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Sample records for hr mas technique

  1. Size-exclusion chromatographic NMR under HR-MAS.

    PubMed

    Lucena Alcalde, Guillermo; Anderson, Natalie; Day, Iain J

    2017-05-01

    The addition of stationary phases or sample modifiers can be used to modify the separation achievable in the diffusion domain of diffusion NMR experiments or provide information on the nature of the analyte-sample modifier interaction. Unfortunately, the addition of insoluble chromatographic stationary phases can lead to line broadening and degradation in spectral resolution, largely because of differences in magnetic susceptibility between the sample and the stationary phase. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) techniques can be used to remove this broadening. Here, we attempt the application of HR-MAS to size-exclusion chromatographic NMR with limited success. Observed diffusion coefficients for polymer molecular weight reference standards are shown to be larger than those obtained on static samples. Further investigation reveals that under HR-MAS it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients, using either full rotor synchronisation or sophisticated pulse sequences. The requirement for restricting the sample to the centre of the MAS rotor to ensure homogeneous magnetic and RF fields is also tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Łojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance. PMID:24104201

  3. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Łojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro

    2013-10-09

    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance.

  4. (1)H HR-MAS NMR-based metabolomics analysis for dry-fermented sausage characterization.

    PubMed

    García-García, Ana Belén; Lamichhane, Santosh; Castejón, David; Cambero, Mª Isabel; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2018-02-01

    Proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ((1)H HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to characterize dry-fermented sausages salchichón type throughout the manufacturing process. (1)H HR-MAS NMR metabolite profiling was achieved from a small sample of intact sausage after 0, 2, 4, 7, 11 and 14days of drying. Intriguingly, the obtained results enabled the identification of the three main stages in the traditional production of salchichón. Formulation, fermentation and drying-ripening periods showed distinct and characteristic metabolomic profiles. Compositional changes related to microbial activity, as well as proteolytic and lipolytic phenomena, decisive steps in such a ripening process, could be monitored through the NMR spectra. This study shows the potential of (1)H HR-MAS as a rapid method for probing metabolomic profiles and compositional changes during sausages processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for cross-linking in tomato cutin using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Ashish P; Simpson, André J; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-11-01

    Cutin is a polyester biopolymer component of plant leaf and fruit cuticles, most often associated with waxes and cuticular polysaccharides, and sometimes with another aliphatic biopolymer called cutan. Insolubility of these cuticular biopolymers has made it difficult to apply traditional analytical techniques for structure determination, because most techniques providing molecular level details require solubility. By using the relatively new technique of one and two-dimensional high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, with added information from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, detailed through-bond connectivities and assignments are made for cutin from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit. Based on the data obtained, tomato cutin is found to be predominantly an aliphatic polyester with some olefinic and aromatic moieties, consistent with previous studies that employed various degradative approaches. Aside from esters, there are free primary and secondary alcohol groups, as well as free fatty acids. A significant finding is the presence of alpha-branched fatty acids/esters. Mid-chain hydroxyls appear to be generally unesterified, but esters of mid-chain hydroxyls have been identified. The alpha-branched fatty acids/esters and esters of mid-chain hydroxyls could point towards cross-linking.

  6. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.

  7. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues. PMID:24284435

  8. Metabolic profiles of placenta in preeclampsia using HR-MAS MRS metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Austdal, Marie; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Tangerås, Line Haugstad; Skei, Bente; Mathew, Seema; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor; Bathen, Tone Frost; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous gestational disease characterized by maternal hypertension and proteinuria, affecting 2-7% of pregnancies. The disorder is initiated by insufficient placental development, but studies characterizing the placental disease components are lacking. Our aim was to phenotype the preeclamptic placenta using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS MRS). Placental samples collected after delivery from women with preeclampsia (n = 19) and normotensive pregnancies (n = 15) were analyzed for metabolic biomarkers including amino acids, osmolytes, and components of the energy and phospholipid metabolism. The metabolic biomarkers were correlated to clinical characteristics and inflammatory biomarkers in the maternal sera. Principal component analysis showed inherent differences in placental metabolic profiles between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Significant differences in metabolic profiles were found between placentas from severe and non-severe preeclampsia, but not between preeclamptic pregnancies with fetal growth restricted versus normal weight neonates. The placental metabolites correlated with the placental stress marker sFlt-1 and triglycerides in maternal serum, suggesting variation in placental stress signaling between different placental phenotypes. HR-MAS MRS is a sensitive method for defining the placental disease component of preeclampsia, identifying several altered metabolic pathways. Placental HR-MAS MRS analysis may improve insight into processes affected in the preeclamptic placenta, and represents a novel long-required tool for a sensitive placental phenotyping of this heterogeneous disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Cells in Response to Drug Treatment using (1)H High-resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vermathen, Martina; Diserens, Gaëlle; Vermathen, Peter; Furrer, Julien

    2017-03-29

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is an NMR technique that provides access to well resolved liquid-like 1H NMR spectra of semi-solid samples. Therefore, 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy has become an important tool for the direct analysis of biological samples such as tissues and cells in a mostly non-destructive way. Here, we focus on the application of HR-MAS NMR combined with multivariate statistical methods used for metabolic profiling of cells and in particular for the study of cellular metabolic responses to drug exposure. The principles of HR-MAS and the metabolomic approach are briefly described. As an example, a study on the metabolic response of different cell types towards treatment with a highly cytotoxic hexacationic ruthenium metallaprism as potential anti-cancer drug is presented. Specific metabolites and metabolic pathways are suggested to be associated with the cellular response. The study demonstrates the potential of HR-MAS metabolomics applied to cells for addressing the intracellular processes involved in the treatment with organometallic drugs.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative study of the highly specialized lipid tissues of cetaceans using HR-MAS NMR and classical GC.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jean-Luc; Simon, Gaelle; Alfonsi, Eric; Thoraval, Didier; Kervarec, Nelly; Ben Salem, Douraied; Hassani, Sami; Domergue, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Cetacean adipose tissues contain an extremely very wide variety of acyl-chains present in triacylglycerols and / or wax esters. In addition, changes in the lipid composition across organs suggest fine stratification. It therefore remains technically challenging to describe precisely the lipid organization of these tissues. In the present study, we used in parallel HR-MAS NMR (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and GC (gas-chromatography) to characterize and quantify the lipids and fatty acyl-chains from the blubber and melon of two odontocete species. Both methods generated very similar compositions, but each presented clear advantages. While GC underestimated the amount of short branched fatty acyl-chains, which are specific to cetacean adipose tissues and most probably of primary importance for their functioning, HR-MAS NMR allowed for their exact quantification. Conversely, when HR-MAS NMR could only discriminate a few types of fatty acyl-chain families, GC unambiguously identified and quantified most of them. In addition, this technique allowed for the determination of the wax esters molecular species. Our results further suggest that the stratification of these adipose tissues relies on changes in the triacylglycerol to wax ester ratio and in the fatty acyl composition of triacylglycerols, but not on changes in the wax esters composition. Altogether, our data show that the complementarities of these two approaches result in lipid analyses of unprecedented precision, paving the way for the detailed description of the fatty acyl composition of cetacean adipose tissues and the understanding of their functioning.

  11. 1H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT) red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication. PMID:26495154

  12. (1)H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo; Cicero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT) red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication.

  13. Assessing Heterogeneity of Osteolytic Lesions in Multiple Myeloma by 1H HR-MAS NMR Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Tavel, Laurette; Fontana, Francesca; Garcia Manteiga, Josè Manuel; Mari, Silvia; Mariani, Elisabetta; Caneva, Enrico; Sitia, Roberto; Camnasio, Francesco; Marcatti, Magda; Cenci, Simone; Musco, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells characterized by multifocal osteolytic bone lesions. Macroscopic and genetic heterogeneity has been documented within MM lesions. Understanding the bases of such heterogeneity may unveil relevant features of MM pathobiology. To this aim, we deployed unbiased 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics to analyze multiple biopsy specimens of osteolytic lesions from one case of pathological fracture caused by MM. Multivariate analyses on normalized metabolite peak integrals allowed clusterization of samples in accordance with a posteriori histological findings. We investigated the relationship between morphological and NMR features by merging morphological data and metabolite profiling into a single correlation matrix. Data-merging addressed tissue heterogeneity, and greatly facilitated the mapping of lesions and nearby healthy tissues. Our proof-of-principle study reveals integrated metabolomics and histomorphology as a promising approach for the targeted study of osteolytic lesions. PMID:27809247

  14. Assessing the fate and transformation of plant residues in the terrestrial environment using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, Brian P.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2006-08-01

    Plant litter decomposition plays a fundamental role in carbon and nitrogen cycles, provides key nutrients to the soil environment and represents a potentially large positive feedback to atmospheric CO 2. However, the full details of decomposition pathways and products are unknown. Here we present the first application of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 13C and 15N labeled plant materials, and apply this approach in a preliminary study to monitor the environmental degradation of the pine and wheatgrass residues over time. In HR-MAS, is it possible to acquire very high resolution NMR data of plant biomass, and apply the vast array of multidimensional experiments available in conventional solution-state NMR. High levels of isotopic enrichment combined with HR-MAS significantly enhance the detection limits, and provide a wealth of information that is unattainable by any other method. Diffusion edited HR-MAS NMR data reveal the rapid loss of carbohydrate structures, while two-dimensional (2-D) HR-MAS NMR spectra demonstrate the relatively fast loss of both hydrolysable and condensed tannin structures from all plant tissues studied. Aromatic (partially lignin) and aliphatic components (waxes, cuticles) tend to persist, along with a small fraction of carbohydrate, and become highly functionalized over time. While one-dimensional (1-D) 13C HR-MAS NMR spectra of fresh plant tissue reflect compositional differences between pine and grass, these differences become negligible after decomposition suggesting that recalcitrant carbon may be similar despite the plant source. Two-dimensional 1H- 15N HR-MAS NMR analysis of the pine residue suggests that nitrogen from specific peptides is either selectively preserved or used for the synthesis of what appears to be novel structures. The amount of relevant data generated from plant components in situ using HR-MAS NMR is highly encouraging, and demonstrates that complete assignment will yield unprecedented structural knowledge of plant cell

  15. 1H HR-MAS NMR of carotenoids in aqueous samples and raw vegetables.

    PubMed

    Miglietta, M L; Lamanna, R

    2006-07-01

    Carotenoids are linear C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons and represent a wide category of natural pigments. They are components of the pigment system of chloroplasts and are involved in the primary light absorption and the photon canalization of photosynthesis. Moreover, they also behave as quenchers of singlet oxygen, protecting cells and organisms against lipid peroxidation. Carotenoids have a strong lipophilic character and are usually analyzed in organic solvents. However, because of their biological activity, the characterization of these compounds in an aqueous environment or in the natural matrix is very important. One of the most important dietary carotenoids is beta-carotene, which has been extensively studied both in vivo and in model systems, but because of the low concentration and strong interaction with the biological matrix, beta-carotene has never been observed by NMR in solid aqueous samples.In the present work, a model system has been developed for the detection and identification of beta-carotene in solid aqueous samples by 1H HR-MAS NMR. The efficiency of the model has led to the identification of beta-carotene in a raw vegetable matrix.

  16. The metabolic profile of lemon juice by proton HR-MAS NMR: the case of the PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Nicola; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofré, Salvatore V; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Di Stefano, Vita; Mallamace, Domenico; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HR-MAS NMR) the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian lemon known as 'Interdonato Lemon of Messina PGI'. The PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina possesses high organoleptic and healthy properties and is recognised as one of the most nutrient fruits. In particular, some of its constituents are actively studied for their chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties. In this paper, we have determined by means of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy the molar concentration of the main metabolites constituent the juice of PGI Interdonato Lemon of Messina in comparison with that of the not-PGI Interdonato Lemon of Turkey. Our aim is to develop an analytical technique, in order to determine a metabolic fingerprint able to reveal commercial frauds in national and international markets.

  17. Separation of small metabolites and lipids in spectra from biopsies by diffusion-weighted HR-MAS NMR: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Diserens, G; Vermathen, M; Precht, C; Broskey, N T; Boesch, C; Amati, F; Dufour, J-F; Vermathen, P

    2015-01-07

    High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR allows metabolic characterization of biopsies. HR-MAS spectra from tissues of most organs show strong lipid contributions that are overlapping metabolite regions, which hamper metabolite estimation. Metabolite quantification and analysis would benefit from a separation of lipids and small metabolites. Generally, a relaxation filter is used to reduce lipid contributions. However, the strong relaxation filter required to eliminate most of the lipids also reduces the signals for small metabolites. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate different diffusion editing techniques in order to employ diffusion differences for separating lipid and small metabolite contributions in the spectra from different organs for unbiased metabonomic analysis. Thus, 1D and 2D diffusion measurements were performed, and pure lipid spectra that were obtained at strong diffusion weighting (DW) were subtracted from those obtained at low DW, which include both small metabolites and lipids. This subtraction yielded almost lipid free small metabolite spectra from muscle tissue. Further improved separation was obtained by combining a 1D diffusion sequence with a T2-filter, with the subtraction method eliminating residual lipids from the spectra. Similar results obtained for biopsies of different organs suggest that this method is applicable in various tissue types. The elimination of lipids from HR-MAS spectra and the resulting less biased assessment of small metabolites have potential to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of metabonomic results. This is demonstrated in a reproducibility study on biopsies from human muscle.

  18. LC/ESI-MS n and 1H HR-MAS NMR analytical methods as useful taxonomical tools within the genus Cystoseira C. Agardh (Fucales; Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Jégou, Camille; Culioli, Gérald; Kervarec, Nelly; Simon, Gaëlle; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie

    2010-12-15

    Species of the genus Cystoseira are particularly hard to discriminate, due to the complexity of their morphology, which can be influenced by their phenological state and ecological parameters. Our study emphasized on the relevance of two kinds of analytical tools, (1) LC/ESI-MS(n) and (2) (1)H HR-MAS NMR, also called in vivo NMR, to identify Cystoseira specimens at the specific level and discuss their taxonomy. For these analyses, samples were collected at several locations in Brittany (France), where Cystoseira baccata, C. foeniculacea, C. humilis, C. nodicaulis and C. tamariscifolia were previously reported. To validate our chemical procedure, the sequence of the ITS2 has been obtained for each species to investigate their phylogenetic relationships at a molecular level. Our study highlighted the consistency of the two physico-chemical methods, compared to "classical" molecular approach, in studying taxonomy within the genus Cystoseira. Especially, LC/ESI-MS(n) and phylogenetic analyses converged into the discrimination of two taxonomical groups among the 5 species. The occurrence of some specific signals in the (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectra and/or some characteristic chemical compounds during LC/ESI-MS(n) analysis could be regarded as discriminating factors. LC/ESI-MS(n) and (1)H HR-MAS NMR turned out to be two relevant and innovative techniques to discriminate taxonomically this complex genus.

  19. (1)H HR-MAS NMR-based metabolomics study of different persimmon cultivars (Diospyros kaki) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alan Diego da Conceição; Fonseca, Flávia Aparecida; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Santos, Maria de Fátima Costa; Menezes, Leociley Rocha Alencar; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Nagata, Noemi; Ayub, Ricardo; Barison, Andersson

    2018-01-15

    (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was used to track the metabolic changes throughout the whole development of astringent ('Giombo') and non-astringent ('Fuyu') cultivars of persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The NMR data revealed the low concentration of amino acids (threonine, alanine, citrulline and GABA) and organic acids (malic acid). In addition, the signals of carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose and fructose) seemed to play the most important role in the fruit development. In both cultivars, the growth was characterized by fluctuating sucrose concentration along with a constant increase in both glucose and fructose. In the initial growth stage, the polyphenol composition was quite different between the cultivars. Gallic acid was detected throughout the growth of 'Giombo', while for 'Fuyu', signals of polyphenols disappeared over time. Additional multivariate analysis suggested that these cultivars share many metabolic similarities during development. These findings might help the comprehension of fruit development, which in turn, impacts the quality of the fruits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Visibility of lipid resonances in HR-MAS spectra of brain biopsies subject to spinning rate variation.

    PubMed

    Precht, C; Diserens, G; Oevermann, A; Vermathen, M; Lang, J; Boesch, C; Vermathen, P

    2015-12-01

    Lipid resonances from mobile lipids can be observed by ¹H NMR spectroscopy in multiple tissues and have also been associated with malignancy. In order to use lipid resonances as a marker for disease, a reference standard from a healthy tissue has to be established taking the influence of variable factors like the spinning rate into account. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of spinning rate variation on the HR-MAS pattern of lipid resonances in non-neoplastic brain biopsies from different regions and visualize polar and non-polar lipids by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Red staining. ¹H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy demonstrated higher lipid peak intensities in normal sheep brain pure white matter biopsies compared to mixed white and gray matter biopsies and pure gray matter biopsies. High spinning rates increased the visibility particularly of the methyl resonances at 1.3 and the methylene resonance at 0.89 ppm in white matter biopsies stronger compared to thalamus and brainstem biopsies, and gray matter biopsies. The absence of lipid droplets and presence of a large number of myelin sheaths observed in white matter by Nile Red fluorescence microscopy suggest that the observed lipid resonances originate from the macromolecular pool of lipid protons of the myelin sheath's plasma membranes. When using lipid contents as a marker for disease, the variable behavior of lipid resonances in different neuroanatomical regions of the brain and at variable spinning rates should be considered. The findings may open up interesting possibilities for investigating lipids in myelin sheaths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the ERETIC method as an improved quantitative reference for 1H HR-MAS spectroscopy of prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Albers, Mark J; Butler, Thomas N; Rahwa, Iman; Bao, Nguyen; Keshari, Kayvan R; Swanson, Mark G; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-03-01

    The Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method was applied to (1)H HR-MAS spectroscopy. The accuracy, precision, and stability of ERETIC as a quantitative reference were evaluated in solution and human prostate tissue samples. For comparison, the reliability of 3-(trimethylsilyl)propionic-2,2,3,3-d(4) acid (TSP) as a quantitation reference was also evaluated. The ERETIC and TSP peak areas were found to be stable in solution over the short-term and long-term, with long-term relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.10% and 2.60%, respectively. Quantification of TSP in solution using the ERETIC peak as a reference and a calibrated, rotor-dependent conversion factor yielded results with a precision < or =2.9% and an accuracy error < or =4.2% when compared with the expected values. The ERETIC peak area reproducibility was superior to TSP's reproducibility, corrected for mass, in both prostate surgical and biopsy samples (4.53% vs. 21.2% and 3.34% vs. 31.8%, respectively). Furthermore, the tissue TSP peaks exhibited only 27.5% of the expected area, which would cause an overestimation of metabolite concentrations if used as a reference. The improved quantification accuracy and precision provided by ERETIC may enable the detection of smaller metabolic differences that may exist between individual tissue samples and disease states.

  2. The Effect of Antitumor Glycosides on Glioma Cells and Tissues as Studied by Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Isabel; Garrido, Leoncio; Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Campos-Olivas, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the treatment with glycolipid derivatives on the metabolic profile of intact glioma cells and tumor tissues, investigated using proton high resolution magic angle spinning (1H HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is reported here. Two compounds were used, a glycoside and its thioglycoside analogue, both showing anti-proliferative activity on glioma C6 cell cultures; however, only the thioglycoside exhibited antitumor activity in vivo. At the drug concentrations showing anti-proliferative activity in cell culture (20 and 40 µM), significant increases in choline containing metabolites were observed in the 1H NMR spectra of the same intact cells. In vivo experiments in nude mice bearing tumors derived from implanted C6 glioma cells, showed that reduction of tumor volume was associated with significant changes in the metabolic profile of the same intact tumor tissues; and were similar to those observed in cell culture. Specifically, the activity of the compounds is mainly associated with an increase in choline and phosphocholine, in both the cell cultures and tumoral tissues. Taurine, a metabolite that has been considered a biomarker of apoptosis, correlated with the reduction of tumor volume. Thus, the results indicate that the mode of action of the glycoside involves, at least in part, alteration of phospholipid metabolism, resulting in cell death. PMID:24194925

  3. Influence of the spinning rate in the HR-MAS pattern of mobile lipids in C6 glioma cells and in artificial oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sitjar, Juana; Delgado-Goñi, Teresa; Cabañas, Miquel E; Tzen, Jason; Arús, Carles

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate how spinning rate affects mobile lipid (ML) resonances visibility in HR-MAS spectra of C6 glioma cells and artificial oil bodies (AOB), as models of cytosolic lipid droplets. Using C6 cells and AOB of two different sizes, 780 ± 580 and 240 ± 293 nm, as models, we acquired HR-MAS pulse and acquire spectra at different spinning rates between 500 and 15,000 Hz, all at 37 °C. Sample spinning at 15,000 Hz increased by 2.3 and 4.6-fold with respect to 500 Hz spinning the area of resonances corresponding to ML at 0.88 and 1.28 ppm, respectively, for log phase C6 cells. Furthermore, postconfluent C6 cells displayed an increase of 2.5-fold at 0.88 ppm and 4.2-fold at 1.28 ppm. These changes were reversible upon low speed spinning. AOBs did show much lower ML area increases (1.4-1.5-fold) upon high-speed HR-MAS. ML can be reversibly mobilized in C6 glioma cells by high-speed HR-MAS, partially unveiling the NMR "invisible" ML pool. A small part of the ML pool also shows reduced visibility in freely tumbling AOBs.

  4. Non-destructive and direct determination of the degree of substitution of carboxymethyl cellulose by HR-MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ferro, M; Castiglione, F; Panzeri, W; Dispenza, R; Santini, L; Karlsson, H J; de Wit, P P; Mele, A

    2017-08-01

    We report on the direct assessment of the degree of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The method is applied to industrial CMCs with low and high viscosity and nominal DS, purified and technical samples, and from cellulose linters or wood. The preparation of a set of purified CMC working standards with accurate DS values for the method validation is also described. The DS values determined via HR-MAS (13)C NMR on the industrial samples are critically compared to the corresponding values achieved through the USP 37 〈281〉 method (ASH method) and the HPLC method, and the advantages and limitations of the HR-MAS NMR method highlighted. Finally, the HR-MAS NMR approach allowed the accurate DS assessment in CMC with low DS, characterized by a non-negligible fraction of non-functionalized cellulose. The proposed "effective DS" accounts for the DS of the solvent-exposed CMC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Metabolic, pathologic, and genetic analysis of prostate tissues: quantitative evaluation of histopathologic and mRNA integrity after HR-MAS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carissa F; Kurhanewicz, John; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Simko, Jeffry P; Keshari, Kayvan R; Gbegnon, Akpene; Santos, Romelyn Delos; Federman, Scot; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R; Haqq, Christopher M; Swanson, Mark G

    2010-05-01

    The impact of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy on the histopathologic and mRNA integrity of human prostate tissues was evaluated. Forty prostate tissues were harvested at transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy (n = 20) or radical prostatectomy surgery (n = 20), snap-frozen on dry ice, and stored at -80°C until use. Twenty-one samples (n = 11 biopsy, n = 10 surgical) underwent HR-MAS spectroscopy prior to histopathologic and cDNA microarray analysis, while 19 control samples (n = 9 biopsy, n = 10 surgical) underwent only histopathologic and microarray analysis. Frozen tissues were sectioned at 14-µm intervals and placed on individual histopathology slides. Every 8th slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and used to target areas of predominantly epithelial tissue on the remaining slides for mRNA integrity and cDNA microarray analysis. Histopathologic integrity was graded from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) by two 'blinded' pathologists. Histopathologic integrity scores were not significantly different for post-surgical tissues (HR-MAS vs controls); however, one pathologist's scores were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS while the other pathologist's scores were not. mRNA integrity assays were performed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the electrophoretic traces were scored with an RNA integrity number (RIN) from 1 (degraded) to 10 (intact). RIN scores were not significantly different for surgical tissues, but were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS spectroscopy. The isolated mRNA then underwent two rounds of amplification, conversion to cDNA, coupling to Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, microarray hybridization, imaging, and analysis. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified no significantly over- or under-expressed genes, including 14 housekeeping genes, between HR-MAS and control samples of surgical and biopsy tissues (5% false discovery rate). This study

  6. Metabolic, pathologic, and genetic analysis of prostate tissues: quantitative evaluation of histopathologic and mRNA integrity after HR-MAS spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carissa F.; Kurhanewicz, John; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Gbegnon, Akpene; Santos, Romelyn DeLos; Federman, Scot; Shinohara, Katsuto; Carroll, Peter R.; Haqq, Christopher M.; Swanson, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy on the histopathologic and mRNA integrity of human prostate tissues was evaluated. Forty prostate tissues were harvested at transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy (n =20) or radical prostatectomy surgery (n =20), snap-frozen on dry ice, and stored at −80°C until use. Twenty-one samples (n =11 biopsy, n =10 surgical) underwent HR-MAS spectroscopy prior to histopathologic and cDNA microarray analysis, while 19 control samples (n =9 biopsy, n =10 surgical) underwent only histopathologic and microarray analysis. Frozen tissues were sectioned at 14-μm intervals and placed on individual histopathology slides. Every 8th slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and used to target areas of predominantly epithelial tissue on the remaining slides for mRNA integrity and cDNA microarray analysis. Histopathologic integrity was graded from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) by two ‘blinded’ pathologists. Histopathologic integrity scores were not significantly different for post-surgical tissues (HR-MAS vs controls); however, one pathologist’s scores were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS while the other pathologist’s scores were not. mRNA integrity assays were performed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and the electrophoretic traces were scored with an RNA integrity number (RIN) from 1 (degraded) to 10 (intact). RIN scores were not significantly different for surgical tissues, but were significantly lower for biopsy tissues following HR-MAS spectroscopy. The isolated mRNA then underwent two rounds of amplification, conversion to cDNA, coupling to Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, microarray hybridization, imaging, and analysis. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified no significantly over- or under-expressed genes, including 14 housekeeping genes, between HR-MAS and control samples of surgical and biopsy tissues (5% false discovery rate). This study demonstrates that

  7. Time dependency of metabolic changes in rat lens after in vivo UVB irradiation analysed by HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Risa, Oystein; Saether, Oddbjørn; Kakar, Manoj; Mody, Vino; Löfgren, Stefan; Söderberg, Per G; Krane, Jostein; Midelfart, Anna

    2005-10-01

    The lens ability to protect against, and repair ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced damages, is of crucial importance to avoid cataract development. The influence of UVR-induced damage and repair processes on the lens metabolites are not fully understood. Observation of short- and long-term changes in light scattering and the metabolic profile of pigmented rat lenses after threshold UVR exposure might serve to better understand the protective mechanisms in the lens. By using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy it was possible to investigate the metabolites of intact rat lenses. Brown-Norway rats were exposed to 15 kJm(-2) UVB irradiation. One eye was exposed and the contralateral served as control. The rats were sacrificed 5, 25, 125, and 625 hr post-exposure and the lenses were removed. The degree of cataract was quantified by measurement of lens forward light scattering. Thereafter, proton NMR spectra from intact lenses were obtained and relative changes in metabolite concentrations were determined. The light scattering in the lens peaked at 25 hr post-exposure and decreased thereafter. The lowest level of light scattering was measured 625 hr after exposure. No significant changes in concentration were observed for the metabolites 5 and 25 hr post-exposure except the total amount of adenosine tri- and diphosphate (ATP/ADP) that showed a significant decrease already 5 hr after exposure. At 125 hr the lens concentrations of lactate, succinate, phospho-choline, taurine, betaine, myo-inositol, and ATP/ADP showed a significant decrease (p<0.05). Phenylalanine was the only metabolite that revealed a significant increase 125 hr post-exposure. At 625 hr most of the metabolic changes seemed to normalise back to control levels. However, the concentration of betaine and phospho-choline were still showing a significant decrease 625 hr after UVB irradiation. The impact of UVB irradiation on the metabolic profile did not follow the same time

  8. Regional metabolic alteration of Alzheimer's disease in mouse brain expressing mutant human APP-PS1 by 1H HR-MAS.

    PubMed

    Woo, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Sang-Young; Kim, Goo-Young; Rhim, Hyang-Shuk; Choi, Chi-Bong; Kim, Hwi-Yool; Lee, Chang-Uk; Choe, Bo-Young

    2010-07-29

    This study aimed to find the most sensitive brain region of APP-PS1 mice in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to compare the findings with wild-type mouse brain using (1)H high resolution magic angle spectroscopy (HR-MAS). At 18 and 35 weeks of age, the object recognition test was performed with both APP-PS1 and wild-type mice, and the metabolite concentrations were measured in six brain regions at 38-42 weeks using (1)H HR-MAS. Compared to that of wild-type mice, the memory index of the APP-PS1 mice at 18 weeks was not significantly different; however, the memory index of the APP-PS1 mice at 35 weeks was significantly lower. Similar to the results of the (1)H HR-MAS, the [N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)+acetate (Acet)] level in APP-PS1 mice was decreased in the hippocampus and temporal cortex, and the myo-inositol (mIns) level was increased in the entire brain. In addition, scyllo-inositol (sIns) was also elevated in the frontal, occipital, and parietal cortices, hippocampus and thalamus. These findings demonstrated that the behavioral abnormalities of the APP-PS1 mice started at about 30 weeks of age and that the hippocampus and temporal cortex were the most sensitive regions during early-stage AD. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that an increase of mIns and sIns precedes the reduction of the NAA level. These findings demonstrated that the metabolism of the APP-PS1 mouse was associated with early-stage AD. Furthermore, the regional neurochemical profile of APP-PS1 mouse can be used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with AD.

  9. Methods for metabolic evaluation of prostate cancer cells using proton and 13C HR-MAS spectroscopy and [3-13C] pyruvate as a metabolic substrate

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Yakir S.; Albers, Mark J.; Butler, Thomas N.; Spielman, Daniel; Peehl, Donna M.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer has been shown to undergo unique metabolic changes associated with neoplastic transformation, with associated changes in citrate, alanine, and lactate concentrations. 13C HR-MAS spectroscopy provides an opportunity to simultaneously investigate the metabolic pathways implicated in these changes by using 13C labeled substrates as metabolic probes. In this work, a method to reproducibly interrogate metabolism in prostate cancer cells in primary culture was developed using HR-MAS spectroscopy. Optimization of cell culture protocols, labeling parameters, harvesting, storage, and transfer was performed. Using [3-13C] pyruvate as a metabolic probe, 1H and 13C HR-MAS spectroscopy were used to quantify the net amount and fractional enrichment of several labeled metabolites that evolved in multiple cell samples from each of five different prostate cancers. Average enrichment across all cancers was 32.4±5.4% for [3-13C] alanine, 24.5±5.4% for [4-13C] glutamate, 9.1±2.5% for [3-13C] glutamate, 25.2±5.7% for [3-13C] aspartate, and 4.2±1.0% for [3-13C] lactate. Cell samples from the same parent population demonstrated reproducible fractional enrichments of alanine, glutamate, and aspartate to within 12%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. Furthermore, the cells produced a significant amount of [4-13C] glutamate, which supports the bioenergetic theory for prostate cancer. These methods will allow further characterization of metabolic properties of prostate cancer cells in the future. PMID:19780158

  10. Characterization of a chiral stationary phase by HR/MAS NMR spectroscopy and investigation of enantioselective interaction with chiral ligates by transferred NOE.

    PubMed

    Hellriegel, Christine; Skogsberg, Urban; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Maier, Norbert M; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2004-03-31

    The surface chemistry of a chiral stationary phase (CSP) with a (tert-butyl carbamoyl) quinine selector immobilized on thiol-modified silica has been characterized by (1)H HR/MAS NMR and (29)Si CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The mostly well-resolved (1)H signals could be assigned to stem from the surface-bound selector and the latter suggested a bi- and trifunctional silane linkage. Suspended-state NMR spectroscopy thus proved a well-characterized surface chemistry as proposed. To study chiral recognition phenomena in the presence of the CSP, (1)H HR/MAS 2D transfer NOESY investigations in methanol-d(4) have been undertaken with various solutes including N-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivatives of leucine (DNB-Leu) and N-acetyl phenylalanine (Ac-Phe). Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of DNB-Leu and Ac-Phe interacted with the tBuCQN-CSP as indicated by negative cross-peaks in the trNOESY spectra, while the 2D NOESY of the dissolved solutes in absence of the chiral stationary phase showed positive cross-peaks. The intensities of the trNOE cross-peaks were much stronger for the (S)-enantiomers. This stereoselectivity paralleled the experimental chromatographic behavior, where the (S)-enantiomers revealed stronger binding and retention on the tBuCQN-CSP as well. Hence, we were able to correlate the retention behavior to the trNOE NMR spectroscopic data in a qualitative manner.

  11. 1H HR/MAS NMR in the suspended state: molecular recognition processes in liquid chromatography between steroids and a silica hydride-based cholesterol phase.

    PubMed

    Friebolin, Volker; Bayer, Marc P; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Albert, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    A mixture of eight steroids was separated by HPLC on a silica hydride-based stationary phase modified with a moiety of cholesteryl 10-undecanoate. Within the steroid mixture progesterone showed the longest retention time suggesting the strongest interaction with the stationary phase material. To obtain more detailed information upon the effective separation process, interaction studies were performed by high resolution/magic angle spinning (HR/MAS) NMR spectroscopy recorded in the suspended state. (1)H saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments with T(1rho) suppression showed significant hydrophobic binding affinities of progesterone toward the cholesterol column material. These NMR results can be correlated directly to the chromatographic data obtained by HPLC.

  12. 1H HR-MAS NMR Based Metabolic Profiling of Cells in Response to Treatment with a Hexacationic Ruthenium Metallaprism as Potential Anticancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Vermathen, Martina; Paul, Lydia E. H.; Diserens, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy was applied in combination with multivariate statistical analyses to study the metabolic response of whole cells to the treatment with a hexacationic ruthenium metallaprism [1]6+ as potential anticancer drug. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780), the corresponding cisplatin resistant cells (A2780cisR), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) were each incubated for 24 h and 72 h with [1]6+ and compared to untreated cells. Different responses were obtained depending on the cell type and incubation time. Most pronounced changes were found for lipids, choline containing compounds, glutamate and glutathione, nucleotide sugars, lactate, and some amino acids. Possible contributions of these metabolites to physiologic processes are discussed. The time-dependent metabolic response patterns suggest that A2780 cells on one hand and HEK-293 cells and A2780cisR cells on the other hand may follow different cell death pathways and exist in different temporal stages thereof. PMID:26024484

  13. A (1)H HR-MAS NMR-Based Metabolomic Study for Metabolic Characterization of Rice Grain from Various Oryza sativa L. Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Jaesik; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Han-Yong; Bang, Eunjung; Hong, Young-Shick

    2016-04-20

    Rice grain metabolites are important for better understanding of the plant physiology of various rice cultivars and thus for developing rice cultivars aimed at providing diverse processed products. However, the variation of global metabolites in rice grains has rarely been explored. Here, we report the identification of intra- or intercellular metabolites in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain powder using a (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR-based metabolomic approach. Compared with nonwaxy rice cultivars, marked accumulation of lipid metabolites such as fatty acids, phospholipids, and glycerophosphocholine in the grains of waxy rice cultivars demonstrated the distinct metabolic regulation and adaptation of each cultivar for effective growth during future germination, which may be reflected by high levels of glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, alanine, and sucrose. Therefore, this study provides important insights into the metabolic variations of diverse rice cultivars and their associations with environmental conditions and genetic backgrounds, with the aim of facilitating efficient development and the improvement of rice grain quality through inbreeding with genetic or chemical modification and mutation.

  14. Evaluation of Lactate and Alanine as Metabolic Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer Using 1H HR-MAS Spectroscopy of Biopsy Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tessem, May-Britt; Swanson, Mark G.; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Albers, Mark J.; Joun, David; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Simko, Jeffry P.; Shinohara, Katsuto; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of lactate and alanine as metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer using 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) spectroscopy of snap-frozen transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy tissues. A long-echo-time rotor-synchronized Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence including an electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations (ERETIC) standard was used to determine the concentrations of lactate and alanine in 82 benign and 16 malignant biopsies (mean 26.5% ± 17.2% of core). Low concentrations of lactate (0.61 ± 0.28 mmol/kg) and alanine (0.14 ± 0.06 mmol/kg) were observed in benign prostate biopsies, and there was no significant difference between benign predominantly glandular (N = 54) and stromal (N = 28) biopsies between patients with (N = 38) and without (N = 44) a positive clinical biopsy. In biopsies containing prostate cancer there was a highly significant (P < 0.0001) increase in lactate (1.59 ± 0.61 mmol/kg) and alanine (0.26 ± 0.07 mmol/kg), and minimal overlap with lactate concentrations in benign biopsies. This study demonstrates for the first time very low concentrations of lactate and alanine in benign prostate biopsy tissues. The significant increase in the concentration of both lactate and alanine in biopsy tissue containing as little as 5% cancer could be exploited in hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopic imaging (SI) studies of prostate cancer patients. PMID:18727052

  15. Metabolic profiling of ob/ob mouse fatty liver using HR-MAS (1)H-NMR combined with gene expression analysis reveals alterations in betaine metabolism and the transsulfuration pathway.

    PubMed

    Gogiashvili, Mikheil; Edlund, Karolina; Gianmoena, Kathrin; Marchan, Rosemarie; Brik, Alexander; Andersson, Jan T; Lambert, Jörg; Madjar, Katrin; Hellwig, Birte; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Hengstler, Jan G; Hergenröder, Roland; Cadenas, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Metabolic perturbations resulting from excessive hepatic fat accumulation are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, a mouse model of fatty liver disease, were used to investigate metabolic alterations in more detail. Metabolites were quantified in intact liver tissues of ob/ob (n = 8) and control (n = 8) mice using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H-NMR. In addition, after demonstrating that HR-MAS (1)H-NMR does not affect RNA integrity, transcriptional changes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR on RNA extracted from the same specimens after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR measurements. Importantly, the gene expression changes obtained agreed with those observed by Affymetrix microarray analysis performed on RNA isolated directly from fresh-frozen tissue. In total, 40 metabolites could be assigned in the spectra and subsequently quantified. Quantification of lactate was also possible after applying a lactate-editing pulse sequence that suppresses the lipid signal, which superimposes the lactate methyl resonance at 1.3 ppm. Significant differences were detected for creatinine, glutamate, glycine, glycolate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, dimethylglycine, ADP, AMP, betaine, phenylalanine, and uridine. Furthermore, alterations in one-carbon metabolism, supported by both metabolic and transcriptional changes, were observed. These included reduced demethylation of betaine to dimethylglycine and the reduced expression of genes coding for transsulfuration pathway enzymes, which appears to preserve methionine levels, but may limit glutathione synthesis. Overall, the combined approach is advantageous as it identifies changes not only at the single gene or metabolite level but also deregulated pathways, thus providing critical insight into changes accompanying fatty liver disease. Graphical abstract A Evaluation of RNA integrity before and after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR of intact mouse liver tissue. B Metabolite concentrations and gene

  16. Improved simulation based HR-EBSD procedure using image gradient based DIC techniques.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon; Marteleur, Matthieu; Jacques, Pascal J

    2017-06-14

    Conventional HR-EBSD is attracting much interest due to its ability of measuring relative crystal misorientations and microstresses with great accuracy. However, this technique needs the use of simulated patterns in order to get absolute values of crystal orientation and stresses and thus expand its use to intergranular analyses. Simulation-based approaches have shown many limitations due to the poor correlation with the real patterns specially when Bragg simulations are considered. This paper presents an improved algorithm based on gradient-based correlation techniques that makes simulation-based HR-EBSD possible. Based on this new algorithm, a new pattern center calibration procedure is proposed and validated. Also, a new hybrid procedure that combines simulation-based HR-EBSD with conventional HR-EBSD is presented that enables an absolute determination of both orientations and stresses with improved accuracy. The hybrid HR-EBSD is used to analyze the martensitic transformation induced by plastic deformation in an as-quenched Ti-12wt.%Mo alloy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative (31)P HR-MAS MR spectroscopy for detection of response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition in breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Morteza; Bathen, Tone F; Engebråten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Moestue, Siver A

    2014-06-01

    Phospholipid metabolites are of importance in cancer studies, and have been suggested as candidate metabolic biomarkers for response to targeted anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a phosphorus ((31) P) high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy protocol for quantification of phosphorylated metabolites in intact cancer tissue. (31) P spectra were acquired on a 14.1 T spectrometer with a triplet (1) H/(13) C/(31) P MAS probe. Quantification of metabolites was performed using the PULCON principle. Basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenografts were treated with the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235, and the impact of treatment on the concentration of phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and glycerophosphoethanolamine was evaluated. In basal-like xenografts, BEZ235 treatment induced a significant decrease in phosphoethanolamine (-25.6%, P = 0.01) whilst phosphocholine (16.5%, P = 0.02) and glycerophosphocholine (37.3%, P < 0.001) were significantly increased. The metabolic changes could partially be explained by increased levels of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A). (31) P high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful method for quantitative assessment of metabolic responses to PI3K inhibition. Using the PULCON principle for quantification, the levels of phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine, and glycerophosphoethanolamine could be evaluated with high precision and accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolic profiling of apples from different production systems before and after controlled atmosphere (CA) storage studied by (1)H high resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR.

    PubMed

    Vermathen, Martina; Marzorati, Mattia; Diserens, Gaëlle; Baumgartner, Daniel; Good, Claudia; Gasser, Franz; Vermathen, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Determination of metabolic alterations in apples induced by such processes as different crop protection strategies or storage, are of interest to assess correlations with fruit quality or fruit disorders. Preliminary results proposed the metabolic discrimination of apples from organic (BIO), integrated (IP) and low-input (LI) production. To determine contributions of temporal metabolic developments and to define the type of metabolic changes during storage, (1)H high resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy of apple pulp was performed before and after two time points of controlled atmosphere storage. Statistical analysis revealed similar metabolic changes over time for IP-, LI- and BIO-samples, mainly decreasing lipid and sucrose, and increasing fructose, glucose and acetaldehyde levels, which are potential contributors to fruit aroma. Across the production systems, BIO apples had consistently higher levels of fructose and monomeric phenolic compounds but lower levels of condensed polyphenols than LI and IP apples, while the remaining metabolites assimilated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of relative metabolic changes in the organs and plasma of rats exposed to X-ray radiation using HR-MAS (1)H NMR and solution (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Jang, Won Gyo; Park, Ju Yeon; Lee, Jueun; Bang, Eunjung; Kim, So Ra; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Yun, Hyun Jin; Kang, Chang-Mo; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Excess exposure to ionizing radiation generates reactive oxygen species and increases the cellular inflammatory response by modifying various metabolic pathways. However, an investigation of metabolic perturbations and organ-specific responses based on the amount of radiation during the acute phase has not been conducted. In this study, high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR and solution NMR-based metabolic profiling were used to investigate dose-dependent metabolic changes in multiple organs and tissues--including the jejunum, spleen, liver, and plasma--of rats exposed to X-ray radiation. The organs, tissues, and blood samples were obtained 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to low-dose (2 Gy) and high-dose (6 Gy) X-ray radiation and subjected to metabolite profiling and multivariate analyses. The results showed the time course of the metabolic responses, and many significant changes were detected in the high-dose compared with the low-dose group. Metabolites with antioxidant properties showed acute responses in the jejunum and spleen after radiation exposure. The levels of metabolites related to lipid and protein metabolism were decreased in the jejunum. In addition, amino acid levels increased consistently at all post-irradiation time points as a consequence of activated protein breakdown. Consistent with these changes, plasma levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate metabolites decreased. The liver did not appear to undergo remarkable metabolic changes after radiation exposure. These results may provide insight into the major metabolic perturbations and mechanisms of the biological systems in response to pathophysiological damage caused by X-ray radiation.

  20. HR, Streamlined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Human Resources (HR) administrators are finding that as software modules are installed to automate various processes, they have more time to focus on strategic objectives. And as compliance with affirmative action and other employment regulations comes under increasing scrutiny, HR staffers are finding that software can deliver and track data with…

  1. HR, Streamlined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Human Resources (HR) administrators are finding that as software modules are installed to automate various processes, they have more time to focus on strategic objectives. And as compliance with affirmative action and other employment regulations comes under increasing scrutiny, HR staffers are finding that software can deliver and track data with…

  2. M-band imaging of the HR 8799 planetary system using an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction technique

    DOE PAGES

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; ...

    2011-09-02

    Multi-wavelength observations/spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres are the basis of the emerging exciting field of comparative exoplanetology. The HR 8799 planetary system is an ideal laboratory to study our current knowledge gap between massive field brown dwarfs and the cold 5 Gyr old solar system planets. The HR 8799 planets have so far been imaged at J- to L-band, with only upper limits available at M-band. We present here deep high-contrast Keck II adaptive optics M-band observations that show the imaging detection of three of the four currently known HR 8799 planets. Such detections were made possible due to the developmentmore » of an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction scheme that is three times more efficient than a classical median background subtraction for Keck II AO data, representing a gain in telescope time of up to a factor of nine. These M-band detections extend the broadband photometric coverage out to ~5 μm and provide access to the strong CO fundamental absorption band at 4.5 μm. The new M-band photometry shows that the HR 8799 planets are located near the L/T-type dwarf transition, similar to what was found by other studies. Finally, we also confirm that the best atmospheric fits are consistent with low surface gravity, dusty, and non-equilibrium CO/CH4 chemistry models.« less

  3. M-BAND IMAGING OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM USING AN INNOVATIVE LOCI-BASED BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn; Barman, Travis

    2011-10-01

    Multi-wavelength observations/spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres are the basis of the emerging exciting field of comparative exoplanetology. The HR 8799 planetary system is an ideal laboratory to study our current knowledge gap between massive field brown dwarfs and the cold 5 Gyr old solar system planets. The HR 8799 planets have so far been imaged at J- to L-band, with only upper limits available at M-band. We present here deep high-contrast Keck II adaptive optics M-band observations that show the imaging detection of three of the four currently known HR 8799 planets. Such detections were made possible due to the development of an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction scheme that is three times more efficient than a classical median background subtraction for Keck II AO data, representing a gain in telescope time of up to a factor of nine. These M-band detections extend the broadband photometric coverage out to {approx}5 {mu}m and provide access to the strong CO fundamental absorption band at 4.5 {mu}m. The new M-band photometry shows that the HR 8799 planets are located near the L/T-type dwarf transition, similar to what was found by other studies. We also confirm that the best atmospheric fits are consistent with low surface gravity, dusty, and non-equilibrium CO/CH{sub 4} chemistry models.

  4. Radiation dose reduction and image quality in pediatric abdominal CT with kVp and mAs modulation and an iterative reconstruction technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwee; Kim, Myung-Joon; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the radiation dose and image quality of pediatric abdominal computed tomography (CT) using a protocol reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and a protocol with both kVp and mAs modulation and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). We retrospectively reviewed pediatric abdominal CT examinations performed with both kVp and mAs modulation. These raw data were reconstructed with SAFIRE at different strengths from 2 to 4 (SAFIRE groups 2-4). Another set of age/sex-matched pediatric abdominal CT examinations were also reviewed, which were performed during the same period with only mAs modulation and FBP (control group). The radiation dose and image quality were compared between groups. The image quality was objectively evaluated as the noise measured in the liver, aorta, and spleen at the level of the main portal vein and the image quality was subjectively reviewed by two radiologists for diagnostic acceptability using a four-point scale (0: unacceptable; 1: worse than the control group, but acceptable; 2: comparable with the control group; and 3: better than the control group). An independent t test was used in order to compare the radiation dose. An independent t test with Bonferroni correction and generalized estimating equations were used for the comparison of the objective and subjective image quality, respectively. Twenty-nine patients (M:F=19:10; mean age, 10.0 years) were enrolled in each group. The SAFIRE group, using the size-specific dose estimates calculation method showed a 64.2% radiation dose reduction (from 8.1 to 2.9 mGy, P<.05), compared with the results of the control group. The objective image noise of the SAFIRE groups 2 and 3 was comparable to that of the control group. The subjective image quality was the best in SAFIRE group 3 [odds ratio (OR) 3.015, P<.001 when comparing to SAFIRE group 0; OR 1.513, P<.001 when comparing to SAFIRE group 2]. Image acquisition with both kVp and mAs

  5. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200-250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg(2)), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg(2)). The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Binarity of the LBV HR Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, Th.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Wit, W. J.; Mehner, A.; Martayan, Ch.; Guieu, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.

    2015-01-01

    VLTI/AMBER and VLTI/PIONIER observations of the LBV HR Car show an interferometric signature that could not possibly be explained by an extended wind, more or less symmetrically distributed around a single object. Instead, observations both in the Brγ line and the H-band continuum are best explained by two point sources (or alternatively one point source and one slightly extended source) at about 2 mas separation and a contrast ratio of about 1:5. These observations establish that HR Car is a binary, but further interpretation will only be possible with future observations to constrain the orbit. Under the assumption that the current separation is close to the maximum one, the orbital period can be estimated to be of the order of 5 years, similar as in the η Car system. This would make HR Car the second such LBV binary.

  7. M-band imaging of the HR 8799 planetary system using an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Konopacky, Quinn

    2011-09-02

    Multi-wavelength observations/spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres are the basis of the emerging exciting field of comparative exoplanetology. The HR 8799 planetary system is an ideal laboratory to study our current knowledge gap between massive field brown dwarfs and the cold 5 Gyr old solar system planets. The HR 8799 planets have so far been imaged at J- to L-band, with only upper limits available at M-band. We present here deep high-contrast Keck II adaptive optics M-band observations that show the imaging detection of three of the four currently known HR 8799 planets. Such detections were made possible due to the development of an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction scheme that is three times more efficient than a classical median background subtraction for Keck II AO data, representing a gain in telescope time of up to a factor of nine. These M-band detections extend the broadband photometric coverage out to ~5 μm and provide access to the strong CO fundamental absorption band at 4.5 μm. The new M-band photometry shows that the HR 8799 planets are located near the L/T-type dwarf transition, similar to what was found by other studies. Finally, we also confirm that the best atmospheric fits are consistent with low surface gravity, dusty, and non-equilibrium CO/CH4 chemistry models.

  8. 2-methiopropamine, a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine: studies on its metabolism and detectability in the rat and human using GC-MS and LC-(HR)-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Welter, Jessica; Meyer, Markus R; Wolf, Ehud Udi; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Kavanagh, Pierce; Maurer, Hans H

    2013-04-01

    2-Methiopropamine [1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-methylaminopropane, 2-MPA], a thiophene analogue of methamphetamine, is available from online vendors selling "research chemicals." The first samples were seized by the German police in 2011. As it is a recreational stimulant, its inclusion in routine drug screening protocols should be required. The aims of this study were to identify the phase I and II metabolites of 2-MPA in rat and human urine and to identify the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in its phase I metabolism. In addition, the detectability of 2-MPA in urine samples using the authors' well-established gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) screening protocols was also evaluated. The metabolites were isolated from rat and human urine samples by solid-phase extraction without or following enzymatic cleavage of conjugates. The phase I metabolites, following acetylation, were separated and identified by GC-MS and/or liquid chromatography-high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS(n)) and the phase II metabolites by LC-HR-MS(n). The following major metabolic pathways were proposed: N-demethylation, hydroxylation at the side chain and at the thiophene ring, and combination of these transformations followed by glucuronidation and/or sulfation. CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were identified as the major phase I metabolizing enzymes. They were also involved in the N-demethylation of the analogue methamphetamine and CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in its ring hydroxylation. Following the administration of a typical user's dose, 2-MPA and its metabolites were identified in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and the LC-MS(n) screening approaches. Ingestion of 2-MPA could also be detected by both protocols in an authentic human urine sample.

