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Sample records for hsp90 atpase activity

  1. Goniothalamin enhances the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 but inhibits its chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Ohtaki, Aguru; Jantan, Ibrahim; Yohda, Masafumi; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is involved in important cellular pathways such as signal transduction pathways. It is a potential cancer drug target because it plays a critical role for stabilization and activation of oncoproteins. Thus, small molecule compounds that control the Hsp90 function are useful to elucidate potential lead compounds against cancer. We studied effect of a naturally occurring styryl-lactone goniothalamin on the activity of Hsp90. Although many drugs targeting Hsp90 inhibit the ATPase activity of Hsp90, goniothalamin enhanced rather than inhibited the ATPase activity of a cyanobacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) and a yeast Hsp90. It increased both K(m) and k(cat) of the Hsp90s. Domain competition assays and tryptophan fluorescence measurements with various truncated derivatives of HtpG indicated that goniothalamin binds to the N-terminal domain of HtpG. Goniothalamin did not influence on the interaction of HtpG with a non-native protein or the anti-aggregation activity of HtpG significantly. However, it inhibited the activity of HtpG that assists refolding of a non-native protein in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone system. This is the first report to show that a small molecule that binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 activates its ATPase activity, while inhibiting the chaperone function of Hsp90.

  2. Molecular mechanism of bacterial Hsp90 pH-dependent ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Hoxie, Reyal S; Street, Timothy O

    2017-06-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone that undergoes an essential and highly regulated open-to-closed-to-open conformational cycle upon ATP binding and hydrolysis. Although it has been established that a large energy barrier to closure is responsible for Hsp90's low ATP hydrolysis rate, the specific molecular contacts that create this energy barrier are not known. Here we discover that bacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) has a pH-dependent ATPase activity that is unique among other Hsp90 homologs. The underlying mechanism is a conformation-specific electrostatic interaction between a single histidine, H255, and bound ATP. H255 stabilizes ATP only while HtpG adopts a catalytically inactive open configuration, resulting in a striking anti-correlation between nucleotide binding affinity and chaperone activity over a wide range of pH. Linkage analysis reveals that the H255-ATP salt bridge contributes 1.5 kcal/mol to the energy barrier of closure. This energetic contribution is structurally asymmetric, whereby only one H255-ATP salt-bridge per dimer of HtpG controls ATPase activation. We find that a similar electrostatic mechanism regulates the ATPase of the endoplasmic reticulum Hsp90, and that pH-dependent activity can be engineered into eukaryotic cytosolic Hsp90. These results reveal site-specific energetic information about an evolutionarily conserved conformational landscape that controls Hsp90 ATPase activity. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Low Resolution Structural Studies Indicate that the Activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1) of Leishmania braziliensis Has an Elongated Shape Which Allows Its Interaction with Both N- and M-Domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Seraphim, Thiago V.; Alves, Marina M.; Silva, Indjara M.; Gomes, Francisco E. R.; Silva, Kelly P.; Murta, Silvane M. F.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Borges, Júlio C.

    2013-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone is essential for protein homeostasis and in the maturation of proteins involved with cell-cycle control. The low ATPase activity of Hsp90 is critical to drive its functional cycle, which is dependent on the Hsp90 cochaperones. The Activator of Hsp90 ATPase-1 (Aha1) is a protein formed by two domains, N- and C-terminal, that stimulates the Hsp90 ATPase activity by several folds. Although the relevance of Aha1 for Hsp90 functions has been proved, as well as its involvement in the desensitization to inhibitors of the Hsp90, the knowledge on its overall structure and behavior in solution is limited. In this work we present the functional and structural characterization of Leishmania braziliensis Aha1 (LbAha1). This protozoan is the causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease. The recombinant LbAha1 behaves as an elongated monomer and is organized into two folded domains interconnected by a flexible linker. Functional experiments showed that LbAha1 interacts with L. braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) with micromolar dissociation constant in a stoichiometry of 2 LbAha1 to 1 LbHsp90 dimer and stimulates 10-fold the LbHsp90 ATPase activity showing positive cooperativity. Furthermore, the LbHsp90::LbAha1 complex is directed by enthalphy and opposed by entropy, probably due to the spatial freedom restrictions imposed by the proteins’ interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering data allowed the reconstruction of low resolution models and rigid body simulations of LbAha1, indicating its mode of action on LbHsp90. Western blot experiments allowed Aha1 identification (as well as Hsp90) in three Leishmania species at two temperatures, suggesting that Aha1 is a cognate protein. All these data shed light on the LbAha1 mechanism of action, showing that it has structural dimensions and flexibility that allow interacting with both N-terminal and middle domains of the LbHsp90. PMID:23826147

  4. The Mechanism of Hsp90 ATPase Stimulation by Aha1

    PubMed Central

    Wolmarans, Annemarie; Lee, Brian; Spyracopoulos, Leo; LaPointe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is a dimeric molecular chaperone responsible for the folding, maturation, and activation of hundreds of substrate proteins called ‘clients’. Numerous co-chaperone proteins regulate progression through the ATP-dependent client activation cycle. The most potent stimulator of the Hsp90 ATPase activity is the co-chaperone Aha1p. Only one molecule of Aha1p is required to fully stimulate the Hsp90 dimer despite the existence of two, presumably identical, binding sites for this regulator. Using ATPase assays with Hsp90 heterodimers, we find that Aha1p stimulates ATPase activity by a three-step mechanism via the catalytic loop in the middle domain of Hsp90. Binding of the Aha1p N domain to the Hsp90 middle domain exerts a small stimulatory effect but also drives a separate conformational rearrangement in the Hsp90 N domains. This second event drives a rearrangement in the N domain of the opposite subunit and is required for the stimulatory action of the Aha1p C domain. Furthermore, the second event can be blocked by a mutation in one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer but not the other. This work provides a foundation for understanding how post-translational modifications regulate co-chaperone engagement with the Hsp90 dimer. PMID:27615124

  5. Natural Iminosugar (+)-Lentiginosine Inhibits ATPase and Chaperone Activity of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Vassallo, Antonio; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Cordero, Franca M.; Cardona, Francesca; Pisano, Claudio; Bifulco, Giuseppe; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Brandi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a significant target in the development of rational cancer therapy due to its role at the crossroads of multiple signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation and cell viability. The relevance of Hsp90 as a therapeutic target for numerous diseases states has prompted the identification and optimization of novel Hsp90 inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy. We performed a screening aimed to identify novel Hsp90 inhibitors among several natural compounds and we focused on the iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine, a natural amyloglucosidases inhibitor, for its peculiar bioactivity profile. Characterization of Hsp90 inhibition was performed using a panel of chemical and biological approaches, including limited proteolysis, biochemical and cellular assays. Our result suggested that the middle domain of Hsp90, as opposed to its ATP-binding pocket, is a promising binding site for new classes of Hsp90 inhibitors with multi-target anti-cancer potential. PMID:22916240

  6. S-nitrosylation of Hsp90 promotes the inhibition of its ATPase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Villanueva, Laura; de Orduña, Cecilia González; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Higueras, María Ángeles; Tarín, Carlos; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Vázquez, Jesús; Lamas, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in a variety of signaling pathways in different systems, notably in endothelial cells. Some of its effects can be exerted through covalent modifications of proteins and, among these modifications, increasing attention is being paid to S-nitrosylation as a signaling mechanism. In this work, we show by a variety of methods (ozone chemiluminescence, biotin switch, and mass spectrometry) that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is a target of S-nitrosylation and identify a susceptible cysteine residue in the region of the C-terminal domain that interacts with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). We also show that the modification occurs in endothelial cells when they are treated with S-nitroso-l-cysteine and when they are exposed to eNOS activators. Hsp90 ATPase activity and its positive effect on eNOS activity are both inhibited by S-nitrosylation. Together, these data suggest that S-nitrosylation may functionally regulate the general activities of Hsp90 and provide a feedback mechanism for limiting eNOS activation. PMID:15937123

  7. The ‘active life’ of Hsp90 complexes☆

    PubMed Central

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Hsp90 forms a variety of complexes differing both in clientele and co-chaperones. Central to the role of co-chaperones in the formation of Hsp90 complexes is the delivery of client proteins and the regulation of the ATPase activity of Hsp90. Determining the mechanisms by which co-chaperones regulate Hsp90 is essential in understanding the assembly of these complexes and the activation and maturation of Hsp90's clientele. Mechanistically, co-chaperones alter the kinetics of the ATP-coupled conformational changes of Hsp90. The structural changes leading to the formation of a catalytically active unit involve all regions of the Hsp90 dimer. Their complexity has allowed different orthologues of Hsp90 to evolve kinetically in slightly different ways. The interaction of the cytosolic Hsp90 with a variety of co-chaperones lends itself to a complex set of different regulatory mechanisms that modulate Hsp90's conformation and ATPase activity. It also appears that the conformational switches of Hsp90 are not necessarily coupled under all circumstances. Here, I described different co-chaperone complexes and then discuss in detail the mechanisms and role that specific co-chaperones play in this. I will also discuss emerging evidence that post-translational modifications also affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90, and thus complex formation. Finally, I will present evidence showing how Hsp90's active site, although being highly conserved, can be altered to show resistance to drug binding, but still maintain ATP binding and ATPase activity. Such changes are therefore unlikely to significantly alter Hsp90's interactions with client proteins and co-chaperones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) PMID:21840346

  8. Brassinosteroid nuclear signaling recruits HSP90 activity.

    PubMed

    Samakovli, Despina; Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Prassinos, Constantinos; Milioni, Dimitra; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2014-08-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) controls a number of developmental circuits, and serves a sophisticated and highly regulatory function in signaling pathways. Brassinosteroids (BRs) control many aspects of plant development. Genetic, physiological, cytological, gene expression, live cell imaging, and pharmacological approaches provide conclusive evidence for HSP90 involvement in Arabidopsis thalianaBR signaling. Nuclear-localized HSP90s translocate to cytoplasm when their activity is blocked by the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDA). GDA treatment promoted the export of BIN2, a regulator of BR signaling, from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, indicating that active HSP90 is required to sustain BIN2 in the nucleus. HSP90 nuclear localization was inhibited by brassinolide (BL). HSP90s interact with BIN2 in the nucleus of untreated cells and in the cytoplasm of BL-treated cells, showing that the site-specific action of HSP90 on BIN2 is controlled by BRs. GDA and BL treatments change the expression of a common set of previously identified BR-responsive genes. This highlights the effect of active HSP90s on the regulation of BR-responsive genes. Our observations reveal that HSP90s have a central role in sustaining BIN2 nuclear function. We propose that BR signaling is mediated by HSP90 activity and via trafficking of BIN2-HSP90 complexes into the cytoplasm. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Hsp90 regulation of fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sontake, Vishwaraj; Wang, Yunguan; Kasam, Rajesh K.; Sinner, Debora; Reddy, Geereddy B.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; McCormack, Francis X.; Jegga, Anil G.; Madala, Satish K.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe fibrotic lung disease associated with fibroblast activation that includes excessive proliferation, tissue invasiveness, myofibroblast transformation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. To identify inhibitors that can attenuate fibroblast activation, we queried IPF gene signatures against a library of small-molecule-induced gene-expression profiles and identified Hsp90 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents that can suppress fibroblast activation in IPF. Although Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that regulates multiple processes involved in fibroblast activation, it has not been previously proposed as a molecular target in IPF. Here, we found elevated Hsp90 staining in lung biopsies of patients with IPF. Notably, fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic lesions showed heightened Hsp90 ATPase activity compared with normal fibroblasts. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90 ATPase activity, attenuated fibroblast activation and also TGF-β–driven effects on fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation. The loss of the Hsp90AB, but not the Hsp90AA isoform, resulted in reduced fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast transformation, and ECM production. Finally, in vivo therapy with 17-AAG attenuated progression of established and ongoing fibrosis in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that targeting Hsp90 represents an effective strategy for the treatment of fibrotic lung disease. PMID:28239659

  10. Co-chaperone regulation of conformational switching in the Hsp90 ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Siligardi, Giuliano; Hu, Bin; Panaretou, Barry; Piper, Peter W; Pearl, Laurence H; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2004-12-10

    ATP hydrolysis by the Hsp90 molecular chaperone requires a connected set of conformational switches triggered by ATP binding to the N-terminal domain in the Hsp90 dimer. Central to this is a segment of the structure, which closes like a "lid" over bound ATP, promoting N-terminal dimerization and assembly of a competent active site. Hsp90 mutants that influence these conformational switches have strong effects on ATPase activity. ATPase activity is specifically regulated by Hsp90 co-chaperones, which directly influence the conformational switches. Here we have analyzed the effect of Hsp90 mutations on binding (using isothermal titration calorimetry and difference circular dichroism) and ATPase regulation by the co-chaperones Aha1, Sti1 (Hop), and Sba1 (p23). The ability of Sti1 to bind Hsp90 and arrest its ATPase activity was not affected by any of the mutants screened. Sba1 bound in the presence of AMPPNP to wild-type and ATPase hyperactive mutants with similar affinity but only very weakly to hypoactive mutants despite their wild-type ATP affinity. Unexpectedly, in all cases Sba1 bound to Hsp90 with a 1:2 molar stoichiometry. Aha1 binding to mutants was similar to wild-type, but the -fold activation of their ATPase varied substantially between mutants. Analysis of complex formation with co-chaperone mixtures showed Aha1 and p50cdc37 able to bind Hsp90 simultaneously but without direct interaction. Sba1 and p50cdc37 bound independently to Hsp90-AMPPNP but not together. These data indicated that Sba1 and Aha1 regulate Hsp90 by influencing the conformational state of the "ATP lid" and consequent N-terminal dimerization, whereas Sti1 does not.

  11. Conserved conformational changes in the ATPase cycle of human Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Richter, Klaus; Soroka, Joanna; Skalniak, Lukasz; Leskovar, Adriane; Hessling, Martin; Reinstein, Jochen; Buchner, Johannes

    2008-06-27

    The dimeric molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the activation and stabilization of hundreds of substrate proteins, many of which participate in signal transduction pathways. The activation process depends on the hydrolysis of ATP by Hsp90. Hsp90 consists of a C-terminal dimerization domain, a middle domain, which may interact with substrate protein, and an N-terminal ATP-binding domain. A complex cycle of conformational changes has been proposed for the ATPase cycle of yeast Hsp90, where a critical step during the reaction requires the transient N-terminal dimerization of the two protomers. The ATPase cycle of human Hsp90 is less well understood, and significant differences have been proposed regarding key mechanistic aspects. ATP hydrolysis by human Hsp90alpha and Hsp90beta is 10-fold slower than that of yeast Hsp90. Despite these differences, our experiments suggest that the underlying enzymatic mechanisms are highly similar. In both cases, a concerted conformational rearrangement involving the N-terminal domains of both subunits is controlling the rate of ATP turnover, and N-terminal cross-talk determines the rate-limiting steps. Furthermore, similar to yeast Hsp90, the slow ATP hydrolysis by human Hsp90s can be stimulated up to over 100-fold by the addition of the co-chaperone Aha1 from either human or yeast origin. Together, our results show that the basic principles of the Hsp90 ATPase reaction are conserved between yeast and humans, including the dimerization of the N-terminal domains and its regulation by the repositioning of the ATP lid from its original position to a catalytically competent one.

  12. Y-632 inhibits heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) function by disrupting the interaction between Hsp90 and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein, and exerts antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqian; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhixin; Xie, Chengying; Xu, Yongping; Hu, Youhong; Quan, Haitian; Lou, Liguang

    2016-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) stabilizes a variety of proteins required for cancer cell survival and has been identified as a promising drug target for cancer treatment. To date, several Hsp90 inhibitors have entered into clinical trials, but none has been approved for cancer therapy yet. Thus, exploring new Hsp90 inhibitors with novel mechanisms of action is urgent. In the present study, we show that Y-632, a novel pyrimidine derivative, inhibited Hsp90 in a different way from the conventional Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. Y-632 induced degradation of diverse Hsp90 client proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as geldanamycin did; however, it neither directly bound to Hsp90 nor inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity. Y-632 inhibited Hsp90 function mainly through inducing intracellular thiol oxidation, which led to disruption of the Hsp90-Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein complex and further induced cell adhesion inhibition, G0 /G1 cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Moreover, Y-632 efficiently overcame imatinib resistance mediated by Bcr-Abl point mutations both in vitro and in vivo. We believe that Y-632, acting as a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the Hsp90-Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein complex, has great potential to be a promising Hsp90 inhibitor for cancer therapy, such as for imatinib-resistant leukemia. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Bipartite Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Keeps CRAF Kinase Poised for Activation.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shahana; Ghosh, Baijayanti; Gayen, Nilanjan; Roy, Joydeep; Mandal, Atin K

    2016-11-18

    CRAF kinase maintains cell viability, growth, and proliferation by participating in the MAPK pathway. Unlike BRAF, CRAF requires continuous chaperoning by Hsp90 to retain MAPK signaling. However, the reason behind the continuous association of Hsp90 with CRAF is still elusive. In this study, we have identified the bipartite role of Hsp90 in chaperoning CRAF kinase. Hsp90 facilitates Ser-621 phosphorylation of CRAF and prevents the kinase from degradation. Co-chaperone Cdc37 assists in this phosphorylation event. However, after folding, the stability of the kinase becomes insensitive to Hsp90 inhibition, although the physical association between Hsp90 and CRAF remains intact. We observed that overexpression of Hsp90 stimulates MAPK signaling by activating CRAF. The interaction between Hsp90 and CRAF is substantially increased under an elevated level of cellular Hsp90 and in the presence of either active Ras (Ras(V12)) or EGF. Surprisingly, enhanced binding of Hsp90 to CRAF occurs prior to the Ras-CRAF association and facilitates actin recruitment to CRAF for efficient Ras-CRAF interaction, which is independent of the ATPase activity of Hsp90. However, monomeric CRAF (CRAF(R401H)) shows abrogated interaction with both Hsp90 and actin, thereby affecting Hsp90-dependent CRAF activation. This finding suggests that stringent assemblage of Hsp90 keeps CRAF kinase equipped for participating in the MAPK pathway. Thus, the role of Hsp90 in CRAF maturation and activation acts as a limiting factor to maintain the function of a strong client like CRAF kinase. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues: Potent Hsp90 inhibitors with cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yue; Hu, Mingyang; Li, Xiang; Gu, Congying; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2016-10-01

    Hsp90 has long been recognized as an attractive and crucial molecular target for cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported as a natural inhibitor of Hsp90. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues as Hsp90 inhibitors and identify that compound 25, with a simplified skeleton, had an improved inhibitory effect toward Hsp90. Compound 25 inhibited the ATPase activity of Hsp90 with an IC50 value of 3.68±0.18μM. It also exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in some solid tumor cells. In SK-BR-3 cells with high Hsp90 expression, compound 25 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including Akt and Erk1/2 without causing the heat shock response. Additionally, compound 25 inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC cells through Hsp90 regulation of the HIF-1α pathway. These results demonstrate that compound 25 as an Hsp90 inhibitor with a new structure could be further studied for the development of tumor therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Regulatory Mechanisms of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Hsp90 to activate a disparate clientele implicates this chaperone in diverse biological processes. To accommodate such varied roles, Hsp90 requires a variety of regulatory mechanisms that are coordinated in order to modulate its activity appropriately. Amongst these, the master-regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is critically important in upregulating Hsp90 during stress, but is also responsible, through interaction with specific transcription factors (such as STAT1 and Strap/p300) for the integration of a variety of biological signals that ultimately modulate Hsp90 expression. Additionally, transcription factors, such as STAT1, STAT3 (including STAT1-STAT3 oligomers), NF-IL6, and NF-kB, are known to influence Hsp90 expression directly. Co-chaperones offer another mechanism for Hsp90 regulation, and these can modulate the chaperone cycle appropriately for specific clientele. Co-chaperones include those that deliver specific clients to Hsp90, and others that regulate the chaperone cycle for specific Hsp90-client complexes by modulating Hsp90s ATPase activity. Finally, post-translational modification (PTM) of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones helps too further regulate the variety of different Hsp90 complexes found in cells. PMID:28289734

  16. The ATPase cycle of the mitochondrial Hsp90 analog Trap1.

    PubMed

    Leskovar, Adriane; Wegele, Harald; Werbeck, Nicolas D; Buchner, Johannes; Reinstein, Jochen

    2008-04-25

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone whose mechanism is not yet understood in detail. Here, we present the first ATPase cycle for the mitochondrial member of the Hsp90 family called Trap1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1). Using biochemical, thermodynamic, and rapid kinetic methods we dissected the kinetics of the nucleotide-regulated rearrangements between the open and the closed conformations. Surprisingly, upon ATP binding, Trap1 shifts predominantly to the closed conformation (70%), but, unlike cytosolic Hsp90 from yeast, this process is rather slow at 0.076 s(-1). Because reopening (0.034 s(-1)) is about ten times faster than hydrolysis (k(hyd) = 0.0039 s(-1)), which is the rate-limiting step, Trap1 is not able to commit ATP to hydrolysis. The proposed ATPase cycle was further scrutinized by a global fitting procedure that utilizes all relevant experimental data simultaneously. This analysis corroborates our model of a two-step binding mechanism of ATP followed by irreversible ATP hydrolysis and a one-step product (ADP) release.

  17. Terazosin activates Pgk1 and Hsp90 to promote stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinping; Zhao, Chunyue; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Tao; Li, Yizhou; Cao, Cheng; Ding, Yuehe; Dong, Mengqiu; Finci, Lorenzo; Wang, Jia-Huai; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that can protect against organ damage are urgently needed, especially for diseases such as sepsis and brain stroke. We discovered that terazosin (TZ), a widely marketed α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, alleviated organ damage and improved survival in rodent models of stroke and sepsis. Through combined studies of enzymology and X-ray crystallography, we discovered that TZ binds a new target, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1), and activates its enzymatic activity, probably through 2,4-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline's ability to promote ATP release from Pgk1. Mechanistically, the ATP generated from Pgk1 may enhance the chaperone activity of Hsp90, an ATPase known to associate with Pgk1. Upon activation, Hsp90 promotes multistress resistance. Our studies demonstrate that TZ has a new protein target, Pgk1, and reveal its corresponding biological effect. As a clinical drug, TZ may be quickly translated into treatments for diseases including stroke and sepsis.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Mechanisms of Allosteric Activation of Hsp90 by Designed Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Agard, David A.; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    Controlling biochemical pathways through chemically designed modulators may provide novel opportunities to develop therapeutic drugs and chemical tools. The underlying challenge is to design new molecular entities able to act as allosteric chemical switches that selectively turn on/off functions by modulating the conformational dynamics of their target protein. We examine the origins of the stimulation of ATPase and closure kinetics in the molecular chaperone Hsp90 by allosteric modulators through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analysis of protein-ligand interactions. In particular, we focus on the cross-talk between allosteric ligands and protein conformations and its effect on the dynamic properties of the chaperone’s active state. We examine the impact of different allosteric modulators on the stability, structural and internal dynamics properties of Hsp90 closed state. A critical aspect of this study is the development of a quantitative model that correlates Hsp90 activation to the presence of a certain compound, making use of information on the dynamic adaptation of protein conformations to the presence of the ligand, which allows to capture conformational states relevant in the activation process. We discuss the implications of considering the conformational dialogue between allosteric ligands and protein conformations for the design of new functional modulators.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Mechanisms of Allosteric Activation of Hsp90 by Designed Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Vettoretti, Gerolamo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Sattin, Sara; Tao, Jiahui; Agard, David A.; Bernardi, Anna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Controlling biochemical pathways through chemically designed modulators may provide novel opportunities to develop therapeutic drugs and chemical tools. The underlying challenge is to design new molecular entities able to act as allosteric chemical switches that selectively turn on/off functions by modulating the conformational dynamics of their target protein. We examine the origins of the stimulation of ATPase and closure kinetics in the molecular chaperone Hsp90 by allosteric modulators through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analysis of protein-ligand interactions. In particular, we focus on the cross-talk between allosteric ligands and protein conformations and its effect on the dynamic properties of the chaperone’s active state. We examine the impact of different allosteric modulators on the stability, structural and internal dynamics properties of Hsp90 closed state. A critical aspect of this study is the development of a quantitative model that correlates Hsp90 activation to the presence of a certain compound, making use of information on the dynamic adaptation of protein conformations to the presence of the ligand, which allows to capture conformational states relevant in the activation process. We discuss the implications of considering the conformational dialogue between allosteric ligands and protein conformations for the design of new functional modulators. PMID:27032695

  20. Hsp90 Interaction with INrf2(Keap1) Mediates Stress-induced Nrf2 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Niture, Suryakant K.; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    INrf2(Keap1) functions as an adapter for Cul3/Rbx1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. In response to stress, Nrf2 is released from INrf2 and translocates inside the nucleus leading to activation of cytoprotective proteins critical in protection against adverse effects including cancer. We demonstrate here a novel role of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in control of the INrf2 and Nrf2 activation. Hsp90 interacted with INrf2 that leds to stabilization of INrf2 during heat shock stress. Domain mapping showed the requirement of INrf2-NTR and the Hsp90-CLD region for interaction of Hsp90 with INrf2. Heat shock and antioxidants induced Hsp90, and casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylated INrf2Thr55. This led to increased Hsp90-INrf2 interaction, dissociation of the Rbx1/Cul3·INrf2·Nrf2 complex, and activation of Nrf2. Inhibitors of CK2 and Hsp90, and mutation of INrf2Thr55 abolished the Hsp90-INrf2 interaction and downstream signaling. INrf2 is released from Hsp90 once the heat shock or antioxidant stress subsidized, thereby allowing INrf2 to interact with Nrf2 and facilitate Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation. The results together demonstrate a novel role for the stress-induced Hsp90-INrf2 interaction in regulation of Nrf2 activation and induction of cytoprotective proteins. PMID:20864537

  1. HSP90a — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The HSP90AA1 protein, also known as HSP90a, is a molecular chaperone that promotes the maturation, structural maintenance and proper regulation of specific target proteins involved in cell cycle control and signal transduction. HSP90AA1 is a homodimer that assists in the proper folding of specific target proteins by use of an ATPase activity that is modulated by co-chaperones. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

  2. Structural characterization of tetranortriterpenes from Pseudrocedrela kotschyi and Trichilia emetica and study of their activity towards the chaperone Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Malafronte, Nicola; Romano, Adriana; Gallotta, Dario; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Maria Josefine; Sanogo, Rokia; Tommasi, Nunziatina De; Pisano, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    Investigation of roots extracts Pseudrocedrela kotschyi and Trichilia emetica led to identification of 5 limonoid derivatives, Kotschyins D-H, and 11 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments in conjunction with mass spectrometry. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach was adopted to screen their Hsp90 binding capability and kotschyin D showed a significant affinity for the chaperone. Therefore, the characterization of the biological activity of kotschyin D by means of a panel of chemical and biological approaches, including limited proteolysis, molecular docking and biochemical and cellular assays, was performed. Our result indicated this compound as a type of client selective Hsp90 inhibitor, directly binding to the middle domain of the protein and possibly preventing its interaction with the activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1 (Aha1).

  3. Impact of Posttranslational Modifications on the Anticancer Activity of Hsp90 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Mark R; Dunn, Diana; Miller, Jonelle B; Jamal, Sami; Neckers, Len; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are essential for guarding proteins that are indispensable for normal cellular functions. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a vital molecular chaperone in eukaryotes that participates in stabilizing and activating approximately 200 target proteins, called "clients," many of which are involved in signal transduction pathways. Cancer cells however utilize Hsp90 to chaperone an array of mutated and overexpressed oncoproteins to protect them from misfolding and degradation. Therefore, Hsp90 is an attractive target in cancer therapy. Hsp90 chaperone function relies on ATP binding and hydrolysis, which in turn guides its carefully orchestrated conformational changes. This chaperone cycle is fine-tuned by another group of proteins called co-chaperones. They are able to accelerate or decelerate the cycle, allowing Hsp90 to chaperone different clients. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can also regulate the chaperone cycle at an epigenetic level thereby tailoring Hsp90 function to suit a specific cell type or environmental condition. Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of the enzymes that catalyze the PTM of Hsp90 can act synergistically with Hsp90 inhibitors, providing a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and Structure activity relationships of EGCG Analogues, A Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Anuj; Hall, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol isolated from green tea, was recently shown to inhibit Hsp90, however structure-activity relationships for this natural product have not yet been produced. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of EGCG analogues to establish structure-activity relationships between EGCG and Hsp90. All four rings as well as the linker connecting the C- and the D-rings were systematically investigated, which led to the discovery of compounds that inhibit Hs90 and display improvement in efficacy over EGCG. Anti-proliferative activity of all the analogues was determined against MCF-7 and SKBr3 cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity of four most potent analogues was further evaluated by western blot analyses and degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Prenyl substituted aryl ester of 3,5-dihydroxychroman-3-ol ring system was identified as novel scaffold that exhibit Hsp90 inhibitory activity. PMID:23834230

  5. Terazosin activated Pgk1 and Hsp90 to promote stress resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinping; Zhao, Chunyue; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Tao; Li, Yizhou; Cao, Cheng; Ding, Yuehe; Dong, Mengqiu; Finci, Lorenzo; Wang, Jia-huai; Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that can protect against organ damage are urgently needed, especially for diseases such as sepsis and brain stroke. We have discovered that terazosin (TZ), a widely marketed alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist, alleviated organ damage and improved survival in rodent models of stroke and sepsis. Through combined studies of enzymology and X-ray crystallography, we have discovered that TZ binds to a novel target, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1) and activates its enzymatic activity, probably through 1,3-diamino-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline's ability to promote ATP release from Pgk1. Mechanistically, the ATP generated from Pgk1 may enhance the chaperone activity of Hsp90, an ATPase known to associate with Pgk1. Upon activation, Hsp90 promotes multi-stress resistance. Our studies have demonstrated that TZ has a novel protein target, Pgk1, and has revealed its corresponding biological effect. As a clinical drug, TZ may be quickly translated into treatment of devastating diseases including stroke and sepsis. PMID:25383758

  6. Regulation of activation-induced deaminase stability and antibody gene diversification by Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Affar, El Bachir; Lamarre, Alain; Young, Jason C.

    2010-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme that initiates somatic hypermutation and isotype switching of the antibody genes in B lymphocytes. Undesired byproducts of AID function are oncogenic mutations. AID expression levels seem to correlate with the extent of its physiological and pathological functions. In this study, we identify AID as a novel Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90 kD) client. We find that cytoplasmic AID is in a dynamic equilibrium regulated by Hsp90. Hsp90 stabilizes cytoplasmic AID, as specific Hsp90 inhibition leads to cytoplasmic polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of AID. Consequently, Hsp90 inhibition results in a proportional reduction in antibody gene diversification and off-target mutation. This evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism determines the functional steady-state levels of AID in normal B cells and B cell lymphoma lines. Thus, Hsp90 assists AID-mediated antibody diversification by stabilizing AID. Hsp90 inhibition provides the first pharmacological means to down-regulate AID expression and activity, which could be relevant for therapy of some lymphomas and leukemias. PMID:21041454

  7. The activation mechanism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by molecular chaperone HSP90

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Noriko; Fukuda, Kana; Nagata, Yuhtaroh; Okada, Hirotaka; Haga, Asami; Hatakeyama, Shiori; Yoshida, Shiho; Okamoto, Tomoya; Hosaka, Miki; Sekine, Kazuhiro; Ohtaka, Kei; Yamamoto, Soh; Otaka, Michiro; Grave, Ewa; Itoh, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that associates with the molecular chaperone HSP90 in the cytoplasm. The activation mechanism of the AhR is not yet fully understood. It has been proposed that after binding of ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3methylcholanthrene (3-MC), or β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), the AhR dissociates from HSP90 and translocates to the nucleus. It has also been hypothesized that the AhR translocates to the nucleus and forms a complex with HSP90 and other co-chaperones. There are a few reports about the direct association or dissociation of AhR and HSP90 due to difficulties in purifying AhR. We constructed and purified the PAS domain from AhR. Binding of the AhR-PAS domain to β-NF affinity resin suggested that it possesses ligand-binding affinity. We demonstrated that the AhR-PAS domain binds to HSP90 and the association is not affected by ligand binding. The ligand 17-DMAG inhibited binding of HSP90 to GST-PAS. In an immunoprecipitation assay, HSP90 was co-immunoprecipitated with AhR both in the presence or absence of ligand. Endogenous AhR decreased in the cytoplasm and increased in the nucleus of HeLa cells 15 min after treatment with ligand. These results suggested that the ligand-bound AhR is translocated to nucleus while in complex with HSP90. We used an in situ proximity ligation assay to confirm whether AhR was translocated to the nucleus alone or together with HSP90. HSP90 was co-localized with AhR after the nuclear translocation. It has been suggested that the ligand-bound AhR was translocated to the nucleus with HSP90. Activated AhR acts as a transcription factor, as shown by the transcription induction of the gene CYP1A1 8 h after treatment with β-NF. PMID:25349783

  8. Evolutionarily Conserved Dual Lysine Motif Determines the Non-Chaperone Function of Secreted Hsp90alpha in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Divya; Hou, Yingping; Tsen, Fred; Tong, Chang; O’Brien, Kathryn; Situ, Alan J.; Schmidt, Thomas; Chen, Mei; Ying, Qilong; Ulmer, Tobias S.; Woodley, David T.; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Both intracellular and extracellular heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family proteins (α and β) have been shown to support tumor progression. The tumor-promoting activity of the intracellular Hsp90 proteins is attributed to their N-terminal ATPase-driven chaperone function. What determines the extracellular function of secreted Hsp90 was unclear. Here we show that knocking out Hsp90α nullifies tumor cell abilities to migrate, invade and metastasize without affecting cell survival and growth. Knocking out Hsp90β leads to cell death. Extracellular supplementation with recombinant Hsp90α, but not Hsp90β, protein recovers the tumorigenicity of Hsp90α-knockout cells. Sequential mutagenesis identifies two evolutionarily conserved lysine residues, lys-270 and lys-277, in Hsp90α subfamily that determine the extracellular Hsp90α function. Hsp90β subfamily lacks the dual lysine motif and does not show the same extracellular function. Substitutions of gly-262 and thr-269 in Hsp90β with lysines convert Hsp90β to act as Hsp90α outside the cells. Monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, against the dual lysine region of secreted Hsp90α blocks de novo tumor formation and significantly inhibits expansion of already formed tumors. This study suggests an alternative therapeutic approach to selectively target the extracellular Hsp90α to the conventional approach targeting the ATPase of intracellular Hsp90α and Hsp90β in cancer. PMID:27721406

  9. Inhibition of N-terminal ATPase on HSP90 attenuates colitis through enhanced Treg function.

    PubMed

    Collins, C B; Aherne, C M; Yeckes, A; Pound, K; Eltzschig, H K; Jedlicka, P; de Zoeten, E F

    2013-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition thought to reflect a failure of the enteral immune system to adequately regulate itself. Inflammatory stress drives upregulation of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), including the pro-inflammatory chaperone, HSP90. This protein sequesters the transcription factor, heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) in the cytoplasm preventing transcription of a number of anti-inflammatory proteins. We hypothesized that inhibition of HSP90 would exert an anti-inflammatory effect and thereby attenuate intestinal inflammation in murine models of IBD. Inhibition of HSP90 with 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG) reduced inflammation in acute dextran sodium sulfate and chronic CD45RB(High) colitis models coinciding with increased interleukin (IL)-10 production in the colon. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) from mice treated with 17-AAG demonstrated significantly greater suppressive capacity in vitro abolished in HSF1-/- or IL-10-/- cells. Finally, Tregs treated with 17-AAG exhibited increased nuclear localization of HSF1 with resultant upregulation of HSF1 response genes, including HSP70, HSP90 and IL-10.

