMP detector

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, E. J.

    2009-09-08

    An active veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III two phase Xenon, direct dark matter device is described. The proposed design consists of 52 plastic scintillator segments, individually read out by high efficiency photomultipliers, coupled to a Gd loaded passive polypropylene shield. Experimental work was performed to determine the plastic scintillator characteristics which were used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation of the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an active veto detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of tagging over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events in the energy range of interest in ZEPLIN-III, and over 12% for gamma ray rejection, while contributing no significant additional background. In addition it will also provide valuable diagnostic capabilities. The inclusion of the veto to ZEPLIN-III will aid to significantly improve the sensitivity to spin independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections below 10{sup -8} pb.

  14. Intercomparison of a correlated-photon-based method to measure detector quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Migdall, Alan; Castelletto, Stefania; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Rastello, Maria Luisa

    2002-05-20

    We report on the absolute calibration of photodetector quantum efficiency by using correlated photon sources, performed independently at two laboratories, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale (IEN). The goal is to use an interlaboratory comparison to demonstrate the inherent absoluteness of the photon correlation technique by showing its independence from the particular experimental setup. We find that detector nonuniformity limited this comparison rather than uncertainty inherent in the method itself. The ultimate goal of these investigations is development of a robust measurement protocol that allows the uncertainties of individual measurements to be determined experimentally and verified operationally. Furthermore, to demonstrate the generality of the procedure, the IEN measurement setup was also used to calibrate a fiber-coupled avalanche photodiode module. Uncertainties are evaluated for the detector both with and without fiber coupling and differences are discussed. The current IEN setup using a thinner and higher transmittance nonlinear crystal for the generation of correlated photons shows a significant improvement in overall accuracy with respect to previously reported results from IEN [Metrologia 32, 501-503 (1996)].

  15. A high efficiency veto to increase the sensitivity of ZEPLIN-III, a WIMP detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, E. J.

    2009-09-01

    An active veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III two phase Xenon, direct dark matter device is described. The proposed design consists of 52 plastic scintillator segments, individually read out by high efficiency photomultipliers, coupled to a Gd loaded passive polypropylene shield. Experimental work was performed to determine the plastic scintillator characteristics which were used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation of the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an active veto detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of tagging over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events in the energy range of interest in ZEPLIN-III, and over 12% for gamma ray rejection, while contributing no significant additional background. In addition it will also provide valuable diagnostic capabilities. The inclusion of the veto to ZEPLIN-III will aid to significantly improve the sensitivity to spin independent WIMP-nucleon cross sections below 10-8 pb.

  16. Practical expressions describing detective quantum efficiency in flat-panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. K.

    2011-11-01

    In radiology, image quality excellence is a balance between system performance and patient dose, hence x-ray systems must be designed to ensure the maximum image quality is obtained for the lowest consistent dose. The concept of detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely used to quantify, understand, measure, and predict the performance of x-ray detectors and imaging systems. Cascaded linear-systems theory can be used to estimate DQE based on the system design parameters and this theoretical DQE can be utilized for determining the impact of various physical processes, such as secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, reabsorption noise, and others. However, the prediction of DQE usually requires tremendous efforts to determine each parameter consisting of the cascaded linear-systems model. In this paper, practical DQE formalisms assessing both the photoconductor- and scintillator-based flat-panel detectors under quantum-noise-limited operation are described. The developed formalisms are experimentally validated and discussed for their limits. The formalisms described in this paper would be helpful for the rapid prediction of the DQE performances of developing systems as well as the optimal design of systems.

  17. Three-dimensional diamond detectors: Charge collection efficiency of graphitic electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lagomarsino, S. Parrini, G.; Sciortino, S.; Bellini, M.; Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Corsi, C.

    2013-12-02

    Implementation of 3D-architectures in diamond detectors promises to achieve unreached performances in the radiation-harsh environment of future high-energy physics experiments. This work reports on the collection efficiency under β-irradiation of graphitic 3D-electrodes, created by laser pulses in the domains of nanoseconds (ns-made-sensors) and femtoseconds (fs-made-sensors). Full collection is achieved with the fs-made-sensors, while a loss of 25%–30% is found for the ns-made-sensors. The peculiar behaviour of ns-made sensors has been explained by the presence of a nano-structured sp{sup 3}-carbon layer around the graphitic electrodes, evidenced by micro-Raman imaging, by means of a numerical model of the charge transport near the electrodes.

  18. Measurement of the Charge Collection Efficiency After Heavy Non-Uniform Irradiation in BABAR Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Calderini, G.; Forti, F.; Marchiori, G.; Rizzo, G.; Giorgi, M.A.; Bosisio, L.; Dittongo, S.; Campagnari, C.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the depletion voltage changes, leakage current increase and charge collection efficiency of a silicon microstrip detector identical to those used in the inner layers of the BABAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) after heavy nonuniform irradiation. A full SVT module with the front-end electronics connected has been irradiated with a 0.9 GeV electron beam up to a peak fluence of 3.5 x 10{sup 14} e{sup -}/cm{sup 2}, well beyond the level causing substrate type inversion. We have irradiated the silicon with a nonuniform profile having {sigma} = 1.4 mm that simulates the conditions encountered in the BABAR experiment by the modules intersecting the horizontal machine plane. The position dependence of the charge collection properties and the depletion voltage have been investigated in detail using a 1060 nm LED and an innovative measuring technique based only on the digital output of the chip.

  19. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  20. Investigations of afterpulsing and detection efficiency recovery in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav; Xu, He; Qi, Bing; Hadfield, Robert H.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2013-06-01

    We report on the observation of a non-uniform dark count rate in Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs), specifically focusing on an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated at a high bias current regime. The afterpulsing exists for real detection events (triggered by input photons) as well as for dark counts (no laser input). In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behavior and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the amplifiers used to boost the electrical output signal from the SNSPD. We show that the afterpulsing indeed disappears when we use a different amplifier with a better low frequency response. We also examine the short-lived enhancement of detection efficiency during the recovery of the SNSPD due to temporary perturbation of the bias and grounding conditions.

  1. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  2. Quantum efficiency of a single microwave photon detector based on a semiconductor double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement H.; Vavilov, Maxim G.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we consider a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting resonator that is driven by the microwave field of a superconducting transmission line. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and show that the resonator-coupled DQD is a sensitive microwave single photon detector. Using currently available experimental parameters of DQD-resonator coupling and dissipation, including the effects of 1 /f charge noise and phonon noise, we determine the parameter regime for which incident photons are completely absorbed and near-unit ≳98 % efficiency can be achieved. We show that this regime can be reached by using very high quality resonators with quality factor Q ≃105 .

  3. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement. PMID:26682623

  4. High efficiency photon counting detectors for the FAUST Spacelab far ultraviolet astronomy payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Lampton, M.; Bixler, J.; Vallerga, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1987-01-01

    The performances of sealed tube microchannel-plate position sensitive detectors having transmission CsI photocathodes or opaque CsI photocathodes are compared. These devices were developed for the FAUST Spacelab payload to accomplish imaging surveys in the band between 1300 A and 1800 A. It is demonstrated that photocathode quantum efficiencies in excess of 40 percent at 1216 A have been achieved with the transmission and the opaque CsI photocathodes. The effect of the photoelectron trajectory on the spatial resolution is assessed. Spatial resolution of less than 70 microns FWHM has been obtained and is maintained up to event rates of 50,000/sec. Background rates of 0.55 events sq cm per sec have been achieved and low distortion (less than 1 percent) imaging has been demonstrated.

  5. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-01-21

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement.

  6. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  7. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  8. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (<1eV and >100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (E< 30eV) is a crucial point not yet investigated. At the MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  9. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  10. HAND-HELD GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER BASED ON HIGH-EFFICIENCY FRISCH-RING CdZnTe DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI,Y.

    2007-05-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution, el% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. This technique facilitates the application of CdZnTe materials for high efficiency gamma-ray detection. A hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors is being designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8x8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so that detection efficiency is significantly improved. By using the front-end ASICs developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy resolution. The spectrometer includes signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuit, high-voltage module, and USB interface. In this paper, we introduce the details of the system structure and report our test results with it.

  11. High-Efficiency Continuous Cooling for Cryogenic Instruments and sub-Kelvin Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, James

    Although large, diffraction-limited telescopes are approaching a size limited by available launch vehicles, there is still an enormous discovery spaceopen to astrophysics through the use of advanced low temperature instruments and deep sub-Kelvin detectors. These devices offer the potential for orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity and spectral resolution. In the past, cryogenic instruments have been large, expensive, and power hungry, consisting of complex cooling chains with multiple coolers using different technologies. High cost and complexity have been the major impediment to the selection of missions using these advanced capabilities. We propose to develop a compact cooling system that will span more than a factor of 200 in temperature, lifting heat continuously at temperature below 50 mK and rejecting it at over 10 K, simplifying the overall cryogenic system. The device, based on Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs), will have high thermodynamic efficiency. The prototype system will exceed the requirements of all currently conceived cryogenic detector arrays, including those for flagship missions such as the Far-IR Surveyor, Inflation Probe, X-ray Surveyor, and possibly HabEx and LUVOIR. In particular, it will have more than 5 times the cooling power at 50 mK than previous sub-Kelvin coolers, greatly relaxing the requirements on the heat generation in large detector arrays, and simplifying the thermal design of the focal plane assemblies. ADRs by themselves have no moving parts and produce no measurable vibration, however upper-stage mechanical coolers have been linear piston devices that export significant vibration. Ameliorating the problems due to upper-stage cooler vibrations has contributed to increased costs on recent astrophysics missions such as JWST and AstroH. By raising the heat reject temperature to 10 K, the proposed sub-Kelvin cooler becomes compatible with recently-demonstrated extremely low vibration mechanical coolers

  12. Performance of a HPGe System for Surface and Container Measurements - 13582

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Timothy R.; Keyser, Ronald M.

    2013-07-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear facility or post-accident cleanup is an immense engineering effort requiring an array of specialist tools and techniques. The decommissioning and cleanup activities generate large quantities of low activity waste. For economic disposal, it is desirable to certify the waste as suitable for free release. Every container must be assayed to a sufficient degree of accuracy and sensitivity so that it may be certified to be or not to be suitable for 'free release'. In a previous work, the performance of a highly-automated system for free release of large numbers of containers was presented in which the spectroscopy hardware comprised four ORTEC Interchangeable Detector Module (IDM) mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers in conjunction with ORTEC ISOPlus waste assay software. It was shown that the system was capable of assaying large containers to free release levels in reasonable measurement times. Not all operations have enough waste to justify an automated system or rapid assay results may be required, perhaps in a remote location. To meet this need, a new mobile system has been developed for the assay of smaller objects (drums, boxes, and surfaces) In-Situ. The system incorporates the latest generation IDM-200 and ISOPlus software and a new variant of the ISOCart hardware. This paper will describe the system and performance. (authors)

  13. (HP)Ge Measurement of spectra for diagnostic X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M S; Mota, H C; Campos, L L

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray spectra applied in diagnostic radiology to the energy range between 50 and 125 kVp, were experimentally determined using a high-purity germanium detector, (HP)Ge, coupled to a multichannel analyser. A simple stripping procedure was implemented, according to that described by Seelentag and Panzer, to correct the pulse height distribution and then to determine the photon spectra. The measurements were performed for those conditions where the X-ray beam is transmitted through Pb filters 0.2-0.7 mm thick. It was necessary to estimate the effective dose in the same way that it is done for radiology diagnosis room shielding projects. The spectra were also determined to the X-ray qualities recommended by the IEC for primary diagnostic X-ray and for X-ray beams attenuated by aluminium filters 2.5-42.5 mm thick. The spectra obtained were compared with data derived from the literature presenting good agreement.

  14. Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Lu; You, Lixing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sijing; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-06-29

    Satellite-ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

  15. Study on the increase of inactive germanium layer in a high-purity germanium detector after a long time operation applying MCNP code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huy, N. Q.; Binh, D. Q.; An, V. X.

    2007-04-01

    This study aims at finding an explanation for the decrease in the efficiency of an HPGe detector and evaluating a change in the detector inactive germanium layer during its operation. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNP4C2 code were performed to evaluate the detector efficiency for different values of the inactive germanium layer. Comparison of the experimental and calculated data shows that the inactive germanium layer of the detector changed its thickness from 0.35 to 1.16 mm after an operating time of 9 years. Measurements for determining the reduction of the detector efficiency were carried out two times, one after 3 years and another after 9 years of operation. Experimental result shows that the detector efficiency was reduced about 8% in this period. The increase of inactive germanium layer can be considered as the main reason for explaining the reduction of detector efficiency of about 13% at the γ energies from 200 to 1800 keV during 9 years of detector operation, in which 5% for the 3 first years and 8% for the 6 last years.

  16. Quantum efficiency measurement of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) CCD detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Thayer, C.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Seager, S.; Lyle, R.; Deline, A.; Morgan, E.; Sauerwein, T.; Vanderspek, R.

    2016-07-01

    Very precise on-ground characterization and calibration of TESS CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data from the mission. An accurate optical test bench with very high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency. The setup consists of a vacuum dewar with a single MIT Lincoln Lab CCID-80 device mounted on a cold plate with the calibrated reference photodiode mounted next to the CCD. A very stable laser-driven light source is integrated with a closed-loop intensity stabilization unit to control variations of the light source down to a few parts-per-million when averaged over 60 s. Light from the stabilization unit enters a 20 inch integrating sphere. The output light from the sphere produces near-uniform illumination on the cold CCD and on the calibrated reference photodiode inside the dewar. The ratio of the CCD and photodiode signals provides the absolute quantum efficiency measurement. The design, key features, error analysis, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  17. Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Based on High-Efficiency Frisch-Ring Cdznte Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R; DeGeronimo, G; Fried, J; O'Connor, P; Kargar, A; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated both good energy resolution, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency in detecting gamma rays, highlighting the strong potential of CdZnTe materials for such applications. We are designing a hand-held gamma-ray spectrometer based on Frisch-ring detectors at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It employs an 8 times 8 CdZnTe detector array to achieve a high volume of 19.2 cm3, so greatly improving detection efficiency. By using the front-end application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) developed at BNL, this spectrometer has a small profile and high energy-resolution. It includes a signal processing circuit, digitization and storage circuits, a high-voltage module, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. In this paper, we detail the system's structure and report the results of our tests with it.

  18. Efficient Bell state analyzer for time-bin qubits with fast-recovery WSi superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Valivarthi, R; Lucio-Martinez, I; Rubenok, A; Chan, P; Marsili, F; Verma, V B; Shaw, M D; Stern, J A; Slater, J A; Oblak, D; Nam, S W; Tittel, W

    2014-10-06

    We experimentally demonstrate a high-efficiency Bell state measurement for time-bin qubits that employs two superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with short dead-times, allowing projections onto two Bell states, |ψ⁻〉 and |ψ⁺〉. Compared to previous implementations for time-bin qubits, this yields an increase in the efficiency of Bell state analysis by a factor of thirty.

  19. Study of the Neutron Detection Efficiency for the CLAS12 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Keegan; Gilfoyle, Gerard; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    One of the central physics goals of Jefferson Lab is to understand how quarks and gluons form nuclei. The 12 GeV upgrade is nearing completion and a new detector, CLAS12, is being built in Hall B. One of the approved experiments will measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron. To make this measurement, we will extract the ratio of electron-neutron (e-n) to electron-proton (e-p) scattering events from deuterium in quasi-elastic kinematics. A major source of systematic uncertainty is the neutron detection efficiency (NDE) of CLAS12. To better understand the NDE we used the Monte Carlo code gemc to simulate quasi-elastic e-n events like those expected in the experiment. We then analyzed the simulated e-n events by using the measured, scattered electron information to predict the neutron's path. The neutron is detected in CLAS12's electromagnetic calorimeter (EC). If the predicted neutron path intersected the fiducial volume of the EC, then we searched for a hit near that point. The NDE is the ratio of the number of neutrons found in the EC to the number of neutrons predicted to hit the EC. The analysis was done using the newly released CLAS12 reconstruction tools. We observe a rapid rise in the NDE at low neutron momentum and a plateau above 60%. Work supported by the University of Richmond and the US Department of Energy.

  20. Selecting Power-Efficient Signal Features for a Low-Power Fall Detector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhong; Redmond, Stephen; Lu, Wei; Stevens, Michael; Lord, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel

    2017-02-15

    Falls are a serious threat to the health of older people. A wearable fall detector can automatically detect the occurrence of a fall and alert a caregiver or an emergency response service so they may deliver immediate assistance, improving the chances of recovering from fall-related injuries. One constraint of such a wearable technology is its limited battery life. Thus, minimization of power consumption is an important design concern, all the while maintaining satisfactory accuracy of the fall detection algorithms implemented on the wearable device. This paper proposes an approach for selecting power-efficient signal features such that the minimum desirable fall detection accuracy is assured. Using data collected in simulated falls, simulated activities of daily living, and real free-living trials, all using young volunteers, the proposed approach selects three features from a set of ten commonly-used features, providing a power saving of 75.3%, while limiting the error rate of a binary classification decision tree fall detection algorithm to 7.1%.

  1. A new design for a high resolution, high efficiency CZT gamma camera detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestais, C.; Baffert, N.; Bonnefoy, J. P.; Chapuis, A.; Koenig, A.; Monnet, O.; Ouvrier Buffet, P.; Rostaing, J. P.; Sauvage, F.; Verger, L.

    2001-02-01

    We have designed a CZT gamma camera detector that provides an array of CZT pixels and associated front-end electronics - including an ASIC - and permits gamma camera measurements using the method patented by CEA-LETI and reported by Verger et al. [1]. Electron response in each CZT pixel is registered by correcting pulse height for position of interaction based on fast rise-time information. This method brings advantages of high scatter rejection while allowing high detection efficiency. These techniques and the systems approach have been developed at CEA-LETI in an exclusive joint development with BICRON and CRISMATEC who in turn are commercializing the technology. The initial system is implemented in an array framework with 1920 pixels, approximately 180×215 mm 2 in dimension, but the system architecture expands readily to 4096 pixels, and these arrays can be ganged into groups of up to 8 for pixel planes totaling over 32 000 pixels without architecture changes. The overall system design is described and brain phantom images are presented that were obtained by scanning with a small number of pixels.

  2. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; ...

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, makingmore » it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.« less

  3. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; ...

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phasemore » contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.« less

  4. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; Murfitt, Matthew F.; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.

  5. Development of a new method for measurement of neutron detector efficiency up to 20 MeV

    DOE PAGES

    Kornilov, N. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Massey, T. N.; ...

    2014-09-03

    A new approach to neutron detector efficiency has been taken. A neutron detector has been calibrated with a 252Cf source at low energy. The calibration can be extended to energies above 8 MeV based on the 252Cf results. The techniques uses the fact that the cross section for a symmetric reaction with nucleus of atomic number A yielding a final nucleus with atomic number (2A-1) and a neutron A + A → (2A – 1) + n. This reaction must be symmetric about 90° in the center-of-mass system. Furthermore, the laboratory energies for the neutrons at the paired energies differmore » substantially. Thus, an efficiency known at one of the two angles can be used to determine the efficiency to higher energies or, for a negative Q, to lower neutron energies.« less

  6. Comparison of calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for models with silicon semiconductor detector and plastic scintillator for GAMMA-400 telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, G.; Zin, Thant; Kadilin, V.; Gavrikov, I.; Tyurin, E.; Isakov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for two models of neutron detector. The first model of the neutron detector includes the layer of polyethylene as a moderator, boron as a target for (n, α) reaction and silicon as a detector of α-particles. The second model consists of polyethylene layers alternating with layers of plastic-boron scintillators. Calculations were performed for parallel neutron flux with evaporation spectrum. The calculation results of neutron detection efficiency for two proposed models were analyzed and compared. The high neutron detection efficiency is attained by using a plastic-boron scintillator. Using natural boron the 10% of detection efficiency is attained and in the case of enriched boron more than 15% of detection efficiency is attained when the detector thickness is 4 cm. The model using silicon detectors provides the detection efficiency about 4%.

  7. Calculation of the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.P.; Hendel, H.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Neutron transport simulations have been carried out to calculate the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector which is used on the TFTR as a part of the primary fission detector diagnostic system for measuring fusion power yields. Transport simulations provide a means by which the effects of variations in various shielding and geometrical parameters can be explored. These effects are difficult to study in calibration experiments. The calculational model, benchmarked against measurements, can be used to complement future detector calibrations, when the high level of radioactivity resulting from machine operation may severely restrict access to the tokamak. We present a coupled forward-adjoint algorithm, employing both the deterministic and Monte Carlo sampling methods, to model the neutron transport in the complex tokamak and detector geometries. Sensitivities of the detector response to the major and minor radii, and angular anisotropy of the neutron emission are discussed. A semi-empirical model based on matching the calculational results with a small set of experiments produces good agreement (+-15%) for a wide range of source energies and geometries. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Darren; Rawson, Benjamin M.; Borchers, David L.; Stevenson, Ben C.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len

    2016-01-01

    Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers’ estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will make this method

  9. Integrated four-channel all-fiber up-conversion single-photon-detector with adjustable efficiency and dark count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming-Yang; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Ma, Fei; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Hai-Ting; Dai, Yun-Qi; Xie, Xiuping; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Up-conversion single photon detector (UCSPD) has been widely used in many research fields including quantum key distribution, lidar, optical time domain reflectrometry, and deep space communication. For the first time in laboratory, we have developed an integrated four-channel all-fiber UCSPD which can work in both free-running and gate modes. This compact module can satisfy different experimental demands with adjustable detection efficiency and dark count. We have characterized the key parameters of the UCSPD system.