  9. HR Structure and HR Knowledge Transfer between Subsidiaries in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang-Cowham, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to examine the issue concerning human resource (HR) structures and the transfer of HR knowledge to discover whether and how HR structure facilitates the transfer of HR knowledge between subsidiaries of an MNC in China. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation, being of an exploratory nature, follows the tradition…

  10. HR Structure and HR Knowledge Transfer between Subsidiaries in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang-Cowham, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to examine the issue concerning human resource (HR) structures and the transfer of HR knowledge to discover whether and how HR structure facilitates the transfer of HR knowledge between subsidiaries of an MNC in China. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation, being of an exploratory nature, follows the tradition…

  11. Fine-tuned characterization at the solid/solution interface of organotin compounds grafted onto cross-linked polystyrene by using high-resolution MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martins, José C; Mercier, Frédéric A G; Vandervelden, Alexander; Biesemans, Monique; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Humpfer, Eberhard; Willem, Rudolph; Lippens, Guy

    2002-08-02

    The structural characterization of organotin compounds that are grafted onto insoluble cross-linked polymers has necessarily been limited to elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and in a few instances, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. This important bottleneck in the development of such grafted systems has been addressed by using high-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The great potential of this technique is demonstrated through the structural characterization of diphenylbutyl-(3,4) and dichlorobutylstannanes (5,6), grafted onto divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene by means of a suitable linker (1, 2). First, conditions suitable for the application of hr-MAS NMR spectroscopy were identified by characterizing the (1)H resonance line widths of the grafted organotin moiety following swelling of the functionalized beads in eight representative solvents. The presence of clearly identifiable tin coupling patterns in both the 1D (13)C and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra, and the incorporation of (119)Sn chemical shift and connectivity information from hr-MAS 1D (119)Sn and 2D (1)H-(119)Sn HMQC spectra, provide an unprecedented level of characterization of grafted organotins directly at the solid/liquid interface. In addition, the use of hr-MAS (119)Sn NMR for reaction monitoring, impurity detection, and quantification and assessment of the extent of coordination reveals its promise as a novel tool for the investigation of polymer-grafted organotin compounds. The approach described here should be sufficiently general for extension to a variety of other nuclei of interest in polymer-supported organometallic chemistry.

  12. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2016-03-01

    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  13. HR Public meeting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cher(e)s collègues, En collaboration avec le Département HR, le Directeur général a le plaisir de vous convier à une réunion publique qui se tiendra le vendredi 25 juin 2010 à 9h30 dans l’Amphithéâtre principal (Bâtiment 500)*. Un café d’accueil y sera servi à partir de 9h. Cette réunion abordera les thèmes suivants : • Valeurs de l’Organisation (Directeur général) • Code de Conduite (Directeur général / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • Création du nouveau rôle d’Ombudsperson (Vincent Vuillemin) Ces présentations seront suivies d’une séance de questions-réponses. Nous espérons vous retrouver nombreux le 25 juin ! Meilleures salutations, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Chef du Département des Ressources humaines *Cette réunion sera retransmise simultanément dans l’Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin (Bâtiment 864) et également disponible à l’adresse suivante : http://webcast.cern.ch -------------------------------------------------------- Dear colleagues, In collaboration with HR Department, the Director-General would like to invite you to an information meeting which will be held on Friday 25 June 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (Building 500)*. A welcome coffee will be available from 9:00 am. During this meeting, information will be given about: • Organization’s values (Director-General) • Code of Conduct (Director-General / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • New Ombudsperson role (Vincent Vuillemin) These presentations will be followed by a questions & answers session. We look forward to seeing you all on 25 June! Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Head, Human Resources Department *This meeting will be simultaneously retransmitted in BE Auditorium (Building 864) and available at the following address: http://webcast.cern.ch.

  14. HR Public meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-12

    Cher(e)s collègues, En collaboration avec le Département HR, le Directeur général a le plaisir de vous convier à une réunion publique qui se tiendra le vendredi 25 juin 2010 à 9h30 dans l’Amphithéâtre principal (Bâtiment 500)*. Un café d’accueil y sera servi à partir de 9h. Cette réunion abordera les thèmes suivants : • Valeurs de l’Organisation (Directeur général) • Code de Conduite (Directeur général / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • Création du nouveau rôle d’Ombudsperson (Vincent Vuillemin) Ces présentations seront suivies d’une séance de questions-réponses. Nous espérons vous retrouver nombreux le 25 juin ! Meilleures salutations, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Chef du Département des Ressources humaines *Cette réunion sera retransmise simultanément dans l’Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin (Bâtiment 864) et également disponible à l’adresse suivante : http://webcast.cern.ch -------------------------------------------------------- Dear colleagues, In collaboration with HR Department, the Director-General would like to invite you to an information meeting which will be held on Friday 25 June 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (Building 500)*. A welcome coffee will be available from 9:00 am. During this meeting, information will be given about: • Organization’s values (Director-General) • Code of Conduct (Director-General / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • New Ombudsperson role (Vincent Vuillemin) These presentations will be followed by a questions & answers session. We look forward to seeing you all on 25 June! Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Head, Human Resources Department *This meeting will be simultaneously retransmitted in BE Auditorium (Building 864) and available at the following address: http://webcast.cern.ch.

  15. HR Public meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    Cher(e)s collègues, En collaboration avec le Département HR, le Directeur général a le plaisir de vous convier à une réunion publique qui se tiendra le vendredi 25 juin 2010 à 9h30 dans l’Amphithéâtre principal (Bâtiment 500)*. Un café d’accueil y sera servi à partir de 9h. Cette réunion abordera les thèmes suivants : • Valeurs de l’Organisation (Directeur général) • Code de Conduite (Directeur général / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • Création du nouveau rôle d’Ombudsperson (Vincent Vuillemin) Ces présentations seront suivies d’une séance de questions-réponses. Nous espérons vous retrouver nombreux le 25 juin ! Meilleures salutations, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Chef du Département des Ressources humaines *Cette réunion sera retransmise simultanément dans l’Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin (Bâtiment 864) et également disponible à l’adresse suivante : http://webcast.cern.ch -------------------------------------------------------- Dear colleagues, In collaboration with HR Department, the Director-General would like to invite you to an information meeting which will be held on Friday 25 June 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (Building 500)*. A welcome coffee will be available from 9:00 am. During this meeting, information will be given about: • Organization’s values (Director-General) • Code of Conduct (Director-General / Anne-Sylvie Catherin) • New Ombudsperson role (Vincent Vuillemin) These presentations will be followed by a questions & answers session. We look forward to seeing you all on 25 June! Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Head, Human Resources Department *This meeting will be simultaneously retransmitted in BE Auditorium (Building 864) and available at the following address: http://webcast.cern.ch.

  16. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Souchang; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Peden, Charles H. F.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-07-06

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on heterogeneous samples containing solids, semi-solids, liquid and gases or a mixture of them under non-conventional conditions of a combined high pressure and high temperature, or cold temperature suffer from the unavailability of a perfectly sealed rotor. Here, we report the design of reusable and perfectly-sealed all-zircornia MAS rotors. The rotors are easy to use and are suitable for operation temperatures from below 0 to 250 °C and pressures up to 100 bar. As an example of potential applications we performed in situ MAS NMR investigations of AlPO₄-5 molecular sieve crystallization, a kinetic study of the cyclohexanol dehydration reaction using 13C MAS NMR, and an investigation of the metabolomics of intact biological tissue at low temperature using 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The in situ MAS NMR experiments performed using the reported rotors allowed reproduction of the results from traditional batch reactions, while offering more detailed quantitative information at the molecular level, as demonstrated for the molecular sieve synthesis and activation energy measurements for cyclohexanol dehydration. The perfectly sealed rotor also shows promising application for metabolomics studies using 1H HR-MAS NMR.

  17. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhao, Zhenchao; ...

    2015-07-06

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on heterogeneous samples containing solids, semi-solids, liquid and gases or a mixture of them under non-conventional conditions of a combined high pressure and high temperature, or cold temperature suffer from the unavailability of a perfectly sealed rotor. Here, we report the design of reusable and perfectly-sealed all-zircornia MAS rotors. The rotors are easy to use and are suitable for operation temperatures from below 0 to 250 °C and pressures up to 100 bar. As an example of potential applications we performed in situ MAS NMR investigations of AlPO₄-5 molecular sieve crystallization,more » a kinetic study of the cyclohexanol dehydration reaction using 13C MAS NMR, and an investigation of the metabolomics of intact biological tissue at low temperature using 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The in situ MAS NMR experiments performed using the reported rotors allowed reproduction of the results from traditional batch reactions, while offering more detailed quantitative information at the molecular level, as demonstrated for the molecular sieve synthesis and activation energy measurements for cyclohexanol dehydration. The perfectly sealed rotor also shows promising application for metabolomics studies using 1H HR-MAS NMR.« less

  18. The thymus of the hairless rhino-j (hr/hr-j) mice

    PubMed Central

    SAN JOSE, I.; GARCÍA-SUÁREZ, O.; HANNESTAD, J.; CABO, R.; GAUNA, L.; REPRESA, J.; VEGA, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The hairless (hr) gene is expressed in a large number of tissues, primarily the skin, and a mutation in the hr gene is responsible for the typical cutaneous phenotype of hairless mice. Mutant hr mouse strains show immune defects involving especially T cells and macrophages, as well as an age-related immunodeficiency and an accelerated atrophy of the thymus. These data suggest that the hr mutation causes a defect of this organ, although hr transcripts have not been detected in fetal or adult mice thymus. The present study analyses the thymus of young (3 mo) and adult (9 mo) homozygous hr-rh-j mice (a strain of hairless mice) by means of structural techniques and immunohistochemistry to selectively identify thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. There were structural alterations in the thymus of both young and adult rh-rh-j mice, which were more severe in older animals. These alterations consisted of relative cortical atrophy, enlargement of blood vessels, proliferation of perivascular connective tissue, and the appearance of cysts. hr-rh-j mice also showed a decrease in the number of epithelial and dendritic cells, and macrophages. Taken together, present results strongly suggest degeneration and accelerated age-dependent regression of the thymus in hr-rh-j mice, which could explain at least in part the immune defects reported in hairless mouse strains. PMID:11327202

  19. HR-MAS NMR metabolomics of 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock genetically modified to overproduce proline.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Caroline S; Carlos, Eduardo F; Vieira, Luiz G E; Lião, Luciano M; Alcantara, Glaucia B

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of proline is a typical physiological response to abiotic stresses in higher plants. 'Swingle' citrumelo, an important rootstock for citrus production, has been modified with a mutated Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene (VaP5CSF129A) linked to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to induce the overproduction of free proline. This paper presents a comparative metabolomic study of nontransgenic versus transgenic 'Swingle' citrumelo plants with high endogenous proline. (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis showed significant differences in some metabolites between the nontransgenic and transgenic leaves and roots. The overproduction of proline has reduced the sucrose content in transgenic leaves, revealing a metabolic cost for these plants. In roots, the high level of free proline acts for the adjustment of cation-anion balance, causing the reduction of acetic acid content. The same sucrose level in roots indicates that they can be considered as sucrose sink. Similar behavior may be waited for fruits produced on transgenic rootstock. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Probing sol-gel matrices microenvironments by PGSE HR-MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana S D; Barreiros, Susana; Cabrita, Eurico J

    2017-05-01

    We applied Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo diffusion with high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR to study sol-gel matrices used to encapsulate enzymes for biocatalysis (TMOS/MTMS and TMOS/BTMS) to gain insight into the local chemical microenvironment. Transport properties of solvents with different polarities (1-pentanol, acetonitrile and n-hexane) were studied through their apparent self-diffusion coefficients. The spin echo attenuation of the solvents shows two distinct diffusion domains, one with fast diffusion (Dfast ) associated with interparticle diffusion and another with slow diffusion (Dslow ) corresponding to the displacement inside the pores within the sol-gel particles. The analysis of the root mean square displacements at different diffusion times showed that the Dfast domain has a free diffusion regime in both matrices (the root mean square displacement is linearly dependent of the diffusion time), while the Dslow domain shows a different regime that depends on the matrix. We investigated the exchange regime between the two diffusion sites. In both matrices, n-hexane was in intermediate exchange between diffusion domains, while the polar solvents were in slow exchange in TMOS/BTMS and in intermediate exchange in TMOS/MTMS. Data were fitted for TMOS/BTMS with the Kärger model, and the physical parameters were obtained. The results add to the evidence that the pores are a hydrophobic environment but that the presence of some free hydrophilic groups inside the pore, as observed in the TMOS/BTMS, has a key role in slowing down the exchange of polar solvents and that this is relevant to explain previously reported enzyme activity in these materials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. HR Shared Services and the Realignment of HR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, P.

    This report examines how adopting the shared services model of human resources (HR) services delivery can help businesses achieve better alignment between their HR service and specific business needs. Chapter 1 provides background information on the research project underlying this report, which included the following data collection activities:…

  2. HR Shared Services and the Realignment of HR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, P.

    This report examines how adopting the shared services model of human resources (HR) services delivery can help businesses achieve better alignment between their HR service and specific business needs. Chapter 1 provides background information on the research project underlying this report, which included the following data collection activities:…

  3. Alloy NASA-HR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou; Mitchell, Michael

    2005-01-01

    NASA-HR-1 is a high-strength Fe-Ni-base superalloy that resists high-pressure hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE), oxidation, and corrosion. Originally derived from JBK-75, NASA-HR-1 has exceptional HEE resistance that can be attributed to its gamma-matrix and eta-free (Ni3Ti) grain boundaries. The chemistry was formulated using a design approach capable of accounting for the simultaneous effects of several alloy additions. This approach included: (1) Systematically modifying gamma-matrix compositions based on JBK-75; (2) Increasing gamma (Ni3(Al,Ti)) volume fraction and adding gamma-matrix strengthening elements to obtain higher strength; and (3) Obtaining precipitate-free grain boundaries. The most outstanding attribute of NASA-HR-1 is its ability to resist HEE while showing much improved strength. NASA-HR-1 has approximately 25% higher yield strength than JXK-75 and exhibits tensile elongation of more than 20% with no ductility loss in a hydrogen environment at 5 ksi, an achievement unparalleled by any other commercially available alloy. Its Cr and Ni contents provide exceptional resistance to environments that promote oxidation and corrosion. Microstructural stability was maintained by improved solid solubility of the gamma-matrix, along with the addition of alloying elements to retard eta (Ni3Ti) precipitation. NASA-HR-1 represents a new system that greatly extends the compositional ranges of existing HEE-resistant Fe-Ni-base superalloys.

  4. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  5. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HR Positions on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghill, Carey Cox; Kirk, James J.

    The question of whether the online job market reflects the trends predicted for the job market was examined in a study of a random sample of 690 Internet job postings over a 6-month period. Each listing was categorized by type of position, desired qualifications, salary, and job specifications. Of the human resources (HR) jobs posted, 7.2% were…

  7. The Mystery of HR 6815

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Raymond R.

    The catalogue data for HR 6815 (V669 Herculis) are very incomplete. A literature search was carried out in an attempt to find the missing parameters, and a possible source for the single catalogued datum was found. Further suggested elements are provided, based on 105 photoelectric observations made between 1991 and 1996.

  8. Putting HR outsourcing into practice.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the time-consuming responsibility of human resources (HR) management, a growing number of medical practices are outsourcing their HR to professional employer organizations (PEOs) so they can concentrate on their core business. A PEO functions as an HR department-minus the high overhead-managing daily administrative tasks such as payroll processing and related tax filings, employee benefits, and workers' compensation coverage and claims resolution. PEOs help physicians' offices keep up with the piles of paperwork that never seem to shrink, freeing doctors to focus on patient care and building their practice. Because of their volume buying power, PEOs are able to offer employees of small medical practices big-company benefits-everything from health, dental, and vision coverage to long-term disability insurance and tuition assistance. A fledgling industry only a decade ago, HR outsourcing has morphed into a blossoming industry. Enlisting the services of a PEO is now considered de rigueur in many small business circles.

  9. MAS-NMR at very high temperatures.

    PubMed

    van Wüllen, Leo; Schwering, Georg; Naumann, Ernst; Jansen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    We report MAS-NMR experiments at temperatures of approx. 1200 K using a CO(2) laser as the heating device. An internal NMR thermometer based on the (7)Li T1 data of Li(0.24)La(0.54)TiO(3) is used for temperature calibration. Using this setup, temperatures as high as 1191 K could be reached under MAS conditions as confirmed by the melting of Li(2)B(4)O(7) at 1191 K which could be followed by (7)Li-MAS-NMR.

  10. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  11. Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    MAS is a remote sensing instrument for passive sounding (limb sounding) of the earth's atmosphere from the Space Shuttle. The main objective of the MAS is to study the composition and dynamic structure of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere in the height range 20 to 100 km, the region known as the middle atmosphere. The MAS will be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission scheduled for late 1990. The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder will provide, for the first time, information obtained simultaneously on the temperature and on ozone concentrations in the 20 to 90 km altitude region. The information will cover a large area of the globe, will have high accuracy and high vertical resolution, and will cover both day and night times. Additionally, data on the two important molecules, H2O and ClO, will also be provided.

  12. 48 CFR 538.271 - MAS contract awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS contract awards. 538... Schedules 538.271 MAS contract awards. (a) MAS awards will be for commercial items as defined in FAR 2.101. Negotiate contracts as a discount from established catalog prices. (b) Before awarding any MAS contract...

  13. Mas' Making and Pedagogy: Imagined Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournillier, Janice B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I draw on an ethnographic case study that examined mas' makers' perceptions of the learning/teaching practices at work in the production of costumes for Trinidad and Tobago's annual Carnival celebrations. During the 2005 Carnival season I spent four months in the field, my country of birth, and collected data through participant…

  14. Mas' Making and Pedagogy: Imagined Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournillier, Janice B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I draw on an ethnographic case study that examined mas' makers' perceptions of the learning/teaching practices at work in the production of costumes for Trinidad and Tobago's annual Carnival celebrations. During the 2005 Carnival season I spent four months in the field, my country of birth, and collected data through participant…

  15. Réunion publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  16. Benzofuran analogues of amphetamine and methamphetamine: studies on the metabolism and toxicological analysis of 5-APB and 5-MAPB in urine and plasma using GC-MS and LC-(HR)-MS(n) techniques.

    PubMed

    Welter, Jessica; Kavanagh, Pierce; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-02-01

    5-APB (5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) and its N-methyl derivative 5-MAPB (N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran) are analogues of amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively, and belong to the so-called novel psychoactive substances (NPS). They were consumed as stimulants or entactogens with euphoric and empathogenic effects. Being controlled in some countries, both compounds should be covered by drug testing in clinical and forensic toxicology. Therefore, metabolism studies have been performed by working up rat urine samples after a high single dose of the corresponding NPS with solid-phase extraction without and after enzymatic conjugates cleavage. The phase I metabolites were separated and identified after acetylation by GC-MS and/or LC-HR-MS(n) and the phase II metabolites by LC-HR-MS(n). The main metabolite of 5-APB was 3-carboxymethyl-4-hydroxy amphetamine and the main metabolites of 5-MAPB were 5-APB (N-demethyl metabolite) and 3-carboxymethyl-4-hydroxy methamphetamine. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the 5-MAPB N-demethylation were CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, and according to the kinetic parameters, CYP2B6 was responsible for the main part of the total CYP-dependent clearance. An intake of a common users' dose of 5-APB or 5-MAPB could be confirmed in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and the LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches with the corresponding parent drugs as major target. In authentic human urine samples after ingestion of unknown doses of 5-MAPB, both metabolites could also be detected besides the parent drug. The plasma concentrations determined in six clinical cases ranged from 5 to 124 μg/L for 5-MAPB and from 1 to 38 μg/L for its N-demethyl metabolite 5-APB.

  17. eHR: An Introduction. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettley, P.; Reilly, P.

    This document introduces the concept of electronic human resources (eHR) and its application. Chapter 1 presents a brief overview of the guide's development, purpose, and structure. Chapter 2 defines the concept of eHR as "the application of conventional, Web, and voice technologies to improve HR administration, transactions, and process…

  18. eHR: An Introduction. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettley, P.; Reilly, P.

    This document introduces the concept of electronic human resources (eHR) and its application. Chapter 1 presents a brief overview of the guide's development, purpose, and structure. Chapter 2 defines the concept of eHR as "the application of conventional, Web, and voice technologies to improve HR administration, transactions, and process…

  19. FCAPT uvby Photometry of the mCP Stars HD 86592, HR 4330, HR 6958, and HR 7786

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    2008-04-01

    New differential Strömgren uvby Four College Automated Photoelectric Telescope (FCAPT) observations of four magnetic CP stars HD 86592, HR 4330, HR 6958, and HR 7786 are presented. These observations are analyzed along with published FCAPT data to improve the periods and the light curves. The period of HD 86592 is that of Babel & North, 2.886669 days. The new periods of HR 4330, HR 6958, and HR 7786 are 3.152, 18.0642, and 8.5295 days, respectively, almost the same as their previous values from FCAPT data. The first three stars can be characterized as having constant light curves and periods. However, the small differences among the seasonal light curves of HR 7786 indicate it is a star whose rotational axis is precessing about its magnetic axis.

  20. Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2003-05-01

    Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3

  1. Angiotensin (1-7) induces MAS receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Gironacci, Mariela M; Adamo, Hugo P; Corradi, Gerardo; Santos, Robson A; Ortiz, Pablo; Carretero, Oscar A

    2011-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) (1-7) is the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Mas, a receptor associated with cardiac, renal, and cerebral protective responses. Physiological evidence suggests that Mas receptor (MasR) undergoes agonist-dependent desensitization, but the underlying molecular mechanism regulating receptor activity is unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that MasR desensitizes and internalizes on stimulation with Ang-(1-7). For this purpose, we generated a chimera between the MasR and the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP; MasR-YFP). MasR-YFP-transfected HEK 293T cells were incubated with Ang-(1-7), and the relative cellular distribution of MasR-YFP was observed by confocal microscopy. In resting cells, MasR-YFP was mostly localized to the cell membrane. Ang-(1-7) induced a redistribution of MasR-YFP to intracellular vesicles of various sizes after 5 minutes. Following the time course of [(125)I]Ang-(1-7) endocytosis, we observed that half of MasR-YFP underwent endocytosis after 10 minutes, and this was blocked by a MasR antagonist. MasR-YFP colocalized with Rab5, the early endosome antigen 1, and the adaptor protein complex 2, indicating that the R is internalized through a clathrin-mediated pathway and targeted to early endosomes after Ang-(1-7) stimulation. A fraction of MasR-YFP also colocalized with caveolin 1, suggesting that at some point MasR-YFP traverses caveolin 1-positive compartments. In conclusion, MasR undergoes endocytosis on stimulation with Ang-(1-7), and this event may explain the desensitization of MasR responsiveness. In this way, MasR activity and density may be tightly controlled by the cell.

  2. HR-MAS MRS of the pancreas reveals reduced lipid and elevated lactate and taurine associated with early pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alan S; Lodi, Alessia; Rivera, Lee B; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Tempero, Margaret A; Bergers, Gabriele; Ronen, Sabrina M

    2014-11-01

    The prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer is extremely poor, as evidenced by the disease's five-year survival rate of ~5%. New approaches are therefore urgently needed to improve detection, treatment, and monitoring of pancreatic cancer. MRS-detectable metabolic changes provide useful biomarkers for tumor detection and response-monitoring in other cancers. The goal of this study was to identify MRS-detectable biomarkers of pancreatic cancer that could enhance currently available imaging approaches. We used (1) H high-resolution magic angle spinning MRS to probe metabolite levels in pancreatic tissue samples from mouse models and patients. In mice, the levels of lipids dropped significantly in pancreata with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, in pancreata with pre-cancerous metaplasia (4 week old p48-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D) mice), and in pancreata with pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, which precedes invasive pancreatic cancer (8 week old p48-Cre LSL-Kras(G12D) mice), to 26 ± 19% (p = 0.03), 19 ± 16% (p = 0.04), and 26 ± 10% (p = 0.05) of controls, respectively. Lactate and taurine remained unchanged in inflammation and in pre-cancerous metaplasia but increased significantly in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to 266 ± 61% (p = 0.0001) and 999 ± 174% (p < 0.00001) of controls, respectively. Importantly, analysis of patient biopsies was consistent with the mouse findings. Lipids dropped in pancreatitis and in invasive cancer biopsies to 29 ± 15% (p = 0.01) and 26 ± 38% (p = 0.02) of normal tissue. In addition, lactate and taurine levels remained unchanged in inflammation but rose in tumor samples to 244 ± 155% (p = 0.02) and 188 ± 67% (p = 0.02), respectively, compared with normal tissue. Based on these findings, we propose that a drop in lipid levels could serve to inform on pancreatitis and cancer-associated inflammation, whereas elevated lactate and taurine could serve to identify the presence of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive tumor. Our findings may help enhance current imaging methods to improve early pancreatic cancer detection and monitoring.

  3. The role of water in the degradation process of paper using (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Pietronero, Luciano; Mallamace, Francesco; Missori, Mauro

    2016-12-07

    The thermodynamic properties of water are essential for determining the corresponding properties of every biosystem it interacts with. Indeed, the comprehension of hydration mechanisms is fundamental for the understanding and the control of paper degradation pathways induced by natural or artificial aging. In fact, the interactions between water and cellulose at the accessible sites within the fibres' complex structure are responsible for the rupture of hydrogen bonds and the consequent swelling of the cellulose fibres and consumption of the amorphous regions. In this paper we study the hydration process of cellulose in naturally and artificially aged paper samples by measuring the proton spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times of the macroscopic magnetization through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The observed behaviour of T1 and T2 is quite complex and strictly dependent on the water content of paper samples. This has been interpreted as due to the occurrence of different mechanisms regulating the water-cellulose interaction within the fibres. Furthermore, we have measured T1 as a function of the artificial aging time comparing the results with those measured on three paper samples dated back to the 15th century. We found that the evolution of T1 in model papers artificially aged is correlated with that of ancient paper, providing therefore a way for estimating the degradation of cellulosic materials in terms of an equivalent time of artificial aging. These results provide fundamental information for industrial applications and for the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage materials based on cellulose such as ancient paper or textiles.

  4. HR 160 performance in coal gasification equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    An alloy 825 water-cooled component failed by sulfidation enhanced thermal fatigue in a commercial coal gasification system. In an attempt to improve component life the material of construction was changed to Haynes HR-160. After several years of operating experience the HR-160 has not provided the desired improvement. Analysis shows the failure mechanism has remained the same.

  5. Building HR capability in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Naresh

    2006-01-01

    The current human resource (HR) management practices in health care are consistent with the industrial model of management. However, health care organizations are not factories. They are highly knowledge-intensive and service-oriented entities and thus require a different set of HR practices and systems to support them. Drawing from the resource-based theory, I argue that HRs are a potent weapon of competitive advantage for health care organizations and propose a five-dimensional conception of HR capability for harnessing HRs in health care organizations. The significant complementarities that exist between HRs and information technologies for delivering safer and better quality of patient care are also discussed.

  6. Pulsed field gradient multiple-quantum MAS NMR spectroscopy of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyfe, C. A.; Skibsted, J.; Grondey, H.; Meyer zu Altenschildesche, H.

    1997-12-01

    Pulsed field gradients (PFGs) have been applied to select coherence transfer pathways in multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS NMR spectra of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in rigid solids. 27Al triple-quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra of the aluminophosphate molecular sieves VPI-5 and AlPO 4-18 have been used to demonstrate the selection of the (0)→(3)→(-1) coherence transfer pathway using PFGs and no phase cycling. Compared to MQMAS experiments that employ phase cycling schemes, the main advantage of the PFG-MQMAS technique is its simplicity, which should facilitate the combination of MQMAS with other pulse sequences.

  7. HR8844: a new hot Am star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, R.; Gebran, M.; Royer, F.

    2016-12-01

    Using one archival high dispersion high quality spectrum of HR8844 (A0V) obtained with the echelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we show that this star is not a superficially normal A0V star as hitherto thought. The model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of HR8844 reveals large departures of its abundances from the solar composition. We report here on our first determinations of the elemental abundances of 41 elements in the atmosphere of HR8844. Most of the light elements are underabundant whereas the very heavy elements are overabundant in HR8844. This interesting new chemically peculiar star could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars.

  8. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey. Further constraints on the planet architecture of the HR 8799 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maire, A.-L.; Skemer, A. J.; Hinz, P. M.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Marzari, F.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Biller, B. A.; Defrère, D.; Bailey, V. P.; Leisenring, J. M.; Apai, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Buenzli, E.; Claudi, R. U.; Close, L. M.; Crepp, J. R.; De Rosa, R. J.; Eisner, J. A.; Fortney, J. J.; Henning, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Kopytova, T. G.; Males, J. R.; Mesa, D.; Morzinski, K. M.; Oza, A.; Patience, J.; Pinna, E.; Rajan, A.; Schertl, D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vaz, A.; Ward-Duong, K.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Astrometric monitoring of directly imaged exoplanets allows the study of their orbital parameters and system architectures. Because most directly imaged planets have long orbital periods (>20 AU), accurate astrometry is challenging when based on data acquired on timescales of a few years and usually with different instruments. The LMIRCam camera on the Large Binocular Telescope is being used for the LBT Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) survey to search for and characterize young and adolescent exoplanets in L' band (3.8 μm), including their system architectures. Aims: We first aim to provide a good astrometric calibration of LMIRCam. Then, we derive new astrometry, test the predictions of the orbital model of 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance proposed for the system, and perform new orbital fitting of the HR 8799 bcde planets. We also present deep limits on a putative fifth planet inside the known planets. Methods: We use observations of HR 8799 and the Θ1 Ori C field obtained during the same run in October 2013. Results: We first characterize the distortion of LMIRCam. We determine a platescale and a true north orientation for the images of 10.707 ± 0.012 mas/pix and -0.430 ± 0.076°, respectively. The errors on the platescale and true north orientation translate into astrometric accuracies at a separation of 1'' of 1.1 mas and 1.3 mas, respectively. The measurements for all planets agree within 3σ with a predicted ephemeris. The orbital fitting based on the new astrometric measurements favors an architecture for the planetary system based on 8:4:2:1 mean motion resonance. The detection limits allow us to exclude a fifth planet slightly brighter or more massive than HR 8799 b at the location of the 2:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~9.5 AU) and about twice as bright as HR 8799 cde at the location of the 3:1 resonance with HR 8799 e (~7.5 AU). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT

  9. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping

    2013-06-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (p<0.01 or p<0.05), ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, decreased the level of Ang II and increased that of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 and Mas, decreased that of ACE and AT1, and downregulated protein expression of TGF-β1 in kidneys (p<0.01). Compared with Felo group, Felo+Pue decreased DBP and HR more markedly, attenuated fibrosis, decreased Ang II levels and increased those of Ang (1-7), upregulated mRNA expression of ACE2 in bilateral kidneys and that of Mas in ischemic kidney, downregulated that of ACE in bilateral kidneys and that of AT1 in ischemic kidney, and decreased expression of TGF-β1 protein significantly. In a word, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  10. 48 CFR 538.272 - MAS price reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS price reductions. 538... Schedules 538.272 MAS price reductions. (a) Section 552.238-75, Price Reductions, requires the contractor to maintain during the contract period the negotiated price/discount relationship (and/or term and condition...

  11. Magnesium Silicate Dissolution Investigated by 29Si MAS, 1H-29Si CP MAS, 25Mg QCPMG, and 1H-25Mg CP QCPMG NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Michael C.; Brouwer, William J.; Wesolowski, David J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2009-08-01

    Olivine has been the subject of frequent investigation in the earth sciences because of its simple structure and rapid dissolution kinetics. Several studies have observed a preferential release of magnesium with respect to silica during weathering under acidic conditions, which has been correlated to the formation of a silicon rich leached layer. While leached layer formation has been inferred through the changing solution chemistry, a thorough spectroscopic investigation of olivine reacted under acidic conditions has not been conducted. In particular, the fate of magnesium in the system is not understood and spectroscopic interrogations through nuclear magnetic resonance can elucidate the changing magnesium coordination and bonding environment. In this study, we combine analysis of the changing solution chemistry with advanced spectroscopic techniques (29Si MAS, 1H-29Si CP MAS, 25Mg QCPMG, and 1H-25Mg 2 CP QCPMG NMR) to probe leached layer formation and possible secondary phase precipitation during the dissolution of forsterite at 150 oC.

  12. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  13. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  14. Optimization of dental CBCT exposures through mAs reduction.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, R; Seynaeve, L; Henriques, J C G; de Oliveira-Santos, C; Souza, P C; Westphalen, F H; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ribeiro-Rotta, R F; Rockenbach, M I B; Haiter-Neto, F; Pittayapat, P; Bosmans, H; Bogaerts, R; Jacobs, R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tube current-exposure time (mAs) reduction on clinical and technical image quality for different CBCT scanners, and to determine preliminary minimally acceptable values for the mAs and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CBCT. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and an anthropomorphic skull phantom, containing a human skeleton embedded in polyurethane, were scanned using four CBCT devices, including seven exposure protocols. For all protocols, the mAs was varied within the selectable range. Using the PMMA phantom, the CNRAIR was measured and corrected for voxel size. Eight axial slices and one coronal slice showing various anatomical landmarks were selected for each CBCT scan of the skull phantom. The slices were presented to six dentomaxillofacial radiologists, providing scores for various anatomical and diagnostic parameters. A hyperbolic relationship was seen between CNRAIR and mAs. Similarly, a gradual reduction in clinical image quality was seen at lower mAs values; however, for several protocols, image quality remained acceptable for a moderate or large mAs reduction compared with the standard exposure setting, depending on the clinical application. The relationship between mAs, CNRAIR and observer scores was different for each CBCT device. Minimally acceptable values for mAs were between 9 and 70, depending on the criterion and clinical application. Although noise increased at a lower mAs, clinical image quality often remained acceptable at exposure levels below the manufacturer's recommended setting, for certain patient groups. Currently, it is not possible to determine minimally acceptable values for image quality that are applicable to multiple CBCT models.

  15. Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-06-01

    The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.

  16. Explaining the sixth frequency of HR1217

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Margarida S.

    2001-01-01

    The frequency of the sixth mode observed in the roAp star HR1217 cannot currently be understood in the light of the asymptotic theory for high frequency acoustic modes, valid for adiabatic pulsations in spherically symmetric stars. Deviations from adiabacity, as well as from spherical symmetry will change the frequency of the observed oscillations away from the frequencies predicted by the asymptotic theory. Among others, the presence of a magnetic field in the star will introduce such deviations from spherical symmetry, and thus influence the frequency of the oscillations observed. In the present work we inspect the effect of the magnetic field on the oscillations of HR1217 and suggest an explanation to the strange frequency of the sixth mode observed in this star.

  17. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Su, K. Y. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Smith, P. S.; Misselt, K. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bryden, G.; Moro-Martin, A.; Williams, J. P.

    2009-11-01

    We have obtained a full suite of Spitzer observations to characterize the debris disk around HR 8799 and to explore how its properties are related to the recently discovered set of three massive planets orbiting the star. We distinguish three components to the debris system: (1) warm dust (T approx 150 K) orbiting within the innermost planet; (2) a broad zone of cold dust (T approx 45 K) with a sharp inner edge orbiting just outside the outermost planet and presumably sculpted by it; and (3) a dramatic halo of small grains originating in the cold dust component. The high level of dynamical activity implied by this halo may arise due to enhanced gravitational stirring by the massive planets. The relatively young age of HR 8799 places it in an important early stage of development and may provide some help in understanding the interaction of planets and planetary debris, an important process in the evolution of our own solar system.

  18. Yellow Hypergiants: A Comparative Study of HR 5171A, Rho Cas, and HR 8752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.; de Jager, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; van Genderen, A. M.; Oudmaijer, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the detailed spectroscopic variability of selected Fe i absorption lines observed between 1991 and 1995 in the optical spectra of the bright yellow hypergiants HR 5171A and Rho Cas. We also compare with the high-resolution spectrum of HR 8752. The three cool hypergiants reveal broad lines with very similar shapes. The variations with time in the line shapes and depths of HR 5171A and Rho Cas are very similar. The spectroscopic variability is caused by quasi-periodic atmospheric pulsations that strongly correlates with the observed radial velocity and V-brightness changes.

  19. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS) - NMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Alan; Boutin, Celine; Aguiar, Pedro

    2014-06-01

    The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30-50 µl for HR-MAS) for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl) whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS). As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  20. HR 7275 - A new variable star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, R. E.; Lovell, L. P.; Krisciunas, K.; Chamblis, C. R.; Detterline, P. K.; Landis, H. J.; Louth, H.; Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three years of photometry in V and B of the UBV system are presented to confirm the suspicion of Herbst (1973) that HR 7275 is a variable star. The photometry is used to derive the photometric period, which proves to be about 3% shorter than the spectroscopically determined optical period of 28.59 d. Total variation observed during the three years was 0.22 m in the V, and the light curve was always asymmetrical.

  1. Student Observation of HR 2282 (Furud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Reed; Estrada, Chris; Anker, Payton; Barrientos, Destiny; Colbert, Charlie; Dondelinger, Edward; Gillette, Lindsey; Goodrow, Jeremy; Izadi, Tara; Mayo, Colin; Milton, Jordan; Stuart, Sarah; Varela, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A selected team of 8th graders measured the separation and the position angle of double star HR 2282 also known as Furud. They used a 22- inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope to determine the scale constant, separation, and the position angle. The separation angle was 169.6 arc seconds and the position angle was 339.7 degrees. The results were compared to the 1999 Washington Double Star Catalog and were found to be extremely close.

  2. HR 7275 - A new variable star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, R. E.; Lovell, L. P.; Krisciunas, K.; Chamblis, C. R.; Detterline, P. K.; Landis, H. J.; Louth, H.; Eaton, J. A.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three years of photometry in V and B of the UBV system are presented to confirm the suspicion of Herbst (1973) that HR 7275 is a variable star. The photometry is used to derive the photometric period, which proves to be about 3% shorter than the spectroscopically determined optical period of 28.59 d. Total variation observed during the three years was 0.22 m in the V, and the light curve was always asymmetrical.

  3. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  4. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  5. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  6. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  7. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  8. Endothelin-1 downregulates Mas receptor expression in human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Zuocheng; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yong; Li, Yan; He, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. The Mas receptor is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)‑(1-7), which is now considered a critical component of the RAS and exerts cardioprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with ET-1 at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for varied time periods (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6 h) with or without the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, endothelin A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ123 and ETB receptor blocker BQ788, or different kinase inhibitors. ET-1 decreased the Mas mRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4.5 h, which was reflected in the dose-dependent downregulation of Mas promoter activity, Mas protein levels and Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), BQ123 (1 µM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) siRNA and inhibitor PD169316 (25 µM), completely eliminated the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET-1 downregulates Mas expression at the transcription level in human cardiomyocytes via the ETA receptor by a p38 MAPK‑dependent mechanism. This study provides novel insights into the function of ET-1 and the Ang‑(1-7)/Mas axis in cardiac pathophysiology.

  9. Characterizing HR 3549 B using SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, D.; Vigan, A.; D'Orazi, V.; Ginski, C.; Desidera, S.; Bonnefoy, M.; Gratton, R.; Langlois, M.; Marzari, F.; Messina, S.; Antichi, J.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Cascone, E.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R. U.; Curtis, I.; Fantinel, D.; Feldt, M.; Garufi, A.; Galicher, R.; Henning, Th.; Incorvaia, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Millward, M.; Perrot, C.; Salasnich, B.; Scuderi, S.; Sissa, E.; Wahhaj, Z.; Zurlo, A.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: In this work, we characterize the low-mass companion of the A0 field star HR 3549. Methods: We observed HR 3549B in imaging mode with the near-infrared branch (IFS and IRDIS) of SPHERE at the VLT, with IFS in YJ mode and IRDIS in the H band. We also acquired a medium-resolution spectrum with the IRDIS long-slit spectroscopy mode. The data were reduced using the dedicated SPHERE GTO pipeline, which is custom-designed for this instrument. We employed algorithms such as PCA and TLOCI to reduce the speckle noise. Results: The companion was clearly visible with both IRDIS and IFS. We obtained photometry in four different bands and also the astrometric position for the companion. Based on our astrometry, we confirm that it is a bound object and set constraints on its orbit. Although several uncertainties still remain, we estimate an age of ~100-150 Myr for this system, yielding a most probable mass for the companion of 40-50 MJup and Teff ~ 2300-2400 K. Compared with template spectra, this points to a spectral type between M9 and L0 for the companion, commensurate with its position on the color-magnitude diagram.

  10. THE CHARA ARRAY ANGULAR DIAMETER OF HR 8799 FAVORS PLANETARY MASSES FOR ITS IMAGED COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, Ellyn K.; White, Russel J.; Jones, Jeremy; Boyajian, Tabetha; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Goldfinger, P. J.; Farrington, Christopher D.; Riedel, Adric R.; Huber, Daniel; Ireland, Michael; Von Braun, Kaspar; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2012-12-10

    HR 8799 is an hF0 mA5 {gamma} Doradus-, {lambda} Bootis-, Vega-type star best known for hosting four directly imaged candidate planetary companions. Using the CHARA Array interferometer, we measure HR 8799's limb-darkened angular diameter to be 0.342 {+-} 0.008 mas (an error of only 2%). By combining our measurement with the star's parallax and photometry from the literature, we greatly improve upon previous estimates of its fundamental parameters, including stellar radius (1.44 {+-} 0.06 R{sub Sun }), effective temperature (7193 {+-} 87 K, consistent with F0), luminosity (5.05 {+-} 0.29 L{sub Sun }), and the extent of the habitable zone (HZ; 1.62-3.32 AU). These improved stellar properties permit much more precise comparisons with stellar evolutionary models, from which a mass and age can be determined, once the metallicity of the star is known. Considering the observational properties of other {lambda} Bootis stars and the indirect evidence for youth of HR 8799, we argue that the internal abundance, and what we refer to as the effective abundance, is most likely near solar. Finally, using the Yonsei-Yale evolutionary models with uniformly scaled solar-like abundances, we estimate HR 8799's mass and age considering two possibilities: 1.516{sup +0.038}{sub -0.024} M{sub Sun} and 33{sup +7}{sub -13.2} Myr if the star is contracting toward the zero-age main sequence or 1.513{sup +0.023}{sub -0.024} M{sub Sun} and 90{sup +381}{sub -50} Myr if it is expanding from it. This improved estimate of HR 8799's age with realistic uncertainties provides the best constraints to date on the masses of its orbiting companions, and strongly suggests they are indeed planets. They nevertheless all appear to orbit well outside the HZ of this young star.

  11. MAS: Malware Analysis System Based on Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyoung; Kim, Inhyuk; Min, Changwoo; Eom, Young Ik

    There are many analysis techniques in order to analyze malicious codes. However, recently malicious codes often evade detection using stealthy obfuscation techniques, and attack computing systems. We propose an enhanced dynamic binary instrumentation using hardware-assisted virtualization technology. As a machine-level analyzer, our system can be isolated from almost the whole threats of malware, and provides single step analysis environment. Proposed system also supports rapid system call analysis environment. We implement our malware analysis system (referred as MAS) on the KVM hypervisor with Intel VT-x virtualization support. Our experiments with benchmarks show that the proposed system provides efficient analysis environment with low overhead.

  12. Artist's Concept of Exoplanet HR 8799b

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Release Date April 1, 2009 This is an artistic illustration of the giant planet HR 8799b. The planet was first discovered in 2007 at the Gemini North observatory. It was identified in the NICMOS archival data in a follow-up search of NICMOS archival data to see if Hubble had also serendipitously imaged it. The planet is young and hot, at a temperature of 1500 degrees Fahrenheit. It is slightly larger than Jupiter and may be at least seven times more massive. Analysis of the NICMOS data suggests the planet has water vapor in its atmosphere and is only partially cloud covered. It is not known if the planet has rings or moons, but circumplanetary debris is common among the outer planets of our solar system. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/ESA/G. Bacon (STScI) To learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope go here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

  13. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  14. MAS2-8 radar and digital control unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, J. M.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The design of the MAS 2-8 (2 to 8 GHz microwave-active spectrometer), a ground-based sensor system, is presented. A major modification in 1974 to the MAS 2-8, that of a control subsystem to automate the data-taking operation, is the prime focus. The digital control unit automatically changes all system parameters except FM rate and records the return signal on paper tape. The overall system operation and a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the digital control unit are presented.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HR 8799e and HR 8799d spectra (Zurlo+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Galicher, R.; Maire, A.-L.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Chauvin, G.; Kasper, M.; Moutou, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Abe, L.; Apai, D.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudoz, P.; Baudrand, J.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blancard, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Cantalloube, F.; Carle, M.; Cascone, E.; Charton, J.; Claudi, R. U.; Costille, A.; de Caprio, V.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Fantinel, D.; Feautrier, P.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Gigan, P.; Girard, J. H.; Gisler, D.; Gluck, L.; Gry, C.; Henning, T.; Hugot, E.; Janson, M.; Jaquet, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Magnard, Y.; Martinez, P.; Maurel, D.; Mawet, D.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Origne, A.; Pavlov, A.; Petit, C.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Rabou, P.; Ramos, J.; Rousset, G.; Roux, A.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Schmid, H. M.; Soenke, C.; Stadler, E.; Suarez, M.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Wildi, F.; Antichi, J.

    2015-11-01

    The files contain the wavelength in micrometers in the first column, the flux in W/m2/mum in the second column and the corresponding error in the third. We refer to the text for more informations /Users/alice/paper_hr8799/readme.txt. Any further question can be addressed to alice.zurlo@mail.udp.cl (2 data files).

  16. Indirect detection of infinite-speed MAS solid-state NMR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P.; Goh, Tian Wei; Huang, Wenyu; Rossini, Aaron J.; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic 1H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic ;infinite-MAS; spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides. For these nuclides, the combination of fast MAS and 1H detection provides a high sensitivity, which rivals the DNP-enhanced ultra-wideline SSNMR. The new pulse sequences were used to determine the Pt coordination environments in a complex mixture of decomposition products of transplatin and in a metal-organic framework with Pt ions coordinated to the linker ligands.

  17. High-resolution proton-detected NMR of proteins at very fast MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Loren B.; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-04-01

    When combined with high-frequency (currently ∼60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS), proton detection boosts sensitivity and increases coherence lifetimes, resulting in narrow 1H lines. Herein, we review methods for efficient proton detected techniques and applications in highly deuterated proteins, with an emphasis on 100% selected 1H site concentration for the purpose of sensitivity. We discuss the factors affecting resolution and sensitivity that have resulted in higher and higher frequency MAS. Next we describe the various methods that have been used for backbone and side-chain assignment with proton detection, highlighting the efficient use of scalar-based 13C-13C transfers. Additionally, we show new spectra making use of these schemes for side-chain assignment of methyl 13C-1H resonances. The rapid acquisition of resolved 2D spectra with proton detection allows efficient measurement of relaxation parameters used as a measure of dynamic processes. Under rapid MAS, relaxation times can be measured in a site-specific manner in medium-sized proteins, enabling the investigation of molecular motions at high resolution. Additionally, we discuss methods for measurement of structural parameters, including measurement of internuclear 1H-1H contacts and the use of paramagnetic effects in the determination of global structure.

  18. High-resolution proton-detected NMR of proteins at very fast MAS.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Loren B; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-04-01

    When combined with high-frequency (currently ∼60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS), proton detection boosts sensitivity and increases coherence lifetimes, resulting in narrow ((1))H lines. Herein, we review methods for efficient proton detected techniques and applications in highly deuterated proteins, with an emphasis on 100% selected ((1))H site concentration for the purpose of sensitivity. We discuss the factors affecting resolution and sensitivity that have resulted in higher and higher frequency MAS. Next we describe the various methods that have been used for backbone and side-chain assignment with proton detection, highlighting the efficient use of scalar-based ((13))C-((13))C transfers. Additionally, we show new spectra making use of these schemes for side-chain assignment of methyl ((13))C-((1))H resonances. The rapid acquisition of resolved 2D spectra with proton detection allows efficient measurement of relaxation parameters used as a measure of dynamic processes. Under rapid MAS, relaxation times can be measured in a site-specific manner in medium-sized proteins, enabling the investigation of molecular motions at high resolution. Additionally, we discuss methods for measurement of structural parameters, including measurement of internuclear ((1))H-((1))H contacts and the use of paramagnetic effects in the determination of global structure.

  19. Fast and accurate MAS-DNP simulations of large spin ensembles.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2017-02-01

    A deeper understanding of parameters affecting Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP), an emerging nuclear magnetic resonance hyperpolarization method, is crucial for the development of new polarizing agents and the successful implementation of the technique at higher magnetic fields (>10 T). Such progress is currently impeded by computational limitation which prevents the simulation of large spin ensembles (electron as well as nuclear spins) and to accurately describe the interplay between all the multiple key parameters at play. In this work, we present an alternative approach to existing cross-effect and solid-effect MAS-DNP codes that yields fast and accurate simulations. More specifically we describe the model, the associated Liouville-based formalism (Bloch-type derivation and/or Landau-Zener approximations) and the linear time algorithm that allows computing MAS-DNP mechanisms with unprecedented time savings. As a result, one can easily scan through multiple parameters and disentangle their mutual influences. In addition, the simulation code is able to handle multiple electrons and protons, which allows probing the effect of (hyper)polarizing agents concentration, as well as fully revealing the interplay between the polarizing agent structure and the hyperfine couplings, nuclear dipolar couplings, nuclear relaxation times, both in terms of depolarization effect, but also of polarization gain and buildup times.