  10. Conformational dynamics of the molecular chaperone Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Street, Timothy O.; Lavery, Laura A.; Agard, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is an essential eukaryotic protein that makes up 1–2% of all cytosolic proteins. Hsp90 is vital for the maturation and maintenance of a wide variety of substrate proteins largely involved in signaling and regulatory processes. Many of these substrates have also been implicated in cancer and other diseases making Hsp90 an attractive target for therapeutics. Hsp90 is a highly dynamic and flexible molecule that can adapt its conformation to the wide variety of substrate proteins with which it acts. Large conformational rearrangements are also required for the activation of these client proteins. One driving force for these rearrangements is the intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsp90, as seen with other chaperones. However, unlike other chaperones, studies have shown that the ATPase cycle of Hsp90 is not conformationally deterministic. That is, rather than dictating the conformational state, ATP binding and hydrolysis shifts the equilibrium between a pre-existing set of conformational states in an organism-dependent manner. In vivo Hsp90 functions as part of larger heterocomplexes. The binding partners of Hsp90, co-chaperones, assist in the recruitment and activation of substrates, and many co-chaperones further regulate the conformational dynamics of Hsp90 by shifting the conformational equilibrium towards a particular state. Studies have also suggested alternative mechanisms for the regulation of Hsp90’s conformation. In this review, we discuss the structural and biochemical studies leading to our current understanding of the conformational dynamics of Hsp90 and the role that nucleotide, co-chaperones, post-translational modification and clients play in regulating Hsp90’s conformation. We also discuss the effects of current Hsp90 inhibitors on conformation and the potential for developing small molecules that inhibit Hsp90 by disrupting the conformational dynamics. PMID:21414251

  11. Gedunin, a novel hsp90 inhibitor: semisynthesis of derivatives and preliminary structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Gary E L; Schmidt, Matthew D; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Blagg, Brian S J

    2008-10-23

    Gedunin (1), a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the Indian neem tree ( Azadirachta indica), was recently shown to manifest anticancer activity via inhibition of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) folding machinery and to induce the degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins similar to other Hsp90 inhibitors. The mechanism of action by which gedunin induces client protein degradation remains undetermined, however, prior studies have demonstrated that it does not bind competitively versus ATP. In an effort to further probe the mechanism of action, 19 semisynthetic derivatives of gedunin were prepared and their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells determined. Although no compound was found to exhibit antiproliferative activity more effective than the natural product, functionalities critical for antiproliferative activity have been identified.

  12. Hsp90 and co-chaperones twist the functions of diverse client proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zuehlke, Abbey; Johnson, Jill L.

    2009-01-01

    Hsp90 molecular chaperones are required for the stability and activity of a diverse range of client proteins that have critical roles in signal transduction, cellular trafficking, chromatin remodeling, cell growth, differentiation and reproduction. Mammalian cells contain three types of Hsp90s: cytosolic Hsp90, mitochondrial Trap-1, and Grp94 of the endoplasmic reticulum. Each of the Hsp90s, as well as the bacterial homolog, HtpG, hydrolyze ATP and undergo similar conformational changes. Unlike the other forms of Hsp90, cytosolic Hsp90 function is dependent on a battery of co-chaperone proteins that regulate the ATPase activity of Hsp90 or direct Hsp90 to interact with specific client proteins. This review will summarize what is known about Hsp90’s ability to mediate the folding and activation of diverse client proteins that contribute to human diseases, such as cancer and fungal and viral infections. PMID:19697319

  13. Hsp90-binding immunophilin FKBP51 forms complexes with hTERT enhancing telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Lagadari, Mariana; Zgajnar, Nadia R; Gallo, Luciana I; Galigniana, Mario D

    2016-08-01

    FK506-binding proteins are members of the immunophilin family of proteins. Those immunophilins associated to the 90-kDa-heat-shock protein, Hsp90, have been proposed as potential modulators of signalling cascade factors chaperoned by Hsp90. FKBP51 and FKBP52 are the best characterized Hsp90-bound immunophilins first described associated to steroid-receptors. The reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase, hTERT, is also an Hsp90 client-protein and is highly expressed in cancer cells, where it is required to compensate the loss of telomeric DNA after each successive cell division. Because FKBP51 is also a highly expressed protein in cancer tissues, we analyzed its potential association with hTERT·Hsp90 complexes and its possible biological role. In this study it is demonstrated that both immunophilins, FKBP51 and FKBP52, co-immunoprecipitate with hTERT. The Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol disrupts the heterocomplex and favors the partial cytoplasmic relocalization of hTERT in similar manner as the overexpression of the TPR-domain peptide of the immunophilin. While confocal microscopy images show that FKBP51 is primarily localized in mitochondria and hTERT is totally nuclear, upon the onset of oxidative stress, FKBP51 (but not FKBP52) becomes mostly nuclear colocalizing with hTERT, and longer exposure times to peroxide favors hTERT export to mitochondria. Importantly, telomerase activity of hTERT is significantly enhanced by FKBP51. These observations support the emerging role assigned to FKBP51 as antiapoptotic factor in cancer development and progression, and describe for the first time the potential role of this immunophilin favoring the clonal expansion by enhancing telomerase activity.

  14. Induction of hsp70, hsp90, and catalase activity in planarian Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufang; Mo, Yehua; Zhou, Luming; Wang, Yinan; Wang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Bosheng

    2016-08-01

    The hsp70 and hsp90 expression patterns and catalase (CAT) activity in the freshwater planaria Dugesia japonica exposed to cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions were investigated. Planaria were exposed to a range of Cd concentrations (0-150 μg Cd/L) for 24 h. The expression levels of hsp70 and hsp90 were determined by relative quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Within the overall dose range in the experiment, the expression level of hsp70 and the activity of CAT in D. japonica were altered significantly. Hsp70 was induced in D. japonica upon Cd exposure concentrations as low as 9.375 μg Cd/L. No significant effect on the expression level of hsp90 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that stress gene hsp70, but not hsp90, was responsive to Cd contamination in D. japonica CAT activity was significantly induced at concentrations of 18.75, 37.5, and 75 μg Cd/L after 24-h exposure. We recommend that the use of hsp70 as a biomarker should be complemented by evidence of changes in other parameters, such as CAT activity, in D. japonica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The HSP90 chaperone machinery.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Florian H; Biebl, Maximilian M; Buchner, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis under both physiological and stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. As HSP90 has several hundred protein substrates (or 'clients'), it is involved in many cellular processes beyond protein folding, which include DNA repair, development, the immune response and neurodegenerative disease. A large number of co-chaperones interact with HSP90 and regulate the ATPase-associated conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer that occur during the processing of clients. Recent progress has allowed the interactions of clients with HSP90 and its co-chaperones to be defined. Owing to the importance of HSP90 in the regulation of many cellular proteins, it has become a promising drug target for the treatment of several diseases, which include cancer and diseases associated with protein misfolding.

  16. Hsp90 protein interacts with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides containing hydrophobic 2'-modifications and enhances antisense activity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Kinberger, Garth A; Prakash, Thazha P; Nichols, Joshua G; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-05-05

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified to enhance pharmacological properties. Major modifications include phosphorothioate (PS) backbone and different 2'-modifications in 2-5 nucleotides at each end (wing) of an ASO. Chemical modifications can affect protein binding and understanding ASO-protein interactions is important for better drug design. Recently we identified many intracellular ASO-binding proteins and found that protein binding could affect ASO potency. Here, we analyzed the structure-activity-relationships of ASO-protein interactions and found 2'-modifications significantly affected protein binding, including La, P54nrb and NPM. PS-ASOs containing more hydrophobic 2'-modifications exhibit higher affinity for proteins in general, although certain proteins, e.g. Ku70/Ku80 and TCP1, are less affected by 2'-modifications. We found that Hsp90 protein binds PS-ASOs containing locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) or constrained-ethyl-bicyclic-nucleic-acid ((S)-cEt) modifications much more avidly than 2'-O-methoxyethyl (MOE). ASOs bind the mid-domain of Hsp90 protein. Hsp90 interacts with more hydrophobic 2' modifications, e.g. (S)-cEt or LNA, in the 5'-wing of the ASO. Reduction of Hsp90 protein decreased activity of PS-ASOs with 5'-LNA or 5'-cEt wings, but not with 5'-MOE wing. Together, our results indicate Hsp90 protein enhances the activity of PS/LNA or PS/(S)-cEt ASOs, and imply that altering protein binding of ASOs using different chemical modifications can improve therapeutic performance of PS-ASOs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Hsp90: Friends, clients and natural foes.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sharad; Goyal, Sukriti; Jamal, Salma; Singh, Aditi; Grover, Abhinav

    2016-08-01

    Hsp90, a homodimeric ATPase, is responsible for the correct folding of a number of newly synthesized polypeptides in addition to the correct folding of denatured/misfolded client proteins. It requires several co-chaperones and other partner proteins for chaperone activity. Due to the involvement of Hsp90-dependent client proteins in a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways, Hsp90 inhibition has emerged as one of the leading strategies for anticancer chemotherapeutics. Most of Hsp90 inhibitors blocks the N terminal ATP binding pocket and prevents the conformational changes which are essential for the loading of co-chaperones and client proteins. Several other inhibitors have also been reported which disrupt chaperone cycle in ways other than binding to N terminal ATP binding pocket. The Hsp90 inhibition is associated with heat shock response, mediated by HSF-1, to overcome the loss of Hsp90 and sustain cell survival. This review is an attempt to give an over view of all the important players of chaperone cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionarily conserved dual lysine motif determines the non-chaperone function of secreted Hsp90alpha in tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Zou, M; Bhatia, A; Dong, H; Jayaprakash, P; Guo, J; Sahu, D; Hou, Y; Tsen, F; Tong, C; O'Brien, K; Situ, A J; Schmidt, T; Chen, M; Ying, Q; Ulmer, T S; Woodley, D T; Li, W

    2017-04-01

    Both intracellular and extracellular heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family proteins (α and β) have been shown to support tumour progression. The tumour-supporting activity of the intracellular Hsp90 is attributed to their N-terminal ATPase-driven chaperone function. What molecular entity determines the extracellular function of secreted Hsp90 and the distinction between Hsp90α and Hsp90β was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Case9 knocking out Hsp90α nullifies tumour cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize without affecting the cell survival and growth. Knocking out Hsp90β leads to tumour cell death. Extracellular supplementation with recombinant Hsp90α, but not Hsp90β, protein recovers tumourigenicity of the Hsp90α-knockout cells. Sequential mutagenesis identifies two evolutionarily conserved lysine residues, lys-270 and lys-277, in the Hsp90α subfamily that determine the extracellular Hsp90α function. Hsp90β subfamily lacks the dual lysine motif and the extracellular function. Substitutions of gly-262 and thr-269 in Hsp90β with lysines convert Hsp90β to a Hsp90α-like protein. Newly constructed monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, against the dual lysine region of secreted Hsp90α inhibits both de novo tumour formation and expansion of already formed tumours in mice. This study suggests an alternative therapeutic approach to target Hsp90 in cancer, that is, the tumour-secreted Hsp90α, instead of the intracellular Hsp90α and Hsp90β.

  19. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  20. Stromal cell-derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C; Sessa, William C

    2015-08-18

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell-derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser(1177), a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser(1177) in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Importance of cycle timing for the function of the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Bettina K; Rübbelke, Martin; Tippel, Franziska; Madl, Tobias; Schopf, Florian H; Rutz, Daniel A; Richter, Klaus; Sattler, Michael; Buchner, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Hsp90 couples ATP hydrolysis to large conformational changes essential for activation of client proteins. The structural transitions involve dimerization of the N-terminal domains and formation of 'closed states' involving the N-terminal and middle domains. Here, we used Hsp90 mutants that modulate ATPase activity and biological function as probes to address the importance of conformational cycling for Hsp90 activity. We found no correlation between the speed of ATP turnover and the in vivo activity of Hsp90: some mutants with almost normal ATPase activity were lethal, and some mutants with lower or undetectable ATPase activity were viable. Our analysis showed that it is crucial for Hsp90 to attain and spend time in certain conformational states: a certain dwell time in open states is required for optimal processing of client proteins, whereas a prolonged population of closed states has negative effects. Thus, the timing of conformational transitions is crucial for Hsp90 function and not cycle speed.

  2. Cross monomer substrate contacts reposition the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and prime the chaperone activity

    PubMed Central

    Street, Timothy O.; Lavery, Laura A.; Verba, Kliment; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P.; Agard, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays a critical role in substrate protein folding and maintenance, but the functional mechanism has been difficult to elucidate. In previous work a model Hsp90 substrate revealed an activation process in which substrate binding accelerates a large open/closed conformational change required for ATP hydrolysis by Hsp90. While this could serve as an elegant mechanism for conserving ATP usage for productive interactions on the substrate, the structural origin of substrate catalyzed Hsp90 conformational changes are unknown. Here we find that substrate binding affects an intrinsically unfavorable rotation of the Hsp90 N-terminal domain (NTD) relative to the middle domain (MD) that is required for closure. We identify an MD substrate binding region on the interior cleft of the Hsp90 dimer and show that a secondary set of substrate contacts drive an NTD orientation change on the opposite monomer. These results suggest an Hsp90 activation mechanism in which cross-monomer contacts mediated by a partially structured substrate prime the chaperone for its functional activity. PMID:22063096

  3. Cross-monomer substrate contacts reposition the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and prime the chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Street, Timothy O; Lavery, Laura A; Verba, Kliment A; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P; Agard, David A

    2012-01-06

    The ubiquitous molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays a critical role in substrate protein folding and maintenance, but the functional mechanism has been difficult to elucidate. In previous work, a model Hsp90 substrate revealed an activation process in which substrate binding accelerates a large open/closed conformational change required for ATP hydrolysis by Hsp90. While this could serve as an elegant mechanism for conserving ATP usage for productive interactions on the substrate, the structural origin of substrate-catalyzed Hsp90 conformational changes is unknown. Here, we find that substrate binding affects an intrinsically unfavorable rotation of the Hsp90 N-terminal domain (NTD) relative to the middle domain (MD) that is required for closure. We identify an MD substrate binding region on the interior cleft of the Hsp90 dimer and show that a secondary set of substrate contacts drives an NTD orientation change on the opposite monomer. These results suggest an Hsp90 activation mechanism in which cross-monomer contacts mediated by a partially structured substrate prime the chaperone for its functional activity.

  4. Active Participation of Cellular Chaperone Hsp90 in Regulating the Function of Rotavirus Nonstructural Protein 3 (NSP3)*

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Dipanjan; Chattopadhyay, Shiladitya; Bagchi, Parikshit; Halder, Umesh Chandra; Nandi, Satabdi; Mukherjee, Anupam; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Taniguchi, Koki; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been reported to positively regulate rotavirus replication by modulating virus induced PI3K/Akt and NFκB activation. Here, we report the active association of Hsp90 in the folding and stabilization of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (NSP3). In pCD-NSP3-transfected cells, treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor (17-N,N-dimethylethylenediamine-geldanamycin (17DMAG)) resulted in the proteasomal degradation of NSP3. Sequence analysis and deletion mutations revealed that the region spanning amino acids 225–258 within the C-terminal eIF4G-binding domain of NSP3 is a putative Hsp90 binding region. Co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid experiments revealed direct interaction of the C-terminal 12-kDa domain of Hsp90 (C90) with residues 225–258 of NSP3. NSP3-Hsp90 interaction is important for the formation of functionally active mature NSP3, because full-length NSP3 in the presence of the Hsp90 inhibitor or NSP3 lacking the amino acid 225–258 region did not show NSP3 dimers following in vitro coupled transcription-translation followed by chase. Disruption of residues 225–258 within NSP3 also resulted in poor RNA binding and eIF4G binding activity. In addition, inhibition of Hsp90 by 17DMAG resulted in reduced nuclear translocation of poly(A)-binding protein and translation of viral proteins. These results highlight the crucial role of Hsp90 chaperone in the regulation of assembly and functionality of a viral protein during the virus replication and propagation in host cells. PMID:21489987

  5. Exploring the Functional Complementation between Grp94 and Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Feng; Huck, John D.; Gill, Sabrina K.; Wu, Shuang; Li, Zihai; Gewirth, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Grp94 and Hsp90 are the ER and cytoplasmic paralog members, respectively, of the hsp90 family of molecular chaperones. The structural and biochemical differences between Hsp90 and Grp94 that allow each paralog to efficiently chaperone its particular set of clients are poorly understood. The two paralogs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity, yet also display significant differences in their quaternary conformations and ATPase activity. In order to identify the structural elements that distinguish Grp94 from Hsp90, we characterized the similarities and differences between the two proteins by testing the ability of Hsp90/Grp94 chimeras to functionally substitute for the wild-type chaperones in vivo. We show that the N-terminal domain or the combination of the second lobe of the Middle domain plus the C-terminal domain of Grp94 can functionally substitute for their yeast Hsp90 counterparts but that the equivalent Hsp90 domains cannot functionally replace their counterparts in Grp94. These results also identify the interface between the Middle and C-terminal domains as an important structural unit within the Hsp90 family. PMID:27824935

  6. Molecular characterization of macbecin as an Hsp90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christine J; Gaisser, Sabine; Challis, Iain R; Carletti, Isabelle; Wilkinson, Barrie; Gregory, Matthew; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Roe, S Mark; Pearl, Laurence H; Boyd, Susan M; Zhang, Ming-Qiang

    2008-05-08

    Macbecin compares favorably to geldanamycin as an Hsp90 inhibitor, being more soluble, stable, more potently inhibiting ATPase activity (IC50 = 2 microM) and binding with higher affinity (Kd = 0.24 microM). Structural studies reveal significant differences in their Hsp90 binding characteristics, and macbecin-induced tumor cell growth inhibition is accompanied by characteristic degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. Macbecin significantly reduced tumor growth rates (minimum T/C: 32%) in a DU145 murine xenograft. Macbecin thus represents an attractive lead for further optimization.

  7. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG exhibits potent antitumor activity for pheochromocytoma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunze; Zhu, Qi; Chen, Dongning; Shen, Zhoujun; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Zhu, Yu

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in the malignant pheochromocytoma using a xenograft mouse model. Treatment with 17-AAG induced a marked reduction in the volume and weight of PC12 pheochromocytoma cell tumor xenografts in mice. Furthermore, 17-AAG also significantly inhibited the expression of HSP90 and its client proteins. Our results validated HSP90 as an important target in pheochromocytoma and provided rationale for the testing of HSP90 inhibitors as a promising therapeutic agent in the antitumor therapy of pheochromocytoma.

  8. 3-Arylcoumarin Derivatives Manifest Anti-proliferative Activity through Hsp90 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The potential therapeutic benefits associated with Hsp90 modulation for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases highlight the importance of identifying novel Hsp90 scaffolds. KU-398, a novobiocin analogue, and silybin were recently identified as new Hsp90 inhibitors. Consequently, a library of 3-arylcoumarin derivatives that incorporated the structural features of KU-398 and silybin was designed, synthesized, and evaluated against two breast cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis confirmed that the resulting 3-arylcoumarin hybrids target the Hsp90 protein folding machinery. PMID:23316269

  9. Mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated. PMID:27515256

  10. Mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation.

    PubMed

    Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2016-08-15

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Anticancer Inhibitors of Hsp90 Function: Beyond the Usual Suspects.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Khandelwal, Anuj; Blagg, Brian S J

    2016-01-01

    The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone responsible for the stability and function of a wide variety of client proteins that are critical for cell growth and survival. Many of these client proteins are frequently mutated and/or overexpressed in cancer cells and are therefore being actively pursued as individual therapeutic targets. Consequently, Hsp90 inhibition offers a promising strategy for simultaneous degradation of several anticancer targets. Currently, most Hsp90 inhibitors under clinical evaluation act by blocking the binding of ATP to the Hsp90 N-terminal domain and thereby, induce the degradation of many Hsp90-dependent oncoproteins. Although, they have shown some promising initial results, clinical challenges such as induction of the heat-shock response, retinopathy, and gastrointestinal tract toxicity are emerging from human trials, which constantly raise concerns about the future development of these inhibitors. Novobiocin derivatives, which do not bind the chaperone's N-terminal ATPase pocket, have emerged over the past decade as an alternative strategy to inhibit Hsp90, but to date, no derivative has been investigated in the clinical setting. In recent years, a number of natural or synthetic compounds have been identified that modulate Hsp90 function via various mechanisms. These compounds not only offer new chemotypes for the development of future Hsp90 inhibitors but can also serve as chemical probes to unravel the biology of Hsp90. This chapter presents a synopsis of inhibitors that directly, allosterically, or even indirectly alters Hsp90 function, and highlights their proposed mechanisms of action. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Purine Analog Synergizes with Chloroquine (CQ) by Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90 (PfHsp90)

    PubMed Central

    Shahinas, Dea; Folefoc, Asongna; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela; Crandall, Ian; Pillai, Dylan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug resistance, absence of an effective vaccine, and inadequate public health measures are major impediments to controlling Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. The development of antimalarials to which resistance is less likely is paramount. To this end, we have exploited the chaperone function of P. falciparum Hsp90 (PfHsp90) that serves to facilitate the expression of resistance determinants. Methods The affinity and activity of a purine analogue Hsp90 inhibitor (PU-H71) on PfHsp90 was determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies and an ATPase activity assay, respectively. In vitro, antimalarial activity was quantified using flow cytometry. Interactors of PfHsp90 were determined by LC-MS/MS. In vivo studies were conducted using the Plasmodium berghei infection mouse model. Results PU-H71 exhibited antimalarial activity in the nanomolar range, displayed synergistic activity with chloroquine in vitro. Affinity studies reveal that the PfHsp90 interacts either directly or indirectly with the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) responsible for chloroquine resistance. PU-H71 synergized with chloroquine in the P.berghei mouse model of malaria to reduce parasitemia and improve survival. Conclusions We propose that the interaction of PfHsp90 with PfCRT may account for the observed antimalarial synergy and that PU-H71 is an effective adjunct for combination therapy. PMID:24098696

  13. Myocyte-Derived Hsp90 Modulates Collagen Upregulation via Biphasic Activation of STAT-3 in Fibroblasts during Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Datta, Ritwik; Bansal, Trisha; Rana, Santanu; Datta, Kaberi; Datta Chaudhuri, Ratul; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2017-03-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3)-mediated signaling in relation to upregulated collagen expression in fibroblasts during cardiac hypertrophy is well defined. Our recent findings have identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to be a critical modulator of fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts in this disease milieu. The present study was therefore intended to analyze the role of Hsp90 in the STAT-3-mediated collagen upregulation process. Our data revealed a significant difference between in vivo and in vitro results, pointing to a possible involvement of myocyte-fibroblast cross talk in this process. Cardiomyocyte-targeted knockdown of Hsp90 in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in which the renal artery was ligated showed downregulated collagen synthesis. Furthermore, the results obtained with cardiac fibroblasts conditioned with Hsp90-inhibited hypertrophied myocyte supernatant pointed toward cardiomyocytes' role in the regulation of collagen expression in fibroblasts during hypertrophy. Our study also revealed a novel signaling mechanism where myocyte-derived Hsp90 orchestrates not only p65-mediated interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis but also its release in exosomal vesicles. Such myocyte-derived exosomes and myocyte-secreted IL-6 are responsible in unison for the biphasic activation of STAT-3 signaling in cardiac fibroblasts that culminates in excess collagen synthesis, leading to severely compromised cardiac function during cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. Hsp90-Dependent Activation of Protein Kinases Is Regulated by Chaperone-Targeted Dephosphorylation of Cdc37

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Cara K.; Mollapour, Mehdi; Smith, Jennifer R.; Truman, Andrew; Hu, Bin; Good, Valerie M.; Panaretou, Barry; Neckers, Len; Clarke, Paul A.; Workman, Paul; Piper, Peter W.; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Pearl, Laurence H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Activation of protein kinase clients by the Hsp90 system is mediated by the cochaperone protein Cdc37. Cdc37 requires phosphorylation at Ser13, but little is known about the regulation of this essential posttranslational modification. We show that Ser13 of uncomplexed Cdc37 is phosphorylated in vivo, as well as in binary complex with a kinase (C-K), or in ternary complex with Hsp90 and kinase (H-C-K). Whereas pSer13-Cdc37 in the H-C-K complex is resistant to nonspecific phosphatases, it is efficiently dephosphorylated by the chaperone-targeted protein phosphatase 5 (PP5/Ppt1), which does not affect isolated Cdc37. We show that Cdc37 and PP5/Ppt1 associate in Hsp90 complexes in yeast and in human tumor cells, and that PP5/Ppt1 regulates phosphorylation of Ser13-Cdc37 in vivo, directly affecting activation of protein kinase clients by Hsp90-Cdc37. These data reveal a cyclic regulatory mechanism for Cdc37, in which its constitutive phosphorylation is reversed by targeted dephosphorylation in Hsp90 complexes. PMID:18922470

  15. The activity of protein phosphatase 5 towards native clients is modulated by the middle- and C-terminal domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Haslbeck, Veronika; Eckl, Julia M.; Drazic, Adrian; Rutz, Daniel A.; Lorenz, Oliver R.; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Kriehuber, Thomas; Lindemann, Claudia; Madl, Tobias; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 is involved in the regulation of kinases and transcription factors. The dephosphorylation activity is modulated by the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which binds to the TPR-domain of protein phosphatase 5. This interaction is dependent on the C-terminal MEEVD motif of Hsp90. We show that C-terminal Hsp90 fragments differ in their regulation of the phosphatase activity hinting to a more complex interaction. Also hydrodynamic parameters from analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest a compact structure for the Hsp90-protein phosphatase 5 complexes. Using crosslinking experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis and structural modelling we identify sites, which link the middle/C-terminal domain interface of C. elegans Hsp90 to the phosphatase domain of the corresponding kinase. Studying the relevance of the domains of Hsp90 for turnover of native substrates we find that ternary complexes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are cooperatively formed by full-length Hsp90 and PPH-5. Our data suggest that the direct stimulation of the phosphatase activity by C-terminal Hsp90 fragments leads to increased dephosphorylation rates. These are further modulated by the binding of clients to the N-terminal and middle domain of Hsp90 and their presentation to the phosphatase within the phosphatase-Hsp90 complex. PMID:26593036

  16. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine is not a paralog-specific Hsp90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Street, Timothy O

    2016-12-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 facilitates the folding and modulates activation of diverse substrate proteins. Unlike other heat shock proteins such as Hsp60 and Hsp70, Hsp90 plays critical regulatory roles by maintaining active states of kinases, many of which are overactive in cancer cells. Four Hsp90 paralogs are expressed in eukaryotic cells: Hsp90α/β (in the cytosol), Grp94 (in the endoplasmic reticulum), Trap1 (in mitochondria). Although numerous Hsp90 inhibitors are being tested in cancer clinical trials, little is known about why different Hsp90 inhibitors show specificity among Hsp90 paralogs. The paralog specificity of Hsp90 inhibitors is likely fundamental to inhibitor efficacy and side effects. In hopes of gaining insight into this issue we examined NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine), which has been claimed to be an example of a highly specific ligand that binds to one paralog, Grp94, but not cytosolic Hsp90. To our surprise we find that NECA inhibits many different Hsp90 proteins (Grp94, Hsp90α, Trap1, yeast Hsp82, bacterial HtpG). NMR experiments demonstrate that NECA can bind to the N-terminal domains of Grp94 and Hsp82. We use ATPase competition experiments to quantify the inhibitory power of NECA for different Hsp90 proteins. This scale: Hsp82 > Hsp90α > HtpG ≈ Grp94 > Trap1, ranks Grp94 as less sensitive to NECA inhibition. Because NECA is primarily used as an adenosine receptor agonist, our results also suggest that cell biological experiments utilizing NECA may have confounding effects from cytosolic Hsp90 inhibition. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  17. Secreted Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) in Wound Healing and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Sahu, Divya; Tsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Summary Extracellular Hsp90 proteins, including “membrane-bound”, “released” and “secreted”, were first reported more than two decades ago. Only studies of the past seven years have begun to reveal a picture for when, how and why Hsp90 get exported by both normal and tumor cells. Normal cells secrete Hsp90 in response to tissue injury. Tumor cells have managed to constitutively secrete Hsp90 for tissue invasion. In either case, sufficient supply of the extracellular Hsp90 can be guaranteed by its unusually abundant storage inside the cells. A well-characterized function of secreted Hsp90α is to promote cell motility, a crucial event for both wound healing and cancer. The reported targets for extracellular Hsp90α include MMP2, LRP-1, tyrosine kinase receptors and possibly more. The pro-motility activity of secreted Hsp90α resides within a fragment at the boundary between linker region and middle domain. Inhibition of its secretion, neutralization of its extracellular action or interruption of its signaling through LRP-1 block wound healing and tumor invasion in vitro and in vivo. In normal tissue, topical application of F-5 promotes acute and diabetic wound healing far more effectively than US FDA-approved conventional growth factor therapy in mice. In cancer, drugs that selectively target the F-5 region of secreted Hsp90 by cancer cells may be more effective and less toxic than those that target the ATPase of the intracellular Hsp90. PMID:21982864

  18. Organelle-specific Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Ho

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is involved in the folding, activation, and stabilization of numerous oncogenic proteins. It has become an attractive therapeutic target, especially for eradicating malignant cancers and overcoming chemotherapy resistance. The Hsp90 family in mammalian cells is composed of four major homologs: Hsp90α, Hsp90β, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp94), and TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (Trap1). Hsp90α and Hsp90β are mainly localized in the cytoplasm, while Grp94 and Trap1 reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, respectively. Additionally, some Hsp90 s are secreted from the cytoplasm, commonly called extracellular Hsp90. Interestingly, each Hsp90 isoform is localized in a particular organelle, possesses a unique biological function, and participates in various physiological and pathological processes. To inhibit the organelle-specific Hsp90 chaperone function, there have been significant efforts to accumulate Hsp90 inhibitors in particular cellular compartments. This review introduces current studies regarding the delivery of Hsp90 inhibitors to subcellular organelles, particularly to the extracellular matrix and the mitochondria, and discusses their biological insights and therapeutic implications.

  19. Methylmercury Alters the Activities of Hsp90 Client Proteins, Prostaglandin E Synthase/p23 (PGES/23) and nNOS

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel; Zeng, Heng; Aschner, Judy L.; Aschner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent pollutant with known neurotoxic effects. We have previously shown that astrocytes accumulate MeHg and play a prominent role in mediating MeHg toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) by altering glutamate signaling, generating oxidative stress, depleting glutathione (GSH) and initiating lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, all of these pathways can be regulated by the constitutively expressed, 90-kDa heat shock protein, Hsp90. As Hsp90 function is regulated by oxidative stress, we hypothesized that MeHg disrupts Hsp90-client protein functions. Astrocytes were treated with MeHg and expression of Hsp90, as well as the abundance of complexes of Hsp90-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and Hsp90-prostaglandin E synthase/p23 (PGES/p23) were assessed. MeHg exposure decreased Hsp90 protein expression following 12 h of treatment while shorter exposures had no effect on Hsp90 protein expression. Interestingly, following 1 or 6 h of MeHg exposure, Hsp90 binding to PGES/p23 or nNOS was significantly increased, resulting in increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis from MeHg-treated astrocytes. These effects were attenuated by the Hsp90 antagonist, geldanmycin. NOS activity was increased following MeHg treatment while cGMP formation was decreased. This was accompanied by an increase in •O2− and H2O2 levels, suggesting that MeHg uncouples NO formation from NO-dependent signaling and increases oxidative stress. Altogether, our data demonstrates that Hsp90 interactions with client proteins are increased following MeHg exposure, but over time Hsp90 levels decline, contributing to oxidative stress and MeHg-dependent excitotoxicity. PMID:24852575

  20. Rab-αGDI activity is regulated by a Hsp90 chaperone complex

    PubMed Central

    Sakisaka, Toshiaki; Meerlo, Timo; Matteson, Jeanne; Plutner, Helen; Balch, William E.

    2002-01-01

    The Rab-specific αGDP-dissociation inhibitor (αGDI) regulates the recycling of Rab GTPases. We have now identified a novel αGDI complex from synaptic membranes that contains three chaperone components: Hsp90, Hsc70 and cysteine string protein (CSP). We find that the αGDI–chaperone complex is dissociated in response to Ca2+-induced neurotransmitter release, that chaperone complex dissociation is sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) and that GA inhibits the ability of αGDI to recycle Rab3A during neurotransmitter release. We propose that αGDI interacts with a specialized membrane-associated Rab recycling Hsp90 chaperone system on the vesicle membrane to coordinate the Ca2+-dependent events triggering Rab-GTP hydrolysis with retrieval of Rab-GDP to the cytosol. PMID:12426384

  1. Rab-alphaGDI activity is regulated by a Hsp90 chaperone complex.

    PubMed

    Sakisaka, Toshiaki; Meerlo, Timo; Matteson, Jeanne; Plutner, Helen; Balch, William E

    2002-11-15

    The Rab-specific alphaGDP-dissociation inhibitor (alphaGDI) regulates the recycling of Rab GTPases. We have now identified a novel alphaGDI complex from synaptic membranes that contains three chaperone components: Hsp90, Hsc70 and cysteine string protein (CSP). We find that the alphaGDI-chaperone complex is dissociated in response to Ca(2+)-induced neurotransmitter release, that chaperone complex dissociation is sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) and that GA inhibits the ability of alphaGDI to recycle Rab3A during neurotransmitter release. We propose that alphaGDI interacts with a specialized membrane-associated Rab recycling Hsp90 chaperone system on the vesicle membrane to coordinate the Ca(2+)-dependent events triggering Rab-GTP hydrolysis with retrieval of Rab-GDP to the cytosol.