  10. Development of a portable instrument for automated measurements of the detective quantum efficiency of x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.

    2007-03-01

    The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.

  11. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Khalek, S. Abdel; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Ammosov, V. V.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Mayes, J. Backus; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães da; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman de; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Urbán, S. Cabrera; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Armadans, R. Caminal; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Garrido, M. D. M. Capeans; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Gimenez, V. Castillo; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, K.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Barajas, C. A. Chavez; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christidi, I. A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Muiño, P. Conde; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Ortuzar, M. Crispin; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Donszelmann, T. Cuhadar; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Hoffmann, M. Dano; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J. A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. 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A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Sherwood, P.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. 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S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2014-07-01

    Many of the interesting physics processes to be measured at the LHC have a signature involving one or more isolated electrons. The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of and bosons and mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  12. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Wei

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550 nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10 μm × 10 μm area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  13. Quantum efficiencies of imaging detectors with alkali halide photocathodes. I - Microchannel plates with separate and integral CsI photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements and comparisons have been made of the quantum efficiencies of microchannel plate (MCP) detectors in the far-UV (below 2000-A) wavelength range using CsI photocathodes (a) deposited on the front surfaces of microchannel plates and (b) deposited on solid substrates as opaque photocathodes with the resulting photoelectrons input to microchannel plates. The efficiences were measured in both pulse-counting and photodiode modes of operation. Typical efficiencies are about 15 percent at 1216 A for a CsI-coated MCP compared with 65 percent for an opaque CsI photocathode MCP detector. Special processing has yielded an efficiency as high as 20 percent for a CsI-coated MCP. This may possibly be further improved by optimization of the tilt angle of the MCP channels relative to the front face of the MCP and incident radiation. However, at present there still remains a factor of at least 3 quantum efficiency advantage in the separate opaque CsI photocathode configuration.

  14. EFFICIENCY STUDY OF A LEGe DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF 241Am IN SKULL AT CIEMAT WHOLE BODY COUNTER.

    PubMed

    Pérez López, B; Navarro, J F; López Ponte, M A; Nogueira, P

    2016-09-01

    (241)Am incorporation due to an incident or chronic exposure causes an internal dose, which can be evaluated from the total activity of this isotope in the skeleton several months after the intake. For this purpose, it is necessary to perform in vivo measurements of this bone-seeker radionuclide in appropriate counting bone geometries with very low attenuation of surrounded tissue and to extrapolate to total activity in the skeleton (ICRP 89, Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. 2001. 265). The work here presented refers to direct measurements of americium in the Cohen skull phantom at the CIEMAT Whole Body Counter (WBC) using low-energy germanium (LEGe) detectors inside a shielding room. The main goal was to determinate the most adequate head counting geometry for the in vivo detection of americium in the bone. The calibration of the in vivo LEGe system was performed with four detectors with 2 cm of distance to Cohen phantom. Two geometries were measured, on junction of frontal to parietal bones and frontal bone. The efficiencies are very similar in both geometries, the preferred counting geometry is the most comfortable for the person, with the LEGe detectors in the highest part of the frontal bone, near the junction with the parietal bone, CIEMAT WBC participated in a skull intercomparison exercise organised by WG7 of EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V.). Efficiencies using three different skull phantoms were obtained. Measurements were performed for different head counting positions, four of them in the plane of symmetry and others over the temporal bone. The detector was placed in parallel with the calibration phantom at a distance of 1 cm. The main gamma emission of (241)Am, 59.5 keV (36 %), was used for comparing efficiency values. The lower efficiency was obtained over the frontal and occipital bones. Measurement with one LEGe detector over the parietal bone is the most efficient. The

  15. High-Efficiency CdZnTe Position-Sensitive VFG Gamma-Ray Detectors for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Vernon, E.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Indusi, J.; Boyer, Brian

    2015-09-30

    The goal of this project is to incorporate a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detector (with 1% or better resolution) into a bench-top prototype for isotope identification and related safeguards applications. The bench-top system is based on a 2x2 array of 6x6x20 mm3 position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) CZT detectors. The key features of the array are that it allows for the use of average-grade CZT material with a moderate content of defects, and yet it provides high energy resolution, 1% FWHM at 662 keV, large effective area, and low-power consumption. The development of this type of 3D detector and new instruments incorporating them is motivated by the high cost and low availability of large, > 1 cm3, CZT crystals suitable for making multi-pixel detectors with acceptable energy resolution and efficiency.

  16. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. L.; Peterson, T. E.

    2014-11-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  17. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L; Peterson, T E

    2014-11-21

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  18. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, DL; Peterson, TE

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140-keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a −5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time. PMID:25360792

  19. Characterization and modeling of relative luminescence efficiency of optically stimulated luminescence detectors exposed to heavy charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel Oliveira

    Scope and method of study. This work investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of carbon-doped aluminum oxide Al2O3:C detectors exposed to heavy charged particles (HCPs) with energies relevant to radiation protection in space, and cancer therapy. This investigation includes ground-based experiments in accelerators and theoretical studies of the detector's response. These theoretical studies are based on the track structure model (TSM) and require information of the spatial pattern of energy deposition around the HCP path---the radial dose distribution (RDD). Thus, RDDs were obtained using six analytical models, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the code GEANT4. In addition, we propose a modified analytical model to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental efficiency values. Findings and conclusions. Dose response experiments showed that beta rays and H 1000 MeV radiations produced similar responses in the detectors and we concluded that the H 1000 MeV and beta radiations deposit energy similarly. We observed a common trend of decreasing the relative luminescence efficiency (etaHCP,gamma ) as increasing the unrestricted linear energy transfer in water ( LH2Oinfinity ) for all the detectors. For Luxel(TM) detectors the eta HCP,gamma was close to unit for particles with LH2Oinfinity lower than 3 keV/mum. TSM using the RDD from Chatterjee and Schaefer, Butts and Katz, Waligorski et al., Fageeha et al., Kiefer and Straaten, and Geibeta et al. models failed to predict the etaHCP,gamma values. We proposed a modified version of the RDD from Butts and Katz model, which agreed within 20% with relative luminescence efficiency experimental data. This was the first time that such agreement was achieved for a wide range of HCPs of different energies. MC simulations with GEANT4 agreed within 35% with etaHCP,gamma experimental data. Finally, we suggested a correction method, based on the calculation of etaHCP,gamma using the TSM

  20. Improvements in the Low Energy Collection Efficiency of Si(Li) X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox,C.; Fischer, D.; Schwartz, W.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray beam-line applications are of fundamental importance to material research, and commonly employ high-resolution Si(Li) detectors for energy dispersive spectroscopy. However, the measurement of X-rays below 1 keV is compromised by absorption in the material layers in front of the active crystal and a dead layer at the crystal surface. Various Schottky barrier type contacts were investigated resulting in a 40% reduction of the dead-layer thickness and a factor of two increased sensitivity at carbon K{sub {alpha}} compared to the standard Si(Li) detector. Si(Li) detectors were tested on the U7A soft X-ray beam-line at the National Synchrotron Light Source and on a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  1. Effect of finite detector-element width on the spatial-frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Ian A.; Westmore, Michael S.; Fenster, Aaron

    1995-05-01

    Image blur in digital imaging systems results from both the spatial spreading of quanta representing the image in the detector system and from the integration of quanta over the finite detector element width. Linear-systems theory has often been used to describe these blurring mechanisms as a convolution, implying the existence of a corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) in the spatial-frequency domain. This also implies that the resulting noise- power spectrum (NPS) is modified by the square of the blurring MTF. This deterministic approach correctly describes the effect of each blurring mechanism on the overall system MTF, but does not correctly describe image noise characteristics. This is because the convolution is a deterministic calculation, and neglects the statistical properties of the image quanta. Rabbani et al. developed an expression for the NPS following a stochastic spreading mechanism that correctly accounts for these statistical properties. Use of their results requires a modification in how we should interpret the convolution theorem. We suggest the use of a `stochastic' convolution operator, that uses the Rabbani equation for the NPS rather than the deterministic result. This approach unifies the description of both image blur and image noise into a single linear-systems framework. This method is then used to develop expressions for the signal, NPS, DQE, and pixel SNR for a hypothetical digital detector design that includes the effects of conversion to secondary quanta, stochastic spreading of the secondary quanta, and a finite detector-element width.

  2. Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Korzh, B. Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2014-02-24

    We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of −110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.

  3. Time-resolved singlet-oxygen luminescence detection with an efficient and practical semiconductor single-photon detector

    PubMed Central

    Boso, Gianluca; Ke, Damei; Korzh, Boris; Bouilloux, Jordan; Lange, Norbert; Zbinden, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    In clinical applications, such as PhotoDynamic Therapy, direct singlet-oxygen detection through its luminescence in the near-infrared range (1270 nm) has been a challenging task due to its low emission probability and the lack of suitable single-photon detectors. Here, we propose a practical setup based on a negative-feedback avalanche diode detector that is a viable alternative to the current state-of-the art for different clinical scenarios, especially where geometric collection efficiency is limited (e.g. fiber-based systems, confocal microscopy, scanning systems etc.). The proposed setup is characterized with Rose Bengal as a standard photosensitizer and it is used to measure the singlet-oxygen quantum yield of a new set of photosensitizers for site-selective photodynamic therapy. PMID:26819830

  4. A highly stable 30 keV proton accelerator for studies of angular detection efficiency on Si detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bacci, Americo; Baessler, Stefan; Carr, Peter; Hefele, Thomas; Pocanic, Dinko; Roane, Nicholas; Ross, Aaron; Slater, R.; Smith, Alexander; Toth, Csaba; Warner, Dane; Zamperini, Shawn; Zotev, Panaiot; Nab experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Nab experiment at the SNS measures the electron-neutrino correlation parameter and the Fierz interference term in free neutron beta decay by measuring in coincidence the electron energy and proton momentum in a magnetic spectrometer with two Si detectors. These large area, thick, and 127-hexagonal segmented Si detectors have to be carefully characterized for optimal performance and for control of systematic errors. The angular detection efficiency of 30 keV proton incident on Si is an important part of this studies. We will present the design, simulation, operation, and detection of 30 keV H+ and H2+as well as results to control the beam stability by the correlation of both detected ion signals. At present we have reached beam stability of (1.2 +/-1.3)E-7/sec.

  5. Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, B.; Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.

    2014-02-01

    We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of -110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.

  6. Search for rare nuclear decays with HPGe detectors at the STELLA facility of the LNGS

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, P.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Cerulli, R.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Polischuk, O. G.; and others

    2013-12-30

    Results on the search for rare nuclear decays with the ultra low background facility STELLA at the LNGS using gamma ray spectrometry are presented. In particular, the best T{sub 1/2} limits were obtained for double beta processes in {sup 96}Ru and {sup 104}Ru. Several isotopes, which potentially decay through different 2β channels, including also possible resonant double electron captures, were investigated for the first time ({sup 156}Dy, {sup 158}Dy, {sup 184}Os, {sup 192}Os, {sup 190}Pt, {sup 198}Pt). Search for resonant absorption of solar {sup 7}Li axions in a LiF crystal gave the best limit for the mass of {sup 7}Li axions (< 8.6 keV). Rare alpha decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os(E{sub exc} = 137.2keV) was observed for the first time.

  7. Proton-induced radiation damage in germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, J.; Korfer, M.; Wanke, H. , Mainz ); Schroeder, A.N.F. ); Figes, D.; Dragovitsch, P. ); Englert, P.A.J. ); Starr, R.; Trombka, J.I. . Goddard Space Flight Center); Taylor, I. ); Drake, D.M.; Shunk, E.R. )

    1991-04-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors will be used in future space missions for gamma-ray measurements and will be subject to interactions with energetic particles. To simulate this process several large-volume n-type HPGe detectors were incrementally exposed to a particle fluence of up to 10{sub 8} protons cm{sup {minus}2} (proton energy: 1.5 GeV) at different operating temperatures (90 to 120 K) to induce radiation damage. Basic scientific as well as engineering data on detector performance were collected. During the incremental irradiation, the peak shape produced by the detectors showed a significant change from a Gaussian shape to a broad complex structure. After the irradiation all detectors were thoroughly characterized by measuring many parameters. To remove the accumulated radiation damage the detectors were stepwise annealed at temperatures T {le} 110{degrees}C while staying specially designed cryostats. This paper shows that n-type HPGe detectors can be used in charged particles environments as high-energy resolution devices until a certain level of radiation damage is accumulated and that the damage can be removed at moderate annealing temperatures and the detector returned to operating condition.

  8. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  9. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined detection of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, M.M.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1987-02-27

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation event count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  10. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-01-01

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  11. High-efficiency scintillation detector for combined of thermal and fast neutrons and gamma radiation

    DOEpatents

    Chiles, Marion M.; Mihalczo, John T.; Blakeman, Edward D.

    1989-02-07

    A scintillation based radiation detector for the combined detection of thermal neutrons, high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a single detecting unit. The detector consists of a pair of scintillators sandwiched together and optically coupled to the light sensitive face of a photomultiplier tube. A light tight radiation pervious housing is disposed about the scintillators and a portion of the photomultiplier tube to hold the arrangement in assembly and provides a radiation window adjacent the outer scintillator through which the radiation to be detected enters the detector. The outer scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by thermal-neutrons and the inner scintillator is formed of a material in which scintillations are produced by high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. The light pulses produced by events detected in both scintillators are coupled to the photomultiplier tube which produces a current pulse in response to each detected event. These current pulses may be processed in a conventional manner to produce a count rate output indicative of the total detected radiation even count rate. Pulse discrimination techniques may be used to distinguish the different radiations and their energy distribution.

  12. Security loophole in free-space quantum key distribution due to spatial-mode detector-efficiency mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Chaiwongkhot, Poompong; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Jennewein, Thomas; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    In free-space quantum key distribution (QKD), the sensitivity of the receiver's detector channels may depend differently on the spatial mode of incoming photons. Consequently, an attacker can control the spatial mode to break security. We experimentally investigate a standard polarization QKD receiver and identify sources of efficiency mismatch in its optical scheme. We model a practical intercept-and-resend attack and show that it would break security in most situations. We show experimentally that adding an appropriately chosen spatial filter at the receiver's entrance may be an effective countermeasure.

  13. High efficiency plastic scintillator detector with wavelength-shifting fiber readout for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. A.; Deering, P. L.; Hartman, R. C.; Johnson, T. E.; Nebel, T. R.; Ormes, J. F.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the design and performance studies of the scintillator tile detectors for the anti-coincidence detector (ACD) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in early 2008. The scintillator tile detectors utilize wavelength-shifting fibers and have dual-photomultiplier-tube readout. The design requires highly efficient and uniform detection of singly charged relativistic particles over the tile area and must meet all requirements for a launch, as well as operation in a space environment. We present here the design of three basic types of tiles used in the ACD, ranging in size from ˜450 to ˜2500 cm2, all ˜1 cm thick, with different shapes, and with photoelectron yield of ˜20 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle at normal tile incidence, uniform over the tile area. Some tiles require flexible clear fiber cables up to 1.5 m long to deliver scintillator light to remotely located photomultiplier tubes.

  14. Comparison of two methods for high purity germanium detector efficiency calibration for charcoal canister radon measurement.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, J; Pantelic, G; Zivanovic, M; Rajacic, M; Todorovic, D

    2014-11-01

    The charcoal canister method of radon measurement according to US Environment Protection Agency protocol 520/5-87-005 is widely used for screening. This method is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. For the purpose of gamma spectrometry, appropriate efficiency calibration of the measuring system must be performed. The most usual method of calibration is using standard canister, a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. In the absence of standard canister, a different method of efficiency calibration has to be implemented. This study presents the results of efficiency calibration using the EFFTRAN efficiency transfer software. Efficiency was calculated using a soil matrix cylindrical secondary reference material as a starting point. Calculated efficiency is then compared with the one obtained using standard canister and applied to a realistic measurement in order to evaluate the results of the efficiency transfer.

  15. Automation of the Characterization of High Purity Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugger, Charles ``Chip''

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of the detectors must be characterized. A robotic arm is being tested for future calibration of HPGe detectors. The arm will hold a source at locations relative to the crystal while data is acquired. Several radioactive sources of varying energy levels will be used to determine the characteristics of the crystal. In this poster, I will present our work with the robot, as well as the characterization of data we took with an underground HPGe detector at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM (2013). Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of

  16. Performance Modeling of Orbital Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Asteroids: Monte-Carlo Modeling of the HPGe Mars Odyssey GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, R. D.; Lim, L. F.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2014-12-01

    Orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiments with high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors have successfully measured elemental abundances in the top ~50 cm of the surfaces of Mars and Mercury. GRS is sensitive to bulk concentrations of H, C, O, S, Fe, and Si among other elements. As these elements are also diagnostic of major carbonaceous and ordinary chondritic meteorite classes, we have simulated the science performance of a HPGe experiment in orbit around asteroids with model compositions corresponding to those of volatile-rich CI and CO carbonaceous chondritic meteorites. A circular orbit around a spherical asteroid was considered, with the altitude of the orbit equal to the radius of the asteroid (similar to the Dawn low-altitude mapping orbit "LAMO"). We simulated the gamma-ray and neutron emission from CI-like (~17 wt%structural H2O) and CO-like (<2 wt% structural H2O) asteroids usingthe MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. The spacecraftbackground (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeledusing MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraftinteractions and also background due to asteroidal neutron flux on thespacecraft. The detector model was based on the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer ("MOGRS"; Boynton et al. 2004, 2007), the largest HPGe detector flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV (Evans et al. 2006). Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated. Our simulations show that asteroids can be identified as havingCI-like vs. CO-like compositions in H/Si, O/Si, S/Si, and C/Si withMOGRS within 4.5 months in a Dawn LAMO-like orbit. In addition, theFe/Si and S/Si sensitivity are sufficient to distinguish CO and otherlow-hydrogen carbonaceous chondritic

  17. A comparison of methods for determining neutron detector efficiencies at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Anderson, B. D.; Baldwin, A. R.; Lebo, C.; Flanders, B.; Pairsuwan, W.; Madey, R.; Foster, C. C.

    1983-10-01

    We compare the "Lithium Activation" (LiA) method and the "Isospin Clebsch-Gordan Ratio" (ICGR) method for determining detection efficiencies of neutrons between 100 and 160 MeV. Each method was used to determine the efficiency by relating a measured neutron yield to a cross section measured in another way: γ-ray activation cross sections for LiA; (p, p') cross sections from experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for ICGR. Efficiencies determined by the two methods disagree substantially. Efficiencies calculated with the Monte Carlo code of Cecil et al. agree with the ICGR results. We conclude that the Lithium Activation method is inconsistent at these energies.

  18. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data.

    PubMed

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Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Gallego, E Valladolid; Vallecorsa, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Berg, R; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Ster, D; Eldik, N van; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Schmitt, H von der; Radziewski, H von; Toerne, E von; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wright, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    Many of the interesting physics processes to be measured at the LHC have a signature involving one or more isolated electrons. The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at [Formula: see text] TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb[Formula: see text]. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] bosons and [Formula: see text] mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  19. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Korzh, B.; Bussières, F.; Zbinden, H.; Marsili, F.; Shaw, M. D.

    2014-09-22

    We investigate the operation of WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at 2.5 K, a temperature which is ∼70% of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}) of 3.4 K. We demonstrate saturation of the system detection efficiency at 78 ± 2% at a wavelength of 1310 nm, with a jitter of 191 ps. We find that the jitter at 2.5 K is limited by the noise of the readout and can be improved through the use of cryogenic amplifiers. Operation of SNSPDs with high efficiency at temperatures very close to T{sub C} appears to be a unique property of amorphous WSi.

  20. Enhanced quantum efficiency of high-purity silicon imaging detectors by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Hoenk, Michael E.; Elliott, S. Tom; Holland, Stephen E.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2005-01-01

    A low temperature process for Sb doping of silicon has been developed as a backsurface treatment for high-purity n-type imaging detectors. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is used to achieve very high dopant incorporation in a thin, surface-confined layer. The growth temperature is kept below 450 (deg)C for compatibility with Al-metallized devices. Imaging with MBE-modified 1kx1k charge coupled devices (CCDs) operated in full depletion has been demonstrated. Dark current is comparable to the state-of-the-art process, which requires a high temperature step. Quantum efficiency is improved, especially in the UV, for thin doped layers placed closer to the backsurface. Near 100% internal quantum efficiency has been demonstrated in the ultraviolet for a CCD with a 1.5 nm silicon cap layer.