  20. Réunion publique HR

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  1. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  2. Project MAS 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    This multi-site instructional program (Project MAS) provides instruction in English as a second language and native language arts, as well as bilingual instruction in mathematics and science to approximately 400 Spanish-speaking schools. It serves third through eighth graders at four sites in the Bronx. Its instructional and non-instructional…

  3. ADP-MAS: A Math and Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum, Academia del Pueblo-Math and Science (ADP-MAS), is an outgrowth of the National Council of La Raza's Project EXCEL, a supplemental educational enrichment model for at-risk Latino students to be operated by Latino community-based organizations or public institutions, including schools with substantial Latino populations. ADP-MAS…

  4. Resolution and polarization distribution in cryogenic DNP/MAS experiments

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Corzilius, Björn; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Andreas, Loren B.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Matsuki, Yoh; Belenky, Marina L.; Lugtenburg, Johan; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses four potential misconceptions associated with high-resolution dynamic nuclear polarization/magic angle spinning (DNP/MAS) experiments. First, spectral resolution is not generally compromised at the cryogenic temperatures at which DNP experiments are performed. As we demonstrate at a modest field of 9 T (380 MHz 1H), 1 ppm linewidths are observed in DNP/MAS spectra of a membrane protein in its native lipid bilayer, and <0.4 ppm linewidths are reported in a crystalline peptide at 85 K. Second, we address the concerns about paramagnetic broadening in DNP/MAS spectra of proteins by demonstrating that the exogenous radical polarizing agents utilized for DNP are distributed in the sample in such a manner as to avoid paramagnetic broadening and thus maintain full spectral resolution. Third, the enhanced polarization is not localized around the polarizing agent, but rather is effectively and uniformly dispersed throughout the sample, even in the case of membrane proteins. Fourth, the distribution of polarization from the electron spins mediated via spin diffusion between 1H–1H strongly dipolar coupled spins is so rapid that shorter magnetization recovery periods between signal averaging transients can be utilized in DNP/MAS experiments than in typical experiments performed at ambient temperature. PMID:20454732

  5. The corona of HD 223460 (HR 9024)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondoin, P.

    2003-10-01

    HD 223460 (HR 9024), a chromospherically active late-type giant with a high X-ray luminosity, was observed by the XMM-Newton space observatory. Series of lines of highly ionized Fe and several Lyman lines of hydrogen-like ions and triplet lines of helium-like ions are visible in the reflection grating spectra, most notably from O and Ne. Analysis results suggest a scenario where the corona of HD 223460 is dominated by large magnetic structures similar in size to interconnecting loops between solar active regions but significantly hotter. The surface area coverage of these active regions may approach up to 30%. A hypothesis is that the interaction of these structures themselves induces a flaring activity on a small scale not visible in the EPIC light curves that is responsible for heating HD 223460 plasma to coronal temperatures of T >=107 K. The intense X-ray activity of HD 223460 is related to its evolutionary position at the bottom of the red giant branch. It is anticipated that its rotation will spin down in the future with the effect of decreasing its helicity-related, dynamo-driven activity and suppressing large-scale magnetic structures in its corona.

  6. Improved practices, synthetic mud drive record 24-hr drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J.; White, W.W.

    1995-05-01

    Revised and improved drilling practices resulted in increased rate of penetration (ROP), improved hole cleaning, decreased circulating time, fewer instances of stuck pipe and reduced total drilling days. Rig equipment modifications and optimized techniques, combined with olefin-based synthetic fluid, produced significant efficiency improvements and cost reductions. Total-project strategy allows best technologies to be used, even if they are not low bid. In the Gulf of Mexico, a total-project concept helped Marathon drill back-to-back record 24-hr footages. Methods and philosophy described in this article allow drillers to choose optimum technologies, tools, materials and service performance for achieving optimum or lowest cost per foot rather than always using low bid.

  7. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799.

    PubMed

    Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis; Zuckerman, B; Song, Inseok; Patience, Jennifer; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René

    2008-11-28

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step toward imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging because of the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our solar system.

  8. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  9. [Hepatic manifestation of a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)].

    PubMed

    Nagel, Michael; Schwarting, Andreas; Straub, Beate K; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim

    2017-04-04

    Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure. In addition to genetic causes, MAS is commonly associated with infections and rheumatic diseases. We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient suffering from MAS as a rare cause of elevated liver enzymes. Methods Patient characteristics, laboratory values, liver histology, bone marrow and radiological imaging were documented and analyzed. Case Report After an ordinary upper airway infection with bronchitis, a rheumatic arthritis appeared and was treated with leflunomide und methotrexate. In the further course of the disease, the patient developed an acute hepatitis with fever, pancytopenia and massive hyperferritinemia. Immunohistochemistry of the liver biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis and activation of CD68-positive macrophages. In the radiological and histological diagnostics of the liver and bone marrow, an MAS was diagnosed as underlying disease of the acute hepatitis. Under therapy with prednisolone, the fever disappeared and transaminases and ferritin rapidly normalized. Conclusion Aside from the frequent causes of elevated liver values in younger patients, such as nutritive toxic, drug induced liver injury, viral or autoimmune hepatitis, especially in case of massive hyperferritinemia, a MAS should be considered as a rare cause of acute liver disease.

  10. The hot white-dwarf companions of HR 1608, HR 8210, and HD 15638

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore; Bergeron, P.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained low-dispersion IUE spectra of the late-type stars HD 15638 (F3 V), HR 1608 (=63 Eridani, KO IV), and HR 8210 (A8m). Each of these stars had been detected as a strong EUV source with the Wide Field Camera aboard the ROSAT satellite. The short-wavelength IUE spectrum of each star reveals the presence of a hot white-dwarf companion. We have fit the Lyman-alpha profile and UV continuum of each white dwarf using pure hydrogen models. The excellent fit of the data to the models provides confirmation of the Finley and Koester absolute calibration of the SWP camera of IUE. The UV data alone are insufficient to constrain the model gravity, but an additional constraint is provided by the photometric distance to the late-type primary. The most interesting of the three white dwarfs is the companion to HR 8210 for which our results imply a mass of 1.15 +0.05/-0.15 solar mass. This result is in good agreement with the lower limit on the mass derived from the spectroscopic orbit (greater than 1.1 solar mass), provided that the inclination is close to 90 deg.

  11. Multiple-quantum cross-polarization in MAS NMR of quadrupolar nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Brown, Steven P.; Wimperis, Stephen

    1998-05-01

    Using 27Al ( I=5/2) NMR of aluminium acetylacetonate, we show that it is possible to cross-polarize from a spin I=1/2 nucleus ( 1H) directly to the central triple-quantum transition of a half-integer quadrupolar nucleus ( 27Al) in a powdered sample under MAS conditions. The optimum conditions for this multiple-quantum cross-polarization (MQCP) are investigated experimentally and compared with existing theoretical results. The new technique is applied to the recently introduced two-dimensional MQMAS experiment for recording high-resolution NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

  12. Stabilization of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas through interaction with PSD95.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weihua; Sun, Licui; Yang, Longyan; Li, Ji-Feng; Hu, Jia; Zheng, Shuai; Guo, Ruihan; Feng, Duiping; Ma, Qian; Shi, Xiaocui; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Xiaomei; Song, Ran; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Songlin; He, Junqi

    2013-08-01

    The functions and signalling mechanisms of the Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] receptor Mas have been studied extensively. However, less attention has been paid to the intracellular regulation of Mas protein. In the present study, PSD95 (postsynaptic density 95), a novel binding protein of Mas receptor, was identified, and their association was characterized further. Mas specifically interacts with PDZ1-2, but not the PDZ3, domain of PSD95 via Mas-CT (Mas C-terminus), and the last four amino acids [ETVV (Glu-Thr-Val-Val)] of Mas-CT were determined to be essential for this interaction, as shown by GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal co-localization experiments. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies indicated that PSD95 enhanced Mas protein expression by increasing the stabilization of the receptor. Mas degradation was robustly inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in time- and dose-dependent manners, and the expression of PSD95 impaired Mas ubiquitination, indicating that the PSD95-Mas association inhibits Mas receptor degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of Mas receptor regulation by which its expression is modulated at the post-translational level by ubiquitination, and clarify the role of PSD95, which binds directly to Mas, blocking the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the receptor via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  13. Starspots on V711 Tauri /HR 1099/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Siah, M. J.; Guinan, E. F.; McCook, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    Hα (λ6563) intermediate- and narrowband light curves of the RS CVn-type binary system V711 Tau (HR 1099) were obtained in 1977-1978 at Biruni Observatory and in 1977-1978 and late 1979 at Villanova Observatory, where a λ7790 light curve was also obtained in 1977-1978. The light curves are quasisinusoidal, with a period approximately equal to the spectroscopic period. A significant change in the λ6585 light curve occurred between the two observing seasons, with an increase in amplitude from 0.075 to 0.125 mag, a change of shape, and an advance in the phases of maximum and minimum light by 0.3 phase. Flaring activity in Hα was observed, on time scales from minutes to days. We fitted our light curves and V-band light curves obtained at the same time using the starspot model of Torres and Ferraz Mello. We the observed light variations are due to the synchronous rotation of spots on the heavier member of the binary system, which has been shown to be the chromospherically active star. The orbital inclination was assumed to be 35°. Radiant fluxes were taken from spectrophotometric tables. Owing to the broad wavelength coverage in 1977-1978, it was possible to determine the spot temperature to be ˜1800 K cooler than the photosphere, and hence to fix the spot area. A simple model with two circular spots of 26° radius at the same latitude, +48°, adequately reproduces the 1977-1978 light curves. The 1979 observations can be reproduced in detail by a model with two slightly larger circular spots of 31°.5 radius at latitude +15°. The spots cover about 14% of the total stellar surface in 1979. The fits also provide an explanation of the presence of an observed phase dependence in the Hα emission in 1979 but not in 1977-1978. There is a strong suggestion that a spot cycle is in progress in V711 Tau.

  14. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR.

    PubMed

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  16. Solvent signal suppression for high-resolution MAS-DNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daniel; Chaudhari, Sachin R.; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a powerful tool to substantially increase the sensitivity of high-field magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. The addition of dissolved hyperpolarizing agents usually results in the presence of solvent signals that can overlap and obscure those of interest from the analyte. Here, two methods are proposed to suppress DNP solvent signals: a Forced Echo Dephasing experiment (FEDex) and TRAnsfer of Populations in DOuble Resonance Echo Dephasing (TRAPDORED) NMR. These methods reintroduce a heteronuclear dipolar interaction that is specific to the solvent, thereby forcing a dephasing of recoupled solvent spins and leaving acquired NMR spectra free of associated resonance overlap with the analyte. The potency of these methods is demonstrated on sample types common to MAS-DNP experiments, namely a frozen solution (of L-proline) and a powdered solid (progesterone), both containing deuterated glycerol as a DNP solvent. The proposed methods are efficient, simple to implement, compatible with other NMR experiments, and extendable past spectral editing for just DNP solvents. The sensitivity gains from MAS-DNP in conjunction with FEDex or TRAPDORED then permits rapid and uninterrupted sample analysis.

  17. Characterization of the Red Giant HR 2582 Using the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; McAlister, Harold A.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Farrington, Christopher D.; Vargas, Norm; van Belle, Gerard T.; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2013-07-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of HR 2582, a high-mass red giant star whose evolutionary state is a mystery. We used the CHARA Array interferometer to directly measure the star's limb-darkened angular diameter (1.006 ± 0.020 mas) and combined our measurement with parallax and photometry from the literature to calculate its physical radius (35.76 ± 5.31 R ⊙), luminosity (517.8 ± 17.5 L ⊙), bolometric flux (14.8 ± 0.5 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2), and effective temperature (4577 ± 60 K). We then determined the star's mass (5.6 ± 1.7 M ⊙) using our new values with stellar oscillation results from Baudin et al. Finally, using the Yonsei-Yale evolutionary models, we estimated HR 2582's age to be 165^{+20}_{-15} Myr. While our measurements do not provide the precision required to definitively state where the star is in its evolution, it remains an excellent test case for evaluating stellar interior models.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RED GIANT HR 2582 USING THE CHARA ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, Ellyn K.; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Farrington, Christopher D.; Vargas, Norm; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2013-07-20

    We present the fundamental parameters of HR 2582, a high-mass red giant star whose evolutionary state is a mystery. We used the CHARA Array interferometer to directly measure the star's limb-darkened angular diameter (1.006 {+-} 0.020 mas) and combined our measurement with parallax and photometry from the literature to calculate its physical radius (35.76 {+-} 5.31 R{sub Sun }), luminosity (517.8 {+-} 17.5 L{sub Sun }), bolometric flux (14.8 {+-} 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), and effective temperature (4577 {+-} 60 K). We then determined the star's mass (5.6 {+-} 1.7 M{sub Sun }) using our new values with stellar oscillation results from Baudin et al. Finally, using the Yonsei-Yale evolutionary models, we estimated HR 2582's age to be 165{sup +20}{sub -15} Myr. While our measurements do not provide the precision required to definitively state where the star is in its evolution, it remains an excellent test case for evaluating stellar interior models.

  19. The MicroMAS CubeSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Allen, G.; Bury, M.; Efromson, R.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, V.; Osaretin, I.; Retherford, L.; Scarito, M.; Shields, M.; Toher, D.; Wight, K.; Miller, D.; Marinan, A.; Paek, S.; Peters, E.; Schmidt, F. H.; Alvisio, B.; Wise, E.; Masterson, R.; Franzim Miranda, D.; Crail, C.; Kingsbury, R.; Souffrant, A.; Orrego, L.; Eslinger, G.; Nicholas, A.; Pong, C.

    2012-12-01

    The recently published Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey finds that, "The nation's Earth observing system is beginning a rapid decline in capability as long-running missions end and key new missions are delayed, lost, or canceled. The projected loss of observing capability could have significant adverse consequences for science and society." In this presentation, we explore low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that can meet stringent performance requirements pervading the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. New technologies have enabled a novel approach toward this science observational goal, and in this paper we describe recent technology develop efforts to address the challenges above through the use of CubeSat radiometers. The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (30x10x10 cm, ~4kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately 500-km altitude. A MicroMAS flight unit is currently being developed in anticipation of a 2014 launch to be provided by NASA. A parabolic reflector is mechanically rotated as the spacecraft orbits the earth, thus directing a cross-track scanned beam with FWHM beamwidth of 2.4-degrees, yielding an approximately 25-km diameter footprint from a nominal altitude of 500 km. Radiometric calibration is carried out using observations of cold space, the earth's limb, and an internal noise diode that is weakly coupled through the RF front-end electronics. A key technology feature is the development of an ultra-compact intermediate frequency processor module for channelization, detection, and A-to-D conversion. The antenna system and RF front

  20. Rapid acquisition of wideline MAS solid-state NMR spectra with fast MAS, proton detection, and dipolar HMQC pulse sequences.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Hanrahan, Michael P; Thuo, Martin

    2016-09-14

    The solid-state NMR spectra of many NMR active elements are often extremely broad due to the presence of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and/or the quadrupolar interaction (for nuclei with spin I > 1/2). These NMR interactions often give rise to wideline solid-state NMR spectra which can span hundreds of kHz or several MHz. Here we demonstrate that by using fast MAS, proton detection and dipolar hetero-nuclear multiple-quantum (D-HMQC) pulse sequences, it is possible to rapidly acquire 2D spectra which correlate (1)H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected wideline MAS powder patterns of dipolar coupled hetero-nuclei. The D-HMQC pulse sequence enables broadband excitation of the wideline hetero-nuclear NMR spectrum and provides higher sensitivity by detecting the narrower and more sensitive (1)H NMR signal. This approach is demonstrated for the rapid acquisition of 2D (1)H detected (195)Pt solid-state NMR spectra of cisplatin and transplatin and the (71)Ga solid-state NMR spectrum of a self-assembled Ga coordination polymer of unconfirmed structure. This approach should be broadly applicable for the rapid acquisition of wideline MAS solid-state NMR spectra of moderately abundant NMR nuclei.

  1. SLOW-MAS NMR METHODS TO STUDY METABOLIC PROCESSES IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-09-25

    In vitro and in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy is widely used to measure metabolic profiles in cells, tissues, animals, and humans and to use them, e.g., for diagnosis and therapy response evaluations. However, the spectra often suffer from poor resolution due to variations in the isotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility present in biological objects, resulting in a broadening of the NMR lines. In principle this broadening can be averaged to zero by the technique of magic angle spinning (MAS), where the sample is rotated about an axis making an angle of 54o44’ relative to the external magnetic field. However, a problem is that in a standard MAS experiment spinning speeds of a kHz or more are required in order to avoid the occurrence of spinning sidebands (SSBs) in the spectra, which renders analysis of the spectra difficult again. At these spinning speeds the large centrifugal forces cause severe structural damage in larger biological objects, so that this method cannot be used to study metabolic processes in intact samples. In solid state NMR several methods have been developed where slow MAS is combined with special radio frequency pulse sequences to eliminate spinning side bands or separate them from the isotropic spectrum so that a SSB-free high-resolution isotropic spectrum is obtained. It has been shown recently that two methods, phase-adjusted spinning sidebands (PASS) and phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT), can successfully be modified for applications in biological materials (1, 2). With PASS MAS speeds as low as 40 Hz can be employed, allowing non or minimally invasive in vitro studies of excised tissues and organs. This method was used, amongst other things, to study post mortem changes in the proton metabolite spectra in excised rabbit muscle tissue (3). With PHORMAT the NMR sensitivity is reduced and longer measuring times are required, but with this methodology the MAS speed can be reduced to ~1 Hz. This makes PHORMAT amenable for in vivo

  2. Comparison of propranolol and propranolol LA in hypertension using 24-hr noninvasive blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, M. H.; Coomes, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of non-invasive blood pressure monitoring was used to compare the 24-hr control of blood pressure in 10 patients with essential hypertension taking either twice daily propranolol or a once daily long-acting formulation of propranolol (propranolol LA). Both drug regimes produced smooth control of blood pressure and heart rate through the 24 hours and significantly reduced blood pressure and heart rate on bicycle ergometry tests. There was no significant difference between the two treatments. The non-invasive oscillometric method of measuring 24-hr control of blood pressure provides an alternative to ambulatory intra-arterial monitoring. PMID:6686326

  3. Elemental abundances of the B and A stars Gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Philip, A. G. D.

    1992-01-01

    Fine analyses of the B and A stars, Gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780 are performed. Although the data cover rather limited spectral regions, still useful results were obtained. The data were mostly obtained at the KPNO coude feed telescope with CCD TI No. 3, camera 5, and grating A. The He/H ratio of HR 4817 confirms the similarity of many abundance values with those of the peculiar Mn star 53 Tauri. For the most part Gamma Gem, 7 Sex, and HR 5780 have derived abundances similar to those of other normal sharp-lined stars of similar effective temperature.

  4. Professional Development of HR Practitioners--A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an investigation into the experiences of professional development of human resource (HR) practitioners in the North of Scotland, and the use of non-formal learning in that development. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth semi-structured interviews from a purposively selected sample of HR practitioners were…

  5. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  6. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  7. Outsourcing HR Services: The Role of Human Resource Intermediaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henrik; Wallo, Andreas; Nilsson, Barbro; Hoglund, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the area of interest is an emerging type of organisation called human resource intermediaries (HRIs), which focus on delivering human resource (HR) services to public sector organisations and private companies. The purpose of this article is, thus, to explore HRIs as deliverers of HR services. More specifically, the…

  8. Outsourcing HR Services: The Role of Human Resource Intermediaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henrik; Wallo, Andreas; Nilsson, Barbro; Hoglund, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the area of interest is an emerging type of organisation called human resource intermediaries (HRIs), which focus on delivering human resource (HR) services to public sector organisations and private companies. The purpose of this article is, thus, to explore HRIs as deliverers of HR services. More specifically, the…

  9. A nonlinear filtering algorithm for denoising HR(S)TEM micrographs.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongchu

    2015-04-01

    Noise reduction of micrographs is often an essential task in high resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (HR(S)TEM) either for a higher visual quality or for a more accurate quantification. Since HR(S)TEM studies are often aimed at resolving periodic atomistic columns and their non-periodic deviation at defects, it is important to develop a noise reduction algorithm that can simultaneously handle both periodic and non-periodic features properly. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is developed based on widely used techniques of low-pass filter and Wiener filter, which can efficiently reduce noise without noticeable artifacts even in HR(S)TEM micrographs with contrast of variation of background and defects. The developed nonlinear filtering algorithm is particularly suitable for quantitative electron microscopy, and is also of great interest for beam sensitive samples, in situ analyses, and atomic resolution EFTEM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heating and temperature gradients of lipid bilayer samples induced by RF irradiation in MAS solid-state NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Weijing; Wang, Liying; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-09

    The MAS solid-state NMR has been a powerful technique for studying membrane proteins within the native-like lipid bilayer environment. In general, RF irradiation in MAS NMR experiments can heat and potentially destroy expensive membrane protein samples. However, under practical MAS NMR experimental conditions, detailed characterization of RF heating effect of lipid bilayer samples is still lacking. Herein, using (1) H chemical shift of water for temperature calibration, we systematically study the dependence of RF heating on hydration levels and salt concentrations of three lipids in MAS NMR experiments. Under practical (1) H decoupling conditions used in biological MAS NMR experiments, three lipids show different dependence of RF heating on hydration levels as well as salt concentrations, which are closely associated with the properties of lipids. The maximum temperature elevation of about 10 °C is similar for the three lipids containing 200% hydration, which is much lower than that in static solid-state NMR experiments. The RF heating due to salt is observed to be less than that due to hydration, with a maximum temperature elevation of less than 4 °C in the hydrated samples containing 120 mmol l(-1) of salt. Upon RF irradiation, the temperature gradient across the sample is observed to be greatly increased up to 20 °C, as demonstrated by the remarkable broadening of (1) H signal of water. Based on detailed characterization of RF heating effect, we demonstrate that RF heating and temperature gradient can be significantly reduced by decreasing the hydration levels of lipid bilayer samples from 200% to 30%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Copper Bronze Powder Surface Studied by XPS and HR SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvab, R.; Hryha, E.; Tahir, A. M.; Nyborg, L.

    2016-10-01

    The state of the powder surface represents one of the main interests in the whole cycle of components' production using powder metallurgy (PM) route. Large specific surface area of the powder in combination with often alloying with oxygen sensitive elements results in oxidation of the powder surface in most of the cases. The information about surface chemistry of the powder is of vital importance for further consolidation and sintering steps. Surface sensitive analytical techniques - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (HR SEM+EDX) were used for surface chemical analysis of the 60Cu-40Sn bronze powder. Determination of the compositional profiles and estimation of the surface oxide layer thickness was done by altering of ion etching and XPS analysis. The results showed tin oxide enrichment and presence of copper hydroxide on the surface of the powder particles. The impurities of P, Zn and Ca were also detected on the top surface of the powder in trace amounts.

  12. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xingyu; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35-40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD-RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD-RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-(13)C,(15)N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD-RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD-RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD-RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD-RFDR experiment is beneficial in a broad range of conditions

  13. Metabolic changes in rat lens after in vivo exposure to ultraviolet irradiation: measurements by high resolution MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Risa, Øystein; Saether, Oddbjørn; Löfgren, Stefan; Söderberg, Per G; Krane, Jostein; Midelfart, Anna

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, high-resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS (1)H NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate changes in the metabolic profile of intact rat lenses after UVB irradiation of the eyes. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to UVB radiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 kJ/m(2). One eye was exposed, and the contralateral eye served as the control. One week after exposure, the lenses were removed and forward light-scattering was quantified. Thereafter, proton NMR spectra from the intact lenses were obtained. Relative changes in metabolite concentrations were determined. The lenses in all three groups showed significant increases in light-scattering after UVB irradiation. The high-quality HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectra permitted more than 30 different metabolites to be identified. UVB irradiation caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in concentrations of taurine, hypotaurine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, myo-inositol, phosphocholine, betaine, succinate, and glutathione at all three UV doses. For glycine, glutamate, and lactate, significant decreases in concentration were observed at the two lowest UVR-B doses. The total amount of adenosine tri- and diphosphate and (ATP, ADP) decreased significantly and that of adenosine monophosphate AMP increased significantly at the two highest doses. Alanine was the only amino acid that increased after UVB irradiation. None of these metabolites exhibited a significant UVB dose-dependent relationship. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an analytical tool for use on intact lenses. Near-threshold UVR-B doses led to a generally significant decrease in water-soluble metabolites 1 week after exposure. The lack of dose-dependent changes in the metabolites indicates that repair processes during the first week after UVB irradiation overcome the immediate metabolic disturbances.

  14. Milli-Arcsecond (MAS) Imaging of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; O'Neill, John; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2016-05-01

    Dissipation in the solar corona is believed to occur in extremely thin current sheets of order 1-100 km. Emission from these hot but thin current sheets should be visible in coronal EUV emission lines. However, this spatial scale is far below the resolution of existing imaging instruments, so these dissipation sites have never been observed individually. Conventional optics cannot be manufactured with sufficient surface figure accuracy to obtain the required spatial resolution in the extreme-ultraviolet where these hot plasmas radiate. A photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, can be manufactured to provide a few milli-arcsec (MAS) resolution, with much more readily achievable tolerances than with conventional imaging technology. Prototype photon sieve elements have been fabricated and tested in the laboratory. A full-scale ultra-high resolution instrument will require formation flying and computational image deconvolution. Significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges, and some recent results in these areas are discussed. A simple design for a sounding rocket concept demonstration payload is presented that obtains 80 MAS (0.080 arcsec) imaging with a 100 mm diameter photon sieve to image Fe XIV 334 and Fe XVI 335. These images will show the structure of the corona at a resolution never before obtained, and they will also allow a study of the temperature structure in the dissipation region.

  15. Activation of angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis in the brain lowers blood pressure and attenuates cardiac remodeling in hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats.

    PubMed

    Kangussu, Lucas M; Guimaraes, Priscila S; Nadu, Ana Paula; Melo, Marcos B; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose

    2015-10-01

    Activation of the peripheral angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system produces important cardioprotective actions, counterbalancing the deleterious actions of an overactivity of Ang II/AT1 axis. In the present study we evaluated whether the chronic increase in Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain could ameliorate cardiac disorders observed in transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats through actions on Mas receptor. Sprague Dawley (SD) and transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, instrumented with telemetry probe for arterial pressure (AP) measurement were subjected to 14 days of ICV infusion of Ang-(1-7) (200 ng/h) or Ang-(1-7) associated with Mas receptor antagonist (A779, 1 μg/h) or 0.9% sterile saline (0.5 μl/h) through osmotic mini-pumps. Ang-(1-7) infusion in (mRen2)27 rats reduced blood pressure, normalized the baroreflex control of HR, restored cardiac autonomic balance, reduced cardiac hypertrophy and pre-fibrotic alterations and decreased the altered imbalance of Ang II/Ang-(1-7) in the heart. In addition, there was an attenuation of the increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, collagen I, fibronectin and TGF-β in the heart of (mRen2)27 rats. Furthermore, most of these effects were mediated in the brain by Mas receptor, since were blocked by its selective antagonist, A779. These data indicate that increasing Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain can attenuate cardiovascular disorders observed in (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, probably by improving the autonomic balance to the heart due to centrally-mediated actions on Mas receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A ‘cardiac-specific finger print’ of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a ‘MAS-signalosome’ model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of ‘signalosome’ components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor. PMID

  17. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A 'cardiac-specific finger print' of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a 'MAS-signalosome' model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of 'signalosome' components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor.

  18. Validation of commercial Mas receptor antibodies for utilization in Western Blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Burghi, Valeria; Fernández, Natalia Cristina; Gándola, Yamila Belén; Piazza, Verónica Gabriela; Quiroga, Diego Tomás; Guilhen Mario, Érica; Felix Braga, Janaína; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Dominici, Fernando Pablo; Muñoz, Marina Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Mas receptor (MasR) is a G protein-coupled receptor proposed as a candidate for mediating the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2-Ang (1-7) protective axis of renin-angiotensin system. Because the role of this receptor is not definitively clarified, determination of MasR tissue distribution and expression levels constitutes a critical knowledge to fully understanding its function. Commercially available antibodies have been widely employed for MasR protein localization and quantification, but they have not been adequately validated. In this study, we carried on an exhaustive evaluation of four commercial MasR antibodies, following previously established criteria. Western Blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry studies starting from hearts and kidneys from wild type (WT) mice revealed that antibodies raised against different MasR domains yielded different patterns of reactivity. Furthermore, staining patterns appeared identical in samples from MasR knockout (MasR-KO) mice. We verified by polymerase chain reaction analysis that the MasR-KO mice used were truly deficient in this receptor as MAS transcripts were undetectable in either heart or kidney from this animal model. In addition, we evaluated the ability of the antibodies to detect the human c-myc-tagged MasR overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Three antibodies were capable of detecting the MasR either by WB or by immunofluorescence, reproducing the patterns obtained with an anti c-myc antibody. In conclusion, although three of the selected antibodies were able to detect MasR protein at high expression levels observed in a transfected cell line, they failed to detect this receptor in mice tissues at physiological expression levels. As a consequence, validated antibodies that can recognize and detect the MasR at physiological levels are still lacking.

  19. A Comparison of Ozone Measurements Made by the ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV Instruments During ATLAS 1,2, and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriebel, D. L.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Hilsenrath, E.; Gunson, M.; Hartmann, G. K.; Abrams, M.; Daehler, M.; Pauls, T. A.; Newchurch, M.; Aellig, C. P.; Bories, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Ozone profile measurements were made by three instruments, ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV, using distinctly different observing techniques, as part of the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. ATMOS makes solar-occultation observations of infrared spectra using a Fourier transform interferometer. MAS uses a limb-scanning antenna to measure emission spectra at millimeter wavelengths. SSBUV is a nadir-viewing instrument measuring the transmission of scattered solar ultraviolet radiation modified by ozone absorption. A sample of zonal-mean mixing ratio profiles indicates that these three ATLAS instruments generally agree to within 10%, although a few potential biases have been noted. There are significant differences in the character of the agreement between ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2 which will require further study.

  20. Proton-detected heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectroscopy in rigid solids with ultra-fast MAS.

    PubMed

    Holland, Gregory P; Cherry, Brian R; Jenkins, Janelle E; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we show the potential for utilizing proton-detected heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) NMR in rigid solids under ultra-fast magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The indirect detection of carbon-13 from coupled neighboring hydrogen nuclei provides a sensitivity enhancement of 3- to 4-fold in crystalline amino acids over direct-detected versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity enhancement is shown to be significantly larger for disordered solids that display inhomogeneously broadened carbon-13 spectra. Latrodectus hesperus (Black Widow) dragline silk is given as an example where the sample is mass-limited and the sensitivity enhancement for the proton-detected experiment is 8- to 13-fold. The ultra-fast MAS proton-detected HSQC solid-state NMR technique has the added advantage that no proton homonuclear decoupling is applied during the experiment. Further, well-resolved, indirectly observed carbon-13 spectra can be obtained in some cases without heteronuclear proton decoupling.

  1. Proton-detected heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR spectroscopy in rigid solids with ultra-fast MAS

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Gregory P.; Cherry, Brian R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we show the potential for utilizing proton-detected heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) NMR in rigid solids under ultra-fast magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The indirect detection of carbon-13 from coupled neighboring hydrogen nuclei provides a sensitivity enhancement of 3 - 4 fold in crystalline amino acids over direct-detected versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity enhancement is shown to be significantly larger for disordered solids that display inhomogeneously broadened carbon-13 spectra. Latrodectus hesperus (Black Widow) dragline silk is given as an example where the sample is mass-limited and the sensitivity enhancement for the proton-detected experiment is 8 - 13 fold. The ultra-fast MAS proton-detected HSQC solid-state NMR technique has the added advantage that no proton homonuclear decoupling is applied during the experiment. Further, well-resolved, indirectly observed carbon-13 spectra can be obtained in some cases without heteronuclear proton decoupling. PMID:19857977

  2. A Comparison of Ozone Measurements Made by the ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV Instruments During ATLAS 1,2, and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriebel, D. L.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Hilsenrath, E.; Gunson, M.; Hartmann, G. K.; Abrams, M.; Daehler, M.; Pauls, T. A.; Newchurch, M.; Aellig, C. P.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Ozone profile measurements were made by three instruments, ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV, using distinctly different observing techniques, as part of the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. ATMOS makes solar-occultation observations of infrared spectra using a Fourier transform interferometer. MAS uses a limb-scanning antenna to measure emission spectra at millimeter wavelengths. SSBUV is a nadir-viewing instrument measuring the transmission of scattered solar ultraviolet radiation modified by ozone absorption. A sample of zonal-mean mixing ratio profiles indicates that these three ATLAS instruments generally agree to within 10%, although a few potential biases have been noted. There are significant differences in the character of the agreement between ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2 which will require further study.

  3. Chemical abundance analysis of π Dra and HR 7545

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaslı, Aslı; Nasolo, Yahya

    2017-02-01

    We carried out detailed abundance analysis of two A-type stars; π Dra and HR 7545. High resolution echelle spectra of these stars were obtained at the TÜBİTAK National Observatory. We determined the fundamental parameters of each target star using traditional methods. We also plotted the stars on the H-R diagram and calculated the masses from evolutionary tracks and ages from isochrones.

  4. MODIS Airborne simulator (MAS) Final Report for CLASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Arnold; Steven Platnick

    2010-11-24

    The MAS was flown aboard the NASA ER-2 for the CLASIC field experiment, and for all data collected, provided calibrated and geolocated (Level-1B) radiance data for it’s 50 spectral bands (ranging in wavelength for 0.47 to 14.3 µm). From the Level-1B data, as directed in the Statement of Work, higher order (Level-2) data products were derived. The Level-2 products include: a) cloud optical thickness, b) cloud effective radius, c) cloud top height (temperature), d) cloud fraction, e) cloud phase products. Preliminary Level-1B and Level-2 products were provided during the field experiment (typically within one or two days of data collection). Final version data products were made available in December 2008 following considerable calibration analysis. Data collection, data processing (to Level-2), and discussion of the calibration work are summarized below.

  5. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  6. Multiple non-coding exons and alternative splicing in the mouse Mas protooncogene.

    PubMed

    Alenina, Natalia; Böhme, Ilka; Bader, Michael; Walther, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The Mas protooncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with the common seven transmembrane domains, expressed mainly in the testis and brain. We provided evidence that Mas is a functional angiotensin-(1-7) receptor and can interact with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The gene is transcriptionally regulated during development in the brain and testis, but its structure was unresolved. In this study we used 5'- and 3'-RACE, RT-PCR, and RNase-protection assays to elucidate the complete Mas gene structure and organization. We identified 12 exons in the mouse Mas gene with 11 in the 5' untranslated mRNA, which can be alternatively spliced. We also showed that Mas transcription can start from 4 tissue-specific promoters, whereby testis-specific Mas mRNA is transcribed from two upstream promoters, and the expression of Mas in the brain starts from two downstream promoters. Alternative splicing and multiple promoter usage result in at least 12 Mas transcripts in which different 5' untranslated regions are fused to a common coding sequence. Moreover, termination of Mas mRNA is regulated by two different polyadenylation signals. The gene spans approximately 27 kb, and the longest detected mRNA contains 2,451 bp. Thus, our results characterize the Mas protooncogene as the gene with the most complex gene structure of all described members of the gene family coding for G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates fear memory and extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lazaroni, Thiago Luiz do Nascimento; Bastos, Cristiane Perácio; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Santos, Robson Souza; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate defense-alerting reaction to fear is a common feature of neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, impairments in brain circuits, as well as in molecular pathways underlying the neurovegetative adjustments to fear may play an essential role on developing neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that interfering with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis homeostasis, which appears to be essential to arterial pressure control, would affect fear memory and extinction. Mas knockout (MasKO) mice, in FVB/N background, showed normal cued fear memory and extinction, but increased freezing in response to context. Next, as FVB/N has poor performance in contextual fear memory, we tested MasKO in mixed 129xC57BL/6 background. MasKO mice behaved similarly to wild-type (WT), but memory extinction was slower in contextual fear conditioning to a weak protocol (1CS/US). In addition, delayed extinction in MasKO mice was even more pronounced after a stronger protocol (3CS/US). We showed previously that Angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist, losantan, rescued object recognition memory deficit in MasKO mice. Here, losartan was also effective. Memory extinction was accelerated in MasKO mice after treatment with losartan. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may modulate fear memory extinction. Furthermore, we suggest MasKO mice as an animal model to study post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  8. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Reverse Induced Fit-Driven MAS-Downstream Transduction: Looking for Metabotropic Agonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; de Paula da Silva, Carlos Henrique Tomich; Campos, Joaquin

    2017-09-11

    The protective effects assigned to MAS receptors activation have spurred a great interest in the development of MAS agonists for clinical purposes. However, the current bases that drive the design of these ligands preclude important concepts recently addressed for MAS activation. Emerging data confirmed that physiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists induce an atypical signaling that does not reach the metabotropic efficacy of constitutive MAS activation. The canonical activation of MAS-coupled G proteins is only achieved by supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists or physiological concentrations of chemically modified analogues. These pleiotropic differences are because of two overlapped but non-identical ligand binding domains (LBD): one non-metabotropic site that recognizes peptide agonists and one metabotropic domain that recognizes modified analogues. Accordingly, it is feasible that supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists undergo to chemical modifications that make them suitable for binding to the metabotropic LBD. Recent advances on Receptor Theory confirmed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization enhances pharmacological parameters coupled to metabotropic signaling from GPCR ligands, including MAS agonists. For instance, the formation of GPCR-signalosome complex (higher order heteroligomers of GPCR involved in signaling crosstalk) makes the transduction of agonists a more adaptive signal. Considering the recent identification of MAS-signalosome, we postulate the reverse induced fit hypothesis in which MAS-signalosome would trigger chemical modifications required for agonists bind to the metabotropic MAS/LBD. In view of this hypothesis, we cover rational perspectives that consider this information for the development of novel metabotropic MAS agonists provided with constitutive efficacy at physiological concentrations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Elemental abundances of the B and A stars. 2: Gamma Geminorum, HD 60825, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    1994-01-01

    We extend fine analyses of the B and A stars, gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780 using additional spectroscopic data from the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) coude feed telescope with a TI CCD, camera 5, and grating A, and ATLAS9 model atmospheres. In addition we study HD 60825, which had colors similar to the FHB A stars, but was found to be a Population I star. HD 60825, as is gamma Gem, is a sharp-lined early-A star with nearly solar derived abundances. HR 5780 and 7 Sex are also examples of stars which for the most part have solar abundances. The newly derived abundances for HR 4817 reveal important differences with respect to 53 Tau, a somewhat similar HgMn star.

  11. The Antithrombotic Effect of Angiotensin-(1–7) Involves Mas-Mediated NO Release from Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo Araújo; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Gonçalves, Andrey Christian Costa; Alenina, Nathalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2008-01-01

    The antithrombotic effect of angiotensin(Ang)-(1–7) has been reported, but the mechanism of this effect is not known. We investigated the participation of platelets and receptor Mas-related mechanisms in this action. We used Western blotting to test for the presence of Mas protein in rat platelets and used fluorescent-labeled FAM-Ang-(1–7) to determine the specific binding for Ang-(1–7) and its displacement by the receptor Mas antagonist A-779 in rat platelets and in Mas−/ − and Mas+/+ mice platelets. To test whether Ang-(1–7) induces NO release from platelets, we used the NO indicator DAF-FM. In addition we examined the role of Mas in the Ang-(1–7) antithrombotic effect on induced thrombi in the vena cava of male Mas−/ − and Mas+/+ mice. The functional relevance of Mas in hemostasis was evaluated by determining bleeding time in Mas+/+ and Mas−/ − mice. We observed the presence of Mas protein in platelets, as indicated by Western Blot, and displacement of the binding of fluorescent Ang-(1–7) to rat platelets by A-779. Furthermore, in Mas+/+ mouse platelets we found specific binding for Ang-(1–7), which was absent in Mas−/ − mouse platelets. Ang-(1–7) released NO from rat and Mas+/+ mouse platelets, and A-779 blocked this effect. The NO release stimulated by Ang-(1–7) was abolished in Mas−/ − mouse platelets. Ang-(1–7) inhibited thrombus formation in Mas+/+ mice. Strikingly, this effect was abolished in Mas−/ −mice. Moreover, Mas deficiency resulted in a significant decrease in bleeding time (8.50 ± 1.47 vs. 4.28 ± 0.66 min). This study is the first to show the presence of Mas protein and specific binding for Ang-(1–7) in rat and mouse platelets. Our data also suggest that the Ang-(1–7) antithrombotic effect involves Mas-mediated NO release from platelets. More importantly, we showed that the antithrombotic effect of Ang-(1–7) in vivo is Mas dependent and that Mas is functionally important in hemostasis. PMID

  12. Modelling the inner debris disc of HR 8799

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contro, B.; Horner, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Marshall, J. P.; Hinse, T. C.

    2016-11-01

    In many ways, the HR 8799 planetary system strongly resembles our own. It features four giant planets and two debris belts, analogues to the Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Here, we present the results of dynamical simulations of HR8799's inner debris belt, to study its structure and collisional environment. Our results suggest that HR 8799's inner belt is highly structured, with gaps between regions of dynamical stability. The belt is likely constrained between sharp inner and outer edges, located at ˜6 and ˜8 au, respectively. Its inner edge coincides with a broad gap cleared by the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with HR 8799e. Within the belt, planetesimals are undergoing a process of collisional attrition like that observed in the Asteroid belt. However, whilst the mean collision velocity in the Asteroid belt exceeds 5 km s-1, the majority of collisions within HR 8799's inner belt occur with velocities of order 1.2 km s-1, or less. Despite this, they remain sufficiently energetic to be destructive - giving a source for the warm dust detected in the system. Interior to the inner belt, test particles remain dynamically unstirred, aside from narrow bands excited by distant high-order resonances with HR 8799e. This lack of stirring is consistent with earlier thermal modelling of HR 8799's infrared excess, which predicted little dust inside 6 au. The inner system is sufficiently stable and unstirred that the formation of telluric planets is feasible, although such planets would doubtless be subject to a punitive impact regime, given the intense collisional grinding required in the inner belt to generate the observed infrared excess.

  13. Searching for the HR 8799 Debris Disk with HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, B.; Lawler, S.; Marois, C.; Tannock, M.; Matthews, B.; Venn, K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for space telescope high contrast imaging of close-to-face-on planetary disks called Optimized Spatially Filtered (OSFi) normalization. This algorithm is used on HR 8799 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) coronagraphic archival data, showing an over-luminosity after reference star point-spread function (PSF) subtraction that may be from the inner disk and/or planetesimal belt components of this system. The PSF-subtracted radial profiles in two separate epochs from 2011 and 2012 are consistent with one another, and self-subtraction shows no residual in both epochs. We explore a number of possible false-positive scenarios that could explain this residual flux, including telescope breathing, spectral differences between HR 8799 and the reference star, imaging of the known warm inner disk component, OSFi algorithm throughput and consistency with the standard spider normalization HST PSF subtraction technique, and coronagraph misalignment from pointing accuracy. In comparison to another similar STIS data set, we find that the over-luminosity is likely a result of telescope breathing and spectral difference between HR 8799 and the reference star. Thus, assuming a non-detection, we derive upper limits on the HR 8799 dust belt mass in small grains. In this scenario, we find that the flux of these micron-sized dust grains leaving the system due to radiation pressure is small enough to be consistent with measurements of other debris disk halos.

  14. Quantitation of crystalline material within a liquid vehicle using 1H/19F CP/MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Brian T; Peresypkin, Andrey; Wenslow, Robert M

    2007-02-01

    A method to detect and quantify a small amount crystalline material within a liquid solution of solubilized material is described. 19F CP-MAS ssNMR was investigated as a technique to detect low levels (0.2 mg/g) of crystalline sodium (2R)-7-{3-[2-chloro-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenoxy]propoxy}-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromane-2-carboxylate (I) within a solid mixture (with microcrystalline cellulose) and a slurry with a liquid vehicle (capric and caprylic acid triglycerides). The results demonstrate that the area of the 19F CP/MAS signal obtained in 25 min at 25 degrees C is linearly dependent (R2=0.997) on the mass of I within the ssNMR rotor. Slopes of CP-MAS peak area versus mass of I in the rotor were nearly identical for the solid mixture and slurry suspension. Signal-to-noise ratio for the low potency slurry suggest detection and quantitation of 0.1 mg of crystalline I in the rotor, corresponding to 2 mg/g of crystalline material within the slurry suspension.

  15. Slow-down of 13C spin diffusion in organic solids by fast MAS: a CODEX NMR Study.

    PubMed

    Reichert, D; Bonagamba, T J; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2001-07-01

    One- and two-dimensional 13C exchange nuclear magnetic resonance experiments under magic-angle spinning (MAS) can provide detailed information on slow segmental reorientations and chemical exchange in organic solids, including polymers and proteins. However, observations of dynamics on the time scale of seconds or longer are hampered by the competing process of dipolar 13C spin exchange (spin diffusion). In this Communication, we show that fast MAS can significantly slow down the dipolar spin exchange effect for unprotonated carbon sites. The exchange is measured quantitatively using the centerband-only detection of exchange technique, which enables the detection of exchange at any spinning speed, even in the absence of changes of isotropic chemical shifts. For chemically equivalent unprotonated 13C sites, the dipolar spin exchange rate is found to decrease slightly less than proportionally with the sample-rotation frequency, between 8 and 28 kHz. In the same range, the dipolar spin exchange rate for a glassy polymer with an inhomogeneously broadened MAS line decreases by a factor of 10. For methylene groups, no or only a minor slow-down of the exchange rate is found.

  16. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, Govind P.; Montagne, Lionel; Delevoye, Laurent

    2008-02-01

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li 2O-(72- x)SiO 2- xZnO-5.1Na 2O-1.3P 2O 5-4.1B 2O 3, 5.5⩽ x⩽17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. 29Si and 31P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q2, Q3 and Q4 sites are identified from 29Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q3 and Q4 resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From 31P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-( Q0) and pyro-phosphate ( Q1) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li 3Zn 0.5SiO 4), tridymite (SiO 2) and cristobalite (SiO 2) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using 29Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, 31P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li 3PO 4 and (Na,Li) 3PO 4 in the glass-ceramics.

  18. Afghanistan and Pakistan Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs), H.R. 1318/H.R. 1886/H.R. 2410 and S. 496: Issues and Arguments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    such they are self-contained islands of infrastructure necessary to support manufacturing , often located in relatively undeveloped geographic...President Obama in his March 27 announcement of a new U.S. strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan. Proponents of the legislation see it as a way of promoting...Figures Figure 1. Areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan Eligible for Designation of Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs) as Provided for in H.R. 1318

  19. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    PubMed

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (<10 mg/100 g) were found. The malic acid was predominant among organic acids, the total content of which varied from 0,4 to 2,8%. Relatively high amount of ascorbic acid (35-60 mg/100 g) was found. The carbohydrates profile of cornielian cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits.

  20. Elucidation of the metabolites of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methyl-N-ethyl-cathinone (4-MEC) in human urine and pooled liver microsomes by GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS techniques and of its detectability by GC-MS or LC-MS(n) standard screening approaches.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Andreas G; Turcant, Alain; Boels, David; Ferec, Séverine; Lelièvre, Bénédicte; Welter, Jessica; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-05-01

    4-methyl-N-ethcathinone (4-MEC), the N-ethyl homologue of mephedrone, is a novel psychoactive substance of the beta-keto amphetamine (cathinone) group. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of 4-MEC in human urine as well as in pooled human liver microsome (pHLM) incubations. The urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, the pHLM incubations by simple deproteinization. The metabolites were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). Based on the metabolites identified in urine and/or pHLM, the following metabolic pathways could be proposed: reduction of the keto group, N-deethylation, hydroxylation of the 4-methyl group followed by further oxidation to the corresponding 4-carboxy metabolite, and combinations of these steps. Glucuronidation could only be observed for the hydroxy metabolite. These pathways were similar to those described for the N-methyl homologue mephedrone and other related drugs. In pHLM, all phase I metabolites with the exception of the N-deethyl-dihydro isomers and the 4-carboxy-dihydro metabolite could be confirmed. Glucuronides could not be formed under the applied conditions. Although the taken dose was not clear, an intake of 4-MEC should be detectable in urine by the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches at least after overdose.

  1. Comparison of cortical bone measurements between pQCT and HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Lala, Deena; Cheung, Angela M; Gordon, Chris; Giangregorio, Lora

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of tibial cortical thickness measurements derived from peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) with analysis based on the circular ring model, using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) (isotopic voxel size of 82 μm) as a gold standard. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether the accuracy of the pQCT-based estimates of cortical thickness (CTh), cortical area (CoA), cortical density (CDen), and total area (TotA) improve with alterations of voxel size from the standard 0.5-0.2mm. Fifteen dry tibia specimens were immersed in saline in a sealed cylinder and scanned 22.5mm from the distal tibia plateau using pQCT and HR-pQCT. pQCT yielded higher values for CTh and CDen and lower values for CoA. The differences between imaging techniques increased as the average CTh increased. No systematic bias was observed for CDen, CoA, and TotA. Similar differences were found between pQCT with voxel size 0.2mm and HR-pQCT. Significant correlations were observed for CTh (R=0.97, p ≤ 0.0001), CDen (R=0.99, p ≤ 0.0001), CoA (R=0.98, p ≤ 0.0001), and TotA (R=1.0, p ≤ 0.0001) when pQCT- and HR-pQCT-derived values were compared irrespective of which voxel size was used. Measurement variability between the imaging techniques was evident. Future studies aimed at examining cortical structure with pQCT should note that there are differences between the 2 techniques. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A low optical depth region in the inner disk of the Herbig Ae star HR 5999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisty, M.; Renard, S.; Natta, A.; Berger, J. P.; Massi, F.; Malbet, F.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Isella, A.; Mérand, A.; Monin, J. L.; Testi, L.; Thiébaut, E.; Vannier, M.; Weigelt, G.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks surrounding young stars are known to be the birthplaces of planetary systems, and the innermost astronomical unit is of particular interest. Near-infrared interferometric studies have revealed a complex morphology for the close environment surrounding Herbig Ae stars. Aims: We present new long-baseline spectro-interferometric observations of the Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, obtained in the H and K bands with the AMBER instrument at the VLTI, and aim to produce near-infrared images at the sub-AU spatial scale. Methods: We spatially resolve the circumstellar material and reconstruct images in the H and K bands using the MiRA algorithm. In addition, we interpret the interferometric observations using models that assume that the near-infrared excess is dominated by the emission of a circumstellar disk. We compare the images reconstructed from the VLTI measurements to images obtained using simulated model data. Results: The K-band image reveals three main elements: a ring-like feature located at ~0.65 AU, a low surface brightness region inside 0.65 AU, and a central spot. At the maximum angular resolution of our observations (B/λ ~ 1.3 mas), the ring is resolved while the central spot is only marginally resolved, preventing us from revealing the exact morphology of the circumstellar environment. We suggest that the ring traces silicate condensation, i.e., an opacity change, in a circumstellar disk around HR 5999. We build a model that includes a ring at the silicate sublimation radius and an inner disk of low surface brightness responsible for a large amount of the near-infrared continuum emission. The model successfully fits the SED, visibilities, and closure phases in the H and K bands, and provides evidence of a low surface brightness region inside the silicate sublimation radius. Conclusions: This study provides milli-arcsecond resolution images of the environment of HR 5999 and additional evidence that in Herbig Ae stars, there is material

  3. High threshold HR (highly reflective) coatings at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; DeMarco, F.P.; Hunt, J.T.; Morgan, A.J. ); Mott, L.P.; Marcelja, F.; Greenberg, M.R. )

    1990-12-17

    We have conducted as extensive series of laser damage measurements on highly reflective (HR) dielectric coatings which have yielded 1064-nm thresholds as high as 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 8- to 10-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) of 10 Hz. Moreover, by laser conditioning these coatings with subthreshold pulses, the thresholds of some coatings were raised to levels exceeding 70 J/cm{sup 2}. These are the highest threshold dielectric HR coatings that we have tested in this regime. The coatings were originally developed to produce HR-overcoated metal mirrors for free-electron-laser (FEL) applications at high PRF. Our tests included coatings deposited on both dielectric substrates and molybdenum (Mo) substrates. In each category we also examined coatings with a pre-coat of Mo between the substrate and the HR stack. The improved dielectric HR stacks effectively shielded the Mo from the laser irradiation so that the thresholds of virtually all Mo samples exceeded levels of the best dielectric-enhanced and dielectric-HR-coated metal mirrors we have tested to date. In addition to the low PRF measurements, we also conducted 1064-nm damage tests at 6-kHz PRF using 65-ns pulses from the Kilroy damage test facility. The coatings survived thermal loading of fluences ranging from 2 to 10 J/cm{sup 2} with respective small spot sizes on the order of 1.2 to 0.3 mm (1/e{sup 2} diameter). 6 refs., 3 figs.