  2. Hsp90 protein interacts with phosphorothioate oligonucleotides containing hydrophobic 2′-modifications and enhances antisense activity

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Sun, Hong; Kinberger, Garth A.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Nichols, Joshua G.; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2016-01-01

    RNase H1-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified to enhance pharmacological properties. Major modifications include phosphorothioate (PS) backbone and different 2′-modifications in 2–5 nucleotides at each end (wing) of an ASO. Chemical modifications can affect protein binding and understanding ASO-protein interactions is important for better drug design. Recently we identified many intracellular ASO-binding proteins and found that protein binding could affect ASO potency. Here, we analyzed the structure-activity-relationships of ASO-protein interactions and found 2′-modifications significantly affected protein binding, including La, P54nrb and NPM. PS-ASOs containing more hydrophobic 2′-modifications exhibit higher affinity for proteins in general, although certain proteins, e.g. Ku70/Ku80 and TCP1, are less affected by 2′-modifications. We found that Hsp90 protein binds PS-ASOs containing locked-nucleic-acid (LNA) or constrained-ethyl-bicyclic-nucleic-acid ((S)-cEt) modifications much more avidly than 2′-O-methoxyethyl (MOE). ASOs bind the mid-domain of Hsp90 protein. Hsp90 interacts with more hydrophobic 2′ modifications, e.g. (S)-cEt or LNA, in the 5′-wing of the ASO. Reduction of Hsp90 protein decreased activity of PS-ASOs with 5′-LNA or 5′-cEt wings, but not with 5′-MOE wing. Together, our results indicate Hsp90 protein enhances the activity of PS/LNA or PS/(S)-cEt ASOs, and imply that altering protein binding of ASOs using different chemical modifications can improve therapeutic performance of PS-ASOs. PMID:26945041

  3. Cyclophilin40 isomerase activity is regulated by a temperature-dependent allosteric interaction with Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Landré, Vivian; Narayan, Vikram; Ning, Jia; Erman, Burak; Ball, Kathryn L; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40) comprises an N-terminal cyclophilin domain with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that binds to the C-terminal-EEVD sequence common to both heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90. We show in the present study that binding of peptides containing the MEEVD motif reduces the PPIase activity by ∼30%. CD and fluorescence assays show that the TPR domain is less stable than the cyclophilin domain and is stabilized by peptide binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows that the affinity for the-MEEVD peptide is temperature sensitive in the physiological temperature range. Results from these biophysical studies fit with the MD simulations of the apo and holo (peptide-bound) structures which show a significant reduction in root mean square (RMS) fluctuation in both TPR and cyclophilin domains when-MEEVD is bound. The MD simulations of the apo-protein also highlight strong anti-correlated motions between residues around the PPIase-active site and a band of residues running across four of the seven helices in the TPR domain. Peptide binding leads to a distortion in the shape of the active site and a significant reduction in these strongly anti-correlated motions, providing an explanation for the allosteric effect of ligand binding and loss of PPIase activity. Together the experimental and MD results suggest that on heat shock, dissociation of Cyp40 from complexes mediated by the TPR domain leads to an increased pool of free Cyp40 capable of acting as an isomerase/chaperone in conditions of cellular stress.

  4. Allosteric Regulation Points Control the Conformational Dynamics of the Molecular Chaperone Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Alexandra; Moroni, Elisabetta; Zierer, Bettina K; Tippel, Franziska; Morra, Giulia; John, Christine; Richter, Klaus; Colombo, Giorgio; Buchner, Johannes

    2016-11-06

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone responsible for the activation, maturation, and trafficking of several hundred client proteins in the cell. It is well known that (but not understood how) residues far away from Hsp90's nucleotide binding pocket can regulate its ATPase activity, a phenomenon called allosteric regulation. Here, the computational design of allosteric mutations was combined with in vitro and in vivo experiments to unravel nucleotide-responsive hot spots in the regulation of Hsp90. With this approach, we identified both activating and inhibiting regulation points and show that changes in those amino acids affect the conformational dynamics and ATPase activity of Hsp90 in vitro. Our observations that activating mutations loosen and inhibiting mutations rigidify the protein explain for the first time how Hsp90 changes in response to allosteric mutations. Additionally, mutations of these allosteric regulation points can be controlled by the interplay with Hsp90 co-chaperones, thus providing cells with an efficient mechanism of modifying Hsp90's intrinsic properties via different layers of regulation. Altogether, our results show that a framework for transmitting conformational information exists in the Hsp90 structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracellular Hsp90 serves as a co-factor for MAPK activation and latent viral gene expression during de novo infection by KSHV

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Zhiqiang; DeFee, Michael; Isaacs, Jennifer S.; Parsons, Chris

    2010-07-20

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. KSHV interaction with the cell membrane triggers activation of specific intracellular signal transduction pathways to facilitate virus entry, nuclear trafficking, and ultimately viral oncogene expression. Extracellular heat shock protein 90 localizes to the cell surface (csHsp90) and facilitates signal transduction in cancer cell lines, but whether csHsp90 assists in the coordination of KSHV gene expression through these or other mechanisms is unknown. Using a recently characterized non-permeable inhibitor specifically targeting csHsp90 and Hsp90-specific antibodies, we show that csHsp90 inhibition suppresses KSHV gene expression during de novo infection, and that this effect is mediated largely through the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by KSHV. Moreover, we show that targeting csHsp90 reduces constitutive MAPK expression and the release of infectious viral particles by patient-derived, KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. These data suggest that csHsp90 serves as an important co-factor for KSHV-initiated MAPK activation and provide proof-of-concept for the potential benefit of targeting csHsp90 for the treatment or prevention of KSHV-associated illnesses.

  6. Gα12 Structural Determinants of Hsp90 Interaction Are Necessary for Serum Response Element–Mediated Transcriptional Activation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Ellyn R.; Temple, Brenda R. S.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Tolbert, Caitlin E.; Booker, Brandon K.; Martin, Joseph W.; Hamilton, Tyler P.; Tagliatela, Alicia C.; Smolski, William C.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The G12/13 class of heterotrimeric G proteins, comprising the α-subunits Gα12 and Gα13, regulates multiple aspects of cellular behavior, including proliferation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Although guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the monomeric G protein Rho (RhoGEFs) are well characterized as effectors of this G protein class, a variety of other downstream targets has been reported. To identify Gα12 determinants that mediate specific protein interactions, we used a structural and evolutionary comparison between the G12/13, Gs, Gi, and Gq classes to identify “class-distinctive” residues in Gα12 and Gα13. Mutation of these residues in Gα12 to their deduced ancestral forms revealed a subset necessary for activation of serum response element (SRE)–mediated transcription, a G12/13-stimulated pathway implicated in cell proliferative signaling. Unexpectedly, this subset of Gα12 mutants showed impaired binding to heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) while retaining binding to RhoGEFs. Corresponding mutants of Gα13 exhibited robust SRE activation, suggesting a Gα12-specific mechanism, and inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin or small interfering RNA–mediated lowering of Hsp90 levels resulted in greater downregulation of Gα12 than Gα13 signaling in SRE activation experiments. Furthermore, the Drosophila G12/13 homolog Concertina was unable to signal to SRE in mammalian cells, and Gα12:Concertina chimeras revealed Gα12-specific determinants of SRE activation within the switch regions and a C-terminal region. These findings identify Gα12 determinants of SRE activation, implicate Gα12:Hsp90 interaction in this signaling mechanism, and illuminate structural features that arose during evolution of Gα12 and Gα13 to allow bifurcated mechanisms of signaling to a common cell proliferative pathway. PMID:24435554

  7. Multifaceted Intervention by the Hsp90 Inhibitor Ganetespib (STA-9090) in Cancer Cells with Activated JAK/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Proia, David A.; Foley, Kevin P.; Korbut, Tim; Sang, Jim; Smith, Don; Bates, Richard C.; Liu, Yuan; Rosenberg, Alex F.; Zhou, Dan; Koya, Keizo; Barsoum, James; Blackman, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that dysregulated JAK signaling occurs in a wide variety of cancer types. In particular, mutations in JAK2 can result in the constitutive activation of STAT transcription factors and lead to oncogenic growth. JAK kinases are established Hsp90 client proteins and here we show that the novel small molecule Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib (formerly STA-9090) exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo activity in a range of solid and hematological tumor cells that are dependent on JAK2 activity for growth and survival. Of note, ganetespib treatment results in sustained depletion of JAK2, including the constitutively active JAK2V617F mutant, with subsequent loss of STAT activity and reduced STAT-target gene expression. In contrast, treatment with the pan-JAK inhibitor P6 results in only transient effects on these processes. Further differentiating these modes of intervention, RNA and protein expression studies show that ganetespib additionally modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins, while P6 does not. The concomitant impact of ganetespib on both cell growth and cell division signaling translates to potent antitumor efficacy in mouse models of xenografts and disseminated JAK/STAT-driven leukemia. Overall, our findings support Hsp90 inhibition as a novel therapeutic approach for combating diseases dependent on JAK/STAT signaling, with the multimodal action of ganetespib demonstrating advantages over JAK-specific inhibitors. PMID:21533169

  8. Targeted delivery of chemotherapy using HSP90 inhibitor drug conjugates is highly active against pancreatic cancer models.

    PubMed

    Bobrov, Egor; Skobeleva, Natalia; Restifo, Diana; Beglyarova, Natalya; Cai, Kathy Q; Handorf, Elizabeth; Campbell, Kerry; Proia, David A; Khazak, Vladimir; Golemis, Erica A; Astsaturov, Igor

    2017-01-17

    The lack of effective treatment modalities is a major problem in pancreatic cancer (PCa), a devastating malignancy that is nearly universally driven by the "undruggable" KRAS and TP53 cancer genes. Poor tumor tissue penetration is the major source of resistance in pancreatic cancer where chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In this study we exploited the selective tumor-targeting properties of the heat shock 90 protein inhibitors as the vehicle for drug delivery to pancreatic tumor tissues. STA-12-8666 is a novel esterase-cleavable conjugate of an HSP90i and a topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38. STA-12-8666 selectively binds activated HSP90 and releases its cytotoxic payload resulting in drug accumulation in pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. We investigated the preclinical activity of STA-12-8666 in patient derived xenograft and genetic models of pancreatic cancer.Treatment with STA-12-8666 of the KPC mice (knock-in alleles of LSL-KrasG12D, Tp53fl/fl and Pdx1-Cre transgene) at the advanced stages of pancreatic tumors doubled their survival (49 days vs. 74 days, p=0.008). STA-12-8666 also demonstrated dramatically superior activity in comparison to equimolar doses of irinotecan against 5 patient-derived pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts with prolonged remissions in some tumors. Analysis of activity of STA-12-8666 against tumor tissues and matched cell lines demonstrated prolonged accumulation and release of cytotoxic payload in the tumor leading to DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest.Our results provide a proof-of-principle validation that HSP90i-based drug conjugates can overcome the notorious treatment resistance by utilizing the inherently high affinity of pancreatic cancer cells to HSP90 antagonists.

  9. The novel HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 shows synergistic anti-leukemic activity with cytarabine in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Torunn; Zhen, Yan; Suo, Zenhe; Bruheim, Skjalg; Wiedlocha, Antoni

    2016-01-15

    HSP90 is a molecular chaperone essential for stability, activity and intracellular sorting of many proteins, including oncoproteins, such as tyrosine kinases, transcription factors and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Therefore, inhibitors of HSP90 are being investigated for their potential as anti-cancer drugs. Here we show that the HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 induced degradation of the fusion oncoprotein FOP2-FGFR1 in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line, KG-1a. Concordantly, downstream signaling cascades, such as STAT1, STAT3 and PLCγ were abrogated. At concentrations that caused FOP2-FGFR1 degradation and signaling abrogation, NVP-AUY922 treatment caused significant cell death and inhibition of proliferation of KG-1a cells in vitro. In an animal model for AML, NVP-AUY922 administrated alone showed no anti-leukemic activity. However, when NVP-AUY922 was administered in combination with cytarabine, the two compounds showed significant synergistic anti-leukemic activity in vivo. Thus NVP-AUY922 and cytarabine combination therapy might be a prospective strategy for AML treatment.

  10. BIIB021, a synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, induces mutant ataxin-1 degradation through the activation of heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sahashi, Kentaro; Kondo, Naohide; Iida, Madoka; Tohnai, Genki; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sobue, Gen

    2016-07-07

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in ataxin-1 (ATXN1). The pathological hallmarks of SCA1 are the loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurons in the brainstem and the presence of nuclear aggregates containing the polyQ-expanded ATXN1 protein. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have been shown to reduce polyQ-induced toxicity. This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effects of BIIB021, a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor, on the protein homeostasis of polyQ-expanded mutant ATXN1 in a cell culture model of SCA1. Our results demonstrated that BIIB021 activated heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and suppressed the abnormal accumulation of ATXN1 and its toxicity. The pharmacological degradation of mutant ATXN1 via activated HSF1 was dependent on both the proteasome and autophagy systems. These findings indicate that HSF1 is a key molecule in the regulation of the protein homeostasis of the polyQ-expanded mutant ATXN1 and that Hsp90 has potential as a novel therapeutic target in patients with SCA1. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of GUT-70 mediated through potent inhibition of Hsp90 in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, L; Tabe, Y; Kimura, S; Zhou, Y; Kuroda, J; Asou, H; Inaba, T; Konopleva, M; Andreeff, M; Miida, T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis, requiring novel anticancer strategies. Methods: Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines with known p53 status were treated with GUT-70, a tricyclic coumarin derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, and the biological and biochemical consequences of GUT-70 were studied. Results: GUT-70 markedly reduced cell proliferation/viability through G1 cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis, with greater sensitivity in mutant (mt)-p53-expressing MCL cells than in wild-type (wt)-p53-bearing cells. Mechanistically, GUT-70 showed binding affinity to heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of Hsp90 client proteins, including cyclin D1, Raf-1, Akt, and mt-p53. Depletion of constitutively overexpressed cyclin D1 by GUT-70 was accompanied by p27 accumulation and decreased Rb phosphorylation. GUT-70 induced mitochondrial apoptosis with Noxa upregulation and Mcl-1 downregulation in mt-p53 cells, but Mcl-1 accumulation in wt-p53 cells. Noxa and Mcl-1 were coimmunoprecipitated, and activated BAK. Treatment with a combination of GUT-70 and bortezomib or doxorubicin had synergistic antiproliferative effects in MCL cells that were independent of p53 status. Conclusion: GUT-70 has pronounced antiproliferative effects in MCL with mt-p53, a known negative prognostic factor for MCL, through Hsp90 inhibition. These findings suggest that GUT-70 has potential utility for the treatment of MCL. PMID:21139584

  12. Human Calmodulin Methyltransferase: Expression, Activity on Calmodulin, and Hsp90 Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Sophia; Magnani, Roberta; Haziza, Sitvanit; Hershkovitz, Eli; Houtz, Robert; Cambi, Franca; Parvari, Ruti

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of the first exon of calmodulin-lysine N-methyltransferase (CaM KMT, previously C2orf34) has been reported in two multigene deletion syndromes, but additional studies on the gene have not been reported. Here we show that in the cells from 2p21 deletion patients the loss of CaM KMT expression results in accumulation of hypomethylated calmodulin compared to normal controls, suggesting that CaM KMT is essential for calmodulin methylation and there are no compensatory mechanisms for CaM methylation in humans. We have further studied the expression of this gene at the transcript and protein levels. We have identified 2 additional transcripts in cells of the 2p21 deletion syndrome patients that start from alternative exons positioned outside the deletion region. One of them starts in the 2nd known exon, the other in a novel exon. The transcript starting from the novel exon was also identified in a variety of tissues from normal individuals. These new transcripts are not expected to produce proteins. Immunofluorescent localization of tagged CaM KMT in HeLa cells indicates that it is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells whereas the short isoform is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Using Western blot analysis we show that the CaM KMT protein is broadly expressed in mouse tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the CaM KMT interacts with the middle portion of the Hsp90 molecular chaperon and is probably a client protein since it is degraded upon treatment of cells with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. These findings suggest that the CaM KMT is the major, possibly the single, methyltransferase of calmodulin in human cells with a wide tissue distribution and is a novel Hsp90 client protein. Thus our data provides basic information for a gene potentially contributing to the patient phenotype of two contiguous gene deletion syndromes. PMID:23285036

  13. Human calmodulin methyltransferase: expression, activity on calmodulin, and Hsp90 dependence.

    PubMed

    Magen, Sophia; Magnani, Roberta; Haziza, Sitvanit; Hershkovitz, Eli; Houtz, Robert; Cambi, Franca; Parvari, Ruti

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of the first exon of calmodulin-lysine N-methyltransferase (CaM KMT, previously C2orf34) has been reported in two multigene deletion syndromes, but additional studies on the gene have not been reported. Here we show that in the cells from 2p21 deletion patients the loss of CaM KMT expression results in accumulation of hypomethylated calmodulin compared to normal controls, suggesting that CaM KMT is essential for calmodulin methylation and there are no compensatory mechanisms for CaM methylation in humans. We have further studied the expression of this gene at the transcript and protein levels. We have identified 2 additional transcripts in cells of the 2p21 deletion syndrome patients that start from alternative exons positioned outside the deletion region. One of them starts in the 2(nd) known exon, the other in a novel exon. The transcript starting from the novel exon was also identified in a variety of tissues from normal individuals. These new transcripts are not expected to produce proteins. Immunofluorescent localization of tagged CaM KMT in HeLa cells indicates that it is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells whereas the short isoform is localized to the Golgi apparatus. Using Western blot analysis we show that the CaM KMT protein is broadly expressed in mouse tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the CaM KMT interacts with the middle portion of the Hsp90 molecular chaperon and is probably a client protein since it is degraded upon treatment of cells with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. These findings suggest that the CaM KMT is the major, possibly the single, methyltransferase of calmodulin in human cells with a wide tissue distribution and is a novel Hsp90 client protein. Thus our data provides basic information for a gene potentially contributing to the patient phenotype of two contiguous gene deletion syndromes.

  14. Heat shock protein 90 as a drug target against protozoan infections: biochemical characterization of HSP90 from Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma evansi and evaluation of its inhibitor as a candidate drug.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Rani; Roy, Nainita; Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Talukdar, Pinaki; Pavithra, Soundara Raghavan; Reddy, Raghunath; Venketesh, S; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Yadav, Suresh Chandra; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-12-03

    Using a pharmacological inhibitor of Hsp90 in cultured malarial parasite, we have previously implicated Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90 (PfHsp90) as a drug target against malaria. In this study, we have biochemically characterized PfHsp90 in terms of its ATPase activity and interaction with its inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) and evaluated its potential as a drug target in a preclinical mouse model of malaria. In addition, we have explored the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs for the treatment of Trypanosoma infection in animals. Our studies with full-length PfHsp90 showed it to have the highest ATPase activity of all known Hsp90s; its ATPase activity was 6 times higher than that of human Hsp90. Also, GA brought about more robust inhibition of PfHsp90 ATPase activity as compared with human Hsp90. Mass spectrometric analysis of PfHsp90 expressed in P. falciparum identified a site of acetylation that overlapped with Aha1 and p23 binding domain, suggesting its role in modulating Hsp90 multichaperone complex assembly. Indeed, treatment of P. falciparum cultures with a histone deacetylase inhibitor resulted in a partial dissociation of PfHsp90 complex. Furthermore, we found a well known, semisynthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, namely 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, to be effective in attenuating parasite growth and prolonging survival in a mouse model of malaria. We also characterized GA binding to Hsp90 from another protozoan parasite, namely Trypanosoma evansi. We found 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to potently inhibit T. evansi growth in a mouse model of trypanosomiasis. In all, our biochemical characterization, drug interaction, and animal studies supported Hsp90 as a drug target and its inhibitor as a potential drug against protozoan diseases.

  15. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na2S2 and Na2S4, blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts.

  16. The FNIP co-chaperones decelerate the Hsp90 chaperone cycle and enhance drug binding

    PubMed Central

    Woodford, Mark R.; Dunn, Diana M.; Blanden, Adam R.; Capriotti, Dante; Loiselle, David; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Panaretou, Barry; Hughes, Philip F.; Smith, Aaron; Ackerman, Wendi; Haystead, Timothy A.; Loh, Stewart N.; Bourboulia, Dimitra; Schmidt, Laura S.; Marston Linehan, W.; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Mollapour, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone in eukaryotes involved in maintaining the stability and activity of numerous signalling proteins, also known as clients. Hsp90 ATPase activity is essential for its chaperone function and it is regulated by co-chaperones. Here we show that the tumour suppressor FLCN is an Hsp90 client protein and its binding partners FNIP1/FNIP2 function as co-chaperones. FNIPs decelerate the chaperone cycle, facilitating FLCN interaction with Hsp90, consequently ensuring FLCN stability. FNIPs compete with the activating co-chaperone Aha1 for binding to Hsp90, thereby providing a reciprocal regulatory mechanism for chaperoning of client proteins. Lastly, downregulation of FNIPs desensitizes cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors, whereas FNIPs overexpression in renal tumours compared with adjacent normal tissues correlates with enhanced binding of Hsp90 to its inhibitors. Our findings suggest that FNIPs expression can potentially serve as a predictive indicator of tumour response to Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:27353360

  17. Asymmetric Hsp90 N-domain SUMOylation recruits Aha1 and ATP-competitive inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mollapour, Mehdi; Bourboulia, Dimitra; Beebe, Kristin; Woodford, Mark R.; Polier, Sigrun; Hoang, Anthony; Chelluri, Raju; Li, Yu; Guo, Ailan; Lee, Min-Jung; Fotooh-Abadi, Elham; Khan, Sahar; Prince, Thomas; Miyajima, Naoto; Yoshida, Soichiro; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Xu, Wanping; Panaretou, Barry; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Trepel, Jane B.; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Neckers, Len

    2014-01-01

    Summary The stability and activity of numerous signaling proteins in both normal and cancer cells depends on the dimeric molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 function is coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, and requires a series of conformational changes that are regulated by co-chaperones and numerous posttranslational modifications (PTMs). SUMOylation is one of the least understood Hsp90 PTMs. Here we show that asymmetric SUMOylation of a conserved lysine residue in the N-domain of both yeast (K178) and human (K191) Hsp90 facilitates both recruitment of the ATPase activating co-chaperone Aha1 and, unexpectedly, the binding of Hsp90 inhibitors, suggesting that these drugs associate preferentially with Hsp90 proteins that are actively engaged in the chaperone cycle. Importantly, cellular transformation is accompanied by elevated steady-state N-domain SUMOylation and increased Hsp90 SUMOylation sensitizes yeast and mammalian cells to Hsp90 inhibitors, providing a mechanism to explain the sensitivity of cancer cells to these drugs. PMID:24462205

  18. Hsp90 and PKM2 Drive the Expression of Aromatase in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Breast Adipose Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Brown, Kristy A; Zahid, Heba; Balmus, Gabriel; Weiss, Robert S; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-07-29

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients harbor germ line mutations in the TP53 gene and are at increased risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Recently, elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, were found in the breast tissue of LFS patients. Although p53 down-regulates aromatase expression, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that LFS stromal cells expressed higher levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity and aromatase compared with wild-type stromal cells. Inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase suppressed aromatase expression. Silencing Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), a co-chaperone of Hsp90 required for its ATPase activity, led to both inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity and reduced aromatase expression. In comparison with wild-type stromal cells, increased levels of the Hsp90 client proteins, HIF-1α, and PKM2 were found in LFS stromal cells. A complex comprised of HIF-1α and PKM2 was recruited to the aromatase promoter II in LFS stromal cells. Silencing either HIF-1α or PKM2 suppressed aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. CP-31398, a p53 rescue compound, suppressed levels of Aha1, Hsp90 ATPase activity, levels of PKM2 and HIF-1α, and aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. Consistent with these in vitro findings, levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity, Aha1, HIF-1α, PKM2, and aromatase were increased in the mammary glands of p53 null versus wild-type mice. PKM2 and HIF-1α were shown to co-localize in the nucleus of stromal cells of LFS breast tissue. Taken together, our results show that the Aha1-Hsp90-PKM2/HIF-1α axis mediates the induction of aromatase in LFS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The structure of FKBP38 in complex with the MEEVD tetratricopeptide binding-motif of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Katie L. I. M.; Pal, Mohinder; Roe, S. Mark; Pearl, Laurence H.

    2017-01-01

    Tetratricopeptide (TPR) domains are known protein interaction domains. We show that the TPR domain of FKBP8 selectively binds Hsp90, and interactions upstream of the conserved MEEVD motif are critical for tight binding. In contrast FKBP8 failed to bind intact Hsp70. The PPIase domain was not essential for the interaction with Hsp90 and binding was completely encompassed by the TPR domain alone. The conformation adopted by Hsp90 peptides, containing the conserved MEEVD motif, in the crystal structure were similar to that seen for the TPR domains of CHIP, AIP and Tah1. The carboxylate clamp interactions with bound Hsp90 peptide were a critical component of the interaction and mutation of Lys 307, involved in the carboxylate clamp, completely disrupted the interaction with Hsp90. FKBP8 binding to Hsp90 did not substantially influence its ATPase activity. PMID:28278223

  20. Allosteric Regulation of the Hsp90 Dynamics and Stability by Client Recruiter Cochaperones: Protein Structure Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in supporting functional activity of diverse protein clients is anchored by specific cochaperones. A family of immune sensing client proteins is delivered to the Hsp90 system with the aid of cochaperones Sgt1 and Rar1 that act cooperatively with Hsp90 to form allosterically regulated dynamic complexes. In this work, functional dynamics and protein structure network modeling are combined to dissect molecular mechanisms of Hsp90 regulation by the client recruiter cochaperones. Dynamic signatures of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes are manifested in differential modulation of the conformational mobility in the Hsp90 lid motif. Consistent with the experiments, we have determined that targeted reorganization of the lid dynamics is a unifying characteristic of the client recruiter cochaperones. Protein network analysis of the essential conformational space of the Hsp90-cochaperone motions has identified structurally stable interaction communities, interfacial hubs and key mediating residues of allosteric communication pathways that act concertedly with the shifts in conformational equilibrium. The results have shown that client recruiter cochaperones can orchestrate global changes in the dynamics and stability of the interaction networks that could enhance the ATPase activity and assist in the client recruitment. The network analysis has recapitulated a broad range of structural and mutagenesis experiments, particularly clarifying the elusive role of Rar1 as a regulator of the Hsp90 interactions and a stability enhancer of the Hsp90-cochaperone complexes. Small-world organization of the interaction networks in the Hsp90 regulatory complexes gives rise to a strong correspondence between highly connected local interfacial hubs, global mediator residues of allosteric interactions and key functional hot spots of the Hsp90 activity. We have found that cochaperone-induced conformational changes in Hsp90 may be determined by specific

  1. The novel HSP90 inhibitor STA-9090 exhibits activity against Kit-dependent and -independent malignant mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Bear, Misty; Du, Zhenjian; Foley, Kevin P.; Ying, Weiwen; Barsoum, James; London, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit occur in several human and canine cancers. While Kit inhibitors have activity in the clinical setting, they possess variable efficacy against particular forms of mutant Kit and drug resistance often develops over time. Inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a chaperone for which Kit is a client protein, have demonstrated activity against human cancers and evidence suggests they downregulate several mutated and imatinib-resistant forms of Kit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel HSP90 inhibitor, STA-9090, against wild-type (WT) and mutant Kit in canine bone marrow–derived cultured mast cells (BMCMCs), malignant mast cell lines, and fresh malignant mast cells. Materials and Methods BMCMCs, cell lines, and fresh malignant mast cells were treated with STA-9090, 17-AAG, and SU11654 and evaluated for loss in cell viability, cell death, alterations in HSP90 and Kit expression/signaling, and Kit mutation. STA-9090 activity was tested in a canine mastocytoma xenograft model. Results Treatment of BMCMCs, cell lines, and fresh malignant cells with STA-9090 induced growth inhibition, apoptosis that was caspase-3/7–dependent, and downregulation of phospho/total Kit and Akt, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K). Loss of Kit cell-surface expression was also observed. Furthermore, STA-9090 exhibited superior activity to 17-AAG and SU11654, and was effective against malignant mast cells expressing either WT or mutant Kit. Lastly, STA-9090 inhibited tumor growth in a canine mastocytoma mouse xenograft model. Conclusions STA-9090 exhibits broad activity against mast cells expressing WT or mutant Kit, suggesting it may be an effective agent in the clinical setting against mast cell malignancies. PMID:18657349

  2. A novel conformation of E. coli Hsp90 in solution: insights into the conformational dynamics of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Krukenberg, K.A.; Förster, F.; Rice, L.M.; Sali, A.; Agard, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp90, an essential eukaryotic chaperone, depends upon its intrinsic ATPase activity for function. Crystal structures of the bacterial Hsp90 homolog, HtpG, and the yeast Hsp90 reveal large domain rearrangements between the nucleotide-free and the nucleotide-bound forms. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and newly developed molecular modeling methods, we describe the solution structure of HtpG and demonstrate how it differs from known Hsp90 conformations. In addition to this novel HtpG conformation, we demonstrate that under physiologically-relevant conditions, multiple conformations co-exist in equilibrium. In solution, nucleotide-free HtpG adopts a more extended conformation than observed in the crystal, and upon the addition of AMPPNP, HtpG is in equilibrium between this open state and a closed state that is in good agreement with the yeast AMPPNP crystal structure. These studies provide a unique view of Hsp90 conformational dynamics and provide a new model for the role of nucleotide in effecting conformational change. PMID:18462680

  3. Differential Modulation of Functional Dynamics and Allosteric Interactions in the Hsp90-Cochaperone Complexes with p23 and Aha1: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric interactions of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 with a large cohort of cochaperones and client proteins allow for molecular communication and event coupling in signal transduction networks. The integration of cochaperones into the Hsp90 system is driven by the regulatory mechanisms that modulate the progression of the ATPase cycle and control the recruitment of the Hsp90 clientele. In this work, we report the results of computational modeling of allosteric regulation in the Hsp90 complexes with the cochaperones p23 and Aha1. By integrating protein docking, biophysical simulations, modeling of allosteric communications, protein structure network analysis and the energy landscape theory we have investigated dynamics and stability of the Hsp90-p23 and Hsp90-Aha1 interactions in direct comparison with the extensive body of structural and functional experiments. The results have revealed that functional dynamics and allosteric interactions of Hsp90 can be selectively modulated by these cochaperones via specific targeting of the regulatory hinge regions that could restrict collective motions and stabilize specific chaperone conformations. The protein structure network parameters have quantified the effects of cochaperones on conformational stability of the Hsp90 complexes and identified dynamically stable communities of residues that can contribute to the strengthening of allosteric interactions. According to our results, p23-mediated changes in the Hsp90 interactions may provide “molecular brakes” that could slow down an efficient transmission of the inter-domain allosteric signals, consistent with the functional role of p23 in partially inhibiting the ATPase cycle. Unlike p23, Aha1-mediated acceleration of the Hsp90-ATPase cycle may be achieved via modulation of the equilibrium motions that facilitate allosteric changes favoring a closed dimerized form of Hsp90. The results of our study have shown that Aha1 and p23 can modulate the Hsp90-ATPase activity

  4. HSP90 Chaperoning in Addition to Phosphoprotein Required for Folding but Not for Supporting Enzymatic Activities of Measles and Nipah Virus L Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Bloyet, Louis-Marie; Welsch, Jérémy; Enchery, François; Mathieu, Cyrille; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses, or members of the order Mononegavirales, share a conserved gene order and the use of elaborate transcription and replication machinery made up of at least four molecular partners. These partners have coevolved with the acquisition of the permanent encapsidation of the entire genome by the nucleoprotein (N) and the use of this N-RNA complex as a template for the viral polymerase composed of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large enzymatic protein (L). Not only is P required for polymerase function, but it also stabilizes the L protein through an unknown underlying molecular mechanism. By using NVP-AUY922 and/or 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin as specific inhibitors of cellular heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), we found that efficient chaperoning of L by HSP90 requires P in the measles, Nipah, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. While the production of P remains unchanged in the presence of HSP90 inhibitors, the production of soluble and functional L requires both P and HSP90 activity. Measles virus P can bind the N terminus of L in the absence of HSP90 activity. Both HSP90 and P are required for the folding of L, as evidenced by a luciferase reporter insert fused within measles virus L. HSP90 acts as a true chaperon; its activity is transient and dispensable for the activity of measles and Nipah virus polymerases of virion origin. That the cellular chaperoning of a viral polymerase into a soluble functional enzyme requires the assistance of another viral protein constitutes a new paradigm that seems to be conserved within the Mononegavirales order. IMPORTANCE Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that require a cellular environment for their replication. Some viruses particularly depend on the cellular chaperoning apparatus. We report here that for measles virus, successful chaperoning of the viral L polymerase mediated by heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) requires the presence of the viral

  5. The novel oral Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 exhibits potent and broad-spectrum antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel L; Taverna, Pietro; Jensen, Michael R; Abrams, Tinya; Stuart, Darrin; Yu, Guoying Karen; Duhl, David; Machajewski, Timothy; Sellers, William R; Pryer, Nancy K; Gao, Zhenhai

    2012-03-01

    A novel oral Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-HSP990, has been developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, NVP-HSP990 exhibits single digit nanomolar IC(50) values on three of the Hsp90 isoforms (Hsp90α, Hsp90β, and GRP94) and 320 nanomolar IC(50) value on the fourth (TRAP-1), with selectivity against unrelated enzymes, receptors, and kinases. In c-Met amplified GTL-16 gastric tumor cells, NVP-HSP990 dissociated the Hsp90-p23 complex, depleted client protein c-Met, and induced Hsp70. NVP-HSP990 potently inhibited the growth of human cell lines and primary patient samples from a variety of tumor types. In vivo, NVP-HSP990 exhibits drug-like pharmaceutical and pharmacologic properties with high oral bioavailability. In the GTL-16 xenograft model, a single oral administration of 15 mg/kg of NVP-HSP990 induced sustained downregulation of c-Met and upregulation of Hsp70. In repeat dosing studies, NVP-HSP990 treatment resulted in tumor growth inhibition of GTL-16 and other human tumor xenograft models driven by well-defined oncogenic Hsp90 client proteins. On the basis of its pharmacologic profile and broad-spectrum antitumor activities, clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate NVP-HSP990 in advanced solid tumors.

  6. Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37) restricts Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) motility by interaction with N-terminal and middle domain binding sites.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Julia M; Rutz, Daniel A; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-05-31

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90.