  1. FOUR PI CALIBRATION AND MODELING OF A BARE GERMANIUM DETECTOR IN A CYLINDRICAL FIELD SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Young, J.

    2011-04-29

    In reference 1 the authors described {gamma}-ray holdup assay of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument where they utilized two axial symmetric cylindrical shell acquisitions and two disk source acquisitions to determine Am-241 and Np-237 contamination. The measured contents of the two species were determined using a general detector efficiency calibration taken from a 12-inch point source.2 The authors corrected the raw spectra for container absorption as well as for geometry corrections to transform the calibration curve to the applicable axial symmetric cylindrical source - and disk source - of contamination. The authors derived the geometry corrections with exact calculus that are shown in equations (1) and (2) of our Experimental section. A cylindrical shell (oven source) acquisition configuration is described in reference 3, where the authors disclosed this configuration to gain improved sensitivity for holdup measure of U-235 in a ten-chamber oven. The oven was a piece of process equipment used in the Savannah River Plant M-Area Uranium Fuel Fabrication plant for which a U-235 holdup measurement was necessary for its decontamination and decommissioning in 2003.4 In reference 4 the authors calibrated a bare NaI detector for these U-235 holdup measurements. In references 5 and 6 the authors calibrated a bare HpGe detector in a cylindrical shell configuration for improved sensitivity measurements of U-235 in other M-Area process equipment. Sensitivity was vastly improved compared to a close field view of the sample, with detection efficiency of greater than 1% for the 185.7-keV {gamma}-ray from U-235. In none of references 3 - 7 did the authors resolve the exact calculus descriptions of the acquisition configurations. Only the empirical efficiency for detection of the 185.7-keV photon from U-235 decay was obtained. Not until the 2010 paper of reference 1 did the authors derive a good theoretical description of the flux of photons onto the front face of a detector

  2. Neutron Damage in Mechanically-Cooled High-Purity Germanium Detectors for Field-Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey; J.B. McCabe; C. DeW. Van Siclen

    2013-10-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation (PGNAA) systems require the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer to record the gamma-ray spectrum of an object under test and allow the determination of the object’s composition. Field-portable systems, such as Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS system, have used standard liquid-nitrogen-cooled high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to perform this function. These detectors have performed very well in the past, but the requirement of liquid-nitrogen cooling limits their use to areas where liquid nitrogen is readily available or produced on-site. Also, having a relatively large volume of liquid nitrogen close to the detector can impact some assessments, possibly leading to a false detection of explosives or other nitrogen-containing chemical. Use of a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector is therefore very attractive for PGNAA applications where nitrogen detection is critical or where liquid-nitrogen logistics are problematic. Mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors constructed from p-type germanium, such as Ortec’s trans-SPEC, have been commercially available for several years. In order to assess whether these detectors would be suitable for use in a fielded PGNAA system, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been performing a number of tests of the resistance of mechanically-cooled HPGe detectors to neutron damage. These detectors have been standard commercially-available p-type HPGe detectors as well as prototype n-type HPGe detectors. These tests compare the performance of these different detector types as a function of crystal temperature and incident neutron fluence on the crystal.

  3. Calibration Analyses and Efficiency Studies for the Anti Coincidence Detector on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, Chris; /Yale U. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope provides charged particle rejection for the Large Area Telescope (LAT). We use two calibrations used by the ACD to conduct three studies on the performance of the ACD. We examine the trending of the calibrations to search for damage and find a timescale over which the calibrations can be considered reliable. We also calculated the number of photoelectrons counted by a PMT on the ACD from a normal proton. Third, we calculated the veto efficiencies of the ACD for two different veto settings. The trends of the calibrations exhibited no signs of damage, and indicated timescales of reliability for the calibrations of one to two years. The number of photoelectrons calculated ranged from 5 to 25. Large errors in the effect of the energy spectrum of the charged particles caused these values to have very large errors of around 60 percent. Finally, the veto efficiencies were found to be very high at both veto values, both for charged particles and for the lower energy backsplash spectrum. The Anti Coincidence Detector (ACD) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope is a detector system built around the silicon strip tracker on the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The purpose of the ACD is to provide charged particle rejection for the LAT. To do this, the ACD must be calibrated correctly in flight, and must be able to efficiently veto charged particle events while minimizing false vetoes due to 'backsplash' from photons in the calorimeter. There are eleven calibrations used by the ACD. In this paper, we discuss the use of two of these calibrations to preform three studies on the performance of the ACD. The first study examines trending of the calibrations to check for possible hardware degradation. The second study uses the calibrations to explore the efficiency of an on-board hardware veto. The third study uses the calibrations to calculate the number of photoelectrons seen by each PMT when a minimum ionizing

  4. Experimental investigation of the radiation shielding efficiency of a MCP detector in the radiation environment near Jupiter's moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Meyer, S.; Lüthi, M.; Lasi, D.; Galli, A.; Piazza, D.; Desorgher, L.; Reggiani, D.; Hajdas, W.; Karlsson, S.; Kalla, L.; Wurz, P.

    2016-09-01

    Neutral Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM) is one of the instruments in the Particle Environmental Package (PEP) designed for the JUICE mission of ESA to the Jupiter system. NIM, equipped with a sensitive MCP ion detector, will conduct detailed measurements of the chemical composition of Jovian icy moons exospheres. To achieve high sensitivity of the instrument, radiation effects due to the high radiation background (high-energy electrons and protons) around Jupiter have to be minimised. We investigate the performance of an Al-Ta-Al composite stack as a potential shielding against high-energy electrons. Experiments were performed at the PiM1 beam line of the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facilities located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The facility delivers a particle beam containing e-, μ- and π- with momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c (Hajdas et al., 2014). The measurements of the radiation environment generated during the interaction of primary particles with the Al-Ta-Al material were conducted with dedicated beam diagnostic methods and with the NIM MCP detector. In parallel, modelling studies using GEANT4 and GRAS suites were performed to identify products of the interaction and predict ultimate fluxes and particle rates at the MCP detector. Combination of experiment and modelling studies yields detailed characterisation of the radiation fields produced by the interaction of the incident e- with the shielding material in the range of the beam momentum from 17.5 to 345 MeV/c. We derived the effective MCP detection efficiency to primary and secondary radiation and effective shielding transmission coefficients to incident high-energy electron beam in the range of applied beam momenta. This study shows that the applied shielding attenuates efficiently high-energy electrons. Nevertheless, owing to nearly linear increase of the bremsstrahlung production rate with incident beam energy, above 130 MeV their detection rates measured by the MCP

  5. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.

  6. Spectral response of multi-element silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B.A.; Rossington, C.S.; Chapman, K.

    1997-04-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon Si(Li) and high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. One of the major differences between the segmented Si detectors and the commercially available single-element Si(Li) or HPGe detectors is that hundreds of elements can be fabricated on a single Si substrate using standard silicon processing technologies. The segmentation of the detector substrate into many small elements results in very low noise performance at or near, room temperature, and the count rate of the detector is increased many-fold due to the multiplication in the total number of detectors. Traditionally, a single channel of detector with electronics can handle {approximately}100 kHz count rates while maintaining good energy resolution; the segmented detectors can operate at greater than MHz count rates merely due to the multiplication in the number of channels. One of the most critical aspects in the development of the segmented detectors is characterizing the charge sharing and charge loss that occur between the individual detector strips, and determining how these affect the spectral response of the detectors.

  7. Application of modern anticoincidence (AC) system in HPGe γ-spectrometry for the detection limit lowering of the radionuclides in air filters.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    The use of active and passive shields can substantially reduce the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of the γ-ray counting systems, rejecting events induced by cosmic-rays or by environmental radioactivity. However, the size and geometry of the samples lead to limitations in the background reduction in routine measurements. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) values for low energy of γ-ray emitting radionuclides (<200 keV) deposited in three typical air filter geometries have been compared for anticoincidence and single HPGe detector mode of γ-spectrometry systems. The relative increase in the Figure Of Merit (FOM) values from to 10-37% has been achieved for AC counting mode for radionuclides of (210)Pb, (234)Th, (235)U and (226)Ra deposited on the three kinds of air filters.

  8. Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Communication Efficiency with a Photon-Counting Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris; Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Divsalar, Dariush

    2012-01-01

    Coherent states achieve the Holevo capacity of a pure-loss channel when paired with an optimal measurement, but a physical realization of this measurement is as of yet unknown, and it is also likely to be of high complexity. In this paper, we focus on the photon-counting measurement and study the photon and dimensional efficiencies attainable with modulations over classical- and nonclassical-state alphabets. We first review the state-of-the-art coherent on-off-keying (OOK) with a photoncounting measurement, illustrating its asymptotic inefficiency relative to the Holevo limit. We show that a commonly made Poisson approximation in thermal noise leads to unbounded photon information efficiencies, violating the conjectured Holevo limit. We analyze two binary-modulation architectures that improve upon the dimensional versus photon efficiency tradeoff achievable with conventional OOK. We show that at high photon efficiency these architectures achieve an efficiency tradeoff that differs from the best possible tradeoff--determined by the Holevo capacity--by only a constant factor. The first architecture we analyze is a coherent-state transmitter that relies on feedback from the receiver to control the transmitted energy. The second architecture uses a single-photon number-state source.

  9. Enhanced soft X-ray detection efficiencies for imaging microchannel plate detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G. W.; Barstow, M. A.; Whiteley, M. J.; Wells, A.

    1982-12-01

    Although the microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers used in X-ray astronomy facilitate X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, their intrinsic soft X-ray detection efficiencies of 1-10 percent are much lower than the near-unity values available with competing gas proportional counters. A high photoelectric yield material may be deposited on the MCP front surface and channel walls in order to enhance X-ray sensitivity at energies below a few keV. High 0.18-1.5 keV X-ray detection efficiencies are reported for MCPs bearing CsI deposition photocathodes, by which efficiency enhancement factors of up to 15 have been obtained. These results are especially pertinent to the sensitivity of such future X-ray astronomy experiments as the Roentgensatellit (Rosat) Wide Field Camera.

  10. The detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors using cascaded-systems analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Single-photon counting (SPC) x-ray imaging has the potential to improve image quality and enable new advanced energy-dependent methods. The purpose of this study is to extend cascaded-systems analyses (CSA) to the description of image quality and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of SPC systems. Methods: Point-process theory is used to develop a method of propagating the mean signal and Wiener noise-power spectrum through a thresholding stage (required to identify x-ray interaction events). The new transfer relationships are used to describe the zero-frequency DQE of a hypothetical SPC detector including the effects of stochastic conversion of incident photons to secondary quanta, secondary quantum sinks, additive noise, and threshold level. Theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo calculations assuming the same detector model. Results: Under certain conditions, the CSA approach can be applied to SPC systems with the additional requirement of propagating the probability density function describing the total number of image-forming quanta through each stage of a cascaded model. Theoretical results including DQE show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo calculations under all conditions considered. Conclusions: Application of the CSA method shows that false counts due to additive electronic noise results in both a nonlinear image signal and increased image noise. There is a window of allowable threshold values to achieve a high DQE that depends on conversion gain, secondary quantum sinks, and additive noise.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Detector with High Efficiency, Broad Bandwidth, and Highly Symmetric Coupling to Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Denis, K.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schneider, G.; Stevenson, T.; Travers, D.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Four probe antennas transfer signals from waveguide to microstrip lines. The probes not only provide broadband impedance matching, but also thermally isolate waveguide and detector. In addition, we developed a new photonic waveguide choke joint design, with four-fold symmetry, to suppress power leakage at the interface. We have developed facilities to test superconducting circuit elements using a cryogenic microwave probe station, and more complete systems in waveguide. We used the ring resonator shown below to measure a dielectric loss tangent < 7x10(exp -4) over 10 - 45 GHz. We have combined component simulations to predict the overall coupling from waveguide modes to bolometers. The result below shows the planar circuit and waveguide interface can utilize the high beam symmetry of HE11 circular feedhorns with > 99% coupling efficiency over 30% fractional bandwidth.

  12. Patient-dependent count-rate adaptive normalization for PET detector efficiency with delayed-window coincidence events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Hongwei; Xia, Ting; Asma, Evren; Winkler, Mark; Gagnon, Daniel; Wang, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative PET imaging is widely used in clinical diagnosis in oncology and neuroimaging. Accurate normalization correction for the efficiency of each line-of- response is essential for accurate quantitative PET image reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a normalization calibration method by using the delayed-window coincidence events from the scanning phantom or patient. The proposed method could dramatically reduce the ‘ring’ artifacts caused by mismatched system count-rates between the calibration and phantom/patient datasets. Moreover, a modified algorithm for mean detector efficiency estimation is proposed, which could generate crystal efficiency maps with more uniform variance. Both phantom and real patient datasets are used for evaluation. The results show that the proposed method could lead to better uniformity in reconstructed images by removing ring artifacts, and more uniform axial variance profiles, especially around the axial edge slices of the scanner. The proposed method also has the potential benefit to simplify the normalization calibration procedure, since the calibration can be performed using the on-the-fly acquired delayed-window dataset.

  13. Efficiency and rate capability studies of the time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements of stored short-lived nuclei with the FRS-ESR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Fabian, Benjamin; Diwisch, Marcel; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Ayet San Andrés, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Knöbel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Sun, Baohua; Weick, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) detector is used for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with the projectile fragment separator FRS and the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. Exotic nuclei are spatially separated in flight with the FRS at about 70% of the speed of light and are injected into the ESR. The revolution times of the stored ions circulating in the ESR are measured with a thin transmission foil detector. When the ions penetrate the thin detector foil, secondary electrons (SEs) are emitted from the surface and provide the timing information in combination with microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. The isochronous transport of the SEs is performed by perpendicular superimposed electric and magnetic fields. The detection efficiency and the rate capability of the TOF detector have been studied in simulations and experiments. As a result the performance of the TOF detector has been improved substantially: (i) The SE collection efficiency was doubled by use of an optimized set of electric and magnetic field values; now SEs from almost the full area of the foil are transmitted to the MCP detectors. (ii) The rate capability of the TOF detector was improved by a factor of four by the use of MCPs with 5 μm pore size. (iii) With these MCPs and a carbon foil with a reduced thickness of 10 μg/cm2 the number of recorded revolutions in the ESR has been increased by nearly a factor of 10. The number of recorded revolutions determine the precision of the IMS experiments. Heavy-ion measurements were performed with neon ions at 322 MeV/u and uranium fission fragments at about 370 MeV/u. In addition, measurements with an alpha source were performed in the laboratory with a duplicate of the TOF detector.

  14. An efficient procedure for tomotherapy treatment plan verification using the on-board detector.

    PubMed

    Pisaturo, O; Miéville, F; Tercier, P-A; Allal, A S

    2015-02-21

    In this work, a fast and simple procedure for tomotherapy treatment plan verification using the on-board detector (OBD) has been developed. This procedure allows verification of plans with static and dynamic jaws (TomoEDGE). A convolution-based calculation model has been derived in order to link the leaf control sinogram from the treatment planning system to the data acquired by the OBD during a static couch procedure. The convolution kernel has been optimized using simple plans calculated in the Tomotherapy Cheese phantom. The optimal kernel has been found to be a lorentzian function, whose parameter Γ is 0.186 for the 1 cm jaw opening, 0.232 for the 2.5 cm jaw opening and 0.373 for the 5 cm jaw opening. The evaluation has been performed with a γ-index analysis. The dose criterion was 3% of the 95th percentile of the dose distribution and the distance-to-agreement criterion is 2 mm. In order to validate the procedure, it has been applied to around 50 clinical treatment plans, which had already been validated by the Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Sweden). 96% of the tested plans have passed the criteria. Concerning the other 4%, significant discrepancies between the leaf pattern in the leaf control sinogram and the OBD data have been shown, which might be due to differences in the leaf open time. This corresponds also to a higher sensitivity of this method over the Delta4, adding the possibility of better monitoring the treatment delivery.

  15. An efficient procedure for tomotherapy treatment plan verification using the on-board detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaturo, O.; Miéville, F.; Tercier, P.-A.; Allal, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a fast and simple procedure for tomotherapy treatment plan verification using the on-board detector (OBD) has been developed. This procedure allows verification of plans with static and dynamic jaws (TomoEDGE). A convolution-based calculation model has been derived in order to link the leaf control sinogram from the treatment planning system to the data acquired by the OBD during a static couch procedure. The convolution kernel has been optimized using simple plans calculated in the Tomotherapy Cheese phantom. The optimal kernel has been found to be a lorentzian function, whose parameter Γ is 0.186 for the 1 cm jaw opening, 0.232 for the 2.5 cm jaw opening and 0.373 for the 5 cm jaw opening. The evaluation has been performed with a γ-index analysis. The dose criterion was 3% of the 95th percentile of the dose distribution and the distance-to-agreement criterion is 2 mm. In order to validate the procedure, it has been applied to around 50 clinical treatment plans, which had already been validated by the Delta4 phantom (Scandidos, Sweden). 96% of the tested plans have passed the criteria. Concerning the other 4%, significant discrepancies between the leaf pattern in the leaf control sinogram and the OBD data have been shown, which might be due to differences in the leaf open time. This corresponds also to a higher sensitivity of this method over the Delta4, adding the possibility of better monitoring the treatment delivery.

  16. Fabrication of multi-layered absorption structure for high quantum efficiency photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Go; Fukuda, Daiji; Numata, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Zama, Tatsuya; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-12-16

    We report on some efforts to improve a quantum efficiency of titanium-based optical superconducting transition edge sensors using the multi-layered absorption structure for maximizing photon absorption in the Ti layer. Using complex refractive index values of each film measured by a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, we designed and optimized by a simulation code. An absorption measurement of fabricated structure was in good agreement with the design and was higher than 99% at optimized wavelength of 1550 nm.

  17. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  18. Measurement of NORM samples with CeBr3 detectors.

    PubMed

    Peyres, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2017-02-14

    This paper discusses the use of CeBr3 detectors for the analysis of NORM samples. These detectors have a number of characteristics that make them suitable to field measurements: they can work at ambient temperatures, have better energy resolution than NaI(Tl) detectors for energies over 100keV and do not present the radioactive contamination typical of the lanthanum halides detectors. Results of the measurements made at the laboratory for three reference materials are compared to those made using a conventional HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system. Spectra from both measurement systems are presented and discussed.

  19. Performance of an AGATA asymmetric detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, A. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Unsworth, C.; Boston, H. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Grint, A. N.; Harkness, L. J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Jones, M.; Nolan, P. J.; Oxley, D. C.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Agata Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray detectors based on high-purity germanium crystals (HPGe) are one of the key workhorses of experimental nuclear science. The technical development of such detector technology has been dramatic in recent years. Large volume, high-granularity, electrically segmented HPGe detectors have been realised and a methodology to improve position sensitivity using pulse-shape analysis coupled with the novel technique of gamma-ray tracking has been developed. Collaborations have been established in Europe (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA)) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) [C.W. Beausang, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 204 (2003)] to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the first AGATA asymmetric detector that has been tested at the University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  20. Jamming efficiency evaluation of the IR smoke screen against high-orbit IR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gui-qing; Li, Yong-xiang

    2011-08-01

    In order to lower the orientating capability of the DSP satellite, at first the paper analyzes early warning missile satellite detective system, introduces the jamming mechanism of infrared smoke screen, and a model of jamming efficiency evaluation of the IR smoke screen against early warning satellite was built from three sides of absorbency of smoke screen to infrared radiation, dispersion ability and infrared radiation from smoke screen self. At last the correlative conclusion was got based on the brief depiction of Early-warning Satellite.

  1. Development of a CZT drift ring detector for X and γ ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Boothman, V.; Veeramani, P.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2015-04-01

    CdTe and CZT detectors are considered better choices for high energy γ and X-ray spectroscopy in comparison to Si and HPGe detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The performance limitations in CdTe and CZT detectors are mainly associated with poor hole transport and trapping phenomena. Among many techniques that can be used to eliminate the effect of the poor charge transport properties of holes in CdTe and CZT material, the drift ring technique shows promising results. In this work, the performance of a 2.3 mm thick CZT drift ring detector is investigated. Spatially resolved measurements were carried out with an X-ray microbeam (25 and 75 keV) at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to study the response uniformity and extent of the active area. Higher energy photon irradiation was also carried out at up to 662 keV using different radioisotopes to complement the microbeam data. Different biasing schemes were investigated in terms of biasing the cathode rear electrode (bulk field) and the ring electrodes (lateral fields). The results show that increasing the bulk field with fixed-ratio ring biases and lateral fields with fixed bulk fields increase the active area of the device significantly, which contrasts with previous studies in CdTe, where only an increasing lateral field resulted in an improvement of device performance. This difference is attributed to the larger thickness of the CZT device reported here.