  4. HR 7355 - another rapidly braking He-strong CP star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulášek, Z.; Krtička, J.; Henry, G. W.; de Villiers, S. N.; Paunzen, E.; Zejda, M.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Strong meridional mixing induced by rapid rotation is one reason why all hot main-sequence stars are not chemically peculiar. However, the finding that the He-strong CP star HR 7355 is a rapid rotator complicates this concept. Aims: Our goal is to explain the observed behaviour of HR 7355 based on period analysis of all available photometry. Methods: Over two years, we acquired 114 new BV observations of HR 7355 at observatories in Arizona, U.S.A and Cape Town, South Africa. We performed period analyses of the new observations along with new analyses of 732 archival measurements from the Hipparcos and ASAS projects. Results: We find that the light curves of HR 7355gt; in various filters are quite similar, with amplitudes 0.035(4), 0.036(4), and 0.038(3) mag in B, Hp, and V, respectively. The light curves are double-peaked, with unevenly deep minima. We substantially refine the rotational period to be P = 0.5214410(4)d, indicating that HR 7355gt; is the most rapidly rotating CP star known. Our period analyses reveal a possible lengthening of the rotational period with dot{P}/P = 2.4(8)×10-6 yr-1. Conclusions: We conclude that the shape and amplitude of HR 7355gt; light curves are typical of magnetic He-strong CP stars, for which light variations are the result of photospheric spots on the surface of a rotating star. We hypothesise that the light variations are caused mainly by an uneven distribution of overabundant helium on the star's surface. We briefly describe and discuss the cause of the rapid rotational braking of the star. Photometric data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/511/L7

  5. MAS-mediated antioxidant effects restore the functionality of angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis in diabetic rat carotid.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araujo; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species during type I-diabetes impairs carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which accounts for the impaired carotid flow in diabetic rats. We also hypothesized that angiotensin-(1-7) chronic treatment of diabetic rats restores carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality and carotid flow. Relaxant curves for angiotensin II or angiotensin-(1-7) were obtained in carotid from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Superoxide or hydrogen peroxide levels were measured by flow cytometry in carotid endothelial cells. Carotid flow was also determined. We found that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in diabetic rat carotid impairs ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which reduces carotid flow. In this mechanism, hydrogen peroxide derived from superoxide dismutation inhibits ACE2 activity in generating angiotensin-(1-7) seemingly by activating I(Cl,SWELL0, while superoxide inhibits the nitrergic Mas-mediated vasorelaxation evoked by angiotensin-(1-7). Angiotensin-(1-7) treatment of diabetic rats restored carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality by triggering a positive feedback played by endothelial Mas receptors, that blunts endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species. Mas-mediated antioxidant effects also restored diabetic rat carotid flow, pointing to the contribution of ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis in maintaining carotid flow.

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses.

  7. The fate of the solid matter orbiting HR 4796A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Ghez, A. M.; White, Russell J.; Mccarthy, D. W.; Smith, R. C.; Martin, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained optical spectra, 2 micrometers speckle images, and an upper limit to the 800 micrometers flux for HR 4796A, and optical spectra for its physical companion separated by 7.7 arcsecs, HR 4796B. We detect H-beta, H-gamma, and the calcium H and K lines in emission from HR 4796B; these data are consistent with the hypothesis that it is later than spectral type M2 and lies substantially above the main-sequence. From the location of HR 4796B on the H-R diagram, the estimated age of this star is 3 x 10(exp 6) yr, and assuming this age for the entire system, we find from our 2 micrometers speckle data that there is no close stellar companion to HR 4796A (M greater than 0.125 solar mass) between 11 and 120 AU from the star. From the IRAS and ground-based photometry, it seems that there is a hole in the dust distribution around HR 4796A with an inner radius of between approximately 40 and approximately 200 AU. The observed circumstellar dust grains, which lie at D greater than 40 AU from the star, are likely to be at least 3 micrometers in radius in order to be gravitationally bound to HR 4796A, if the circumstellar dust cloud is optically thin. Since they are larger than almost all interstellar grains, the circumstellar dust grains probably grew by coalescence. Because the existing grains at D greater than 40 AU have undergone measurable coalescence, it is possible that particles that presumably once existed at D less than 40 AU, where the collision times were shorter than at D greater than 40 AU, grew into macroscopic objects. A likely explanation for the dust hole is that there is a companion located at about half the inner radius of the dust hole, or between 20 and 100 AU from the star. If such a companion exists, it must have a mass less than 0.125 solar mass. Since grain coalescence has occurred, this putative companion possibly could be a planet.

  8. Distributed Cooperation Solution Method of Complex System Based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijin, Jiang; Yuhui, Xu

    To adapt the model in reconfiguring fault diagnosing to dynamic environment and the needs of solving the tasks of complex system fully, the paper introduced multi-Agent and related technology to the complicated fault diagnosis, an integrated intelligent control system is studied in this paper. Based on the thought of the structure of diagnostic decision and hierarchy in modeling, based on multi-layer decomposition strategy of diagnosis task, a multi-agent synchronous diagnosis federation integrated different knowledge expression modes and inference mechanisms are presented, the functions of management agent, diagnosis agent and decision agent are analyzed, the organization and evolution of agents in the system are proposed, and the corresponding conflict resolution algorithm in given, Layered structure of abstract agent with public attributes is build. System architecture is realized based on MAS distributed layered blackboard. The real world application shows that the proposed control structure successfully solves the fault diagnose problem of the complex plant, and the special advantage in the distributed domain.

  9. Differential effects of Mas receptor deficiency on cardiac function and blood pressure in obese male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Shoemaker, Robin; Powell, David; Su, Wen; Thatcher, Sean; Cassis, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] acts at Mas receptors (MasR) to oppose effects of angiotensin II (ANG II). Previous studies demonstrated that protection of female mice from obesity-induced hypertension was associated with increased systemic ANG-(1-7), whereas male obese hypertensive mice exhibited increased systemic ANG II. We hypothesized that MasR deficiency (MasR(-/-) ) augments obesity-induced hypertension in males and abolishes protection of females. Male and female wild-type (MasR(+/+) ) and MasR(-/-) mice were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 16 wk. MasR deficiency had no effect on obesity. At baseline, male and female MasR(-/-) mice had reduced ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening than MasR(+/+) mice. Male, but not female, HF-fed MasR(+/+) mice had increased systolic and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures compared with LF-fed controls. In HF-fed females, MasR deficiency increased DBP compared with LF-fed controls. In contrast, male HF-fed MasR(-/-) mice had lower DBP than MasR(+/+) mice. We quantified cardiac function after 1 mo of HF feeding in males of each genotype. HF-fed MasR(-/-) mice had higher left ventricular (LV) wall thickness than MasR(+/+) mice. Moreover, MasR(+/+) , but not MasR(-/-) , mice displayed reductions in EF from HF feeding that were reversed by ANG-(1-7) infusion. LV fibrosis was reduced in HF-fed MasR(+/+) but not MasR(-/-) ANG-(1-7)-infused mice. These results demonstrate that MasR deficiency promotes obesity-induced hypertension in females. In males, HF feeding reduced cardiac function, which was restored by ANG-(1-7) in MasR(+/+) but not MasR(-/-) mice. MasR agonists may be effective therapies for obesity-associated cardiovascular conditions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY MasR deficiency abolishes protection of female mice from obesity-induced hypertension. Male MasR-deficient obese mice have reduced blood pressure and declines in cardiac function. ANG-(1-7) infusion restores obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction of wild

  10. Receptor MAS protects mice against hypothermia and mortality induced by endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Souza, Laura L; Duchene, Johan; Todiras, Mihail; Azevedo, Luciano C P; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Alenina, Natalia; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system is involved in maintaining cardiovascular function by regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. More recently, alternative pathways within the renin-angiotensin system have been described, such as the ACE-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, with opposite effects to the ones of the ACE/Ang-II/AT1 axis. Correspondingly, our previous work reported that Ang-(1-7) via its receptor Mas inhibits the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data led us to investigate the functional role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in an in vivo LPS model. In this work, we present evidence that Ang-(1-7) via Mas significantly reduced the LPS-increased production of circulating cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and CXCL-1. This inhibitory effect was mediated by Mas because it was not detectable in Mas-deficient (Mas) mice. Accordingly, IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 levels were higher after LPS treatment in the absence of Mas. Mas mice were less resistant to LPS-induced endotoxemia, their survival rate being 50% compared with 95% in wild-type mice. Telemetric analyses showed that Mas mice presented more pronounced LPS-induced hypothermia with a 3°C lower body temperature compared with wild-type mice. Altogether, our findings suggest that Ang-(1-7) and Mas inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production and hypothermia and thereby protect mice from the fatal consequences of endotoxemia.

  11. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple wavelength microwave observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum stars UX Arietis, HR 1099, HR 5110, and II Pegasi

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, R.F.; Lang, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The variabilities, core size and magnetic field of the RS CVn star UX Arietis was measured with the VLA at pairs of frequencies near 1415 MHz and 4835 MHz on June 10, 1985. Data were also gathered on HR 1099, HR 5110 and II Peg. UX Arietis exhibited variability on time scales ranging from 30 sec to 1 hr at 4835 MHz, but no detectable variations at 1415 MHz. An upper limit of 900 billion cm was placed on the size of the core emitting region, which is estimated to have a magnetic field strength of 15 G. The 30 sec variations are attributed to absorption by thermal plasma between the G5 and K1 companions of the UX Arietis system. 37 references.

  13. Multiple wavelength microwave observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum stars UX Arietis, HR 1099, HR 5110, and II Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The variabilities, core size and magnetic field of the RS CVn star UX Arietis was measured with the VLA at pairs of frequencies near 1415 MHz and 4835 MHz on June 10, 1985. Data were also gathered on HR 1099, HR 5110 and II Peg. UX Arietis exhibited variability on time scales ranging from 30 sec to 1 hr at 4835 MHz, but no detectable variations at 1415 MHz. An upper limit of 900 billion cm was placed on the size of the core emitting region, which is estimated to have a magnetic field strength of 15 G. The 30 sec variations are attributed to absorption by thermal plasma between the G5 and K1 companions of the UX Arietis system.

  14. Probing Covalency in the UO3 Polymorphs by U M4 edge HR- XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podkovyrina, Y.; Pidchenko, I.; Prüßmann, T.; Bahl, S.; Göttlicher, J.; Soldatov, A.; Vitova, T.

    2016-05-01

    Local atomic and electronic structure investigations of uranium trioxide (UO3) crystalline phases performed by the U M4 edge HR-XANES technique is presented. The experimental U M4 edge HR-XANES spectra of α-UO3, β-UO3 and γ-UO3 polymorphic phases are compared with spectra of uranate (CaU2O7) and uranyl (UO3•1-2(H2O)) compounds. We describe a finger print approach valuable for characterization of variations of U-O axial bond lengths. Theoretical calculations of spectra using full-multiple-scattering theory (FEFF9.6 code) are performed. We have tested and selected input parameters, which provide best agreement between experimental and calculated spectra.

  15. Global well-posedness for Schrödinger equation with derivative in H(R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Changxing; Wu, Yifei; Xu, Guixiang

    In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with derivative in H(R). This equation was known to be the local well-posedness for s⩾1/2 > (Takaoka, 1999 [27]), ill-posedness for s<1/2 > (Biagioni and Linares, 2001 [1], etc.) and global well-posedness for s>1/2 > (I-team, 2002 [10]). In this paper, we show that it is global well-posedness in the endpoint space H(R), which remained open previously. The main approach is the third generation I-method combined with a new resonant decomposition technique. The resonant decomposition is applied to control the singularity coming from the resonant interaction.

  16. Human trabecular bone microarchitecture can be assessed independently of density with second generation HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Manske, Sarah L; Zhu, Ying; Sandino, Clara; Boyd, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The second generation HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCTII, Scanco Medical) can assess human bone microarchitecture of peripheral limbs with a 61 μm nominal isotropic voxel size. This is a marked improvement from the first generation HR-pQCT that had a nominal isotropic voxel size of 82 μm, which is at the limit to accurately determine the thickness of individual human trabeculae. We sought to determine the accuracy of a direct morphometric approach to measure trabecular bone microarchitecture with three-dimensional morphological techniques using second generation HR-pQCT, and to compare this with the approach currently applied by the first generation HR-pQCT scanner based on derived indices using ex vivo scans of human cadaveric radii. We also compared images acquired and resampled to mimic the first generation HR-pQCT with those obtained directly from the first generation HR-pQCT. We evaluated 20 human cadaveric radii and a micro-CT performance phantom using the first (XtremeCT, Scanco Medical) and second generation HR-pQCT scanner (XtremeCTII) and compared a patient evaluation (XCTII, 61 μm) with a high resolution ex vivo protocol (HR, 30μm). We generated 82 μm scans of the same specimens to mimic a first-generation HR-pQCT evaluation (XCTIM, 82 μm) and compared these with a first-generation patient evaluation (XCTI, 82 μm). A standard structural extraction approach was applied to both XCTII and HR evaluations for assessment of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and a distance transform was used to assess trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). For XCTI and XCTIM evaluations we followed the manufacturer's standard procedure and assessed bone mineral density (BMD), Tb.N with a distance transform, and then derived bone volume ratio (BV/TV(d)), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th(d)) and separation (Tb.Sp(d)). The spatial resolution (10% MTF) was 142.2 μm for XCTI, 108.9 μm for XCTIM, 95.2μm for XCTII, and 55.9 μm for HR. XCTI

  17. HR Manager Leadership in Quality Improvement in a College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharabi, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the human resource (HR) manager on the quality of service in an academic college, and the human resource management (HRM) outcomes of the process. Design/methodology/approach: The paper relates to a customer satisfaction survey. More than 120 questionnaires were completed by the…

  18. Bumping HR: Giving Principals More Say over Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In what may come as a surprise to many, principals have remarkably little control over who teaches in their schools. For the most part, the human resources (HR) department in a district's central office, not individual school principals, makes the final call about when to hire teachers, whom to hire and in which schools they are placed.…

  19. An Ounce of Prevention: The Benefits of an HR Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    During her 13 years leading a school district human resources office, the author came to recognize that managing human capital is much more than recruiting, hiring, managing personnel records, and handling performance issues. In addition to implementing initiatives to increase the efficiency with which HR officers and staff perform those tasks,…

  20. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION AROUND HR 3549

    SciTech Connect

    Mawet, D.; David, T.; Bottom, M.; Hinkley, S.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Padgett, D.; Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Morales, F.; Kuhn, J.

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion to HR 3549, an A0V star surrounded by a debris disk with a warm excess detected by WISE at 22 μm (10σ significance). We imaged HR 3549 B in the L band with NAOS-CONICA, the adaptive optics infrared camera of the Very Large Telescope, in January 2013 and confirmed its common proper motion in 2015 January. The companion is at a projected separation of ≃80 AU and position angle of ≃157°, so it is orbiting well beyond the warm disk inner edge of r > 10 AU. Our age estimate for this system corresponds to a companion mass in the range 15–80 M{sub J}, spanning the brown dwarf regime, and so HR 3549 B is another recent addition to the growing list of brown dwarf desert objects with extreme mass ratios. The simultaneous presence of a warm disk and a brown dwarf around HR 3549 provides interesting empirical constraints on models of the formation of substellar companions.

  1. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  2. Teaching HR Professionals: The Classroom as a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, Kate; Avramenko, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and…

  3. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  4. An Ounce of Prevention: The Benefits of an HR Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    During her 13 years leading a school district human resources office, the author came to recognize that managing human capital is much more than recruiting, hiring, managing personnel records, and handling performance issues. In addition to implementing initiatives to increase the efficiency with which HR officers and staff perform those tasks,…

  5. HR Manager Leadership in Quality Improvement in a College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharabi, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the human resource (HR) manager on the quality of service in an academic college, and the human resource management (HRM) outcomes of the process. Design/methodology/approach: The paper relates to a customer satisfaction survey. More than 120 questionnaires were completed by the…

  6. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... License Requirements § 101.1317 Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA...

  7. Role of the receptor Mas in macrophage-mediated inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anna; Yang, Guang; Friedrich, Juliane; Kovacs, Agnes; Lee, De-Hyung; Grave, Katharina; Jörg, Stefanie; Alenina, Natalia; Grosch, Janina; Winkler, Jürgen; Gold, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Manzel, Arndt; Rump, Lars C; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2016-12-06

    Recently, an alternative renin-angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1-7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II-mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation. Mas deficiency exacerbated the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and increased macrophage infiltration as well as proinflammatory gene expression in the spleen and spinal cord. Furthermore, Mas deficiency promoted atherosclerosis by affecting macrophage infiltration and migration and led to increased oxidative stress as well as impaired endothelial function in ApoE-deficient mice. In summary, we identified the Mas axis as an important factor in macrophage function during inflammation of the central nervous and vascular system in vivo. Modulating the Mas axis may constitute an interesting therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and/or atherosclerosis.

  8. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p < 0.01). Enalapril increased ACE2 levels (p < 0.01), but did not affect Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  10. Role of the receptor Mas in macrophage-mediated inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Anna; Yang, Guang; Friedrich, Juliane; Kovacs, Agnes; Lee, De-Hyung; Grave, Katharina; Jörg, Stefanie; Alenina, Natalia; Grosch, Janina; Winkler, Jürgen; Gold, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Manzel, Arndt; Rump, Lars C.; Müller, Dominik N.; Linker, Ralf A.; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an alternative renin–angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1–7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II–mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation. Mas deficiency exacerbated the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and increased macrophage infiltration as well as proinflammatory gene expression in the spleen and spinal cord. Furthermore, Mas deficiency promoted atherosclerosis by affecting macrophage infiltration and migration and led to increased oxidative stress as well as impaired endothelial function in ApoE-deficient mice. In summary, we identified the Mas axis as an important factor in macrophage function during inflammation of the central nervous and vascular system in vivo. Modulating the Mas axis may constitute an interesting therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and/or atherosclerosis. PMID:27872279

  11. Genomic mapping and candidate genes as approaches to MAS of VSH

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Identification of genes and proteins associated with traits of interest allows for identification of molecular or biochemical markers which can be used to screen parents for desirable alleles and used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Employing MAS for improvement or maintenance of r...

  12. Why doesn't this HR department get any respect?

    PubMed

    Galford, R

    1998-01-01

    Since becoming managing partner of human resources at Loft Securities more than a year ago, Luke Robinson has tried everything he can think of to change his department's reputation as an administrative backwater. But he's swimming against the tide. Ever since the retirement of a charismatic CEO in 1995, the firm has suffered a slow bleed of good people. The new CEO doesn't have a flair for attracting and retaining talented people, and the HR department hasn't been able to pick up the slack. Robinson has done his best to turn things around. He's met with just about everyone, from senior executives to administrative assistants to external contacts. And, when he found out that recruiting wasn't Loft's only problem, he took a variety of concrete steps. Among other things, he established internal service standards and performance guarantees for his department. He created "listening posts" and implemented and "HR ambassador" program. And he drafted plans for a program to help educate all the company's employees about the role of HR--specifically, how it can contribute to creating and upholding the firm's strategy for success. But Robinson has run over some major speed bumps. Just before he joined the company, HR sullied its reputation by mishandling the investigation of a discrimination charge. And while on Robinson's watch, HR botched the issuance of year-end bonus checks for the managing directors and vice presidents. The frustrations are piling up, leading Robinson to entertain thoughts of bailing out. Five commentators on this fictional case study explain why he should avoid quitting and how he can help his department earn new respect.

  13. A generic, computerized nuclear materials accountability system (NucMAS) and its layered products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jr, J M

    1989-01-01

    NucMAS provides a material balance area with a computerized data management system for nuclear materials accountability. NucMAS is a generic application. It handles the data management and reporting functions for different processing facilities by storing all process-specific information as data rather than procedure. A NucMAS application is configured for each facility it supports. NucMAS and its layered products are compatible with three types of data clients. Core NucMAS has a screen-oriented user interface to support the accountability clerk as a client. Accountability clerks enter data from operating logs and laboratory analyses one to three days after actual processing. Layered products support process operators and automated systems as near-real-time and real-time data clients. The core and layered products use a data-driven approach which results in software that is configurable and maintainable. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Mas receptor contributes to pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Carmos-Silva, Cintia; Almeida, Jônathas Fernandes Queiroz de; Macedo, Larissa Matuda; Melo, Marcos Barrouin B; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Santos, Fernanda Fernanda Cristina Alcantara; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Augusto Souza; Carvalho, Adryano Augustto; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Castro, Carlos Henrique de

    2016-09-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Also, the involvement of Mas receptor in the exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been suggested. However, the role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor on pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation of the Mas receptor in the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by gestation. Female Wistar rats were shared in 3 groups: control , pregnant , and pregnant treated with Mas receptor antagonist A-779 . Wild type (WT) and Mas-knockout mice (KO) were distributed in non-pregnant  and pregnant  groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. The medial part of the left ventricle (LV) was collected for histological analysis. Echocardiographic analysis was used to evaluate the cardiac function. SBP was not changed by pregnancy or A-779 treatment in the Wistar rats. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of Mas receptor attenuates the pregnancy-induced myocyte hypertrophy. The treatment with A-779 or genetic deletion of the Mas receptor increased the collagen III deposition in LV from pregnant animals without changing the fibroblast proliferation. KO mice presented a lower ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume and higher end systolic volume compared to WT. Interestingly, the pregnancy restored these parameters. In conclusion, these data show that while Mas receptor blockade or deletion decreases physiological hypertrophy of pregnancy, it is associated with more extracellular matrix deposition. These alterations are associated with improvement of the cardiac function through Mas-independent mechanism. ©2016 The Author(s).

  15. MAS receptors mediate vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan upon the recovery of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; do Prado, Alejandro F; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; da Silva, Carlos H T P; Gerlach, Raquel F; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-05

    AT1 antagonists effectively prevent atherosclerosis since AT1 upregulation and angiotensin II-induced proinflammatory actions are critical to atherogenesis. Despite the classic mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective and atheroprotective actions of AT1 antagonists, the cross-talk between angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin II-AT1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axes suggests other mechanisms beyond AT1 blockage in such effects. For instance, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity is inhibited by reactive oxygen species derived from AT1-mediated proinflammatory signaling. Since angiotensin-(1-7) promotes antiatherogenic effects, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of AT1 antagonists could result from their inhibitory effects on the AT1-mediated negative modulation of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality. Interestingly, our results showed that early atherosclerosis triggered in thoracic aorta from high cholesterol fed-Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice impairs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality by a proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated pathway. In such mechanism, AT1 activation leads to the aortic release of tumor necrosis factor-α, which stimulates NAD(P)H oxidase/Nox1-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. While hydrogen peroxide inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity, superoxide impairs MAS functionality. Candesartan treatment restored the functionality of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis by inhibiting the proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated mechanism. Candesartan also promoted vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects that were mediated by MAS since A779 (MAS antagonist) co-treatment inhibited them. The role of MAS receptors as the final mediators of the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan was supported by the vascular actions of angiotensin

  16. Atypical Signaling and Functional Desensitization Response of MAS Receptor to Peptide Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Tirupula, Kalyan C.; Desnoyer, Russell; Speth, Robert C.; Karnik, Sadashiva S.

    2014-01-01

    MAS is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in multiple physiological processes. Several physiological peptide ligands such as angiotensin-(1–7), angiotensin fragments and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) are reported to act on MAS. Studies of conventional G protein signaling and receptor desensitization upon stimulation of MAS with the peptide ligands are limited so far. Therefore, we systematically analyzed G protein signals activated by the peptide ligands. MAS-selective non-peptide ligands that were previously shown to activate G proteins were used as controls for comparison on a common cell based assay platform. Activation of MAS by the non-peptide agonist (1) increased intracellular calcium and D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) levels which are indicative of the activation of classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathways, (2) decreased Gαi mediated cAMP levels and (3) stimulated Gα12-dependent expression of luciferase reporter. In all these assays, MAS exhibited strong constitutive activity that was inhibited by the non-peptide inverse agonist. Further, in the calcium response assay, MAS was resistant to stimulation by a second dose of the non-peptide agonist after the first activation has waned suggesting functional desensitization. In contrast, activation of MAS by the peptide ligand NPFF initiated a rapid rise in intracellular calcium with very weak IP1 accumulation which is unlike classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathway. NPFF only weakly stimulated MAS-mediated activation of Gα12 and Gαi signaling pathways. Furthermore, unlike non-peptide agonist-activated MAS, NPFF-activated MAS could be readily re-stimulated the second time by the agonists. Functional assays with key ligand binding MAS mutants suggest that NPFF and non-peptide ligands bind to overlapping regions. Angiotensin-(1–7) and other angiotensin fragments weakly potentiated an NPFF-like calcium response at non-physiological concentrations (≥100 µM). Overall, our data

  17. Atypical signaling and functional desensitization response of MAS receptor to peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Desnoyer, Russell; Speth, Robert C; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2014-01-01

    MAS is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in multiple physiological processes. Several physiological peptide ligands such as angiotensin-(1-7), angiotensin fragments and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) are reported to act on MAS. Studies of conventional G protein signaling and receptor desensitization upon stimulation of MAS with the peptide ligands are limited so far. Therefore, we systematically analyzed G protein signals activated by the peptide ligands. MAS-selective non-peptide ligands that were previously shown to activate G proteins were used as controls for comparison on a common cell based assay platform. Activation of MAS by the non-peptide agonist (1) increased intracellular calcium and D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) levels which are indicative of the activation of classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathways, (2) decreased Gαi mediated cAMP levels and (3) stimulated Gα12-dependent expression of luciferase reporter. In all these assays, MAS exhibited strong constitutive activity that was inhibited by the non-peptide inverse agonist. Further, in the calcium response assay, MAS was resistant to stimulation by a second dose of the non-peptide agonist after the first activation has waned suggesting functional desensitization. In contrast, activation of MAS by the peptide ligand NPFF initiated a rapid rise in intracellular calcium with very weak IP1 accumulation which is unlike classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathway. NPFF only weakly stimulated MAS-mediated activation of Gα12 and Gαi signaling pathways. Furthermore, unlike non-peptide agonist-activated MAS, NPFF-activated MAS could be readily re-stimulated the second time by the agonists. Functional assays with key ligand binding MAS mutants suggest that NPFF and non-peptide ligands bind to overlapping regions. Angiotensin-(1-7) and other angiotensin fragments weakly potentiated an NPFF-like calcium response at non-physiological concentrations (≥100 µM). Overall, our data suggest

  18. Structural analysis of cortical porosity applied to HR-pQCT data

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Willy; Nirody, Jasmine; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The investigation of cortical porosity is an important aspect of understanding biological, pathoetiological, and biomechanical processes occurring within the skeleton. With the emergence of HR-pQCT as a noninvasive tool suitable for clinical use, cortical porosity at appendicular sites can be directly visualized in vivo. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel topological analysis of the cortical pore network for HR-pQCT data and determine the influence of resolution on measures of cortical pore network microstructure and topology. Methods: Cadaveric radii were scanned using HR-pQCT at two different voxel sizes (41 and 82 μm) and also using μCT at a voxel size of 18 μm. HR-pQCT and μCT image sets were spatially coregistered. Segmentation and quantification of cortical porosity (Ct.Po) and mean pore diameter (Ct.Po.Dm) were achieved using an established extended cortical analysis technique. Topological classification of individual pores was performed using topology-preserving skeletonization and multicolor dilation algorithms. Based on the pore skeleton topological classification, the following parameters were quantified: total number of planar surface-skeleton canals (N.Slabs), tubular curve-skeleton canals (N.Tubes), and junction elements (N.Junctions), mean slab volume (Slab.Vol), mean tube volume (Tube.Vol), mean slab orientation (Slab.θ), mean tube orientation (Tube.θ), N.Slabs/N.Tubes, and integral (total) slab volume/integral tube volume (iSlab.Vol/iTube.Vol). An in vivo reproducibility study was also conducted to assess short-term precision of the topology parameters. Precision error was characterized using root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%). Results: Correlations to μCT values for Ct.Po were significant for both the 41 and 82 μm HR-pQCT data (41: r2 = 0.82, p < 0.001, 82: r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001). For Ct.Po.Dm, only the 41 μm data were significantly predictive of μCT values (r2 = 0.72, p < 0.01) Data at both HR

  19. Structural analysis of cortical porosity applied to HR-pQCT data.

    PubMed

    Tjong, Willy; Nirody, Jasmine; Burghardt, Andrew J; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Kazakia, Galateia J

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of cortical porosity is an important aspect of understanding biological, pathoetiological, and biomechanical processes occurring within the skeleton. With the emergence of HR-pQCT as a noninvasive tool suitable for clinical use, cortical porosity at appendicular sites can be directly visualized in vivo. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel topological analysis of the cortical pore network for HR-pQCT data and determine the influence of resolution on measures of cortical pore network microstructure and topology. Cadaveric radii were scanned using HR-pQCT at two different voxel sizes (41 and 82 μm) and also using μCT at a voxel size of 18 μm. HR-pQCT and μCT image sets were spatially coregistered. Segmentation and quantification of cortical porosity (Ct.Po) and mean pore diameter (Ct.Po.Dm) were achieved using an established extended cortical analysis technique. Topological classification of individual pores was performed using topology-preserving skeletonization and multicolor dilation algorithms. Based on the pore skeleton topological classification, the following parameters were quantified: total number of planar surface-skeleton canals (N.Slabs), tubular curve-skeleton canals (N.Tubes), and junction elements (N.Junctions), mean slab volume (Slab.Vol), mean tube volume (Tube.Vol), mean slab orientation (Slab.θ), mean tube orientation (Tube.θ), N.Slabs/N.Tubes, and integral (total) slab volume/integral tube volume (iSlab.Vol/iTube.Vol). An in vivo reproducibility study was also conducted to assess short-term precision of the topology parameters. Precision error was characterized using root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%). Correlations to μCT values for Ct.Po were significant for both the 41 and 82 μm HR-pQCT data (41: r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.001, 82: r(2) = 0.75, p < 0.001). For Ct.Po.Dm, only the 41 μm data were significantly predictive of μCT values (r(2) = 0.72, p < 0.01) Data at both HR-pQCT voxel sizes were

  20. Abundance Analysis of the Silicon Star HR 6958

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ken-Ichi

    2003-12-01

    The elemental composition of the chemically peculiar star HR6958 has been studied with emphasis on doubly ionized rare earths. A visual region spectrum taken with the ELODIE spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory was analyzed. A total of 40 elements including Pr III, Nd III, Tb III, Dy III, Ho III, and Er III were identified and their abundances computed. He is deficient by over 1dex with respect to the Sun; the light elements (C-Ca), except for Si, have solar abundances; the iron group elements (Sc-Fe) are overabundant by 1 dex to 2dex, with Ti and Cr highly overabundant; and the lanthanide rare earths are overabundant by 3dex to 4dex. This abundance pattern with He deficient, Si, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Pr overabundant indicates that HR6958 is a member of Si stars.

  1. Augmented HR Repair Mediates Acquired Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gil Del Alcazar, Carlos Rodrigo; Todorova, Pavlina Krasimirova; Habib, Amyn A; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Burma, Sandeep

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults and is universally fatal. The DNA alkylating agent temozolomide is part of the standard-of-care for GBM. However, these tumors eventually develop therapy-driven resistance and inevitably recur. While loss of mismatch repair (MMR) and re-expression of MGMT have been shown to underlie chemoresistance in a fraction of GBMs, resistance mechanisms operating in the remaining GBMs are not well understood. To better understand the molecular basis for therapy-driven temozolomide resistance, mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts were subjected to protracted temozolomide treatment, and cell lines were generated from the primary (untreated) and recurrent (temozolomide-treated) tumors. As expected, the cells derived from primary tumors were sensitive to temozolomide, whereas the cells from the recurrent tumors were significantly resistant to the drug. Importantly, the acquired resistance to temozolomide in the recurrent lines was not driven by re-expression of MGMT or loss of MMR but was due to accelerated repair of temozolomide-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Temozolomide induces DNA replication-associated DSBs that are primarily repaired by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Augmented HR appears to underpin temozolomide resistance in the recurrent lines, as these cells were cross-resistant to other agents that induced replication-associated DSBs, exhibited faster resolution of damage-induced Rad51 foci, and displayed higher levels of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Furthermore, in light of recent studies demonstrating that CDK1 and CDK2 promote HR, it was found that CDK1/2 inhibitors countered the heightened HR in recurrent tumors and sensitized these therapy-resistant tumor cells to temozolomide.

  2. Selective Isotope Determination of Uranium using HR-RIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raeder, S.; Fies, S.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Tomita, H.

    2009-03-17

    The detection of lowest abundances of the ultra trace isotope {sup 236}U in environmental samples requires an efficient detection method which allows a high elemental and isotopic selectivity to suppress neighbouring isotopes of the same element and other background. High Resolution Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HR-RIMS) uses the individual electron structure of each isotope to provide an outstanding element and isotope selective ionization.

  3. CAMECA IMS 1300-HR3: The New Generation Ion Microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, P.; Choi, S. Y.; Renaud, L.; Saliot, P.; Larson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The success of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in Geo- and Cosmo-chemistry relies on its performance in terms of: 1) very high sensitivity (mandatory for high precision measurements or to achieve low detection limits); 2) a broad mass range of elemental and isotopic species, from low mass (H) to high mass (U and above); 3) in-situ analysis of any solid flat polished surface; and 4) high spatial resolution from tens of microns down to sub-micron scale. The IMS 1300-HR3 (High Reproducibility, High spatial Resolution, High mass Resolution) is the latest generation of CAMECA's large geometry magnetic sector SIMS (or ion microprobe), successor to the internationally recognized IMS 1280-HR. The 1300-HR3delivers unmatched analytical performance for a wide range of applications (stable isotopes, geochronology, trace elements, nuclear safeguards and environmental studies…) due to: • High brightness RF-plasma oxygen ion source with enhanced beam density and current stability, dramatically improving spatial resolution, data reproducibility, and throughput • Automated sample loading system with motorized sample height (Z) adjustment, significantly increasing analysis precision, ease-of-use, and productivity • UV-light microscope for enhanced optical image resolution, together with dedicated software for easy sample navigation (developed by University of Wisconsin, USA) • Low noise 1012Ω resistor Faraday cup preamplifier boards for measuring low signal intensities In addition, improvements in electronics and software have been integrated into the new instrument. In order to meet a growing demand from geochronologists, CAMECA also introduces the KLEORA, which is a fully optimized ion microprobe for advanced mineral dating derived from the IMS 1300-HR3. Instrumental developments as well as data obtained for stable isotope and U-Pb dating applications will be presented in detail.

  4. Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. II. Detection limits for the eight debris disks stars β Pic, AU Mic, 49 Cet, η Tel, Fomalhaut, g Lup, HD 181327 and HR 8799

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The formation of planetary systems is a common, yet complex mechanism. Numerous stars have been identified to possess a debris disk, a proto-planetary disk or a planetary system. The understanding of such formation process requires the study of debris disks. These targets are substantial and particularly suitable for optical and infrared observations. Sparse aperture masking (SAM) is a high angular resolution technique strongly contributing to probing the region from 30 to 200 mas around the stars. This area is usually unreachable with classical imaging, and the technique also remains highly competitive compared to vortex coronagraphy. Aims: We aim to study debris disks with aperture masking to probe the close environment of the stars. Our goal is either to find low-mass companions, or to set detection limits. Methods: We observed eight stars presenting debris disks (β Pictoris, AU Microscopii, 49 Ceti, η Telescopii, Fomalhaut, g Lupi, HD 181327, and HR 8799) with SAM technique on the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: No close companions were detected using closure phase information under 0.5'' of separation from the parent stars. We obtained magnitude detection limits that we converted to Jupiter masses detection limits using theoretical isochrones from evolutionary models. Conclusions: We derived upper mass limits on the presence of companions in the area of a few times the telescope's diffraction limits around each target star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) during runs 087.C-0450(A), 087.C-0450(B) 087.C-0750(A), 088.C-0358(A).All magnitude detection limits maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A31

  5. Pattern of Mas expression in acute and post-acute stage of nerve injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Assis, Alex Dias; de Assis Araújo, Fernanda; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Zanon, Renata Graciele

    2017-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang [1-7]) and its receptor Mas are involved in a number of physiological processes, including control of arterial pressure and modulation of nervous system actions. However, the involvement of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in peripheral nerve injury has not been investigated. Using a model of sciatic nerve injury in mice, we demonstrated opposing changes in Mas receptor expression at days 2 and 14 post-injury. Mas receptor expression was more intense 2days after the nerve lesion, compared with the intensity of the intact nerve. At this time point, the sciatic nerve functional index was -20. At day 14 after the lesion, the intensity of the immunostaining labeling in longitudinal sections of the nerve was reduced (∼30%) and the functional index increased +36 (gait improvement). In the axotomized group treated with A779 (a Mas receptor antagonist), the functional recovery index decreased in relation to the untreated axotomized group. The Mas receptor inhibitor also altered the intensity of labeling of S-100, GAP43, and IBA-1 (morphological features compatible with delayed axon growth). This study demonstrated that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activity was differentially modulated in the acute and post-acute stages of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dynamical Structure of HR 8799's Inner Debris Disk.

    PubMed

    Contro, B; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Horner, J; Marshall, Jonathan P

    2015-06-01

    The HR 8799 system, with its four giant planets and two debris belts, has an architecture closely mirroring that of our Solar system where the inner, warm asteroid belt and outer, cool Edgeworth-Kuiper belt bracket the giant planets. As such, it is a valuable laboratory for examining exoplanetary dynamics and debris disk-exoplanet interactions. Whilst the outer debris belt of HR 8799 has been well resolved by previous observations, the spatial extent of the inner disk remains unknown. This leaves a significant question mark over both the location of the planetesimals responsible for producing the belt's visible dust and the physical properties of those grains. We have performed the most extensive simulations to date of the inner, unresolved debris belt around HR 8799, using UNSW Australia's Katana supercomputing facility to follow the dynamical evolution of a model inner disk comprising 300,298 particles for a period of 60 Ma. These simulations have enabled the characterisation of the extent and structure of the inner disk in detail, and will in future allow us to provide a first estimate of the small-body impact rate and water delivery prospects for possible (as-yet undetected) terrestrial planet (s) in the inner system.

  7. Spatially resolved submillimeter imaging of the HR 8799 debris disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; King, R. R.; Ayliffe, B.; Bate, M. R.; Song, I.; Pinte, C.; Koda, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Kovács, A.

    2011-07-01

    Dynamical interactions between planets and debris disks may sculpt the disk structure and impact planetary orbits, but only a few systems with both imaged planets and spatially resolved debris disks are known. With the Caltech Submm Observatory (CSO), we have observed the HR 8799 debris disk at 350 μm. The 350 μm map is the first spatially resolved measurement of the debris disk encircling the HR 8799 planetary system at this wavelength. Both the flux and size of the emission are consistent with a Kuiper belt of dust extending from ~100-300 AU. Although the resolution of the current map is limited, the map shows an indication of offset asymmetric emission, and several scenarios for this possibility are explored with radiative transfer calculations of a star-disk system and N-body numerical simulations of planet-disk interactions with parameters representative of the HR 8799 system. Based on observations obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory.Figures 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3′ ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5′ end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5′ dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5′ end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair. PMID:28115467

  9. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3' ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5' end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5' dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5' end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair.

  10. On the ancient field blue straggler HR 5455

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus; Chini, Rolf

    2017-10-01

    We report the discovery of HR 5455 as an ancient field blue straggler that upon Roche lobe overflow from its evolved companion, now a white dwarf, has been rejuvenated to a MBS = 1.32 ± 0.05 M⊙ bright F6V source with a purported age of τ ≃ 1.7 Gyr. The unequivocal evidence for HR 5455 being instead a τ ≃ 12 Gyr old Population II star arises from its low iron-to-magnesium abundance ratio, and is supported by its kinematics, the lack of lithium and a companion mass MWD = 0.49 ± 0.09 M⊙ from the P = 1086 ± 77 d Hipparcos astrometric orbit, which is in perfect agreement with the Rappaport et al. period-white dwarf mass relation. Like the F7V star 49 Lib that we recently disclosed as an ancient field blue straggler in a similar context, HR 5455 is also a very metal-rich source at [Mg/H] = +0.19 and [Fe/H] = -0.10. Unlike 49 Lib, however, only the white dwarf progenitor mass is directly constrained to MWD,progenitor = 1.06 ± 0.02 M⊙. In case of a conservative mass transfer, which in analogy to the 49 Lib system appears likely, a blue straggler progenitor mass MBS,progenitor = 0.75 M⊙ would follow.

  11. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  12. MasABK Proteins Interact with Proteins of the Type IV Pilin System to Affect Social Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK. PMID:23342171

  13. Increased aortic intimal proliferation due to MasR deletion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadon, Hiba; Kruzliak, Peter; Smardencas, Arthur; Hayes, Alan; Bader, Michael; Angus, Peter; Herath, Chandana; Zulli, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the vascular actions of Ang-(1-7) appear to involve increased production of nitric oxide (NO), an important vasodilator, through the activation of MasR, thus indicating the involvement of the MasR in preventing endothelial dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether the MasR could be involved in the progression of the next step in atherosclerosis, neo-intimal formation. To determine whether the deletion of the MasR is involved in the development of intimal thickening in an in vitro model. Mice [three background controls (C57Bl/6) and 3 MasR (−/−)] were killed and the aortas excised and cleaned of connective tissue and cut into 3 mm rings. Rings were placed in an organ culture medium for 5 weeks, embedded in paraffin, cut at 5 μm and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome. In addition, aortic reactivity was measured in organ baths. After 5 weeks of culture, the intima:media ratio increased in the aortas from MasR (−/−) mice compared to the control group by 4.5-fold (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference in nuclei area count (cell proliferation) between the MasR (−/−) mice and control group was observed (0.87 ± 0.29% vs. 0.94 ± 0.18%, respectively, P = ns). Functional studies showed only a minor vasoconstrictive and full vasodilative response. This study shows that the deletion of the MasR causes marked increase in the aortic intima:media ratio, which is not due to generalized cellular proliferation. These results provide a functional role for the MasR in atherogenesis. PMID:25676544

  14. Increased aortic intimal proliferation due to MasR deletion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alsaadon, Hiba; Kruzliak, Peter; Smardencas, Arthur; Hayes, Alan; Bader, Michael; Angus, Peter; Herath, Chandana; Zulli, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the vascular actions of Ang-(1-7) appear to involve increased production of nitric oxide (NO), an important vasodilator, through the activation of MasR, thus indicating the involvement of the MasR in preventing endothelial dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether the MasR could be involved in the progression of the next step in atherosclerosis, neo-intimal formation. To determine whether the deletion of the MasR is involved in the development of intimal thickening in an in vitro model. Mice [three background controls (C57Bl/6) and 3 MasR (-/-)] were killed and the aortas excised and cleaned of connective tissue and cut into 3 mm rings. Rings were placed in an organ culture medium for 5 weeks, embedded in paraffin, cut at 5 μm and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. In addition, aortic reactivity was measured in organ baths. After 5 weeks of culture, the intima:media ratio increased in the aortas from MasR (-/-) mice compared to the control group by 4.5-fold (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference in nuclei area count (cell proliferation) between the MasR (-/-) mice and control group was observed (0.87 ± 0.29% vs. 0.94 ± 0.18%, respectively, P = ns). Functional studies showed only a minor vasoconstrictive and full vasodilative response. This study shows that the deletion of the MasR causes marked increase in the aortic intima:media ratio, which is not due to generalized cellular proliferation. These results provide a functional role for the MasR in atherogenesis.

  15. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  16. A novel MAs(III)-selective ArsR transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Rosen, Barry P

    2017-09-01

    Microbial expression of genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is usually transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring toxic metalloid widely distributed in soil and groundwater. Microbes biotransform both arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) into more toxic methylated metabolites methylarsenite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsenite (DMAs(III)). Environmental arsenic is sensed by members of the ArsR/SmtB family. The arsR gene is autoregulated and is typically part of an operon that contains other ars genes involved in arsenic detoxification. To date every identified ArsR is regulated by inorganic As(III). Here we described a novel ArsR from Shewanella putrefaciens selective for MAs(III). SpArsR orthologs control expression of two MAs(III) resistance genes, arsP that encodes the ArsP MAs(III) efflux permease, and arsH encoding the ArsH MAs(III) oxidase. SpArsR has two conserved cysteine residues, Cys101 and Cys102. Mutation of either resulted in loss of MAs(III) binding, indicating that they form an MAs(III) binding site. SpArsR can be converted into an As(III)-responsive repressor by introduction of an additional cysteine that allows for three-coordinate As(III) binding. Our results indicate that SpArsR evolved selectivity for MAs(III) over As(III) in order to control expression of genes for MAs(III) detoxification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chronic nerve injury-induced Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons alleviates neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanting; Qin, Yue; Liu, Tuanjiang; Hao, Dingjun

    2015-12-01

    Neuropathic pain, which is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain, is one of the most painful symptoms that can be experienced in the clinic. It often occurs as a result of injury to the peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord or brain. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in nociception. As an essential component of the RAS, the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis may be involved in antinociception. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression pattern of Mas in DRG neurons following chronic nerve injury and examine the effects of Mas inhibition and activation on neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. The results showed, that compared with the sham group, CCI caused a time-dependent induction of Mas expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels in DRG neurons. Consistent with the results, isolated DRG neurons showed a time-dependent increase in Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane following the CCI surgery, but not the sham surgery. Compared with the sham control groups, CCI significantly decreased the paw withdrawal latency and threshold, and this was markedly improved and aggravated by intrathecal injection of the selective Mas agonist Ang-(1-7) and the selective Mas inhibitor D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7), respectively. In conclusion, this study has provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the Mas expression in DRG neurons is time-dependently induced by chronic nerve injury and that the intrathecal activation and inhibition of Mas can improve and aggravate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, respectively. This study has provided novel insights into the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain and suggests that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis could be an effective therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, warranting further study.

  18. Possible functional co-operation of palindromes hr3 and hr4 in the genome of Cydia pomonella granulovirus affects viral replication capacity.

    PubMed

    Elmenofy, Wael H; Jehle, Johannes A

    2015-09-01

    After previous studies had shown that natural transposon insertion between the two homologous regions hr3 and hr4 of the genome of the Mexican (M) strain of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) resulted in a loss of viral competitiveness, the function of these homologous regions was investigated. A CpGV-based bacmid (CpBAC) was constructed and mutants with deleted hr3 and hr4 palindromes (CpBAChr3/hr4KO) and a construct (CpBAChr3-kan-hr4) with physically separated hr3 and hr4 repeats were generated to investigate their involvement in in vivo replication. Based on median lethal concentration (LC50) and median survival time (ST50) of the mutant viruses vCpBAChr3/hr4KO and vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 it was found that the infectivity of both mutants for codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lep.: Tortricidae) larvae was not influenced compared with the parental virus vCpBAC. Co-infection experiments with vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 and vCpBAC using different virus ratios revealed that vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 was efficiently out-competed by vCpBAC during in vivo replication. These findings suggested that the separation of hr3 and hr4 resulted in a replication disadvantage of the mutant similar to the observation made in previous co-infection experiments using the transposon-carrying mutant CpGV-MCp5 and WT CpGV-M. It was concluded that the palindromes hr3 and hr4 may play a non-essential but co-functional role in the replication of CpGV-M.

  19. Immobilization of soluble protein complexes in MAS solid-state NMR: Sedimentation versus viscosity.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Riddhiman; Mainz, Andi; Busi, Baptiste; Barbet-Massin, Emeline; Kranz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas; Reif, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, MAS solid-state NMR has emerged as a technique for the investigation of soluble protein complexes. It was found that high molecular weight complexes do not need to be crystallized in order to obtain an immobilized sample for solid-state NMR investigations. Sedimentation induced by sample rotation impairs rotational diffusion of proteins and enables efficient dipolar coupling based cross polarization transfers. In addition, viscosity contributes to the immobilization of the molecules in the sample. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) have very high viscosities, and can replace water in living organisms. We observe a considerable amount of cross polarization transfers for NADES solvents, even though their molecular weight is too low to yield significant sedimentation. We discuss how viscosity and sedimentation both affect the quality of the obtained experimental spectra. The FROSTY/sedNMR approach holds the potential to study large protein complexes, which are otherwise not amenable for a structural characterization using NMR. We show that using this method, backbone assignments of the symmetric proteasome activator complex (1.1MDa), and high quality correlation spectra of non-symmetric protein complexes such as the prokaryotic ribosome 50S large subunit binding to trigger factor (1.4MDa) are obtained.

  20. Identification of ancient Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L. seeds by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Rolfo, Mario Federico; Leonardi, Donatella; Rickards, Olga; Canini, Antonella

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) provides archaeologists and anthropologists with innovative, scientific and accurate data to study and understand the past. In this work, ancient seeds, found in the "Mora Cavorso" archaeological site (Latium, Central Italy), were analyzed to increase information about Italian Neolithic populations (plant use, agriculture, diet, trades, customs and ecology). We performed morphological and genetic techniques to identify fossil botanical species. In particular, this study also suggests and emphasizes the use of DNA barcode method for ancient plant sample analysis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed seed compact structure and irregular surface but they did not permit a precise nor empirical classification: so, a molecular approach was necessary. DNA was extracted from ancient seeds and then it was used, as template, for PCR amplifications of standardized barcode genes. Although aDNA could be highly degraded by the time, successful PCR products were obtained, sequenced and compared to nucleotide sequence databases. Positive outcomes (supported by morphological comparison with modern seeds, geographical distribution and historical data) indicated that seeds could be identified as belonging to two plant species: Olea europaea L. and Cornus mas L.