  7. Cdc37 (Cell Division Cycle 37) Restricts Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) Motility by Interaction with N-terminal and Middle Domain Binding Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Eckl, Julia M.; Rutz, Daniel A.; Haslbeck, Veronika; Zierer, Bettina K.; Reinstein, Jochen; Richter, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The ATPase-driven dimeric molecular Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) and its cofactor Cdc37 (cell division cycle 37 protein) are crucial to prevent the cellular depletion of many protein kinases. In complex with Hsp90, Cdc37 is thought to bind an important lid structure in the ATPase domain of Hsp90 and inhibit ATP turnover by Hsp90. As different interaction modes have been reported, we were interested in the interaction mechanism of Hsp90 and Cdc37. We find that Cdc37 can bind to one subunit of the Hsp90 dimer. The inhibition of the ATPase activity is caused by a reduction in the closing rate of Hsp90 without obviously bridging the two subunits or affecting nucleotide accessibility to the binding site. Although human Cdc37 binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90, nematodal Cdc37 preferentially interacts with the middle domain of CeHsp90 and hHsp90, exposing two Cdc37 interaction sites. A previously unreported site in CeCdc37 is utilized for the middle domain interaction. Dephosphorylation of CeCdc37 by the Hsp90-associated phosphatase PPH-5, a step required during the kinase activation process, proceeds normally, even if only the new interaction site is used. This shows that the second interaction site is also functionally relevant and highlights that Cdc37, similar to the Hsp90 cofactors Sti1 and Aha1, may utilize two different attachment sites to restrict the conformational freedom and the ATP turnover of Hsp90. PMID:23569206

  8. Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 Preferentially Kills Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells by Activating Bim through ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Wang, Jia Yu; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Yari, Hamed; Yan, Xu Guang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Oncogenic mutations of KRAS pose a great challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we report that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are nevertheless more susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 than those carrying wild-type KRAS. Although AUY922 inhibited HSP90 activity with comparable potency in colon cancer cells irrespective of their KRAS mutational statuses, those with mutant KRAS were markedly more sensitive to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was associated with upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim, Bik, and PUMA. However, only Bim appeared essential, in that knockdown of Bim abolished, whereas knockdown of Bik or PUMA only moderately attenuated apoptosis induced by AUY922. Mechanistic investigations revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was responsible for AUY922-induced upregulation of Bim, which was inhibited by a chemical chaperone or overexpression of GRP78. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of GRP78 or XBP-1 enhanced AUY922-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, AUY922 inhibited the growth of mutant KRAS colon cancer xenografts through activation of Bim that was similarly associated with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AUY922 is a promising drug in the treatment of mutant KRAS colon cancers, and the agents that enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of Bim may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Targeting Hsp90-Cdc37: a promising therapeutic strategy by inhibiting Hsp90 chaperone function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li; Gu, Kai; Xu, Xiao-Li; You, Qi-Dong; Sun, Hao-Peng

    2016-05-27

    The Hsp90 chaperone protein regulates the folding, maturation and stability of a wide variety of oncoproteins. In recent years, many Hsp90 inhibitors have entered into the clinical trials while all of them target ATPase showing similar binding capacity and kinds of side-effects so that none have reached to the market. During the regulation progress, numerous protein-protein interactions (PPI) such as Hsp90 and client proteins or cochaperones are involved. With the Hsp90-cochaperones PPI networks being more and more clear, many cancerous proteins have been reported to be tightly correlated to Hsp90-cochaperones PPI. Among them, Hsp90-Cdc37 PPI has been widely reported to associate with numerous protein kinases, making it a novel target for the treatment of cancers. In this paper, we briefly review the strategies and modulators targeting Hsp90-Cdc37 complex including direct and indirect regulation mechanism. Through these discussions we expect to present inspirations for new insights into an alternative way to inhibit Hsp90 chaperone function.

  10. Exploiting conformational dynamics in drug discovery: design of C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 with improved activities

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Elisabetta; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Colombo, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The interaction that occurs between molecules is a dynamic process that impacts both structural and conformational properties of the ligand and the ligand binding site. Herein, we investigate the dynamic cross-talk between a protein and the ligand as a source for new opportunities in ligand design. Analysis of the formation/disappearance of protein pockets produced in response to a first-generation inhibitor assisted in the identification of functional groups that could be introduced onto scaffolds to facilitate optimal binding, which allowed for increased binding with previously uncharacterized regions. MD simulations were used to elucidate primary changes that occur in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket in the presence of first-generation ligands. This data was then used to design ligands that adapt to these receptor conformations, which provides access to an energy landscape that is not visible in a static model. The newly synthesized compounds demonstrated anti-proliferative activity at ~150 nanomolar concentration. The method identified herein may be used to design chemical probes that provide additional information on structural variations of Hsp90 C-terminal binding site. PMID:24397468

  11. Nucleotide-dependent interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp90 with the cochaperone proteins Sti1, Cpr6, and Sba1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jill L; Halas, Agnieszka; Flom, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The ATP-dependent molecular chaperone Hsp90 and partner cochaperone proteins are required for the folding and activity of diverse cellular client proteins, including steroid hormone receptors and multiple oncogenic kinases. Hsp90 undergoes nucleotide-dependent conformational changes, but little is known about how these changes are coupled to client protein activation. In order to clarify how nucleotides affect Hsp90 interactions with cochaperone proteins, we monitored assembly of wild-type and mutant Hsp90 with Sti1, Sba1, and Cpr6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell extracts. Wild-type Hsp90 bound Sti1 in a nucleotide-independent manner, while Sba1 and Cpr6 specifically and independently interacted with Hsp90 in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP, AMP-PNP. Alterations in Hsp90 residues that contribute to ATP binding or hydrolysis prevented or altered Sba1 and Cpr6 interaction; additional alterations affected the specificity of Cpr6 interaction. Some mutant forms of Hsp90 also displayed reduced Sti1 interaction in the presence of a nucleotide. These studies indicate that cycling of Hsp90 between the nucleotide-free, open conformation and the ATP-bound, closed conformation is influenced by residues both within and outside the N-terminal ATPase domain and that these conformational changes have dramatic effects on interaction with cochaperone proteins.

  12. An essential role for chloroplast heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90C) in protein import into chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Li, Ming; Schnell, Danny J

    2013-02-19

    Chloroplast heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90C) represents a highly conserved subfamily of the Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones whose function has not been defined. We identified Hsp90C as a component that interacts with import intermediates of nuclear-encoded preproteins during posttranslational import into isolated chloroplasts. Hsp90C was specifically coprecipitated with a complex of protein import components, including Tic110, Tic40, Toc75, Tic22, and the stromal chaperones, Hsp93 and Hsp70. Radicicol, an inhibitor of Hsp90 ATPase activity, reversibly inhibited the import of a variety of preproteins during translocation across the inner envelope membrane, indicating that Hsp90C functions in membrane translocation into the organelle. Hsp90C is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, and insertion mutations in the Hsp90C gene are embryo lethal, indicating an essential function for the chaperone in plant viability. On the basis of these results, we propose that Hsp90C functions within a chaperone complex in the chloroplast stroma to facilitate membrane translocation during protein import into the organelle.

  13. Induction of Hsp70 in tumor cells treated with inhibitors of the Hsp90 activity: A predictive marker and promising target for radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir A; Khokhlova, Anna V; Mosina, Vera A; Selivanova, Elena I; Kabakov, Alexander E

    2017-01-01

    We studied a role of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular response to radiosensitizing treatments with inhibitors of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone activity. Cell lines derived from solid tumors of different origin were treated with the Hsp90 inhibitors (17AAG, geldanamycin, radicicol, NVP-AUY922) or/and γ-photon radiation. For comparison, human cells of the non-cancerous origin were subjected to the same treatments. We found that the Hsp90 inhibitors yielded considerable radiosensitization only when they cause early and pronounced Hsp70 induction; moreover, a magnitude of radiosensitization was positively correlated with the level of Hsp70 induction. The quantification of Hsp70 levels in Hsp90 inhibitor-treated normal and cancer cells enabled to predict which of them will be susceptible to any Hsp90-inhibiting radiosensitizer as well as what concentrations of the inhibitors ensure the preferential cytotoxicity in the irradiated tumors without aggravating radiation damage to adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, the Hsp70 induction in the Hsp90 inhibitor-treated cancer cells appears to be their protective response that alleviates the tumor-sensitizing effects of the Hsp90 inactivation. Combination of the Hsp70-inducing inhibitors of Hsp90 with known inhibitors of the Hsp induction such as quercetin, triptolide, KNK437, NZ28 prevented up-regulation of Hsp70 in the cancer cells thereby increasing their post-radiation apoptotic/necrotic death and decreasing their post-radiation viability/clonogenicity. Similarly, co-treatment with the two inhibitors conferred the enhanced radiosensitization of proliferating rather than quiescent human vascular endothelial cells which may be used for suppressing the tumor-stimulated angiogenesis. Thus, the easily immunodetectable Hsp70 induction can be a useful marker for predicting effects of Hsp90-inhibiting radiosensitizers on tumors and normal tissues exposed to ionizing radiation. Moreover

  14. Induction of Hsp70 in tumor cells treated with inhibitors of the Hsp90 activity: A predictive marker and promising target for radiosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtsev, Vladimir A.; Khokhlova, Anna V.; Mosina, Vera A.; Selivanova, Elena I.

    2017-01-01

    We studied a role of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular response to radiosensitizing treatments with inhibitors of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone activity. Cell lines derived from solid tumors of different origin were treated with the Hsp90 inhibitors (17AAG, geldanamycin, radicicol, NVP-AUY922) or/and γ-photon radiation. For comparison, human cells of the non-cancerous origin were subjected to the same treatments. We found that the Hsp90 inhibitors yielded considerable radiosensitization only when they cause early and pronounced Hsp70 induction; moreover, a magnitude of radiosensitization was positively correlated with the level of Hsp70 induction. The quantification of Hsp70 levels in Hsp90 inhibitor-treated normal and cancer cells enabled to predict which of them will be susceptible to any Hsp90-inhibiting radiosensitizer as well as what concentrations of the inhibitors ensure the preferential cytotoxicity in the irradiated tumors without aggravating radiation damage to adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, the Hsp70 induction in the Hsp90 inhibitor-treated cancer cells appears to be their protective response that alleviates the tumor-sensitizing effects of the Hsp90 inactivation. Combination of the Hsp70-inducing inhibitors of Hsp90 with known inhibitors of the Hsp induction such as quercetin, triptolide, KNK437, NZ28 prevented up-regulation of Hsp70 in the cancer cells thereby increasing their post-radiation apoptotic/necrotic death and decreasing their post-radiation viability/clonogenicity. Similarly, co-treatment with the two inhibitors conferred the enhanced radiosensitization of proliferating rather than quiescent human vascular endothelial cells which may be used for suppressing the tumor-stimulated angiogenesis. Thus, the easily immunodetectable Hsp70 induction can be a useful marker for predicting effects of Hsp90-inhibiting radiosensitizers on tumors and normal tissues exposed to ionizing radiation. Moreover

  15. The therapeutic target Hsp90 and cancer hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoshihiko; Nakamoto, Hitoshi; Neckers, Len

    2013-01-01

    Hsp90 is a major molecular chaperone that is expressed abundantly and plays a pivotal role in assisting correct folding and functionality of its client proteins in cells. The Hsp90 client proteins include a wide variety of signal transducing molecules such as protein kinases and steroid hormone receptors. Cancer is a complex disease, but most types of human cancer share common hallmarks, including self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory mechanism, evasion of programmed cell death, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, and tissue invasion and metastasis. A surprisingly large number of Hsp90-client proteins play crucial roles in establishing cancer cell hallmarks. We start the review by describing the structure and function of Hsp90 since conformational changes during the ATPase cycle of Hsp90 are closely related to its function. Many co-chaperones, including Hop, p23, Cdc37, Aha1, and PP5, work together with Hsp90 by modulating the chaperone machinery. Post-translational modifications of Hsp90 and its cochaperones are vital for their function. Many tumor-related Hsp90-client proteins, including signaling kinases, steroid hormone receptors, p53, and telomerase, are described. Hsp90 and its co-chaperones are required for the function of these tumor-promoting client proteins; therefore, inhibition of Hsp90 by specific inhibitors such as geldanamycin and its derivatives attenuates the tumor progression. Hsp90 inhibitors can be potential and effective cancer chemotherapeutic drugs with a unique profile and have been examined in clinical trials. We describe possible mechanisms why Hsp90 inhibitors show selectivity to cancer cells even though Hsp90 is essential also for normal cells. Finally, we discuss the "Hsp90-addiction" of cancer cells, and suggest a role for Hsp90 in tumor evolution.

  16. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mechanism in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Mullen, Nathan; McCarthy, Sarah; Brann, Courtney; Richard, Philomena; Cormier, James; Edwards, Katie; Bilsky, Edward J; Streicher, John M

    2017-06-23

    Recent advances in developing opioid treatments for pain with reduced side effects have focused on the signaling cascades of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). However, few such signaling targets have been identified for exploitation. To address this need, we explored the role of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in opioid-induced MOR signaling and pain, which has only been studied in four previous articles. First, in four cell models of MOR signaling, we found that Hsp90 inhibition for 24 h with the inhibitor 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) had different effects on protein expression and opioid signaling in each line, suggesting that cell models may not be reliable for predicting pharmacology with this protein. We thus developed an in vivo model using CD-1 mice with an intracerebroventricular injection of 17-AAG for 24 h. We found that Hsp90 inhibition strongly blocked morphine-induced anti-nociception in models of post-surgical and HIV neuropathic pain but only slightly blocked anti-nociception in a naive tail-flick model, while enhancing morphine-induced precipitated withdrawal. Seeking a mechanism for these changes, we found that Hsp90 inhibition blocks ERK MAPK activation in the periaqueductal gray and caudal brain stem. We tested these signaling changes by inhibiting ERK in the above-mentioned pain models and found that ERK inhibition could account for all of the changes in anti-nociception induced by Hsp90 inhibition. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hsp90 promotes opioid-induced anti-nociception by an ERK mechanism in mouse brain and that Hsp90 could be a future target for improving the therapeutic index of opioid drugs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Regulation of CLC-1 chloride channel biosynthesis by FKBP8 and Hsp90β

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi-Jheng; Huang, Jing-Jia; Wu, Hao-Han; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Tang, Chih-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in human CLC-1 chloride channel are associated with the skeletal muscle disorder myotonia congenita. The disease-causing mutant A531V manifests enhanced proteasomal degradation of CLC-1. We recently found that CLC-1 degradation is mediated by cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase complex. It is currently unclear how quality control and protein degradation systems coordinate with each other to process the biosynthesis of CLC-1. Herein we aim to ascertain the molecular nature of the protein quality control system for CLC-1. We identified three CLC-1-interacting proteins that are well-known heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-associated co-chaperones: FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8), activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (HOP). These co-chaperones promote both the protein level and the functional expression of CLC-1 wild-type and A531V mutant. CLC-1 biosynthesis is also facilitated by the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90β. The protein stability of CLC-1 is notably increased by FKBP8 and the Hsp90β inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) that substantially suppresses cullin 4 expression. We further confirmed that cullin 4 may interact with Hsp90β and FKBP8. Our data are consistent with the idea that FKBP8 and Hsp90β play an essential role in the late phase of CLC-1 quality control by dynamically coordinating protein folding and degradation. PMID:27580824

  18. Regulation of CLC-1 chloride channel biosynthesis by FKBP8 and Hsp90β.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Jheng; Huang, Jing-Jia; Wu, Hao-Han; Hsieh, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Tang, Chih-Yung

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in human CLC-1 chloride channel are associated with the skeletal muscle disorder myotonia congenita. The disease-causing mutant A531V manifests enhanced proteasomal degradation of CLC-1. We recently found that CLC-1 degradation is mediated by cullin 4 ubiquitin ligase complex. It is currently unclear how quality control and protein degradation systems coordinate with each other to process the biosynthesis of CLC-1. Herein we aim to ascertain the molecular nature of the protein quality control system for CLC-1. We identified three CLC-1-interacting proteins that are well-known heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-associated co-chaperones: FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8), activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (HOP). These co-chaperones promote both the protein level and the functional expression of CLC-1 wild-type and A531V mutant. CLC-1 biosynthesis is also facilitated by the molecular chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90β. The protein stability of CLC-1 is notably increased by FKBP8 and the Hsp90β inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) that substantially suppresses cullin 4 expression. We further confirmed that cullin 4 may interact with Hsp90β and FKBP8. Our data are consistent with the idea that FKBP8 and Hsp90β play an essential role in the late phase of CLC-1 quality control by dynamically coordinating protein folding and degradation.

  19. Identification of the Plant Compound Geraniin as a Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Antonio; Vaccaro, Maria Carmela; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Leone, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Besides its function in normal cellular growth, the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) binds to a large number of client proteins required for promoting cancer cell growth and/or survival. In an effort to discover new small molecules able to inhibit the Hsp90 ATPase and chaperoning activities, we screened, by a surface plasmon resonance assay, a small library including different plant polyphenols. The ellagitannin geraniin, was identified as the most promising molecule, showing a binding affinity to Hsp90α similar to that of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AGG). Geraniin was able to inhibit in vitro the Hsp90α ATPase activity in a dose−dependent manner, with an inhibitory efficiency comparable to that measured for 17-AAG. In addition, this compound compromised the chaperone activity of Hsp90α, monitored by the citrate synthase thermal induced aggregation assay. Geraniin decreased the viability of HeLa and Jurkat cell lines and caused an arrest in G2/M phase. We also proved that following exposure to different concentrations of geraniin, the level of expression of the client proteins c-Raf, pAkt, and EGFR was strongly down−regulated in both the cell lines. These results, along with the finding that geraniin did not exert any appreciable cytotoxicity on normal cells, encourage further studies on this compound as a promising chemical scaffold for the design of new Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:24066128

  20. Hsp90 cochaperones p23 and FKBP4 physically interact with hAgo2 and activate RNA interference–mediated silencing in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Justin M.; LaPointe, Paul; Hobman, Tom C.

    2013-01-01

    Argonaute proteins and small RNAs together form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the central effector of RNA interference (RNAi). The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the critical step of loading small RNAs onto Argonaute proteins. Here we show that the Hsp90 cochaperones Cdc37, Aha1, FKBP4, and p23 are required for efficient RNAi. Whereas FKBP4 and p23 form a stable complex with hAgo2, the function of Cdc37 in RNAi appears to be indirect and may indicate that two or more Hsp90 complexes are involved. Our data also suggest that p23 and FKBP4 interact with hAgo2 before small RNA loading and that RISC loading takes place in the cytoplasm rather than in association with RNA granules. Given the requirement for p23 and FKBP4 for efficient RNAi and that these cochaperones bind to hAgo2, we predict that loading of hAgo2 is analogous to Hsp90-mediated steroid hormone receptor activation. To this end, we outline a model in which FKBP4, p23, and Aha1 cooperatively regulate the progression of hAgo2 through the chaperone cycle. Finally, we propose that hAgo2 and RNAi can serve as a robust model system for continued investigation into the Hsp90 chaperone cycle. PMID:23741051

  1. Androgen Receptor Splice Variants are Resistant to Inhibitors of Hsp90 and FKBP52, which alter Androgen Receptor Activity and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Ayesha A.; Cox, Marc B.; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen ablation therapy is the most common treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most patients will develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which has no cure. CRPC is androgen-depletion resistant but androgen receptor (AR) dependent. AR is a nuclear receptor whose transcriptional activity is regulated by hormone binding to the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Constitutively active AR splice variants that lack LBDs often are expressed in CRPC. The expression of these variants indicates that methods to inhibit AR activity that do not rely on inactivating the LBD are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a potential therapeutic target in PCa, is an AR chaperone crucial for proper folding, hormone binding and transcriptional activity of AR. We generated LNCaP cell lines with regulated expression of the AR-V7 variant as well as a cell line expressing artificially truncated AR (termed AR-NTD) to characterize splice variant function. Using an Hsp90 inhibitor, Geldanamycin (GA), and an AR-Hsp90-FKBP52 specific inhibitor, MJC13, we sought to determine if the AR variants also require Hsp90 and associated co-chaperone, FKBP52, for their activity. GA inhibits AR transcriptional activity but has little effect on AR-V7 activity. Moreover, GA decreases the stability of AR protein, with no effect on AR-V7 levels. Full-length AR activity is strongly inhibited by MJC13 while AR-V7 is unaffected. Thus, the variants are resistant to inhibitors of the Hsp90-AR heterocomplex. Although Hsp90 inhibitors will continue to inhibit growth promoting kinases and signaling through activated full-length AR in CRPC, AR signaling through variants will be retained. PMID:23380368

  2. Multi-substituted 8-aminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines by Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé reaction and their Hsp90 inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Yang, Min; Liu, Hongchun; Cao, Danyan; Chen, Danqi; Li, Jian; Tang, Le; He, Jianhua; Chen, Yue-Lei; Geng, Meiyu; Xiong, Bing; Shen, Jingkang

    2015-02-07

    Using a 2,3-diamino pyrazine substrate and yttrium triflate catalyst, various 2-alkyl and aryl substituted 3,8-diaminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines were efficiently prepared through Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaymé MCR. In particular, a novel 2-piperonyl 3,8-diaminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine structure was prepared exclusively with this new method and was found to have moderate Hsp90 inhibitory activity. A crystalline complex with N-terminus ATP domain of Hsp90 and one of the new Hsp90 inhibitors was also obtained to elucidate the origin of activity of 2-piperonyl 3,8-diaminoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines.

  3. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors activate the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) stress response pathway and improve glucose regulation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Hyung; Gao, Jiaping; Kosinski, Penelope A; Elliman, Stephen J; Hughes, Thomas E; Gromada, Jesper; Kemp, Daniel M

    2013-01-18

    The cytoprotective stress response factor HSF1 regulates the transcription of the chaperone HSP70, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. We tested the therapeutic potential of this pathway in rodent models of diabetes using pharmacological tools. Activation of the HSF1 pathway was achieved using potent inhibitors of the upstream regulatory protein, HSP90. Treatment with AUY922, a selective HSP90 inhibitor led to robust inhibition of JNK1 phosphorylation, cytoprotection and improved insulin signaling in cells, consistent with effects observed with HSP70 treatment. Chronic dosing with HSP90 inhibitors reversed hyperglycemia in the diabetic db/db mouse model, and improved insulin sensitivity in the diet-induced obese mouse model of insulin resistance, further supporting the concept that the HSF1 pathway is a potentially viable anti-diabetes target.

  4. Extracellular heat shock protein HSP90beta secreted by MG63 osteosarcoma cells inhibits activation of latent TGF-beta1.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2010-07-30

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent complex, which consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. The release of the mature ligand from LAP usually occurs through conformational change of the latent complex and is therefore considered to be the first step in the activation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. So far, factors such as heat, pH changes, and proteolytic cleavage are reportedly involved in this activation process, but the precise molecular mechanism is still far from clear. Identification and characterization of the cell surface proteins that bind to LAP are important to our understanding of the latent TGF-beta activation process. In this study, we have identified heat shock protein 90 beta (HSP90beta) from the cell surface of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line as a LAP binding protein. We have also found that MG63 cells secrete HSP90beta into extracellular space which inhibits the activation of latent TGF-beta1, and that there is a subsequent decrease in cell proliferation. TGF-beta1-mediated stimulation of MG63 cells resulted in the increased cell surface expression of HSP90beta. Thus, extracellular HSP90beta is a negative regulator for the activation of latent TGF-beta1 modulating TGF-beta signaling in the extracellular domain.

  5. Prediction of dual agents as an activator of mutant p53 and inhibitor of Hsp90 by docking, molecular dynamic simulation and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Amanlou, Massoud

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock protein90s (Hsp90s) play a crucial role in the development of cancer, and their inhibitors are a main target for tumor suppression. P53 also is a tumor suppressor, but in cancer cells, mutations in the p53 gene lead to the inactivation and accumulation of protein. For instance, the ninth p53 cancer mutation, Y220C, destabilizes the p53 core domain. Small molecules have been assumed to bind to Y220C DNA-binding domain and reactivate cellular mutant p53 functions. In this study, one of the mutant p53 activators is suggested as an Hsp90 inhibitor according to a pyrazole scaffold. To confirm a new ligand as a dual agent, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations were performed on both proteins (p53 and Hsp90). Molecular dynamic simulations were also conducted to evaluate the obtained results on the other two pyrazole structures, one known as Hsp90 inhibitor and the other as the reported mutant p53 activator. The findings indicate that the new ligand was stable in the active site of both proteins. Finally, a virtual screening was performed on ZINC database, and a set of new dual agents was proposed according to the new ligand scaffold. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Nitration of Hsp90 on Tyrosine 33 Regulates Mitochondrial Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Maria C.; Ricart, Karina C.; Gonzalez, Analía S.; Dennys, Cassandra N.; Nelson, Pascal A.; Janes, Michael S.; Mehl, Ryan A.; Landar, Aimee; Estévez, Alvaro G.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxynitrite production and tyrosine nitration are present in several pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration, stroke, aging, and cancer. Nitration of the pro-survival chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in position 33 and 56 induces motor neuron death through a toxic gain-of-function. Here we show that nitrated Hsp90 regulates mitochondrial metabolism independently of the induction of cell death. In PC12 cells, a small fraction of nitrated Hsp90 was located on the mitochondrial outer membrane and down-regulated mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and ATP production. Neither endogenous Hsp90 present in the homogenate nor unmodified and fully active recombinant Hsp90 was able to compete with the nitrated protein for the binding to mitochondria. Moreover, endogenous or recombinant Hsp90 did not prevent the decrease in mitochondrial activity but supported nitrated Hsp90 mitochondrial gain-of-function. Nitrotyrosine in position 33, but not in any of the other four tyrosine residues prone to nitration in Hsp90, was sufficient to down-regulate mitochondrial activity. Thus, in addition to induction of cell death, nitrated Hsp90 can also regulate mitochondrial metabolism, suggesting that depending on the cell type, distinct Hsp90 nitration states regulate different aspects of cellular metabolism. This regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis by nitrated Hsp90 could be of particular relevance in cancer cells. PMID:26085096

  7. Enhanced antitumor activity of erlotinib in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor CH5164840 against non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ono, Naomi; Yamazaki, Toshikazu; Tsukaguchi, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Toshihiko; Sakata, Kiyoaki; Suda, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Takuo; Mio, Toshiyuki; Ishii, Nobuya; Kondoh, Osamu; Aoki, Yuko

    2013-10-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) can lead to degradation of multiple client proteins, which are involved in tumor progression. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most potent oncogenic client proteins of Hsp90. Targeted inhibition of EGFR has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, primary and acquired resistance to the existing EGFR inhibitors is a major clinical problem. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the novel Hsp90 inhibitor CH5164840 on the antitumor activity of erlotinib. The NSCLC cell lines and xenograft models were treated with CH5164840 and erlotinib to examine their mechanisms of action and cell growth inhibition. We found that CH5164840 showed remarkable antitumor activity against NSCLC cell lines and xenograft models. The addition of CH5164840 enhanced the antitumor activity of erlotinib against NCI-H292 EGFR-overexpressing xenograft models. Phosphorylation of Stat3 increased with erlotinib treatment in NCI-H292 cells, which was abrogated by Hsp90 inhibition. Furthermore, in a NCI-H1975 T790M mutation erlotinib-resistant model, CH5164840 enhanced the antitumor activity of erlotinib despite the low efficacy of erlotinib treatment alone. In addition, ERK signaling was effectively suppressed by combination treatment with erlotinib and CH5164840 in a NCI-H1975 erlotinib-resistant model. Taken together, these data indicate that CH5164840 has potent antitumor activity and is highly effective in combination with erlotinib against NSCLC tumors with EGFR overexpression and mutations. Our results support the therapeutic potential of CH5164840 as a Hsp90 inhibitor for combination therapy with EGFR-targeting agents against EGFR-addicted NSCLC. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Synergetic cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells enhanced by the combination of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 and Hsp70-targeted peptide.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Torisawa, Aya; Kohno, Masayuki; Kawakami, Koji

    2014-08-26

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are indispensable for cell survival under conditions of stress. They bind to client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across the cell membrane, and recovery of proteins from aggregates in the cell. Therefore, these proteins have recently emerged as important targets in the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that the newly designed Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90 induced cytotoxic activity to cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. To further improve the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR toward cancer cells, we investigated the effect of a Hsp70-targeted peptide, which was made cell-permeable by adding the polyarginine with a linker sequence, on the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR in breast cancer cell lines. It was revealed that Antp-TPR in the presence of a Hsp70-targeted peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity toward breast cancer cells through the descrease of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, and cRaf. Moreover, the combined treatment with these peptides did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 protein, as determined by western blotting, a promoter assay using a luminometer, and single-cell level imaging with the LV200 system, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), did induce the up-regulation of this protein. We also found that treatment with Antp-TPR, Hsp70-targeted peptide, or a combination of the two did not induce an increase in the glutathione concentrations in the cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting both Hsp90 and Hsp70 with Antp-TPR and Hsp70-targeted peptide is an attractive approach for selective cancer cell killing that might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer.

  9. Characterization of HSP90 isoforms in transformed bovine leukocytes infected with Theileria annulata

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaird, Jane H.; Singh, Meetali; Gillan, Victoria; Weir, William; Calder, Ewen D. D.; Hostettler, Isabel; Shiels, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary HSP90 chaperones are essential regulators of cellular function, as they ensure the appropriate conformation of multiple key client proteins. Four HSP90 isoforms were identified in the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Partial characterization was undertaken for three and localization confirmed for cytoplasmic (TA12105), endoplasmic reticulum (TA06470), and apicoplast (TA10720) forms. ATPase activity and binding to the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin were demonstrated for recombinant TA12105, and all three native forms could be isolated to varying extents by binding to geldanamycin beads. Because it is essential, HSP90 is considered a potential therapeutic drug target. Resistance to the only specific Theileriacidal drug is increasing, and one challenge for design of drugs that target the parasite is to limit the effect on the host. An in vitro cell culture system that allows comparison between uninfected bovine cells and the T. annulata‐infected counterpart was utilized to test the effects of geldanamycin and the derivative 17‐AAG. T. annulata‐infected cells had greater tolerance to geldanamycin than uninfected cells yet exhibited significantly more sensitivity to 17‐AAG. These findings suggest that parasite HSP90 isoform(s) can alter the drug sensitivity of infected host cells and that members of the Theileria HSP90 family are potential targets worthy of further investigation. PMID:27649068

  10. Characterization of HSP90 isoforms in transformed bovine leukocytes infected with Theileria annulata.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, Jane H; Singh, Meetali; Gillan, Victoria; Weir, William; Calder, Ewen D D; Hostettler, Isabel; Tatu, Utpal; Devaney, Eileen; Shiels, Brian R

    2017-03-01

    HSP90 chaperones are essential regulators of cellular function, as they ensure the appropriate conformation of multiple key client proteins. Four HSP90 isoforms were identified in the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Partial characterization was undertaken for three and localization confirmed for cytoplasmic (TA12105), endoplasmic reticulum (TA06470), and apicoplast (TA10720) forms. ATPase activity and binding to the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin were demonstrated for recombinant TA12105, and all three native forms could be isolated to varying extents by binding to geldanamycin beads. Because it is essential, HSP90 is considered a potential therapeutic drug target. Resistance to the only specific Theileriacidal drug is increasing, and one challenge for design of drugs that target the parasite is to limit the effect on the host. An in vitro cell culture system that allows comparison between uninfected bovine cells and the T. annulata-infected counterpart was utilized to test the effects of geldanamycin and the derivative 17-AAG. T. annulata-infected cells had greater tolerance to geldanamycin than uninfected cells yet exhibited significantly more sensitivity to 17-AAG. These findings suggest that parasite HSP90 isoform(s) can alter the drug sensitivity of infected host cells and that members of the Theileria HSP90 family are potential targets worthy of further investigation.

  11. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Lin, Hui-Yi; Wu, Chin-Yen; Su, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2008-06-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As(+3), MMA(+3), DMA(+3), As(+5), MMA(+5), and DMA(+5) on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As(+3) and MMA(+3), but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As(+3) and MMA(+3) treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As(+3)- and MMA(+3)-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As(+3) or MMA(+3). These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As(+3) and MMA(+3) is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.

  12. Macrocyclic Inhibitors of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Victoria A.; Singh, Erinprit K.; Nazarova, Lidia A.; Alexander, Leslie D.; McAlpine, Shelli R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of highly conserved proteins, whose expression increases in response to stresses that may threaten cell survival. Over the past decade, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for cancer as it plays a vital role in normal cell maturation and acts as a molecular chaperone for proper folding, assembly, and stabilization of many oncogenic proteins. To date, a majority of Hsp90 inhibitors that have been discovered are macrocycles. The relatively rigid conformation provided by the macrocyclic scaffold allows for a selective interaction with a biological target such as Hsp90. This review highlights the discovery and development of nine macro-cycles that inhibit the function of Hsp90, detailing their potency and the client proteins affected by Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:20536417

  13. Extracellular heat shock protein HSP90{beta} secreted by MG63 osteosarcoma cells inhibits activation of latent TGF-{beta}1

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2010-07-30

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) is secreted as a latent complex, which consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. The release of the mature ligand from LAP usually occurs through conformational change of the latent complex and is therefore considered to be the first step in the activation of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. So far, factors such as heat, pH changes, and proteolytic cleavage are reportedly involved in this activation process, but the precise molecular mechanism is still far from clear. Identification and characterization of the cell surface proteins that bind to LAP are important to our understanding of the latent TGF-{beta} activation process. In this study, we have identified heat shock protein 90 {beta} (HSP90{beta}) from the cell surface of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line as a LAP binding protein. We have also found that MG63 cells secrete HSP90{beta} into extracellular space which inhibits the activation of latent TGF-{beta}1, and that there is a subsequent decrease in cell proliferation. TGF-{beta}1-mediated stimulation of MG63 cells resulted in the increased cell surface expression of HSP90{beta}. Thus, extracellular HSP90{beta} is a negative regulator for the activation of latent TGF-{beta}1 modulating TGF-{beta} signaling in the extracellular domain. -- Research highlights: {yields} Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) is secreted as a latent complex. {yields} This complex consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. {yields} The release of the mature ligand from LAP is the first step in TGF-{beta} activation. {yields} We identified for the first time a novel mechanism for this activation process. {yields} Heat shock protein 90 {beta} is discovered as a negative regulator for this process.

  14. Molecular docking study, synthesis and biological evaluation of Schiff bases as Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dutta Gupta, Sayan; Snigdha, D; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Subrahmanyam, C V S; Gowrishankar, N L; Raghavendra, N M

    2014-04-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an emerging attractive target for the discovery of novel cancer therapeutic agents. Docking methods are powerful in silico tools for lead generation and optimization. In our mission to rationally develop novel effective small molecules against Hsp90, we predicted the potency of our designed compounds by Sybyl surflex Geom X docking method. The results of the above studies revealed that Schiff bases derived from 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde/5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde demonstrated effective binding with the protein. Subsequently, a few of them were synthesized (1-10) and characterized by IR, (1)HNMR and mass spectral analysis. The synthesized molecules were evaluated for their potential to suppress Hsp90 ATPase activity by Malachite green assay. The anticancer studies were performed by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. The software generated results was in satisfactory agreement with the evaluated biological activity.