  2. Study on the novel neutron-to-proton convertor for improving the detection efficiency of a triple GEM based fast neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, He-Run; Ren, Zhong-Guo; Zhang, Jun-We; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Ha, Ri-Ba-La; An, Lü-Xing; Hu, Bi-Tao

    2015-02-01

    A high-efficiency fast neutron detector prototype based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector, which, coupled with a novel multi-layered high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a neutron-to-proton converter for improving the neutron detection efficiency, is introduced and tested with the Am-Be neutron source in the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) at Lanzhou in the present work. First, the developed triple GEM detector is tested by measuring its effective gain and energy resolution with 55Fe X-ray source to ensure that it has a good performance. The effective gain and obtained energy resolution is 5.0×104 and around 19.2%, respectively. Secondly, the novel multi-layered HDPE converter is coupled with the cathode of the triple GEM detector making it a high-efficiency fast neutron detector. Its effective neutron response is four times higher than that of the traditional single-layered conversion technique when the converter layer number is 38. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11305232, 11175076)

  3. Efficient, Non-Iterative Estimator for Imaging Contrast Agents With Spectral X-Ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    An estimator to image contrast agents and body materials with x-ray spectral measurements is described. The estimator is usable with the three or more basis functions that are required to represent the attenuation coefficient of high atomic number materials. The estimator variance is equal to the Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and it is unbiased. Its parameters are computed from measurements of a calibration phantom with the clinical x-ray system and it is non-iterative. The estimator is compared with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. The estimator first computes a linearized maximum likelihood estimate of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients. Corrections for errors in the initial estimates are computed by interpolation with calibration phantom data. The final estimate is the initial estimate plus the correction. The performance of the estimator is measured using a Monte Carlo simulation. Random photon counting with pulse height analysis data are generated. The mean squared errors of the estimates are compared to the CRLB. The random data are also processed with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. Previous implementations of iterative estimators required advanced physics instruments not usually available in clinical institutions. The estimator mean squared error is essentially equal to the CRLB. The estimator outputs are close to those of the iterative estimator but the computation time is approximately 180 times shorter. The estimator is efficient and has advantages over alternate approaches such as iterative estimators.

  4. Titanium-based transition-edge photon number resolving detector with 98% detection efficiency with index-matched small-gap fiber coupling.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Daiji; Fujii, Go; Numata, Takayuki; Amemiya, Kuniaki; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Fujino, Hidetoshi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Taro; Inoue, Shuichiro; Zama, Tatsuya

    2011-01-17

    We have realized a high-detection-efficiency photon number resolving detector at an operating wavelength of about 850 nm. The detector consists of a titanium superconducting transition edge sensor in an optical cavity, which is directly coupled to an optical fiber using an approximately 300-nm gap. The gap reduces the sensitive area and heat capacity of the device, leading to high photon number resolution of 0.42 eV without sacrificing detection efficiency or signal response speed. Wavelength dependent efficiency in fiber-coupled devices, which is due to optical interference between the fiber and the device, is also decreased to less than 1% in this configuration. The overall system detection efficiency is 98%±1% at wavelengths of around 850 nm, which is the highest value ever reported in this wavelength range.

  5. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples.

    PubMed

    Baccouche, S; Al-Azmi, D; Karunakara, N; Trabelsi, A

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides (137)Cs (661keV), (40)K (1460keV), (238)U ((214)Bi, 1764keV) and (232)Th ((208)Tl, 2614keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614keV emission of (208)Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples.

  6. Measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detectors according to the novel standard IEC 62220-1.

    PubMed

    Illers, Hartmut; Buhr, Egbert; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    A mobile measurement facility which complies with IEC 62220-1 has been set up to determine the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detector systems. Exemplary measurements were performed for two similar CR detector systems, a CsI-based indirect detector and an Se-based direct detector. The standardised radiation quality RQA 5 was applied for measurement and for three of these systems RQA 9 was also applied. A pronounced dependence of DQE on radiation quality was observed for the direct detector, where the DQEs for RQA 5 and RQA 9 differ by a factor of approximately 2. The uncertainty (95% confidence interval) associated with the measured DQE values is within 0.01 and 0.04 depending on, for example, the spatial frequency. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the DQE can be measured accurately and reliably with the accuracy required by the international standard IEC 62220-1. It is now possible to objectively measure and compare DQE values of digital X-ray detector systems.

  7. High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of High Quantum Efficiency Back-Illuminated Photon Counting, Far UV, UV, and Visible Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, M. E.; Carver, A. G.; Jones, T. J.; Greer, F.; Hamden, E.; Goodsall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the high throughput end-to-end post fabrication processing of high performance delta-doped and superlattice-doped silicon imagers for UV, visible, and NIR applications. As an example, we present our results on far ultraviolet and ultraviolet quantum efficiency (QE) in a photon counting, detector array. We have improved the QE by nearly an order of magnitude over microchannel plates (MCPs) that are the state-of-the-art UV detectors for many NASA space missions as well as defense applications. These achievements are made possible by precision interface band engineering of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  8. Gigahertz-gated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with detection efficiency exceeding 55% at 1550 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Comandar, L. C.; Fröhlich, B.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Lucamarini, M.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2015-02-28

    We report on a gated single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a single-photon detection efficiency exceeding 55% at 1550 nm. Our detector is gated at 1 GHz and employs the self-differencing technique for gate transient suppression. It can operate nearly dead time free, except for the one clock cycle dead time intrinsic to self-differencing, and we demonstrate a count rate of 500 Mcps. We present a careful analysis of the optimal driving conditions of the APD measured with a dead time free detector characterization setup. It is found that a shortened gate width of 360 ps together with an increased driving signal amplitude and operation at higher temperatures leads to improved performance of the detector. We achieve an afterpulse probability of 7% at 50% detection efficiency with dead time free measurement and a record efficiency for InGaAs/InP APDs of 55% at an afterpulse probability of only 10.2% with a moderate dead time of 10 ns.

  9. Search for the radioactivity of 180mTa using an underground HPGe sandwich spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Wieslander, J S Elisabeth; Marissens, Gerd; Gasparro, Joël; Wätjen, Uwe; Misiaszek, Marcin

    2009-05-01

    The radioactivity of (180m)Ta has never been detected. The present attempt to detect it was carried out using a newly developed HPGe sandwich spectrometer installed 500m water equivalent underground in the HADES laboratory. The sample consisted of 6 discs of tantalum of natural isotopic composition with a total mass of 1500 g and a total mass for (180)Ta of 180 mg. The sample was measured for 68 days and the resulting lower bound for the half-life of (180m)Ta was 2.0 x 10(16)y, which is a factor of 2.8 higher than the previous highest value.

  10. High detection efficiency micro-structured solid-state neutron detector with extremely low leakage current fabricated with continuous p-n junction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Lu, James J.-Q.; Bhat, Ishwara B.; Dahal, Rajendra; Danon, Yaron

    2013-04-15

    We report the continuous p-n junction formation in honeycomb structured Si diode by in situ boron deposition and diffusion process using low pressure chemical vapor deposition for solid-state thermal neutron detection applications. Optimized diffusion temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C was obtained by current density-voltage characteristics for fabricated p{sup +}-n diodes. A very low leakage current density of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} at -1 V was measured for enriched boron filled honeycomb structured neutron detector with a continuous p{sup +}-n junction. The neutron detection efficiency for a Maxwellian spectrum incident on the face of the detector was measured under zero bias voltage to be {approx}26%. These results are very encouraging for fabrication of large area solid-state neutron detector that could be a viable alternative to {sup 3}He tube based technology.

  11. KMESS: An open source software package using a semi-empirical mesh-grid method for the modeling of germanium detector efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard

    Traditional approaches in gamma-ray spectroscopy for determining the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of germanium detectors are primarily either too time consuming or not economically viable. In addition, these approaches are difficult to use for arbitrary source shapes and counting geometries. An open source software package, KMESS (Kevin's Mesh Efficiency Simulator Software), was developed to address these problems. KMESS uses a new semi-empirical mesh-grid method to predict the absolute full-energy peak efficiencies of n- and p-type germanium detectors in both coaxial and closed-ended configurations. The model assumes that any gamma-ray source shape can be treated as a collection of point sources. The code was written in a modular form, making it easy to adapt for other detector configurations and materials. A suite of web-based graphical front-end tools was also developed to make the execution of KMESS user-friendly. KMESS can predict most full-energy peak efficiencies to within 10% accuracy for the energy range 100--1800 keV in less than 10 minutes.

  12. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  13. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  14. Gamma-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate installed as an ion detector in the low energy particle instrument onboard the GEOTAIL satellite.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y T; Yoshikawa, I; Yoshioka, K; Terasawa, T; Saito, Y; Mukai, T

    2007-03-01

    A microchannel plate (MCP) assembly has been used as an ion detector in the low energy particle (LEP) instrument onboard the magnetospheric satellite GEOTAIL. Recently the MCP assembly has detected gamma rays emitted from an astronomical object and has been shown to provide unique information of gamma rays if they are intense enough. However, the detection efficiency for gamma rays was not measured before launch, and therefore we could not analyze the LEP data quantitatively. In this article, we report the gamma-ray detection efficiency of the MCP assembly. The measured efficiencies are 1.29%+/-0.71% and 0.21%+/-0.14% for normal incidence 60 and 662 keV gamma rays, respectively. The incident angle dependence is also presented. Our calibration is crucial to study high energy astrophysical phenomena by using the LEP.

  15. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Measurement of the response function and the detection efficiency of an organic liquid scintillator for neutrons between 1 and 30 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han-Xiong; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Chen, Guo-Chang; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Li, Xia; Bao, Jie; Nie, Yang-Bo; Zhong, Qi-Ping

    2009-08-01

    The light output function of a varphi50.8 mm × 50.8 mm BC501A scintillation detector was measured in the neutron energy region of 1 to 30 MeV by fitting the pulse height (PH) spectra for neutrons with the simulations from the NRESP code at the edge range. Using the new light output function, the neutron detection efficiency was determined with two Monte-Carlo codes, NEFF and SCINFUL. The calculated efficiency was corrected by comparing the simulated PH spectra with the measured ones. The determined efficiency was verified at the near threshold region and normalized with a Proton-Recoil-Telescope (PRT) at the 8-14 MeV energy region.

  16. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a large volume (946cm(3)) LaBr3(Ce) detector: GEANT4 simulations and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Dhibar, M; Mankad, D; Mazumdar, I; Kumar, G Anil

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the studies on efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for a 3.5″×6″ cylindrical LaBr3(Ce)detector. GEANT4 simulations were made with point sources, namely, (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na, (46)Sc and (22)Na. The simulated efficiencies, extracted using (60)Co, (94)Nb, (24)Na and (46)Sc that emit coincident gamma rays with same decay intensities, were corrected for coincidence summing by applying the method proposed by Vidmar et al. (2003). The method was applied, for the first time, for correcting the simulated efficiencies extracted using (22)Na that emits coincident gamma rays with different decay intensities. The measured results obtained using (60)Co and (22)Na were found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

  17. Beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency and energy resolution optimization by Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations for a phoswich well detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    A single-channel phoswich well detector has been assessed and analysed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic cell (BC-404) embedded in a CsI(Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). It can be used to distinguish 30.0-keV X-ray signals of (131m)Xe and (133m)Xe using their unique coincidence signatures between the conversion electrons (CEs) and the 30.0-keV X-rays. The optimum coincidence efficiency signal depends on the energy resolutions of the two CE peaks, which could be affected by relative positions of the plastic cell to the CsI(Tl) because the embedded plastic cell would interrupt scintillation light path from the CsI(Tl) crystal to the PMT. In this study, several relative positions between the embedded plastic cell and the CsI(Tl) crystal have been evaluated using Monte Carlo modeling for its effects on coincidence detection efficiency and X-ray and CE energy resolutions. The results indicate that the energy resolution and beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency of X-ray and CE depend significantly on the plastic cell locations inside the CsI(Tl). The degraded X-ray and CE peak energy resolutions due to light collection efficiency deterioration by the embedded cell can be minimised. The optimum of CE and X-ray energy resolution, beta-gamma coincidence efficiency as well as the ease of manufacturing could be achieved by varying the embedded plastic cell positions inside the CsI(Tl) and consequently setting the most efficient geometry.

  18. The measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in beach sand cores of coastal regions of Ramsar, Iran using HPGe detectors.

    PubMed

    Tari, Marziyeh; Moussavi Zarandi, Sayyed Ali; Mohammadi, Kheirollah; Zare, Mohammad Reza

    2013-09-15

    Radionuclides which present in different beach sands are sources of external exposure that contribute to the total radiation exposure of human. (226)Ra, (235)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs analysis has been carried out in sand samples collected at six depth levels, from eight locations of the northern coast of Iran, Ramsar, using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average Specific activities of natural radionuclides viz., (226)Ra, (235)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, in the 0-36 cm depth sand were found as: 19.2±0.04, 2.67±0.17, 17.9±0.06, 337.5±0.61 and 3.35±0.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The effects of organic matter content and pH value of sand samples on the natural radionuclide levels were also investigated. Finally, the measured radionuclide concentrations in the Ramsar beach were compared with the world average values, as reported by UNSCEAR (2000). None of the studied beaches were considered as a radiological risk.

  19. High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

    1995-09-27

    Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations.

  20. Lead shielding efficiency from the gamma background measurements in the salt cavern of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine.

    PubMed

    Polaczek-Grelik, Kinga; Kisiel, Jan; Walencik-Łata, Agata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Janowski, Paweł; Harańczyk, Małgorzata; Jurkowski, Jan; Zalewska, Agnieszka; Kobziński, Jan; Markowski, Paweł; Sadowski, Andrzej

    The studies of lead shielding efficiency from the gamma background measurements were performed in the salt cavern of the copper mine - a site considered for an underground laboratory. Within the energy range of 50-2700 keV, the measured gamma-ray count rates normalized to the mass of the high-purity detectors germanium crystal are 5.93 and 6.32 s(-1)kg(-1) for the used low-background and portable spectrometers, respectively. The gamma-ray flux of 0.124 (2) cm(-2)s(-1) connected with the natural radioisotopes was observed by the portable HPGe, including 0.026 (1) cm(-2)s(-1) contribution of radon decay products, whereas the photon flux at the spectrum continuum was 0.18 (5) cm(-2)s(-1).

  1. Stringed Planar-detectors for Investigation of Rare Event Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenzhao; Mei, Dongming; Zhang, Chao; Cubed Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    In the detection of rare event physics with HPGe detectors, conventional P-type Point Contact (PPC) or coaxial detectors have no capability of discriminating electron/nuclear recoils. The CDMS-type bolometers, which possess great electron/nuclear recoils discrimination, must be operated in milli-kelvin temperature range with diffusion refrigerator at high price. Alternatively, a new idea of using great granularity and plasma time difference in pulse shape to discriminate nuclear recoils from electronic recoils with conventional germanium detectors is discussed in this paper. Stringed planar germanium detectors have been designed in a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation in which radiogenic backgrounds from 60Co, 40K, 238U, 232Th, and (alpha,n) neutrons have been studied. We show the anticipated sensitivity of this new detector array for detecting rare event physics including neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  2. Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Waugh, C. J.; ...

    2014-04-14

    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ~0.5–8 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, the overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5h etch in 6N NaOH at 80°C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.7–4.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detectionmore » of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ≲3 ×106 cm-2. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ~50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount.« less

  3. Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Orozco, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Hohenberger, M.; Sangster, T. C.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Landen, O. L.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-04-14

    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ~0.5–8 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, the overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5h etch in 6N NaOH at 80°C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.7–4.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detection of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ≲3 ×106 cm-2. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ~50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount.

  4. Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

    1998-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

  5. The effects of Doppler broadening and detector resolution on the performance of three-stage Compton cameras

    PubMed Central

    Mackin, Dennis; Polf, Jerimy; Peterson, Steve; Beddar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how the characteristics of the detectors used in a three-stage Compton camera (CC) affect the CC's ability to accurately measure the emission distribution and energy spectrum of prompt gammas (PG) emitted by nuclear de-excitations during proton therapy. The detector characteristics they studied included the material (high-purity germanium [HPGe] and cadmium zinc telluride [CZT]), Doppler broadening (DB), and resolution (lateral, depth, and energy). Methods: The authors simulated three-stage HPGe and CZT CCs of various configurations, detecting gammas from point sources with energies ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. They also simulated a proton pencil beam irradiating a tissue target to study how the detector characteristics affect the PG data measured by CCs in a clinical proton therapy setting. They used three figures of merit: the distance of closest approach (DCA) and the point of closest approach (PCA) between the measured and actual position of the PG emission origin, and the calculated energy resolution. Results: For CCs with HPGe detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 14% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 20% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. For CCs with CZT detectors, DB caused the DCA to be greater than 3 mm for 18% of the 6.13 MeV gammas and 25% of the 0.511 MeV gammas. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the PCA in the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}\\hat z\\end{equation*} \\end{document}z^ direction for HPGe and CZT detectors ranged from 1.3 to 0.4 mm for gammas with incident energy ranging from 0.511 to 7.12 MeV. For CCs composed of HPGe detectors, the resolution of incident gamma energy calculated by the CC ranged from 6% to 1% for gammas with true incident energies from 0.511 to 7.12 Me

  6. Neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Andrew C.; Jardret; Vincent D.

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  7. Intelligent Detector Design

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

  8. Radioxenon detector calibration spike production and delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Cameron, Ian M.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kriss, Aaron A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Mendez, Jennifer M.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Riedmann, Robin A.

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Beta-Gamma coincidence radioxenon detectors must be calibrated for each of the four-radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe). Without a proper calibration, there is potential for the misidentification of the amount of each isotope detected. It is important to accurately determine the amount of each radioxenon isotope, as the ratios can be used to distinguish between an anthropogenic source and a nuclear explosion. We have developed a xenon calibration system (XeCalS) that produces calibration spikes of known activity and pressure for field calibration of detectors. The activity concentrations of these calibration spikes are measured using a beta-gamma coincidence detector and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. We will present the results from the development and commissioning of XeCalS, along with the future plans for a portable spike implementation system.

  9. Segmented crystalline scintillators: empirical and theoretical investigation of a high quantum efficiency EPID based on an initial engineering prototype CsI(TI) detector.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Amit; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Wang, Yi; Li, Yixin; Du, Hong; Perna, Louis

    2006-04-01

    Modern-day radiotherapy relies on highly sophisticated forms of image guidance in order to implement increasingly conformal treatment plans and achieve precise dose delivery. One of the most important goals of such image guidance is to delineate the clinical target volume from surrounding normal tissue during patient setup and dose delivery, thereby avoiding dependence on surrogates such as bony landmarks. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to integrate highly efficient imaging technology, capable of resolving soft-tissue contrast at very low doses, within the treatment setup. In this paper we report on the development of one such modality, which comprises a nonoptimized, prototype electronic portal imaging device (EPID) based on a 40 mm thick, segmented crystalline CsI(Tl) detector incorporated into an indirect-detection active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI). The segmented detector consists of a matrix of 160 x 160 optically isolated, crystalline CsI(Tl) elements spaced at 1016 microm pitch. The detector was coupled to an indirect detection-based active matrix array having a pixel pitch of 508 microm, with each detector element registered to 2 x 2 array pixels. The performance of the prototype imager was evaluated under very low-dose radiotherapy conditions and compared to that of a conventional megavoltage AMFPI based on a Lanex Fast-B phosphor screen. Detailed quantitative measurements were performed in order to determine the x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). In addition, images of a contrast-detail phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom were also acquired. The prototype imager exhibited approximately 22 times higher zero-frequency DQE (approximately 22%) compared to that of the conventional AMFPI (approximately 1%). The measured zero-frequency DQE was found to be lower than theoretical upper limits (approximately 27%) calculated from Monte Carlo simulations, which

  10. Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lusche, R. Semenov, A.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Korneeva, Y.; Trifonov, A.; Korneev, A.; Goltsman, G.; Vodolazov, D.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2014-07-28

    A thorough spectral study of the intrinsic single-photon detection efficiency in superconducting TaN and NbN nanowires with different widths has been performed. The experiment shows that the cut-off of the intrinsic detection efficiency at near-infrared wavelengths is most likely controlled by the local suppression of the barrier for vortex nucleation around the absorption site. Beyond the cut-off quasi-particle diffusion in combination with spontaneous, thermally activated vortex crossing explains the detection process. For both materials, the reciprocal cut-off wavelength scales linearly with the wire width where the scaling factor agrees with the hot-spot detection model.