  1. NEW PRECISION ORBITS OF BRIGHT DOUBLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES. IV. 66 ANDROMEDAE, HR 6979, AND HR 9059

    SciTech Connect

    Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Michael H.; Tomkin, Jocelyn E-mail: jt@alexis.as.utexas.edu

    2010-04-15

    We have determined improved spectroscopic orbits for three double-lined binaries, 66 And (F4 V), HR 6979 (Am), and HR 9059 (F5 IV) using radial velocities from the 2.1 m telescope at McDonald Observatory, the coude feed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and 2 m telescope at Fairborn Observatory. The orbital periods range from 11.0 to 14.3 days, and all three systems have eccentric orbits. The new orbital dimensions (a {sub 1} sin i and a {sub 2} sin i) and minimum masses (m {sub 1} sin{sup 3} i and m {sub 2} sin{sup 3} i) have accuracies of 0.2% or better. All six components of the three binary systems are rotating more slowly than their predicted pseudosynchronous rotational velocities. Hipparcos photometry of HR 9059 shows that this system has partial eclipses. Its components are nearly identical in mass and are at the very end of their main-sequence lifetimes or perhaps have just begun to traverse the Hertsprung gap.

  2. HR4EU--A Web-Portal for E-Learning of Croatian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filko, Matea; Farkaš, Daša; Hriberski, Diana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the HR4EU--a web portal for e-learning of Croatian. HR4EU is the first portal that offers Croatian language courses which are free-of-charge and developed by language professionals. Moreover, HR4EU also integrates bidirectional interaction with some of the previously developed language resources for Croatian. The HR4EU…

  3. Maternal and Child Health Care Act--1976. Supplemental Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 12937, H.R. 14309, and H.R. 14822 (Identical Bills) and H.R. 14497.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

    Contained are the proceedings of the September 13, 1976, hearing before the House of Representatives subcommittee on health and the environment on Bills H.R. 12937, H.R. 14309 and H.R. 14822, identical bills to establish a national system of maternal and child health care, and H.R. 14497, a bill to establish a national health insurance system for…

  4. 77 FR 43084 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... needs of the government, especially under these current fiscal challenges. Operational efficiencies and cost control thus realized will restore and maintain the MAS program's value to Federal agencies as...

  5. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  6. BOREAS Level-1B MAS Imagery At-sensor Radiance, Relative X and Y Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Ungar, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-1b MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C-130 INS data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  7. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  8. Intercomparison of MAS, AVIRIS, and HIS data from FIRE cirrus 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumley, Liam E.; King, Michael D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gao, Bo-Cai; Arnold, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 flight on 5 Dec. 1991 is unique among the FIRE Cirrus 2 missions in that data were acquired simultaneously by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). These data represent a unique source of information about the spatial and spectral properties of cirrus clouds. The MAS is a new instrument which will aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. In order to establish confidence in the absolute calibration accuracy of the MAS radiances, an inter-comparison of MAS radiances with AVIRIS and HIS has been undertaken.

  9. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  10. Expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in the adult and developing mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Tuhina; Verma, Amrisha; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the retina and plays an important role in retinal neurovascular function. We have recently shown that increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)], two components of the protective axis of the RAS, in the retina via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery, conferred protection against diabetes-induced retinopathy. We hypothesized that the protective molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ang (1-7) are mediated by its receptor, Mas, and the expression level and cellular localization dictate the response to Ang (1-7) and activation of subsequent protective signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by examining the expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in adult and developing mouse retinas. The cellular localization of the Mas receptor protein was determined with immunofluorescence of the eyes of adult and postnatal day 1 (P1), P5, P7, P15, and P21 mice using the Mas receptor-specific antibody, and mRNA was detected with in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. Western blotting and real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR analysis were performed to determine the relative levels of the Mas protein and mRNA in adult and developing retinas, as well as in cultured retinal Müller glial and RPE cells. In the adult eye, the Mas receptor protein was abundantly present in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptor cells; a lower level of expression was observed in endothelial cells, Müller glial cells, and other neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. In the developing retina, Mas receptor mRNA and protein expression was detected in the inner retina at P1, and the expression levels increased with age to reach the adult level and pattern by P15. In the adult mouse retina, Mas receptor mRNA was expressed at a much higher level when compared to angiotensin II (Ang II) type I (AT1R) and type II (AT2R) receptor m

  11. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor as an antinociceptive agent in cancer-induced bone pain.

    PubMed

    Forte, Brittany L; Slosky, Lauren M; Zhang, Hong; Arnold, Moriah R; Staatz, William D; Hay, Meredith; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Vanderah, Todd W

    2016-12-01

    Many cancerous solid tumors metastasize to the bone and induce pain (cancer-induced bone pain [CIBP]). Cancer-induced bone pain is often severe because of enhanced inflammation, rapid bone degradation, and disease progression. Opioids are prescribed to manage this pain, but they may enhance bone loss and increase tumor proliferation, further compromising patient quality of life. Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) binds and activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Angiotensin-(1-7)/MasR activation modulates inflammatory signaling after acute tissue insult, yet no studies have investigated whether Ang-(1-7)/MasR play a role in CIBP. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) inhibits CIBP by targeting MasR in a murine model of breast CIBP. 66.1 breast cancer cells were implanted into the femur of BALB/cAnNHsd mice as a model of CIBP. Spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors were assessed before and after acute and chronic administration of Ang-(1-7). Tissues were collected from animals for ex vivo analyses of MasR expression, tumor burden, and bone integrity. Cancer inoculation increased spontaneous pain behaviors by day 7 that were significantly reduced after a single injection of Ang-(1-7) and after sustained administration. Preadministration of A-779 a selective MasR antagonist prevented this reduction, whereas pretreatment with the AT2 antagonist had no effect; an AT1 antagonist enhanced the antinociceptive activity of Ang-(1-7) in CIBP. Repeated Ang-(1-7) administration did not significantly change tumor burden or bone remodeling. Data here suggest that Ang-(1-7)/MasR activation significantly attenuates CIBP, while lacking many side effects seen with opioids. Thus, Ang-(1-7) may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the nearly 90% of patients with advanced-stage cancer who experience excruciating pain.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey mineral databases; MRDS and MAS/MILS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFaul, E.J.; Mason, G.T.; Ferguson, W.B.; Lipin, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    These two CD-ROM's contain the latest version of the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database and the Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System (MAS/MILS) database for coverage of North America and the world outside North America. The records in the MRDS database each contain almost 200 data fields describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, deposits, and commodities. The records in the MAS/MILS database each contain almost 100 data fields describing mines and mineral processing plans.

  13. MAS Level-1B HDF Data and Derived Products during the CRYSTAL-FACE Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Dominguez, R.; Arnold, T.; Moody, E.

    2002-12-01

    During July 2002, the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) field campaign was conducted to study the radiative properties of tropical cirrus clouds. The field experiment was a cooperative effort of several government and university organizations, and involved coordination of 6 research aircraft and various ground-based instrumentation. During CRYSTAL-FACE, the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), a 50-channel scanning radiometer was flown onboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The MAS was the only visible and infrared imaging instrument flown during the campaign. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate how collected raw MAS data is processed "in the field" to Level-1B HDF format and subsequent "science" products were then generated and used. MAS data was collected on all 13 ER-2 missions. All straight and level flight data were processed from raw data to level-1b (geo-located and calibrated to radiance at sensor) and written into a HDF file format. These preliminary data products were generated within 48-hours of data collection. In total 84 gigabytes of MAS data were processed to a Level-1B, HDF format. The MODIS science team generated several derived post processed and level-2 products, which utilized this MAS Level-1b HDF data. These field-derived products included a ecosystem map, several cloud phase determination models and brightness temperature. Later processing with this MAS HDF data product will be used for determination of cloud optical thickness and cloud particle radius. The MAS level-1b HDF data results will ultimately be compared with MODIS HDF data products for validation and comparison.

  14. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor as an antinociceptive agent in cancer-induced bone pain

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Brittany L.; Slosky, Lauren M.; Zhang, Hong; Arnold, Moriah R.; Staatz, William D.; Hay, Meredith; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Vanderah, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many cancerous solid tumors metastasize to the bone and induce pain (cancer-induced bone pain [CIBP]). Cancer-induced bone pain is often severe because of enhanced inflammation, rapid bone degradation, and disease progression. Opioids are prescribed to manage this pain, but they may enhance bone loss and increase tumor proliferation, further compromising patient quality of life. Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) binds and activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Angiotensin-(1-7)/MasR activation modulates inflammatory signaling after acute tissue insult, yet no studies have investigated whether Ang-(1-7)/MasR play a role in CIBP. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) inhibits CIBP by targeting MasR in a murine model of breast CIBP. 66.1 breast cancer cells were implanted into the femur of BALB/cAnNHsd mice as a model of CIBP. Spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors were assessed before and after acute and chronic administration of Ang-(1-7). Tissues were collected from animals for ex vivo analyses of MasR expression, tumor burden, and bone integrity. Cancer inoculation increased spontaneous pain behaviors by day 7 that were significantly reduced after a single injection of Ang-(1-7) and after sustained administration. Preadministration of A-779 a selective MasR antagonist prevented this reduction, whereas pretreatment with the AT2 antagonist had no effect; an AT1 antagonist enhanced the antinociceptive activity of Ang-(1-7) in CIBP. Repeated Ang-(1-7) administration did not significantly change tumor burden or bone remodeling. Data here suggest that Ang-(1-7)/MasR activation significantly attenuates CIBP, while lacking many side effects seen with opioids. Thus, Ang-(1-7) may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the nearly 90% of patients with advanced-stage cancer who experience excruciating pain. PMID:27541850

  15. Ammonia Vapor Removal by Cu3(BTC)2 and Its Characterization by MAS NMR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    REPORT Ammonia Vapor Removal by Cu3(BTC)2 and Its Characterization by MAS NMR 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Adsorption equilibria and...NMR experiments were performed to study the adsorption and interactions of ammonia with metal-organic framework HKUST-1, or Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC ) 1,3,5... adsorption alone, suggesting a stronger interaction involving a potential reaction with the Cu3(BTC)2 framework. Indeed, 1H MAS NMR reveals that a major

  16. 10 MMBt/Hr AFBC Commercial Demonstration Cedar Lane Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Harold M. Keener; Mary H. Wicks; Tom Machamer; Dave Hoecke; Don Bonk; Bob Brown

    2005-10-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO2 emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 4-40 MMBtu/hr size range. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range could displace a considerable amount of heating gas and oil with coal, while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators.

  17. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  18. A novel α/β-hydrolase gene IbMas enhances salt tolerance in transgenic sweetpotato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degao; Wang, Lianjun; Zhai, Hong; Song, Xuejin; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang

    2014-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the major environmental stresses in agriculture worldwide and affects crop productivity and quality. The development of crops with elevated levels of salt tolerance is therefore highly desirable. In the present study, a novel maspardin gene, named IbMas, was isolated from salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) line ND98. IbMas contains maspardin domain and belongs to α/β-hydrolase superfamily. Expression of IbMas was up-regulated in sweetpotato under salt stress and ABA treatment. The IbMas-overexpressing sweetpotato (cv. Shangshu 19) plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline content was significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbMas up-regulated the salt stress responsive genes, including pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, SOD, psbA and phosphoribulokinase genes, under salt stress. These findings suggest that overexpression of IbMas enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and increasing reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity.

  19. A Novel α/β-Hydrolase Gene IbMas Enhances Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuejin; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang

    2014-01-01

    Salt stress is one of the major environmental stresses in agriculture worldwide and affects crop productivity and quality. The development of crops with elevated levels of salt tolerance is therefore highly desirable. In the present study, a novel maspardin gene, named IbMas, was isolated from salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) line ND98. IbMas contains maspardin domain and belongs to α/β-hydrolase superfamily. Expression of IbMas was up-regulated in sweetpotato under salt stress and ABA treatment. The IbMas-overexpressing sweetpotato (cv. Shangshu 19) plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline content was significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbMas up-regulated the salt stress responsive genes, including pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, SOD, psbA and phosphoribulokinase genes, under salt stress. These findings suggest that overexpression of IbMas enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and increasing reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. PMID:25501819

  20. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  1. The expression of Mas-receptor of the renin-angiotensin system in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Vaajanen, A; Kalesnykas, G; Vapaatalo, H; Uusitalo, H

    2015-07-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system has been held to be expressed in many organs, including the eye. It has an important role in the regulation of local fluid homeostasis, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and vascular tone. Mas-receptor (Mas-R) is a potential receptor acting mainly opposite to the well-known angiotensin II receptor type 1. The aim of this study was to determine if Mas-R is expressed in the human eye. Seven enucleated human eyes were used in immunohistochemical detection of Mas-R and its endogenous ligand angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)]. Both light microscopy and immunofluorescent detection methods were used. A human kidney preparation sample was used as control. The Mas-R was found to have nuclear localization, and localized in the retinal nuclear layers and in the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. A cytoplasmic immunostaining pattern of Ang(1-7) was found in the inner and outer nuclear and plexiform layers of the retina and in the ciliary body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing Mas-R expression in the human eye. Its localization suggests that it may have a role in physiological and pathological processes in the anterior part of the eye and in the retina.

  2. Immunofluorescence localization of the receptor Mas in cardiovascular-related areas of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lenice K; Etelvino, Gisele M; Walther, Thomas; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria J

    2007-09-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor Mas was recently described as an angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] receptor. In the present study we evaluated the anatomical localization of Mas using immunofluorescence in the central nervous system of adult male Wistar rats. An abundant labeling was found in the hippocampus, amigdala, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, cortex, and hypoglossal nucleus. More importantly, a dense ANG-(1-7) receptor Mas immunoreactivity was observed in cardiovascular-related areas of the medulla and forebrain, shown in several previous studies as sites for the action of ANG-(1-7) in the brain. A strong staining was found in the nucleus of the solitary tract, caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla, inferior olive, parvo and magnocellular portions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and lateral preoptic area. Furthermore, Mas staining was predominantly present in neurons. At the medullary sites, a specific and high-intensity binding for rhodamine-ANG-(1-7) was also shown. The specific ANG-(1-7) binding was completely displaced by the anti-Mas antibody or by the ANG-(1-7) antagonist, A-779. The data presented provide the first anatomical basis for the physiological role of ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis in the modulation of different cardiovascular functions and give new insights for clarifying the role of ANG-(1-7) in the central nervous system.

  3. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy of mushrooms gives directly the ratio between proteins and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Bertocchi, F; Fanelli, C; Rotilio, G; Paci, M

    2000-11-01

    The solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR technique has the potential of monitoring the chemical composition in the solid state of an intact food sample. This property has been utilized to study mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius, and Lentinula edodes), already characterized by chemical analyses for protein and dietary fiber components. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy reveals a large difference in the ratio between the glucidic and the proteic resonances probably depending on the mushroom species. An accurate inspection by model compounds and suitable mixtures of proteins and saccharides gives a methodology to interpret these experimental data. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.93; R(2) = 0.81) has been obtained by comparing the NMR data with the results of the chemical analyses. The results suggest the possibility to perform a taxonomic study and/or a nutritional study on the basis of the ratio between protein and polysaccharide levels determined by NMR or chemical methodologies.

  4. Magnesium silicate dissolution investigated by Si-29 MAS, H-1-Si-29 CPMAS, Mg-25 QCPMG NMR.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M C; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    Olivine-(Mg,Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}-has been the subject of frequent investigation in the earth sciences because of its simple structure and rapid dissolution kinetics. Several studies have observed a preferential release of the divalent cation with respect to silicon during weathering under acidic conditions, which has been correlated to the formation of a silicon-rich leached layer. While leached layer formation has been inferred through the changing solution chemistry, a thorough spectroscopic investigation of olivine reacted under acidic conditions has not been conducted. The pure magnesium end member of the olivine series (forsterite-Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) was chosen for detailed investigations in this study because paramagnetic iron hinders NMR investigations by providing an extra mode of relaxation for neighboring nuclei, causing lineshapes to become significantly broadened and unobservable in the NMR spectrum. For reacting forsterite, spectroscopic interrogations using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can elucidate the changing magnesium coordination and bonding environment. In this study, we combine analysis of the changing solution chemistry with advanced NMR techniques ({sup 29}Si MAS, {sup 1}H-{sup 29}Si CP MAS, {sup 25}Mg QCPMG, and {sup 1}H-{sup 25}Mg CP QCPMG NMR) to probe leached layer formation and secondary phase precipitation during the dissolution of forsterite at 150 C.

  5. The Dusty Environment of the Warm Hypergiant HR 5171A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta

    HR 5171A is one of a few stars that define the upper luminosity boundary in the HR Diagram for evolved stars. It is a high luminosity warm hypergiant with a peculiar visual and near-infrared light curve and a complex, asymmetric nebulosity in the near-infrared which has been attributed to the presence of a low mass companion. The proposed long wavelength imaging with SOFIA/FORCAST will be used to map the spatial distribution and extent of the cold dust to provide a more complete picture of its dusty environment and its mass loss history. We will use FORCAST at a range of wavelengths from 6.6 to 37 microns to map the spatial extent of the cold dust. We are also proposing spectroscopy with the grisms to investigate the nature of the grains producing its strong silicate emission features. The proposed imaging and spectroscopy will provide critical missing information on the role of dust formation and circumstellar extinction on its peculiar variability.

  6. Classification of ischaemic episodes with ST/HR diagrams.

    PubMed

    Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis.

  7. THERMAL INFRARED MMTAO OBSERVATIONS OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Meyer, Michael R.; Heinze, Aren N.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-06-10

    We present direct imaging observations at wavelengths of 3.3, 3.8 (L' band), and 4.8 (M band) {mu}m, for the planetary system surrounding HR 8799. All three planets are detected at L' . The c and d components are detected at 3.3 {mu}m, and upper limits are derived from the M-band observations. These observations provide useful constraints on warm giant planet atmospheres. We discuss the current age constraints on the HR 8799 system and show that several potential co-eval objects can be excluded from being co-moving with the star. Comparison of the photometry is made to models for giant planet atmospheres. Models that include non-equilibrium chemistry provide a reasonable match to the colors of c and d. From the observed colors in the thermal infrared, we estimate T {sub eff} < 960 K for b and T {sub eff} = 1300 and 1170 K for c and d, respectively. This provides an independent check on the effective temperatures and thus masses of the objects from the Marois et al. results.

  8. Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799.

    PubMed

    Marois, Christian; Zuckerman, B; Konopacky, Quinn M; Macintosh, Bruce; Barman, Travis

    2010-12-23

    High-contrast near-infrared imaging of the nearby star HR 8799 has shown three giant planets. Such images were possible because of the wide orbits (>25 astronomical units, where 1 au is the Earth-Sun distance) and youth (<100 Myr) of the imaged planets, which are still hot and bright as they radiate away gravitational energy acquired during their formation. An important area of contention in the exoplanet community is whether outer planets (>10 au) more massive than Jupiter form by way of one-step gravitational instabilities or, rather, through a two-step process involving accretion of a core followed by accumulation of a massive outer envelope composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Here we report the presence of a fourth planet, interior to and of about the same mass as the other three. The system, with this additional planet, represents a challenge for current planet formation models as none of them can explain the in situ formation of all four planets. With its four young giant planets and known cold/warm debris belts, the HR 8799 planetary system is a unique laboratory in which to study the formation and evolution of giant planets at wide (>10 au) separations.

  9. Is the HR8799 extrasolar system destined for planetary scattering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2009-07-01

    The recent discovery of a three-planet extrasolar system of HR8799 by Marois et al. is a breakthrough in the field of the direct imaging. This great achievement raises questions on the formation and dynamical stability of the system, because Keplerian fits to astrometric data disrupt during ~0.2Myr. We search for stable, self-consistent N-body orbits with the so-called GAMP (genetic algorithm with MEGNO penalty) method that incorporates stability constraints into the optimization algorithm. Our searches reveal only small regions of stable motions in the phase space of three-planet, coplanar configurations. Most likely, if the planetary masses are in 10MJ range, they may be stable only if the planets are involved in two- or three-body mean motion resonances (MMRs). We found that 80 per cent systems found by GAMP that survived 30Myr backwards integrations, eventually become unstable after 100Myr. It could mean that the HR8799 system undergo a phase of planet-planet scattering. We test a hypothesis that the less certain detection of the innermost object is due to a blending effect. In such a case, two-planet best-fitting systems are mostly stable, on quasi-circular orbits and close to the 5:2 MMR, resembling the Jupiter-Saturn pair.

  10. Modeling the Asteroseismic Surface Term across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Joseph R.; Basu, Sarbani

    2015-08-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool that can precisely characterize the mass, radius, and other properties of field stars. However, our inability to properly model the near-surface layers of stars creates a frequency-dependent frequency difference between the observed and the modeled frequencies, usually referred to as the “surface term.” This surface term can add significant errors to the derived stellar properties unless removed properly. In this paper, we simulate surface terms across a significant portion of the HR diagram, exploring four different masses (M=0.8,1.0,1.2, and 1.5 {M}⊙ ) at five metallicities ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=0.5,0.0,-0.5,-1.0, and -1.5) from the main sequence to red giants for stars with {T}{eff}\\lt 6500 K and explore how well the most common ways of fitting and removing the surface term actually perform. We find that the two-term model proposed by Ball & Gizon works much better than other models across a large portion of the HR diagram, including the red giants, leading us to recommend its use for future asteroseismic analyses.

  11. Temperature calibration for high-temperature MAS NMR to 913 K: 63Cu MAS NMR of CuBr and CuI, and 23Na MAS NMR of NaNbO3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingshi; Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state phase transitions of CuBr, CuI and NaNbO(3) can be readily observed using (63)Cu and (23)Na high-temperature magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Temperature has large, linear effects on the peak maximum of (63)Cu in each solid phase of CuBr and CuI, and there is large jump in shift across each phase transition. The (23)Na MAS NMR peak intensities and the line widths in NaNbO(3) also clearly show its high-temperature transition to the cubic phase. These data can be used to calibrate high-temperature MAS NMR probes up to 913 K, which is two hundred degrees higher than the commonly-used temperature calibration based on the chemical shift of (207)Pb in Pb(NO(3))(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The RS Canum Venaticorum phenomena. I - H-alpha emission in HR 1099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Photographic H-alpha spectrophotometry of the active chromosphere star HR 1099 is presented. The data were obtained during both radio-quiescent periods and radio flares during the years 1976-1979. This paper presents the data and data reduction techniques. In particular, the method used to correct the observed H-alpha profiles for the distortion introduced by the irregular 'continuum,' due to the underlying absorption lines, is presented and discussed. The techniques for measuring the equivalent widths and estimating the errors are presented. In addition to the major results presented earlier, it is found that the line widths of the H-alpha emission are broader than can be accounted for by rotation and orbital motion.

  13. Podocalyxin promotes glioblastoma multiforme cell invasion and proliferation by inhibiting angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Yugang

    2015-05-01

    Podocalyxin (PODX) reportedly enhances invasion in many human cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent studies have shown that the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in tumor environment contributes significantly to tumor progression. As a counter-regulatory axis in RAS, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to inhibit the growth and invasiveness of several human cancers including GBM. In the present study, we examined the crosstalk between PODX and Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling in GBM cells, and assessed its impact on GBM cell invasion and proliferation. A strong negative correlation between the expression of PODX and Mas in GBM tumor tissues from 10 consecutive patients (r=-0.768, p<0.01) was observed. The stable overexpression of PODX in LN-229 and U-118 MG human GBM cells decreased the expression of Mas at the mRNA and protein levels, which led to decreased density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. This effect was completely abolished by selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120. By contrast, the stable knockdown of PODX in LN-229 and U-118 MG cells increased the expression of Mas and the density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. Overexpression and knockdown of PODX respectively reversed and enhanced the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell invasion and proliferation in GBM cells. Although the overexpression of Mas showed no significant effect on the promoting effect of PODX on GBM cell invasion and proliferation in the absence of Ang-(1-7), it completely eliminated the effect of PODX in the presence of Ang-(1-7). In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence that PODX inhibits Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling by downregulating the expression of Mas through a PI3K-dependent mechanism in GBM cells. This effect led to enhanced GBM cell invasion and proliferation. The results of this study add

  14. Hormonal profile and reproductive performance in lactation deficient (OFA hr/hr) and normal (Sprague-Dawley) female rats.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Susana R; Penissi, Alicia B; Deis, Ricardo P; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-04-01

    Lactation deficiency may have important consequences on infant health, particularly in populations of low socioeconomic status. The OFA hr/hr (OFA) strain of rats, derived from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, has deficient lactation and is a good model of lactation failure. We examined the reproductive performance and hormonal profiles in OFA and SD strains to determine the cause(s) of the lactation failure of the OFA strain. We measured hormonal (PRL, GH, gonadotropins, oxytocin, and progesterone) levels by RIA in cycling, pregnant, and lactating rats and in response to suckling. Dopaminergic metabolism was assessed by determination of mediobasal hypothalamic dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations by HPLC and tyrosine hydroxylase expression by immunocytochemistry and western blot. OFA rats have normal fertility but 50% of the litters die of malnutrition on early lactation; only 6% of the mothers show normal lactation. The OFA rats showed lower circulating PRL during lactation, increased hypothalamic dopamine and DOPAC, and impaired milk ejection with decreased PRL and oxytocin response to suckling. Before parturition, PRL release and lactogenesis were normal, but dopaminergic metabolism was altered, suggesting activation of the dopaminergic system in OFA but not in SD rats. The number of arcuate and periventricular neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase was higher in SD rats, but hypothalamic expression of TH was higher in OFA rats at the end of pregnancy and early lactation. These results suggest that the OFA rats have impaired PRL release linked with an augmented dopaminergic tone which could be partially responsible for the lactational failure.

  15. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation.

  16. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    PubMed

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitation of 47 human tear proteins using high resolution multiple reaction monitoring (HR-MRM) based-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tong, Louis; Zhou, Xi Yuan; Jylha, Antti; Aapola, Ulla; Liu, Dan Ning; Koh, Siew Kwan; Tian, Dechao; Quah, Joanne; Uusitalo, Hannu; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei

    2015-02-06

    Tear proteins are intimately related to the pathophysiology of the ocular surface. Many recent studies have demonstrated that the tear is an accessible fluid for studying eye diseases and biomarker discovery. This study describes a high resolution multiple reaction monitoring (HR-MRM) approach for developing assays for quantification of biologically important tear proteins. Human tear samples were collected from 1000 subjects with no eye complaints (411 male, 589 female, average age: 55.5±14.5years) after obtaining informed consent. Tear samples were collected using Schirmer's strips and pooled into a single global control sample. Quantification of proteins was carried out by selecting "signature" peptides derived by trypsin digestion. A 1-h nanoLC-MS/MS run was used to quantify the tear proteins in HR-MRM mode. Good reproducibility of signal intensity (using peak areas) was demonstrated for all 47 HR-MRM assays with an average coefficient of variation (CV%) of 4.82% (range: 1.52-10.30%). All assays showed consistent retention time with a CV of less than 0.80% (average: 0.57%). HR-MRM absolute quantitation of eight tear proteins was demonstrated using stable isotope-labeled peptides. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the technique to quantify 47 human tear proteins in HR-MRM mode using approximately 1μl of human tear sample. These multiplexed HR-MRM-based assays show great promise of further development for biomarker validation in human tear samples. Both discovery-based and targeted quantitative proteomics can be achieved in a single quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer platform (TripleTOF 5600 system). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultraviolet and radio flares from UX Arietis and HR 1099

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of the RS CVn systems UX Ari and HR 1099 with the IUE satellite and the VLA are presented. Flaring activity is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths with the IUE when none is detected at radio wavelengths with the VLA. Radio flares with no detectable ultraviolet activity have also been observed. Thus, flares in the two spectral regions are either uncorrelated or weakly correlated. The flaring emission probably originates in different regions at the two wavelengths. Radio flares from RS CVn stars may originate in sources that are larger than, or comparable to, a star in size. This is in sharp contrast to compact, coherent radio flares from dwarf M stars. The ultraviolet flares from RS CVn stars probably originate in sources that are smaller than a component star.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Desulfohalobium retbaense type strain (HR(100)).

    PubMed

    Spring, Stefan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, Alex; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Land, Miriam; Chen, Feng; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Munk, Christine; Kiss, Hajnalka; Chain, Patrick; Han, Cliff; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C; Schüler, Esther; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-28

    Desulfohalobium retbaense (Ollivier et al. 1991) is the type species of the polyphyletic genus Desulfohalobium, which comprises, at the time of writing, two species and represents the family Desulfohalobiaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria. D. retbaense is a moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which can utilize H(2) and a limited range of organic substrates, which are incompletely oxidized to acetate and CO(2), for growth. The type strain HR(100) (T) was isolated from sediments of the hypersaline Retba Lake in Senegal. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the family Desulfohalobiaceae. The 2,909,567 bp genome (one chromosome and a 45,263 bp plasmid) with its 2,552 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE CLOSE ACTIVE BINARY HR 5110

    SciTech Connect

    Abbuhl, E.; Mutel, R. L.; Lynch, C.; Güedel, M.

    2015-09-20

    The close active binary HR 5110 was observed at six epochs over 26 days using a global very long baseline interferometry array at 15.4 GHz. We used phase referencing to determine the position of the radio centroid at each epoch with an uncertainty significantly smaller than the component separation. After correcting for proper motion and parallax, we find that the centroid locations of all six epochs have barycenter separations consistent with an emission source located on the KIV secondary, and not in an interaction region between the stars or on the F primary. We used a homogeneous power-law gyrosynchrotron emission model to reproduce the observed flux densities and fractional circular polarization. The resulting ranges of mean magnetic field strength and relativistic electron densities are of the order of 10 G and 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, respectively, in the source region.

  1. Dufulin Activates HrBP1 to Produce Antiviral Responses in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Mengjiao; Song, Baoan; Hou, Chengrui; Hu, Deyu; Li, Xiangyang; Wang, Zhenchao; Fan, Huitao; Bi, Liang; Liu, Jiaju; Yu, Dandan; Jin, Linhong; Yang, Song

    2012-01-01

    Background Dufulin is a new antiviral agent that is highly effective against plant viruses and acts by activating systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. In recent years, it has been used widely to prevent and control tobacco and rice viral diseases in China. However, its targets and mechanism of action are still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) techniques were combined with mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the target of Dufulin. More than 40 proteins were found to be differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold or ≤1.5 fold) upon Dufulin treatment in Nicotiana tabacum K326. Based on annotations in the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, these proteins were found to be related to disease resistance. Directed acyclic graph (DAG) analysis of the various pathways demonstrated harpin binding protein-1 (HrBP1) as the target of action of Dufulin. Additionally, western blotting, semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and real time PCR analyses were also conducted to identify the specific mechanism of action of Dufulin. Our results show that activation of HrBP1 triggers the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway and thereby produces antiviral responses in the plant host. A protective assay based on lesion counting further confirmed the antiviral activity of Dufulin. Conclusion This study identified HrBP1 as a target protein of Dufulin and that Dufulin can activate the SA signaling pathway to induce host plants to generate antiviral responses. PMID:22662252

  2. MASSES, RADII, AND CLOUD PROPERTIES OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov E-mail: andrew.ackerman@nasa.gov E-mail: freedman@darkstar.arc.nasa.gov

    2012-08-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Some studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here, we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike some previous studies, we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition-some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and the K-band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.

  3. Acute hyperhydration reduces athlete biological passport OFF-hr score.

    PubMed

    Bejder, J; Hoffmann, M F; Ashenden, M; Nordsborg, N B; Karstoft, K; Mørkeberg, J

    2016-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that athletes hyperhydrate to mask prohibited substances in urine and potentially counteract suspicious fluctuations in blood parameters in the athlete biological passport (ABP). It is examined if acute hyperhydration changes parameters included in the ABP. Twenty subjects received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) for 3 weeks. After 10 days of rhEPO washout, 10 subjects ingested normal amount of water (∼ 270 mL), whereas the remaining 10 ingested a 1000 mL bolus of water. Blood variables were measured 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after ingestion. Three days later, the subjects were crossed-over with regard to water ingestion and the procedure was repeated. OFF-hr was reduced by ∼ 4%, ∼ 3%, and ∼ 2% at 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after drinking 1000 mL of water, compared with normal water ingestion (P < 0.05). Forty percent of the subjects were identified with atypical blood profiles (99% specificity level) before drinking 1000 mL of water, whereas 11% (n = 18), 10% and 11% (n = 18) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. This was different (P < 0.05) compared with normal water intake, where 45% of the subjects were identified before ingestion, and 54% (n = 19), 45%, and 47% (n = 19) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. In conclusion, acute hyperhydration reduces ABP OFF-hr and reduces ABP sensitivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  5. A software framework for analysing solid-state MAS NMR data.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tim J; Fogh, Rasmus H; Boucher, Wayne; Higman, Victoria A; Eisenmenger, Frank; Bardiaux, Benjamin; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Laue, Ernest D

    2011-12-01

    Solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR of proteins has undergone many rapid methodological developments in recent years, enabling detailed studies of protein structure, function and dynamics. Software development, however, has not kept pace with these advances and data analysis is mostly performed using tools developed for solution NMR which do not directly address solid-state specific issues. Here we present additions to the CcpNmr Analysis software package which enable easier identification of spinning side bands, straightforward analysis of double quantum spectra, automatic consideration of non-uniform labelling schemes, as well as extension of other existing features to the needs of solid-state MAS data. To underpin this, we have updated and extended the CCPN data model and experiment descriptions to include transfer types and nomenclature appropriate for solid-state NMR experiments, as well as a set of experiment prototypes covering the experiments commonly employed by solid-sate MAS protein NMR spectroscopists. This work not only improves solid-state MAS NMR data analysis but provides a platform for anyone who uses the CCPN data model for programming, data transfer, or data archival involving solid-state MAS NMR data.

  6. Time-Dependent Coupling of Lfm-Helio and MAS Models for CME Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J.; Raouafi, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results of coupling of the heliospheric adaptation of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model — LFM-helio — with the MAS model of the solar corona. Up to now, LFM-helio has been limited to steady-state solutions dominated by corotating structures. We have developed a generalized interface for specification of time-dependent coronal boundary conditions and ingestion of MAS simulation data into the LFM model. The coupling is done by overlapping the LFM inner boundary buffer region with the outer portion of the MAS coronal grid. LFM-helio operates in the inertial rest frame, but our coupling code is sufficiently flexible that MAS solutions performed in either rotating or inertial frames can be ingested. We present results of a number of idealized coupled MAS/LFM-helio simulations — ranging from simply symmetric solar wind background to realistic including high and slow speed streams — intended to test the interface for seamless propagation of transients from the corona into the inner heliosphere domain. The transients are then tracked to larger heliocentric distances — to Earth and beyond. We specifically investigate the magnetic structure of the CMEs as they propagate through the interplanetary medium including rotation and erosion, and consider how the simulation resolution affects the results. We also developed codes for creation of synthetic white-light heliographic images which are used to help track CMEs kinematics through J-maps and put the simulations into a realistic observational context.

  7. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can inhibit hepatic insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rong-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-08-05

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can reduce the risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has recently been proposed to function as a negative regulator of the RAS. In previous studies, we first demonstrated that ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/)(y)) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However the precise roles of ACE2 on glucose metabolism are unknown. Here we show that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis increases glucose uptake and decreases glycogen synthesis in the liver accompanied by increased expression of glucose transporters, insulin receptor substrates and decreased expression of enzymes for glycogen synthesis. ACE2 knockout mice displayed elevated levels of oxidative stress and exposure to Ang-(1-7) reduced the stress in hepatic cells. As a consequence of anti-oxidative stress, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis led to improved hepatic insulin resistance through the Akt/PI3K/IRS-1/JNK insulin signaling pathway. This is the first time documented that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. As insulin resistance in the liver is considered to be the primary cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, this axis may serve as a new diabetes target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence for a Systematic Offset of -0.25 mas in the Gaia DR1 Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Torres, Guillermo

    2016-11-01

    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres. We find an average offset of -0.25 ± 0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color or brightness. However, we find with high confidence that the offset may depend on ecliptic latitude: the mean offset is -0.38 ± 0.06 mas in the ecliptic north and -0.05 ± 0.09 mas in the ecliptic south. The ecliptic latitude dependence may also be represented by the linear relation, {{Δ }}π ≈ -0.22(+/- 0.05)-0.003(+/- 0.001)× β mas (β in degrees). Finally, there is a possible dependence of the parallax offset on distance, with the offset becoming negligible for π ≲ 1 mas; we discuss whether this could be caused by a systematic error in the eclipsing binary distance scale, and reject this interpretation as unlikely.

  9. Characterization of cation environments in polycrystalline forsterite by Mg-25 MAS, MQMAS, and QCPMG NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Michael C.; Brouwer, William J.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Gan, Zhehong; Mueller, Karl T.

    2010-11-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is a silicate mineral frequently studied in the Earth sciences as it has a simple crystal structure and fast dissolution kinetics (elemental release rates under typical conditions on the order of 10-7 mol/m2/s1). During the dissolution process, spectroscopic techniques are often utilized to augment solution chemical analysis and to provide data for determining reaction mechanisms. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is able to interrogate the local bonding arrangement and coordination of a particular nuclide to obtain in structural information. Although previous NMR studies have focused on the silicon and oxygen environments in forsterite, studies focusing on the two nonequivalent magnesium environments in forsterite are limited to a few single-crystal studies. In this study, we present the results of 25Mg MAS, MQMAS, and static QCMG experiments performed on a powdered sample of pure synthetic forsterite. We also present spectral fits obtained from simulation software packages, which directly provide quadrupolar parameters for 25Mg nuclei occupying each of the two nonequivalent magnesium sites in the forsterite structure. These results are compared to calculations of the electric field gradient tenor conducted in previous ab initio studies to make definitive assignments correlating each peak to their respective magnesium site in the forsterite structure. Although previous NMR investigations of forsterite have focused on single-crystal samples, we have focused on powdered forsterite as the increased surface area of powdered samples makes them more amenable to laboratory-scale dissolution studies and, ultimately, the products from chemical weathering may be monitored an quantified.

  10. (27)Al-(27)Al double-quantum single-quantum MAS NMR: Applications to the structural characterization of microporous materials.

    PubMed

    Martineau-Corcos, Charlotte; Dědeček, Jiri; Taulelle, Francis

    In this paper, we review and illustrate applications, reported in the literature or used in our group, of (27)Al-(27)Al double-quantum single-quantum (DQ-SQ) MAS NMR experiments for the structural characterization of Al-containing microporous solids, namely zeolites, aluminophosphates and metal-organic frameworks. Information regarding the periodic frameworks or the localization of the various aluminum species in the materials are obtained from the analysis of the two-dimensional NMR spectra, which allows getting local structural details sometimes inaccessible from other characterization technique. An application of (27)Al-(27)Al of the DQ-SQ experiment for the detection of aluminum pairing in zeolite is shown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep water X-mas tree standardization -- Interchangeability approach

    SciTech Connect

    Paula, M.T.R.; Paulo, C.A.S.; Moreira, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    Aiming the rationalization of subsea operations to turn the production of oil and gas more economical and reliable, standardization of subsea equipment interfaces is a tool that can play a very important role. Continuing the program initiated some years ago, Petrobras is now harvesting the results from the first efforts. Diverless guidelineless subsea Christmas trees from four different suppliers have already been manufactured in accordance to the standardized specification. Tests performed this year in Macae (Campos Basin onshore base), in Brazil, confirmed the interchangeability among subsea Christmas trees, tubing hangers, adapter bases and flowline hubs of different manufacturers. This interchangeability, associated with the use of proven techniques, results in operational flexibility, savings in rig time and reduction in production losses during workovers. By now, 33 complete sets of subsea Christmas trees have already been delivered and successfully tested. Other 28 sets are still being manufactured by the four local suppliers. For the next five years, more than a hundred of these trees will be required for the exploration of the new discoveries. This paper describes the standardized equipment, the role of the operator in an integrated way of working with the manufacturers on the standardization activities, the importance of a frank information flow through the involved companies and how a simple manufacturing philosophy, with the use of construction jigs, has proved to work satisfactorily.

  12. MULTI-CENTER PRECISION OF CORTICAL AND TRABECULAR BONE QUALITY MEASURES ASSESSED BY HR-PQCT

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Andrew J.; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Kazakia, Galateia J.; Boutroy, Stephanie; Engelke, Klaus; Patsch, Janina M.; Valentinitsch, Alexander; Liu, Danmei; Szabo, Eva; Bogado, Cesar E.; Zanchetta, Maria Belen; McKay, Heather A.; Shane, Elizabeth; Boyd, Steven K.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Chapurlat, Roland; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has recently been introduced as a clinical research tool for in vivo assessment of bone quality. The utility of this technique to address important skeletal health questions requires translation to standardized multi-center data pools. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of pooling data in multi-center HR-pQCT imaging trials. Reproducibility imaging experiments were performed using structure and composition-realistic phantoms constructed from cadaveric radii. Single-center precision was determined by repeat scanning over short (<72hrs), intermediate (3–5mo), and long-term intervals (28mo). Multi-center precision was determined by imaging the phantoms at nine different HR-pQCT centers. Least significant change (LSC) and root mean squared coefficient of variation (RMSCV) for each interval and across centers was calculated for bone density, geometry, microstructure, and biomechanical parameters. Single-center short-term RMSCVs were <1% for all parameters except Ct.Th (1.1%), Ct.Th.SD (2.6%), Tb.Sp.SD (1.8%), and porosity measures (6–8%). Intermediate-term RMSCVs were generally not statistically different from short-term values. Long-term variability was significantly greater for all density measures (0.7–2.0%; p < 0.05 vs. short-term) and several structure measures: Ct.Th (3.4%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term), Ct.Po (15.4%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term), and Tb.Th (2.2%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term). Multi-center RMSCVs were also significantly higher than short-term values: 2–4% for density and µFE measures (p < 0.0001), 2.6–5.3% for morphometric measures (p < 0.001), while Ct.Po was 16.2% (p < 0.001). In the absence of subject motion, multi-center precision errors for HR-pQCT parameters were generally less than 5%. Phantom-based multi-center precision was comparable to previously reported in vivo single-center precision errors, although this was approximately 2–5 times worse than ex vivo short

  13. Technology Enhanced Learning for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Cerebral Paralysis: The MAS Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.

  14. MAS-Based Cooperative Control for Biotechnological Process-A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choinski, Dariusz; Metzger, Mieczyslaw; Nocon, Witold

    The MAS-based control seems to be better suited for manufacturing control because of its discrete event character. Nevertheless, for continuous industrial processes the MAS-based control can be also very attractive. In this paper, a synthesis of the MAS-based control system for the continuous process is presented. A biological reactor is controlled using respirometric approach. In this approach, both standard control loops and additional experiments are performed to obtain measurements not available on-line. Therefore, the system consists of different control agents being able to cooperate or to inhibit each other in order to achieve the appropriate goals. A case study experiments are realized using an experimental wastewater treatment pilot plant.

  15. Investigation of domain size in polymer membranes using double quantum filtered spin diffusion MAS NMR.

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Cherry, Brian Ray; Cornelius, Christopher James

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR was used to investigate sulfonated Diels-Alder poly(phenlylene) polymer membranes. Under high spinning speed {sup 1}H MAS conditions, the proton environments of the sulfonic acid and phenylene polymer backbone are resolved. A double-quantum (DQ) filter using the rotor-synchronized back-to-back (BABA) NMR multiple-pulse sequence allowed the selective suppression of the sulfonic proton environment in the {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra. This DQ filter in conjunction with a spin diffusion NMR experiment was then used to measure the domain size of the sulfonic acid component within the membrane. In addition, the temperature dependence of the sulfonic acid spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was determined, providing an estimate of the activation energy for the proton dynamics of the dehydrated membrane.

  16. Silencing the HaHR3 Gene by Transgenic Plant-mediated RNAi to Disrupt Helicoverpa armigera Development

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yehui; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuliang; Xu, Dawei; Qiu, Dewen

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) caused by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has developed into a powerful technique in functional genomics, and to date it is widely used to down-regulate crucial physiology-related genes to control pest insects. A molt-regulating transcription factor gene, HaHR3, of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) was selected as the target gene. Four different fragments covering the coding sequence (CDS) of HaHR3 were cloned into vector L4440 to express dsRNAs in Escherichia coli. The most effective silencing fragment was then cloned into a plant over-expression vector to express a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). When H. armigera larvae were fed the E. coli or transgenic plants, the HaHR3 mRNA and protein levels dramatically decreased, resulting developmental deformity and larval lethality. The results demonstrate that both recombinant bacteria and transgenic plants could induce HaHR3 silence to disrupt H. armigera development, transgenic plant-mediated RNAi is emerging as a powerful approach for controlling insect pests. PMID:23630449

  17. Fast trabecular bone strength predictions of HR-pQCT and individual trabeculae segmentation-based plate and rod finite element model discriminate postmenopausal vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Sherry; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Bin; Stein, Emily; Shi, Xiutao; Adams, Mark; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2013-07-01

    Although high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced clinical assessment of trabecular bone microstructure, nonlinear microstructural finite element (µFE) prediction of yield strength using a HR-pQCT voxel model is impractical for clinical use due to its prohibitively high computational costs. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient HR-pQCT-based plate and rod (PR) modeling technique to fill the unmet clinical need for fast bone strength estimation. By using an individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) technique to segment the trabecular structure into individual plates and rods, a patient-specific PR model was implemented by modeling each trabecular plate with multiple shell elements and each rod with a beam element. To validate this modeling technique, predictions by HR-pQCT PR model were compared with those of the registered high-resolution micro-computed tomography (HR-µCT) voxel model of 19 trabecular subvolumes from human cadaveric tibia samples. Both the Young's modulus and yield strength of HR-pQCT PR models strongly correlated with those of µCT voxel models (r²  = 0.91 and 0.86). Notably, the HR-pQCT PR models achieved major reductions in element number (>40-fold) and computer central processing unit (CPU) time (>1200-fold). Then, we applied PR model µFE analysis to HR-pQCT images of 60 postmenopausal women with (n = 30) and without (n = 30) a history of vertebral fracture. HR-pQCT PR model revealed significantly lower Young's modulus and yield strength at the radius and tibia in fracture subjects compared to controls. Moreover, these mechanical measurements remained significantly lower in fracture subjects at both sites after adjustment for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) T-score at the ultradistal radius or total hip. In conclusion, we validated a novel HR-pQCT PR model of human trabecular bone against µCT voxel models and demonstrated its ability to discriminate vertebral fracture

  18. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color

  19. Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal thickness using SOCT Copernicus HR.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Silvia; Viqueira, Valentín; Mas, David; Domenech, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of corneal thickness measurements derived from SOCT Copernicus HR (Fourier domain OCT). Thirty healthy eyes of 30 subjects were evaluated. One eye of each patient was chosen randomly. Images were obtained of the central (up to 2.0 mm from the corneal apex) and paracentral (2.0 to 4.0 mm) cornea. We assessed corneal thickness (central and paracentral) and epithelium thickness. The intra-observer repeatability data were analysed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for a range of 95 per cent within-subject standard deviation (S(W)) and the within-subject coefficient of variation (C(W)). The level of agreement by Bland-Altman analysis was also represented for the study of the reproducibility between observers and agreement between methods of measurement (automatic versus manual). The mean value of the central corneal thickness (CCT) was 542.4 ± 30.1 μm (SD). There was a high intra-observer agreement, finding the best result in the central sector with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, 95 per cent CI (0.989 to 0.997) and the worst, in the minimum corneal thickness, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.672, 95 per cent CI (0.417 to 0.829). Reproducibility between observers was very high. The best result was found in the central sector thickness obtained both manually and automatically with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.990 in both cases and the worst result in the maximum corneal thickness with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.827. The agreement between measurement methods was also very high with intra-class correlation coefficient greater than 0.91. On the other hand the repeatability and reproducibility for epithelial measurements was poor. Pachymetric mapping with SOCT Copernicus HR was found to be highly repeatable and reproducible. We found that the device lacks an appropriate ergonomic design as proper focusing of the laser beam onto the

  20. Factor analysis of 27Al MAS NMR spectra for identifying nanocrystalline phases in amorphous geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, Martina; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured materials offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of the large interfacial area. Typically, geopolymers with specifically synthesized nanosized zeolites are a promising material for the sorption of pollutants. The structural characterization of these aluminosilicates, however, continues to be a challenge. To circumvent complications resulting from the amorphous character of the aluminosilicate matrix and from the low concentrations of nanosized crystallites, we have proposed a procedure based on factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra. The capability of the proposed method was tested on geopolymers that exhibited various tendencies to crystallize (i) completely amorphous systems, (ii) X-ray amorphous systems with nanocrystalline phases, and (iii) highly crystalline systems. Although the recorded (27)Al MAS NMR spectra did not show visible differences between the amorphous systems (i) and the geopolymers with the nanocrystalline phase (ii), the applied factor analysis unambiguously distinguished these materials. The samples were separated into the well-defined clusters, and the systems with the evolving crystalline phase were identified even before any crystalline fraction was detected by X-ray powder diffraction. Reliability of the proposed procedure was verified by comparing it with (29)Si MAS NMR spectra. Factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra thus has the ability to reveal spectroscopic features corresponding to the nanocrystalline phases. Because the measurement time of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra is significantly shorter than that of (29)Si MAS NMR data, the proposed procedure is particularly suitable for the analysis of large sets of specifically synthesized geopolymers in which the formation of the limited fractions of nanocrystalline phases is desired.

  1. Employee Returns: Linking HR Performance Indicators to Business Strategy. IES Report 365.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alison; Robinson, Dilys

    This document is a practical guide that demonstrates how human resource (HR) professionals can use performance measurement to link HR to organizational strategy and business objectives, and thereby raise the profile of HR within their organization. The following are among the topics examined: (1) the strategic context of measurement (the role…

  2. HR 1362 - A test case for stellar dynamo theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Hall, Douglas S.; Barksdale, William S.; Jusick, Anthony T.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of 11 yr of photometry of HR 1362 = EK Eri has shown a well-established photometric period of 335 days. This confirms an earlier period determination of about 310 days from 3 yr of APT data and is consistent with a new v sin i determination of 2 + or - 2 km/s. Recent Ca II H and K observations show moderately strong H and K emission lines at a flux level of log F prime (K) of about 6.5 ergs sq m/s. If the photometric period is interpreted as the rotation period, this surface flux is more than one order of magnitude larger than what can be expected from empirical activity versus rotation relationships. The spectrum and the U-B and B-V colors are consistent with a single G8 III-IV spectral classification, while the V-R and V-I values indicate a small color excess, typical of chromospherically active stars.