  15. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation, anti-apoptosis, angiopoiesis and migration effects via activating HSP90 pathway in EC109 cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yiyan; Zhen, Yulan; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiuting; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Feng, Jianqiang; Luo, Honghe; Chen, Zhenguang; Su, Chunhua; Zeng, Bo; Chen, Jingfu

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) participates in diverse physiological and pathophysiologic processes of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. We have previously reported the proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects of exogenous H2S on liver cancer and glioma via amplifying the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK/ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway. However, the effects of H2S on EC109 esophageal cells remain unclear. The present study demonstrated the effects of exogenous H2S on cancer cell growth via activating HSP90 pathways in EC109 esophageal cells. EC109 esophageal cells were treated with 400 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of HSP90, bcl-2, caspase-3, bax and MMP-2 were detected by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The migration rate was analyzed using a Transwell migration assay and ImageJ software. NaHS promoted cell proliferation, as evidenced by an increase in cell viability. In addition, NaHS treatment reduced apoptosis, as indicated by the increased bcl-2 expression and decreased cleaved caspase-3 and bax expression. Importantly, exposure of NaHS increased the expression of MMP-2, the migration rate and expression of VEGF. Notably, co-treatment of EC109 cells with NaHS and GA (an inhibitor of HSP90 pathway) largely suppressed the aforementioned NaHS-induced effects. The findings of the present study provided novel evidence that HSP90 pathway was involved in NaHS-induced cancer cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, angiopoiesis and migration in EC109 esophageal cells.

  16. Systematic Identification of the HSP90 Regulated Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhixiang; Moghaddas Gholami, Amin; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    HSP90 is a central player in the folding and maturation of many proteins. More than two hundred HSP90 clients have been identified by classical biochemical techniques including important signaling proteins with high relevance to human cancer pathways. HSP90 inhibition has thus become an attractive therapeutic concept and multiple molecules are currently in clinical trials. It is therefore of fundamental biological and medical importance to identify, ideally, all HSP90 clients and HSP90 regulated proteins. To this end, we have taken a global and a chemical proteomic approach in geldanamycin treated cancer cell lines using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified >6200 proteins in four different human cell lines and ∼1600 proteins showed significant regulation upon drug treatment. Gene ontology and pathway/network analysis revealed common and cell-type specific regulatory effects with strong connections to unfolded protein binding and protein kinase activity. Of the 288 identified protein kinases, 98 were downregulated upon geldanamycin treatment including >50 kinases not formerly known to be regulated by HSP90. Protein turn-over measurements using pulsed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture showed that protein down-regulation by HSP90 inhibition correlates with protein half-life in many cases. Protein kinases show significantly shorter half lives than other proteins highlighting both challenges and opportunities for HSP90 inhibition in cancer therapy. The proteomic responses of the HSP90 drugs geldanamycin and PU-H71 were highly similar suggesting that both drugs work by similar molecular mechanisms. Using HSP90 immunoprecipitation, we validated several kinases (AXL, DDR1, TRIO) and other signaling proteins (BIRC6, ISG15, FLII), as novel clients of HSP90. Taken together, our study broadly defines the cellular proteome response to HSP90 inhibition and provides a rich resource for

  17. Hsp90 inhibition suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activation via Sirt-2 in human lung microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thangjam, Gagan S; Birmpas, Charalampos; Barabutis, Nektarios; Gregory, Betsy W; Clemens, Mary Ann; Newton, Joseph R; Fulton, David; Catravas, John D

    2016-05-15

    The ability of anti-heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) drugs to attenuate NF-κB-mediated transcription is the major basis for their anti-inflammatory properties. While the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear, they appear to be distinct in human endothelial cells. We now show for the first time that type 2 sirtuin (Sirt-2) histone deacetylase binds human NF-κB target gene promoter and prevents the recruitment of NF-κB proteins and subsequent assembly of RNA polymerase II complex in human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Hsp90 inhibitors stabilize the Sirt-2/promoter interaction and impose a "transcriptional block," which is reversed by either inhibition or downregulation of Sirt-2 protein expression. Furthermore, this process is independent of NF-κB (p65) Lysine 310 deacetylation, suggesting that it is distinct from known Sirt-2-dependent mechanisms. We demonstrate that Sirt-2 is recruited to NF-κB target gene promoter via interaction with core histones. Upon inflammatory challenge, chromatin remodeling and core histone H3 displacement from the promoter region removes Sirt-2 and allows NF-κB/coactivator recruitment essential for RNA Pol II-dependent mRNA induction. This novel mechanism may have important implications in pulmonary inflammation.

  18. Identification of an Hsp90 mutation that selectively disrupts cAMP/PKA signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flom, Gary A; Langner, Ewa; Johnson, Jill L

    2012-06-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 cooperates with multiple cochaperone proteins as it promotes the folding and activation of diverse client proteins. Some cochaperones regulate the ATPase activity of Hsp90, while others appear to promote Hsp90 interaction with specific types of client proteins. Through its interaction with the adenylate cyclase Cyr1, the Sgt1 cochaperone modulates the activity of the cAMP pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A specific mutation in yeast Hsp90, hsc82-W296A, or a mutation in Sgt1, sgt1-K360E, resulted in altered transcription patterns genetically linked to the cAMP pathway. Hsp90 interacted with Cyr1 in vivo and the hsc82-W296A mutation resulted in reduced accumulation of Cyr1. Hsp90-Sgt1 interaction was altered by either the hsc82-W296A or sgt1-K360E mutation, suggesting defective Hsp90-Sgt1 cooperation leads to reduced Cyr1 activity. Microarray analysis of hsc82-W296A cells indicated that over 80 % of all transcriptional changes in this strain may be attributed to altered cAMP signaling. This suggests that a majority of the cellular defects observed in hsc82-W296A cells are due to altered interaction with one specific essential cochaperone, Sgt1 and one essential client, Cyr1. Together our results indicate that specific interaction of Hsp90 and Sgt1 with Cyr1 plays a key role in regulating gene expression, including genes involved in polarized morphogenesis.

  19. Clients Place Unique Functional Constraints on Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Zuehlke, Abbey D; Neckers, Len

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) is required for the activation and stabilization of numerous client proteins, but the functional requirements of individual clients remain poorly understood. Utilizing yeast growth assays and mutational analysis, Mishra and colleagues explore the constraints placed on Hsp90 by distinct clients and the relationship between these constraints and overall yeast fitness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ganetespib (STA-9090), a nongeldanamycin HSP90 inhibitor, has potent antitumor activity in in vitro and in vivo models of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Takeshi; Perera, Samanthi A; Foley, Kevin P; Sang, Jim; Rodig, Scott J; Inoue, Takayo; Chen, Liang; Li, Danan; Carretero, Julian; Li, Yu-Chen; Sinha, Papiya; Carey, Christopher D; Borgman, Christa L; Jimenez, John-Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; Ying, Weiwen; Barsoum, James; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2012-09-15

    We describe the anticancer activity of ganetespib, a novel non-geldanamycin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models. The activity of ganetespib was compared with that of the geldanamycin 17-AAG in biochemical assays, cell lines, and xenografts, and evaluated in an ERBB2 YVMA-driven mouse lung adenocarcinoma model. Ganetespib blocked the ability of HSP90 to bind to biotinylated geldanamycin and disrupted the association of HSP90 with its cochaperone, p23, more potently than 17-AAG. In genomically defined NSCLC cell lines, ganetespib caused depletion of receptor tyrosine kinases, extinguishing of downstream signaling, inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with IC(50) values ranging 2 to 30 nmol/L, substantially lower than those required for 17-AAG (20-3,500 nmol/L). Ganetespib was also approximately 20-fold more potent in isogenic Ba/F3 pro-B cells rendered IL-3 independent by expression of EGFR and ERBB2 mutants. In mice bearing NCI-H1975 (EGFR L858R/T790M) xenografts, ganetespib was rapidly eliminated from plasma and normal tissues but was maintained in tumor with t(1/2) 58.3 hours, supporting once-weekly dosing experiments, in which ganetespib produced greater tumor growth inhibition than 17-AAG. However, after a single dose, reexpression of mutant EGFR occurred by 72 hours, correlating with reversal of antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Consecutive day dosing resulted in xenograft regressions, accompanied by more sustained pharmacodynamic effects. Ganetespib also showed activity against mouse lung adenocarcinomas driven by oncogenic ERBB2 YVMA. Ganetespib has greater potency than 17-AAG and potential efficacy against several NSCLC subsets, including those harboring EGFR or ERBB2 mutation. ©2012 AACR.

  1. Ganetespib (STA-9090), a Non-Geldanamycin HSP90 Inhibitor, has Potent Antitumor Activity in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Takeshi; Perera, Samanthi A.; Foley, Kevin P.; Sang, Jim; Rodig, Scott J.; Inoue, Takayo; Chen, Liang; Li, Danan; Carretero, Julian; Li, Yu-Chen; Sinha, Papiya; Carey, Christopher D.; Borgman, Christa L.; Jimenez, John-Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; Ying, Weiwen; Barsoum, James; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We describe the anticancer activity of ganetespib, a novel non-geldanamycin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models. Experimental Design The activity of ganetespib was compared to that of the geldanamycin 17-AAG in biochemical assays, cell lines and xenografts, and evaluated in an ERBB2 YVMA-driven mouse lung adenocarcinoma model. Results Ganetespib blocked the ability of HSP90 to bind to biotinylated geldanamycin and disrupted the association of HSP90 with its co-chaperone, p23, more potently than 17-AAG. In genomically-defined NSCLC cell lines, ganetespib caused depletion of receptor tyrosine kinases, extinguishing of downstream signaling, inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis with IC50 values ranging 2–30 nM, substantially lower than those required for 17-AAG (20– 3,500 nM). Ganetespib was also approximately 20-fold more potent in isogenic Ba/F3 pro-B cells rendered IL-3 independent by expression of EGFR and ERBB2 mutants. In mice bearing NCI-H1975 (EGFR L858R/T790M) xenografts, ganetespib was rapidly eliminated from plasma and normal tissues but was maintained in tumor with t1/2 58.3 hours, supporting once-weekly dosing experiments, in which ganetespib produced greater tumor growth inhibition than 17-AAG. However, after a single dose, re-expression of mutant EGFR occurred by 72 hours, correlating with reversal of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Consecutive day dosing resulted in xenograft regressions, accompanied by more sustained pharmacodynamic effects. Ganetespib also demonstrated activity against mouse lung adenocarcinomas driven by oncogenic ERBB2 YVMA. Conclusions Ganetespib has greater potency than 17-AAG and potential efficacy against several NSCLC subsets, including those harboring EGFR or ERBB2 mutation. PMID:22806877

  2. A novel C-terminal homologue of Aha1 co-chaperone binds to heat shock protein 90 and stimulates its ATPase activity in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meetali; Shah, Varun; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-04-17

    Cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been shown to be essential for many infectious pathogens and is considered a potential target for drug development. In this study, we have carried out biochemical characterization of Hsp90 from a poorly studied protozoan parasite of clinical importance, Entamoeba histolytica. We have shown that Entamoeba Hsp90 can bind to both ATP and its pharmacological inhibitor, 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin), with Kd values of 365.2 and 10.77 μM, respectively, and it has a weak ATPase activity with a catalytic efficiency of 4.12×10(-4) min(-1) μM(-1). Using inhibitor 17-AAG, we have shown dependence of Entamoeba on Hsp90 for its growth and survival. Hsp90 function is regulated by various co-chaperones. Previous studies suggest a lack of several important co-chaperones in E. histolytica. In this study, we describe the presence of a novel homologue of co-chaperone Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase), EhAha1c, lacking a canonical Aha1 N-terminal domain. We also show that EhAha1c is capable of binding and stimulating ATPase activity of EhHsp90. In addition to highlighting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors as drugs against amoebiasis, our study highlights the importance of E. histolytica in understanding the evolution of Hsp90 and its co-chaperone repertoire.

  3. Search for Hsp90 Inhibitors with Potential Anticancer Activity: Isolation and SAR Studies of Radicicol and Monocillin I from Two Plant-Associated Fungi of the Sonoran Desert1

    PubMed Central

    Turbyville, Thomas J.; Kithsiri Wijeratne, E. M.; Liu, Manping X.; Burns, Anna M.; Seliga, Christopher J.; Luevano, Libia A.; David, Cynthia L.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Whitesell, Luke; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to discover small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, we have screened over 500 EtOAc extracts of Sonoran desert plant-associated fungi using a two-stage strategy consisting of a primary cell-based heat shock induction assay (HSIA) followed by a secondary biochemical luciferase refolding assay (LRA). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts active in these assays derived from Chaetomium chiversii and Paraphaeosphaeria quadriseptata furnished the Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (1) and monocillin I (2), respectively. In SAR studies, 1, 2, and their analogues, 3–16, were evaluated in these assays, and the antiproliferative activity of compounds active in both assays was determined using the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Radicicol and monocillin I were also evaluated in a solid-phase competition assay for their ability to bind Hsp90 and to deplete cellular levels of two known Hsp90 client proteins with relevance to breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), and the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Some inferences on SAR were made considering the crystal structure of the N-terminus of yeast Hsp90 bound to 1 and the observed biological activities of 1–16. Isolation of radicicol and monocillin I in this study provides evidence that we have developed an effective strategy for discovering natural product-based Hsp90 inhibitors with potential anticancer activity. PMID:16499313

  4. Cystein cathepsin and Hsp90 activities determine the balance between apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in caspase-compromised U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Imre, Gergely; Dunai, Zsuzsanna; Petak, Istvan; Mihalik, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    Caspase-inhibited cells induced to die may exhibit the traits of either apoptosis or necrosis or both, simultaneously. However, mechanisms regulating the commitment to these distinct forms of cell death are barely identified. We found that staurosporine induced both apoptotic and necrotic traits in U937 cells exposed to the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone. Morphology and flow cytometry revealed that individual cells exhibited either apoptotic or necrotic traits, but not the mixed phenotype. Inhibition of cathepsin activity by benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone rendered caspase-compromised cells resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, but switched the cell death form to necrosis. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) chaperon activity by geldanamycin conferred resistance to necrosis in caspase-compromised cells but switched the cell death form to apoptosis. Combination of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and geldanamycin halted the onset of both forms of cell death by saving mitochondrial trans-membrane potential and preventing acidic volume (lysosomes) loss. These effects of benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone and/or geldanamycin on cell death were restricted to caspase-inhibited cells exposed to staurosporine but influenced neither only the staurosporine-provoked apoptosis nor hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-generated necrosis. Our results demonstrate that the staurosporine-induced death pathway bifurcates in caspase-compromised cells and commitment to apoptotic or necrotic phenotypes depends on cathepsin protease or Hsp90 chaperon activities.

  5. Insights from yeast into whether the inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) by rapamycin can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Millson, Stefan H; Piper, Peter W

    2014-07-15

    In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation. In such cells, as well as in yeast, the selective TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks this activation in contrast to Hsp90 inhibitors which potently activate Hsf1. Potentially therefore rapamycin could prevent the Hsf1 activation that frequently compromises the efficiency of Hsp90 inhibitor cancer drugs. Little synergy was found between the effects of rapamycin and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on yeast growth. However certain rapamycin resistance mutations sensitised yeast to Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and an Hsp90 mutation that overactivates Hsf1 sensitised cells to rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibition of the yeast Hsf1 was abolished by this Hsp90 mutation, as well as with the loss of Ppt1, the Hsp90-interacting protein phosphatase that is the ortholog of mammalian PP5. Unexpectedly Hsf1 activation was found to have a requirement for the rapamycin binding immunophilin FKBP12 even in the absence of rapamycin, while TORC1 "bypass" strains revealed that the rapamycin inhibition of yeast Hsf1 is not exerted through two of the major downstream targets of TORC1, the protein phosphatase regulator Tap42 and the protein kinase Sch9--the latter the ortholog of human S6 protein kinase 1. A problem with most of the Hsp90 inhibitor drugs now in cancer clinic trials is that they potently activate Hsf1. This leads to an induction of heat shock proteins, many of which have a "pro-survival" role in that they help to protect cells from apopotosis. As the activation of Hsf1 requires TORC1, inhibitors of mTOR kinase could potentially block this activation of Hsf1 and be of value when used in combination drug therapies with Hsp90 inhibitors. However many of the mechanistic details of the TORC1 regulation of Hsf1, as well as the interplay between cellular resistances to rapamycin and to Hsp90 inhibitors, still remain to be resolved.

  6. Insights from yeast into whether the rapamycin inhibition of heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) can prevent the Hsf1 activation that results from treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Millson, Stefan H.; Piper, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    In human cells TORC1 mTOR (target of rapamycin) protein kinase complex renders heat shock transcription factor 1 (Hsf1) competent for stress activation. In such cells, as well as in yeast, the selective TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin blocks this activation in contrast to Hsp90 inhibitors which potently activate Hsf1. Potentially therefore rapamycin could prevent the Hsf1 activation that frequently compromises the efficiency of Hsp90 inhibitor cancer drugs. Little synergy was found between the effects of rapamycin and the Hsp90 inhibitor radicicol on yeast growth. However certain rapamycin resistance mutations sensitised yeast to Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and an Hsp90 mutation that overactivates Hsf1 sensitised cells to rapamycin. Rapamycin inhibition of the yeast Hsf1 was abolished by this Hsp90 mutation, as well as with the loss of Ppt1, the Hsp90-interacting protein phosphatase that is the ortholog of mammalian PP5. Unexpectedly Hsf1 activation was found to have a requirement for the rapamycin binding immunophilin FKBP12 even in the absence of rapamycin, while TORC1 “bypass” strains revealed that the rapamycin inhibition of yeast Hsf1 is not exerted through two of the major downstream targets of TORC1, the protein phosphatase regulator Tap42 and the protein kinase Sch9 – the latter the ortholog of human S6 protein kinase 1. Significance: A problem with most of the Hsp90 inhibitor drugs now in cancer clinic trials is that they potently activate Hsf1. This leads to an induction of heat shock proteins, many of which have a “pro-survival” role in that they help to protect cells from apopotosis. As the activation of Hsf1 requires TORC1, inhibitors of mTOR kinase could potentially block this activation of Hsf1 and be of value when used in combination drug therapies with Hsp90 inhibitors. However many of the mechanistic details of the TORC1 regulation of Hsf1, as well as the interplay between cellular resistances to rapamycin and to Hsp90 inhibitors, still remain

  7. Structure–Activity Relationship in a Purine-Scaffold Compound Series with Selectivity for the Endoplasmic Reticulum Hsp90 Paralog Grp94

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardik J.; Patel, Pallav D.; Ochiana, Stefan O.; Yan, Pengrong; Sun, Weilin; Patel, Maulik R.; Shah, Smit K.; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Brooks, James; Bolaender, Alexander; Shrestha, Liza; Stephani, Ralph; Finotti, Paola; Leifer, Cynthia; Li, Zihai; Gewirth, Daniel T.; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Grp94 is involved in the regulation of a restricted number of proteins and represents a potential target in a host of diseases, including cancer, septic shock, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions, diabetes, coronary thrombosis, and stroke. We have recently identified a novel allosteric pocket located in the Grp94 N-terminal binding site that can be used to design ligands with a 2-log selectivity over the other Hsp90 paralogs. Here we perform extensive SAR investigations in this ligand series and rationalize the affinity and paralog selectivity of choice derivatives by molecular modeling. We then use this to design 18c, a derivative with good potency for Grp94 (IC50 = 0.22 μM) and selectivity over other paralogs (>100- and 33-fold for Hsp90α/β and Trap-1, respectively). The paralog selectivity and target-mediated activity of 18c was confirmed in cells through several functional readouts. Compound 18c was also inert when tested against a large panel of kinases. We show that 18c has biological activity in several cellular models of inflammation and cancer and also present here for the first time the in vivo profile of a Grp94 inhibitor. PMID:25901531

  8. P-glycoprotein-evading anti-tumor activity of a novel tubulin and HSP90 dual inhibitor in a non-small-cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu; Zhai, Shumei; Li, Liwen; Li, Xiue; Jiang, Cuijuan; Zhang, Chengke; Yan, Bing

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-induced drug resistance is a major road block for successful cancer chemotherapy. Through phenotypic screening, the compound 2-(2-chlorophenylimino)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) thiazolidin-4-one (CDBT) was discovered to have potent anti-tumor activity in P-gp over-expressing drug-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460TaxR cells. Here, we report mechanistic investigations of the P-gp-evading anti-tumor activity of CDBT. CDBT is evidently not a P-gp substrate and escapes the P-gp efflux pump. As a novel microtubule and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) dual targeting inhibitor, CDBT causes the destabilization of microtubules and degradation of HSP90 client proteins CRAF-1 and ERBB2, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Furthermore, CDBT effectively inhibits tumor growth by 60.4% relative to the vehicle control after intraperitoneal administration at 30 mg/kg for 11 days and shows no toxicity in normal tissues in the NSCLC H460TaxR xenograft mouse model. Our data suggest a novel drug discovery strategy to combat P-gp over-expressing drug-resistant NSCLC cancer cells with a single therapeutic agent.

  9. Cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics bind to the N-terminal domain of the prokaryotic Hsp90 to inhibit the chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Shun; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Sueoka, Keigo; Osada, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    Chemical arrays were employed to screen ligands for HtpG, the prokaryotic homologue of Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90. We found that colistins and the closely related polymyxin B interact physically with HtpG. They bind to the N-terminal domain of HtpG specifically without affecting its ATPase activity. The interaction caused inhibition of chaperone function of HtpG that suppresses thermal aggregation of substrate proteins. Further studies were performed with one of these cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics, colistin sulfate salt. It inhibited the chaperone function of the N-terminal domain of HtpG. However, it inhibited neither the chaperone function of the middle domain of HtpG nor that of other molecular chaperones such as DnaK, the prokaryotic homologue of Hsp70, and small Hsp. The addition of colistin sulfate salt increased surface hydrophobicity of the N-terminal domain of HtpG and induced oligomerization of HtpG and its N-terminal domain. These structural changes are discussed in relation to the inhibition of the chaperone function.

  10. Canonical and Kinase Activity-Independent Mechanisms for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 (ERK5) Nuclear Translocation Require Dissociation of Hsp90 from the ERK5-Cdc37 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Tatiana; Moreno, Ana; Ruiz-Babot, Gerard; Rodríguez-Asiain, Arantza; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Espadamala, Josep; Bayascas, Jose R.

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, regulating gene transcription. ERK5 has a unique C-terminal tail which contains a transcriptional activation domain, and activates transcription by phosphorylating transcription factors and acting itself as a transcriptional coactivator. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate its nucleocytoplasmatic traffic are unknown. We have used tandem affinity purification to identify proteins that interact with ERK5. We show that ERK5 interacts with the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone in resting cells, and that inhibition of Hsp90 or Cdc37 results in ERK5 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, activation of cellular ERK5 induces Hsp90 dissociation from the ERK5-Cdc37 complex, leading to ERK5 nuclear translocation and activation of transcription, by a mechanism which requires the autophosphorylation at its C-terminal tail. Consequently, active ERK5 is no longer sensitive to Hsp90 or Cdc37 inhibitors. Cdc37 overexpression also induces Hsp90 dissociation and the nuclear translocation of a kinase-inactive form of ERK5 which retains transcriptional activity. This is the first example showing that ERK5 transcriptional activity does not require kinase activity. Since Cdc37 cooperates with ERK5 to promote cell proliferation, Cdc37 overexpression (as happens in some cancers) might represent a new, noncanonical mechanism by which ERK5 regulates tumor proliferation. PMID:23428871

  11. Critical regulation of TGFbeta signaling by Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2008-07-08

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) controls a diverse set of cellular processes by activating TGFbeta type I (TbetaRI) and type II (TbetaRII) serine-threonine receptor kinases. Canonical TGFbeta signaling is mediated by Smad2 and Smad3, which are phosphorylated in their SXS motif by activated TbetaRI. The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone facilitating the folding and stabilization of many protein kinases and intracellular signaling molecules. Here, we present evidence identifying a critical role for Hsp90 in TGFbeta signaling. Inhibition of Hsp90 function by using small-molecule inhibitors such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), and also at the genetic level, blocks TGFbeta-induced signaling and transcriptional responses. Furthermore, we identify TbetaRI and TbetaRII as Hsp90-interacting proteins in vitro and in vivo and demonstrate that inhibition of Hsp90 function increases TbetaR ubiquitination and degradation dependent on the Smurf2 ubiquitin E3 ligase. Our data reveal an essential level of TGFbeta signaling regulation mediated by Hsp90 by its ability to chaperone TbetaRs and also implicate the use of Hsp90 inhibitors in blocking undesired activation of TGFbeta signaling in diseases.

  12. Critical regulation of TGFβ signaling by Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, Katharine H.; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) controls a diverse set of cellular processes by activating TGFβ type I (TβRI) and type II (TβRII) serine-threonine receptor kinases. Canonical TGFβ signaling is mediated by Smad2 and Smad3, which are phosphorylated in their SXS motif by activated TβRI. The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone facilitating the folding and stabilization of many protein kinases and intracellular signaling molecules. Here, we present evidence identifying a critical role for Hsp90 in TGFβ signaling. Inhibition of Hsp90 function by using small-molecule inhibitors such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), and also at the genetic level, blocks TGFβ-induced signaling and transcriptional responses. Furthermore, we identify TβRI and TβRII as Hsp90-interacting proteins in vitro and in vivo and demonstrate that inhibition of Hsp90 function increases TβR ubiquitination and degradation dependent on the Smurf2 ubiquitin E3 ligase. Our data reveal an essential level of TGFβ signaling regulation mediated by Hsp90 by its ability to chaperone TβRs and also implicate the use of Hsp90 inhibitors in blocking undesired activation of TGFβ signaling in diseases. PMID:18591668

  13. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  14. Tumor-Intrinsic and Tumor-Extrinsic Factors Impacting Hsp90-Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, S. V.; Mollapour, M.; Lee, M.-J.; Tsutsumi, S.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Prince, T.; Apolo, A.; Giaccone, G.; Xu, W.; Neckers, L. M.; Trepel, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994 the first heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor was identified and Hsp90 was reported to be a target for anticancer therapeutics. In the past 18 years there have been 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors entered into clinical trial, and the small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors have been highly valuable as probes of the role of Hsp90 and its client proteins in cancer. Although no Hsp90 inhibitor has achieved regulatory approval, recently there has been significant progress in Hsp90 inhibitor clinical development, and in the past year RECIST responses have been documented in HER2-positive breast cancer and EML4-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. All of the clinical Hsp90 inhibitors studied to date are specific in their target, i.e. they bind exclusively to Hsp90 and two related heat shock proteins. However, Hsp90 inhibitors are markedly pleiotropic, causing degradation of over 200 client proteins and impacting critical multiprotein complexes. Furthermore, it has only recently been appreciated that Hsp90 inhibitors can, paradoxically, cause transient activation of the protein kinase clients they are chaperoning, resulting in initiation of signal transduction and significant physiological events in both tumor and tumor microenvironment. An additional area of recent progress in Hsp90 research is in studies of the posttranslational modifications of Hsp90 itself and Hsp90 co-chaperone proteins. Together, a picture is emerging in which the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors is shaped by the tumor intracellular and extracellular milieu, and in which Hsp90 inhibitors impact tumor and host on a microenvironmental and systems level. Here we review the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact the efficacy of small molecules engaging the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:22804236

  15. A model for monitoring of Hsp90-buffered genetic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    Genetic material of terrestrial organisms can be considerably injured by cosmic rays and UV-radiation in the space environment. Organisms onboard are also exposed to the entire complex of negative physical factors which can generate genetic variations and affect morphogenesis. However, species phenotypes must be robust to genetic variation, requiring "buffering" systems to ensure normal development. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 can serve as such "a buffer". It is important in the maturation and conformational regulation of a diverse set of signal transducers. The requirement of many principal regulatory proteins for Hsp90 renders entire metabolic pathways sensitive to impairment of its function. So inhibition of Hsp90 function can open cryptic genetic variations and produce morphological changes. In this paper, we present a model for monitoring of cryptic Hsp90-buffered genetic variations arising during exposure to space and spaceflight factors. This model has been developed with Arabidopsis thaliana seeds gathered in natural habitats with high anthropogenic pressure and wild type (Col-0) seeds subjected to negative influences (UV, heavy metals) experimentally. The phenotypic traits of early seedlings grown under reduction of Hsp90 activity were characterized to estimate Hsp90-buffered genetic variations. Geldanamycin was used as an inhibitor of Hsp90 function.

  16. Alternative approaches to Hsp90 modulation for the treatment of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jessica A; Forsberg, Leah K; Blagg, Brian SJ

    2015-01-01

    Hsp90 is responsible for the conformational maturation of newly synthesized polypeptides (client proteins) and the re-maturation of denatured proteins via the Hsp90 chaperone cycle. Inhibition of the Hsp90 N-terminus has emerged as a clinically relevant strategy for anticancer chemotherapeutics due to the involvement of clients in a variety of oncogenic pathways. Several immunophilins, co-chaperones and partner proteins are also necessary for Hsp90 chaperoning activity. Alternative strategies to inhibit Hsp90 function include disruption of the C-terminal dimerization domain and the Hsp90 heteroprotein complex. C-terminal inhibitors and Hsp90 co-chaperone disruptors prevent cancer cell proliferation similar to N-terminal inhibitors and destabilize client proteins without induction of heat shock proteins. Herein, current Hsp90 inhibitors, the chaperone cycle, and regulation of this cycle will be discussed. PMID:25367392

  17. Tethered Hsp90 Inhibitors Carrying Optical or Radioiodinated Probes Reveal Selective Internalization of Ectopic Hsp90 in Malignant Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrott, Jared J.; Hughes, Philip F.; Osada, Takuya; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Hartman, Zachary C.; Loiselle, David R.; Spector, Neil L.; Neckers, Len; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Hu, Fangyao; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Lyerly, H. Kim; Haystead, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Hsp90 inhibitors have demonstrated unusual selectivity for tumor cells despite its ubiquitous expression. This phenomenon has remained unexplained but could be influenced by ectopically expressed Hsp90 in tumors. We have synthesized novel Hsp90 inhibitors that can carry optical or radioiodinated probes via a PEG tether. We show that these tethered inhibitors selectively recognize cells expressing ectopic Hsp90 and become internalized. The internalization process is blocked by Hsp90 antibodies, suggesting that active cycling of the protein is occurring at the plasma membrane. In mice, we show exquisite accumulation of the fluor-tethered versions within breast tumors at very sensitive levels. Cell-based assays with the radiolabeled version showed picomolar detection in cells that express ectopic Hsp90. Our findings show that fluor-tethered or radiolabeled inhibitors targeting ectopic Hsp90 can be used to detect breast cancer malignancies through non-invasive imaging. PMID:24035283

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Geldanamycin-Hsp90 Interaction in a Whole Cell Lysate Using a Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingrong; Wallace, M. Ariel Geer; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2016-10-01

    Geldanamycin is a natural product with well-established and potent anti-cancer activities. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is the known target of geldanamycin, which directly binds to Hsp90's N-terminal ATP binding domain and inhibits Hsp90's ATPase activity. The affinity of geldanamycin for Hsp90 has been measured in multiple studies. However, there have been large discrepancies between the reported dissociation constants (i.e., Kd values), which have ranged from low nanomolar to micromolar. Here the stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to measure the binding affinity of geldanamycin to unpurified Hsp90 in an MCF-7 cell lysate. The Kd values determined here were dependent on how long geldanamycin was equilibrated with the lysate prior to SPROX analysis. The Kd values determined using equilibration times of 0.5 and 24 h were 1 and 0.03 μM, respectively. These Kd values, which are similar to those previously reported in a geldanamycin-Hsp90 binding study that involved the use of a fluorescently labeled geldanamycin analogue, establish that the slow-tight binding behavior previously observed for the fluorescently labeled geldanamycin analogue is not an artifact of the fluorescent label, but rather an inherent property of the geldanamycin-Hsp90 binding interaction. The slow-tight binding property of this complex may be related to time-dependent conformational changes in Hsp90 and/or to time-dependent chemical changes in geldanamycin, both of which have been previously proposed to explain the slow-tight binding behavior of the geldanamycin-Hsp90 complex.

  19. The HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib potentiates the antitumor activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition in mutant and wild-type non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald L; Acquaviva, Jaime; Sequeira, Manuel; Jimenez, John-Paul; Zhang, Chaohua; Sang, Jim; Bates, Richard C; Proia, David A

    2015-06-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, revolutionized therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumors harbor activating EGFR mutations. However, mechanisms to overcome the invariable development of acquired resistance to such agents, as well as realizing their full clinical potential within the context of wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR) disease, remain to be established. Here, the antitumor efficacy of targeted EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and the HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, alone and in combination, were evaluated in NSCLC. Ganetespib potentiated the efficacy of erlotinib in TKI-sensitive, mutant EGFR-driven NCI-HCC827 xenograft tumors, with combination treatment causing significant tumor regressions. In erlotinib-resistant NCI-H1975 xenografts, concurrent administration of ganetespib overcame erlotinib resistance to significantly improve tumor growth inhibition. Ganetespib co-treatment also significantly enhanced antitumor responses to afatinib in the same model. In WT-EGFR cell lines, ganetespib potently reduced cell viability. In NCI-H1666 cells, ganetespib-induced loss of client protein expression, perturbation of oncogenic signaling pathways, and induction of apoptosis translated to robust single-agent activity in vivo. Dual ganetespib/erlotinib therapy induced regressions in NCI-H322 xenograft tumors, indicating that the sensitizing properties of ganetespib for erlotinib were conserved within the WT-EGFR setting. Mechanistically, combined ganetespib/erlotinib exposure stabilized EGFR protein levels in an inactive state and completely abrogated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT signaling activity. Thus, selective HSP90 blockade by ganetespib represents a potentially important complementary strategy to targeted TKI inhibition alone for inducing substantial antitumor responses and overcoming resistance, in both the mutant and WT

  20. Comparison of the activity of three different HSP70 inhibitors on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy inhibition, and HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Budina-Kolomets, Anna; Balaburski, Gregor M; Bondar, Anastasia; Beeharry, Neil; Yen, Tim; Murphy, Maureen E

    2014-02-01

    The chaperone HSP70 promotes the survival of cells exposed to many different types of stresses, and is also potently anti-apoptotic. The major stress-induced form of this protein, HSP70-1, is overexpressed in a number of human cancers, yet is negligibly expressed in normal cells. Silencing of the gene encoding HSP70-1 (HSPA1A) is cytotoxic to transformed but not normal cells. Therefore, HSP70 is considered to be a promising cancer drug target, and there has been active interest in the identification and characterization of HSP70 inhibitors for cancer therapy. Because HSP70 behaves in a relatively non-specific manner in the control of protein folding, to date there are no reliably-identified "clients" of this protein, nor is there consensus as to what the phenotypic effects of HSP70 inhibitors are on a cancer cell. Here for the first time we compare three recently-identified HSP70 inhibitors, PES-Cl, MKT-077, and Ver-155008, for their ability to impact some of the known and reported functions of this chaperone; specifically, the ability to inhibit autophagy, to influence the level of HSP90 client proteins, to induce cell cycle arrest, and to inhibit the enzymatic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). We report that all three of these compounds can inhibit autophagy and cause reduced levels of HSP90 client proteins; however, only PES-Cl can inhibit the APC/C and induce G 2/M arrest. Possible reasons for these differences, and the implications for the further development of these prototype compounds as anti-cancer agents, are discussed.