  11. Development of fast measurements of concentration of NORM U-238 by HPGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Seokki; Kim, Siu; Kim, Geehyun

    2017-02-01

    Naturally Occureed Radioactive Material (NORM) generated from the origin of earth can be found all around us and even people who are not engaged in the work related to radiation have been exposed to unnecessary radiation. This NORM has a potential risk provided that is concentrated or transformed by artificial activities. Likewise, a development of fast measruement method of NORM is emerging to prevent the radiation exposure of the general public and person engaged in the work related to the type of business related thereto who uses the material in which NORM is concentrated or transfromed. Based on such a background, many of countries have tried to manage NORM and carried out regulatory legislation. To effienctly manage NORM, there is need for developing new measurement to quickly and accurately analyze the nuclide and concentration. In this study, development of the fast and reliable measurement was carried out. In addition to confirming the reliability of the fast measurement, we have obtained results that can suggest the possibility of developing another fast measurement. Therefore, as a follow-up, it is possible to develop another fast analytical measurement afterwards. The results of this study will be very useful for the regulatory system to manage NORM. In this study, a review of two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 that has used HPGe on the basis of the equilibrium theory of relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at decay-chain of NORM U-238 has been carried out. For comparative study(in order to know reliabily), direct measurement that makes use of alpha spectrometer with complicated pre-processing process was implemented.

  12. Power and area efficient 4-bit column-level ADC in a CMOS pixel sensor for the ILD vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 48 × 64 pixels prototype CMOS pixel sensor (CPS) integrated with 4-bit column-level, self triggered ADCs for the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (VTX) was developed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation. The ADCs accommodating the pixel read out in a rolling shutter mode complete the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. The design was optimised for power saving at sampling frequency. The prototype sensor is currently at the stage of being started testing and evaluation. So what is described is based on post simulation results rather than test data. This 4-bit ADC dissipates, at a 3-V supply and 6.25-MS/s sampling rate, 486 μW in its inactive mode, which is by far the most frequent. This value rises to 714 μW in case of the active mode. Its footprint amounts to 35 × 545 μm2.

  13. Lower limits of spin detection efficiency for two-parameter two-qubit (TPTQ) states with non-ideal ferromagnetic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majd, Nayereh; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a TPTQ state as an input state of a non-ideal ferromagnetic detectors. Minimal spin polarization required to demonstrate spin entanglement according to entanglement witness and CHSH inequality with respect to (w.r.t.) their two free parameters have been found, and we have numerically shown that the entanglement witness is less stringent than the direct tests of Bell's inequality in the form of CHSH in the entangled limits of its free parameters. In addition, the lower limits of spin detection efficiency fulfilling secure cryptographic key against eavesdropping have been derived. Finally, we have considered TPTQ state as an output of spin decoherence channel and the region of ballistic transmission time w.r.t. spin relaxation time and spin dephasing time has been found.

  14. SiC-based neutron detector in quasi-realistic working conditions: efficiency and stability at room and high temperature under fast neutron irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferone, Raffaello; Issa, Fatima; Ottaviani, Laurent; Biondo, Stephane; Vervisch, Vanessa; Szalkai, Dora; Klix, Axel; Vermeeren, Ludo; Saenger, Richard; Lyoussi, Abadallah

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of the European I SMART project, we have designed and made new SiC-based nuclear radiation detectors able to operate in harsh environments and to detect both fast and thermal neutrons. In this paper, we report experimental results of fast neutron irradiation campaign at high temperature (106 deg. C) in quasi-realistic working conditions. Our device does not suffer from high temperature, and spectra do show strong stability, preserving features. These experiments, as well as others in progress, show the I SMART SiC-based device skills to operate in harsh environments, whereas other materials would strongly suffer from degradation. Work is still demanded to test our device at higher temperatures and to enhance efficiency in order to make our device fully exploitable from an industrial point of view. (authors)

  15. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    DOEpatents

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  16. A new experimental procedure for determination of photoelectric efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector used for nuclear medicine liquid waste monitoring with traceability to a reference standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Campanella, F; Ciofetta, G; Marracino, F M; Cannatà, V

    2010-02-01

    To determine photopeak efficiency for (99m)Tc of the NaI(Tl) detector used for liquid waste monitoring at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of IRCCS Paediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome, a specific experimental procedure, with traceability to primary standards, was developed. Working with the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, two different calibration source geometries were employed and the detector response dependence on geometry was investigated. The large percentage difference (almost 40%) between the two efficiency values obtained showed that geometrical effects cannot be neglected.

  17. Efficient and fast 511-keV γ detection through Cherenkov radiation: the CaLIPSO optical detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, E.; Kochebina, O.; Yvon, D.; Verrecchia, P.; Sharyy, V.; Tauzin, G.; Mols, J. P.; Starzinski, P.; Desforges, D.; Flouzat, Ch.; Bulbul, Y.; Jan, S.; Mancardi, X.; Canot, C.; Alokhina, M.

    2016-11-01

    The CaLIPSO project aims to develop a high precision brain-scanning PET device with time-of-flight capability. The proposed device uses an innovative liquid, the TriMethyl Bismuth, as the detection medium. It detects simultaneously the ionization and optical signals from the 511 keV gamma conversion. In this paper we present the design, the Monte Carlo simulation, and the tests results for the CaLIPSO optical prototype. In this prototype we demonstrated the ability to detect efficiently the low number of the optical photons produced by the relativistic electron from the gamma conversion through the Cherenkov effect. The time resolution of the current prototype is limited by the moderate time transition spread of the PMT, but should be improved to the level better than 100 ps (FWHM) by using micro-channel-plate PMT according to the Geant 4 simulation.

  18. Self-normalizing method to measure the detective quantum efficiency of a wide range of x-ray detectors.

    PubMed

    Stierstorfer, K; Spahn, M

    1999-07-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is widely accepted as the most relevant parameter to characterize the image quality of medical x-ray systems. In this article we describe a solid method to measure the DQE. The strength of the method lies in the fact that it is self-normalizing so measurements at very low spatial frequencies are not needed. Furthermore, it works on any system with a response function which is linear in the small-signal approximation. We decompose the DQE into several easily accessible quantities and discuss in detail how they can be measured. At the end we lead the interested reader through an example. Noise equivalent quanta and normalized contrast values are tabulated for standard radiation qualities.

  19. Use of silicon pixel detectors in double electron capture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cermak, P.; Stekl, I.; Shitov, Yu A.; Mamedov, F.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Jose, J. M.; Cermak, J.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Brudanin, V. B.; Loaiza, P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel experimental approach to search for double electron capture (EC/EC) is discussed in this article. R&D for a new generation EC/EC spectrometer based on silicon pixel detectors (SPDs) has been conducted since 2009 for an upgrade of the TGV experiment. SPDs built on Timepix technology with a spectroscopic readout from each individual pixel are an effective tool to detect the 2νEC/EC signature of the two low energy X-rays hitting two separate pixels. The ability of SPDs to indentify α/β/γ particles and localize them precisely leads to effective background discrimination and thus considerable improvement of the signal-to-background ratio (S/B). A multi-SPD system, called a Silicon Pixel Telescope (SPT), is planned based on the experimental approach of the TGV calorimeter which measures thin foils of enriched EC/EC-isotope sandwiched between HPGe detectors working in coincidence mode. The sources of SPD internal background have been identified by measuring SPD radiopurity with a low-background HPGe detector as well as by long-term SPD background runs in the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France), and results of these studies are presented.

  20. A simultaneous measurement of the $b$-tagging efficiency scale factor and the $t\\bar{t}$ Production Cross Section at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Nazim; /McGill U.

    2011-07-01

    The ability to compare results between Monte Carlo and data is imperative in modern experimental high-energy physics analyses. The b-tagging efficiency Scale Factor (SF) allows for an accurate comparison of b quark identification in data samples and Monte Carlo. This thesis presents a simultaneous measurement of the SF for the SecVtx algorithm and the t{bar t} production cross section using 5.6 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment. The t{bar t} cross section was measured to be 7.26 {+-} 0.47 pb, consistent with prior CDF analyses. The tight SF value was measured to be 0.925 {+-} 0.032 and the loose SF value was measured at 0.967 {+-} 0.033. These are the most precise SF SecVtx measurements to be performed at CDF to date.

  1. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

  2. Performance of IRD-WBC HPGe detection system for low energy photon emitters in lungs.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, A M G F; Lourenço, M C; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M

    2003-01-01

    The Whole Body Counter Facility (WBC) of IRD-CNEN in Brazil has been operating since 1986. The first system installed to perform in vivo measurements of low energy photon emitters radionuclides used Phoswich detectors. In 1998, the WBC unit was upgraded by the installation of an array of four low energy high purity germanium detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection system for lung measurements were evaluated by comparison with the annual dose limits and the detection limits obtained for 238U, 235U, 226Ra and 241Am. This evaluation determined whether the in vivo measurements are adequate. In order to compare the dose limit of 20 mSv y(-1), recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), with the in vivo monitoring technique, the minimum detectable intake (MDI) was calculated using the appropriate biokinetic models described in the ICRP Publications. The results were obtained for a single intake through inhalation. The AMAD considered was 5 microm.

  3. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  4. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  5. Study of the counting efficiency of a WBC setup by using a computational 3D human body library in sitting position based on polygonal mesh surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, T C Ferreira; Bogaerts, R; Lebacq, A L; Mihailescu, C L; Vanhavere, F

    2014-04-01

    A realistic computational 3D human body library, called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms), based on polygonal mesh surface geometry, has been created to be used for numerical calibration of the whole body counter (WBC) system of the nuclear power plant (NPP) in Doel, Belgium. The main objective was to create flexible computational models varying in gender, body height, and mass for studying the morphology-induced variation of the detector counting efficiency (CE) and reducing the measurement uncertainties. First, the counting room and an HPGe detector were modeled using MCNPX (Monte Carlo radiation transport code). The validation of the model was carried out for different sample-detector geometries with point sources and a physical phantom. Second, CE values were calculated for a total of 36 different mesh phantoms in a seated position using the validated Monte Carlo model. This paper reports on the validation process of the in vivo whole body system and the CE calculated for different body heights and weights. The results reveal that the CE is strongly dependent on the individual body shape, size, and gender and may vary by a factor of 1.5 to 3 depending on the morphology aspects of the individual to be measured.

  6. Majo-ra-na: An Ultra-Low Background Enriched-Germanium Detector Array for Fundamental Physics Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, Victor

    2010-02-01

    The Majo-ra-na collaboration will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) by fielding an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in ultra-clean electroformed-copper cryostats deep underground. Recent advances in HPGe detector technology, in particular P-type Point-Contact (PPC) detectors, present exciting new techniques for identifying and reducing backgrounds to the 0νββ signal. This should result in greatly improved sensitivity over previous generation experiments. The very low energy threshold attainable with PPC detectors also provides for a broader physics program including searches for dark matter and axions. The Majo-ra-na De-mon-strat-or is an R&D program that will field three ˜20 kg modules of PPC detectors at Sanford Underground Laboratory. Half of the detectors will be enriched to 86% in ^76Ge. Here, we will cover the motivation, design, recent progress and current status of this effort, with special attention to its physics reach. )

  7. TU-F-18A-08: Effect of Quantum Detection Efficiency and Energy Bin Selection On Contrast-To-Noise-Ratio for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors have the capability to discriminate photons according to their energies. By using optimal energy weighting factors, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) of the reconstructed image can be improved. In this work, we investigate how quantum detection efficiency (QDE) affects the determination of the optimal energy threshold bins, and therefore the CNR improvement of photon-counting detectors. Methods: In this simulation study a photon-counting detector, based on Silicon (Si), was investigated. A task-oriented algorithm was used to determine the optimal energy bin setting in order to maximize CNR. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting techniques were implemented. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with two contrast materials, hydroxyapatite (HA) and iodine (I), at different concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg/mL for HA and 2, 4, and 8 mg/mL for I) was used. TASMIP algorithm was used to generate the spectrum with 2.7 mm Al filter. Different tube voltages, number of energy bins, and bin widths were investigated. Different thicknesses of Si were also investigated to determine the QDE effect on CNR. Results: CNR increased as the detector material thickness increased until it reached 30 mm for Si thickness such that the CNR value was near to the value predicted by an ideal detector. Also, the results indicated that the improvement of CNR due to the QDE is task-dependent when comparing weighted images to photon-counting images. For hydroxyapatite the improvement is approximately 20%, whereas for iodine it is less than 10%. Conclusion: The results showed that the improvement of CNR for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector is highly task-dependent when QDE is taken into account.

  8. LEDs for Efficient Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are described and three classroom experiments are given, one to prove the, low power requirements and efficiency of LEDs, an LED on-off detector circuit, and the third an LED photoelectric smoke detector. (BB)

  9. The Belle II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

  10. Determination of full-energy peak efficiency at the center position of a through-hole-type clover detector between 0.05 MeV and 3.2 MeV by source measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yosuke; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Yasuaki; Shibata, Michihiro

    2014-09-01

    Full-energy peak efficiency at the center position of a through-hole-type clover detector was determined by the measurement of standard sources and by Monte Carlo simulation. The coincidence summing under the large-solid-angle condition was corrected using Monte Carlo calculation based on the specific decay scheme for (133)Ba, (152,154)Eu, and (56)Co. This allowed the peak efficiency to be extended from 0.05 MeV to 3.2 MeV with an approximate uncertainty of 3%.

  11. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  12. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  13. Enhancement of terahertz coupling efficiency by improved antenna design in GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun-Fei; Sun, Jan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Qin, Hua; Zhang, Bao-Shun; Wu, Dong-Min

    2012-10-01

    An optimized micro-gated terahertz detector with novel triple resonant antenna is presented. The novel resonant antenna operates at room temperature and shows more than a 700% increase in photocurrent response compared to the conventional bowtie antenna. In finite-difference-time-domain simulations, we found the performance of the self-mixing GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistor detector is mainly dependent on the parameters Lgs (the gap between the gate and the source/drain antenna) and Lw (the gap between the source and drain antenna). With the improved triple resonant antenna, an optimized micrometer-sized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor detector can achieve a high responsivity of 9.45 × 102 V/W at a frequency of 903 GHz at room temperature.

  14. An experimental approach to efficiency calibration for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of large air particulate filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2013-04-01

    A full-energy-peak efficiency (FEPE) calibration procedure for gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of air particulate samples collected on large filters is described herein. The experimental results are obtained for an unconventional measurement geometry, termed a "packet-sample". The sample is obtained from a large cellulose filter (45 cm×45 cm) used to collect air particulate samples that is resized to dimensions suitable for spectrometric measurements (6 cm×6 cm×0.7 cm). To determine the FEPEs, many standards were created, i.e., some filters containing a small amount of ThO2 and others containing a known amount of KCl. Efficiency curves obtained through best fits to experimental data for three high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, one of them for X-ray measurement, cover the energy range from 40 keV to 2600 keV. To validate the efficiency calibration procedure two experimental tests with the use of calibrated sources were conducted and, as application example, airborne concentrations of 131I (particulate matter), 134Cs and 137Cs at Palermo (Italy) in the days following the Fukushima accident in Japan were evaluated.

  15. Metal Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  16. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt; Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C.; Stave, Sean C.; Champagne, Art; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori; Glasgow, Brian D.; Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  17. Response of a LaBr3(Ce) Detector to 2-11 MeV Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    The development of lanthanum halide scintillation detectors has great potential application in field-portable prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis systems. Because the low-energy response of these detectors has already been well-characterized [1[-[2], we have measured their response to higher energy gamma rays in the region between 2 and 11 MeV. We have measured the response of a 2-inch (5.08 cm) by 2-inch long LaBr3(Ce) detector to high energy gamma rays produced by neutron interactions on chlorine, hydrogen, iron, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur. The response of the LaBr3(Ce) detector is compared to that of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors.

  18. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  19. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  20. Detector Fundamentals for Reachback Analysts

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter Joseph; Myers, Steven Charles

    2016-08-03

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy course and provides an overview of the following concepts: detector system components, intrinsic and absolute efficiency, resolution and linearity, and operational issues and limits.

  1. A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique and Three Types of Gamma-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Navarro; Rahmat Aryaeinejad,; David W. Nigg

    2011-05-01

    A Feasibility Study to Determine Cooling Time and Burnup of ATR Fuel Using a Nondestructive Technique1 Rahmat Aryaeinejad, Jorge Navarro, and David W Nigg Idaho National Laboratory Abstract Effective and efficient Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel management require state of the art core modeling tools. These new tools will need isotopic and burnup validation data before they are put into production. To create isotopic, burn up validation libraries and to determine the setup for permanent fuel scanner system a feasibility study was perform. The study consisted in measuring short and long cooling time fuel elements at the ATR canal. Three gamma spectroscopy detectors (HPGe, LaBr3, and HPXe) and two system configurations (above and under water) were used in the feasibility study. The first stage of the study was to investigate which detector and system configuration would be better suited for different scenarios. The second stage of the feasibility study was to create burnup and cooling time calibrations using experimental isotopic data collected and ORIGEN 2.2 burnup data. The results of the study establish that a better spectra resolution is achieve with an above the water configuration and that three detectors can be used in the permanent fuel scanner system for different situations. In addition it was conclude that a number of isotopic ratios and absolute measurements could be used to predict ATR fuel burnup and cooling times. 1This work was supported by the U.S. Depart¬ment of Energy (DOE) under Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC Contract No. DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  2. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  3. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Libyan oil pipe scale using a germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A. S.; Shutt, A. L.; Regan, P. H.; Matthews, M. C.; Alsulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive scale formation in various oil production facilities is acknowledged to pose a potential significant health and environmental issue. The presence of such an issue in Libyan oil fields was recognized as early as 1998. The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) involved in this matter are radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) and their decay products, precipitating into scales formed on the surfaces of production equipment. A field trip to a number of onshore Libyan oil fields has indicated the existence of elevated levels of specific activity in a number of locations in some of the more mature oil fields. In this study, oil scale samples collected from different parts of Libya have been characterized using gamma spectroscopy through use of a well shielded HPGe spectrometer. To avoid potential alpha-bearing dust inhalation and in accord with safe working practices at this University, the samples, contained in plastic bags and existing in different geometries, are not permitted to be opened. MCNP, a Monte Carlo simulation code, is being used to simulate the spectrometer and the scale samples in order to obtain the system absolute efficiency and then to calculate sample specific activities. The samples are assumed to have uniform densities and homogeneously distributed activity. Present results are compared to two extreme situations that were assumed in a previous study: (i) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface proximal to the detector, simulating the sample lowest activity, and; (ii) with the entire activity concentrated at a point on the sample surface distal to the detector, simulating the sample highest activity.

  4. Continuum Background in Space-Borne Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Larry G.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Starr, Richard; Boyton, William V.; Bailey, S.

    The background measured with space-borne gamma-ray spectrometers (GRS) in the 100 keV-10 MeV energy region consists of both discrete lines and continuum. The discrete lines originate in the decay of radioactive species. The continuum originates from a number of different processes and can be an important factor in the detection, for example, of weak gamma-ray lines from a planetary surface. Measurements of the gamma-ray background have been made during the cruise portion of a number of planetary missions. The three missions described here are the Apollo 15 and 16 missions each of which carried a 7 cm x 7 cm NaI scintillation detector, the Mars Observer (MO) mission which used a 5.5 cm X 5.5 cm high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the Near Earth Rendezvous Asteroid (NEAR) mission that has a 2.54 cm x 7.6 cm NaI detector. A comparison of the intensity and spectral shape of these background spectra can be useful to help understand how these backgrounds vary with spacecraft size, detector position, and detector size. The use of shields to reduce the background components on these three missions is a test of the effectiveness of different shield designs.

  5. MS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  6. Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.

    2011-05-25

    Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

  7. Ionization-based detectors for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2015-11-20

    The gas phase ionization detectors are the most widely used detectors for gas chromatography. The column and makeup gases commonly used in gas chromatography are near perfect insulators. This facilitates the detection of a minute number of charge carriers facilitating the use of ionization mechanisms of low efficiency while providing high sensitivity. The main ionization mechanism discussed in this report are combustion in a hydrogen diffusion flame (flame ionization detector), surface ionization in a plasma (thermionic ionization detector), photon ionization (photoionization detector and pulsed discharge helium ionization detector), attachment of thermal electrons (electron-capture detector), and ionization by collision with metastable helium species (helium ionization detector). The design, response characteristics, response mechanism, and suitability for fast gas chromatography are the main features summarized in this report. Mass spectrometric detection and atomic emission detection, which could be considered as ionization detectors of a more sophisticated and complex design, are not discussed in this report.

  8. Analysis of Cadmium Based Neutron Detector Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Brian; Rees, Lawrence; Czirr, J. Bart

    2012-10-01

    Due to national security concerns pertaining to the smuggling of special nuclear materials and a small supply of He-3 for use in neutron detectors, there is currently a need for a new kind of neutron detector. Using Monte Carlo techniques I have studied the neutron capture efficiency of an array of cadmium wedge detectors in the presence of a californium source. By using varying numbers of wedges and comparing their capture ratios we will be better able to design future detectors.

  9. Intruder Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The shadowy prowler is attempting a break-in, unaware that his presence has already been detected and reported by the device in the lower left corner of the photo. It is part of a three-element ntruder Detecti on System developed by NASA's Ames Research Center from technology acquired in the Apollo lunar exploration program. Apollo astronauts left behind on the moon small portable seismic (shock) detectors to record subsurface vibrations and transmit to Earth data on the moon's density and thickness. A similar seismic detector is the key component of the lntruder Detection System. Encased in a stainless steel tube, the detector is implanted in the ground outside the facility being protected-home, bank, industrial or other facilities. The vibration-sensing detector picks up the footstep of anyone within a preset range. The detector is connected by cable to the transmitter, which relays the warning to a portable radio receiver. The radio alerts plant guards or home occupants by emitting an audible tone burst for each footstep.