  3. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  4. HR-HSBC: Measuring heteronuclear one-bond couplings with enhanced resolution.

    PubMed

    Görling, Benjamin; Bräse, Stefan; Luy, Burkhard

    2012-12-01

    Heteronuclear one-bond couplings have a variety of applications, and their accurate determination is the basis for obtaining specific structural information of mostly small organic compounds. In this context, it is of utmost importance to reduce signal overlap to a minimum, and a number of techniques has been introduced during the last decades. Here, we introduce a modified version of the HR-HMBC (Magn. Reson. Chem. 2010, 48, 179-183) for heteronuclear one-bond coupling measurements with improved resolution because of the J-resolved-like tilt of corresponding multiplet patterns. The pulse sequence is introduced, and its performance is compared with a standard ω(2)-coupled HSQC experiment. Example spectra on glucose and maltose demonstrate that signals can be resolved that overlap otherwise. The approach is discussed in detail.

  5. Estimating the chromospheric magnetic field from a revised NLTE modelling: the case of HR 7428

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busá, I.; Catanzaro, G.; Frasca, A.; Gangi, M.; Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Munari, M.; Scalia, C.; Scuderi, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we use the semi-empirical atmospheric modelling method to obtain the chromospheric temperature, pressure, density and magnetic field distribution versus height in the K2 primary component of the RS CVn binary system HR 7428. While temperature, pressure and density are the standard output of the semi-empirical modelling technique, the chromospheric magnetic field estimation versus height comes from considering the possibility of not imposing hydrostatic equilibrium in the semi-empirical computation. The stability of the best non-hydrostatic equilibrium model implies the presence of an additive (towards the centre of the star) pressure that decreases in strength from the base of the chromosphere towards the outer layers. Interpreting the additive pressure as magnetic pressure, we estimated a magnetic field intensity of about 500 G at the base of the chromosphere.

  6. Expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in the adult and developing mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Tuhina; Verma, Amrisha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have provided evidence that a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the retina and plays an important role in retinal neurovascular function. We have recently shown that increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)], two components of the protective axis of the RAS, in the retina via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery, conferred protection against diabetes-induced retinopathy. We hypothesized that the protective molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ang (1-7) are mediated by its receptor, Mas, and the expression level and cellular localization dictate the response to Ang (1-7) and activation of subsequent protective signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by examining the expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in adult and developing mouse retinas. Methods The cellular localization of the Mas receptor protein was determined with immunofluorescence of the eyes of adult and postnatal day 1 (P1), P5, P7, P15, and P21 mice using the Mas receptor-specific antibody, and mRNA was detected with in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. Western blotting and real-time reverse-transcription (RT)–PCR analysis were performed to determine the relative levels of the Mas protein and mRNA in adult and developing retinas, as well as in cultured retinal Müller glial and RPE cells. Results In the adult eye, the Mas receptor protein was abundantly present in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptor cells; a lower level of expression was observed in endothelial cells, Müller glial cells, and other neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. In the developing retina, Mas receptor mRNA and protein expression was detected in the inner retina at P1, and the expression levels increased with age to reach the adult level and pattern by P15. In the adult mouse retina, Mas receptor mRNA was expressed at a much higher level when compared to angiotensin II (Ang II) type I (AT1R) and

  7. Assessment of volume fraction and fabric in the distal radius using HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Varga, P; Zysset, P K

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capabilities of the state of the art HR-pQCT technique to predict mineral content, volume fraction and fabric of trabecular bone structure compared to the gold standard microCT. Four cadaveric human forearms were scanned with HR-pQCT and the dissected radius epiphyses with microCT. After registering the images, bone mineral density (BMD), volume fraction (BV/TV) and fabric were computed on corresponding cubical regions of interest for both image sources. In particular, the effect of the segmentation procedure on BV/TV was analyzed. Assessment of fabric was performed with three different methods comparing their efficiency and robustness against resolution change. The results showed that in order to achieve optimal results at the lower image resolution, different filtering and thresholding approaches needed to be selected for different tasks. Therefore, to preserve BV/TV, the BMD-based volume fraction provided best match with the reference values of microCT, while in case of Mean Intercept Length (MIL) fabric a Gaussian filter and a histogram-based threshold were optimal. Using the latter, MIL was found to be more robust against resolution change than the other approaches. Additionally, we proposed a linear model for describing the mathematical transformation that the second order fabric tensor undergoes when the resolution of the input images changes. As a conclusion, we found that the investigated properties of trabecular bone structure can be adequately predicted from the lower resolution technique that is available in vivo for peripheral bones, when proper image processing and corrections are applied.

  8. A technique to derive improved proper motions for Kepler objects of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, G. Fritz; Tanner, Angelle M.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-12-01

    We outline an approach yielding proper motions with higher precision than exists in present catalogs for a sample of stars in the Kepler field. To increase proper-motion precision, we combine first-moment centroids of Kepler pixel data from a single season with existing catalog positions and proper motions. We use this astrometry to produce improved reduced-proper-motion diagrams, analogous to a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, for stars identified as Kepler objects of interest. The more precise the relative proper motions, the better the discrimination between stellar luminosity classes. Using UCAC4 and PPMXL epoch 2000 positions (and proper motions from those catalogs as quasi-Bayesian priors), astrometry for a single test Channel (21) and Season (0) spanning 2 yr yields proper motions with an average per-coordinate proper-motion error of 1.0 mas yr{sup –1}, which is over a factor of three better than existing catalogs. We apply a mapping between a reduced-proper-motion diagram and an H-R diagram, both constructed using Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes and proper motions, to estimate Kepler object of interest K-band absolute magnitudes. The techniques discussed apply to any future small-field astrometry as well as to the rest of the Kepler field.

  9. Structural analysis of cortical porosity applied to HR-pQCT data

    SciTech Connect

    Tjong, Willy Nirody, Jasmine Burghardt, Andrew J. Carballido-Gamio, Julio Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The investigation of cortical porosity is an important aspect of understanding biological, pathoetiological, and biomechanical processes occurring within the skeleton. With the emergence of HR-pQCT as a noninvasive tool suitable for clinical use, cortical porosity at appendicular sites can be directly visualizedin vivo. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel topological analysis of the cortical pore network for HR-pQCT data and determine the influence of resolution on measures of cortical pore network microstructure and topology. Methods: Cadaveric radii were scanned using HR-pQCT at two different voxel sizes (41 and 82μm) and also using μCT at a voxel size of 18 μm. HR-pQCT and μCT image sets were spatially coregistered. Segmentation and quantification of cortical porosity (Ct.Po) and mean pore diameter (Ct.Po.Dm) were achieved using an established extended cortical analysis technique. Topological classification of individual pores was performed using topology-preserving skeletonization and multicolor dilation algorithms. Based on the pore skeleton topological classification, the following parameters were quantified: total number of planar surface-skeleton canals (N.Slabs), tubular curve-skeleton canals (N.Tubes), and junction elements (N.Junctions), mean slab volume (Slab.Vol), mean tube volume (Tube.Vol), mean slab orientation (Slab.θ), mean tube orientation (Tube.θ), N.Slabs/N.Tubes, and integral (total) slab volume/integral tube volume (iSlab.Vol/iTube.Vol). An in vivo reproducibility study was also conducted to assess short-term precision of the topology parameters. Precision error was characterized using root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%). Results: Correlations toμCT values for Ct.Po were significant for both the 41 and 82 μm HR-pQCT data (41: r{sup 2} = 0.82, p < 0.001, 82: r{sup 2} = 0.75, p < 0.001). For Ct.Po.Dm, only the 41 μm data were significantly predictive of μCT values (r{sup 2} = 0.72, p < 0.01) Data at

  10. Resolved imaging of the HR 8799 Debris disk with Herschel

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Marois, Christian; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Macintosh, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160, and 250 μm and detect the disk at 350 and 500 μm. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. We observe no obvious clumps or asymmetries associated with the trapping of planetesimals that is a potential consequence of planetary migration in the system. We estimate that the disk eccentricity must be <0.1. As in previous work by Su et al., we find a disk with three components: a warm inner component and two outer components, a planetesimal belt extending from 100 to 310 AU, with some flexibility (±10 AU) on the inner edge, and the external halo that extends to ∼2000 AU. We measure the disk inclination to be 26° ± 3° from face-on at a position angle of 64° E of N, establishing that the disk is coplanar with the star and planets. The spectral energy distribution of the disk is well fit by blackbody grains whose semi-major axes lie within the planetesimal belt, suggesting an absence of small grains. The wavelength at which the spectrum steepens from blackbody, 47 ± 30 μm, however, is short compared with other A star debris disks, suggesting that there are atypically small grains likely populating the halo. The PACS longer wavelength data yield a lower disk color temperature than do MIPS data (24 and 70 μm), implying two distinct halo dust-grain populations.

  11. Acceptance Test Report for the Modular Automation System (MAS) Manufactured by Honeywell Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON, D.L.

    2000-02-01

    This document details the performance of the acceptance test of the Honeywell MAS Control System for equipment to be installed in gloveboxes HA-20MB and HA-211 at a later date. Equipment that was anticipated included 6 stabilization furnaces, only three and their associated equipment were installed.

  12. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 < 9 T) and temperatures (T > 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0<9T) and temperatures (T>90K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼ 100K and ∼ 30K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  15. Successfully Transitioning from the AA-MAS to the General Assessment. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Federal policy initiatives such as the flexibility waivers for accountability are requiring that states transition away from the use of an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). It is expected that those students who had participated in that assessment will instead participate in the state's general assessment (or a…

  16. Considerations for Consortia as States Transition Away from AA-MAS. NCEO Brief. Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2014

    2014-01-01

    States with an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) that received a flexibility waiver from some of the requirements of No Child Left Behind are required to phase out their use of this assessment. And, on August 23, 2013, the U.S. Department of Education published a proposed rollback of regulation that allowed the…

  17. Moderate MAS enhances local (1)H spin exchange and spin diffusion.

    PubMed

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (<10 kHz) spinning rates as compared to static conditions. Spin diffusion under static conditions can thus be slower than the often referred value of 0.8 nm(2)/ms, which was determined using slow MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  19. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  20. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems...

  1. The Multidimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS): Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findler, Liora; Vilchinsky, Noa; Werner, Shirli

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the development of a new instrument, the "Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities" (MAS). Based on the multidimensional approach, it posits that attitudes are composed of three dimensions: affect, cognition, and behavior. The scale was distributed to a sample of 132 people along with a…

  2. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of multiple... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... determining the Government's price negotiation objectives, consider the following factors: (1)...

  3. 77 FR 58996 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-- Operational Change; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Acquisition Service (FAS), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION... Administration (GSA), Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) issued a notice on July 23, 2012. The comment period is...

  4. Ultra High Angular Resolution and sub-mas Astrometry with HST's FGS1r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, M.; Makidon, R. B.; Jong, D.; Nelan, E.

    2001-05-01

    The 3 Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) - white-light shearing interferometers - are critical to the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by providing highly accurate guiding for the observatory. Moreover, FGS1r in particular is a capable science instrument. Its two observing modes - Position Mode and Transfer Mode - support wide angle and narrow angle astrometry respectively. In Position Mode, a star's interferometric fringes are tracked to determine its angular position relative to other stars in the detector's field of view. Using this method, a star's parallax, proper motion, and reflex motion can be measured with a precision of about 1 mas per observation, while multi-epoch observing programs have yielded astrometry with accuracies approaching 0.2 mas for objects as bright as V=3 or as faint as V=16.5. Transfer Mode observations repeatedly scan an object's interferometric fringes to achieve sub-mas sampling of the fringe morphology with high signal-to-noise (conceptually analogous to imaging with a 1 mas pixel array). Post-observation analysis allows the measurement of angular separation, position angle and relative brightness of binary components, or a determination of the angular size of an extended object. Close binary systems with V < 12 can be detected down to 7 mas, while systems as faint as V=15 can be characterized to 12 mas, provided the magnitude difference between the components is less than about 2. (Wider systems with magnitude differences as large as 3.5 can be resolved.) Both FGS observing modes can be utilized to derive the total and fractional masses of binary systems, and thus the mass-luminosity relationship of the binary components. The FGS have also been used to observe and characterize non-point source objects, including Mira variables, asteroids, and active galactic nuclei, yielding information on the structure of these objects on scales as small as 8 mas. The FGS also function as 40 Hz photometers, offering milli-magnitude precision

  5. Association between bone indices assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT and QCT scans in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Jakobsen, Niels Frederik Breum; Moser, Emil; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are commonly used when assessing bone mass and structure in patients with osteoporosis. Depending on the imaging technique and measuring site, different information on bone quality is obtained. How well these techniques correlate when assessing central as well as distal skeletal sites has not been carefully assessed to date. One hundred and twenty-five post-menopausal women aged 56-82 (mean 63) years were studied using DXA scans (spine, hip, whole body and forearm), including trabecular bone score (TBS), QCT scans (spine and hip) and HR-pQCT scans (distal radius and tibia). Central site measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by QCT correlated significantly at the hip (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Distal site measurements of density at the radius as assessed by DXA and HR-pQCT were also associated (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Correlations between distal and central site measurements of the hip and of the tibia and radius showed weak to moderate correlation between vBMD by HR-pQCT and QCT (r = -0.27 to 0.54). TBS correlated with QCT at the lumbar spine (r = 0.35) and to trabecular indices of HR-pQCT at the radius and tibia (r = -0.16 to 0.31, p < 0.01). There was moderate to strong agreement between measuring techniques when assessing the same skeletal site. However, when assessing correlations between central and distal sites, the associations were only weak to moderate. Our data suggest that the various techniques measure different characteristics of the bone, and may therefore be used in addition to rather than as a replacment for imaging in clinical practice.

  6. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seyoung; Evans, Megan A; Chu, Hannah X; Kim, Hyun Ah; Widdop, Robert E; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p.) at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p.) 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M) reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05), an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  7. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seyoung; Evans, Megan A.; Chu, Hannah X.; Kim, Hyun Ah; Widdop, Robert E.; Drummond, Grant R.; Sobey, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7–9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p.) at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p.) 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10−8 M to 10−6 M) reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05), an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke. PMID:26540167

  8. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in transgenic mice overexpressing GH.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Marina C; Burghi, Valeria; Miquet, Johanna G; Giani, Jorge F; Banegas, Ricardo D; Toblli, Jorge E; Fang, Yimin; Wang, Feiya; Bartke, Andrzej; Dominici, Fernando P

    2014-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological homeostasis and diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. In this cascade, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor axis induces pathological effects, such as vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and fibrosis, while the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective for end-organ damage. The altered function of the RAS could be a contributing factor to the cardiac and renal alterations induced by GH excess. To further explore this issue, we evaluated the consequences of chronic GH exposure on the in vivo levels of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), ACE, ACE2, and Mas receptor in the heart and the kidney of GH-transgenic mice (bovine GH (bGH) mice). At the age of 7-8 months, female bGH mice displayed increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), a high degree of both cardiac and renal fibrosis, as well as increased levels of markers of tubular and glomerular damage. Angiotensinogen abundance was increased in the liver and the heart of bGH mice, along with a concomitant increase in cardiac Ang II levels. Importantly, the levels of ACE2, Ang-(1-7), and Mas receptor were markedly decreased in both tissues. In addition, Ang-(1-7) administration reduced SBP to control values in GH-transgenic mice, indicating that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is involved in GH-mediated hypertension. The data indicate that the altered expression profile of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the heart and the kidney of bGH mice could contribute to the increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal alterations observed in these animals.

  9. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Lee, Chien-Te; Adelibieke, Yelixiati; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis counteracts the deleterious actions of Ang II. ACE2 exerts its actions by cleaving Ang II into Ang-(1-7) which activates Mas receptor. This study aimed to determine if the expression of Mas receptor is altered in the kidneys of CKD rats, and if indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, affects the expression of Mas receptor in rat kidneys and cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). The expression of Mas receptor was examined in the kidneys of CKD and AST-120-treated CKD rats using immunohistochemistry. Further, the effects of IS on Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats were examined. The effects of IS on the expression of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HK-2 cells were examined using immunoblotting. CKD rats showed reduced renal expression of Mas receptor, while AST-120 restored its expression. Administration of IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in HK-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, also inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. Mas receptor expression is reduced in the kidneys of CKD rats. IS downregulates renal expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells. IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor might be involved in upregulation of TGF-β1 in proximal tubular

  10. Daphnia HR96 is a Promiscuous Xenobiotic and Endobiotic Nuclear Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Karimullina, Elina; Li, Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam; Baldwin, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics. PMID:22466357

  11. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) architecture and design accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term “ hyperspectral microwave” is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth's atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4 - 9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the s- an head

  12. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) Architecture and Design Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence; Racette, Paul; Blackwell, William; Galbraith, Christopher; Thompson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term "hyperspectral microwave" is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth s atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4-9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the scan head computer

  13. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) Architecture and Design Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence; Racette, Paul; Blackwell, William; Galbraith, Christopher; Thompson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term "hyperspectral microwave" is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth s atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4-9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the scan head computer

  14. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  15. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2009. Synthesis Report 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    All students, including students with disabilities, must be included in state accountability systems as required by law. In April 2007, federal regulations provided states the flexibility to offer another assessment option--an Alternate Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The AA-MAS is…

  16. Laser Cleaning of Peristyle in Diocletian Palace in Split (HR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almesberger, D.; Rizzo, A.; Zanini, A.; Geometrante, R.

    Before starting the cleaning program of the peristyle of Diocletian Palace in Split, a series of tests have been performed on it. First of all, the state of conservation of columns and capitals has been assessed applying non-destructive techniques such as thermography, magnetoscopy and superficial ultrasonic tests. All the areas with black crusts, exfoliation and stone cracks have been determined. In this stage, parameters such as water absorption and colour have been estimated in order to compare them with those measured after the cleaning operation. Then, more than 3-month period of tests have been performed to set up all the parameters concerning the application of the laser cleaning techniques. In this chapter, the results of these preliminary investigations are presented.

  17. Heteromerization Between the Bradykinin B2 Receptor and the Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas Receptor: Functional Consequences.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Bruno D; Carretero, Oscar A; Janic, Brana; Grecco, Hernán E; Gironacci, Mariela M

    2016-10-01

    Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) and angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor (MasR)-mediated effects are physiologically interconnected. The molecular basis for such cross talk is unknown. It is hypothesized that the cross talk occurs at the receptor level. We investigated B2R-MasR heteromerization and the functional consequences of such interaction. B2R fused to the cyan fluorescent protein and MasR fused to the yellow fluorescent protein were transiently coexpressed in human embryonic kidney293T cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis showed that B2R and MasR formed a constitutive heteromer, which was not modified by their agonists. B2R or MasR antagonists decreased fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency, suggesting that the antagonist promoted heteromer dissociation. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced an 8-fold increase in the MasR ligand-binding affinity. On agonist stimulation, the heteromer was internalized into early endosomes with a slower sequestration rate from the plasma membrane, compared with single receptors. B2R-MasR heteromerization induced a greater increase in arachidonic acid release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation after angiotensin-(1-7) stimulation, and this effect was blocked by the B2R antagonist. Concerning serine/threonine kinase Akt activity, a significant bradykinin-promoted activation was detected in B2R-MasR but not in B2R-expressing cells. Angiotensin-(1-7) and bradykinin elicited antiproliferative effects only in cells expressing B2R-MasR heteromers, but not in cells expressing each receptor alone. Proximity ligation assay confirmed B2R-MasR interaction in human glomerular endothelial cells supporting the interaction between both receptors in vivo. Our findings provide an explanation for the cross talk between bradykinin B2R and angiotensin-(1-7) MasR-mediated effects. B2R-MasR heteromerization induces functional changes in the receptor that may lead to long-lasting protective properties.

  18. MAS1 Receptor Trafficking Involves ERK1/2 Activation Through a β-Arrestin2-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cerniello, Flavia M; Carretero, Oscar A; Longo Carbajosa, Nadia A; Cerrato, Bruno D; Santos, Robson A; Grecco, Hernán E; Gironacci, Mariela M

    2017-09-05

    The MAS1 receptor (R) exerts protective effects in the brain, heart, vessels, and kidney. R trafficking plays a critical function in signal termination and propagation and in R resensitization. We examined MAS1R internalization and trafficking on agonist stimulation and the role of β-arrestin2 in the activation of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt after MAS1R stimulation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with the coding sequence for MAS1R-YFP (MAS1R fused to yellow fluorescent protein). MAS1R internalization was evaluated by measuring the MAS1R present in the plasma membrane after agonist stimulation using a ligand-binding assay. MAS1R trafficking was evaluated by its colocalization with trafficking markers. MAS1R internalization was blocked in the presence of shRNAcaveolin-1 and with dominant negatives for Eps15 (a protein involved in endocytosed Rs by clathrin-coated pits) and for dynamin. After stimulation, MAS1R colocalized with Rab11-a slow recycling vesicle marker-and not with Rab4-a fast recycling vesicle marker-or LysoTracker-a lysosome marker. Cells transfected with MAS1R showed an increase in Akt and ERK1/2 activation on angiotensin-(1-7) stimulation, which was blocked when the clathrin-coated pits pathway was blocked. Suppression of β-arrestin2 by shRNA reduced the angiotensin-(1-7)-induced ERK1/2 activation, whereas Akt activation was not modified. We conclude that on agonist stimulation, MAS1R is internalized through clathrin-coated pits and caveolae in a dynamin-dependent manner and is then slowly recycled back to the plasma membrane. MAS1R induced Akt and ERK1/2 activation from early endosomes, and the activation of ERK1/2 was mediated by β-arrestin2. Thus, MAS1R activity and density may be tightly controlled by the cell. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Acuña, María José; Santos, Robson A.; Bader, Michael; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Olguin, Hugo; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT) and Mas-knockout (Mas KO) mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7) immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7) prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7) increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:26851244

  20. How do kV and mAs affect CT lesion detection performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Shah, K.; Jadoo, C.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how output (mAs) and x-ray tube voltage (kV) affect lesion detection in CT imaging. An adult Rando phantom was scanned on a GE LightSpeed CT scanner at x-ray tube voltages from 80 to 140 kV, and outputs from 90 to 360 mAs. Axial images of the abdomen were reconstructed and viewed on a high quality monitor at a soft tissue display setting. We measured detection of 2.5 to 12.5 mm sized lesions using a 2 Alternate Forced Choice (2-AFC) experimental paradigm that determined lesion contrast (I) corresponding to a 92% accuracy (I 92%) of lesion detection. Plots of log(I 92%) versus log(lesion size) were all approximately linear. The slope of the contrast detail curve was ~ -1.0 at 90 mAs, close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but monotonically decreased with increasing mAs to a value of ~ -0.7 at 360 mAs. Increasing the x-ray tube output by a factor of four improved lesion detection by a factor of 1.9 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but only by a factor of 1.2 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). Increasing the kV monotonically decreased the contrast detail slopes from -1.02 at 80 kV to -0.71 at 140 kV. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved lesion detection by a factor of 2.8 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), but only by a factor of 1.7 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). We conclude that: (i) quantum mottle is an important factor for low contrast lesion detection in images of anthropomorphic phantoms; (ii) x-ray tube voltage has a much greater influence on lesion detection performance than x-ray tube output; (iii) the Rose model only predicts CT lesion detection performance at low x-ray tube outputs (90 mAs) and for small lesions (2.5 mm).

  1. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas.

    PubMed

    Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Acuña, María José; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Olguin, Hugo; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophyin vivousing unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT) and Mas-knockout (Mas KO) mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7) immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7) prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7) increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  2. Glucagon-producing cells are increased in Mas-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Felix Braga, Janaína; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1-7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P < 0.001) and the percentage per islet (17.9 ± 0.91 vs 12.3 ± 0.9% in WT; P < 0.0001) with subsequent reduction of β-cells percentage (82.1 ± 0.91 vs 87.7 ± 0.9% in WT; P < 0.0001). Accordingly, glucagon plasma levels were increased (516.7 ± 36.35 vs 390.8 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P < 0.05) and insulin plasma levels were decreased in C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice (0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.31 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P = 0.02). In order to eliminate the possibility of a background-related phenotype, we determined the number of glucagon-producing cells in FVB/N Mas(-/-) mice. In keeping with the observations in C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice, the number and percentage of pancreatic α-cells were also significantly increased in these mice (number of α-cells: 260 ± 22 vs 156 ± 12 in WT, P < 0.001; percentage per islet: 16 ± 0.8 vs 10 ± 0.5% in WT, P < 0.0001). These results suggest that Mas has a previously unexpected role on the pancreatic glucagon production. © 2017 The authors.

  3. Bonding Preferences of Non-Bridging Oxygens in Calcium Aluminosilicate Glass: Evidence from O-17 MAS and 3QMAS NMR on Calcium Aluminate Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwardt, J. R.; Lee, S.; Stebbins, J.

    2001-12-01

    Non-bridging oxygens (NBO's) play a significant role in the thermodynamic and transport properties in glasses and silicate melts. Previous oxygen-17 (O-17) triple quantum magic angle spinning (3QMAS NMR) data have shown the presence of NBO's in several calcium aluminosilicate (CAS) glasses on the CaAl2O4-SiO2 join (Stebbins and Xu 1997). The observed chemical shifts of these glasses are similar to those for the NBO in calcium silicate glasses (Stebbins et al. 1997 and Stebbins et al 1999); however, a recent O-17 MAS NMR study of crystalline CaAl2O4 showed that the NBO peak in an associated impurity phase is shifted to a higher frequency by 30 to 40 ppm from that of CAS and Ca-silicate glasses (Stebbins et al. in press). This finding suggests that Si is the preferred network cation for NBO's in aluminosilicate glasses and melts at the glass transition temperature. The preference for Si over that of Al as the network cation host for NBO's has also been suggested by Raman and other spectroscopic techniques (Mysen 1988). To investigate this apparent preference for Si-NBO, O-17 3QMAS and MAS experiments were conducted to examine the location of the NBO peak in the spectra of a calcium aluminate glass. Since the CaAl2O4 glass is difficult to make by conventional cooling methods, the binary eutectic composition (63CaO-37Al2O3) was chosen. The resulting O-17 MAS spectrum shows an intense, relatively narrow peak centered at 72 ppm, which nearly coincides with the peak location and width of the Al-O-Al peak in the crystalline Ca-aluminates (Stebbins et al. in press.) (70 ppm). There is a broader, less intense peak centered at 155 ppm that is assigned to the Al-NBO peak. This peak is in approximately the same location as that for a Ca-aluminate phase reported by Stebbins et al. (in press) (137 ppm). In addition, our 3QMAS data show that the peak maximum of the NBO in the Ca-aluminate (-85 and 150 ppm in isotropic and MAS dimensions, respectively) differs significantly from

  4. Effects of nucleotide binding to LmrA: A combined MAS-NMR and solution NMR study.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Ute A; Mönkemeyer, Leonie; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    ABC transporters are fascinating examples of fine-tuned molecular machines that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to translocate a multitude of substrates across biological membranes. While structural details have emerged on many members of this large protein superfamily, a number of functional details are still under debate. High resolution structures yield valuable insights into protein function, but it is the combination of structural, functional and dynamic insights that facilitates a complete understanding of the workings of their complex molecular mechanisms. NMR is a technique well-suited to investigate proteins in atomic resolution while taking their dynamic properties into account. It thus nicely complements other structural techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, that have contributed high-resolution data to the architectural understanding of ABC transporters. Here, we describe the heterologous expression of LmrA, an ABC exporter from Lactococcus lactis, in Escherichia coli. This allows for more flexible isotope labeling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and the easy study of LmrA's multidrug resistance phenotype. We use a combination of solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) on the reconstituted transporter and solution NMR on its isolated nucleotide binding domain to investigate consequences of nucleotide binding to LmrA. We find that nucleotide binding affects the protein globally, but that NMR is also able to pinpoint local dynamic effects to specific residues, such as the Walker A motif's conserved lysine residue.

  5. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Receptor Mas Are Colocalized and Functionally Interdependent in Obese Zucker Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanket N; Ali, Quaisar; Samuel, Preethi; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha; Hussain, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    The actions of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas (MasR) are complex but show similar pronatriuretic function; particularly, AT2R expression and natriuretic function are enhanced in obese/diabetic rat kidney. In light of some reports suggesting a potential positive interaction between these receptors, we tested hypothesis that renal AT2R and MasR physically interact and are interdependent to stimulate cell signaling and promote natriuresis in obese rats. We found that infusion of AT2R agonist C21 in obese Zucker rats (OZR) increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of the AT2R antagonist PD123319 or the MasR antagonist A-779. Similarly, infusion of MasR agonist Ang-(1-7) in OZR increased urine flow and urinary Na excretion, which were attenuated by simultaneous infusion of A-779 or PD123319. Experiment in isolated renal proximal tubules of OZR revealed that both the agonists C21 and Ang-(1-7) stimulated NO which was blocked by either of the receptor antagonists. Dual labeling of AT2R and MasR in OZR kidney sections and human proximal tubule epithelial cells showed that AT2R and MasR are colocalized. The AT2R also coimmunoprecipitated with MasR in cortical homogenate of OZR. Immunoblotting of cortical homogenate cross-linked with zero-length oxidative (sulfhydryl groups) cross-linker cupric-phenanthroline revealed a shift of AT2R and MasR bands upward with overlapping migration for their complexes which were sensitive to the reducing β-mercaptoethanol, suggesting involvement of -SH groups in cross-linking. Collectively, the study reveals that AT2R and MasR are colocalized and functionally interdependent in terms of stimulating NO and promoting diuretic/natriuretic response. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A Qualitative Analysis of the Assignment of Human Resource Officer (HRO) Subspecialty Codes to HR Billets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ANALYSIS OF THE ASSIGNMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE OFFICER (HRO) SUBSPECIALTY CODES TO HR BILLETS by Terrence L. Jones September 2006 Primary... Analysis of the Assignment of Human Resource Officer (Hro) Subspecialty Codes to Hr Billets 6. AUTHOR(S) Terrence L. Jones 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...distribution is unlimited A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS EVALUATING THE ASSIGNMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE OFFICER (HRO) SUBSPECIALTY CODES TO HR BILLETS

  7. Studies on the intracellular localization of hHR23B

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Samiksha; Lennarz, William J. . E-mail: wlennarz@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

    2005-12-02

    Yeast Rad23, originally identified as a DNA repair protein, has been proposed to participate in other cellular functions, i.e., the proteasome-degradation pathway, the process of spindle pole body duplication and as a component of the anaphase checkpoint. Two human homologs of yeast Rad23, hHR23A and hHR23B, exhibit high sequence homology with yRad23 and also have been shown to be involved in DNA repair and proteasome-dependent degradation. Previous studies on the intracellular localization of hHR23A and hHR23B revealed their predominant localization in the nucleus during interphase and in the cytoplasm during mitosis. We have analyzed the localization of hHR23B during all the phases of the cell cycle using immunofluorescence. Unlike previous studies, our results suggest localization of hHR23B in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm during G1 phase. The nuclear levels of hHR23B decrease during S-phase of the cell cycle. When the cell enters mitosis, hHR23B relocalizes in the cytoplasm without association with chromatin. These results indicate that the intracellular distribution hHR23B is cell cycle dependent.

  8. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis attenuates the cardiac reactivity to acute emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Martins Lima, Augusto; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Ferreira, Anderson José; Raizada, Mohan K; Wallukat, Gerd; Velloso, Elizabeth Portugal Pimenta; dos Santos, Robson Augusto Sousa; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2013-10-01

    Recent data indicate the brain angiotensin-converting enzyme/ANG II/AT1 receptor axis enhances emotional stress responses. In this study, we investigated whether its counterregulatory axis, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis, attenuate the cardiovascular responses to acute emotional stress. In conscious male Wistar rats, the tachycardia induced by acute stress (air jet 10 l/min) was attenuated by intravenous injection of ANG-(1-7) [Δ heart rate (HR): saline 136 ± 22 vs. ANG-(1-7) 61 ± 25 beats/min; P < 0.05]. Peripheral injection of the ACE2 activator compound, XNT, abolished the tachycardia induced by acute stress. We found a similar effect after intracerebroventricular injections of either ANG-(1-7) or XNT. Under urethane anesthesia, the tachycardia evoked by the beta-adrenergic agonist was markedly reduced by ANG-(1-7) [ΔHR: saline 100 ± 16 vs. ANG-(1-7) 18 ± 15 beats/min; P < 0.05]. The increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) evoked by isoproterenol was also abolished after the treatment with ANG-(1-7) [ΔRSNA: saline 39% vs. ANG-(1-7) -23%; P < 0.05]. The tachycardia evoked by disinhibition of dorsomedial hypothalamus neurons, a key nucleus for the cardiovascular response to emotional stress, was reduced by ∼45% after intravenous injection of ANG-(1-7). In cardiomyocyte, the incubation with ANG-(1-7) (1 μM) markedly attenuated the increases in beating rate induced by isoproterenol. Our data show that activation of the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis attenuates stress-induced tachycardia. This effect might be either via the central nervous system reducing anxiety level and/or interfering with the positive chronotropy mediated by activation of cardiac β adrenergic receptors. Therefore, ANG-(1-7) might contribute to reduce the sympathetic load to the heart during situations of emotional stress, reducing the cardiovascular risk.

  9. Effect of x-ray exposure (mAs) on peroxide and acid values of honey.

    PubMed

    Inyang, S O; Egbe, N O; Inyang, I S; Azogor, W E; Ekpo, E; Eduwem, D U

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in most places as food sweetener and antibacterial agent for wounds. The antibacterial property of honey depends mainly on its peroxide value and acidity. This study investigated the possible effect that may be observed on the peroxide value and acidity if honey is exposed to x-ray at varying tube current values (mAs) in order to infer the possible implications of referring patients undergoing honey therapy for diagnostic x-ray examination. The acid and peroxide values were found to vary with changes in the exposure (mAs) value. It is therefore recommended that patients undergoing honey therapy should be referred for diagnostic x-ray examination with caution while radiotherapy should be avoided.

  10. Technology Development for a Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Thompson, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term hyperspectral microwave is used to indicate an all-weather sounding instrument that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earths atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions.

  11. Deuterium MAS NMR studies of dynamics on multiple timescales: histidine and oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Wimperis, Stephen; Gervais, Christel; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Duma, Luminita

    2015-01-12

    Deuterium ((2) H) magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance is applied to monitor the dynamics of the exchanging labile deuterons of polycrystalline L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate-d7 and α-oxalic acid dihydrate-d6 . Direct experimental evidence of fast dynamics is obtained from T1Z and T1Q measurements. Further motional information is extracted from two-dimensional single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) MAS spectra. Differences between the SQ and DQ linewidths clearly indicate the presence of motions on intermediate timescales for the carboxylic moiety and the D2 O in α-oxalic acid dihydrate, and for the amine group and the D2 O in L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate. Comparison of the relaxation rate constants of Zeeman and quadrupolar order with the relaxation rate constants of the DQ coherences suggests the co-existence of fast and slow motional processes.

  12. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. MAS NMR of the Drug Resistant S31N M2 Proton Transporter from Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Loren B.; Eddy, Matthew T.; Chou, James J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    We report chemical shift assignments of the drug-resistant S31N mutant of M218-60 determined with magic angle spinning (MAS) 3D spectra acquired with a 15N-13C ZF-TEDOR transfer followed by 13C-13C mixing by RFDR. The MAS spectra reveal two sets of resonances, indicating that the tetramer assembles as a dimer of dimers, similar to the wild type channel. The two sets of chemical shifts are shown to be in close proximity at residue H37, and assignments reveal a difference in the helix torsion angles, as predicted by TALOS+, for the key resistance residue N31. In contrast to wild type M218-60, chemical shift changes are minimal with addition of the inhibitor rimantadine, suggesting that the drug does not bind to S31N. PMID:22480220

  14. Design and implementation of distributed virtual geographic environment system based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Kaiping; Yang, Xiaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The use of distributed virtual geographic environments (DVGE) is one of the most promising uses of virtual reality in geographic field. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is flexible and adaptive enough to resolve highly complex distributed computing problems. This paper aims to discuss how to apply MAS technology to improve the efficiency of collaborative work among multi-user. We firstly design the three-layer system architecture and multi agent system of the DVGE. Then dynamic cooperative group algorithm is also addressed. Finally, we built a collaborative virtual environment and implemented prototype system in silt dams system planning on a case study area, Jiu-Yuan-Gou watershed of Loess Plateau, China. Experiment results prove that the scheme addressed in this paper is efficient and feasible.

  15. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by 31P MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Ishay; Waysbort, Daniel; Shmueli, Liora; Nir, Ido; Kaplan, Doron

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) {(DES)2}. Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed.

  16. Increasing 13C CP-MAS NMR resolution using single crystals: application to model octaethyl porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Dalal, Naresh S

    2012-08-02

    Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) and its Ni and Zn derivatives are considered as model compounds in biochemical, photophysical, and fossil fuel chemistry. They have thus been investigated by high-resolution solid-state (13)C NMR using powders, but peak assignment has been difficult because of large line widths. Arguing that a significant cause of broadening might be the anisotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility, we utilized single crystals in our (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) measurements and observed a nearly 2-fold line narrowing. This enhanced resolution enabled us to assign chemical shifts to each carbon for all the three compounds. The new assignments are now in agreement with X-ray structural data and allowed us to probe the motional dynamics of the methyl and methylene carbons of the OEP side chains. It is apparent that the use of single crystals in (13)C CP-MAS measurements has a significantly wider impact than previously thought.

  17. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  18. DID FOMALHAUT, HR 8799, AND HL TAURI FORM PLANETS VIA THE GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY? PLACING LIMITS ON THE REQUIRED DISK MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, D.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2009-09-10

    Disk fragmentation resulting from the gravitational instability has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for forming giant planets. We use the planet Fomalhaut b, the triple-planetary system HR 8799, and the potential protoplanet associated with HL Tau to test the viability of this mechanism. We choose the above systems since they harbor planets with masses and orbital characteristics favored by the fragmentation mechanism. We do not claim that these planets must have formed as the result of fragmentation, rather the reverse: if planets can form from disk fragmentation, then these systems are consistent with what we should expect to see. We use the orbital characteristics of these recently discovered planets, along with a new technique to more accurately determine the disk cooling times, to place both lower and upper limits on the disk surface density-and thus mass-required to form these objects by disk fragmentation. Our cooling times are over an order of magnitude shorter than those of Rafikov, which makes disk fragmentation more feasible for these objects. We find that the required mass interior to the planet's orbital radius is {approx}0.1 M{sub sun} for Fomalhaut b, the protoplanet orbiting HL Tau, and the outermost planet of HR 8799. The two inner planets of HR 8799 probably could not have formed in situ by disk fragmentation.

  19. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  20. ACE2, angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas receptor axis in inflammation and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Simões e Silva, AC; Silveira, KD; Ferreira, AJ; Teixeira, MM

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have improved our understanding of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). These have included the recognition that angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is a biologically active product of the RAS cascade. The identification of the ACE homologue ACE2, which forms Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, and the GPCR Mas as an Ang-(1-7) receptor have provided the necessary biochemical and molecular background and tools to study the biological significance of Ang-(1-7). Most available evidence supports a counter-regulatory role for Ang-(1-7) by opposing many actions of Ang II on AT1 receptors, especially vasoconstriction and proliferation. Many studies have now shown that Ang-(1-7) by acting via Mas receptor exerts inhibitory effects on inflammation and on vascular and cellular growth mechanisms. Ang-(1-7) has also been shown to reduce key signalling pathways and molecules thought to be relevant for fibrogenesis. Here, we review recent findings related to the function of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis and focus on the role of this axis in modifying processes associated with acute and chronic inflammation, including leukocyte influx, fibrogenesis and proliferation of certain cell types. More attention will be given to the involvement of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the context of renal disease because of the known relevance of the RAS for the function of this organ and for the regulation of kidney inflammation and fibrosis. Taken together, this knowledge may help in paving the way for the development of novel treatments for chronic inflammatory and renal diseases. PMID:23488800

  1. MAS/MILS Arc/Info point coverage for the western U.S. (excluding Hawaii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has two international and one regional digital database that contains information on mineral properties. This report describes the conversion of selected data from one of the international databases - MAS/MILS (Mineral Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System) - into a spatial data product. The MAS/MILS database, obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) upon its closure, contains over 221,000 records of mineral properties and processing facilities throughout the world. However, the majority of the records in the database are of sites located in the western U.S. This is due to the extensive mineral activity that has occurred in the West, and the work done by mineral professionals in the Western, Alaska, and Intermountain Field Operations Centers of the USBM. The purpose of this project was to create a spatial coverage of the western U.S. containing mineral resource information. This coverage includes information for the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For this report, locations from MAS/MILS were converted to a point coverage using a geographic information system (GIS). All work was done using Arc/Info v. 7.0.4. There are 128,441 points in the coverage.

  2. Low-power XiX decoupling in MAS NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Matthias; Samoson, Ago; Meier, Beat H

    2003-08-01

    Low-power XiX proton decoupling under fast magic-angle spinning is introduced. The method is applicable if the MAS frequency exceeds the proton-proton interactions. For rigid organic solids this is the case for MAS frequencies above approximately 40 kHz. It is shown that the quality of the decoupling as well as the sensitivity to frequency offsets can be improved compared to low-power continuous-wave decoupling. The decoupling efficiency is somewhat reduced compared to optimized high-power decoupling: in a peptide sample investigated at an MAS frequency of 50 kHz a loss of about 10% in signal intensity for CH3 and CH groups, and of about 40% for CH2 groups was observed. Taking into consideration, that the rf amplitude in the low-power XiX was about 15 times lower than in high-power XiX decoupling, such a reduction in line intensity is sometimes tolerable.

  3. In Situ Characterization of Pharmaceutical Formulations by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qing Zhe; Yang, Fengyuan; Can, Thach V; Sergeyev, Ivan V; D'Addio, Suzanne M; Jawla, Sudheer K; Li, Yongjun; Lipert, Maya P; Xu, Wei; Williamson, R Thomas; Leone, Anthony; Griffin, Robert G; Su, Yongchao

    2017-08-31

    A principal advantage of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy lies in its ability to determine molecular structure in a noninvasive and quantitative manner. Accordingly, MAS should be widely applicable to studies of the structure of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and formulations. However, the low sensitivity encountered in spectroscopy of natural abundance APIs present at low concentration has limited the success of MAS experiments. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhances NMR sensitivity and can be used to circumvent this problem provided that suitable paramagnetic polarizing agent can be incorporated into the system without altering the integrity of solid dosages. Here, we demonstrate that DNP polarizing agents can be added in situ during the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) via spray drying and hot-melt extrusion so that ASDs can be examined during drug development. Specifically, the dependence of DNP enhancement on sample composition, radical concentration, relaxation properties of the API and excipients, types of polarizing agents and proton density, has been thoroughly investigated. Optimal enhancement values are obtained from ASDs containing 1% w/w radical concentration. Both polarizing agents TOTAPOL and AMUPol provided reasonable enhancements. Partial deuteration of the excipient produced 3× higher enhancement values. With these parameters, an ASD containing posaconazole and vinyl acetate yields a 32-fold enhancement which presumably results in a reduction of NMR measurement time by ∼1000. This boost in signal intensity enables the full assignment of the natural abundance pharmaceutical formulation through multidimensional correlation experiments.

  4. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing elevated serum level of enzymes, total serum protein, albumin and liver lipid peroxidation content. Cornus mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.

  5. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY414, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D 1H/1H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY412, XY413, XY414, and XY814 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T10T2,±2, T1,±1T2,±1, etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY414 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp-RFDR are also analyzed

  6. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY4(1)4, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D (1)H/(1)H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY4(1)2, XY4(1)3, XY4(1)4, and XY8(1)4 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T(10)T(2,±2), T(1,±1)T(2,±1), etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY4(1)4 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp

  7. Phase Cycling Schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS Solid State NMR Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY414, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D 1H/1H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY412, XY413, XY414, and XY814 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T10T2,±2, T1,±1T2,±1, etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field in homogeneity effects revealed that XY414 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp-RFDR are also analyzed

  8. Multi-wavelength observations of the peculiar red giant HR 3126

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Walter, Frederick M.; Doggett, Jesse; Dachs, Joachim; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Mundt, Reinhard

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the red giant HR 3126 are combined with multi-wavelength data in order to provide a firmer basis for explaining the arc-minute sized nebula surrounding the object. Possibilities as to the location of HR 3126 on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, and to the formation mechanisms of the reflection nebula IC 2220 associated with it, are summarized.

  9. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J.; Baldwin, William S.

    2015-01-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20–80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine’s protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan’s toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation. PMID:25747156

  10. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  11. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  12. Elemental abundances of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lupi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Davis Philip, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine analyses of limited spectral regions of the mercury-manganese stars HR 4817 and Chi Lup confirm that these stars have abundances of typical class members. The best determined values of HR 4817 are similar to those of 53 Tau which is an anomalous class member.

  13. Medical Libraries and Health Communications Assistance Amendments of 1969;...Report to Accompany H.R. 11702.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarborough, Ralph

    This Senate report recommends certain technical and clarifying amendments to H.R.11702. As reported, H.R.11702 would extend for three years the current program to provide financial assistance for the construction of health library facilities; to support training of health librarians and other information specialists; to expand and improve health…

  14. Policy, Professionalism, Professionality and the Development of HR Practitioners in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A review of literature was carried out on the subject of the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. In doing so, the issues of…

  15. From Admin to Strategy: The Changing Face of the HR Function. IES Report 332.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkin, Penny; And Others

    Evidence from academic research and management experts in the United Kingdom and elsewhere confirms that the recent focus in work organizations on cost reductions through downsizing has changed the roles and structures of many human resources (HR) units. HR units have had to prove their contribution to the organization's bottom line, raise their…

  16. Legislative Hearing: Regulations on the Solomon Amendment to the Defense Act of 1983. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567, and H.R. 1622 and H.R. 2145 (February 23, 24; March 23, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Hearings on the Solomon amendment regulations proposed by the U.S. Department of Education are presented. The Solomon amendment requires that any student be registered under the military's Selective Service Act in order to receive Title IV federal student assistance. H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567 would repeal the provision of the Military Selective…

  17. Policy, Professionalism, Professionality and the Development of HR Practitioners in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Moira

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A review of literature was carried out on the subject of the role of relevant policies in the professional development of HR practitioners in the UK. In doing so, the issues of…

  18. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J; Baldwin, William S

    2015-06-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20-80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine's protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan's toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation.

  19. H-BAND IMAGE OF A PLANETARY COMPANION AROUND HR 8799 IN 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Fukagawa, Misato; Fujita, Yutaka; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Tamura, Motohide; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2009-05-01

    The discovery of three planetary companions around HR 8799 marked a significant epoch in direct imaging of extrasolar planets. Given the importance of this system, we re-analyzed H-band images of HR 8799 obtained with the Subaru 36-elements adaptive optics (AO) in 2002 July. The low-order AO imaging combined with the classical point-spread function (PSF) subtractions even revealed the extrasolar planet, HR 8799b. Our observations in 2002 confirmed that it has been orbiting HR 8799 in a counterclockwise direction. The flux of HR 8799b was consistent with those in the later epochs within the uncertainty of 0.25 mag, further supporting the planetary mass estimate by Marois et al.

  20. Solid-state 19F MAS NMR study on the conformation and molecular mobility of poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene).

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Hiroto; Aimi, Keitaro; Ando, Shinji

    2007-05-01

    The temperature dependence of molecular mobility and conformational changes of poly(chlorotrifluoro- ethylene) (PCTFE) have been investigated by solid-state (19)F magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The pulse techniques of dipolar-filter and T(1rho)-filter allow selective observation of the amorphous and crystalline domains, respectively. The temperature dependence of T(1rho) (F) revealed that the segmental motion in the amorphous domain becomes vigorous above ca 80 degrees C, which is well above the glass transition (T(g)) temperature (52 degrees C) and more close to the beta-relaxation temperature (95 degrees C). On the other hand, vigorous molecular motions in the crystalline domain occur above 120 degrees C, which is much below the melting temperature (212 degrees C). This indicates that the polymer chains in the PCTFE crystallites are more mobile than those of typical semicrystalline fluoropolymers like poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), which can be associated with structural imperfections in the crystallites. In addition, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (19)F magnetic shielding suggest that the high-frequency shifts observed for the crystalline signals above 80 degrees C can be ascribed to the conformational change around meso diads toward more twisted and/or helical conformations in the main chain.

  1. Acetylation of raw cotton for oil spill cleanup application: an FTIR and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Moses O; Frost, Ray L

    2004-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the acetylation of raw cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of different amounts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst. This is a continuation of our previous investigation of acetylation of commercial cotton in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic sorbent materials for cleaning up oil spills. The FTIR data have again provided a clear evidence for successful acetylation. The NMR results further confirm the successful acetylation. The extent of acetylation was quantitatively determined using the weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation and by calculating the ratio R between the intensity of the acetyl C=O stretching band at 1740-1745 cm(-1) and the intensity of C-O stretching vibration of the cellulose backbone at about 1020-1040 cm(-1). The FTIR technique was found to be highly sensitive and reliable for the determination of the extent of acetylation. The level of acetylation of the raw cotton samples was found to be much higher than that of cotton fabrics and the previously studied commercial cotton. The variation of the R and WPG with reaction time, amount of DMAP catalyst and different samples of raw cotton is discussed.

  2. Acetylation of raw cotton for oil spill cleanup application: an FTIR and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, Moses O.; Frost, Ray L.

    2004-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the acetylation of raw cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of different amounts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst. This is a continuation of our previous investigation of acetylation of commercial cotton in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic sorbent materials for cleaning up oil spills. The FTIR data have again provided a clear evidence for successful acetylation. The NMR results further confirm the successful acetylation. The extent of acetylation was quantitatively determined using the weight percent gain (WPG) due to acetylation and by calculating the ratio R between the intensity of the acetyl CO stretching band at 1740-1745 cm -1 and the intensity of CO stretching vibration of the cellulose backbone at about 1020-1040 cm -1. The FTIR technique was found to be highly sensitive and reliable for the determination of the extent of acetylation. The level of acetylation of the raw cotton samples was found to be much higher than that of cotton fabrics and the previously studied commercial cotton. The variation of the R and WPG with reaction time, amount of DMAP catalyst and different samples of raw cotton is discussed.

  3. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR2 2p 1 with p = 1, 2, 3, … . While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut =ωr / 2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50 kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of 13C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-13C2 ]alanine, [1,3-13C2 ]alanine, diammonium [1,4-13C2 ]fumarate, and [U-13 C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR2p 1 sequences with p ⩾ 3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR2p 1 schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  4. Low-power broadband homonuclear dipolar recoupling in MAS NMR by two-fold symmetry pulse schemes for magnetization transfers and double-quantum excitation.