  1. Phenotypic Diversity and Altered Environmental Plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with Reduced Hsp90 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sangster, Todd A.; Bahrami, Adam; Wilczek, Amity; Watanabe, Etsuko; Schellenberg, Kurt; McLellan, Catherine; Kelley, Alicia; Kong, Sek Won; Queitsch, Christine; Lindquist, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 aids the maturation of a diverse but select set of metastable protein clients, many of which are key to a variety of signal transduction pathways. HSP90 function has been best investigated in animal and fungal systems, where inhibition of the chaperone has exceptionally diverse effects, ranging from reversing oncogenic transformation to preventing the acquisition of drug resistance. Inhibition of HSP90 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers novel morphologies dependent on normally cryptic genetic variation and increases stochastic variation inherent to developmental processes. The biochemical activity of HSP90 is strictly conserved between animals and plants. However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the necessity of reliance on light-sensitive HSP90 inhibitors due to redundancy in the A. thaliana HSP90 gene family. Here we present phenotypic and genome-wide expression analyses of A. thaliana with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative life-history traits, including flowering time and total seed set, increases morphological diversity, and decreases the developmental stability of repeated characters. Several morphologies are synergistically affected by HSP90 and growth temperature. Genome-wide expression analyses also suggest a central role for HSP90 in the genesis and maintenance of plastic responses. The expression results are substantiated by examination of the response of HSP90-reduced plants to attack by caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose that HSP90 exerts global effects on the environmental responsiveness of plants to many different stimuli. The comprehensive set of HSP90-reduced lines described here is a vital instrument to further examine the role of HSP90 as a

  2. Targeting the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90): lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hong, David S; Banerji, Udai; Tavana, Bahareh; George, Goldy C; Aaron, Joann; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2013-06-01

    Due to the critical role of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in regulating the stability, activity and intracellular sorting of its client proteins involved in multiple oncogenic processes, HSP90 inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In cancer cells, HSP90 client proteins play a major role in oncogenic signal transduction (i.e., mutant epidermal growth factor receptor), angiogenesis (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor), anti-apoptosis (i.e., AKT), and metastasis (i.e., matrix metalloproteinase 2 and CD91), processes central to maintaining the cancer phenotype. Thus, HSP90 has emerged as a viable target for antitumor drug development, and several HSP90 inhibitors have transitioned to clinical trials. HSP90 inhibitors include geldanamycin and its derivatives (i.e., tanespimycin, alvespimycin, IPI-504), synthetic and small molecule inhibitors (i.e., AUY922, AT13387, STA9090, MPC3100), other inhibitors of HSP90 and its isoforms (i.e., shepherdin and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine). With more than 200 "client" proteins, many of them meta-stable and oncogenic, HSP90 inhibition can affect an array of tumors. Here we review the molecular structure of HSP90, structural features of HSP90 inhibition, pharmacodynamic effects and tumor responses in clinical trials of HSP90 inhibitors. We also discuss lessons learned from completed clinical trials of HSP90 inhibitors, and future directions for these promising therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maximizing the Therapeutic Potential of Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lisa M.; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Armstrong, Heather K.; Centenera, Margaret M.; Workman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Hsp90 is required for maintaining the stability and activity of a diverse group of client proteins, including protein kinases, transcription factors and steroid hormone receptors involved in cell signaling, proliferation, survival, oncogenesis and cancer progression. Inhibition of Hsp90 alters the Hsp90-client protein complex, leading to reduced activity, misfolding, ubiquitination and, ultimately, proteasomal degradation of client proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors have demonstrated significant antitumor activity in a wide variety of preclinical models with evidence of selectivity for cancer versus normal cells. In the clinic however, the efficacy of this class of therapeutic agents has been relatively limited to date, with promising responses mainly observed in breast and lung cancer, but no major activity seen in other tumor types. In addition, adverse events and some significant toxicities have been documented. Key to improving these clinical outcomes is a better understanding of the cellular consequences of inhibiting Hsp90 that may underlie treatment response or resistance. This review considers the recent progress that has been made in the study of Hsp90 and its inhibitors, and highlights new opportunities to maximize their therapeutic potential. PMID:26219697

  4. HSP90 inhibition overcomes ibrutinib resistance in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caron; Kopp, Nadja; Layer, Jacob V; Redd, Robert A; Tschuri, Sebastian; Haebe, Sarah; van Bodegom, Diederik; Bird, Liat; Christie, Amanda L; Christodoulou, Alexandra; Saur, Amy; Tivey, Trevor; Zapf, Stefanie; Bararia, Deepak; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Rodig, Scott J; Weigert, Oliver; Weinstock, David M

    2016-11-24

    The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib induces responses in 70% of patients with relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Intrinsic resistance can occur through activation of the nonclassical NF-κB pathway and acquired resistance may involve the BTK C481S mutation. Outcomes after ibrutinib failure are dismal, indicating an unmet medical need. We reasoned that newer heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors could overcome ibrutinib resistance by targeting multiple oncogenic pathways in MCL. HSP90 inhibition induced the complete degradation of both BTK and IκB kinase α in MCL lines and CD40-dependent B cells, with downstream loss of MAPK and nonclassical NF-κB signaling. A proteome-wide analysis in MCL lines and an MCL patient-derived xenograft identified a restricted set of targets from HSP90 inhibition that were enriched for factors involved in B-cell receptor and JAK/STAT signaling, the nonclassical NF-κB pathway, cell-cycle regulation, and DNA repair. Finally, multiple HSP90 inhibitors potently killed MCL lines in vitro, and the clinical agent AUY922 was active in vivo against both patient-derived and cell-line xenografts. Together, these findings define the HSP90-dependent proteome in MCL. Considering the disappointing clinical activity of HSP90 inhibitors in other contexts, trials in patients with MCL will be essential for defining the efficacy of and mechanisms of resistance after ibrutinib failure. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Prediction of new Hsp90 inhibitors based on 3,4-isoxazolediamide scaffold using QSAR study, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Amanlou, Massoud

    2017-06-30

    Heat shock protein90 (Hsp90) are overexpressed in tumor cells, so the inhibition of the Hsp90 ATPase activity would be a significantly effective strategy in cancer therapy. In the current study, 3,4-isoxazolediamide derivatives were suggested as an Hsp90 inhibitor for anti-cancer therapy. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm of partial least square (GA-PLS) methods were performed to build models to predict the inhibitory activity of Hsp90. The leave-one out (LOO) cross-validation and Y-randomization tests were performed to models' validation. The new ligands were monitored by applicability domain. Molecular docking studies were also conducted to evaluate the mode of interaction of these compounds with Hsp90. Identification of the likely pathways into the active site pocket and the involved residues were performed by CAVAER 3.0.1 software. According to QSAR models and docking analysis, three new compounds were predicted. 50 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for the strongest synthesized compound and the best predicted compound in terms of binding energy and interactions between ligand and protein. The made models showed the significance of size, shape, symmetry, and branching of molecules in inhibitory activities of Hsp90. Docking studies indicated that two hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol ring were important in interacting with Asp93 and the orientation of these groups was related to substitution of different R1 groups. Comparing of molecular dynamic simulation (MDs) results shows that new compound perched in active site with lower binding energy than the best synthesized compound. The QSAR and docking analyses shown to be beneficial tools in the proposal of anti-cancer activities and a leader to the synthesis of new Hsp90 inhibitors based 3,4-isoxazolediamide. The MDs confirmed that predicted ligand is steady in the Hsp90 active sites.

  6. Stability of the human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 chaperone complex against nucleotides and Hsp90 inhibitors, and the influence of phosphorylation by casein kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Sanne H; Ingles, Donna J; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I; Tash, Joseph S; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-19

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands.

  7. Stability of the Human Hsp90-p50Cdc37 Chaperone Complex against Nucleotides and Hsp90 Inhibitors, and the Influence of Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Sanne H.; Ingles, Donna J.; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P.; Betzi, Stephane; Georg, Gunda I.; Tash, Joseph S.; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is regulated by co-chaperones such as p50Cdc37, which recruits a wide selection of client protein kinases. Targeted disruption of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex by protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat diseases characterized by aberrant Hsp90 activity. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, ELISA and GST-pull down assays we evaluated reported Hsp90 inhibitors and nucleotides for their ability to inhibit formation of the human Hsp90β-p50Cdc37 complex, reconstituted in-vitro from full-length proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors, including the proposed PPI inhibitors gedunin and H2-gamendazole, did not affect the interaction of Hsp90 with p50Cdc37 in vitro. Phosphorylation of Hsp90 and p50Cdc37 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) did not alter the thermodynamic signature of complex formation. However, the phosphorylated complex was vulnerable to disruption by ADP (IC50 = 32 µM), while ATP, AMPPNP and Hsp90 inhibitors remained largely ineffective. The differential inhibitory activity of ADP suggests that phosphorylation by CK2 primes the complex for dissociation in response to a drop in ATP/ADP levels. The approach applied herein provides robust assays for a comprehensive biochemical evaluation of potential effectors of the Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex, such as phosphorylation by a kinase or the interaction with small molecule ligands. PMID:25608045

  8. HSP90 Protects the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax Oncoprotein from Proteasomal Degradation To Support NF-κB Activation and HTLV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Linlin

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLV-1 genome encodes the Tax protein that plays essential regulatory roles in HTLV-1 replication and oncogenic transformation of T lymphocytes. Despite intensive study of Tax, how Tax interfaces with host signaling pathways to regulate virus replication and drive T-cell proliferation and immortalization remains poorly understood. To gain new insight into the mechanisms of Tax function and regulation, we used tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify novel cellular Tax-interacting proteins. This screen identified heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a new binding partner of Tax. The interaction between HSP90 and Tax was validated by coimmunoprecipitation assays, and colocalization between the two proteins was observed by confocal microscopy. Treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cells with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG elicited proteasomal degradation of Tax in the nuclear matrix with concomitant inhibition of NF-κB and HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) activation. Knockdown of HSP90 by lentiviral shRNAs similarly provoked a loss of Tax protein in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Finally, treatment of HTLV-1-transformed cell lines with 17-DMAG suppressed HTLV-1 replication and promoted apoptotic cell death. Taken together, our results reveal that Tax is a novel HSP90 client protein and HSP90 inhibitors may exert therapeutic benefits for ATL and HAM/TSP patients. PMID:24109220

  9. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Biphenylamide Derivatives as Hsp90 C-terminal Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiping; Garg, Gaurav; Zhao, Jinbo; Moroni, Elisabetta; Girgis, Antwan; Franco, Lucas S.; Singh, Swapnil; Colombo, Giorgio; Blagg, Brian S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of Hsp90 C-terminal function represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Current drug discovery efforts toward Hsp90 C-terminal inhibition focus on novobiocin, an antibiotic that was transformed into an Hsp90 inhibitor. Based on structural information obtained during the development of novobiocin derivatives and molecular docking studies, scaffolds containing a biphenyl moiety in lieu of the coumarin ring present in novobiocin were identified as new Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship studies produced new derivatives that inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, which corresponded directly with Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:25462258

  10. Hsp90 inhibition accelerates cell lysis. Anti-Hsp90 ribozyme reveals a complex mechanism of Hsp90 inhibitors involving both superoxide- and Hsp90-dependent events.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Amere Subbarao; Mihály, Katalin; Pató, Bálint; Schnaider, Tamás; Steták, Attila; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Fidy, Judit; Simonics, Tibor; Maraz, Anna; Csermely, Péter

    2003-09-12

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein, Hsp90, is an abundant molecular chaperone participating in the cytoprotection of eukaryotic cells. Here we analyzed the involvement of Hsp90 in the maintenance of cellular integrity using partial cell lysis as a measure. Inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin, radicicol, cisplatin, and novobiocin induced a significant acceleration of detergent- and hypotonic shock-induced cell lysis. The concentration and time dependence of cell lysis acceleration was in agreement with the Hsp90 inhibition characteristics of the N-terminal inhibitors, geldanamycin and radicicol. Glutathione and other reducing agents partially blocked geldanamycin-induced acceleration of cell lysis but were largely ineffective with other inhibitors. Indeed, geldanamycin treatment led to superoxide production and a change in membrane fluidity. When Hsp90 content was diminished using anti-Hsp90 hammerhead ribozymes, an accelerated cell lysis was also observed. Hsp90 inhibition-induced cell lysis was more pronounced in eukaryotic (yeast, mouse red blood, and human T-lymphoma) cells than in bacteria. Our results indicate that besides the geldanamycin-induced superoxide production, and a consequent increase in cell lysis, inhibition or lack of Hsp90 alone can also compromise cellular integrity. Moreover, cell lysis after hypoxia and complement attack was also enhanced by any type of Hsp90 inhibition used, which shows that the maintenance of cellular integrity by Hsp90 is important in physiologically relevant lytic conditions of tumor cells.

  11. Hsp90 in Cancer: Transcriptional Roles in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Stuart K; Neckers, Len

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 plays a key role in fostering metabolic pathways essential in tumorigenesis through its functions as a molecular chaperone. Multiple oncogenic factors in the membrane and cytoplasm are thus protected from degradation and destruction. Here, we have considered Hsp90's role in transcription in the nucleus. Hsp90 functions both in regulating the activity of sequence-specific transcription factors such as nuclear receptors and HSF1, as well as impacting more globally acting factors that act on chromatin and RNA polymerase II. Hsp90 influences transcription by modulating histone modification mediated by its clients SMYD3 and trithorax/MLL, as well as by regulating the processivity of RNA polymerase II through negative elongation factor. It is not currently clear how the transcriptional role of Hsp90 may be influenced by the cancer milieu although recently discovered posttranslational modification of the chaperone may be involved. Dysregulation of Hsp90 may thus influence malignant processes both by modulating the function of specific transcription factors and effects on more globally acting general components of the transcriptional machinery.

  12. Fungal Hsp90 - a biological transistor that tunes cellular outputs to thermal inputs

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Michelle D.; Klipp, Edda; Cowen, Leah E.; Brown, Alistair J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Hsp90 is an essential, abundant, and ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperone that has crucial roles in protein folding and modulates the activities of key regulators. The fungal Hsp90 interactome, which includes numerous client proteins such as receptors, protein kinases and transcription factors, displays a surprisingly high degree of plasticity that depends on environmental conditions. Furthermore, although Hsp90 levels increase following environmental challenges, Hsp90 activity is tightly controlled via post-translational regulation and an autoregulatory loop involving the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1. In this review, we discuss the roles and regulation of Hsp90. We propose that Hsp90 acts as a biological transistor that modulates the activity of fungal signalling networks in response to environmental cues via this Hsf1-Hsp90 autoregulatory loop. PMID:22976491

  13. Distinct roles of molecular chaperones HSP90α and HSP90β in the biogenesis of KCNQ4 channels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanhong; Yechikov, Sergey; Vazquez, Ana E; Chen, Dongyang; Nie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the KCNQ4 channel cause DFNA2, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic deafness that is characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss. Previous studies have demonstrated that the majority of the pathogenic KCNQ4 mutations lead to trafficking deficiency and loss of KCNQ4 currents. Over the last two decades, various strategies have been developed to rescue trafficking deficiency of pathogenic mutants; the most exciting advances have been made by manipulating activities of molecular chaperones involved in the biogenesis and quality control of the target protein. However, such strategies have not been established for KCNQ4 mutants and little is known about the molecular chaperones governing the KCNQ4 biogenesis. To identify KCNQ4-associated molecular chaperones, a proteomic approach was used in this study. As a result, two major molecular chaperones, HSP70 and HSP90, were identified and then confirmed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that the HSP90 chaperone pathway might be involved in the KCNQ4 biogenesis. Manipulating chaperone expression further revealed that two different isoforms of HSP90, the inducible HSP90α and the constitutive HSP90β, had opposite effects on the cellular level of the KCNQ4 channel; that HSP40, HSP70, and HOP, three key components of the HSP90 chaperone pathway, were crucial in facilitating KCNQ4 biogenesis. In contrast, CHIP, a major E3 ubiquitin ligase, had an opposite effect. Collectively, our data suggest that HSP90α and HSP90β play key roles in controlling KCNQ4 homeostasis via the HSP40-HSP70-HOP-HSP90 chaperone pathway and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Most importantly, we found that over-expression of HSP90β significantly improved cell surface expression of the trafficking-deficient, pathogenic KCNQ4 mutants L274H and W276S. KCNQ4 surface expression was restored by HSP90β in cells mimicking heterozygous conditions of the DFNA2 patients, even though it was

  14. A Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor Activates Compensatory Heat Shock Protein Responses and Autophagy and Alleviates Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Zhou, Wenbo; Siegel, David; Kitson, Russell R A; Freed, Curt R; Moody, Christopher J; Ross, David

    2015-12-01

    A potential cause of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), is protein misfolding and aggregation that in turn leads to neurotoxicity. Targeting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy to halt neurodegenerative diseases, and benzoquinone ansamycin (BQA) Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin (GA) and 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin have been shown to be beneficial in mutant A53T α-synuclein PD models. However, current BQA inhibitors result in off-target toxicities via redox cycling and/or arylation of nucleophiles at the C19 position. We developed novel 19-substituted BQA (19BQA) as a means to prevent arylation. In this study, our data demonstrated that 19-phenyl-GA, a lead 19BQA in the GA series, was redox stable and exhibited little toxicity relative to its parent quinone GA in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as examined by oxygen consumption, trypan blue, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and apoptosis assays. Meanwhile, 19-phenyl-GA retained the ability to induce autophagy and potentially protective heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as Hsp70 and Hsp27. We found that transduction of A53T, but not wild type (WT) α-synuclein, induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. 19-Phenyl-GA decreased oligomer formation and toxicity of A53T α-synuclein in transduced cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase signaling was activated by A53T but not WT α-synuclein, and 19-phenyl-GA decreased mTOR activation that may be associated with A53T α-synuclein toxicity. In summary, our results indicate that 19BQAs such as 19-phenyl-GA may provide a means to modulate protein-handling systems including HSPs and autophagy, thereby reducing the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as mutant A53T α-synuclein. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. A Novel Hsp90 Inhibitor Activates Compensatory Heat Shock Protein Responses and Autophagy and Alleviates Mutant A53T α-Synuclein Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Zhou, Wenbo; Siegel, David; Kitson, Russell R. A.; Freed, Curt R.; Moody, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    A potential cause of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), is protein misfolding and aggregation that in turn leads to neurotoxicity. Targeting Hsp90 is an attractive strategy to halt neurodegenerative diseases, and benzoquinone ansamycin (BQA) Hsp90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin (GA) and 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin have been shown to be beneficial in mutant A53T α-synuclein PD models. However, current BQA inhibitors result in off-target toxicities via redox cycling and/or arylation of nucleophiles at the C19 position. We developed novel 19-substituted BQA (19BQA) as a means to prevent arylation. In this study, our data demonstrated that 19-phenyl-GA, a lead 19BQA in the GA series, was redox stable and exhibited little toxicity relative to its parent quinone GA in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells as examined by oxygen consumption, trypan blue, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and apoptosis assays. Meanwhile, 19-phenyl-GA retained the ability to induce autophagy and potentially protective heat shock proteins (HSPs) such as Hsp70 and Hsp27. We found that transduction of A53T, but not wild type (WT) α-synuclein, induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. 19-Phenyl-GA decreased oligomer formation and toxicity of A53T α-synuclein in transduced cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase signaling was activated by A53T but not WT α-synuclein, and 19-phenyl-GA decreased mTOR activation that may be associated with A53T α-synuclein toxicity. In summary, our results indicate that 19BQAs such as 19-phenyl-GA may provide a means to modulate protein-handling systems including HSPs and autophagy, thereby reducing the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as mutant A53T α-synuclein. PMID:26405178

  16. Antitumor activity of the combination of an HSP90 inhibitor and a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor against cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Huang; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Chen, Yeng-Yang; Chen, Tsung-Wen; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin; Wang, Hsi-Ming; Weng, Jiang-Jie; Chang, Peter Mu-Hsin; Liu, Chun-Yu; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ming-Han; Huang, Chi-Ying F.; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is overactivated and heat shock protein (HSP) 90 is overexpressed in common cancers. We hypothesized that targeting both pathways can kill intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. HSP90 and PTEN protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of samples from 78 patients with intrahepatic CCA. CCA cell lines and a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced CCA animal model were treated with NVP-AUY922 (an HSP90 inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ235 (a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) alone or in combination. Both HSP90 overexpression and loss of PTEN were poor prognostic factors in patients with intrahepatic CCA. The combination of the HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was synergistic in inducing cell death in CCA cells. A combination of NVP-AUY922 and NVP-BEZ235 caused tumor regression in CCA rat animal model. This combination not only inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway but also induced ROS, which may exacerbate the vicious cycle of ER stress. Our data suggest simultaneous targeting of the PI3K/mTOR and HSP pathways for CCA treatment. PMID:24796583

  17. Quantitative phosphoproteomics of tomato mounting a hypersensitive response reveals a swift suppression of photosynthetic activity and a differential role for hsp90 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Stulemeijer, Iris J E; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-03-01

    An important mechanism by which plants defend themselves against pathogens is the rapid execution of a hypersensitive response (HR). Tomato plants containing the Cf-4 resistance gene mount an HR that relies on the activation of phosphorylation cascades, when challenged with the Avr4 elicitor secreted by the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. Phosphopeptides were isolated from tomato seedlings expressing both Cf-4 and Avr4 using titanium dioxide columns and LC-MS/MS analysis led to the identification of 50 phosphoproteins, most of which have not been described in tomato before. Phosphopeptides were quantified using a label-free approach based on the MS peak areas. We identified 12 phosphopeptides for which the abundance changed upon HR initiation, as compared to control seedlings. Our results suggest that photosynthetic activity is specifically suppressed in a phosphorylation-dependent way during the very early stages of HR development. In addition, phosphopeptides originating from four Hsp90 isoforms exhibited altered abundances in Cf-4/Avr4 seedlings compared to control seedlings, suggesting that the isoforms of this chaperone protein have a different function in defense signaling. We show that label-free relative quantification of the phosphoproteome of complex samples is feasible, allowing extension of our knowledge on the general physiology and defense signaling of plants mounting the HR.

  18. Geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, increases paclitaxel-mediated toxicity in ovarian cancer cells through sustained activation of the p38/H2AX axis.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qingqing; Zhang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Gao, Yue; Wu, Yuan; Hao, Xing; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Pingbo

    2016-11-01

    Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. Unfortunately, due to the rapid genetic and epigenetic changes in adaptation to stress induced by anticancer drugs, cancer cells are often able to become resistant to single or multiple anticancer agents. However, it remains largely unknown how paclitaxel resistance happens. In this study, we generated a cell line of acquired resistance to paclitaxel therapy, A2780T, which is cross-resistant to other antimitotic drugs, such as PLK1 inhibitor or AURKA inhibitor. Immunoblotting revealed significant alterations in cell-cycle-related and apoptotic-related proteins involved in key signaling pathways. In particular, phosphorylation of p38, which activates H2AX, was significantly decreased in A2780T cells compared to the parental A2780 cells. Geldanamycin (GA), an inhibitor of Hsp90, sustained activation of the p38/H2AX axis, and A2780T cells were shown to be more sensitive to GA compared to A2780 cells. Furthermore, treatment of A2780 and A2780T cells with GA significantly enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Meanwhile, GA cooperated with paclitaxel to suppress tumor growth in a mouse ovarian cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, GA may sensitize a subset of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel, particularly those tumors in which resistance is driven by inactivation of p38/H2AX axis.

  19. Low sequence identity but high structural and functional conservation: The case of Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop/Sti1) of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Batista, Fernanda A H; Seraphim, Thiago V; Santos, Clelton A; Gonzaga, Marisvanda R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Ramos, Carlos H I; Borges, Júlio C

    2016-06-15

    Parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania are subjected to extensive environmental changes during their life cycle; molecular chaperones/co-chaperones act as protagonists in this scenario to maintain cellular homeostasis. Hop/Sti1 is a co-chaperone that connects the Hsp90 and Hsp70 systems, modulating their ATPase activities and affecting the fate of client proteins because it facilitates their transfer from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone. Hop/Sti1 is one of the most prevalent co-chaperones, highlighting its importance despite the relatively low sequence identity among orthologue proteins. This multi-domain protein comprises three tetratricopeptides domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two Asp/Pro-rich domains. Given the importance of Hop/Sti1 for the chaperone system and for Leishmania protozoa viability, the Leishmania braziliensis Hop (LbHop) and a truncated mutant (LbHop(TPR2AB)) were characterized. Structurally, both proteins are α-helix-rich and highly elongated monomeric proteins. Functionally, they inhibited the ATPase activity of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) to a similar extent, and the thermodynamic parameters of their interactions with LbHsp90 were similar, indicating that TPR2A-TPR2B forms the functional center for the LbHop interaction with LbHsp90. These results highlight the structural and functional similarity of Hop/Sti1 proteins, despite their low sequence conservation compared to the Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems, which are phylogenetic highly conserved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The expanding proteome of the molecular chaperone HSP90

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Rahul S; Clarke, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 maintains the activity and stability of a diverse set of “client” proteins that play key roles in normal and disease biology. Around 20 HSP90 inhibitors that deplete the oncogenic clientele have entered clinical trials for cancer. However, the full extent of the HSP90-dependent proteome, which encompasses not only clients but also proteins modulated by downstream transcriptional responses, is still incompletely characterized and poorly understood. Earlier large-scale efforts to define the HSP90 proteome have been valuable but are incomplete because of limited technical sensitivity. Here, we discuss previous large-scale surveys of proteome perturbations induced by HSP90 inhibitors in light of a significant new study using state-of-the-art stable isotope labeling by amino acids (SILAC) technology combined with more sensitive high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) that extends the catalog of proteomic changes in inhibitor-treated cancer cells. Among wide-ranging changes, major functional responses include downregulation of protein kinase activity and the DNA damage response alongside upregulation of the protein degradation machinery. Despite this improved proteomic coverage, there was surprisingly little overlap with previous studies. This may be due in part to technical issues but is likely also due to the variability of the HSP90 proteome with the inhibitor conditions used, the cancer cell type and the genetic status of client proteins. We suggest future proteomic studies to address these factors, to help distinguish client protein components from indirect transcriptional components and to address other key questions in fundamental and translational HSP90 research. Such studies should also reveal new biomarkers for patient selection and novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22421145

  1. In Silico Identification of Carboxylate Clamp Type Tetratricopeptide Repeat Proteins in Arabidopsis and Rice As Putative Co-Chaperones of Hsp90/Hsp70

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Priti

    2010-01-01

    The essential eukaryotic molecular chaperone Hsp90 operates with the help of different co-chaperones, which regulate its ATPase activity and serve as adaptors to recruit client proteins and other molecular chaperones, such as Hsp70, to the Hsp90 complex. Several Hsp90 and Hsp70 co-chaperones contain the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, which interacts with the highly conserved EEVD motif at the C-terminal ends of Hsp90 and Hsp70. The acidic side chains in EEVD interact with a subset of basic residues in the TPR binding pocket called a ‘carboxylate clamp’. Since the carboxylate clamp residues are conserved in the TPR domains of known Hsp90/Hsp70 co-chaperones, we carried out an in silico search for TPR proteins in Arabidopsis and rice comprising of at least one three-motif TPR domain with conserved amino acid residues required for Hsp90/Hsp70 binding. This approach identified in Arabidopsis a total of 36 carboxylate clamp (CC)-TPR proteins, including 24 novel proteins, with potential to interact with Hsp90/Hsp70. The newly identified CC-TPR proteins in Arabidopsis and rice contain additional protein domains such as ankyrin, SET, octicosapeptide/Phox/Bem1p (Phox/PB1), DnaJ-like, thioredoxin, FBD and F-box, and protein kinase and U-box, indicating varied functions for these proteins. To provide proof-of-concept of the newly identified CC-TPR proteins for interaction with Hsp90, we demonstrated interaction of AtTPR1 and AtTPR2 with AtHsp90 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull down assays. These findings indicate that the in silico approach used here successfully identified in a genome-wide context CC-TPR proteins with potential to interact with Hsp90/Hsp70, and further suggest that the Hsp90/Hsp70 system relies on TPR co-chaperones more than it was previously realized. PMID:20856808

  2. Molecular chaperone Hsp90 stabilizes Pih1/Nop17 to maintain R2TP complex activity that regulates snoRNA accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rongmin; Kakihara, Yoshito; Gribun, Anna; Huen, Jennifer; Yang, Guocheng; Khanna, May; Costanzo, Michael; Brost, Renée L.; Boone, Charles; Hughes, Timothy R.; Yip, Christopher M.; Houry, Walid A.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp90 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that is involved in modulating a multitude of cellular processes. In this study, we identify a function for the chaperone in RNA processing and maintenance. This functionality of Hsp90 involves two recently identified interactors of the chaperone: Tah1 and Pih1/Nop17. Tah1 is a small protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats, whereas Pih1 is found to be an unstable protein. Tah1 and Pih1 bind to the essential helicases Rvb1 and Rvb2 to form the R2TP complex, which we demonstrate is required for the correct accumulation of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins. Together with the Tah1 cofactor, Hsp90 functions to stabilize Pih1. As a consequence, the chaperone is shown to affect box C/D accumulation and maintenance, especially under stress conditions. Hsp90 and R2TP proteins are also involved in the proper accumulation of box H/ACA small nucleolar RNAs. PMID:18268103

  3. Stressing Out Hsp90 in Neurotoxic Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Inda, Carmen; Bolaender, Alexander; Wang, Tai; Gandu, Srinivasa R.; Koren, John

    2016-01-01

    A toxic accumulation of proteins is the hallmark pathology of several neurodegenerative disorders. Protein accumulation is regularly prevented by the network of molecular chaperone proteins, including and especially Hsp90. For reasons not yet elucidated, Hsp90 and the molecular chaperones interact with, but do not degrade, these toxic proteins resulting in the pathogenic accumulation of proteins such as tau, in Alzheimer's Disease, and α-synuclein, in Parkinson's Disease. In this review, we describe the associations between Hsp90 and the pathogenic and driver proteins of several neurodegenerative disorders. We additionally describe how the inhibition of Hsp90 promotes the degradation of both mutant and pathogenic protein species in models of neurodegenerative diseases. We also examine the current state of Hsp90 inhibitors capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier; compounds which may be capable of slowing, preventing, and possible reversing neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27072699

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant NRL-Hsp90α and Cdc37-CRL proteins for in vitro Hsp90/Cdc37 inhibitors screening.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Niu, Xiaojia; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Hongyi; Guo, Yingjie; Ge, Yubin; Wang, Guangyi; Jiang, Yiqun

    2013-11-01

    Hsp90 has emerged as a promising target for cancer treatment. Hsp90 interacts with co-chaperone Cdc37 to mediate the conformational maturation of its kinase client proteins. Screening small molecule inhibitors targeting Hsp90/Cdc37 might be a promising strategy for further cancer therapeutic. In order to establish a recombinant protein system, the novel cloning and purification of full-length human Hsp90α and Cdc37 from BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli is described here. In this work, we cloned and expressed recombinant NRL-Hsp90α and Cdc37-CRL that represent the full-length human Hsp90α and Cdc37 fused with the split Renilla luciferase (RL) protein fragments. We also expressed the full-length RL protein as a control for inhibitors screening. Moreover, we confirmed that the interaction proteins were able to complement split luciferase fragments and show the RL activity when substrate was added. In comparison, two mutations NRL-Hsp90α (Q133A) and Cdc37 (R167A)-CRL retained only 20% of the complemented RL activities. Six small molecule compounds were tested using this recombinant system. Very interestingly, Sulforaphane, Withaferin A, Celastrol and EGCG all decreased the complemented NRL-Hsp90α/Cdc37-CRL activities in the concentration-dependent manner. In addition, neither Sulforaphane nor Withaferin A showed non-specific inhibition on full length RL activity. However, Celastrol and EGCG showed different RL inhibition levels. The other two compounds LBH-589 and 17-AAG showed neither NRL-Hsp90α/Cdc37-CRL nor RL inhibition activities. These results indicate that purified NRL-Hsp90α and Cdc37-CRL appeared as pure, stable and active conformation, and can be used as an in vitro bioluminescence system for Hsp90/Cdc37 inhibitors screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hsp90, an unlikely ally in the war on cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrott, Jared J.; Haystead, Timothy A. J.

    2013-01-01

    On the surface heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an unlikely drug target for the treatment of any disease, let alone cancer. Hsp90 is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed in all cells. There are two major isoforms α and β encoded by distinct genes and together they may constitute 1%–3% of the cellular protein. Deletion of the protein is embryonic lethal and there are no recognized polymorphisms suggesting an association or causal relationship with any human disease. With respect to cancer, the proteins absence from two recent high profile articles, ‘Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation’ [Hanahan & Weinberg (2011) Cell 144, 646–674] and ‘Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours’ [Koboldt et al. (2012) Nature] underlines the perception that it is an unlikely bona fide target to treat this disease. Yet, to date, there are 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical trials for multiple indications in cancer. The protein has been championed for over 20 years by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA) as a cancer target since the discovery of the antitumor activity of the natural product geldanamycin. This review aims to look at the conundrum of why Hsp90 can even be considered a druggable target for the treatment of cancer. We propose that in contrast to the majority of chemotherapeutics our growing armamentarium of investigational Hsp90 drugs represents an elegant choice that offers real hope in the long-term treatment of certain cancers. PMID:23356585

  6. Hsp90, an unlikely ally in the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrott, Jared J; Haystead, Timothy A J

    2013-03-01

    On the surface heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an unlikely drug target for the treatment of any disease, let alone cancer. Hsp90 is highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed in all cells. There are two major isoforms α and β encoded by distinct genes and together they may constitute 1%-3% of the cellular protein. Deletion of the protein is embryonic lethal and there are no recognized polymorphisms suggesting an association or causal relationship with any human disease. With respect to cancer, the proteins absence from two recent high profile articles, 'Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation' [Hanahan & Weinberg (2011) Cell 144, 646-674] and 'Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours' [Koboldt et al. (2012) Nature] underlines the perception that it is an unlikely bona fide target to treat this disease. Yet, to date, there are 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical trials for multiple indications in cancer. The protein has been championed for over 20 years by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA) as a cancer target since the discovery of the antitumor activity of the natural product geldanamycin. This review aims to look at the conundrum of why Hsp90 can even be considered a druggable target for the treatment of cancer. We propose that in contrast to the majority of chemotherapeutics our growing armamentarium of investigational Hsp90 drugs represents an elegant choice that offers real hope in the long-term treatment of certain cancers.