  10. Pyroelectric detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Eugene E.; Beeman, Jeffrey; Hansen, William L.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The multi-agency, long-term Global Change programs, and specifically NASA's Earth Observing system, will require some new and advanced photon detector technology which must be specifically tailored for long-term stability, broad spectral range, cooling constraints, and other parameters. Whereas MCT and GaAs alloy based photovoltaic detectors and detector arrays reach most impressive results to wavelengths as long as 12 microns when cooled to below 70 K, other materials, such as ferroelectrics and pyroelectrics, appear to offer special opportunities beyond 12 microns and above 70 K. These materials have found very broad use in a wide variety of room temperature applications. Little is known about these classes of materials at sub-room temperatures and no photon detector results have been reported. From the limited information available, researchers conclude that the room temperature values of D asterisk greater than or equal to 10(exp 9) cm Hz(exp 1/2)/W may be improved by one to two orders of magnitude upon cooling to temperatures around 70 K. Improvements of up to one order of magnitude appear feasible for temperatures achievable by passive cooling. The flat detector response over a wavelength range reaching from the visible to beyond 50 microns, which is an intrinsic advantage of bolometric devices, makes for easy calibration. The fact that these materials have been developed for reduced temperature applications makes ferro- and pyroelectric materials most attractive candidates for serious exploration.

  11. MAMA Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

  12. PHASE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kippenhan, D.O.

    1959-09-01

    A phase detector circuit is described for use at very high frequencies of the order of 50 megacycles. The detector circuit includes a pair of rectifiers inverted relative to each other. One voltage to be compared is applied to the two rectifiers in phase opposition and the other voltage to be compared is commonly applied to the two rectifiers. The two result:ng d-c voltages derived from the rectifiers are combined in phase opposition to produce a single d-c voltage having amplitude and polarity characteristics dependent upon the phase relation between the signals to be compared. Principal novelty resides in the employment of a half-wave transmission line to derive the phase opposing signals from the first voltage to be compared for application to the two rectifiers in place of the transformer commonly utilized for such purpose in phase detector circuits for operation at lower frequency.

  13. Resistor-less charge sensitive amplifier for semiconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelczar, K.; Panas, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new concept of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier without a high-value resistor in the feedback loop is presented. Basic spectroscopic parameters of the amplifier coupled to a coaxial High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) are discussed. The amplifier signal input is realized with an n-channel J-FET transistor. The feedback capacitor is discharged continuously by the second, forward biased n-channel J-FET, driven by an RC low-pass filter. Both the analog-with a standard spectroscopy amplifier and a multi-channel analyzer-and the digital-by applying a Flash Analog to Digital Converter-signal readouts were tested. The achieved resolution in the analog and the digital readouts was 0.17% and 0.21%, respectively, at the Full Width at Half Maximum of the registered 60Co 1332.5 keV gamma line.

  14. Hydrogen detector

    DOEpatents

    Kanegae, Naomichi; Ikemoto, Ichiro

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  15. Microwave detector

    SciTech Connect

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1986-12-02

    A detector is described for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations, the detector comprising: a B-dot loop linking the magnetic field of the microwave pulse; a biased ferrite, that produces a magnetization field flux that links the B-dot loop. The ferrite is positioned within the B-dot loop so that the magnetic field of the microwave pulse interacts with the ferrite and thereby participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux; and high-frequency insensitive means for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop.

  16. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  17. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  18. Silicon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    The use of silicon detectors has experienced an exponential growth in accelerator and space based experiments, similar to trends in the semiconductor industry as a whole, usually paraphrased as ``Moore's Law.'' Some of the essentials for this phenomenon will be presented, together with examples of the exciting science results which it enabled. With the establishment of a ``semiconductor culture'' in universities and laboratories around the world, an increased understanding of the sensors results in thinner, faster, more radiation-resistant detectors, spawning an amazing wealth of new technologies and applications, which will be the main subject of the presentation.

  19. MCP detector development for use in Nab detector characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Wolfgang; Nab Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The ``Nab'' collaboration will perform a precise measurement of the neutron beta decay parameters ``a'' and ``b'', which constitutes a test for physics beyond the standard model. The experiment makes use of the fundamental physics cold neutron beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beam Line. This experiment requires very efficient and precise detection of low energy (30 keV) protons with large area Si detectors. To this end, a 30 keV proton source has been built at the University of Manitoba to characterize the Si detector with respect to a custom large area (150mm x 150mm) microchannel plate detector, with know detection efficiency. This poster will present the development of the microchannel plate detector, the theory behind its operation, and its implementation at the University of Manitoba.

  20. Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2003-12-03

    High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Spectroscopic Detectors for LEU Hold-up Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Nutter, Greg; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2016-12-06

    The hold-up measurement of low enriched uranium materials may require use of alternate detector types relative to the measurement of highly enriched uranium. This is in part due to the difference in process scale (i.e., the components are generally larger for low enriched uranium systems) but also because the characteristic gamma-ray lines from 235U used for assay of highly enriched uranium will be present at a much reduced intensity (on a per gram of uranium basis) at lower enrichments. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory examined the performance of several standard detector types, e.g., NaI(Tl), LaBr3(Ce), and HPGe, to select a suitable candidate for measuring and quantifying low enriched uranium hold-up in process pipes and equipment at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant. Detector characteristics, such as energy resolution (full width at half maximum) and net peak count rates at gamma ray energies spanning a range of 60–1332 keV, were measured for the above-mentioned detector types using the same sources and in the same geometry. Uranium enrichment standards (Certified Reference Material no. 969 and Certified Reference Material no. 146) were measured using each of the detector candidates in the same geometry. The net count rates recorded by each detector at 186 keV and 1,001 keV were plotted as a function of enrichment (atom percentage). Background measurements were made in unshielded and shielded configurations under both ambient and elevated conditions of 238U activity. The highly enriched uranium hold-up measurement campaign at the Portsmouth plant was performed on process equipment that had been cleaned out. Therefore, in most cases, the thickness of the uranium deposits was less than the “infinite thickness” for the 186 keV gamma rays to be completely self-attenuated. Because of this, in addition to measuring the 186 keV gamma, the 1,001 keV gamma ray from 234mPa—a daughter of 238U in secular

  2. Vertex detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

  3. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  4. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  5. The Watchman Detector Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dazeley, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The Watchman collaboration is proposing a kiloton scale antineutrino detector of reactor-based antineutrinos for non-proliferation purposes. As an added bonus the detector will also have the capability to search for evidence of sterile neutrino oscillation, super-nova antineutrinos and, in a second phase, measure the neutrino mass hierarchy. Despite that fact that KamLAND demonstrated the feasibility of kiloton scale, long distance antineutrino detection with liquid scintillator, similar detectors at the megaton scale remain problematic for environmental, cost and light attenuation reasons. Water, with gadolinium added for neutron sensitivity, may be the detection medium of choice if its efficiency can be shown to be competitive with scintillator. The goal of the Watchman project, therefore, is to demonstrate medium distance reactor antineutrino detection, and thus demonstrate the feasibility of moving to water-based megaton scale antineutrino detectors in the future. In this talk I will describe the scope of the experiment, the physics and engineering challenges involved, the proposed design and the predicted performance of the experimental non-proliferation and high-energy physics program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-648381.

  6. Flame Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

  7. Angle detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parra, G. T. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An angle detector for determining a transducer's angular disposition to a capacitive pickup element is described. The transducer comprises a pendulum mounted inductive element moving past the capacitive pickup element. The capacitive pickup element divides the inductive element into two parts L sub 1 and L sub 2 which form the arms of one side of an a-c bridge. Two networks R sub 1 and R sub 2 having a plurality of binary weighted resistors and an equal number of digitally controlled switches for removing resistors from the networks form the arms of the other side of the a-c bridge. A binary counter, controlled by a phase detector, balances the bridge by adjusting the resistance of R sub 1 and R sub 2. The binary output of the counter is representative of the angle.

  8. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  9. Determination of ionisation chamber collection efficiency in a swept electron beam by means of thermoluminescent detectors and the "two-voltage" method.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, J; Rijnders, A; Ang, K K; Mellaerts, M; Grobet, P

    1985-06-01

    Two methods for determining the collection efficiency of a 0.6 cm3 thimble ionisation chamber exposed to the swept electron beam of a linear accelerator Therac 20 Saturne (CGR MeV) have been compared. In one method the chamber signal has been compared to that of simultaneously exposed thermoluminescent LiF dosemeters (TLD), in the other the "two-voltage" method of Boag, adapted for swept beams, has been used. By variation of the electron energy between 20 and 13 MeV, of the focus-skin-distance (FSD) between 200 and 100 cm and of the monitor rate between 400 monitor units (m.u.) and 100 m.u. per minute, different values could be produced for the peak charge density M. The collection efficiency of the chamber, operating at a standard voltage of 250 V, decreases from 0.99 to 0.84 for a charge density increasing from 0.3 X 10(-4) C/m3 to 7.5 X 10(-4) C/m3, respectively. The maximum deviation observed between the TLD and the "two-voltage" method adopted for similar M is never more than 2% and mostly smaller than 1%. It can be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, the calculated ionisation chamber collection efficiency is confirmed by the experimental method using TL dosimetry.

  10. Terahertz sources and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

    2005-05-01

    Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

  11. A new gamma-ray detector, 3-dimension, fast scanning table for pulse-shape analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsz, M.; Duchene, G.; Didierjean, F.; Filliger, M.; Sigward, M.-H.; Pirard, B.

    2015-07-01

    The state-of-the art gamma-ray spectrometers such as AGATA and GRETA are using position sensitive multi-segmented HPGe crystals. Pulse-shape analysis (PSA) allows to retrieve the localisation of the gamma interactions and to perform gamma-ray tracking within germanium. The precision of the localisation depends on the quality of the pulse-shape database used for comparison. The IPHC laboratory developed a new fast scanning table allowing to measure experimental pulse shapes in the whole volume of any crystal. The results of the scan of an AGATA 36-fold segmented tapered coaxial detector are shown here, 48580 experimental pulse shapes are extracted within 2 weeks of scanning. These data will contribute to AGATA PSA performances, but have also applications for gamma cameras or Compton-suppressed detectors. (authors)

  12. New class of neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  13. Detectors for the SIMURIS payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchett, B. E.; Carter, M. K.; Read, P. D.

    1992-05-01

    Detectors for the Solar Ultraviolet Network (SUN) and Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) instruments, which are particularly challenging due to the requirements for high total count rate, high pixel count rate, and far UV sensitivity, are discussed. Count rates are exceptionally high for active regions, but with a spatial resolution of 0.001 inches it is also possible that high individual pixel counts will occur even on 'quiet' Sun observations. On the other hand it is planned to use the Solar Interferometric Mission for Ultrahigh Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy (SIMURIS) for planetary observations where the detectors will be required to work efficiently and with very low noise levels. It seems unlikely that any one detector would suffice for all channels, and in any case this could potentially represent a single point of failure. The design and performance of a range of modular detectors which are built specifically with solar UV observing in mind are discussed along with plans for their future development.

  14. THE 15 LAYER SILICON DRIFT DETECTOR TRACKER IN EXPERIMENT 896.

    SciTech Connect

    PANDY,S.U.

    1998-11-08

    Large linear silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for use in several experiments. Recently 15 detectors were used as a tracking device in BNL-AGS heavy ion experiment (E896). The detectors were successfully operated in a 6.2 T magnetic field. The behavior of the detectors, such as drift uniformity, resolution, and charge collection efficiency are presented. The effect of the environment on the detector performance is discussed. Some results from the experimental run are presented. The detectors performed well in an experimental environment. This is the first tracking application of these detectors.

  15. How noise affects quantum detector tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q. Renema, J. J.; Exter, M. P.van; Dood, M. J. A. de; Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.

    2015-10-07

    We determine the full photon number response of a NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detector via quantum detector tomography, and the results show the separation of linear, effective absorption efficiency from the internal detection efficiencies. In addition, we demonstrate an error budget for the complete quantum characterization of the detector. We find that for short times, the dominant noise source is shot noise, while laser power fluctuations limit the accuracy for longer timescales. The combined standard uncertainty of the internal detection efficiency derived from our measurements is about 2%.

  16. New preshower detector for the DIRAC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentia, M.; Aogaki, S.; Dumitriu, D.; Fluerasu, D.; Gugiu, M.; Yazkov, V.

    2015-09-01

    The Preshower (PSh) detector [1] is a component of the DIRAC setup [2]. It is designed to identify and reject the huge e-e+ pairs background in the ππ and Kπ pairs measurement produced in a hadronic atom ionization process. In the high energy region used for kaon detection, the small Nitrogen Cherenkov detector has low electron rejection efficiency. To increase the overall efficiency, a new two-layer scintillator Preshower detector has been developed and built. The new Preshower-Cherenkov combination ensures an electron rejection efficiency better than 99% in the momentum range 1-7 GeV/c.

  17. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  18. The ROSAT WFC imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Sansom, A. E.

    1990-11-01

    Results of the calibration program performed on flight and flight-spare detectors for the Rosat Wide Field Camera (WFC) are presented. The result of an accelerated life test on a development model detector assembled to flight standard are summarized. Imaging tests demonstrate that the lookup table technique for removing distortion works efficiency with low differential nonlinearity. No undesirable 'chicken wire' effects are seen in the images, and the detector resolution matches the on-axis performance of the telescope and is constant across the field of view. Peaks in efficiency occur at 10.2, 20, and 100 eV and mimima at 13 and 45 eV. The secondary 13 eV minimum is correlated with the onset of two-electron photoemission. The mean change in gain as a function of photon energy in the EUV band is much less rapid than in the soft X-ray band.

  19. Oscillator detector

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-05-13

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

  20. Efficiency corrections in determining the (137)Cs inventory of environmental soil samples by using relative measurement method and GEANT4 simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Liang, Yongfei; Xu, Jiayun; Bai, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    The determination of (137)Cs inventory is widely used to estimate the soil erosion or deposition rate. The generally used method to determine the activity of volumetric samples is the relative measurement method, which employs a calibration standard sample with accurately known activity. This method has great advantages in accuracy and operation only when there is a small difference in elemental composition, sample density and geometry between measuring samples and the calibration standard. Otherwise it needs additional efficiency corrections in the calculating process. The Monte Carlo simulations can handle these correction problems easily with lower financial cost and higher accuracy. This work presents a detailed description to the simulation and calibration procedure for a conventionally used commercial P-type coaxial HPGe detector with cylindrical sample geometry. The effects of sample elemental composition, density and geometry were discussed in detail and calculated in terms of efficiency correction factors. The effect of sample placement was also analyzed, the results indicate that the radioactive nuclides and sample density are not absolutely uniform distributed along the axial direction. At last, a unified binary quadratic functional relationship of efficiency correction factors as a function of sample density and height was obtained by the least square fitting method. This function covers the sample density and height range of 0.8-1.8 g/cm(3) and 3.0-7.25 cm, respectively. The efficiency correction factors calculated by the fitted function are in good agreement with those obtained by the GEANT4 simulations with the determination coefficient value greater than 0.9999. The results obtained in this paper make the above-mentioned relative measurements more accurate and efficient in the routine radioactive analysis of environmental cylindrical soil samples.

  1. Neutron detector characterization for SCINTIA array

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, C.; Hambsch, F. J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2011-07-01

    SCINTIA is a new detector array of organic scintillators under development at the Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). The present design of SCINTIA includes NE213, p-terphenyl and Li glass neutron detectors positioned in a spherical configuration around the target. The properties of a novel p-terphenyl neutron detector to be used with SCINTIA have been investigated using photon sources and neutrons from a time tagged {sup 252}Cf(sf) source. The results show that the p-terphenyl crystal has better energy resolution, increased proton light output and neutron efficiency when compared to a similar size NE213 equivalent neutron detector. (authors)

  2. Detector requirements for space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for background-limited (BLIP) detectors are discussed in terms of number of photons falling on each pixel, dark current, high detective quantum efficiencies, large numbers of pixels, and array size.

  3. High precision thermal neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B.

    1994-12-31

    Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

  4. The EXO-200 detector, part I: detector design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bartoszek, L.; Baussan, E.; Beauchamp, E.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Chauhan, D.; Cleveland, B.; Conley, R.; Cook, J.; Cook, S.; Coppens, A.; Craddock, W.; Daniels, T.; Davis, C. G.; Davis, J.; deVoe, R.; Dobi, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Franco, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hagemann, C.; Hall, C.; Hall, K.; Hargrove, C.; Herrin, S.; Hodgson, J.; Hughes, M.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kirk, J.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Leonard, F.; LePort, F.; Mackay, D.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M.; Merkle, K.; Mong, B.; Montero Díez, M.; Müller, A. R.; Neilson, R.; Odian, A.; O'Sullivan, K.; Ouellet, C.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Prescott, C. Y.; Pushkin, K.; Rivas, A.; Rollin, E.; Rowson, P. C.; Sabourov, A.; Sinclair, D.; Skarpaas, K.; Slutsky, S.; Stekhanov, V.; Strickland, V.; Swift, M.; Tosi, D.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wichoski, U.; Wodin, J.; Wright, J. D.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.

    2012-05-01

    EXO-200 is an experiment designed to search for double beta decay of 136Xe with a single-phase, liquid xenon detector. It uses an active mass of 110 kg of xenon enriched to 80.6% in the isotope 136 in an ultra-low background time projection chamber capable of simultaneous detection of ionization and scintillation. This paper describes the EXO-200 detector with particular attention to the most innovative aspects of the design that revolve around the reduction of backgrounds, the efficient use of the expensive isotopically enriched xenon, and the optimization of the energy resolution in a relatively large volume.

  5. Testing and Characterization of SuperCDMS Dark Matter Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) relies on collection of phonons and charge carriers in semiconductors held at tens of milliKelvin as handles for detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). This thesis begins with a brief overview of the direct dark matter search (Chapter 1) and SuperCDMS detectors (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, a 3He evaporative refrigerator facility is described. Results from experiments performed in-house at Stanford to measure carrier transport in high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals operated at sub-Kelvin temperatures are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5 a new numerical model and a time-domain optimal filtering technique are presented, both developed for use with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), that provide excellent event reconstruction for single particle interactions in detectors read out with superconducting W-TESs coupled to energy-collecting films of Al. This thesis is not intended to be read straight through. For those new to CDMS or dark matter searches, the first two chapters are meant to be a gentle introduction for experimentalists. They are by no means exhaustive. The remaining chapters each stand alone, with different audiences.

  6. Southwest Research Institute intensified detector development capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Erik; Vincent, Michael; Kofoed, Christopher; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Judith; Siegmund, Oswald

    2012-09-01

    Imaging detectors for wavelengths between 10 nm and 105 nm generally rely on microchannel plates (MCPs) to provide photon detection (via the photo-electric effect) and charge amplification. This is because silicon-based detectors (CCD or APS) have near zero quantum detection efficiency (QDE) over this wavelength regime. Combining a MCP based intensifier tube with a silicon detector creates a detector system that can be tuned to the wavelength regime of interest for a variety of applications. Intensified detectors are used in a variety of scientific (e.g. Solar Physics) and commercial applications (spectroscopic test instrumentation, night vision goggles, low intensity cameras, etc.). Building an intensified detector requires the mastery of a variety of technologies involved in integrating and testing of these detector systems. We report on an internally funded development program within the Southwest Research Institute to architect, design, integrate, and test intensified imaging detectors for space-based applications. Through a rigorous hardware program the effort is developing and maturing the technologies necessary to build and test a large format (2k × 2k) UV intensified CCD detector. The intensified CCD is designed around a commercially available CCD that is optically coupled to a UV Intensifier Tube from Sensor Sciences, LLC. The program aims to demonstrate, through hardware validation, the ability to architect and execute the integration steps necessary to produce detector systems suitable for space-based applications.

  7. SVX{prime}, the new CDF silicon vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cihangir, S.; Gillespie, G.; Gonzalez, H.

    1994-08-26

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) radiation hardened silicon vertex detector (SVX{prime}) is described. The new detector has several improvements over its predecessor such as better signal to noise and higher efficiency. It`s expected to have a radiation tolerance in excess of 1 Mrad. It has been taking data for several months and some preliminary results are shown.

  8. Waste Characterization Using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Automated Efficiency Optimization - 13404

    SciTech Connect

    Bosko, A.; Venkataraman, R.; Bronson, F.L.; Ilie, G.; Russ, W.R.