    PubMed

    Teymoori, Gholamhasan; Pahari, Bholanath; Edén, Mattias

    2015-12-01

    We provide an experimental, numerical, and high-order average Hamiltonian evaluation of an open-ended series of homonuclear dipolar recoupling sequences, SR [Formula: see text] with p=1,2,3,…. While operating at a very low radio-frequency (rf) power, corresponding to a nutation frequency of 1/2 of the magic-angle spinning (MAS) rate (ωnut=ωr/2), these recursively generated double-quantum (2Q) dipolar recoupling schemes offer a progressively improved compensation to resonance offsets and rf inhomogeneity for increasing pulse-sequence order p. The excellent recoupling robustness to these experimental obstacles, as well as to CSA, is demonstrated for 2Q filtering (2QF) experiments and for driving magnetization transfers in 2D NMR correlation spectroscopy, where the sequences may provide either double or zero quantum dipolar Hamiltonians during mixing. Experimental and numerical demonstrations, which mostly target conditions of "ultra-fast" MAS (≳50kHz) and high magnetic fields, are provided for recoupling of (13)C across a wide range of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts, as well as dipolar coupling constants, encompassing [2,3-(13)C2]alanine, [1,3-(13)C2]alanine, diammonium [1,4-(13)C2]fumarate, and [U-(13)C]tyrosine. When compared at equal power levels, a superior performance is observed for the SR [Formula: see text] sequences with p⩾3 relative to existing and well-established 2Q recoupling techniques. At ultra-fast MAS, proton decoupling is redundant during the homonuclear dipolar recoupling of dilute spins in organic solids, which renders the family of SR [Formula: see text] schemes the first efficient 2Q recoupling option for general applications, such as 2Q-1Q correlation NMR and high-order multiple-quantum excitation, under truly low-power rf conditions.

  5. The variable Herbig Ae Star HR 5999. X - Its photometric 'pulse-shaped' variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Webb, J. R.; The, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    We present additional photometric observations (Stromgren y filter) of the Herbig Ae Star HR 5999. This new set of data, composed of 282 data points covering April 1983 to August 1989, was used in conjunction with the 362 data points compiled by Baade and Stahl (1989). Our aim was to detect single or multiple periods in the integrated set of data spanning nearly 20 yr. Through the use of series analysis techniques, and by removing any linear component present in the raw data, we were able to detect weak peaks in the power spectra (in the order of intensity the strongest peaks are at 301 and 113 d) which were not self-evident in the phase diagrams. The overall picture of the data shows a small linear component, which is more noticeable in the new set of data, indicating that the recent maxima appear brighter. By a detailed analysis of the full light curve we were able to detect the presence of well-defined 'pulses' or bursts. Further Gaussian fits of these bursts indicated that the pulses are relatively rapid, of the order of 10 d, with some of them being closely spaced. No periodicity was found for the pulses. A possible explanation of these aperiodic outbursts is that they detect a flow of matter accompanied by magnetic field disturbances originated from the interior of the star, unlike those originating externally such as binary perturbations, which tend to be periodic.

  6. Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor c agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 attenuates bone cancer pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-E; Lu, Cui-E; Lei, Yishan; Liu, Yue; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C (MrgC) agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) on bone cancer pain and mirror-image pain. Methods: Bone cancer pain was induced by intramedullary injection of NC2472 fibrosarcoma cells in the mice. BAM8-22 and/or anti-MrgC antibody were injected intrathecally at day 14 after bone cancer induction and their effects on pain behaviors were detected. The pain behaviours were assessed by the number of spontaneous foot lifts and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) tests. MrgC expression was detected using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Results: There were increased bone cancer pain and mirror-image pain in the tumor-bearing mice while not in the sham-treated mice. BAM8-22 attenuated bone cancer pain in mice dose dependently with the highest effects at 2 hr after BAM8-22 administration, and anti-MrgC antibody reversed the effects of BAM8-22. However, intrathecal administration of BAM8-22 did not affect the mirror-image pain. Furthermore, BAM8-22 stimulated the expression of MrgC in the spinal dorsal horn. Conclusions: MrgC agonist BAM8-22 could attenuate bone cancer pain in mice. This study may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26884930

  7. Estimation of the specific surface area of apatites in human mineralized tissues using 31P MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Slósarczyk, Anna; Wojtowicz, Andrzej; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2007-10-01

    Specific surface areas of apatites in whole human mineralized tissues were estimated from (31)P MAS NMR linewidths: 77 m(2)g(-1) for enamel and 94 m(2)g(-1) for dentin, dental cementum and cortical bone.

  8. Aqueous U(VI) interaction with magnetite nanoparticles in a mixed flow reactor system: HR-XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidchenko, I.; Heberling, F.; Kvashnina, KO; Finck, N.; Schild, D.; Bohnert, E.; Schäfer, T.; Rothe, J.; Geckeis, H.; Vitova, T.

    2016-05-01

    The redox variations and changes in local atomic environment of uranium (U) interacted with the magnetite nanoparticles were studied in a proof of principle experiment by the U L3 and M4 edges high energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure (HR-XANES) technique. We designed and applied a mixed flow reactor (MFR) set-up to maintain dynamic flow conditions during U-magnetite interactions. Formation of hydrolyzed, bi- and poly-nuclear U species were excluded by slow continuous injection of U(VI) (10-6 M) and pH control integrated in the MFR set-up. The applied U HR-XANES technique is more sensitive to minor changes in the U redox states and bonding compared to the conventional XANES method. Major U(VI) contribution in uranyl type of bonding is found in the magnetite nanoparticles after three days operation time of the MFR. Indications for shortening of the U-Oaxial bond length for the magnetite compared to the maghemite system are present too.

  9. (11)B MAS NMR and First-Principles Study of the [OBO3] Pyramids in Borates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Biao-Chun; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Laskowski, Robert; Terskikh, Victor; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Lingyun; Botis, Sanda M; Sherriff, Barbara L; Pan, Yuanming

    2016-03-07

    Borates are built from the [Bϕ3] planar triangles and the [Bϕ4] tetrahedral groups, where ϕ denotes O or OH. However, the [Bϕ4] groups in some borates are highly distorted to include three normal B-O bonds and one anomalously long B-O bond and, therefore, are best described as the [OBO3] pyramids. Four synthetic borates of the boracite-type structures (Mg3B7O13Br, Cu3B7O13Br, Zn3B7O13Cl, and Mg3B7O13Cl) containing a range of [OBO3] pyramids were investigated by multifield (7.05, 14.1, and 21.1 T) (11)B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR experiments, as well as density functional theory calculations. The high-resolution (11)B MAS NMR spectra supported by theoretical predictions show that the [OBO3] pyramids are characterized by isotropic chemical shifts δiso((11)B) from 1.4(1) to 4.9(1) ppm and nuclear quadrupole parameters CQ((11)B) up to 1.3(1) MHz, both significantly different from those of the [BO4] and [BO3] groups in borates. These δiso((11)B) and CQ((11)B) values indicate that the [OBO3] pyramids represent an intermediate state between the [BO4] tetrahedra and [BO3] triangles and demonstrate that the (11)B NMR parameters of four-coordinate boron oxyanions are sensitive to local structural environments. The orientation of the calculated unique electronic field gradient tensor element Vzz of the [OBO3] pyramids is aligned approximately along the direction of the anomalously long B-O bond, corresponding to B-2pz with the lowest electron density.

  10. The Novel 10-Item Asthma Prediction Tool: External Validation in the German MAS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grabenhenrich, Linus B.; Reich, Andreas; Fischer, Felix; Zepp, Fred; Forster, Johannes; Schuster, Antje; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Bergmann, Renate L.; Bergmann, Karl E.; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background A novel non-invasive asthma prediction tool from the Leicester Cohort, UK, forecasts asthma at age 8 years based on 10 predictors assessed in early childhood, including current respiratory symptoms, eczema, and parental history of asthma. Objective We aimed to externally validate the proposed asthma prediction method in a German birth cohort. Methods The MAS-90 study (Multicentre Allergy Study) recorded details on allergic diseases prospectively in about yearly follow-up assessments up to age 20 years in a cohort of 1,314 children born 1990. We replicated the scoring method from the Leicester cohort and assessed prediction, performance and discrimination. The primary outcome was defined as the combination of parent-reported wheeze and asthma drugs (both in last 12 months) at age 8. Sensitivity analyses assessed model performance for outcomes related to asthma up to age 20 years. Results For 140 children parents reported current wheeze or cough at age 3 years. Score distribution and frequencies of later asthma resembled the Leicester cohort: 9% vs. 16% (MAS-90 vs. Leicester) of children at low risk at 3 years had asthma at 8 years, at medium risk 45% vs. 48%. Performance of the asthma prediction tool in the MAS-90 cohort was similar (Brier score 0.22 vs. 0.23) and discrimination slightly better than in the original cohort (area under the curve, AUC 0.83 vs. 0.78). Prediction and discrimination were robust against changes of inclusion criteria, scoring and outcome definitions. The secondary outcome ‘physicians’ diagnosed asthma at 20 years' showed the highest discrimination (AUC 0.89). Conclusion The novel asthma prediction tool from the Leicester cohort, UK, performed well in another population, a German birth cohort, supporting its use and further development as a simple aid to predict asthma risk in clinical settings. PMID:25536057

  11. A 29Si MAS-NMR study of transition metal site occupancy in forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccarty, R. J.; Palke, A.; Stebbins, J. F.; Hartman, S.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we address the problem of transition metal site occupancy in Mg-rich olivine using solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Transition metal substitution in olivine can occur in either of the two crystallographically unique octahedral sites: the smaller, more symmetric M1 site or the larger, more distorted M2 site. Site occupancy of the transition metal is expected to correlate with ionic radius and d-orbital structure. In NMR spectroscopy the presence of paramagnetic ions, such as transition metal ions, can produce accessory peaks referred to as "contact shifts," due to the interaction between unpaired electrons on the paramagnetic ion locally associated with the resonating nucleus. The position and intensity of the contact shifts are dependent on the geometrical association such as bond distances and bond angles between the paramagnetic ion and the resonating nucleus. 29Si MAS-NMR spectra collected on synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) doped with minor amounts (0.2-5%) of individual, divalent, paramagnetic, transition metal cations (Mn, Co, Ni, or Cu) substituting for Mg in the octahedral sites, reveals multiple contact shifts. An interpretation of the number of such contact shifts and their relative intensities correlated with structural information of possible 29Si-M1 and 29Si-M2 configurations, potentially allows for the assignment of specific transition metals to individual M1 or M2 sites. An analysis of the MAS-NMR data will potentially bring a new level of confidence to transition metal site occupancy in forsterite.

  12. Low-power broadband solid-state MAS NMR of 14N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Wegner, Sebastian; Pintacuda, Guido; Grey, Clare P.

    2017-05-01

    We propose two broadband pulse schemes for 14N solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that achieves (i) complete population inversion and (ii) efficient excitation of the double-quantum spectrum using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We give a comprehensive theoretical description of both schemes using a common framework that is based on the jolting-frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983)]. This formalism is used to determine for the first time that we can obtain complete population inversion of 14N under low-power conditions, which we do here using single-sideband-selective adiabatic pulses. It is then used to predict that double-quantum coherences can be excited using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We then proceed to design a new experimental scheme for double-quantum excitation. The final double-quantum excitation pulse scheme is easily incorporated into other NMR experiments, as demonstrated here for double quantum-single quantum 14N correlation spectroscopy, and 1H-14N dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation experiments. These pulses and irradiation schemes are evaluated numerically using simulations on single crystals and full powders, as well as experimentally on ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) at moderate MAS and glycine at ultra-fast MAS. The performance of these new NMR methods is found to be very high, with population inversion efficiencies of 100% and double-quantum excitation efficiencies of 30%-50%, which are hitherto unprecedented for the low radiofrequency field amplitudes, up to the spinning frequency, that are used here.

  13. eNpHR: a Natronomonas halorhodopsin enhanced for optogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Gradinaru, Viviana; Thompson, Kimberly R.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Temporally precise inhibition of distinct cell types in the intact nervous system has been enabled by the microbial halorhodopsin NpHR, a fast light-activated electrogenic Cl− pump. While neurons can be optically hyperpolarized and inhibited from firing action potentials at moderate NpHR expression levels, we have encountered challenges with pushing expression to extremely high levels, including apparent intracellular accumulations. We therefore sought to molecularly engineer NpHR to achieve strong expression without these cellular side effects. We found that high expression correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulation, and that under these conditions NpHR colocalized with ER proteins containing the KDEL ER retention sequence. We screened a number of different putative modulators of membrane trafficking and identified a combination of two motifs, an N-terminal signal peptide and a C-terminal ER export sequence, that markedly promoted membrane localization and ER export defined by confocal microscopy and whole-cell patch clamp. The modified NpHR displayed increased peak photocurrent in the absence of aggregations or toxicity, and potent optical inhibition was observed not only in vitro but also in vivo with thalamic single-unit recording. The new enhanced NpHR (eNpHR) allows safe, high-level expression in mammalian neurons, without toxicity and with augmented inhibitory function, in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18677566

  14. Role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) in renal hemodynamics in condition of blocked angiotensin II receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, A; Oryan, S; Nematbakhsh, M

    2016-03-01

    The vasodilatory effect of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is exerted in the vascular bed via Mas receptor (MasR) gender dependently. However, the crosstalk between MasR and angiotensin II (Ang II) types 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R) may change some actions of Ang 1-7 in renal circulation. In this study by blocking AT1R and AT2R, the role of MasR in kidney hemodynamics was described. In anaesthetized male and female Wistar rats, the effects of saline as vehicle and MasR blockade (A779) were tested on mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) when both AT1R and AT2R were blocked by losartan and PD123319, respectively. In male rats, when AT1R and AT2R were blocked, there was a tendency for the increase in RBF/wet kidney tissue weight (RBF/KW) to be elevated by A779 as compared with the vehicle (P=0.08), and this was not the case in female rats. The impact of MasR on renal hemodynamics appears not to be sexual dimorphism either when Ang II receptors were blocked. It seems that co-blockade of all AT1R, AT2R, and MasR may alter RBF/ KW in male more than in female rats. These findings support a crosstalk between MasR and Ang II receptors in renal circulation.

  15. Recent Results from the MicroMAS Global Environmental MonitoringNanosatellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Cahoy, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a dual-spinning 3U CubeSat equipped with apassive microwave radiometer that observes in nine channels near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line.MicroMAS is designed to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a midinclinationorbit. The MicroMAS flight unit was developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the MIT Space SystemsLaboratory and was launched to the International Space Station on July 13, 2014, and scheduled for an earlySeptember deployment for a ~90-day mission. The payload is housed in the "lower" 1U of the dual-spinning 3UCubeSat and mechanically rotated approximately once per second as the spacecraft orbits the Earth, resulting in across-track scanned beam with a full-width half-max (FWHM) beamwidth of 2.4 degrees and an approximately 17-km diameter footprint at nadir incidence from a nominal altitude of 400 km. The relatively low cost of MicroMASenables the deployment of a constellation of sensors, spaced equally around several orbit planes. A small fleet ofMicroMAS systems could yield high-resolution global temperature and water vapor profiles, as well as cloudmicrophysical and precipitation parameters.Significant advancements were made in the Assembly, Integration, and Test phase of the project developmentlifecycle. The flight software and communications architecture was refined and tested in relevant lab facilities. Thepower subsystem was modified to include additional required inhibits for the ISS launch. Hardware in the loop testsas well as simulations of the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) were performed to validate theunique dual-spinning, local vertical, local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized flight design. ADCS algorithms were testedon a 3-axis air bearing and custom rig inside a 3-axis programmable Helmholtz cage. Finally, the integratedspacecraft underwent a series of environmental tests in order to verify the results of thermal modeling

  16. Using heat to control the sample spinning speed in MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Mihaliuk, Eugene; Gullion, Terry

    2011-10-01

    A new approach using temperature to control the spinning speed of a sample rotor in magic-angle spinning NMR is presented. Instead of an electro-mechanical valve that regulates the flow of drive gas to control the spinning speed in traditional MAS NMR systems, we use a small heater wire located directly in the stator. The sample spinning speed is controlled very accurately with a surprisingly low heating power of 1 W. Results on a benchtop unit demonstrate the capability of the system.

  17. Clinical Validation of Anyplex II HPV HR Detection Test for Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunkyung; Lee, Byungdoo; Lee, Kap No; Kim, Yonggoo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    The Anyplex II HPV HR detection kit (Seegene Inc, Seoul, Korea) is a new, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect individual 14 high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in a single tube. To evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV HR kit in predicting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse in cervical cancer screening. We analyzed 1137 cervical samples in Huro Path medium (CelltraZone, Seoul, Korea) from Korean women. The clinical performance of the HPV HR kit was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Valencia, California) using the noninferiority score test in a routine cervical cancer screening setting. The intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreements of HPV HR were also evaluated. Overall agreement between the 2 assays was 92.4% (1051 of 1137) with a κ value of 0.787. Clinical sensitivity of HPV HR for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.2-99.7) and 92.5% (95% CI, 84.3-100.0), respectively. The respective values for Hybrid Capture 2 were 93.1% (95% CI, 87.2-98.9) and 87.5% (95% CI, 77.3-99.7). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of HPV HR were not inferior to those of Hybrid Capture 2 (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively). The HPV HR showed good intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility at 98.0% (κ = 0.953) and 97.4% (κ = 0.940), respectively. The HPV HR demonstrates comparable performance to the Hybrid Capture 2 test and can be useful for HPV-based cervical cancer screening testing.

  18. Repeatability of ectopic beats from 48-hr ambulatory electrocardiography: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michelle L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wruck, Lisa M; Mosley, Thomas H; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Poon, Anna K; Whitsel, Eric A; Alonso, Alvaro; Heiss, Gerardo; Loehr, Laura R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the repeatability of ectopic beats, defined by premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), on ambulatory electrocardiogram (aECG) monitoring and evaluate the effect of length of aECG monitoring on the repeatability estimates. This analysis includes 95 randomly selected participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC; 2011-2013). The participants wore a Holter monitor for two, 48-hr periods separated by a mean of 38 days following an identical, standardized protocol. We divided each 48-hr recording into 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-hr recording periods and calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for PACs and PVCs and also as a percentage of the corresponding total of recorded beats per hour among these periods. All participants had ≥1 PAC during the 48-hr recordings, and only two participants had no PVCs. ICCs were >0.83 for all indices and recording lengths ≥12 hrs. ICCs were intermediate for 6-hr recordings (range 0.80-0.83) and lower for 3-hr recordings (range 0.74-0.80). The ratio of the between- to within-participant variation increased with recording length. Repeatability of PACs and PVCs was excellent for recording lengths of 6-24 hr and fair for 3 hr. Repeatability varies over shorter duration recordings within the 48-hr recording period, and thus the present results have implications for detection algorithms for ectopic beats and can facilitate epidemiologic and clinical applications in which knowledge of measurement variability and misclassification are needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reliability and validity of Milliken Activities of Daily Living Scale (MAS) in measuring activity limitations of a Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Akel, Burcu Semin; Öksüz, Çiğdem; Karahan, Sevilay; Düger, Tülin; Kayihan, Hülya

    2012-07-01

    The Milliken Activities of Daily Living Scale (MAS) is a self-report scale to address limitation of ability to perform daily tasks in upper extremity injuries. It can address the necessity of each task, which makes MAS useful while planning individual treatment. The objective of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the MAS TURKISH and to evaluate its reliability and validity for Turkish-speaking patients with upper extremity conditions. A total of 99 patients were asked to complete the adapted MAS and DASH at baseline and one week after the initial assessment. Also grip strength was evaluated with an interval of one week. The reliability of the adapted version was good, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.964) and test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.772) for the total score. A statistically significant correlation between MAS and DASH scores and grip strength scores of the injured side was obtained. The results of the study have shown that the Turkish version of MAS has excellent test-retest reliability and validity. It is a suitable assessment for evaluating function and giving an overview of activity limitations in many performance areas in a Turkish population.

  20. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of ACE-2/ANG1-7/Mas axis on lung injury.

    PubMed

    Gopallawa, Indiwari; Uhal, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    An established body of recent literature has demonstrated potent inhibitory effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/ANG1-7/ Mas axis on acute lung injury and lung fibrogenesis. One of the mechanisms of this inhibition is the enzymatic action of ACE-2 to degrade its main substrate angiotensin (ANG) II, thereby reducing the injurious and profibrotic activities of this octapeptide. Another, potentially more important mechanism is the production by ACE-2 of the heptapeptide ANG1-7, which inhibits the actions of ANGII through its own receptor Mas, the product of the oncogene of the same name. Very recent efforts to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ANG1-7/Mas action have revealed a number of similar, but mechanistically distinct, pathways by which ANG1-7 and Mas act on various lung cell types to inhibit lung injury and fibrosis. In this review we summarize the beneficial actions of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway, specifically on lung cells in non-neoplastic lung injury. We also review the currently known downstream signaling mechanisms of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway in various lung cell types known to be key in acute injury and fibrogenesis.

  1. Vasoprotective effects of neurocompensatory response to balloon injury during diabetes involve the improvement of Mas signaling by TGFβ1 activation.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; Corrêa, Fernando M A; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Balloon injury in diabetic rats triggers a sensory neurocompensatory response that restores the blood flow in contralateral carotid. These vasoprotective effects result from H2O2-mediated relaxation that counteracts AT1-dependent contractile hyperreactivity. The most important mechanism from the renin-angiotensin-system in counteracting AT1-mediated effects is that one is mediated by Mas receptors. Thus, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective effects of balloon neurocompensation in diabetic rats could result from the improvement of Mas signaling by H2O2-mediated sensory mechanisms. NK1 receptors are sensory components whose activation could lead to H2O2 generation upon TGFβ1 release and ALK5-mediated Nox4 upregulation. Based on this, we aimed to investigate: (1) the role of the TGFβ1/ALK5-Nox4-H2O2 pathway on modulating Mas signaling in diabetic rat contralateral carotid; and (2) the contribution of Mas signaling in the control of local blood flow. Our results showed that balloon neurocompensation restored diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow by improving Mas signaling through NK1-mediated TGFβ1 release. TGFβ1/ALK5 activation enhanced Nox4 expression and Nox4-driven generation of H2O2. In turn, H2O2 enhanced the local Mas-mediated relaxation. Since restenosis impairs diabetic rat ipsilateral carotid flow, the restoration of diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow may prevent further damages in cerebral irrigation by carotid pathways after angioplasty during diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of the Use of Solid State Cp/mas NMR for Characterization of Thermoplastic Polyamides and Unique Thermally Curable Polyamides Containing the Cyclobutene Moiety.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Douglas Graham

    1990-08-01

    A series of model diamides was synthesized from mono- and disubstituted amines with the diacid chloride of cyclobutene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid. Relative rates of thermolysis (by DSC) were dependent on the number and type of substituents. Thermolysis products were Diels-Alder dimers and spontaneously formed polymers. Thermal imidization of cycloadducts was possible in some cases with concomitant oxidation to N, N^'-disubstituted aromatic bisimides. Polyamides were prepared from cyclobutene-1,2 -dicarboxylic acid using low temperature condensation reaction conditions. The unusual solubility characteristics of the diacid as well as the instability of the diacid chloride severely limited formation of high molecular weight polymers. Secondary monomers were synthesized in order to take advantage of the more predictable reactivity of the aromatic carboxyl group. Secondary monomers were polymerized with diamine comonomers using low temperature condensation methods. Solid state ^{13}C CP/MAS NMR confirmed the polymer structure. The thermalized product was found to be insoluble, although swellable, in polar aprotic solvents. Solid state ^{13 }C NMR spectra of the thermal products confirmed crosslinking by intermolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Several important aliphatic polyamides were characterized using high resolution techniques with an emphasis on the ^{15}N nucleus. Chemical shifts from ^{15}N CP/MAS were found to correlate with the alpha and gamma crystal forms found in aliphatic polyamides. This chemical shift difference is rationalized as a conformationally dependent interaction of the amide nitrogen with its substituents. Evidence is presented from molecular orbital calculations which support this theory. Nylon 6 and nylon 11 were synthesized with 20% and 99% ^{15}N enrichment, respectively. ^{15}N CP/MAS of the enriched nylon 6 showed the amorphous region of the polymer for the first time. ^{15 }N relaxation times (T_1, T_1_rho) confirmed the assignment of the

  4. Statistical Parametric Mapping of HR-pQCT Images: A Tool for Population-Based Local Comparisons of Micro-Scale Bone Features.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bonaretti, Serena; Kazakia, Galateia J; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lang, Thomas F; Burghardt, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In addition, we present tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone structural changes. The SPM techniques were evaluated based on scan-rescan HR-pQCT acquisitions with repositioning of the distal radius and distal tibia of 30 subjects. For VBM and surface-based SPM purposes, all scans were spatially normalized to common radial and tibial templates, while for TBM purposes, rescans (follow-up) were spatially normalized to their corresponding scans (baseline). VBM was evaluated based on maps of local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), homogenized volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and homogenized strain energy density (SED) derived from micro-finite element analysis; while the cortical bone framework was evaluated based on surface maps of cortical bone thickness, vBMD, and SED. Voxel-wise and vertex-wise comparisons of bone features were done between the groups of baseline and follow-up scans. TBM was evaluated based on mean square errors of determinants of Jacobians at baseline bone voxels. In both anatomical sites, voxel- and vertex-wise uni- and multi-parametric comparisons yielded non-significant differences, and TBM showed no artefactual bone loss or apposition. The presented SPM techniques demonstrated robust specificity thus warranting their application in future clinical HR

  5. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  6. Solid state structure by X-ray and 13C CP/MAS NMR of new 5-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4,7-dimethylcoumarins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Maciejewska, Dorota; Dobrzycki, Łukasz; Socha, Pawel

    2016-05-01

    5-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4,7-dimethylcoumarin (1) and 6-acetyl-5-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4,7-dimethylcoumarin (2), structurally related, were synthesized using both conventional and microwave-assisted approach. An impact of acetyl groups on the molecular structure of coumarin derivatives has been examined. Crystals of 2 were investigated using single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. Compound 2 crystallizes forming two polymorphs (denoted as 2_1 and 2_2), both belonging to P21/c space group. Both polymorphs are comparably stable and can be formed simultaneously during crystallization process. The solid state structure was also analysed using the fully resolved 13C CP/MAS NMR. The double signals with the intensity ratio of about 1:1 which were observed in the 13C CP/MAS NMR spectrum of compound 1 must arise due to the presence of two conformers of 1. In contrast, NMR spectrum recorded for powder mixture of two polymorphs of compound 2 displays no signal splitting. This is related to structural similarities of molecules in both polymorphs.

  7. FTIR and 1H MAS NMR investigations on the correlation between the frequency of stretching vibration and the chemical shift of surface OH groups of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Eike; Karge, H. G.; Pfeifer, H.

    1992-03-01

    The study of surface hydroxyl groups of solids, especially of zeolites, belongs to the 'classical' topics of IR spectroscopy since physico-chemical information may be derived from the wavenumber (nu) OH of the stretching vibration of the different hydroxyls. On the other hand, the last decade has seen the development of high resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy and through the use of the so-called magic-angle-spinning technique (MAS) the signals of different hydroxyl species can be resolved in the 1H NMR spectra of solids. The chemical shift (delta) H describing the position of these lines may be used as well as (nu) OH to characterize quantitatively the strength of acidity of surface OH groups of solids. In a first comparison of (nu) OH with (delta) H for several types of surface OH groups, a linear correlation between them could be found. The aim of this paper was to prove the validity of this correlation for a wide variety of hydroxyls. The IR measurements were carried out on a Perkin-Elmer FTIR spectrometer 1800 at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, and the 1H MAS NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker MSL- 300 at the University of Leipzig.

  8. Magnesium silicate dissolution investigated by S1-29 MAS, H-1 Si-29 CPMAS, Mg-25 QCPMG, and H-1 Mg-25 CP QCPMG NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M C; Brouwer, Piet W; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M

    2009-07-01

    Olivine-(Mg,Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}-has been the subject of frequent investigation in the earth sciences because of its simple structure and rapid dissolution kinetics. Several studies have observed a preferential release of the divalent cation with respect to silicon during weathering under acidic conditions, which has been correlated to the formation of a silicon-rich leached layer. While leached layer formation has been inferred through the changing solution chemistry, a thorough spectroscopic investigation of olivine reacted under acidic conditions has not been conducted. The pure magnesium end member of the olivine series (forsterite-Mg2SiO4) was chosen for detailed investigations in this study because paramagnetic iron hinders NMR investigations by providing an extra mode of relaxation for neighboring nuclei, causing lineshapes to become significantly broadened and unobservable in the NMR spectrum. For reacting forsterite, spectroscopic interrogations using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can elucidate the changing magnesium coordination and bonding environment. In this study, we combine analysis of the changing solution chemistry with advanced NMR techniques ({sup 29}Si MAS, {sup 1}H-{sup 29}Si CP MAS, {sup 25}Mg QCPMG, and {sup 1}H-{sup 25}Mg CP QCPMG NMR) to probe leached layer formation and secondary phase precipitation during the dissolution of forsterite at 150 C.

  9. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  10. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Es.Haghi, M.; Dehghan, G.; Banihabib, N.; Zare, S.; Mikaili, P.; Panahi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated the alterations induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4. PMID:25249718

  11. Structural analysis of molybdo-zinc-phosphate glasses: Neutron scattering, FTIR, Raman scattering, MAS NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka, C.; Shinde, A. B.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-08-01

    Vitreous samples were prepared in the xMoO3-17ZnO-(83-x) NaPO3 with 35 ≥ x ≥ 55 glass forming system by energy efficient microwave heating method. Structural evolution of the vitreous network was monitored as a function of composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering, Magic Angle Spin Nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and Neutron scattering. Addition of MoO3 to the ZnO-NaPO3 glass leads to a pronounced increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) suggesting a significant increase in network connectivity and strength. In order to analyze FTIR and Raman scattering, a simple structural model is presented to rationalize the experimental observations. A number of structural units are formed due to network modification, and the resulting glass may be characterized by a network polyhedral with different numbers of unshared corners. 31P MAS NMR confirms a clear distinction between structural species having 3, 2, 1, 0 bridging oxygens (BOs). Further, Neutron scattering studies were used to probe the structure of these glasses. The result suggests that all the investigated glasses have structures based on chains of four coordinated phosphate and six coordinated molybdate units, besides, two different lengths of P-O bonds in tetrahedral phosphate units that are assigned to bonds of the P-atom with terminal and bridging oxygen atoms.

  12. Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas is an essential modulator of extracellular matrix protein expression in the heart.

    PubMed

    Gava, Elisandra; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ferreira, Anderson J; Colleta, Heloísa; Melo, Marcos B; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Oliveira, Laser A; Santos, Robson A S; Kitten, Gregory T

    2012-04-10

    In this study we investigated the effects of genetic deletion of the Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas or the Angiotensin II receptor AT(2) on the expression of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in atria, right ventricles and atrioventricular (AV) valves of neonatal and adult mice. Quantification of collagen types I, III and VI and fibronectin was performed using immunofluorescence-labeling and confocal microscopy. Picrosirius red staining was used for the histological assessment of the overall collagen distribution pattern. ECM proteins, metalloproteinases (MMP), ERK1/2 and p38 levels were quantified by western blot analysis. Gelatin zymography was used to evaluate the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. We observed that the relative levels of collagen types I and III and fibronectin are significantly higher in both the right ventricle and AV valves of neonatal Mas(-/-) mouse hearts (e.g., collagen type I: 85.28±6.66 vs 43.50±4.41 arbitrary units in the right ventricles of Mas(+/+) mice). Conversely, the level of collagen type VI was lower in the right ventricle and AV valves of Mas(-/-) mice. Adult Mas(-/-) mouse hearts presented similar patterns as observed in neonates. No significant differences in ECM protein level were detected in atria. Likewise, no changes in ECM levels were observed in AT(2) knockout mouse hearts. Although deletion of Mas induced a significant reduction in the level of the active form of MMP-2 in neonate hearts and a reduction of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 in adult Mas(-/-) mice, no significant differences were observed in MMP enzymatic activities when compared to controls. The levels of the active, phosphorylated forms of ERK1/2 and p38 were higher in hearts of both neonatal and adult Mas(-/-) mice. These observations suggest that Mas is involved in the selective expression of specific ECM proteins within both the ventricular myocardium and AV valves. The changes in the ECM profile may alter the connective tissue framework and contribute to

  13. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  14. The Dust and Gas Content of a Disk Around Young Star HR 4796A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannings, V.; Greaves, J.; Holland, W.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii to search at submillimeter wavelengths for continuum emission from dust, and spectral line emission from carbon monoxide (CO) gas, in the neighborhood of HR 4796A.

  15. Determination of the light ion abundances in the strong-helium star HR 3089

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Using line blanketed model stellar atmospheres and a spectrum synthesis approach, a differential abundance study of the ultraviolet spectrum of HR 3089 relative to the normal star lambda Sco was performed. Both stars were found to have the same abundances of carbon and silicon, but the helium and nitrogen are significantly enhanced in HR 3089. The atmospheric parameters and the distribution of abundances found for HR 3089 agree well with the results of Osmer and Peterson on sharp-lined helium-rich stars. The rotational velocity of 160 km/sec found for HR 3089 places a constraint on the role of diffusion in producing the abundance anomalies. Examination of the resonance lines of C II, N II, Si III and Si IV shows no evidence for mass loss in either star.

  16. STIRLING BOILER BY BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (45,000 LB/HR CAPACITY), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING BOILER BY BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (45,000 LB/HR CAPACITY), INSIDE BOILER HOUSE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. Current status of hormone therapy in patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Elsa; Armengol-Alonso, Alejandra; Muñoz, Montserrat; Seguí-Palmer, Miguel Ángel

    2014-12-01

    The natural history of HR+ breast cancer tends to be different from hormone receptor-negative disease in terms of time to recurrence, site of recurrence and overall aggressiveness of the disease. The developmental strategies of hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer have led to the classes of selective estrogen receptor modulators, selective estrogen receptor downregulators, and aromatase inhibitors. These therapeutic options have improved breast cancer outcomes in the metastatic setting, thereby delaying the need for chemotherapy. However, a subset of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers do not benefit from endocrine therapy (intrinsic resistance), and all HR+ metastatic breast cancers ultimately develop resistance to hormonal therapies (acquired resistance). Considering the multiple pathways involved in the HR network, targeting other components of pathologically activated intracellular signaling in breast cancer may prove to be a new direction in clinical research. This review focuses on current and emerging treatments for HR+ metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subsistence in Alaska and the Effect of H.R. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camerino, Vicki

    1977-01-01

    H.R. 39, the Alaska National Interest Conservation Act, acknowledges that the continuation of subsistence land use is essential to Alaska Native welfare and that there are no practical alternative means available to replace subsistence resources. (JC)

  19. Initiating Improvements: The HR Department as the Architect of Quality-of-Life Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Frank William

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a wellness program, campus safety and security program, and institutional knowledge management program are succeeding at Cuyahoga Community College after the human resources (HR) department won administrative support for their implementation. (EV)

  20. Spectroscopy and photometry of HR Lyr (Nova Lyr 1919) during one of its mysterious dimming episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Siviero, A.; Ochner, P.; Dallaporta, S.

    2016-08-01

    An alert posted to the BAA-VSS newsgroup on Aug 24 by J. Shears informs about a new excursion down to V~17 of old nova HR Lyr (Nova Lyr 1919). A few other such episodes were catch by Honeycutt et al (2014, AJ 147, 105) in their intensive 1991-2012 V-band monitoring of HR Lyr, usually between V=15.5 and 16.0.

  1. IUE spectra of a flare in HR 5110: A flaring RS CVn or Algol system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T.; Linsky, J. L.; Schiffer, F. H., III

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the RS CVn type binary system HR 5110 were obtained with IUE on May 31, 1979 during a period of intense radio flaring of this star. High temperature transition region lines are present, but are not enhanced above observed quiescent strengths. The similarities of HR 5110 to the Algol system, As Eri, suggest that the 1979 May to June flare may involve mass exchange rather than annihilation of coronal magnetic fields.

  2. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  3. Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea--an overview and quality assessment of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Johal, Ama; Fleming, Padhraig S; Manek, Seema; Marinho, Valeria C C

    2015-09-01

    To conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews concerning management of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) with mandibular advancement splint (MAS) and assess their methodological quality. PubMed and relevant Cochrane Library databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA) searches were performed (09.13) to identify systematic reviews investigating the response of adults with OSAHS to MAS therapy. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, a validated tool for assessing quality. Eight systematic reviews, four incorporating meta-analyses, were identified evaluating both objective and subjective outcome measures. The effectiveness of MAS therapy was compared to no treatment (n = 1), non-active appliance (n = 6), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP; n = 5), surgical intervention (n = 3) and a different MAS intervention (n = 4). The quality of the reviews was variable (median = 7, range = 3 to 11), with only two of higher quality (AMSTAR scores >10), one of them a Cochrane review. In this high quality and current review, the overall (pooled) effects for comparison of MAS therapy with inactive appliances, revealed significant benefits of MAS therapy in terms of both daytime sleepiness and objective apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) outcomes. In general, the results from the higher quality reviews concerning the effectiveness of MAS therapy for OSAHS highlight the ability of the intervention to improve OSAHS. Current reporting guidelines for systematic reviews (e.g. PRISMA) and sources of high-quality existing reviews should be closely followed to enhance the validity and relevance of future reviews.

  4. The Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Axis Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sahr, Anika; Wolke, Carmen; Maczewsky, Jonas; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Tetzner, Anja; Drews, Gisela; Venz, Simone; Gürtler, Sarah; van den Brandt, Jens; Berg, Sabine; Döring, Paula; Dombrowski, Frank; Walther, Thomas; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system often opposes the detrimental effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor axis and has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, whereas underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here we investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and its receptor Mas on β-cell function. Isolated islets from Mas-deficient and wild-type mice were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) or its antagonists and effects on insulin secretion determined. Islets' cytoplasmic calcium and cAMP concentrations, mRNA amounts of Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, and Mafa and effects of inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling were determined. Ang-(1-7) was also applied to mice by osmotic pumps for 14 days and effects on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were assessed. Ang-(1-7) increased insulin secretion from wild-type islets, whereas antagonists and genetic Mas deficiency led to reduced insulin secretion. The Mas-dependent effects of Ang-(1-7) on insulin secretion did not result from changes in insulin gene expression or changes in the excitation-secretion coupling but from increased intracellular cAMP involving exchange protein activated directly by cAMP. Administration of Ang-(1-7) in vivo had only marginal effects on glucose tolerance in wild-type mice but still resulted in improved insulin secretion from islets isolated of these mice. Interestingly, although less pronounced than in wild types, Ang-(1-7) still affected insulin secretion in Mas-deficient islets. The data indicate a significant function of Ang-(1-7) in the regulation of insulin secretion from mouse islets in vitro and in vivo, mainly, but not exclusively, by Mas-dependent signaling, modulating the accessory pathway of insulin secretion via increase in cAMP.

  5. RECONNAISSANCE OF THE HR 8799 EXOSOLAR SYSTEM. I. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, B. R.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Nilsson, R.; Parry, I. R.; Rice, E.; Baranec, C.; Dekany, R.; Hale, D.; Burruss, R.; Cady, E.; Ligon, E. R.; Lockhart, T.; Crepp, J. R.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hinkley, S.; Fergus, R.; Hogg, David W.; King, D.; Pueyo, L.; and others

    2013-05-01

    We obtained spectra in the wavelength range {lambda} = 995-1769 nm of all four known planets orbiting the star HR 8799. Using the suite of instrumentation known as Project 1640 on the Palomar 5 m Hale Telescope, we acquired data at two epochs. This allowed for multiple imaging detections of the companions and multiple extractions of low-resolution (R {approx} 35) spectra. Data reduction employed two different methods of speckle suppression and spectrum extraction, both yielding results that agree. The spectra do not directly correspond to those of any known objects, although similarities with L and T dwarfs are present, as well as some characteristics similar to planets such as Saturn. We tentatively identify the presence of CH{sub 4} along with NH{sub 3} and/or C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and possibly CO{sub 2} or HCN in varying amounts in each component of the system. Other studies suggested red colors for these faint companions, and our data confirm those observations. Cloudy models, based on previous photometric observations, may provide the best explanation for the new data presented here. Notable in our data is that these presumably co-eval objects of similar luminosity have significantly different spectra; the diversity of planets may be greater than previously thought. The techniques and methods employed in this paper represent a new capability to observe and rapidly characterize exoplanetary systems in a routine manner over a broad range of planet masses and separations. These are the first simultaneous spectroscopic observations of multiple planets in a planetary system other than our own.

  6. Determination of B/Ca of natural carbonates by HR-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sambuddha; Greaves, Mervyn; Owen, Robert; Kerr, Joanna; Elmore, Aurora C.; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-04-01

    report a new method for HR-ICP-MS based accurate and precise B/Ca determination from low mass natural carbonates (≤5 µg CaCO3), utilizing a mixed acid matrix (0.1 M HNO3 and 0.3 M HF) and accurate matrix matching technique. Our procedural B/Ca blank of 2.0 ± 1.0 µmol/mol, internal precision ≤1.0%, average within run external precision ≤4.0% (2σ), and rapid sample analysis (60 samples/day) make the method well suited for routine measurements. Established methods of B/Ca determination require ≥65 µg CaCO3 to achieve a comparable external precision of 3.5% (2σ). We report a B/Ca detection limit of 2 µmol/mol compared to ≥10 µmol/mol for previous methods, a fivefold improvement. The method presented here can determine a wide range of B/Ca (9.0-250 µmol/mol) in mass limited samples with considerable tolerance for matrix matching efficiency (≤±30%). The long-term reproducibility of B/Ca measured on Cambridge in-house consistency standards containing <20, ˜85, and ˜200 µmol/mol of B/Ca are ±3.7% (2σ, n = 100), ±3.9% (2σ, n = 150), and ±3.2% (2 s, n =180), respectively. A host of other trace element to Ca ratios can also be determined at comparable external precision from samples containing ≤5 µg CaCO3. This method is suitable for trace element analysis of single foraminifera shells.

  7. Lipid Bilayer-Bound Conformation of an Integral Membrane Beta Barrel Protein by Multidimensional MAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Matthew T.; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms 2-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for 13C line width and less than 0.5 ppm 15N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  8. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5-0.3 ppm for (13)C line widths and <0.5 ppm (15)N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  9. Compressed spectral arrays for the analysis of 24-hr heart rate variability signal: enhancement of parameters and data reduction.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, S; Bianchi, A; Baselli, G; Civardi, S; Guzzetti, S; Malliani, A; Pagani, A; Pagani, M

    1989-10-01

    Heart rate variability signal in the form of an R-R interval tachogram is detected in Holter type 24-hr ECG recordings. Spectral analysis is carried out over consecutive nonoverlapping records, and the information is displayed in the form of a compressed spectral array through parametric techniques. The trends of spectral parameters such as low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) powers and central frequencies are also plotted, together with the classical mean R-R value and variance relative to each single spectrum. These parameters quantify the effect of sympatho-vagal balance on heart rate control during the 24-hr period and provide important elements for the diagnostic evaluation of various pathologies, like hypertension. A spectral compression algorithm which checks the position of the poles relative to LF and HF bands inside the unitary circle in the complex zeta-plane is also developed. Applications of this procedure are foreseen in the clinical evaluation of ambulant patients as well as in the study of physical and psychological stress.

  10. International Child Abduction Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Committee on the Judiciary. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 2673 and H.R. 3971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document contains witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to consider enactment of H.R. 2673, a bill to facilitate implementation of the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. The text of H.R. 2673 is included in the document as is the text of H.R. 3971, a bill…

  11. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100kHz MAS

    DOE PAGES

    Nishiyama, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Malon, M.; ...

    2015-02-16

    Two-dimensional 1H{13C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in 1H dimensionmore » without resorting to 1H–1H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. As a result, the HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone.« less

  12. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100kHz MAS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Malon, M.; Singappuli-Arachchige, D.; Slowing, I. I.; Pruski, M.

    2015-02-16

    Two-dimensional 1H{13C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in 1H dimension without resorting to 1H–1H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. As a result, the HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone.

  13. The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry: A case study at MAS holdings.

    PubMed

    Abeysekera, John; Illankoon, Prasanna

    2016-10-17

    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies. Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. 'MAS Operating System' (MOS) empowers training and development to employees. MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  14. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7) in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Shadan; Dehghani, Aghdas; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR) or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV) female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week) or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE) rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (Pdose <0.001) and A779-treated (Pdose <0.01) animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05). When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  15. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7) in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Shadan; Dehghani, Aghdas; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR) or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV) female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week) or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF), and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE) rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (Pdose<0.001) and A779-treated (Pdose<0.01) animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05). When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals. PMID:27051434

  16. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100 kHz MAS.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 19F MAS-NMR studies of strontium oxyfluoride aluminosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, M.; Olejniczak, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Local environment of fluorine atoms in the lanthanum oxyfluoride aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics modified by SrO was studied by solid state 19F MAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effect of strontium concentration on the formation of crystalline LaF 3 phase was determined, as a function of heat treatment conditions. In all glasses studied, the F-Me( n) (where Me = Sr, La), but no Na-F species were observed. The presence of F-La,Sr( n) units, in which fluorine is coordinated by both lanthanum and strontium, was detected in the glass with higher content of SrO. Supplementary XRD analysis of this series confirmed that an increase of strontium contents leads to the formation of Sr 0.69La 0.31F 2.31 and LaSr 2F 7, instead of the pure LaF 3 only.

  18. Infrared and 13C MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of acetylation of cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebajo, Moses O.; Frost, Ray L.

    2004-01-01

    The acetylation of commercial cotton samples with acetic anhydride without solvents in the presence of about 5% 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) catalyst was followed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. This preliminary investigation was conducted in an effort to develop hydrophobic, biodegradable, cellulosic materials for subsequent application in oil spill cleanup. The FTIR results provide clear evidence for successful acetylation though the NMR results indicate that the level of acetylation is low. Nevertheless, the overall results indicate that cotton fibres are potential candidates suitable for further development via acetylation into hydrophobic sorbent materials for subsequent oil spill cleanup application. The results also indicate that de-acetylation, the reverse of the equilibrium acetylation reaction, occurred when the acetylation reaction was prolonged beyond 3 h.

  19. The MasPar MP-1 As a Computer Arithmetic Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Anuta, Michael A; Lozier, Daniel W; Turner, Peter R

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a blueprint for the use of a massively parallel SIMD computer architecture for the simulation of various forms of computer arithmetic. The particular system used is a DEC/MasPar MP-1 with 4096 processors in a square array. This architecture has many advantages for such simulations due largely to the simplicity of the individual processors. Arithmetic operations can be spread across the processor array to simulate a hardware chip. Alternatively they may be performed on individual processors to allow simulation of a massively parallel implementation of the arithmetic. Compromises between these extremes permit speed-area tradeoffs to be examined. The paper includes a description of the architecture and its features. It then summarizes some of the arithmetic systems which have been, or are to be, implemented. The implementation of the level-index and symmetric level-index, LI and SLI, systems is described in some detail. An extensive bibliography is included.

  20. Structural study of synthetic mica montmorillonite by means of 2D MAS NMR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, M. D.; Castro, M. A.; Chain, P.; Naranjo, M.; Perdigón, A. C.

    2005-07-01

    Syn-1, is a synthetic mica montmorillonite interstratified mineral that forms one of the standard clay samples in the Clay Minerals Society Source Clays Project. However, there are still controversies regarding some structural aspects such as the interlayer composition or the location of the extra-aluminium determined by chemical analysis. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on those structural aspects that affect the reactivity of the interstratified minerals. For this purpose, we have used 1 H 29 Si and 1 H 27Al HETCOR MAS NMR to show that it is likely that the interlayer space of the beidellite part is composed of ammonium ions whereas ammonium and aluminium ions are responsible for the charge balance in the mica type layer.

  1. Metallic Li colloids studied by Li-7 MAS NMR in electron-irradiated LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zogal, O. J.; Beuneu, F.; Vajda, P.; Florian, P.; Massiot, D.

    Li-7 MAS NMR spectra of 2.5 MeV electron-irradiated LiF crystals have been measured in a field of 9.4 T. Besides the resonance line of the ionic compound, a second well-separated spectrum is observed in the region of the Knight shift value for metallic lithium. At room temperature, the latter can be decomposed into two components with different Knight shift and linewidth values. When the temperature is increased, line narrowing takes place at first, indicating shortening of correlation times for self-diffusion, independently in both components. Above 370 K, both lines broaden and approach each other before collapsing into a single line. The high ppm component disappears after crossing the melting temperature of metallic lithium (454 K). The two lines are attributed to different types of metallic Li: one to bulk-like metal, the other to Li present initially under pressure and relaxing to the former under thermal treatment.

  2. Higher Order Amyloid Fibril Structure by MAS NMR and DNP Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bayro, Marvin J.; Fitzpatrick, Anthony W.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Colvin, Michael T.; Caporini, Marc A.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Rosay, Melanie; MacPhee, Cait E.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Maas, Werner E.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has generated structural models of several amyloid fibril systems, thus providing valuable information regarding the forces and interactions that confer the extraordinary stability of the amyloid architecture. Despite these advances, however, obtaining atomic resolution information describing the higher levels of structural organization within the fibrils remains a significant challenge. Here, we detail MAS NMR experiments and sample labeling schemes designed specifically to probe such higher order amyloid structure and we have applied them to the fibrils formed by an eleven-residue segment of the amyloidogenic protein transthyretin (TTR(105-115)). These experiments have allowed us to define unambiguously not only the arrangement of the peptide β-strands into β-sheets but also the β-sheet interfaces within each protofilament, and in addition to identify the nature of the protofilament-to-protofilament contacts that lead to the formation of the complete fibril. Our efforts have resulted in 111 quantitative distance and torsion angle restraints (10 per residue) that describe the various levels of structure organization. The experiments benefited extensively from the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which in some cases allowed us to shorten the data acquisition time from days to hours and to improve significantly the signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra. The β-sheet interface and protofilament interactions identified here revealed local variations in the structure that result in multiple peaks for the exposed N- and C-termini of the peptide and in inhomogeneous line-broadening for the side-chains buried within the interior of the fibrils. PMID:24304221

  3. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced MAS NMR Spectroscopy for Structural Analysis of HIV-1 Protein Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupal; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Caporini, Marc A; Rosay, Melanie; Maas, Werner; Struppe, Jochem; Suiter, Christopher; Ahn, Jinwoo; Byeon, In-Ja L; Franks, W Trent; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Bertarello, Andrea; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido; Gronenborn, Angela M; Polenova, Tatyana

    2016-01-21

    Mature infectious HIV-1 virions contain conical capsids composed of CA protein, generated by the proteolytic cleavage cascade of the Gag polyprotein, termed maturation. The mechanism of capsid core formation through the maturation process remains poorly understood. We present DNP-enhanced MAS NMR studies of tubular assemblies of CA and Gag CA-SP1 maturation intermediate and report 20-64-fold sensitivity enhancements due to DNP at 14.1 T. These sensitivity enhancements enabled direct observation of spacer peptide 1 (SP1) resonances in CA-SP1 by dipolar-based correlation experiments, unequivocally indicating that the SP1 peptide is unstructured in assembled CA-SP1 at cryogenic temperatures, corroborating our earlier results. Furthermore, the dependence of DNP enhancements and spectral resolution on magnetic field strength (9.4-18.8 T) and temperature (109-180 K) was investigated. Our results suggest that DNP-based measurements could potentially provide residue-specific dynamics information by allowing for the extraction of the temperature dependence of the anisotropic tensorial or relaxation parameters. With DNP, we were able to detect multiple well-resolved isoleucine side-chain conformers; unique intermolecular correlations across two CA molecules; and functionally relevant conformationally disordered states such as the 14-residue SP1 peptide, none of which are visible at ambient temperatures. The detection of isolated conformers and intermolecular correlations can provide crucial constraints for structure determination of these assemblies. Overall, our results establish DNP-based MAS NMR spectroscopy as an excellent tool for the characterization of HIV-1 assemblies.