  7. Using natural product inhibitors to validate Hsp90 as a molecular target in cancer.

    PubMed

    Neckers, Len

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone whose association is required for stability and function of multiple mutated, chimeric, and over-expressed signaling proteins that promote cancer cell growth and/or survival. Hsp90 client proteins include telomerase, mutated p53, Bcr-Abl, Raf-1, Akt, HER2/Neu (ErbB2), mutated B-Raf, mutated EGF receptor, and HIF-1alpha. Hsp90 inhibitors, by interacting specifically with a single molecular target, cause inactivation, destabilization and eventual degradation of Hsp90 client proteins, and they have shown promising anti-tumor activity in various preclinical tumor models. One Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, is currently in Phase II clinical trial and other inhibitors will shortly be entering the clinic. Hsp90 inhibitors are unique in that, although they are directed towards a specific molecular target, they simultaneously inhibit multiple signaling pathways on which cancer cells depend for growth and survival. Identification of benzoquinone ansamycins as the first Hsp90 inhibitors allowed investigators to determine the biologic effects, at first in vitro and then in vivo, of pharmacologic inhibition of Hsp90. These studies rapidly enhanced our understanding of Hsp90 function and led to the identification of radicicol as a structurally distinct Hsp90 inhibitor. Additional target-based screening uncovered novobiocin as a third structurally distinct small molecule with Hsp90 inhibitory properties. Use of novobiocin, in turn, led to identification of a previously uncharacterized C-terminal ATP binding site in the chaperone. Small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been very useful in understanding Hsp90 biology and in validating this protein as a molecular target for anti-cancer drug development.

  8. Linking HSP90 target occupancy to HSP70 induction and efficacy in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, Kenneth; Sotty, Florence; Montezinho, Liliana Christina Pereira; Badolo, Lassina; Thougaard, Annemette; Kristjánsson, Maj; Jensen, Thomas; Watson, Stephen; Nielsen, Søren Møller

    2016-02-01

    HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90) is a molecular chaperone protein ubiquitously expressed throughout all tissues in the body. HSP90 has been proposed as a target to increase turnover of pathological proteins leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The mechanism of how HSP90 inhibition leads to clearance of misfolded proteins is not fully understood. It may involve direct effects of inhibiting ATPase function, indirect effects by inducing the heat-shock-response resulting in upregulation of other chaperone proteins like HSP70 or a combination of both. In the current work we established a methodology to investigate the relationship between HSP90 target occupancy and HSP70 induction in vivo. We also characterized the acute effect of two different HSP90 inhibitors in the rTg4510 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease which displays a tau-mediated synaptic dysfunction. We show that reversal of synaptic impairments in this model can be obtained with a compound which has a high HSP70 induction capacity. The current developed assay methodologies may thus be of significant use in the further elucidation of the mechanism involved in the in vivo effect of HSP90 inhibition in models of neurodegeneration. Further on, the ability of HSP90 inhibitors to normalize synaptic dysfunction in an in vivo disease model of Alzheimer's disease could have therapeutic relevance and further strengthens the usefulness of this animal model to establish pharmacodynamic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. HSP90 and Immune Modulation in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Graner, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that plays prominent functional roles in nearly all aspects of cell biology. As a chaperone, it interacts with literally hundreds of "clients," many of which are important drivers, regulators, and promoters of cancer. Thus, HSP90 is a high-value target in the development of anticancer therapeutics. Despite its popularity, our overall knowledge of HSP90 in immune function has lagged behind its well-recognized tumor-supportive roles. The use of inhibitors of HSP90 as chemical biological probes has been invaluable in revealing important roles for the chaperone in multiple aspects of immune function. Given this critical link, we must now consider the question of how immune outcomes may be affected by the HSP90 inhibitors currently in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. This chapter will review some of the immunological aspects of HSP90 function in terms of its intracellular and extracellular roles in antigen presentation, immune effector cell tasks, and regulation of inflammatory processes. This review will further examine the value of HSP90 inhibitors within the context of cancer immunotherapy and will discuss how these drugs might be optimally utilized in combination with immune stimulatory approaches against cancer. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. KU675, a Concomitant Heat-Shock Protein Inhibitor of Hsp90 and Hsc70 that Manifests Isoform Selectivity for Hsp90α in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiya; Vielhauer, George A; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Huiping; Ghosh, Suman; Brown, Douglas; Lee, Eugene; Blagg, Brian S J

    2015-07-01

    The 90-kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90) assists in the proper folding of numerous mutated or overexpressed signal transduction proteins that are involved in cancer. Inhibiting Hsp90 consequently is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy as the concomitant degradation of multiple oncoproteins may lead to effective antineoplastic agents. Here we report a novel C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, designated KU675, that exhibits potent antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity along with client protein degradation without induction of the heat-shock response in both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell lines. In addition, KU675 demonstrates direct inhibition of Hsp90 complexes as measured by the inhibition of luciferase refolding in prostate cancer cells. In direct binding studies, the internal fluorescence signal of KU675 was used to determine the binding affinity of KU675 to recombinant Hsp90α, Hsp90β, and Hsc70 proteins. The binding affinity (Kd) for Hsp90α was determined to be 191 μM, whereas the Kd for Hsp90β was 726 μM, demonstrating a preference for Hsp90α. Western blot experiments with four different prostate cancer cell lines treated with KU675 supported this selectivity by inducing the degradation of Hsp90α -: dependent client proteins. KU675 also displayed binding to Hsc70 with a Kd value at 76.3 μM, which was supported in cellular by lower levels of Hsc70-specific client proteins on Western blot analyses. Overall, these findings suggest that KU675 is an Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitor, as well as a dual inhibitor of Hsc70, and may have potential use for the treatment of cancer.

  11. Atomic structure of Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 reveals that Hsp90 traps and stabilizes an unfolded kinase.

    PubMed

    Verba, Kliment A; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Arakawa, Akihiko; Liu, Yanxin; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Agard, David A

    2016-06-24

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone and its Cdc37 cochaperone help stabilize and activate more than half of the human kinome. However, both the mechanism by which these chaperones assist their "client" kinases and the reason why some kinases are addicted to Hsp90 while closely related family members are independent are unknown. Our structural understanding of these interactions is lacking, as no full-length structures of human Hsp90, Cdc37, or either of these proteins with a kinase have been elucidated. Here we report a 3.9 angstrom cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37-Cdk4 kinase complex. Surprisingly, the two lobes of Cdk4 are completely separated with the β4-β5 sheet unfolded. Cdc37 mimics part of the kinase N lobe, stabilizing an open kinase conformation by wedging itself between the two lobes. Finally, Hsp90 clamps around the unfolded kinase β5 strand and interacts with exposed N- and C-lobe interfaces, protecting the kinase in a trapped unfolded state. On the basis of this structure and an extensive amount of previously collected data, we propose unifying conceptual and mechanistic models of chaperone-kinase interactions.

  12. Atomic structure of Hsp90:Cdc37:Cdk4 reveals Hsp90 regulates kinase via dramatic unfolding

    PubMed Central

    Verba, Kliment A.; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Arakawa, Akihiko; Liu, Yanxin; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Agard, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The Hsp90 molecular chaperone and its Cdc37 co-chaperone help stabilize and activate over half of the human kinome. However, neither the mechanism by which these chaperones assist their client kinases nor why some kinases are addicted to Hsp90 while closely related family members are independent is known. Missing has been any structural understanding of these interactions, with no full-length structures of human Hsp90, Cdc37 or either of these proteins with a kinase. Here we report a 3.9Å cryoEM structure of the Hsp90:Cdc37:Cdk4 kinase complex. Cdk4 is in a novel conformation, with its two lobes completely separated. Cdc37 mimics part of the kinase N-lobe, stabilizing an open kinase conformation by wedging itself between the two lobes. Finally, Hsp90 clamps around the unfolded kinase β5 strand and interacts with exposed N- and C-lobe interfaces, protecting the kinase in a trapped unfolded state. Based on this novel structure and extensive previous data, we propose unifying conceptual and mechanistic models of chaperone-kinase interactions. PMID:27339980

  13. Insights on the structural dynamics of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 molecular chaperone by small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Thiago V; Silva, Kelly P; Dores-Silva, Paulo R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Borges, Júlio C

    2017-04-01

    Heat shock protein of 90kDa (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone involved in a plethora of cellular activities which modulate protein homeostasis. During the Hsp90 mechanochemical cycle, it undergoes large conformational changes, oscillating between open and closed states. Although structural and conformational equilibria of prokaryotic and some eukaryotic Hsp90s are known, some protozoa Hsp90 structures and dynamics are poorly understood. In this study, we report the solution structure and conformational dynamics of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results indicate that LbHsp90 coexists in open and closed conformations in solution and that the linkers between domains are not randomly distributed. These findings noted interesting features of the LbHsp90 system, opening doors for further conformational studies of other protozoa chaperones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Yim, Kendrick; Rivas, Candy; Alarcon, Sylvia; Schwartz, Harvey; Khamit-Kush, Kofi; Scroggins, Bradley T.; Beebe, Kristin; Trepel, Jane B.; Neckers, Len

    2015-01-01

    The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states. PMID:26517842

  15. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants.

    PubMed

    Prince, Thomas L; Kijima, Toshiki; Tatokoro, Manabu; Lee, Sunmin; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Yim, Kendrick; Rivas, Candy; Alarcon, Sylvia; Schwartz, Harvey; Khamit-Kush, Kofi; Scroggins, Bradley T; Beebe, Kristin; Trepel, Jane B; Neckers, Len

    2015-01-01

    The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states.

  16. The co-chaperone Cdc37 regulates the rabies virus phosphoprotein stability by targeting to Hsp90AA1 machinery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunbin; Liu, Fei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Dandan; Yan, Yan; Ji, Senlin; Zan, Jie; Zhou, Jiyong

    2016-01-01

    Cdc37, as a kinase-specific co-chaperone of the chaperone Hsp90AA1 (Hsp90), actively aids with the maturation, stabilization and activation of the cellular or viral kinase/kinase-like targets. Phosphoprotein (P) of rabies virus (RABV) is a multifunctional, non-kinase protein involved in interferon antagonism, viral transcription and replication. Here, we demonstrated that the RABV non-kinase P is chaperoned by Cdc37 and Hsp90 during infection. We found that Cdc37 and Hsp90 affect the RABV life cycle directly. Activity inhibition and knockdown of Cdc37 and Hsp90 increased the instability of the viral P protein. Overexpression of Cdc37 and Hsp90 maintained P’s stability but did not increase the yield of infectious RABV virions. We further demonstrated that the non-enzymatic polymerase cofactor P protein of all the genotypes of lyssaviruses is a target of the Cdc37/Hsp90 complex. Cdc37, phosphorylated or unphosphorylated on Ser13, aids the P protein to load onto the Hsp90 machinery, with or without Cdc37 binding to Hsp90. However, the interaction between Cdc37 and Hsp90 appears to have additional allosteric regulation of the conformational switch of Hsp90. Our study highlighted a novel mechanism in which Cdc37/Hsp90 chaperones a non-kinase target, which has significant implications for designing therapeutic targets against Rabies. PMID:27251758

  17. The assembly and intermolecular properties of the Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 molecular chaperone complex.

    PubMed

    Trcka, Filip; Durech, Michal; Man, Petr; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj

    2014-04-04

    Maintenance of protein homeostasis by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 requires their spatial and functional coordination. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 is influenced by their interaction with the network of co-chaperone proteins, some of which contain tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. Critical to these interactions are TPR domains that target co-chaperone binding to the EEVD-COOH motif that terminates Hsp70/Hsp90. Recently, the two-TPR domain-containing protein, Tomm34, was reported to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we characterize the structural basis of Tomm34-Hsp70/Hsp90 interactions. Using multiple methods, including pull-down assays, fluorescence polarization, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and site-directed mutagenesis, we defined the binding activities and specificities of Tomm34 TPR domains toward Hsp70 and Hsp90. We found that Tomm34 TPR1 domain specifically binds Hsp70. This interaction is partly mediated by a non-canonical TPR1 two-carboxylate clamp and is strengthened by so far unidentified additional intermolecular contacts. The two-carboxylate clamp of the isolated TPR2 domain has affinity for both chaperones, but as part of the full-length Tomm34 protein, the TPR2 domain binds specifically Hsp90. These binding properties of Tomm34 TPR domains thus enable simultaneous binding of Hsp70 and Hsp90. Importantly, we provide evidence for the existence of an Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 tripartite complex. In addition, we defined the basic conformational demands of the Tomm34-Hsp90 interaction. These results suggest that Tomm34 represents a novel scaffolding co-chaperone of Hsp70 and Hsp90, which may facilitate Hsp70/Hsp90 cooperation during protein folding.

  18. The Assembly and Intermolecular Properties of the Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Trcka, Filip; Durech, Michal; Man, Petr; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of protein homeostasis by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 requires their spatial and functional coordination. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 is influenced by their interaction with the network of co-chaperone proteins, some of which contain tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. Critical to these interactions are TPR domains that target co-chaperone binding to the EEVD-COOH motif that terminates Hsp70/Hsp90. Recently, the two-TPR domain-containing protein, Tomm34, was reported to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we characterize the structural basis of Tomm34-Hsp70/Hsp90 interactions. Using multiple methods, including pull-down assays, fluorescence polarization, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and site-directed mutagenesis, we defined the binding activities and specificities of Tomm34 TPR domains toward Hsp70 and Hsp90. We found that Tomm34 TPR1 domain specifically binds Hsp70. This interaction is partly mediated by a non-canonical TPR1 two-carboxylate clamp and is strengthened by so far unidentified additional intermolecular contacts. The two-carboxylate clamp of the isolated TPR2 domain has affinity for both chaperones, but as part of the full-length Tomm34 protein, the TPR2 domain binds specifically Hsp90. These binding properties of Tomm34 TPR domains thus enable simultaneous binding of Hsp70 and Hsp90. Importantly, we provide evidence for the existence of an Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 tripartite complex. In addition, we defined the basic conformational demands of the Tomm34-Hsp90 interaction. These results suggest that Tomm34 represents a novel scaffolding co-chaperone of Hsp70 and Hsp90, which may facilitate Hsp70/Hsp90 cooperation during protein folding. PMID:24567332

  19. Inhibiting the HSP90 chaperone destabilizes macrophage migration inhibitory factor and thereby inhibits breast tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Ramona; Marchenko, Natalia D.; Holembowski, Lena; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Pesic, Marina; Zender, Lars; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) often becomes stabilized in human cancer cells. MIF can promote tumor cell survival, and elevated MIF protein correlates with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism facilitating MIF stabilization in tumors is not understood. We show that the tumor-activated HSP90 chaperone complex protects MIF from degradation. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 activity, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of HSP90 or HDAC6, destabilizes MIF in a variety of human cancer cells. The HSP90-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP mediates the ensuing proteasome-dependent MIF degradation. Cancer cells contain constitutive endogenous MIF–HSP90 complexes. siRNA-mediated MIF knockdown inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis of cultured human cancer cells, whereas HSP90 inhibitor-induced apoptosis is overridden by ectopic MIF expression. In the ErbB2 transgenic model of human HER2-positive breast cancer, genetic ablation of MIF delays tumor progression and prolongs overall survival of mice. Systemic treatment with the HSP90 inhibitor 17AAG reduces MIF expression and blocks growth of MIF-expressing, but not MIF-deficient, tumors. Together, these findings identify MIF as a novel HSP90 client and suggest that HSP90 inhibitors inhibit ErbB2-driven breast tumor growth at least in part by destabilizing MIF. PMID:22271573

  20. 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of human TRAP1NM, the Hsp90 paralog in the mitochondrial matrix.

    PubMed

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Tsai, Francis T F; Lee, Sukyeong

    2016-08-01

    TRAP1 is an organelle-specific Hsp90 paralog that is essential for neoplastic growth. As a member of the Hsp90 family, TRAP1 is presumed to be a general chaperone facilitating the late-stage folding of Hsp90 client proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. Interestingly, TRAP1 cannot replace cytosolic Hsp90 in protein folding, and none of the known Hsp90 co-chaperones are found in mitochondria. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of TRAP1 must feature regulatory elements that are essential to the ATPase activity and chaperone function of TRAP1. Here, the crystal structure of a human TRAP1NM dimer is presented, featuring an intact N-domain and M-domain structure, bound to adenosine 5'-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (ADPNP). The crystal structure together with epitope-mapping results shows that the TRAP1 M-domain loop 1 contacts the neighboring subunit and forms a previously unobserved third dimer interface that mediates the specific interaction with mitochondrial Hsp70.

  1. 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of human TRAP1 NM , the Hsp90 paralog in the mitochondrial matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Tsai, Francis T. F.; Lee, Sukyeong

    2016-07-13

    TRAP1 is an organelle-specific Hsp90 paralog that is essential for neoplastic growth. As a member of the Hsp90 family, TRAP1 is presumed to be a general chaperone facilitating the late-stage folding of Hsp90 client proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. Interestingly, TRAP1 cannot replace cytosolic Hsp90 in protein folding, and none of the known Hsp90 co-chaperones are found in mitochondria. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of TRAP1 must feature regulatory elements that are essential to the ATPase activity and chaperone function of TRAP1. Here, the crystal structure of a human TRAP1NMdimer is presented, featuring an intact N-domain and M-domain structure, bound to adenosine 5'-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (ADPNP). The crystal structure together with epitope-mapping results shows that the TRAP1 M-domain loop 1 contacts the neighboring subunit and forms a previously unobserved third dimer interface that mediates the specific interaction with mitochondrial Hsp70.

  2. 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde derived Schiff bases as small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors: rational identification of a new anticancer lead.

    PubMed

    Dutta Gupta, Sayan; Revathi, B; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Subrahmanyam, C V S; Gowrishankar, N L; Raghavendra, N M

    2015-04-01

    Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that heals diverse array of biomolecules ranging from multiple oncogenic proteins to the ones responsible for development of resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover they are over-expressed in cancer cells as a complex with co-chaperones and under-expressed in normal cells as a single free entity. Hence inhibitors of Hsp90 will be more effective and selective in destroying cancer cells with minimum chances of acquiring resistance to them. In continuation of our goal to rationally develop effective small molecule azomethines against Hsp90, we designed few more compounds belonging to the class of 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde derived imines (1-13) with our validated docking protocol. The molecules exhibiting good docking score were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. Subsequently, they were evaluated for their potential to suppress Hsp90 ATPase activity by Malachite green assay. The antiproliferative effect of the molecules were examined on PC3 prostate cancer cell lines by adopting 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay methodology. Finally, schiff base 13 emerged as the lead molecule for future design and development of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The 90-kDa Heat Shock Protein Hsp90 Protects Tubulin against Thermal Denaturation*

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Felix; Moullintraffort, Laura; Heichette, Claire; Chrétien, Denis; Garnier, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    Hsp90 and tubulin are among the most abundant proteins in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Although Hsp90 plays key roles in maintaining its client proteins in their active state, tubulin is essential for fundamental processes such as cell morphogenesis and division. Several studies have suggested a possible connection between Hsp90 and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Because tubulin is a labile protein in its soluble form, we investigated whether Hsp90 protects it against thermal denaturation. Both proteins were purified from porcine brain, and their interaction was characterized in vitro by using spectrophotometry, sedimentation assays, video-enhanced differential interference contrast light microscopy, and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our results show that Hsp90 protects tubulin against thermal denaturation and keeps it in a state compatible with microtubule polymerization. We demonstrate that Hsp90 cannot resolve tubulin aggregates but that it likely binds early unfolding intermediates, preventing their aggregation. Protection was maximal at a stoichiometry of two molecules of Hsp90 for one of tubulin. This protection does not require ATP binding and hydrolysis by Hsp90, but it is counteracted by geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of Hsp90. PMID:20110359

  4. Advances in the clinical development of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors in cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Komal; Taldone, Tony; Modi, Shanu; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP dependent molecular chaperone protein which integrates multiple oncogenic pathways. As such, Hsp90 inhibition is a promising anti-cancer strategy. Several inhibitors that act on Hsp90 by binding to its N-terminal ATP pocket have entered clinical evaluation. Robust pre-clinical data suggested anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer types. Clinically, encouraging results have been demonstrated in melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, castrate refractory prostate cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma and multiple myeloma. In breast cancer, proof-of-concept was demonstrated by first generation Hsp90 inhibitors in combination with trastuzumab mainly in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) + metastatic breast cancer. There are a multitude of second generation Hsp90 inhibitors currently under investigation. To date, however, there is no FDA approved Hsp90 inhibitor nor standardized assay to ascertain Hsp90 inhibition. This review summarizes the current status of both first and second generation Hsp90 inhibitors based on their chemical classification and stage of clinical development. It also discusses the pharmacodynamic assays currently implemented in clinic as well as other novel strategies aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors. Ultimately, these efforts will aid in maximizing the full potential of this class of agents. PMID:22062686

  5. Plant Hsp90 Proteins Interact with B-Cells and Stimulate Their Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Corigliano, Mariana G.; Maglioco, Andrea; Laguía Becher, Melina; Goldman, Alejandra; Martín, Valentina; Angel, Sergio O.; Clemente, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Background The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in folding stabilization and activation of client proteins. Besides, Hsp90 of mammals and mammalian pathogens displays immunostimulatory properties. Here, we investigated the role of plant-derived Hsp90s as B-cell mitogens by measuring their proliferative responses in vitro. Methodology Plant cytosolic Hsp90 isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHsp81.2) and Nicotiana benthamiana (NbHsp90.3) were expressed in E. coli. Over-expression of recombinant plant Hsp90s (rpHsp90s) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot using and anti-AtHsp81.2 polyclonal anti-body. Both recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and their identity confirmed by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Recombinant AtHsp81.2 and NbHsp90.3 proteins induced prominent proliferative responses in spleen cells form BALB/c mice. Polymyxin-B, a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), did not eliminate the rpHsp90-induced proliferation. In addition, in vitro incubation of spleen cells with rpHsp90 led to the expansion of CD19-bearing populations, suggesting a direct effect of these proteins on B lymphocytes. This effect was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis, where a direct binding of rpHsp90 to B- but not to T-cells was observed in cells from BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice. Finally, we examined the involvement of Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) molecules in the rpHsp90s induction of B-cell proliferation. Spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice, which carry a point mutation in the cytoplasmic region of TLR4, responded poorly to prAtHsp90. However, the interaction between rpHsp90 and B-cells from C3H/HeJ mice was not altered, suggesting that the mutation on TLR4 would be affecting the signal cascade but not the rpHsp90-TLR4 receptor interaction. Conclusions Our results show for the first time that spleen cell proliferation can be stimulated by a non-pathogen-derived Hsp90. Furthermore, our data provide a new example of

  6. Inhibitor-κB kinase attenuates Hsp90-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase function in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Konopinski, Ryszard; Krishnan, Manickam; Roman, Linda; Bera, Alakesh; Hongying, Zheng; Habib, Samy L.; Mohan, Sumathy

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) is the predominant isoform that generates NO in the blood vessels. Many different regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), govern eNOS function. Hsp90-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS is a critical event that determines eNOS activity. In our earlier study we demonstrated an inhibitor-κB kinase-β (IKKβ)-Hsp90 interaction in a high-glucose environment. In the present study we further define the putative binding domain of IKKβ on Hsp90. Interestingly, IKKβ binds to the middle domain of Hsp90, which has been shown to interact with eNOS to stimulate its activity. This new finding suggests a tighter regulation of eNOS activity than was previously assumed. Furthermore, addition of purified recombinant IKKβ to the eNOS-Hsp90 complex reduces the eNOS-Hsp90 interaction and eNOS activity, indicating a competition for Hsp90 between eNOS and IKKβ. The pathophysiological relevance of the IKKβ-Hsp90 interaction has also been demonstrated using in vitro vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling and an Ins2Akita in vivo model. Our study further defines the preferential involvement of α- vs. β-isoforms of Hsp90 in the IKKβ-eNOS-Hsp90 interaction, even though both Hsp90α and Hsp90β stimulate NO production. These studies not only reinforce the significance of maintaining a homeostatic balance of eNOS and IKKβ within the cell system that regulates NO production, but they also confirm that the IKKβ-Hsp90 interaction is favored in a high-glucose environment, leading to impairment of the eNOS-Hsp90 interaction, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:25652452

  7. The novel, orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells and acts synergistically with melphalan by increased cleavage of caspases.

    PubMed

    Lamottke, Britta; Kaiser, Martin; Mieth, Maren; Heider, Ulrike; Gao, Zhenhai; Nikolova, Zariana; Jensen, Michael R; Sterz, Jan; von Metzler, Ivana; Sezer, Orhan

    2012-05-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) binds and stabilizes numerous proteins and kinases essential for myeloma cell survival and proliferation. We and others have recently demonstrated that inhibition of HSP90 by small molecular mass inhibitors induces cell death in multiple myeloma (MM). However, some of the HSP90 inhibitors involved in early clinical trials have shown limited antitumor activity and unfavorable toxicity profiles. Here, we analyzed the effects of the novel, orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 on MM cell proliferation and survival. The inhibitor led to a significant reduction in myeloma cell viability and induced G2 cell cycle arrest, degradation of caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of the HSP90 ATPase activity was accompanied by the degradation of MM phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK1/2 and upregulation of Hsp70. Exposure of MM cells to a combination of NVP-HSP990 and either melphalan or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors caused synergistic inhibition of viability, increased induction of apoptosis, and was able to overcome the primary resistance of the cell line RPMI-8226 to HSP90 inhibition. Combined incubation with melphalan and NVP-HSP990 led to synergistically increased cleavage of caspase-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3. These data demonstrate promising activity for NVP-HSP990 as single agent or combination treatment in MM and provide a rationale for clinical trials.

  8. Reactive oxygen species-dependent HSP90 protein cleavage participates in arsenical As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis through inhibition of telomerase activity via JNK activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.-C.; Yang, L.-Y.; Lin, H.-Y.; Wu, C.-Y.; Su, T.-H.; Chen, Y.-C.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of six arsenic compounds including As{sup +3}, MMA{sup +3}, DMA{sup +3}, As{sup +5}, MMA{sup +5}, and DMA{sup +5} on the viability of NIH3T3 cells were examined. As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3}, but not the others, exhibited significant cytotoxic effects in NIH3T3 cells through apoptosis induction. The apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and chromosome condensation induced by As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} were prevented by the addition of NAC and CAT, and induction of HO-1 gene expression in accordance with cleavage of the HSP90 protein, and suppression of telomerase activity were observed in NIH3T3 cells under As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} treatments. An increase in the intracellular peroxide level was examined in As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-treated NIH3T3 cells, and As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptotic events were blocked by NAC, CAT, and DPI addition. HSP90 inhibitors, GA and RD, significantly attenuated the telomerase activity in NIH3T3 cells with an enhancement of As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced cytotoxicity. Suppression of JNKs significantly inhibited As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis by blocking HSP90 protein cleavage and telomerase reduction in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, Hb, SnPP, and dexferosamine showed no effect against As{sup +3}- and MMA{sup +3}-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of HO-1 protein or inhibition of HO-1 protein expression did not affect the apoptosis induced by As{sup +3} or MMA{sup +3}. These data provide the first evidence to indicate that apoptosis induced by As{sup +3} and MMA{sup +3} is mediated by an ROS-dependent degradation of HSP90 protein and reduction of telomerase via JNK activation, and HO-1 induction might not be involved.

  9. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  10. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chehab, Mahmoud; Caza, Tiffany; Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-04-20

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review.

  11. Hsp90: A New Player in DNA Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Rosa; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an evolutionary conserved molecular chaperone that, together with Hsp70 and co-chaperones makes up the Hsp90 chaperone machinery, stabilizing and activating more than 200 proteins, involved in protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating complex DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that include: (i) cell cycle arrest; (ii) transcriptional and post-translational activation of a subset of genes, including those associated with DNA repair; and (iii) triggering of programmed cell death. The efficacy of the DDR pathways is influenced by the nuclear levels of DNA repair proteins, which are regulated by balancing between protein synthesis and degradation as well as by nuclear import and export. The inability to respond properly to either DNA damage or to DNA repair leads to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance the rate of cancer development. Multiple components of the DNA double strand breaks repair machinery, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CHK1, DNA-PKcs, FANCA, and the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, have been described to be client proteins of Hsp90, which acts as a regulator of the diverse DDR pathways. Inhibition of Hsp90 actions leads to the altered localization and stabilization of DDR proteins after DNA damage and may represent a cell-specific and tumor-selective radiosensibilizer. Here, the role of Hsp90-dependent molecular mechanisms involved in cancer onset and in the maintenance of the genome integrity is discussed and highlighted. PMID:26501335

  12. Mechanisms of Resistance to Hsp90 Inhibitor Drugs: A Complex Mosaic Emerges

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Peter W.; Millson, Stefan H.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 holds great promise as a cancer drug target, despite some of the initial clinical trials of Hsp90 inhibitor drugs having not lived up to expectation. Effective use of these drugs will benefit greatly from a much more detailed understanding of the factors that contribute to resistance, whether intrinsic or acquired. We review how cell culture studies have revealed a number of different mechanisms whereby cells can be rendered less susceptible to the effects of Hsp90 inhibitor treatment. A major influence is Hsp90 inhibition causing strong induction of the heat shock response, a stress response that increases cellular levels of prosurvival chaperones such as Hsp27 and Hsp70. Another problem seems to be that these inhibitors do not always access the Hsp90 proteins of the mitochondrion, forms of Hsp90 that—in cancer cells—are operating to suppress apoptosis. It should be possible to overcome these drawbacks through the appropriate drug redesign or with the combinatorial use of an Hsp90 inhibitor with a drug that targets either heat shock factor or the chaperone Hsp70. Still though, cells will often differ in the key antiapoptotic versus proapoptotic activities that are dependent on Hsp90, in the key steps in their apoptotic pathways responsive to Hsp90 inhibition or Hsp70 level, as well as the extents to which their survival is dependent on oncogenic tyrosine kinases that are clients of Hsp90. A systems approach will therefore often be required in order to establish the most prominent effects of Hsp90 inhibition in each type of cancer cell. PMID:27721330

  13. Hsp90 picks PIKKs via R2TP and Tel2.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Cara K

    2014-06-10

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-like kinases (PIKKs) are dependent on Hsp90 for their activation via the R2TP complex and Tel2. In this issue of Structure, Pal and colleagues present the molecular mechanism by which PIKKs are recruited to Hsp90.

  14. Why is this effective HSP90 inhibitor not being developed in HER2+ breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2011-08-01

    Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone leads to degradation of the HER2 receptor. The HSP90 inhibitor tanespimycin in combination with trastuzumab is active in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. This combination is one of several HER2-targeted therapies that will significantly improve the outcome of patients with this subtype of breast cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  15. Why is this effective HSP90 inhibitor not being developed in HER2+ breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of the HSP90 chaperone leads to degradation of the HER2 receptor. The HSP90 inhibitor tanespimycin in combination with trastuzumab is active in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. This combination is one of several HER2-targeted therapies that will significantly improve the outcome of patients with this subtype of breast cancer. PMID:21670086

  16. Anti-Hsp90 therapy in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Tukaj, Stefan; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a 90-kDa molecular chaperone, is responsible for biological activities of key signaling molecules (clients) such as protein kinases, ubiquitin ligases, steroid receptors, cell cycle regulators, and transcription factors regulating various cellular processes, including growth, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. Because Hsp90 is also involved in stabilization of oncogenic 'client' proteins, its specific chaperone activity blockers are currently being tested as anticancer agents in advanced clinical trials. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Hsp90 is also involved in activation of innate and adaptive cells of the immune system. For these reasons, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 has been evaluated in murine models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge of the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors on autoimmune and inflammatory diseases' features and is based solely on preclinical studies.

  17. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaomin; Luo, Yongzhang

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  18. The high-affinity HSP90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively degrades phosphorylated tau client proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Chad A.; Kamal, Adeela; Lundgren, Karen; Klosak, Natalia; Bailey, Rachel M.; Dunmore, Judith; Ash, Peter; Shoraka, Sareh; Zlatkovic, Jelena; Eckman, Christopher B.; Patterson, Cam; Dickson, Dennis W.; Nahman, N. Stanley; Hutton, Michael; Burrows, Francis; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    A primary pathologic component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau). Expediting the removal of these p-tau species may be a relevant therapeutic strategy. Here we report that inhibition of Hsp90 led to decreases in p-tau levels independent of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation. A critical mediator of this mechanism was carboxy terminus of Hsp70–interacting protein (CHIP), a tau ubiquitin ligase. Cochaperones were also involved in Hsp90-mediated removal of p-tau, while those of the mature Hsp90 refolding complex prevented this effect. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge that blockade of the refolding pathway promotes p-tau turnover through degradation. We also show that peripheral administration of a novel Hsp90 inhibitor promoted selective decreases in p-tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy, further suggesting a central role for the Hsp90 complex in the pathogenesis of tauopathies. When taken in the context of known high-affinity Hsp90 complexes in affected regions of the AD brain, these data implicate a central role for Hsp90 in the development of AD and other tauopathies and may provide a rationale for the development of novel Hsp90-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:17304350

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Hsp90-Client Interactions Reveals Principles of Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Mikko; Krykbaeva, Irina; Koeva, Martina; Kayatekin, Can; Westover, Kenneth D.; Karras, Georgios I.; Lindquist, Susan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY HSP90 is a molecular chaperone that associates with numerous substrate proteins called clients. It plays many important roles in human biology and medicine, but determinants of client recognition by HSP90 have remained frustratingly elusive. We systematically and quantitatively surveyed most human kinases, transcription factors, and E3 ligases for interaction with HSP90 and its cochaperone CDC37. Unexpectedly, many more kinases than transcription factors bound HSP90. CDC37 interacted with kinases, but not with transcription factors or E3 ligases. HSP90::kinase interactions varied continuously over a 100-fold range and provided a platform to study client protein recognition. In wild-type clients, HSP90 did not bind particular sequence motifs, but rather associated with intrinsically unstable kinases. Stabilization of the kinase in either its active or inactive conformation with diverse small molecules decreased HSP90 association. Our results establish HSP90 client recognition as a combinatorial process: CDC37 provides recognition of the kinase family, whereas thermodynamic parameters determine client binding within the family. PMID:22939624

  20. Molecular pathways: targeting hsp90--who benefits and who does not.

    PubMed

    Scaltriti, Maurizio; Dawood, Shaheenah; Cortes, Javier

    2012-09-01

    Many kinases and hormone receptors, important for cancer cell proliferation and survival, bind to and are dependent on the Hsp90 cycle for their folding and maturation. This provides the rationale for the development of small-molecule ATP competitors that, inhibiting Hsp90 function, lead to degradation of the "client" proteins. After continual efforts to improve the pharmacologic properties and the tolerability of these molecules, several Hsp90 inhibitors have exhibited activity in both preclinical models and in the clinical setting. As is the case with many other targeted agents, patient selection seems to be the major limitation to the success of these compounds. ERBB2-positive patients with breast cancer are exquisitely sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition. This is because ERBB2 is indispensable for growth and survival of this subtype of cancer, and at the same time ERBB2 is a client protein strictly dependent on Hsp90 for its maturation and stability. Extensive preclinical work identifying other ERBB-like client proteins will likely lead to the ability to enhance selection of appropriate patients for enrollment in more rational clinical trials. Hsp90 inhibition has also been reported to synergize with other therapeutic agents. Several ongoing studies testing different combinations of Hsp90 inhibitors with other targeted agents will confirm whether Hsp90 inhibition can potentiate the efficacy of targeted therapy and/or prevent the emergence of drug resistance.