    2013-07-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors is commonly employed in assaying radioactive waste streams from a variety of sources: nuclear power plants, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, medical facilities, decontamination and decommissioning activities etc. The radioactive material is typically packaged in boxes or drums (for e.g. B-25 boxes or 208 liter drums) and assayed to identify and quantify radionuclides. Depending on the origin of the waste stream, the radionuclides could be special nuclear materials (SNM), fission products, or activation products. Efficiency calibration of the measurement geometry is a critical step in the achieving accurate quantification of radionuclide content. Due to the large size of the waste items, it is impractical and expensive to manufacture gamma ray standard sources for performing a measurement based calibration. For well over a decade, mathematical efficiency methods such as those in Canberra's In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) have been successfully employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based waste assay systems. In the traditional ISOCS based calibrations, the user provides input data such as the dimensions of the waste item, the average density and fill height of the matrix, and matrix composition. As in measurement based calibrations, the user typically defines a homogeneous matrix with a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Actual waste containers can be quite nonuniform, however. Such simplifying assumptions in the efficiency calibration could lead to a large Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), thus limiting the amount of waste that can be disposed of as intermediate or low activity level waste. To improve the accuracy of radionuclide quantification, and reduce the TMU, Canberra has developed the capability to optimize the efficiency calibration using the ISOCS method. The optimization is based on benchmarking the efficiency shape and magnitude to the data available in the

  9. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Future of Semiconductor Based Thermal Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, R J; Cheung, C L; Reinhardt, C E; Wang, T F

    2006-02-22

    Thermal neutron detectors have seen only incremental improvements over the last decades. In this paper we overview the current technology of choice for thermal neutron detection--{sup 3}He tubes, which suffer from, moderate to poor fieldability, and low absolute efficiency. The need for improved neutron detection is evident due to this technology gap and the fact that neutrons are a highly specific indicator of fissile material. Recognizing this need, we propose to exploit recent advances in microfabrication technology for building the next generation of semiconductor thermal neutron detectors for national security requirements, for applications requiring excellent fieldability of small devices. We have developed an innovative pathway taking advantage of advanced processing and fabrication technology to produce the proposed device. The crucial advantage of our Pillar Detector is that it can simultaneously meet the requirements of high efficiency and fieldability in the optimized configuration, the detector efficiency could be higher than 70%.

  11. Microwave characteristics of GaAs MMIC integratable optical detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claspy, Paul C.; Hill, Scott M.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1989-01-01

    Interdigitated photoconductive detectors were fabricated on microwave device structures, making them easily integratable with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC). Detector responsivity as high as 2.5 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 3.81 were measured. Response speed was nearly independent of electrode geometry, and all detectors had usable response at frequencies to 6 GHz. A small signal model of the detectors based on microwave measurements was also developed.

  12. PAU camera: detectors characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

  13. SU-E-I-62: Assessing Radiation Dose Reduction and CT Image Optimization Through the Measurement and Analysis of the Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CT Images Using Different Beam Hardening Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a

  14. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  15. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  16. Ultraviolet imaging detectors for the GOLD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J.; Curtis, T.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J.; Tedesco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The GOLD mission is a NASA Explorer class ultraviolet Earth observing spectroscopy instrument that will be flown on a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit in 2018. Microchannel plate detectors operating in the 132 nm to 162 nm FUV bandpass with 2D imaging cross delay line readouts and electronics have been built for each of the two spectrometer channels for GOLD. The detectors are "open face" with CsI photocathodes, providing 30% efficiency at 130.4 nm and 15% efficiency at 160.8 nm. These detectors with their position encoding electronics provide 600 x 500 FWHM resolution elements and are photon counting, with event handling rates of > 200 KHz. The operational details of the detectors and their performance are discussed.

  17. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Coop, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Detector Simulations for the COREA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Kang, Hyesung

    2006-12-01

    The COREA (COsmic ray Research and Education Array in Korea) project aims to build a ground array of particle detectors distributed over the Korean Peninsular, through collaborations of high school students, educators, and university researchers, in order to study the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays. COREA array will consist of about 2000 detector stations covering several hundreds of km2 area at its final configuration and detect electrons and muons in extensive air-showers triggered by high energy particles. During the initial pase COREA array will start with a small number of detector stations in Seoul area schools. In this paper, we have studied by Monte Carlo simulations how to select detector sites for optimal detection efficiency for proton triggered air-showers. We considered several model clusters with up to 30 detector stations and calculated the effective number of air-shower events that can be detected per year for each cluster. The greatest detection efficiency is achieved when the mean distance between detector stations of a cluster is comparable to the effective radius of the air-shower of a given proton energy. We find the detection efficiency of a cluster with randomly selected detector sites is comparable to that of clusters with uniform detector spacing. We also considered a hybrid cluster with 60 detector stations that combines a small cluster with Δl ≈ 100 m and a large cluster with Δl ≈ 1 km. We suggest that it can be an ideal configuration for the initial phase study of the COREA project, since it can measure the cosmic rays with a wide energy range, i.e., 1016eV ≤E ≤ 1019eV, with a reasonable detection rate.

  19. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  20. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    DOEpatents

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  1. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  2. LGB neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    The double pulse signature of the Gadolinium Lithium Borate Cerium doped plastic detector suggests its effectiveness for analyzing neutrons while providing gamma ray insensitivity. To better understand this detector, a californium gamma/neutron time of flight facility was constructed in our lab. Reported here are efforts to understand the properties and applications of the LGB detector with regards to neutron spectroscopy.

  3. Noise performance of the D0 layer 0 silicon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    A new inner detector called Layer 0 has been added to the existing silicon detector for the DZero colliding beams experiment. This detector has an all carbon fiber support structure that employs thin copper clad Kapton sheets embedded in the surface of the carbon fiber structure to improve the grounding of the structure and a readout system that fully isolates the local detector ground from the rest of the detector. Initial measurements show efficiencies greater than 90% and 0.3 ADC count common mode contribution to the signal noise.

  4. Randomized SUSAN edge detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Ping; Gao, Ying-Hui; Wang, Peng

    2011-11-01

    A speed up technique for the SUSAN edge detector based on random sampling is proposed. Instead of sliding the mask pixel by pixel on an image as the SUSAN edge detector does, the proposed scheme places the mask randomly on pixels to find edges in the image; we hereby name it randomized SUSAN edge detector (R-SUSAN). Specifically, the R-SUSAN edge detector adopts three approaches in the framework of random sampling to accelerate a SUSAN edge detector: procedure integration of response computation and nonmaxima suppression, reduction of unnecessary processing for obvious nonedge pixels, and early termination. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Detector developments at DESY.

    PubMed

    Wunderer, Cornelia B; Allahgholi, Aschkan; Bayer, Matthias; Bianco, Laura; Correa, Jonathan; Delfs, Annette; Göttlicher, Peter; Hirsemann, Helmut; Jack, Stefanie; Klyuev, Alexander; Lange, Sabine; Marras, Alessandro; Niemann, Magdalena; Pithan, Florian; Reza, Salim; Sheviakov, Igor; Smoljanin, Sergej; Tennert, Maximilian; Trunk, Ulrich; Xia, Qingqing; Zhang, Jiaguo; Zimmer, Manfred; Das, Dipayan; Guerrini, Nicola; Marsh, Ben; Sedgwick, Iain; Turchetta, Renato; Cautero, Giuseppe; Giuressi, Dario; Menk, Ralf; Khromova, Anastasiya; Pinaroli, Giovanni; Stebel, Luigi; Marchal, Julien; Pedersen, Ulrik; Rees, Nick; Steadman, Paul; Sussmuth, Mark; Tartoni, Nicola; Yousef, Hazem; Hyun, HyoJung; Kim, KyungSook; Rah, Seungyu; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Mezza, Davide; Mozzanica, Aldo; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Krueger, Hans; Klanner, Robert; Schwandt, Joem; Graafsma, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon sensitivity with low probability of false positives and (multi)-megapixels. At DESY, one ongoing development project - in collaboration with RAL/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory - is the CMOS-based soft X-ray imager PERCIVAL. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active-pixel sensor back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 cm × 10 cm, 3.5k × 3.7k monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within 27 µm pixels to measure 1 to ∼100000 (500 eV) simultaneously arriving photons. DESY is also leading the development of the AGIPD, a high-speed detector based on hybrid pixel technology intended for use at the European XFEL. This system is being developed in collaboration with PSI, University of Hamburg, and University of Bonn. The AGIPD allows single-pulse imaging at 4.5 MHz frame rate into a 352-frame buffer, with a dynamic range allowing single-photon detection and detection of more than 10000 photons at 12.4 keV in the same image. Modules of 65k pixels each are configured to make up (multi)megapixel cameras. This review describes the AGIPD and the PERCIVAL concepts and systems, including some recent results and a summary of their current status. It also gives a short overview over other FEL-relevant developments where the Photon Science Detector Group at DESY is involved.

  6. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  7. Microstructured silicon neutron detectors for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, S.; Fleta, C.; Guardiola, C.; Jumilla, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Lozano, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present the design and performance of a perforated thermal neutron silicon detector with a 6LiF neutron converter. This device was manufactured within the REWARD project workplace whose aim is to develop and enhance technologies for the detection of nuclear and radiological materials. The sensor perforated structure results in a higher efficiency than that obtained with an equivalent planar sensor. The detectors were tested in a thermal neutron beam at the nuclear reactor at the Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon and the intrinsic detection efficiency for thermal neutrons and the gamma sensitivity were obtained. The Geant4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the experimental conditions, i.e. thermal neutron beam and the whole detector geometry. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 8.6%±0.4% with a discrimination setting of 450 keV was measured.

  8. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, B.; Gascón, M.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Bendel, M.; Bloch, T.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I.; Fiori, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; González, D.; Kröll, T.; Le Bleis, T.; Montes, N.; Nácher, E.; Robles, M.; Perea, A.; Vilán, J. A.; Winkel, M.

    2013-11-01

    Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R3B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300 MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator - photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma-ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations.

  9. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, Gabriella; Denes, Peter; Gruener, Sol; Lessner, Elianne

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  10. The orbital TUS detector simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, V.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shirokov, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Yashin, I.

    2017-04-01

    The TUS space experiment is aimed at studying energy and arrival distribution of UHECR at E > 7 × 1019 eV by using the data of EAS fluorescent radiation in atmosphere. The TUS mission was launched at the end of April 2016 on board the dedicated ;Lomonosov; satellite. The TUSSIM software package has been developed to simulate performance of the TUS detector for the Fresnel mirror optical parameters, the light concentrator of the photo detector, the front end and trigger electronics. Trigger efficiency crucially depends on the background level which varies in a wide range: from 0.2 × 106 to 15 × 106 ph/(m2 μ s sr) at moonless and full moon nights respectively. The TUSSIM algorithms are described and the expected TUS statistics is presented for 5 years of data collection from the 500 km solar-synchronized orbit with allowance for the variability of the background light intensity during the space flight.

  11. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  12. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  13. AD, the ALICE diffractive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Abraham Villatoro

    2017-03-01

    ALICE is one of the four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a complement to its Heavy-Ion physics program, ALICE started during Run 1 of LHC an extensive program dedicated to the study of proton-proton diffractive processes. In order to optimize its trigger efficiencies and purities in selecting diffractive events, the ALICE Collaboration installed a very forward AD detector during the Long Shut Down 1 of LHC. This new forward detector system consists of two stations made of two layers of scintillator pads, one station on each side of the interaction point. With this upgrade, ALICE has substantially increased its forward physics coverage, including the double rapidity gap based selection of central production, as well as the measurements of inclusive diffractive cross sections.

  14. Plastic neutron detectors.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in

  15. Explosives (and other threats) detection using pulsed neutron interrogation and optimized detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strellis, Dan A.; Elsalim, Mashal; Gozani, Tsahi

    2011-06-01

    We have previously reported results from a human-portable system using neutron interrogation to detect contraband and explosives. We summarized our methodology for distinguishing threat materials such as narcotics, C4, and mustard gas in the myriad of backgrounds present in the maritime environment. We are expanding our mission for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) through the detection of multiple fission signatures without compromising the conventional threat detection performance. This paper covers our initial investigations into using neutrons from compact pulsed neutron generators via the d(D,n)3He or d(T,n)α reactions with energies of ~2.5 and 14 MeV, respectively, for explosives (and other threats) detection along with a variety of gamma-ray detectors. Fast neutrons and thermal neutrons (after successive collisions) can stimulate the emission of various threat detection signatures. For explosives detection, element-specific gamma-ray signatures via the (n,n'γ) inelastic scattering reaction and the (n,'γ) thermal capture reaction are detected. For SNM, delayed gamma-rays following fission can be measured with the same detector. Our initial trade-off investigations of several gamma-ray detectors types (NaI, CsI, LaBr3, HPGe) for measuring gamma-ray signatures in a pulsed neutron environment for potential application in a human-portable active interrogation system are covered in this paper.

  16. Characterization of PPC Detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Using a Scanning Collimated Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rager, Jamin; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a 76Ge double-beta decay experiment located at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) that boasts cutting edge sensitivity and low backgrounds. I report on recent work measuring how charge drift-times vary with respect to the vertical and azimuthal position of physics events within a single-crystal HPGe detector used in the DEMONSTRATOR. Understanding these variations will allow for position reconstruction of physics events and identification of the detector's crystal axis, the latter of which will increase the detector's sensitivity to coherently-scattered Primakoff solar axions. Drift-time data was collected with an automated scanning station located at SURF, which used a 133Ba source to create a beam of collimated 81keV gamma-rays. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to fit the data to a set of models for comparison to ongoing work in pulse-shape simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  17. Characteristics of signals originating near the lithium-diffused N+ contact of high purity germanium p-type point contact detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2012-11-09

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Furthermore, experiments that operate germanium detectors with a verymore » low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.« less

  18. Characteristics of signals originating near the lithium-diffused N+ contact of high purity germanium p-type point contact detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, P. J.; Beene, J. R.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Collar, J. I.; Combs, D. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Esterline, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gehman, V. M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Horton, M.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; Looker, Q.; Luke, P. N.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, M. G.; Martin, R. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, L.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R.; Perumpilly, G.; Phillips, D. G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Steele, D.; Strain, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, H.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2012-11-09

    A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Furthermore, experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.

  19. Ultracold neutron detector for neutron lifetime measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, V.; Vassiljev, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ilyin, D.; Krivshich, A.; Serebrov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The gas-filled detector of ultracold neutrons has been designed and constructed for the spectrometer of the neutron lifetime measurements at the ILL, Grenoble, France. The detector has been successfully tested and is currently being used at this spectrometer. We could show that minimization of the ;wall; effect is a key factor to ensure efficient background suppression and to maximize the detection efficiency. This effect is primarily related to the composition of the gas mixture, which crucially depends on the neutron velocity spectrum.

  20. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Wiggins, Brenden; Milburn, Rob; Burger, Arnold; Bilheux, Hassina; Santodonato, Louis; Chvala, Ondrej; Stowe, Ashley; Lukosi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, 6LiInSe2 or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of 6Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 μm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm3 LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 μm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  1. Semiconductor detectors for the ATLAS inner tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Debbie

    1998-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment currently under design for the CERN LHC contains an inner detector which tracks charged particles from the LHC beam-pipe to the electromagnetic calorimeter system. The main task is to reconstruct event tracks with high efficiency, to assist electron, photon and muon recognition and to reconstruct signatures of short-lived particles. Track densities at the LHC will be extremely large, and hence high precision measurements are required. This will be achieved using semiconductor tracking detectors, making use of silicon microstrip and pixel technology. For detectors closest to the beam interaction point the radiation levels are extremely high-up to 10 MRad. At the time of the ATLAS technical proposal, it was envisaged that gallium arsenide detectors could withstand such an environment. However, it has since become clear that GaAs is not as radiation hard as first expected, and that detectors would not perform sufficiently for the required time. In addition, progress on silicon detectors has indicated that they are able to withstand harsh radiation environments, and hence further work on silicon detectors now continues.

  2. BATSE spectroscopy detector calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Ford, L.; Matteson, J.; Lestrade, J. P.; Teegarden, B.; Schaefer, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the channel-to-energy calibration of the Spectroscopy Detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). These detectors consist of NaI(TI) crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes whose output in turn is measured by a pulse height analyzer. The calibration of these detectors has been complicated by frequent gain changes and by nonlinearities specific to the BATSE detectors. Nonlinearities in the light output from the NaI crystal and in the pulse height analyzer are shifted relative to each other by changes in the gain of the photomultiplier tube. We present the analytical model which is the basis of our calibration methodology, and outline how the empirical coefficients in this approach were determined. We also describe the complications peculiar to the Spectroscopy Detectors, and how our understanding of the detectors' operation led us to a solution to these problems.

  3. A WIMP Dark Matter Detector Using MKIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golwala, S.; Gao, J.; Moore, D.; Mazin, B.; Eckart, M.; Bumble, B.; Day, P.; Leduc, H. G.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2008-04-01

    We are pursuing the development of a phonon- and ionization-mediated WIMP dark matter detector employing microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) in the phonon-sensing channel. Prospective advantages over existing detectors include: improved reconstruction of the phonon signal and event position; simplified readout wiring and cold electronics; and simplified and more reliable fabrication. We have modeled a simple design using available MKID sensitivity data and anticipate energy resolution as good as existing phonon-mediated detectors and improved position reconstruction. We are doing preparatory experimental work by fabricating strip absorber architectures. Measurements of diffusion length, trapping efficiency, and MKID sensitivity with these devices will enable us to design a 1 cm2×2 mm prototype device to demonstrate phonon energy resolution and position reconstruction.

  4. Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

  5. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  6. Detectors (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  7. Detectors (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types used for particle tracking, energy measurement and particle identification.

  8. The vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.P.; Boissevain, J.G.; Fox, D.; Hecke, H. van; Jacak, B.V.; Kapustinsky, J.S.; Leitch, M.J.; McGaughey, P.L.; Moss, J.M.; Sondheim, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    The conceptual design of the vertex detector for the Lepton/Photon Collaboration at RHIC is described, including simulations of its expected performance. The design consists of two con- centric layers of single-sided Si strips. The expected performance as a multiplicity detector and in measuring the pseudo-rapidity ({nu}) distribution is discussed as well as the expected vertex finding efficiency and accuracy. Various options which could be used to reduce the cost of the detector are also discussed.

  9. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  10. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  11. Results on diamond timing detector for the TOTEM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, E.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the results and status of our R&D on diamond timing detectors for the TOTEM experiment at CERN. Tests with commercial devices have been done and here reported; the unsatisfactory results push us to design a new detector. We present test beams results and the front-end electronics, critical point of the design. Efficiency studies and timing performance dependence from detector capacitance will be also reported.

  12. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics: Future role of scintillation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The future role of conventional scintillation detector telescopes for line gamma-ray astronomy is discussed. Although the energy resolution of the germanium detectors now being used by several groups is clearly desirable, the larger effective areas and higher efficiencies available with scintillation detectors is advantageous for many observations. This is particularly true for those observations of astrophysical phenomena where significant line broadening is expected.

  13. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  14. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  15. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  16. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  17. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  18. High-dose neutron detector project update

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard Olsen; Henzlova, Daniela

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increased efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtain a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.

  19. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  20. Status and upgrade plans of the Belle silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, H.; Arakawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Barbero, M.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Chouvikov, A.; Choi, Y. K.; Das, A.; Dalseno, J.; Fratina, S.; Friedl, M.; Fujiyama, Y.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harrop, B.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heffernan, D.; Higuchi, T.; Hirakawa, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishino, H.; Joshi, N. K.; Kajiwara, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kameshima, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Kim, Y. J.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Marlow, D.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Nakahama, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Okuno, S.; Ono, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Schümann, J.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Tani, N.; Taylor, G. N.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ushiroda, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Ziegler, T.

    2007-12-01

    The second generation of Belle Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) has been efficiently operated for more than three years. With increasing beam-induced background, a degradation of the detector performance is expected. To avoid such a difficulty, we are planing a next upgrade, the third generation of the SVD. Currently, its design is almost finalized.

  1. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sweany, M; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Dazeley, S; Svoboda, R

    2008-11-10

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons.

  2. SCINTILLATION EXPOSURE RATE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spears, W.G.

    1960-11-01

    A radiation detector for gamma and x rays is described. The detector comprises a scintillation crystal disposed between a tantalum shield and the input of a photomultiplier tube, the crystal and the shield cooperating so that their combined response to a given quantity of radiation at various energy levels is substantially constant.

  3. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Eddy L.

    1981-01-01

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  4. Arsenic activation neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, E.L.

    1980-01-28

    A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5-MeV neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

  5. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  6. Borner Ball Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector measures neutron radiation. Neutrons are uncharged atomic particles that have the ability to penetrate living tissues, harming human beings in space. The Bonner Ball Neutron Detector is one of three radiation experiments during Expedition Two. The others are the Phantom Torso and Dosimetric Mapping.

  7. Alkali ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Hrizo, John; Bauerle, James E.; Witkowski, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

  8. Cable-splice detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.; Iufer, E. J.; Giovannetti, A.

    1980-01-01

    Detector has possible uses in aerial cable-car systems, equipment handling in mines, boreholes, and undersea operations, and other applications where moving steel cable must be measured, monitored, or controlled. Detector consists of Hall-effect magnetic sensor located close to cable. Magnetic markings on cable are converted to electrical signals. Signals are filtered, amplified, and can actuate alarm.