  4. Not all M&As are alike--and that matters.

    PubMed

    Bower, J L

    2001-03-01

    Despite all that's been written about mergers and acquisitions, even the experts know surprisingly little about them. The author recently headed up a year-long study sponsored by Harvard Business School on the subject of M&A activity. In-depth findings will emerge over the next few years, but the research has already revealed some interesting results. Most intriguing is the notion that, although academics, consultants, and businesspeople lump M&As together, they represent very different strategic activities. Acquisitions occur for the following reasons: to deal with overcapacity through consolidation in mature industries; to roll up competitors in geographically fragmented industries; to extend into new products and markets; as a substitute for R&D; and to exploit eroding industry boundaries by inventing an industry. The different strategic intents present distinct integration challenges. For instance, if you acquire a company because your industry has excess capacity, you have to determine which plants to shut down and which people to let go. If, on the other hand, you buy a company because it has developed an important technology, your challenge is to keep the acquisition's best engineers from jumping ship. These scenarios require the acquiring company to engage in nearly opposite managerial behaviors. The author explores each type of M&A--its strategic intent and the integration challenges created by that intent. He underscores the importance of the acquiring company's assessment of the acquired group's culture. Depending on the type of M&A, approaches to the culture in place must vary, as will the level to which culture interferes with integration. He draws from the experiences of such companies as Cisco, Viacom, and BancOne to exemplify the different kinds of M&As.

  5. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced MAS NMR for Structural Analysis of HIV-1 Protein Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rupal; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Caporini, Marc A.; Rosay, Melanie; Maas, Werner; Struppe, Jochem; Suiter, Christopher; Ahn, Jinwoo; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Franks, W. Trent; Orwick-Rydmark, Marcella; Bertarello, Andrea; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Lesage, Anne; Pintacuda, Guido; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Mature infectious HIV-1 virions contain conical capsids comprised of CA protein, generated by the proteolytic cleavage cascade of the Gag polyprotein, termed maturation. The mechanism of capsid core formation through the maturation process remains poorly understood. We present DNP-enhanced MAS NMR studies of tubular assemblies of CA and Gag CA-SP1 maturation intermediate and report 20 – 64 fold sensitivity enhancements due to DNP at 14.1 T. These sensitivity enhancements enabled direct observation of spacer peptide 1 (SP1) resonances in CA-SP1 by dipolar based correlation experiments, unequivocally indicating that the SP1 peptide is unstructured in assembled CA-SP1 at cryogenic temperatures, corroborating our earlier results. Furthermore, the dependence of DNP enhancements and spectral resolution on magnetic field strength (9.4 – 18.8 T) and temperature (109 – 180 K) was investigated. Our results suggest that DNP-based measurements could potentially provide residue-specific dynamics information by allowing for the extraction of temperature dependence of the anisotropic tensorial or relaxation parameters. With DNP, we were able to detect multiple well-resolved isoleucine sidechain conformers, unique intermolecular correlations across two CA molecules, and functionally relevant conformationally disordered states such as the 14-residue SP1 peptide, none of which are visible at ambient temperatures. The detection of isolated conformers and intermolecular correlations can provide crucial constraints for structure determination of these assemblies. Overall, our results establish DNP-based MAS NMR as an excellent tool for characterization of HIV-1 assemblies. PMID:26709853

  6. Angiotensin-(1-7) through Mas receptor activation induces peripheral antinociception by interaction with adrenoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Castor, Marina G M; Santos, Robson A S; Duarte, Igor D G; Romero, Thiago R L

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] develops its functions interacting with Mas receptor. Mas receptor was recently identified in the DRG and its activation by Ang-(1-7) resulted in peripheral antinociception against PGE2 hyperalgesia in an opioid-independent pathway. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception was not yet elucidated. Considering that endogenous noradrenaline could induce antinociceptive effects by activation of the adrenoceptors the aim of this study was verify if the Ang-(1-7) is able to induce peripheral antinociception by interacting with the endogenous noradrenergic system. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2μg). Ang-(1-7) was administered locally into the right hindpaw alone and after either agents, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5, 10 and 20 μg/paw), α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (10, 15 and 20 μg/paw), α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.5, 1 and 2 μg/paw), β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (150, 300 and 600 ng/paw). Noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (30 μg/paw) was administered prior to Ang-(1-7) low dose (20 ng) and guanetidine 3 days prior to experiment (30 mg/kg/animal, once a day), depleting NA storage. Intraplantar Ang-(1-7) induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin and propranolol. Reboxetine intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of Ang-(1-7) and guanethidine, which depletes peripheral sympathomimetic amines, reversed almost 70% the Ang-(1-7)-induced peripheral antinociception. Then, this study provides evidence that Ang-(1-7) induce peripheral antinociception stimulating an endogenous noradrenaline release that activates peripheral adrenoceptors inducing antinociception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced Signal Quenching in MAS-DNP Experiments in Homogeneous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Corzilius, Björn; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.; Ni, Qing Zhe; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nuclear signal quenching induced by the presence of a paramagnetic polarizing agent are documented for conditions used in magic angle spinning (MAS)-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on homogeneous solutions. In particular, we present a detailed analysis of three time constants: (1) the longitudinal build-up time constant TB for 1H; (2) the rotating frame relaxation time constant T1ρ for 1H and 13C and (3) T2 of 13C, the transverse relaxation time constant in the laboratory frame. These relaxation times were measured during microwave irradiation at a magnetic field of 5 T (140 GHz) as a function of the concentration of four polarizing agents: TOTAPOL, 4-amino-TEMPO, trityl (OX063), and Gd-DOTA and are compared to those obtained for a sample lacking paramagnetic doping. We also report the EPR relaxation time constants T1S and T2S, the DNP enhancements, ε, and the parameter E, defined below, which measures the sensitivity enhancement for the four polarizing agents as a function of the electron concentration. We observe substantial intensity losses (paramagnetic quenching) with all of the polarizing agents due to broadening mechanisms and cross relaxation during MAS. In particular, the monoradical trityl and biradical TOTAPOL induce ~40 and 50% loss of signal intensity. In contrast there is little suppression of signal intensity in static samples containing these paramagnetic species. Despite the losses due to quenching, we find that all of the polarizing agents provide substantial gains in signal intensity, and in particular that the net enhancement is optimal for biradicals that operate with the cross effect. We discuss the possibility that much of this polarization loss can be regained with the development of instrumentation and methods to perform electron decoupling. PMID:24394190

  8. Paramagnet induced signal quenching in MAS-DNP experiments in frozen homogeneous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzilius, Björn; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.; Ni, Qing Zhe; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of nuclear signal quenching induced by the presence of a paramagnetic polarizing agent are documented for conditions used in magic angle spinning (MAS)-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on homogeneous solutions. In particular, we present a detailed analysis of three time constants: (1) the longitudinal build-up time constant TB for 1H; (2) the rotating frame relaxation time constant T1ρ for 1H and 13C and (3) T2 of 13C, the transverse relaxation time constant in the laboratory frame. These relaxation times were measured during microwave irradiation at a magnetic field of 5 T (140 GHz) as a function of the concentration of four polarizing agents: TOTAPOL, 4-amino-TEMPO, trityl (OX063), and Gd-DOTA and are compared to those obtained for a sample lacking paramagnetic doping. We also report the EPR relaxation time constants T1S and T2S, the DNP enhancements, ε, and the parameter E, defined below, which measures the sensitivity enhancement for the four polarizing agents as a function of the electron concentration. We observe substantial intensity losses (paramagnetic quenching) with all of the polarizing agents due to broadening mechanisms and cross relaxation during MAS. In particular, the monoradical trityl and biradical TOTAPOL induce ∼40% and 50% loss of signal intensity. In contrast there is little suppression of signal intensity in static samples containing these paramagnetic species. Despite the losses due to quenching, we find that all of the polarizing agents provide substantial gains in signal intensity with DNP, and in particular that the net enhancement is optimal for biradicals that operate with the cross effect. We discuss the possibility that much of this polarization loss can be regained with the development of instrumentation and methods to perform electron decoupling.

  9. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Kátia Daniela; Barroso, Lívia Corrêa; Vieira, Angélica Thomáz; Cisalpino, Daniel; Lima, Cristiano Xavier; Bader, Michael; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg) induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+) ) and Mas knockout (Mas (-/-)) mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+) , but not in Mas (-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  10. A SEARCH FOR WIDE COMPANIONS TO THE EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEM HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.

    2010-01-20

    The extrasolar planetary system around HR 8799 is the first multiplanet system ever imaged. It is also, by a wide margin, the highest mass system with >27 Jupiters of planetary mass past 25 AU. This is a remarkable system with no analog in any other known planetary system. In the first part of this paper, we investigated the nature of two faint objects imaged near the system. These objects are considerably fainter (H = 20.4 and 21.6 mag) and more distant (projected separations of 612 and 534 AU) than the three known planetary companions b, c, and d (68-24 AU). It is possible that these two objects could be lower mass planets (of mass approx5M{sub Jup} and approx3M{sub Jup}) that have been scattered to wider orbits. We make the first direct comparison of newly reduced archival Gemini adaptive optics images to archival Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS images. With nearly a decade between these epochs, we can accurately assess the proper motion nature of each candidate companion. We find that both objects are unbound to HR 8799 and are background. We estimate that HR 8799 has no companions of H < 22 from approx5'' to 15''. Any scattered giant planets in the HR 8799 system are >600 AU or less than 3 M{sub Jup} in mass. In the second part of this paper, we search for any sign of a 'reverse parallax signature' in the astrometric residuals of HR 8799b. No such signal was found and we conclude, as expected, that HR 8799b has the same parallax as HR 8799A. In the third part of this paper, we carry out a search for wider common proper motion objects. We found one object within 1 deg{sup 2} in the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey-Digitized Sky Survey images with similar (<2sigma) proper motions to HR 8799 at a separation of 4.'0. We conclude that it is not likely a bound companion to HR 8799 based on available photometry.

  11. A Search for Wide Companions to the Extrasolar Planetary System HR 8799

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.

    2010-01-01

    The extrasolar planetary system around HR 8799 is the first multiplanet system ever imaged. It is also, by a wide margin, the highest mass system with >27 Jupiters of planetary mass past 25 AU. This is a remarkable system with no analog in any other known planetary system. In the first part of this paper, we investigated the nature of two faint objects imaged near the system. These objects are considerably fainter (H = 20.4 and 21.6 mag) and more distant (projected separations of 612 and 534 AU) than the three known planetary companions b, c, and d (68-24 AU). It is possible that these two objects could be lower mass planets (of mass ~5M Jup and ~3M Jup) that have been scattered to wider orbits. We make the first direct comparison of newly reduced archival Gemini adaptive optics images to archival Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS images. With nearly a decade between these epochs, we can accurately assess the proper motion nature of each candidate companion. We find that both objects are unbound to HR 8799 and are background. We estimate that HR 8799 has no companions of H < 22 from ~5'' to 15''. Any scattered giant planets in the HR 8799 system are >600 AU or less than 3 M Jup in mass. In the second part of this paper, we search for any sign of a "reverse parallax signature" in the astrometric residuals of HR 8799b. No such signal was found and we conclude, as expected, that HR 8799b has the same parallax as HR 8799A. In the third part of this paper, we carry out a search for wider common proper motion objects. We found one object within 1 deg2 in the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey-Digitized Sky Survey images with similar (<2σ) proper motions to HR 8799 at a separation of 4farcm0. We conclude that it is not likely a bound companion to HR 8799 based on available photometry.

  12. HPV test by Hybrid Capture II for the diagnosis of HR-HPV persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Serour, Y; Bendahmane, M; Abbou Baker, F; Medles, M; Moueddene, B; Kraiba, R

    2017-09-21

    Persistent high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection is associated with a greater risk of cervical cancer. Statistical data on the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the Algerian population is lacking. We conducted a prospective study of 300 women aged between 25 and 50 years, screened for cervical cancer from 2012 to 2015 in Sidi Bel Abbès, a western region of Algeria. We aimed to assess the reliability of the repeated use of the HC II test (three longitudinal HPV tests 9 months apart from each other) in diagnosing the persistence of HR-HPV infection. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 7.33% and infected women were aged 37.9±3years. For 90.9% of HR-HPV-positive patients, the infection persisted for a mean of 18.5months [95% CI: 16.9-22.1months]. Among these patients, 55.55% developed CIN1 and 11.11% developed CIN2. The sensitivity of the HC II test was 81.74% [95% CI: 71.3-89.6] and its positive predictive value associated with abnormal cervical biopsy was 27.49% [95% CI: 16.0-33.33]. Repeating the HC II test is a good predictor for identifying women at high risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid measurement of multidimensional 1H solid-state NMR spectra at ultra-fast MAS frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yue Qi; Malon, Michal; Martineau, Charlotte; Taulelle, Francis; Nishiyama, Yusuke

    2014-02-01

    A novel method to realize rapid repetition of 1H NMR experiments at ultra-fast MAS frequencies is demonstrated. The ultra-fast MAS at 110 kHz slows the 1H-1H spin diffusion, leading to variations of 1H T1 relaxation times from atom to atom within a molecule. The different relaxation behavior is averaged by applying 1H-1H recoupling during relaxation delay even at ultra-fast MAS, reducing the optimal relaxation delay to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The way to determine optimal relaxation delay for arbitrary relaxation curve is shown. The reduction of optimal relaxation delay by radio-frequency driven recoupling (RFDR) was demonstrated on powder samples of glycine and ethenzamide with one and multi-dimensional NMR measurements.

  14. Effect of intrapartum oropharyngeal (IP-OP) suction on meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in developing country: A RCT.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Sushma; Pal, Mansi M; Saili, Arvind; Gupta, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Evidence about IP-OP suction and selective tracheal intubation in meconium stained neonates is from developed countries. Little information is available about their role in developing countries with high incidence of meconium staining and MAS. This randomized trial was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of IP-OP suction in meconium stained term neonates on prevention of MAS and reduction of its severity. Out of 540 meconium stained full term, cephalic presentation, singleton neonates without major congenital malformations born from June'08 to January'09, 31 were excluded and 509 randomized. In the intervention group IP-OP suction was done at the time of delivery of head using a 10 Fr suction catheter with a negative pressure of 100 mmHg. No IP-OP suction was performed in control group. All neonates with MSAF were assessed as vigorous or non-vigorous after birth and provided care as per NRP guidelines 2005. Two hundred and fifty three neonates were randomized to IP-OP suction and 256 to no IP-OP suction. Eighty-two neonates (16%) developed MAS, the primary outcome parameter, with 40 infants in the intervention group (15.8%) and 42 (16.4%) in the non-intervention group (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60-1.54). Incidence of severe MAS was comparable (3.55% vs. 2.34%) (P value=0.40). Other variables like requirement of oxygen >48 h (9.8% vs. 10.5%) and mortality (2.7% vs. 1.7%) were also comparable. IP-OP suctioning did not reduce the incidence or severity of MAS even in a setting of high incidence of MAS in a developing country. The mortality in two groups was comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin (1-7) in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Safari, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that progression of renal disease in male is faster than that in female. However, the exact mechanisms are not well recognized. Angiotensin (1-7) (Ang 1-7) receptor, called "Mas", is an element in the depressor arm of renin angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression is enhanced in females. We test the hypothesis that Mas receptor (MasR) blockade (A779) attenuates renal blood flow (RBF) in response to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 in female rats. Male and female Wistar rats were anesthetized and catheterized. Then, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and controlled renal perfusion pressure (RPP) responses to infusion of graded doses of Ang 1-7 (100-1000 ng/kg/min i.v.) with and without A779 were measured in the animals. Basal MAP, RPP, RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were not significantly different between the two groups. After Ang 1-7 administration, RPP was controlled at a constant level. However, RBF increased in a dose-related manner in response to Ang 1-7 infusion in both male and female rats (Pdose<0.0001), but masR blockade significantly attenuated this response only in female (Pgroup=0.04) and not male (Pgroup=0.23). In addition, A779 increased the RBF response to Ang 1-7 to a greater extent. This is while the increase in male was not significant when compared with that in female (Pgender=0.08). RVR response to Ang 1-7 was insignificantly attenuated by A779 in both genders. The masR differently regulated RBF response to Ang 1-7 in the two genders, and the effect was greater in female rats. The masR may be a target for improvement of kidney circulation in renal diseases.

  16. The ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis protects against pancreatic cell damage in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Li, Huihui; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product angiotensin-(1-7), and its receptor Mas have been shown to moderate the adverse effects of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 axis in many diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis could have similar effects in a cell culture model of pancreatic damage. AR42J cells were stimulated with 10 nmol/L cerulein to simulate acute pancreatitis. ACE2, Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and PI3K/AKT pathway were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. ACE2 and Mas receptor protein levels in AR42J cells were significantly increased (P < 0.05) between 30 minutes and 6 hours postdisease induction compared with the control group. Mas receptor gene expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 2 hours postdisease induction, and Ang-(1-7) was increased at 6 hours. Treatment with Ang-(1-7) in AR42J cells increased IL-10, decreased IL-6 and IL-8, and reduced the damage to pancreatic cells. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in AR42J cell culture were increased significantly after treatment with A779. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) increased the concentration of PI3K/AKT pathway and eNOSin AR42J cells. ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis significantly inhibits pancreatitis in response to decreased inflammatory factors by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO signaling pathways.

  17. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Signaling Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced ADAM17 Shedding Activity and Apoptosis in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinhua; Xu, Daomiao; Ai, Yuhang; Zhao, Shuangping; Zhang, Lina; Ming, Guangfeng; Liu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, constitutively expressed in alveolar epithelium, is the pivotal shedding enzyme mediating acute lung inflammation. On the other hand, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to improve acute respiratory distress syndrome and protect alveolar epithelial cells from apoptosis. In this study, we explored the effect of Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling on the expression and activity of ADAM17 and assessed its impact on apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human alveolar epithelial cells. LPS markedly induced the shedding activity of ADAM17 in alveolar epithelial cells, which was blocked by selective c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced ADAM17 shedding activity, which was abolished by selective Mas blocker A779 and Mas shRNA. LPS and Ang-(1-7) showed no significant effect on the expression of ADAM17. Overexpression of ADAM17 synergized with LPS on increasing the shedding activity of ADAM17 and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells, counteracting the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7). In addition, LPS significantly increased the JNK activity in alveolar epithelial cells; Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced JNK activity, which was abolished by A779 and Mas shRNA. In conclusion, this study suggests that Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling inhibits LPS-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting LPS-induced shedding activity of ADAM17, likely by a JNK-dependent mechanism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Reproducibility of direct quantitative measures of cortical bone microarchitecture of the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Andrew J; Buie, Helen R; Laib, Andres; Majumdar, Sharmila; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative cortical microarchitectural end points are important for understanding structure-function relations in the context of fracture risk and therapeutic efficacy. This technique study details new image-processing methods to automatically segment and directly quantify cortical density, geometry, and microarchitecture from HR-pQCT images of the distal radius and tibia. An automated segmentation technique was developed to identify the periosteal and endosteal margins of the distal radius and tibia and detect intracortical pore space morphologically consistent with Haversian canals. The reproducibility of direct quantitative cortical bone indices based on this method was assessed in a pooled data set of 56 subjects with two repeat acquisitions for each site. The in vivo precision error was characterized using root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%) from which the least significant change (LSC) was calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize bias in the precision estimates. The reproducibility of cortical density and cross-sectional area measures was high (RMSCV <1% and <1.5%, respectively) with good agreement between young and elder medians. The LSC for cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was somewhat smaller in the radius (0.58%) compared with the distal tibia (0.84%) and significantly different between young and elder medians in the distal tibia (LSC: 0.75% vs. 0.92%, p<0.001). The LSC for pore diameter and distribution (Po.Dm and Po.Dm.SD) ranged between 15 and 23 microm. Bland-Altman analysis revealed moderate bias for integral measures of area and volume but not for density or microarchitecture. This study indicates that HR-pQCT measures of cortical bone density and architecture can be measured in vivo with high reproducibility and limited bias across a biologically relevant range of values. The results of this study provide informative data for the design of future clinical studies of bone quality.

  19. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by 13C CP/MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Werner-Zwanziger, Ulrike; Lis, Grzegorz; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance.

  20. Technetium-99 MAS NMR spectroscopy of a cationic framework material that traps TcO4- ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Phillips, Brian L.; Casey, William H.

    2010-07-15

    99Tc magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra show that TcO4- ions, which are generated by nuclear fission and can contaminate the environment, can be trapped within the channels and cavities of a cationic framework material (see picture). These spectra are among the first 99Tc MAS NMR spectra reported to date, and show that the TcO4- ions can be efficiently removed from simulated nuclear waste solutions.

  1. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  2. IUE observations of HR 6902 - Effect of luminosity on supergiant chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Imad A.

    1990-01-01

    IUE observations of the most recently discovered Zeta Aurigae system, HR 6902, are reported to reveal profound differences in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the cool primary from those of all other Zeta Aurigae systems. Unlike its sister systems, HR 6902 shows evidence of neither strong wind nor an extended chromosphere for the cool primary. Instead, the spectrum is like that of a single blue dwarf. The most likely reason for this contrast to all other Zeta Aur systems observed with IUE is the lower luminosity of the HR 6902 primary: a type-II 'bright giant' as opposed to the type I (or Ib-II in the case of 22 Vul) 'supergiants' in the other Zeta Aur systems.

  3. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  4. The design and performance of a 200 A-hr lithium-metal sulfide cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askew, B. A.; Dand, P. V.

    The near-term performance goals of 90-100 W-hr/kg specific energy (C/4 rate) and 90-100 W/kg peak specific power are achieved in five-plate 200 A-hr cells using a boron nitride felt separator and wire screen or photoetched electrode constraint systems. Specific energy values greater than 100 W-hr/kg are attained at lower rates (C/6) in cells of similar design using a magnesia powder separator. A marked dependence of temperature on cell capacity is found in cells using lithium chloride-potassium chloride electrolyte over the temperature range 445-470 C. It is thought that an alternative electrolyte composition may be necessary to reduce this effect in the battery.

  5. Heavy-element abundances in the classical barium star HR 774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkin, J.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-10-01

    Low-noise high-resolution Digicon and Reticon spectra of HR 774 are analyzed to determine abundances for all accessible heavy elements in the visual and near-infrared. The authors find evidence of departures from LTE as large as 0.5 dex affecting the low-excitation neutral lines of heavy elements in HR 774 and the standard star (β Gem). These severe effects cancel in a comparison of HR 774 with β Gem. Abundances of 19 heavy elements (Z ≥ 37) are determined and used to derive s-process overabundances. The predicted s-process abundances fit the derived s-process abundances remarkably well. The pattern of s-process abundances is consistent with the 13C(α, n)16O reaction as the neutron source and excludes the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg reaction.

  6. Estimating MET values using the ratio of HR for persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyoung; Zhu, Weimo; Hedrick, Brad; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-05-01

    The current compendium of physical activity (CPA) cannot be applied to persons with disabilities due to the lack of physical activity (PA) they are regularly engaged in and inaccurate MET values when applied to persons with disabilities. The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether HR ratio during PA and resting can be used to accurately predict MET values of PA in persons with paraplegia, (b) to compare individual calibration (IC) with group calibration (GC) in error reduction, and (c) to examine prediction generalizability through a cross-validation design. Twenty-seven participants (aged 18-45 yr) with complete and incomplete paraplegia at T6 to L4 participated in this study. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR were measured simultaneously at rest and during 10 PA using indirect calorimetry and a Polar HR monitor. Predicted METs were calculated using the HR ratio for six activities by applying regression analysis by group (GC) and individuals (IC), respectively. The derived equations were then cross-validated using the four other activities, and corresponding METs were calculated. Absolute error rates (AC), paired t-test, and correlation (r) were used to determine the absolute and relative difference between observed and predicted METs. The overall correlation coefficient (r) between HR ratio and observed METs was 0.77 using group regression and 0.93 +/- 0.05 using individual regression. GC (R2 = 0.59, AC = 0.07%-65.25%) was less accurate than IC (R2 = 0.90 +/- 0.10, AC = 1.64%-10.26%). Cross-validation results also showed higher correlations for IC (r = 0.90 in IC and 0.72 in GC) between observed and predicted METs. HR ratio was able to accurately predict METs of persons with paraplegia. IC estimated METs more accurately than GC.

  7. Low-frequency GMRT observations of the magnetic Bp star HR Lup (HD 133880)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Samuel J.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2012-06-01

    We present radio observations of the magnetic chemically peculiar Bp star HR Lup (HD 133880) at 647 and 277 MHz with the GMRT. At both frequencies the source is not detected but we are able to determine upper limits to the emission. The 647 MHz limits are particularly useful, with a 5σ value of 0.45 mJy. Also, no large enhancements of the emission were seen. The non-detections, along with previously published higher frequency detections, provide evidence that an optically thick gyrosynchrotron model is the correct mechanism for the radio emission of HR Lup.

  8. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-07-15

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  9. 3D 15N/15N/1H chemical shift correlation experiment utilizing an RFDR-based 1H/1H mixing period at 100 kHz MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yusuke; Malon, Michal; Ishii, Yuji; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Homonuclear correlation NMR experiments are commonly used in the high-resolution structural studies of proteins. While 13C/13C chemical shift correlation experiments utilizing dipolar recoupling techniques are fully utilized under MAS, correlation of the chemical shifts of 15N nuclei in proteins has been a challenge. Previous studies have shown that the negligible 15N-15N dipolar coupling in peptides or proteins necessitates the use of a very long mixing time (typically several seconds) for effective spin diffusion to occur and considerably slows down a 15N/15N correlation experiment. In this study, we show that the use of mixing proton magnetization, instead of 15N, via the recoupled 1H-1H dipolar couplings enable faster 15N/15N correlation. In addition, the use of proton-detection under ultrafast MAS overcomes the sensitivity loss due to multiple magnetization transfer (between 1H and 15N nuclei) steps. In fact, less than 300 nL (∼1.1 micromole quantity) sample is sufficient to acquire the 3D spectrum within 5 h. Our results also demonstrate that a 3D 15N/15N/1H experiment can render higher resolution spectra that will be useful in the structural studies of proteins at ultrafast MAS frequencies. 3D 15N/15N/1H and 2D radio frequency-driven dipolar recoupling (RFDR)-based 1H/1H experimental results obtained from a powder sample of N-acetyla-L-15N-valyl-L-15N-leucine at 70 and 100 kHz MAS frequencies are presented.

  10. Formation and decomposition of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations on zeolite H-Y investigated by in situ stopped-flow MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Seiler, Michael; Ivanova, Irina I; Sternberg, Ulrich; Weitkamp, Jens; Hunger, Michael

    2002-06-26

    Methylation of aniline by methanol on zeolite H-Y has been investigated by in situ (13)C MAS NMR spectroscopy under flow conditions. The in situ (13)C continuous-flow (CF) MAS NMR experiments were performed at reaction temperatures between 473 and 523 K, molar methanol-to-aniline ratios of 1:1 to 4:1, and modified residence times of (13)CH(3)OH between 20 and 100 (g x h)/mol. The methylation reaction was shown to start at 473 K. N,N,N-Trimethylanilinium cations causing a (13)C NMR signal at 58 ppm constitute the major product on the catalyst surface. Small amounts of protonated N-methylaniline ([PhNH(2)CH(3)](+)) and N,N-dimethylaniline ([PhNH(CH(3))(2)](+)) were also observed at ca. 39 and 48 ppm, respectively. After increase of the temperature to 523 K, the contents of N,N-dimethylanilinium cations and ring-alkylated reaction products strongly increased, accompanied by a decrease of the amount of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations. With application of the in situ stopped-flow (SF) MAS NMR technique, the decomposition of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium cations on zeolite H-Y to N,N-dimethylanilinium and N-methylanilinium cations was investigated to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. The results obtained allow the proposal of a mechanism consisting of three steps: (i) the conversion of methanol to surface methoxy groups and dimethyl ether (DME); (ii) the alkylation of aniline with methanol, methoxy groups, or DME leading to an equilibrium mixture of N,N,N-trimethylanilinium, N,N-dimethylanilinium, and N-methylanilinium cations attached to the zeolite surface; (iii) the deprotonation of N,N-dimethylanilinium and N-methylanilinium cations causing the formation of N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA) and N-methylaniline (NMA) in the gas phase, respectively. The chemical equilibrium between the anilinium cations carrying different numbers of methyl groups is suggested to play a key role for the products distribution in the gas phase.

  11. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime

    2014-03-01

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m(2)) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40% lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy[Symbol: see text]cm; P < 0.001 ) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9% higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2% greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40% dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. • CT stress perfusion imaging (CTP) is increasingly used to assess myocardial function. • Dynamic CTP is feasible at 80-kV in patients with normal BMI. • An 80-kV/370-mAs protocol allows 40% dose reduction compared with 100-kV/300-mAs. • Contrast-to-noise ratio and myocardial blood flow of the two protocols were comparable.

  12. Arabidopsis MAS2, an Essential Gene That Encodes a Homolog of Animal NF-κ B Activating Protein, Is Involved in 45S Ribosomal DNA Silencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Aguilera, Verónica; Micol-Ponce, Rosa; Jover-Gil, Sara; Ponce, María Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires stoichiometric amounts of ribosomal proteins and rRNAs. Synthesis of rRNAs consumes most of the transcriptional activity of eukaryotic cells, but its regulation remains largely unclear in plants. We conducted a screen for ethyl methanesulfonate-induced suppressors of Arabidopsis thaliana ago1-52, a hypomorphic allele of AGO1 (ARGONAUTE1), a key gene in microRNA pathways. We identified nine extragenic suppressors as alleles of MAS2 (MORPHOLOGY OF AGO1-52 SUPPRESSED2). Positional cloning showed that MAS2 encodes the putative ortholog of NKAP (NF-κ B activating protein), a conserved eukaryotic protein involved in transcriptional repression and splicing in animals. The mas2 point mutations behave as informational suppressors of ago1 alleles that cause missplicing. MAS2 is a single-copy gene whose insertional alleles are embryonic lethal. In yeast two-hybrid assays, MAS2 interacted with splicing and ribosome biogenesis proteins, and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that MAS2 colocalizes with the 45S rDNA at the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). The artificial microRNA amiR-MAS2 partially repressed MAS2 and caused hypomethylation of 45S rDNA promoters as well as partial NOR decondensation, indicating that MAS2 negatively regulates 45S rDNA expression. Our results thus reveal a key player in the regulation of rRNA synthesis in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-14

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow {sup 1}H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) {sup 1}H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic

  14. Proton detection of MAS solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P; Rossini, Aaron J

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection has found widespread application to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with spin-1/2 nuclei such as (13)C, (15)N and (29)Si, however, this approach is not yet routinely applied to half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Here we have investigated the feasibility of using fast MAS and proton detection to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. The previously described dipolar hetero-nuclear multiple quantum correlation (D-HMQC) and dipolar refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (D-RINEPT) pulse sequences were used for proton detection of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Quantitative comparisons of signal-to-noise ratios and the sensitivity of proton detected D-HMQC and D-RINEPT and direct detection spin echo and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) solid-state NMR spectra, demonstrate that one dimensional proton detected experiments can provide sensitivity similar to or exceeding that obtainable with direct detection QCPMG experiments. 2D D-HMQC and D-RINEPT experiments provide less sensitivity than QCPMG experiments but proton detected 2D hetero-nuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer nuclei can still be acquired in about the same time as a 1D spin echo spectrum. Notably, the rarely used D-RINEPT pulse sequence is found to provide similar, or better sensitivity than D-HMQC in some cases. Proton detected D-RINEPT benefits from the short longitudinal relaxation times (T1) normally associated with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei, it can be combined with existing signal enhancement methods for quadrupolar nuclei, and t1-noise in the indirect dimension can easily be removed by pre-saturation of the (1)H nuclei. The rapid acquisition of proton detected 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR spectra of a range of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei such as (17)O, (27)Al, (35)Cl and (71)Ga is demonstrated. Copyright

  15. Glucagon-producing cells are increased in Mas-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Felix Braga, Janaína; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that angiotensin(1–7) (Ang(1–7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1–7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas−/− mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P < 0.001) and the percentage per islet (17.9 ± 0.91 vs 12.3 ± 0.9% in WT; P < 0.0001) with subsequent reduction of β-cells percentage (82.1 ± 0.91 vs 87.7 ± 0.9% in WT; P < 0.0001). Accordingly, glucagon plasma levels were increased (516.7 ± 36.35 vs 390.8 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P < 0.05) and insulin plasma levels were decreased in C57BL6/N Mas−/− mice (0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.31 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P = 0.02). In order to eliminate the possibility of a background-related phenotype, we determined the number of glucagon-producing cells in FVB/N Mas−/− mice. In keeping with the observations in C57BL6/N Mas−/− mice, the number and percentage of pancreatic α-cells were also significantly increased in these mice (number of α-cells: 260 ± 22 vs 156 ± 12 in WT, P < 0.001; percentage per islet: 16 ± 0.8 vs 10 ± 0.5% in WT, P < 0.0001). These results suggest that Mas has a previously unexpected role on the pancreatic glucagon production. PMID:27998954

  16. Magnetization-recovery experiments for static and MAS-NMR of I = 3/2 nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesinowski, James P.

    2006-05-01

    Multifrequency pulsed NMR experiments on quadrupole-perturbed I = 3/2 spins in single crystals are shown to be useful for measuring spin-lattice relaxation parameters even for a mixture of quadrupolar plus magnetic relaxation mechanisms. Such measurements can then be related to other MAS-NMR experiments on powders. This strategy is demonstrated by studies of 71Ga and 69Ga (both I = 3/2) spin-lattice relaxation behavior in a single-crystal (film) sample of gallium nitride, GaN, at various orientations of the axially symmetric nuclear quadrupole coupling tensor. Observation of apparent single-exponential relaxation behavior in I = 3/2 saturation-recovery experiments can be misleading when individual contributing rate processes are neglected in the interpretation. The quadrupolar mechanism (dominant in this study) has both a single-quantum process ( T1Q1) and a double-quantum process ( T1Q2), whose time constants are not necessarily equal. Magnetic relaxation (in this study most likely arising from hyperfine couplings to unpaired delocalized electron spins in the conduction band) also contributes to a single-quantum process ( T1M). A strategy of multifrequency irradiation with observation of satellite and/or central transitions, incorporating different initial conditions for the level populations, provides a means of obtaining these three relaxation time constants from single-crystal 71Ga data alone. The 69Ga results provide a further check of internal consistency, since magnetic and quadrupolar contributions to its relaxation scale in opposite directions compared to 71Ga. For both perpendicular and parallel quadrupole coupling tensor symmetry axis orientations small but significant differences between T1Q1 and T1Q2 were measured, whereas for a tensor symmetry axis oriented at the magic-angle (54.74°) the values were essentially equal. Magic-angle spinning introduces a number of complications into the measurement and interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation

  17. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-14

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110-120 kHz), (1)H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong (1)H-(1)H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow (1)H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) (1)H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about (1)H-(1)H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic-level structural and dynamical

  18. First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE. III. New spectrophotometry and astrometry of the HR 8799 exoplanetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Galicher, R.; Maire, A.-L.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Chauvin, G.; Kasper, M.; Moutou, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Desidera, S.; Abe, L.; Apai, D.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudoz, P.; Baudrand, J.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blancard, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Cantalloube, F.; Carle, M.; Cascone, E.; Charton, J.; Claudi, R. U.; Costille, A.; de Caprio, V.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Fantinel, D.; Feautrier, P.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Gigan, P.; Girard, J. H.; Gisler, D.; Gluck, L.; Gry, C.; Henning, T.; Hugot, E.; Janson, M.; Jaquet, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Magnard, Y.; Martinez, P.; Maurel, D.; Mawet, D.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Origné, A.; Pavlov, A.; Petit, C.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Rabou, P.; Ramos, J.; Rousset, G.; Roux, A.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Schmid, H. M.; Soenke, C.; Stadler, E.; Suarez, M.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Wildi, F.; Antichi, J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The planetary system discovered around the young A-type HR 8799 provides a unique laboratory to: a) test planet formation theories; b) probe the diversity of system architectures at these separations, and c) perform comparative (exo)planetology. Aims: We present and exploit new near-infrared images and integral-field spectra of the four gas giants surrounding HR 8799 obtained with SPHERE, the new planet finder instrument at the Very Large Telescope, during the commissioning and science verification phase of the instrument (July-December 2014). With these new data, we contribute to completing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these bodies in the 1.0-2.5 μm range. We also provide new astrometric data, in particular for planet e, to further constrain the orbits. Methods: We used the infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) subsystem to obtain pupil-stabilized, dual-band H2H3 (1.593 μm, 1.667 μm), K1K2 (2.110 μm, 2.251 μm), and broadband J (1.245 μm) images of the four planets. IRDIS was operated in parallel with the integral field spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE to collect low-resolution (R ~ 30), near-infrared (0.94-1.64 μm) spectra of the two innermost planets HR 8799 d and e. The data were reduced with dedicated algorithms, such as the Karhunen-Loève image projection (KLIP), to reveal the planets. We used the so-called negative planets injection technique to extract their photometry, spectra, and measure their positions. We illustrate the astrometric performance of SPHERE through sample orbital fits compatible with SPHERE and literature data. Results: We demonstrated the ability of SPHERE to detect and characterize planets in this kind of systems, providing spectra and photometry of its components. The spectra improve upon the signal-to-noise ratio of previously obtained data and increase the spectral coverage down to the Y band. In addition, we provide the first detection of planet e in the J band. Astrometric positions for planets

  19. MAS (1)H NMR Probes Freezing Point Depression of Water and Liquid-Gel Phase Transitions in Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Abhishek; van der Wel, Patrick C A

    2016-11-01

    The lipid bilayer typical of hydrated biological membranes is characterized by a liquid-crystalline, highly dynamic state. Upon cooling or dehydration, these membranes undergo a cooperative transition to a rigidified, more-ordered, gel phase. This characteristic phase transition is of significant biological and biophysical interest, for instance in studies of freezing-tolerant organisms. Magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy allows for the detection and characterization of the phase transitions over a wide temperature range. In this study we employ MAS (1)H NMR to probe the phase transitions of both solvent molecules and different hydrated phospholipids, including tetraoleoyl cardiolipin (TOCL) and several phosphatidylcholine lipid species. The employed MAS NMR sample conditions cause a previously noted substantial reduction in the freezing point of the solvent phase. The effect on the solvent is caused by confinement of the aqueous solvent in the small and densely packed MAS NMR samples. In this study we report and examine how the freezing point depression also impacts the lipid phase transition, causing a ssNMR-observed reduction in the lipids' melting temperature (Tm). The molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon are discussed and compared with previous studies of membrane-associated water phases and the impact of membrane-protective cryoprotectants. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fermi resonance of C 1 chlorine compounds in the adsorbed phase of zeolites. An FTIR and MAS NMR spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannus, I.; Kónya, Z.; Nagy, J. B.; Kiricsi, I.

    1997-06-01

    Fermi resonance was investigated for CH 3Cl, COCl 2, CO + Cl 2, CCl 4 and CCl 2F 2 adsorbed in NaYFAU zeolite. The extent of the resonance was measured by IR spectroscopy, while the mechanism of surface reaction was evidenced by MAS NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Hydration properties of regioselectively etherified celluloses monitored by 2H and 13C solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Flemming H; Schöbitz, Michael; Schaller, Jens

    2012-06-20

    The hydration properties of 2,3-O-hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) and 2,3-O-hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were analyzed by multi-nuclear solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy. By 13C single-pulse (SP) MAS and cross-polarization (CP) MAS NMR, differences between the immobile regions and all parts of the polysaccharides were detected as a function of hydration. Complementary information about the water environments was observed by 2H MAS NMR. By this approach it was demonstrated that side chains in 2,3-O-HPC and 2,3-O-HEC were easier to hydrate than the cellulose backbone. Furthermore the motion of water was more restricted (slower) in 2,3-O-HPC than in 2,3-O-HEC. For both polysaccharides the hydration could be explained by a two-step process: in step one increased ordering of the immobile regions occurs after which the entire polymer is hydrated in step two. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rewarding and Developing Staff in Higher Education: Good Practice in Setting HR Strategies. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This guide aims to help universities and colleges in England think strategically about the contribution of human resources to their organization and then to turn this thinking into an agreed strategy document to manage their human resources (HR) effectively. In November 2000, the British government announced an additional 330 million pounds over 3…

  3. An infrared study of the remarkable dusty M star HR 3126

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Aitken, D. K.; Roche, P. F.; Smith, C. H.; Walker, H. J.; Whitelock, P. A.; Wright, C.

    1993-01-01

    HR 3126 is a unique M giant star embedded in the bipolar reflection nebula IC 2220. In this paper we present new photometric and spectroscopic observations of HR 3126 and combine them with existing data from the literature in an extensive reappraisal of the star's properties at infrared wavelengths. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with an optical classification of M0-3 II with infrared excess. The dust shell cannot be fitted by a single-temperature blackbody: at least three components are required, with temperatures in the range 35-1300 K. On the basis of spectroscopy at 1-4 and 7-25 microns, combined with an assessment of various color-color diagrams, we are able to reject the hypothesis that HR 3126 is carbon-rich. Weak silicate emission features are detected at 10 and 19 microns, and a previous report of silicon carbide emission at 11.2 microns is not substantiated. It seems likely that HR 2136 is in a phase of advanced and rapid postmain-sequence evolution, possibly beginning its ascent of the asymptotic giant branch.

  4. The Leader's Leader: Examining the HR Executive's Role as Performance Coach at the Management Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodel, Neil; Novak, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Higher education human resource professionals know the importance of performance management and coaching for university employees. However, the standards of performance often are not enforced to those in high-level positions. Neil Strodel and Christopher Novak examine how HR leaders are in a unique position to extend performance coaching to those…

  5. The Chara Array Angular Diameter of HR 8799 Favors Planetary Masses for Its Imaged Companions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-10

    Department of Physics & Astronomy, Macquarie University, New South Wales, NSW 2109, Australia 5 NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of...would be on the exoplanet /brown dwarf cusp. We thank Gerard van Belle for his insight on the nature of HR 8799’s pirouette through space. The CHARA Array

  6. HR Technology Tools: Less Time on Paper and More on People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Many human resource managers face a dilemma. They would like to spend more time improving the overall work environment for employees. They want to help their executives save on workforce-related expenses, find and hire better talent, and improve existing talent through training and development. Unfortunately, most days, HR managers are stuck doing…

  7. Linking educational leadership styles to the HR architecture for new teachers in primary education.

    PubMed

    Vekeman, Eva; Devos, Geert; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to gain insight in the relationship between principals' leadership styles and the configuration of different HR practices for new teachers in primary education. Besides the longstanding interest in educational leadership as a key element in teacher and student performance, there is a growing interest in strategic human resource management (SHRM) in the educational sector. However, few educational studies link educational leadership to SHRM. In particular, this study examines the relationship between principals' instructional and transformational leadership style and principals' strategic and HR orientation in configuring HR practices for new teachers. Data were gathered using a mixed methods approach, including interviews with 75 principals as well as an online survey of 1058 teachers in Flemish primary education. Qualitative interview data were transformed and analysed together with the quantitative survey data using logistic regression and ANOVA analyses. The results indicate that both instructional and transformational leadership is associated with the strategic orientation of principals. The HR orientation, on the other hand, is not reflected in the principals' leadership style. Recommendations for further research in this area are discussed.

  8. Homozygosity for the HR2 Haplotype: Is It a Risk Factor for Thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Ulu, Arzu; Yılmaz, Erkan; Akar, Ece; Akar, Nejat

    2003-12-05

    A4070G (His 1299 Arg) polymorphism in exon 13 of factor V gene can influence factor V levels and contribute to the activated protein C resistance. We are presenting our data concerning Turkish population and postulate that homozygosity for the HR2 haplotype may be an important risk factor for thrombosis.

  9. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  10. XAS and HR-TEM Analyses of the Nakhlite Hydrothermal Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, L. J.; Bridges, J. C.; Gurman, S. J.

    2012-09-01

    We use Fe-K XANES and EXAFS, with HR-TEM observations, to show that the phyllosilicate minerals found in the Lafayette nakhlite are saponite and serpentine. An increase in ferric/ferrous ratio is identified as part of the hydrothermal activity.

  11. Getting People Involved: The Benefit of Intellectual Capital Management for Addressing HR Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pook, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the benefits of intellectual capital assessment for facing current challenges of human resources work and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes findings of studies on challenges in HR work and maps them with features of intellectual capital assessment methods. It is thus a…

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE HR8799 PLANETS WITH HST/WFC3

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Abhijith; Patience, Jennifer; Barman, Travis; Soummer, Rémi; Hagan, J. Brendan; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Konopacky, Quinn; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-08-20

    We present results from a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program characterizing the atmospheres of the outer two planets in the HR8799 system. The images were taken over 15 orbits in three near-infrared (near-IR) medium-band filters—F098M, F127M, and F139M—using the Wide Field Camera 3. One of the three filters is sensitive to a water absorption band inaccessible from ground-based observations, providing a unique probe of the thermal emission from the atmospheres of these young giant planets. The observations were taken at 30 different spacecraft rolls to enable angular differential imaging (ADI), and the full data set was analyzed with the Karhunen–Loéve Image Projection routine, an advanced image processing algorithm adapted to work with HST data. To achieve the required high contrast at subarcsecond resolution, we utilized the pointing accuracy of HST in combination with an improved pipeline designed to combine the dithered ADI data with an algorithm designed to both improve the image resolution and accurately measure the photometry. The results include F127M (J) detections of the outer planets, HR8799b and c, and the first detection of HR8799b in the water-band (F139M) filter. The F127M photometry for HR8799c agrees well with fitted atmospheric models, resolving the longstanding difficulty in consistently modeling the near-IR flux of the planet.

  13. GFZ HR/LL GPS Ground station networks and their use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigber, C.; Galas, R.; Koehler, W.; Forberg, M.; Ramatschi, M.

    2003-12-01

    The contribution presents GFZ's global and local High-Rate and Low-Latency GPS networks. The global HR/LL network was established, in collaboration with JPL, to support the CHAMP and GRACE POD activities and the radio occultation experiment on both missions. The GFZ sub-network is composed of 13 continuously tracking stations, generating 15-min 1 Hz GPS data files and transmitting them to GFZ every 15 minutes. Eight stations contribute to the Galileo mission preparations. Since early 2003 eight HR sites are streaming GPS data in real time. Three of them take part in the IGS Real-Time Prototype Network. GPS HR/LL network for deformation monitoring is an example of local HR/LL GPS array. This 1 Hz network was installed on Popocapetel volcano end of 1999. For the calibration of satellite altimetry, an autonomous 10 Hz GPS-Buoy was developed by GFZ and is operating in the North Sea. The presentation describes shortly the three systems and discusses issues such as: data performance, real-time data aspects and quality monitoring. Application results from ultra-rapid CHAMP/GRACE orbit processing, radio-occultation routine processing, buoy monitoring and volcano monitoring in geodesy, geophysics and meteorology will be presented.

  14. Proton-detected 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H correlation experiment for structural analysis in rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS above 60 kHz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-28

    A proton-detected 3D (1)H/(13)C/(1)H chemical shift correlation experiment is proposed for the assignment of chemical shift resonances, identification of (13)C-(1)H connectivities, and proximities of (13)C-(1)H and (1)H-(1)H nuclei under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (ultrafast-MAS) conditions. Ultrafast-MAS is used to suppress all anisotropic interactions including (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings, while the finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used to recouple dipolar couplings among protons and the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer technique is used to transfer magnetization between heteronuclear spins. The 3D experiment eliminates signals from non-carbon-bonded protons and non-proton-bonded carbons to enhance spectral resolution. The 2D (F1/F3) (1)H/(1)H and 2D (13)C/(1)H (F2/F3) chemical shift correlation spectra extracted from the 3D spectrum enable the identification of (1)H-(1)H proximity and (13)C-(1)H connectivity. In addition, the 2D (F1/F2) (1)H/(13)C chemical shift correlation spectrum, incorporated with proton magnetization exchange via the fp-RFDR recoupling of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings, enables the measurement of proximities between (13)C and even the remote non-carbon-bonded protons. The 3D experiment also gives three-spin proximities of (1)H-(1)H-(13)C chains. Experimental results obtained from powder samples of L-alanine and L-histidine ⋅ H2O ⋅ HCl demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D experiment.

  15. Proton-detected 3D 1H/13C/1H correlation experiment for structural analysis in rigid solids under ultrafast-MAS above 60 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-10-01

    A proton-detected 3D 1H/13C/1H chemical shift correlation experiment is proposed for the assignment of chemical shift resonances, identification of 13C-1H connectivities, and proximities of 13C-1H and 1H-1H nuclei under ultrafast magic-angle-spinning (ultrafast-MAS) conditions. Ultrafast-MAS is used to suppress all anisotropic interactions including 1H-1H dipolar couplings, while the finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used to recouple dipolar couplings among protons and the insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer technique is used to transfer magnetization between heteronuclear spins. The 3D experiment eliminates signals from non-carbon-bonded protons and non-proton-bonded carbons to enhance spectral resolution. The 2D (F1/F3) 1H/1H and 2D 13C/1H (F2/F3) chemical shift correlation spectra extracted from the 3D spectrum enable the identification of 1H-1H proximity and 13C-1H connectivity. In addition, the 2D (F1/F2) 1H/13C chemical shift correlation spectrum, incorporated with proton magnetization exchange via the fp-RFDR recoupling of 1H-1H dipolar couplings, enables the measurement of proximities between 13C and even the remote non-carbon-bonded protons. The 3D experiment also gives three-spin proximities of 1H-1H-13C chains. Experimental results obtained from powder samples of L-alanine and L-histidine ṡ H2O ṡ HCl demonstrate the efficiency of the 3D experiment.

  16. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Regulates the