  9. Optical proximity detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, W. A.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Sensitive, relatively inexpensive instrument uses phase-detection techniques to sense presence of objects. Phase-sensitive detectors, LED, photodiode with response matched to LED output, and filtering lens allow detector to operate over narrow radiation band, giving selectivity over stray light.

  10. The PERDaix detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Andreas; Beischer, Bastian; Greim, Roman; Kirn, Thomas; Mai, Carsten; Yearwood, Gregorio Roper; Schael, Stefan; Schug, David; Tholen, Heiner; Wienkenhöver, Jens

    2012-12-01

    The PERDaix (Proton Electron Radiation Detector Aix-la-Chapelle) detector is designed to measure charged particles in cosmic rays. It can distinguish particle species up to 5 GV rigidity. PERDaix was flown on the BEXUS-11 balloon on 23rd November 2010. The detector has the dimensions of 246×400×859 mm3, a geometrical acceptance of 32 cm2sr, a low weight of 40 kg and a low power consumption of 60 W. The spectrometer consists of a time-of-flight system, a scintillating fiber tracking detector, a permanent magnet and a transition radiation detector. Silicon photomultipliers are used as photodetectors in the time-of-flight and the tracker system.

  11. Optimal optoacoustic detector design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengren, L.-G.

    1975-01-01

    Optoacoustic detectors are used to measure pressure changes occurring in enclosed gases, liquids, or solids being excited by intensity or frequency modulated electromagnetic radiation. Radiation absorption spectra, collisional relaxation rates, substance compositions, and reactions can be determined from the time behavior of these pressure changes. Very successful measurements of gaseous air pollutants have, for instance, been performed by using detectors of this type together with different lasers. The measuring instrument consisting of radiation source, modulator, optoacoustic detector, etc. is often called spectrophone. In the present paper, a thorough optoacoustic detector optimization analysis based upon a review of its theory of operation is introduced. New quantitative rules and suggestions explaining how to design detectors with maximal pressure responsivity and over-all sensitivity and minimal background signal are presented.

  12. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  13. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  14. SNM Detection with a Large Water Cerenkov Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dazeley, S; Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Ouedraogo, S; Svoboda, R; Sweeny, M

    2009-06-04

    Special Nuclear Material (SNM) can either spontaneously fission, or be induced to do so. Either case results in neutron emission. Since neutrons are highly penetrating and difficult to shield, they could, potentially, be detected escaping even a well shielded cargo container. Obviously, if the shielding is sophisticated, detecting it would require a highly efficient detector with close to 4{pi} solid angle coverage. Water Cerenkov detectors may be a cost effective way to achieve that goal if it can be shown that the neutron capture signature is large enough and if sufficient background rejection can be employed as detectors get larger. In 2008 the LLNL Advanced Detector Group reported the successful detection of neutrons with a 1/4 ton gadolinium doped water Cerenkov prototype. We have now built a 4 ton version. This detector is not only bigger, it was designed with photon detection efficiency in mind from the beginning. We are employing increased photocathode coverage and more reflective walls, coated with PTFE. The increased efficiency should allow better energy resolution. We expect that the better diffusive wall reflectivity will reduce the overall dependence of the detector response on particle direction, again producing a more consistent response. We also believe that as detectors get larger, both uncorrelated and correlated backgrounds due to gamma-rays and cosmic ray interactions near the detector will increase. To prove the effectiveness of the technology we must develop new ways to reject these backgrounds while maintaining our sensitivity to SNM neutrons. Better energy resolution will enable us to reject more of the low energy gamma-ray backgrounds on this basis. Overcoming cosmic ray induced neutrons is perhaps an even larger concern as detectors get larger. Our detector is designed so that we can test various segmentation schemes - effectively dividing the detector up into smaller ones. In this presentation, we will describe our detector in detail.

  15. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, G.; Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Cavenago, M.; Claps, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-04-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m2) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards the

  16. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  17. Enabling photon counting detectors with dynamic attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are being investigated as a replacement for conventional x-ray detectors because they promise several advantages, including better dose efficiency, higher resolution and spectral imaging. However, many of these advantages disappear when the x-ray flux incident on the detector is too high. We recently proposed a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator (or beam shaping filter) that can control the flux incident on the detector. This can restrict the operating range of the PCXD to keep the incident count rate below a given limit. We simulated a system with the piecewise-linear attenuator and a PCXD using raw data generated from forward projected DICOM files. We investigated the classic paralyzable and nonparalyzable PCXD as well as a weighted average of the two, with the weights chosen to mimic an existing PCXD (Taguchi et al, Med Phys 2011). The dynamic attenuator has small synergistic benefits with the nonparalyzable detector and large synergistic benefits with the paralyzable detector. Real PCXDs operate somewhere between these models, and the weighted average model still shows large benefits from the dynamic attenuator. We conclude that dynamic attenuators can reduce the count rate performance necessary for adopting PCXDs.

  18. The next generation of crystal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Crystal detectors have been used widely in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, medical instruments and homeland security applications. Novel crystal detectors are continuously being discovered and developed in academia and in industry. In high energy and nuclear physics experiments, total absorption electromagnetic calorimeters (ECAL) made of inorganic crystals are known for their superb energy resolution and detection efficiency for photon and electron measurements. A crystal ECAL is thus the choice for those experiments where precision measurements of photons and electrons are crucial for their physics missions. For future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers, however, the crystal detectors used in the above mentioned ECALs are either not bright and fast enough, or not radiation hard enough. Crystal detectors have also been proposed to build a Homogeneous Hadron Calorimeter (HHCAL) to achieve unprecedented jet mass resolution by duel readout of both Cherenkov and scintillation light, where development of cost-effective crystal detectors is a crucial issue because of the huge crystal volume required. This paper discusses several R&D directions for the next generation of crystal detectors for future HEP experiments.

  19. Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

  20. Surface detector array for the Pierre Auger observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, H.; Garipov, G. K.; Khrenov, B. A.; Martínez, O.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, L.; Zepeda, A.

    2001-05-01

    The Pierre Auger international collaboration will install two observatories, one in the southern hemisphere and other in the northern hemisphere. Each observatory will consist of two different subsystem: a surface detector array of about 1600 water Cherenkov detectors (WCD) and a set of fluorescence eyes to measure the longitudinal development of air showers. The large area covered by the surface detectors requires efficient calibration and monitoring methods that can be implemented remotely. We present several complementary methods to calibrate and monitor the performance of the individual surface detector stations. We also present some results of the studies made with a full size prototype tank in Puebla, Mexico and in Malargue, Argentina. .

  1. Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, Andreas Schwarz, Benedikt; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2014-10-27

    We demonstrate monolithic integrated quantum cascade detectors enhanced by plasmonic lenses. Surface normal incident mid-infrared radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons guided to and detected by the active region of the detector. The lens extends the optical effective active area of the device up to a 5 times larger area than for standard mesa detectors or pixel devices while the electrical active region stays the same. The extended optical area increases the absorption efficiency of the presented device as well as the room temperature performance while it offers a flexible platform for various detector geometries. A photocurrent response increase at room temperature up to a factor of 6 was observed.

  2. A prototype neutron veto for dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdale, S.; Shields, E.; Calaprice, F.

    2016-06-01

    Neutrons are a particularly dangerous background for direct WIMP dark matter searches; their nuclear recoils with the target nuclei are often indistinguishable from nuclear recoils produced by WIMP-nuclear collisions. In this study, we explore the concept of a liquid scintillator neutron veto detector that would allow direct dark matter detectors to potentially reject neutrons with greater than 99% efficiency. Here we outline the construction and testing of a small prototype detector and the potential implications of this technology for future dark matter detectors.

  3. Calibration of single-photon detectors using quantum statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilevtsev, D.

    2010-08-15

    I show that calibration of the single-photon detector can be performed without knowledge of the signal parameters. Only partial information about the state statistics is sufficient for that. If one knows that the state is the squeezed one or the squeezed one mixed with the incoherent radiation, one can infer both the parameters of the state and the efficiency of the detector. For that one needs only to measure on/off statistics of detector clicks for the number of known absorbers placed before the detector. Thus, I suggest a scheme that performs a tomography of the signal and the measuring apparatus simultaneously.

  4. Multi-layer boron thin-film detectors for neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic efficiencies of the multilayer boron detectors have been examined both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that due to the charge loss in the boron layers, the practical efficiencies of most multi-layer {sup 10}B detectors are limited up to about 42%, much less than 77% of the 2 bar 2-inch diameter {sup 3}He detectors. It is suggested that the same charge loss mechanism will prevent essentially all substrate-based boron detectors from ever reaching the efficiencies of high-pressure {sup 3}He tubes, independent of the substrate geometry and material composition (including silicon). Meanwhile, the experimental data indicate that the multi-layer approach can increase the efficiencies up to the theoretical limit. Good n/{gamma} discrimination has also achieved using the ionization charnber technique.

  5. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  6. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  7. The detector system of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. P.; Bai, J. Z.; Balantekin, A. B.; Band, H. R.; Beavis, D.; Beriguete, W.; Bishai, M.; Blyth, S.; Brown, R. L.; Butorov, I.; Cao, D.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, J.; Carr, R.; Cen, W. R.; Chan, W. T.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, L. C.; Chang, Y.; Chasman, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, X. H.; Chen, X. S.; Chen, Y. X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cheng, Y. P.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chidzik, S.; Chow, K.; Chu, M. C.; Cummings, J. P.; de Arcos, J.; Deng, Z. Y.; Ding, X. F.; Ding, Y. Y.; Diwan, M. V.; Dong, L.; Dove, J.; Draeger, E.; Du, X. F.; Dwyer, D. A.; Edwards, W. R.; Ely, S. R.; Fang, S. D.; Fu, J. Y.; Fu, Z. W.; Ge, L. Q.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Gill, R.; Goett, J.; Gonchar, M.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Gornushkin, Y. A.; Grassi, M.; Greenler, L. S.; Gu, W. Q.; Guan, M. Y.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, X. H.; Hackenburg, R. W.; Hahn, R. L.; Han, R.; Hans, S.; He, M.; He, Q.; He, W. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heng, Y. K.; Higuera, A.; Hinrichs, P.; Ho, T. H.; Hoff, M.; Hor, Y. K.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hu, B. Z.; Hu, L. M.; Hu, L. J.; Hu, T.; Hu, W.; Huang, E. C.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, P. W.; Huang, X.; Huang, X. T.; Huber, P.; Hussain, G.; Isvan, Z.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jaffke, P.; Jen, K. L.; Jetter, S.; Ji, X. P.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, H. J.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiao, J. B.; Johnson, R. A.; Joseph, J.; Kang, L.; Kettell, S. H.; Kohn, S.; Kramer, M.; Kwan, K. K.; Kwok, M. W.; Kwok, T.; Lai, C. Y.; Lai, W. C.; Lai, W. H.; Langford, T. J.; Lau, K.; Lebanowski, L.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. K. P.; Lei, R. T.; Leitner, R.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, B.; Li, C.; Li, D. J.; Li, F.; Li, G. S.; Li, J.; Li, N. Y.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. F.; Li, S. C.; Li, W. D.; Li, X. B.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J.; Lin, C. J.; Lin, G. L.; Lin, P. Y.; Lin, S. X.; Lin, S. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Ling, J. J.; Link, J. M.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, D. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, S. S.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Lu, C.; Lu, H. Q.; Lu, J. S.; Luk, A.; Luk, K. B.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, L. H.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, X. B.; Ma, Y. Q.; Mayes, B.; McDonald, K. T.; McFarlane, M. C.; McKeown, R. D.; Meng, Y.; Mitchell, I.; Mohapatra, D.; Monari Kebwaro, J.; Morgan, J. E.; Nakajima, Y.; Napolitano, J.; Naumov, D.; Naumova, E.; Newsom, C.; Ngai, H. Y.; Ngai, W. K.; Nie, Y. B.; Ning, Z.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Olshevskiy, A.; Pagac, A.; Pan, H.-R.; Patton, S.; Pearson, C.; Pec, V.; Peng, J. C.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pinsky, L.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, F. Z.; Qi, M.; Qian, X.; Raper, N.; Ren, B.; Ren, J.; Rosero, R.; Roskovec, B.; Ruan, X. C.; Sands, W. R.; Seilhan, B.; Shao, B. B.; Shih, K.; Song, W. Y.; Steiner, H.; Stoler, P.; Stuart, M.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. L.; Tagg, N.; Tam, Y. H.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tang, W.; Tang, X.; Taychenachev, D.; Themann, H.; Torun, Y.; Trentalange, S.; Tsai, O.; Tsang, K. V.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Tull, C. E.; Tung, Y. C.; Viaux, N.; Viren, B.; Virostek, S.; Vorobel, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Y.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, R. G.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. W.; Wang, X. T.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. M.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, H. Y.; Wei, Y. D.; Wen, L. J.; Wenman, D. L.; Whisnant, K.; White, C. G.; Whitehead, L.; Whitten, C. A.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wise, T.; Wong, H. C.; Wong, H. L. H.; Wong, J.; Wong, S. C. F.; Worcester, E.; Wu, F. F.; Wu, Q.; Xia, D. M.; Xia, J. K.; Xiang, S. T.; Xiao, Q.; Xing, Z. Z.; Xu, G.; Xu, J. Y.; Xu, J. L.; Xu, J.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.; Xue, T.; Yan, J.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, L.; Yang, M. S.; Yang, M. T.; Ye, M.; Yeh, M.; Yeh, Y. S.; Yip, K.; Young, B. L.; Yu, G. Y.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zeng, S.; Zhan, L.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, Q. X.; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. T.; Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, W. L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zimmerman, S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Daya Bay experiment was the first to report simultaneous measurements of reactor antineutrinos at multiple baselines leading to the discovery of νbare oscillations over km-baselines. Subsequent data has provided the world's most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 and the effective mass splitting Δ mee2. The experiment is located in Daya Bay, China where the cluster of six nuclear reactors is among the world's most prolific sources of electron antineutrinos. Multiple antineutrino detectors are deployed in three underground water pools at different distances from the reactor cores to search for deviations in the antineutrino rate and energy spectrum due to neutrino mixing. Instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, the water pools serve as shielding against natural radioactivity from the surrounding rock and provide efficient muon tagging. Arrays of resistive plate chambers over the top of each pool provide additional muon detection. The antineutrino detectors were specifically designed for measurements of the antineutrino flux with minimal systematic uncertainty. Relative detector efficiencies between the near and far detectors are known to better than 0.2%. With the unblinding of the final two detectors' baselines and target masses, a complete description and comparison of the eight antineutrino detectors can now be presented. This paper describes the Daya Bay detector systems, consisting of eight antineutrino detectors in three instrumented water pools in three underground halls, and their operation through the first year of eight detector data-taking.

  8. Semiconductor neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueorguiev, Andrey; Hong, Huicong; Tower, Joshua; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard; Burger, Arnold; Shah, Kanai

    2016-09-01

    Lithium Indium Selenide (LiInSe2) has been under development in RMD Inc. and Fisk University for room temperature thermal neutron detection due to a number of promising properties. The recent advances of the crystal growth, material processing, and detector fabrication technologies allowed us to fabricate large detectors with 100 mm2 active area. The thermal neutron detection sensitivity and gamma rejection ratio (GRR) were comparable to 3He tube with 10 atm gas pressure at comparable dimensions. The synthesis, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and characterization are reported in this paper.

  9. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Suarez, Rey; Hayes, James C.

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  10. Noise performance of the D0 layer 0 silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; D0 Collaboration

    2007-09-01

    A new inner detector called Layer 0 has been added to the existing silicon detector for the DZero colliding beams experiment [V.M. Abazoz et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 565 (2006) 463]. This detector has an all carbon fiber support structure that employs thin copper clad Kapton sheets embedded in the surface of the carbon fiber structure to improve the grounding of the structure and a readout system that fully isolates the local detector ground from the rest of the detector. Initial measurements show efficiencies greater than 90% and 0.3 ADC count (240 e) common mode contribution to the signal noise. The total detector capacitance is 24 pF so this corresponds to 2 μV of common mode voltage.

  11. Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors.

    PubMed

    Avella, A; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M

    2011-11-07

    Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.

  12. Spectrometric characteristic improvement of CdTe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.I.; Garbusin, V.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Loutchanski, A.E.; Kondrashov, V.V.

    1995-08-01

    A new pulse shape correction method combined with a pulse shape selection method has been proposed for a CdTe detectors energy resolution improvement and increasing the total absorption peak efficiency. The capabilities of the new technique for the spectrometric characteristic improvement are based on using specific features of the CdTe detectors output pulses. The energy resolution of about 1% FWHM at 662 keV has been achieved with planar CdTe detector under room temperature without decrease of peak efficiency. Standard measurement techniques give 3.7% FWHM. A significant spectrometric characteristic improvement of other room temperature semiconductor detectors such as HgI{sub 2} and CdZnTe detectors was also obtained.

  13. Recent astronomical detector development at the University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The University of Arizona Imaging Technology Laboratory (ITL) has been developing back illuminated detectors and detector technologies for several astronomical projects in recent years. These projects include the WIYN telescope One Degree Imager (ODI) mosaic of Orthogonal Transfer Array CCDs, the VIRUS detectors for the University of Texas' Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), detector and packaging development for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and 10kx10k and 4kx4k CCDs for several instruments. In this paper we discuss these projects with an emphasis on backside processing issues and detector characterization results which may be relevant to other groups. We will also focus packaging techniques and metrology for achieving very flat and stable focal planes. Results will include device flatness at cryogenic temperatures, process yield, photo-response non-uniformity and cosmetics, quantum efficiency, read noise, linearity, charge transfer efficiency, and photon transfer data.

  14. SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS AS COSMIC RAYS DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Privitera, P.; Motloch, P.

    2014-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Jupiter is presented as an efficient detector for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), through measurement by an Earth-orbiting satellite of gamma rays from UHECRs showers produced in Jupiter's atmosphere. We show that this result is incorrect, due to erroneous assumptions on the angular distribution of shower particles. We evaluated other solar system objects as potential targets for UHECRs detection, and found that the proposed technique is either not viable or not competitive with traditional ground-based UHECRs detectors.

  15. Advances in Detector Technology for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreight, Craig; Cheng, P. L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in semiconductor materials and processing technology has allowed the development of infrared detector arrays with unprecedented sensitivity, for imaging and spectroscopic applications in astronomy. The earlier discrete-detector approach has been replaced by large-element (up to 1024 x 1024 pixel), multiplexed devices. Progress has been made against a number of key limiting factors, such as quantum efficiency, noise, spectral response, linearity, and dark current. Future developments will focus on the need for even larger arrays, which operate at higher temperatures.

  16. The 4π neutron detector CARMEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, X.; Laborie, J.-M.; Pras, P.; Lantuéjoul-Thfoin, I.; Varignon, C.

    2017-02-01

    CARMEN is a 4π neutron detector filled with a gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator built to measure neutron multiplicity distributions. It is used to study fission and (n,xn) reactions. In addition to neutron multiplicity measurements, CARMEN can be used to measure neutron energy spectra with the time-of-flight technique, thanks to the time properties of the prompt signal. The detector, detection technique and efficiency determination are presented in detail. Two examples are also presented: the measurement of 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron multiplicity probability distribution and the measurement of the neutron energy spectrum emitted by an Am-Be radioactive source.

  17. Precision half-life measurement of 140La with Ge-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Belov, A. G.; Brandt, R.; Chaloun, P.; Honusek, M.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Langrock, E.-J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Sosnin, A. N.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Wan, J.-S.; Westmeier, W.

    2002-03-01

    Half-life is one of the fundamental properties of radioactive nuclei, and the precision required for its numerous applications in modern physics sometimes approaches the level of 10 -4-10 -5. Most part of the T1/2 measurements performed up to now was made with proportional chambers, and the results were sometimes hardly reproducible within the error limits. Using Ge-detectors for that purpose brought some significant advantages but electronic unit related effects and spectra analysis procedures still remain the sources of the errors influencing the accuracy of the T1/2 attained. In this work, 140La samples were obtained in the 139La( n, γ) 140La reaction, employing a microtron as a neutron source and the half-life measurements were performed with a HPGe-detector. Influencing factors such as photopeak and background shape, electronic circuitry dead time and deadtime variations during the measurements, as well as pulse pileup are studied altogether. Values of the 140La T1/2=1.6808(18) d, λ=0.47749(20)×10 -5, agreeing within the uncertainities with the most accurate evaluated ones ( T1/2=1.6781(3) d, λ=0.47807(9)×10 -5) [2] were obtained in two series of measurements.

  18. Germanium nitride and oxynitride films for surface passivation of Ge radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, G.; Carturan, S.; Fiorese, L.; Pinto, N.; Caproli, F.; Napoli, D. R.; Giarola, M.; Mariotto, G.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a detailed investigation of the properties of germanium nitride and oxynitride films to be applied as passivation layers to Ge radiation detectors. All the samples we