  1. Hsp90 is a direct target of the anti-allergic drugs disodium cromoglycate and amlexanox.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Miki; Itoh, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2003-01-01

    Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) alone can act to prevent protein aggregation and promote refolding in vitro, but in vivo it operates as a part of a multichaperone complex, which includes Hsp70 and cohort proteins. Since the physiological function of Hsp90 is not yet fully understood, the development of specific antagonists might open new lines of investigation on the role of Hsp90. In an effort to discover Hsp90 antagonists, we screened many drugs and found that the anti-allergic drugs DSCG (disodium cromoglycate) and amlexanox target Hsp90. Both drugs were found to bind directly wild-type Hsp90 via the N- and C-terminal domains. Both drugs strongly suppressed the in vitro chaperone activity of native Hsp90 towards citrate synthase at 1.5-3.0 microM. Amlexanox suppressed C-terminal chaperone activity in vitro, but not N-terminal chaperone activity, and inhibited the association of cohort proteins, such as cyclophilin 40 and Hsp-organizing protein, to the C-terminal domain of Hsp90. These data suggest that amlexanox might disrupt the multichaperone complex, including Hsp70 and cohort proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. Although DSCG inhibited the in vitro chaperone activity of the N-terminal domain, the drug had no effect either on the C-terminal chaperone activity or on the association of the cohort proteins with the C-terminus of Hsp90. The physiological significance of these interactions in vivo remains to be investigated further, but undoubtedly must be taken into account when considering the pharmacology of anti-allergic drugs. DSCG and amlexanox may serve as useful tools for evaluating the physiological significance of Hsp90. PMID:12803546

  2. A cytosolic relay of heat shock proteins HSP70-1A and HSP90β monitors the folding trajectory of the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    El-Kasaby, Ali; Koban, Florian; Sitte, Harald H; Freissmuth, Michael; Sucic, Sonja

    2014-10-17

    Mutations in the C terminus of the serotonin transporter (SERT) disrupt folding and export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we examined the hypothesis that a cytosolic heat shock protein relay was recruited to the C terminus to assist folding of SERT. This conjecture was verified by the following observations. (i) The proximal portion of the SERT C terminus conforms to a canonical binding site for DnaK/heat shock protein of 70 kDa (HSP70). A peptide covering this segment stimulated ATPase activity of purified HSP70-1A. (ii) A GST fusion protein comprising the C terminus of SERT pulled down HSP70-1A. The interaction between HSP70-1A and SERT was visualized in live cells by Förster resonance energy transfer: it was restricted to endoplasmic reticulum-resident transporters and enhanced by an inhibitor that traps HSP70-1A in its closed state. (iv) Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed complex formation of SERT with HSP70-1A and HSP90β. Consistent with an HSP relay, co-chaperones (e.g. HSC70-HSP90-organizing protein) were co-immunoprecipitated with the stalled mutants SERT-R607A/I608A and SERT-P601A/G602A. (v) Depletion of HSP90β by siRNA or its inhibition increased the cell surface expression of wild type SERT and SERT-F604Q. In contrast, SERT-R607A/I608A and SERT-P601A/G602A were only rendered susceptible to inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 by concomitant pharmacochaperoning with noribogaine. (vi) In JAR cells, inhibition of HSP90 also increased the levels of SERT, indicating that endogenously expressed transporter was also susceptible to control by HSP90β. These findings support the concept that the folding trajectory of SERT is sampled by a cytoplasmic chaperone relay.

  3. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  4. Induction of Premature Senescence by Hsp90 Inhibition in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Restall, Ian J.; Lorimer, Ian A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is a promising new target in cancer therapy and selective Hsp90 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials. Previously these inhibitors have been reported to induce either cell cycle arrest or cell death in cancer cells. Whether the cell cycle arrest is reversible or irreversible has not generally been assessed. Here we have examined in detail the cell cycle arrest and cell death responses of human small cell lung cancer cell lines to Hsp90 inhibition. Methodology/Principal Findings In MTT assays, small cell lung cancer cells showed a biphasic response to the Hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin and radicicol, with low concentrations causing proliferation arrest and high concentrations causing cell death. Assessment of Hsp90 intracellular activity using loss of client protein expression showed that geldanamycin concentrations that inhibited Hsp90 correlated closely with those causing proliferation arrest but not cell death. The proliferation arrest induced by low concentrations of geldanamycin was not reversed for a period of over thirty days following drug removal and showed features of senescence. Rare populations of variant small cell lung cancer cells could be isolated that had additional genetic alterations and no longer underwent irreversible proliferation arrest in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that: (1) Hsp90 inhibition primarily induces premature senescence, rather than cell death, in small cell lung cancer cells; (2) small cell lung cancer cells can bypass this senescence through further genetic alterations; (3) Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cell death in small cell lung cancer cells is due to inhibition of a target other than cytosolic Hsp90. These results have implications with regard to how these inhibitors will behave in clinical trials and for the design of future inhibitors in this class. PMID:20552022

  5. Nox5 Stability and Superoxide Production is Regulated by C-terminal Binding of Hsp90 and Co-Chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Haigh, Steven; Yu, Yanfang; Benson, Tyler; Wang, Yusi; Li, Xueyi; Dou, Huijuan; Bagi, Zsolt; Verin, Alexander D.; Stepp, David W.; Csanyi, Gabor; Chadli, Ahmed; Weintraub, Neal L.; Smith, Susan M. E.; Fulton, David J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that orchestrates the folding and stability of proteins that regulate cellular signaling, proliferation and inflammation. We have previously shown that Hsp90 controls the production of reactive oxygen species by modulating the activity of Noxes1-3 and 5, but not Nox4. The goal of the current study was to define the regions on Nox5 that bind Hsp90 and determine how Hsp90 regulates enzyme activity. In isolated enzyme activity assays, we found that Hsp90 inhibitors selectively decrease superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide, production. The addition of Hsp90 alone only modestly increases Nox5 enzyme activity but in combination with the co-chaperones, Hsp70, HOP, Hsp40, and p23 it robustly stimulated superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide, production. Proximity ligation assays reveal that Nox5 and Hsp90 interact in intact cells. In cell lysates using a co-IP approach, Hsp90 binds to Nox5 but not Nox4, and the degree of binding can be influenced by calcium-dependent stimuli. Inhibition of Hsp90 induced the degradation of full length, catalytically inactive and a C-terminal fragment (aa398–719) of Nox5. In contrast, inhibition of Hsp90 did not affect the expression levels of N-terminal fragments (aa1–550) suggesting that Hsp90 binding maintains the stability of C-terminal regions. In Co-IP assays, Hsp90 was bound only to the C-terminal region of Nox5. Further refinement using deletion analysis revealed that the region between aa490–550 mediates Hsp90 binding. Converse mapping experiments show that the C-terminal region of Nox5 bound to the M domain of Hsp90 (aa310–529). In addition to Hsp90, Nox5 bound other components of the foldosome including co-chaperones Hsp70, HOP, p23 and Hsp40. Silencing of HOP, Hsp40 and p23 reduced Nox5-dependent superoxide. In contrast, increased expression of Hsp70 decreased Nox5 activity whereas a mutant of Hsp70 failed to do so. Inhibition of Hsp90 results in the loss of higher

  6. Structures of GRP94-Nucleotide Complexes Reveal Mechanistic Differences Between the Hsp90 Chaperones

    SciTech Connect

    Dollins, D.E.; Warren, J.J.; Immormino, R.M.; Gewirth, D.T.

    2009-06-02

    GRP94, an essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, is required for the conformational maturation of proteins destined for cell-surface display or export. The extent to which GRP94 and its cytosolic paralog, Hsp90, share a common mechanism remains controversial. GRP94 has not been shown conclusively to hydrolyze ATP or bind cochaperones, and both activities, by contrast, result in conformational changes and N-terminal dimerization in Hsp90 that are critical for its function. Here, we report the 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of mammalian GRP94 in complex with AMPPNP and ADP. The chaperone is conformationally insensitive to the identity of the bound nucleotide, adopting a 'twisted V' conformation that precludes N-terminal domain dimerization. We also present conclusive evidence that GRP94 possesses ATPase activity. Our observations provide a structural explanation for GRP94's observed rate of ATP hydrolysis and suggest a model for the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in the GRP94 chaperone cycle.

  7. Large Rotation of the N-terminal Domain of Hsp90 Is Important for Interaction with Some but Not All Client Proteins.

    PubMed

    Daturpalli, Soumya; Knieß, Robert A; Lee, Chung-Tien; Mayer, Matthias P

    2017-05-05

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperones the late folding steps of many protein kinases, transcription factors, and a diverse set of other protein clients not related in sequence and structure. Hsp90's interaction with clients appears to be coupled to a series of conformational changes. How these conformational changes contribute to its chaperone activity is currently unclear. Using crosslinking, hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry, and fluorescence experiments, we demonstrate here that the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 rotates by approximately 180° as compared to the crystal structure of yeast Hsp90 in complex with Sba1 and AMPPNP. Surprisingly, Aha1 but not Sba1 suppresses this rotation in the presence of AMPPNP but not in its absence. A minimum length of the largely unstructured linker between N-terminal and middle domain is necessary for this rotation, and interfering with the rotation strongly affects the interaction with Aha1 and the intrinsic and Aha1-stimulated ATPase activity. Surprisingly, suppression of the rotation only affects the activity of some clients and does not compromise yeast viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of heat shock protein (Hsp90) paralogues is regulated by amino acids in skeletal muscle of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Johnston, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp90) have an essential role in sarcomere formation and differentiation in skeletal muscle and also act as molecular chaperones during protein folding impacting a wide range of physiological processes. We characterised and provided a phylogenetically consistent nomenclature for the complete repertoire of six Hsp90 paralogues present in duplicated salmonid fish genomes (Hsp90α1a, Hsp90α1b, Hsp90α2a, Hsp90α2b, Hsp90ß1a and Hsp90ß1b). The expression of paralogues in fast skeletal muscle was investigated using in vivo fasting-feeding experiments and primary myogenic cultures. Fasted juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showed a transient 2 to 8-fold increase in the expression of all 4 Hsp90α paralogues within 24h of satiation feeding. Hsp90α1a and hsp90α1b also showed a pronounced secondary increase in expression after 10 days, concomitant with muscle differentiation and the expression of myogenin and sarcomeric proteins (mlc2, myhc). Hsp90ß1b was constitutively expressed whereas Hsp90ß1a expression was downregulated 10-fold between fasted and fed individuals. Hsp90α1a and Hsp90α1b were upregulated 10 to 15-fold concomitant with myotube formation and muscle differentiation in vitro whereas other Hsp90 paralogues showed no change in expression. In cells starved of amino acid (AA) and serum for 72h the addition of AA, but not insulin-like growth factor 1, increased phosphorylation of mTor and expression of all 4 hsp90α paralogues and associated co-chaperones including hsp30, tbcb, pdia4, pdia6, stga and fk504bp1, indicating a general activation of the protein folding response. In contrast, Hsp90ß1a expression in vitro was unresponsive to AA treatment indicating that some other as yet uncharacterised signal(s) regulate its expression in response to altered nutritional state.

  9. Ahsa1 and Hsp90 activity confers more severe craniofacial phenotypes in a zebrafish model of hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR).

    PubMed

    Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Swartz, Mary E; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Dong; Eberhart, Johann K

    2013-09-01

    The severity of most human birth defects is highly variable. Our ability to diagnose, treat and prevent defects relies on our understanding of this variability. Mutation of the transcription factor GATA3 in humans causes the highly variable hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome. Although named for a triad of defects, individuals with HDR can also exhibit craniofacial defects. Through a forward genetic screen for craniofacial mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant in which the first cysteine of the second zinc finger of Gata3 is mutated. Because mutation of the homologous cysteine causes HDR in humans, these zebrafish mutants could be a quick and effective animal model for understanding the role of gata3 in the HDR disease spectrum. We demonstrate that, unexpectedly, the chaperone proteins Ahsa1 and Hsp90 promote severe craniofacial phenotypes in our zebrafish model of HDR syndrome. The strengths of the zebrafish system, including rapid development, genetic tractability and live imaging, make this an important model for variability.

  10. Conformational and functional studies of a cytosolic 90 kDa heat shock protein Hsp90 from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Viviane C H; Cagliari, Thiago C; Lima, Tatiani B; Gozzo, Fábio C; Ramos, Carlos H I

    2013-07-01

    Hsp90s are involved in several cellular processes, such as signaling, proteostasis, epigenetics, differentiation and stress defense. Although Hsp90s from different organisms are highly similar, they usually have small variations in conformation and function. Thus, the characterization of different Hsp90s is important to gain insight into the structure-function relationship that makes these chaperones key regulators in protein homeostasis. This work describes the characterization of a cytosolic Hsp90 from sugarcane and its comparison with Hsp90s from other plants. Previous expressed sequence tag (EST) studies in Saccharum spp. (sugarcane) predicted the presence of an mRNA coding for a cytosolic Hsp90. The corresponding cDNA was cloned, and the recombinant protein was purified and its conformation and function characterized. The structural conformation of Hsp90 was assessed by chemical cross-linking and hydrogen/deuterium exchange using mass spectrometry and hydrodynamic assays, which revealed regions accessible to solvent and that Hsp90 is an elongated dimer in solution. The in vivo expression of Hsp90 in sugarcane leaves was confirmed by western blot, and in vitro functional characterization indicated that sugarcane Hsp90 has strong chaperone activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel interaction of the Hsp90 chaperone machine with Ssl2, an essential DNA helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flom, Gary; Weekes, Jared; Johnson, Jill L

    2005-06-01

    Hsp90 is an essential molecular chaperone that is critical for the activity of diverse cellular proteins. Hsp90 functions with a number of co-chaperone proteins, including Sti1/Hop. We conducted a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to isolate mutations that exhibit enhanced growth defects in the absence of STI1. We obtained mutations in genes encoding components of the Hsp90 chaperone machine, HSC82, CPR7 and YDJ1, and two essential genes, SSL2 and UTP21, not previously linked to Hsp90. Ssl2, the yeast homologue of XPB, is an ATP-dependent DNA helicase that is a component of the TFIIH multiprotein complex and has dual functions in transcription and DNA repair. In order to determine whether Ssl2 function is dependent on Hsp90, we further examined the interaction between Ssl2 and Hsp90. Multiple mutant alleles of SSL2 exhibited a pronounced growth defect when co-expressed with a mutant allele of Hsp90. In addition, isolation of Ssl2 protein resulted in the co-purification of Hsp90 and Sti1, suggesting that Ssl2 and Hsp90 are in the same protein complexes in vivo. These results suggest a novel role for Hsp90 in the essential cellular functions of transcription and DNA repair.

  12. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50(Cdc37) complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Karagöz, G Elif; Seo, Young Ho; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yiqun; Yu, Yanke; Duarte, Afonso M S; Schwartz, Steven J; Boelens, Rolf; Carroll, Kate; Rüdiger, Stefan G D; Sun, Duxin

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl) butane)], an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive activity. We analyzed the effect of sulforaphane on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Sulforaphane inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro with IC(50)s of around 10-15 μM and induced apoptosis. In pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model, administration of sulforaphane showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth without apparent toxicity noticed. We found that sulforaphane induced the degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client proteins and blocked the interaction of Hsp90 with its cochaperone p50(Cdc37) in pancreatic cancer cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) with an isoleucine-specific labeling strategy, we overcame the protein size limit of conventional NMR and studied the interaction of sulforaphane with full-length Hsp90 dimer (170 kDa) in solution. NMR revealed multiple chemical shifts in sheet 2 and the adjacent loop in Hsp90 N-terminal domain after incubation of Hsp90 with sulforaphane. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry further mapped a short peptide in this region that was tagged with sulforaphane. These data suggest a new mechanism of sulforaphane that disrupts protein-protein interaction in Hsp90 complex for its chemopreventive activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulforaphane inhibits pancreatic cancer through disrupting Hsp90-p50Cdc37 complex and direct interactions with amino acids residues of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Karagöz, G. Elif; Seo, Young Ho; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yiqun; Yu, Yanke; Duarte, Afonso M.S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Boelens, Rolf; Carroll, Kate; Rüdiger, Stefan G. D.; Sun, Duxin

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl) butane)], an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to possess potent chemopreventive activity. We analyzed the effect of sulforaphane on the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Sulforaphane inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro with the IC50's around 10-15 μM and induced apoptosis. In pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model, administration of sulforaphane showed remarkable inhibition of tumor growth without apparent toxicity noticed. We found that sulforaphane induced the degradation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) client proteins and blocked the interaction of Hsp90 with its cochaperone p50Cdc37 in pancreatic cancer cells. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) with an isoleucine-specific labeling strategy, we overcame the protein size limit of conventional NMR and studied the interaction of sulforaphane with full-length Hsp90 dimer (170 kDa) in solution. NMR revealed multiple chemical shifts in sheet 2 and the adjacent loop in Hsp90 N-terminal domain after incubation of Hsp90 with sulforaphane. Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) further mapped a short peptide in this region that was tagged with sulforaphane. These data suggest a new mechanism of sulforaphane that disrupts protein-protein interaction in Hsp90 complex for its chemopreventive activity. PMID:22444872

  14. Structure-based virtual screening and optimization of modulators targeting Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li; Zhou, Zi-Han; Jiang, Zheng-Yu; You, Qi-Dong; Xu, Xiao-Li

    2017-08-18

    Identification of novel Hsp90 inhibitors to disrupt Hsp90-Cdc37 protein-protein interaction (PPI) could be an alternative strategy to achieve Hsp90 inhibition. In this paper, a series of small molecules targeting Hsp90-Cdc37 complex are addressed and characterized. The molecules' key characters are determined by utilizing a structure-based virtual screening workflow, derivatives synthesis, and biological evaluation. Structural optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis were then carried out on the virtual hit of VS-8 with potent activity, which resulted in the discovery of compound 10 as a more potent regulator of Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction with a promising inhibitory effect (IC50 = 27 μM), a moderate binding capacity (KD = 40 μM) and a preferable antiproliferative activity against several cancer lines including MCF-7, SKBR3 and A549 cell lines (IC50 = 26 μM, 15 μM and 38 μM respectively). All the data suggest that compound 10 exhibits moderate inhibitory effect on Hsp90-Cdc37 and could be regard as a first evidence of a non-natural compound targeting Hsp90-Cdc37 PPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. TNF induced cleavage of HSP90 by cathepsin D potentiates apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Jürgen; Fickers, Ricarda; Klawitter, Jan; Särchen, Vinzenz; Zingler, Philipp; Adam, Dieter; Janssen, Ottmar; Krause, Eberhard; Schütze, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    During apoptosis induction by TNF, the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways converge at the lysosomal-mitochondrial interface. Earlier studies showed that the lysosomal aspartic protease Cathepsin D (CtsD) cleaves Bid to tBid, resulting in the amplification of the initial apoptotic cascade via mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The goal of this study was to identify further targets for CtsD that might be involved in activation upon death receptor ligation. Using a proteomics screen, we identified the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to be cleaved by CtsD after stimulation of U937 or other cell lines with TNF, FasL and TRAIL. HSP90 cleavage corresponded to apoptosis sensitivity of the cell lines to the different stimuli. After mutation of the cleavage site, HSP90 partially prevented apoptosis induction in U937 and Jurkat cells. Overexpression of the cleavage fragments in U937 and Jurkat cells showed no effect on apoptosis, excluding a direct pro-apoptotic function of these fragments. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 with 17AAG boosted ligand mediated apoptosis by enhancing Bid cleavage and caspase-9 activation. Together, we demonstrated that HSP90 plays an anti-apoptotic role in death receptor signalling and that CtsD-mediated cleavage of HSP90 sensitizes cells for apoptosis. These findings identify HSP90 as a potential target for cancer therapy in combination with death ligands (e.g. TNF or TRAIL). PMID:27716614

  16. Gyrase B Inhibitor Impairs HIV-1 Replication by Targeting Hsp90 and the Capsid Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Vozzolo, Luciano; Loh, Belinda; Gane, Paul J.; Tribak, Maryame; Zhou, Lihong; Anderson, Ian; Nyakatura, Elisabeth; Jenner, Richard G.; Selwood, David; Fassati, Ariberto

    2010-01-01

    Chemical genetics is an emerging approach to investigate the biology of host-pathogen interactions. We screened several inhibitors of ATP-dependent DNA motors and detected the gyrase B inhibitor coumermycin A1 (C-A1) as a potent antiretroviral. C-A1 inhibited HIV-1 integration and gene expression from acutely infected cell, but the two activities mapped to distinct targets. Target discovery identified Hsp90 as the C-A1 target affecting viral gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Hsp90 associates with the viral promoter and may directly regulate gene expression. Molecular docking suggested that C-A1 binds to two novel pockets at the C terminal domain of Hsp90. C-A1 inhibited Hsp90 dimer formation, suggesting that it impairs viral gene expression by preventing Hsp90 dimerization at the C terminus. The inhibition of HIV-1 integration imposed by C-A1 was independent of Hsp90 and mapped to the capsid protein, and a point mutation at residue 105 made the virus resistant to this block. HIV-1 susceptibility to the integration block mediated by C-A1 was influenced by cyclophilin A. Our chemical genetic approach revealed an unexpected function of capsid in HIV-1 integration and provided evidence for a role of Hsp90 in regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. Both activities were amenable to inhibition by small molecules and represent novel antiretroviral drug targets. PMID:20937817

  17. The HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib Radiosensitizes Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Casal, Roberto; Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Epperly, Michael W.; Basse, Per H.; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xinhui; Proia, David A.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Socinski, Mark A.; Levina, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors. PMID:26010604

  18. Cyclophilin-40: evidence for a dimeric complex with hsp90.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, K; Handschumacher, R E

    1995-01-01

    The expression of human cyclophilin 40 (CyP-40) as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein has provided a means to identify cellular components that are in association with this ubiquitous protein. When the fusion protein was coupled to a GSH affinity matrix, heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) was found to be the predominant associated protein in all tissue extracts examined. The relatively high concentration of each of these proteins in various tissues indicates that the dimeric complex exists in concentrations that exceed those of the inactive steroid receptors of which each protein is a component. Association does not occur with heat-shock protein 70 and is not affected by cyclosporin A (CsA). Independent expression of two domains of CyP-40 permitted dissociation of N-terminal isomerase and CsA binding activity from the hsp90 binding site, which is located at the FKBP-59-like C-terminal region. The biological association of CyP-40 with hsp90 in many tissues may reflect a conjoint role in protein folding and trafficking. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7717993

  19. Probing Molecular Mechanisms of the Hsp90 Chaperone: Biophysical Modeling Identifies Key Regulators of Functional Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based “conformational selection” of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected residue clusters

  20. SBA1 Encodes a Yeast Hsp90 Cochaperone That Is Homologous to Vertebrate p23 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yifang; Fliss, Albert E.; Rao, Jie; Caplan, Avrom J.

    1998-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SBA1 gene was cloned by PCR amplification from yeast genomic DNA following its identification as encoding an ortholog of human p23, an Hsp90 cochaperone. The SBA1 gene product is constitutively expressed and nonessential, although a disruption mutant grew more slowly than the wild type at both 18 and 37°C. A double deletion of SBA1 and STI1, encoding an Hsp90 cochaperone, displayed synthetic growth defects. Affinity isolation of histidine-tagged Sba1p (Sba1His6) after expression in yeast led to coisolation of Hsp90 and the cyclophilin homolog Cpr6. Using an in vitro assembly assay, purified Sba1His6 bound to Hsp90 only in the presence of adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) or adenyl-imidodiphosphate. Furthermore, interaction between purified Sba1His6 and Hsp90 in yeast extracts was inhibited by the benzoquinoid ansamycins geldanamycin and macbecin. The in vitro assay was also used to identify residues in Hsp90 that are important for complex formation with Sba1His6, and residues in both the N-terminal nucleotide binding domain and C-terminal half were characterized. In vivo analysis of known Hsp90 substrate proteins revealed that Sba1 loss of function had only a mild effect on the activity of the tyrosine kinase v-Src and steroid hormone receptors. PMID:9632755

  1. A Hyperactive Signalosome in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Drives Addiction to a Tumor-Specific Hsp90 Species.

    PubMed

    Zong, Hongliang; Gozman, Alexander; Caldas-Lopes, Eloisi; Taldone, Tony; Sturgill, Eric; Brennan, Sarah; Ochiana, Stefan O; Gomes-DaGama, Erica M; Sen, Siddhartha; Rodina, Anna; Koren, John; Becker, Michael W; Rudin, Charles M; Melnick, Ari; Levine, Ross L; Roboz, Gail J; Nimer, Stephen D; Chiosis, Gabriela; Guzman, Monica L

    2015-12-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous and fatal disease with an urgent need for improved therapeutic regimens given that most patients die from relapsed disease. Irrespective of mutation status, the development of aggressive leukemias is enabled by increasing dependence on signaling networks. We demonstrate that a hyperactive signalosome drives addiction of AML cells to a tumor-specific Hsp90 species (teHsp90). Through genetic, environmental, and pharmacologic perturbations, we demonstrate a direct and quantitative link between hyperactivated signaling pathways and apoptotic sensitivity of AML to teHsp90 inhibition. Specifically, we find that hyperactive JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT signaling networks are maintained by teHsp90 and, in fact, gradual activation of these networks drives tumors increasingly dependent on teHsp90. Thus, although clinically aggressive AML survives via signalosome activation, this addiction creates a vulnerability that can be exploited with Hsp90-directed therapy.

  2. Targeting HSF1 disrupts HSP90 chaperone function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Abdulraheem; Kambhampati, Suman; Shi, Huidong; Dandawate, Prasad; Padhye, Subhash; Saluja, Ashok K.; McGuirk, Joseph; Rao, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    CLL is a disease characterized by chromosomal deletions, acquired copy number changes and aneuploidy. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of Heat Shock Factor (HSF) 1 in aneuploid tumor cells can overcome deficiencies in heat shock protein (HSP) 90-mediated protein folding and restore protein homeostasis. Interestingly, several independent studies have demonstrated that HSF1 expression and activity also affects the chaperoning of HSP90 kinase clients, although the mechanism underlying this observation is unclear. Here, we determined how HSF1 regulates HSP90 function using CLL as a model system. We report that HSF1 is overexpressed in CLL and treatment with triptolide (a small molecule inhibitor of HSF1) induces apoptosis in cultured and primary CLL B-cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of HSF1 or its inhibition with triptolide results in the reduced association of HSP90 with its kinase co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37), leading to the partial depletion of HSP90 client kinases, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), c-RAF and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Treatment with triptolide or HSF1 knockdown disrupts the cytosolic complex between HSF1, p97, HSP90 and the HSP90 deacetylase- Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Consequently, HSF1 inhibition results in HSP90 acetylation and abrogation of its chaperone function. Finally, tail vein injection of Mec-1 cells into Rag2−/−IL2Rγc−/− mice followed by treatment with minnelide (a pro-drug of triptolide), reduced leukemia, increased survival and attenuated HSP90-dependent survival signaling in vivo. In conclusion, our study provides a strong rationale to target HSF1 and test the activity of minnelide against human CLL. PMID:26397138

  3. Expression analysis of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and Her2 in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Drecoll, Enken; Nitsche, Ulrich; Bauer, Karina; Berezowska, Sabina; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Rosenberg, Robert; Langer, Rupert

    2014-06-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays an important role in several types of tumors also participating in the modulation of the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases activity such as members of the Her family. We evaluated the significance of HSP90 and Her2 expression in colon cancer. HSP90 and Her2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on 355 primary resected colon carcinomas. Results were correlated with pathologic features (Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) pTNM category, tumor localisation, tumor differentiation), additional molecular genetic characteristics (BRAF, KRAS mutational status, mismatch repair genes (MMR)), and survival. HSP90 immunoreactivity was observed in various degrees. Fifty-one cases (14 %) were positive for Her2 (score 2+ and 3+) with 16/43 cases with Her2 2+ staining pattern showing amplification of Her2 determined by FISH. There was a significant correlation between high HSP90 expression and Her2 overexpression (p = 0.011). High HSP90 expression was associated with earlier tumor stages (p = 0.019), absence of lymph node (p = 0.006), and absence of distant metastases (p = 0.001). Patients with high tumoral HSP90 levels had a better survival (p = 0.032), but this was not independent from other prognostic relevant pathologic parameters. Her2 expression was not associated with any of the investigated histopathological, molecular, or clinical parameters. High HSP90 levels are reflecting lower malignant potential in colon cancer. Her2 positivity can be observed in a small number of cases. Targeting HSP90 and/or Her2 may be an alternative therapeutic approach in colon cancer in a subset of patients.

  4. Protozoan HSP90-heterocomplex: molecular interaction network and biological significance.

    PubMed

    Figueras, Maria J; Echeverria, Pablo C; Angel, Sergio O

    2014-05-01

    The HSP90 chaperone is a highly conserved protein from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, this chaperone participates in different large complexes, such as the HSP90 heterocomplex, which has important biological roles in cell homeostasis and differentiation. The HSP90-heterocomplex is also named the HSP90/HSP70 cycle because different co-chaperones (HIP, HSP40, HOP, p23, AHA1, immunophilins, PP5) participate in this complex by assembling sequentially, from the early to the mature complex. In this review, we analyze the conservation and relevance of HSP90 and the HSP90-heterocomplex in several protozoan parasites, with emphasis in Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma spp., Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma spp. In the last years, there has been an outburst of studies based on yeast two-hybrid methodology, co-immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, which have generated a most comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of HSP90 and its co-chaperones. This review analyzes the existing PPI networks of HSP90 and its co-chaperones of some protozoan parasites and discusses the usefulness of these powerful tools to analyze the biological role of the HSP90-heterocomplex in these parasites. The generation of a T. gondii HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network based on experimental data and a recent Plasmodium HSP90 heterocomplex PPI network are also included and discussed. As an example, the putative implication of nuclear transport and chromatin (histones and Sir2) as HSP90-heterocomplex interactors is here discussed.

  5. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Nelson, Zhou Wang: HDAC6 Regulates Androgen Receptor Hypersensitivity and Nuclear Localization via Modulating Hsp90 Acetylation in Castration... Hypersensitivity and Nuclear Localization via Modulating Hsp90 Acetylation in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer, Molecular Endocrinology 2009, 23...1963-1972. HDAC6 Regulates Androgen Receptor Hypersensitivity and Nuclear Localization via Modulating Hsp90 Acetylation in Castration-Resistant

  6. Optimization and biological evaluation of celastrol derivatives as Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction disruptors with improved druglike properties.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fen; Wang, Hui-Jie; Bao, Qi-Chao; Wang, Lei; Jin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Qiong; Jiang, Di; You, Qi-Dong; Xu, Xiao-Li

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as a molecular target for oncology therapeutics has attracted much attention in the last decade. The Hsp90 multichaperone complex has important roles in the growth and/or survival of cancer cells. Cdc37, as a cochaperone, associates kinase clients to Hsp90 and promotes the development of malignant tumors. Disrupting the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction provides an alternative strategy to inhibit the function of Hsp90 for cancer therapy. Celastrol, as a natural product, can disrupt the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction and induce degradation of kinase clients. The study conducted here attempted to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of celastrol derivatives as Hsp90-Cdc37 disruptors and to improve the druglike properties. 23 celastrol derivatives were designed, synthesized, and the biological activities and physicochemical properties were determined. The derivative CEL20 showed improved Hsp90-Cdc37 disruption activity, anti-proliferative activities as well as druglike properties. Additionally, CEL20 induced clients degradation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Panc-1 cells. This study can provide reference for the discovery of novel Hsp90-Cdc37 disruptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 induces cell death by disruption of the Bcr-Abl, Jak2 and HSP90 signaling network complex in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wenjing; Chakraborty, Sandip N; Leng, Xiaohong; Ma, Helen; Arlinghaus, Ralph B

    2015-01-01

    The Bcr-Abl protein is an important client protein of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the HSP90 ATPase inhibitor AUY922 on 32D mouse hematopoietic cells expressing wild-type Bcr-Abl (b3a2, 32Dp210) and mutant Bcr-Abl imatinib (IM)-resistant cell lines. Western blotting results of fractions from gel filtration column chromatography of 32Dp210 cells showed that HSP90 together with Bcr-Abl, Jak2 Stat3 and several other proteins co-eluted in peak column fractions of a high molecular weight network complex (HMWNC). Co-IP results showed that HSP90 directly bound to Bcr-Abl, Jak2, Stat 3 and Akt. The associations between HSP90 and Bcr-Abl or Bcr-Abl kinase domain mutants (T315I and E255K) were interrupted by AUY922 treatment. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl showed a dose-dependent decrease in 32Dp210T315I following AUY922 treatment for 16h. AUY922 also markedly inhibited cell proliferation of both IM-sensitive 32Dp210 (IC50 =6 nM) and IM-resistant 32Dp210T315I cells (IC50 ≈6 nM) and human KBM-5R/KBM-7R cell lines (IC50 =50 nM). AUY922 caused significant G1 arrest in 32Dp210 cells but not in T315I or E255K cells. AUY922 efficiently induced apoptosis in 32Dp210 (IC50 =10 nM) and T315I or E255K lines with IC50 around 20 to 50 nM. Our results showed that Bcr-Abl and Jak2 form HMWNC with HSP90 in CML cells. Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 disrupted the structure of HMWNC, leading to Bcr-Abl degradation, nhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Thus, inhibition of HSP90 is a powerful way to inhibit not only IM-sensitive CML cells but also IM-resistant CML cells.

  8. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Computational Modeling of Allosteric Regulation in the Hsp90 Chaperones: A Statistical Ensemble Analysis of Protein Structure Networks and Allosteric Communications

    PubMed Central

    Blacklock, Kristin; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental role of the Hsp90 chaperone in regulating functional activity of diverse protein clients is essential for the integrity of signaling networks. In this work we have combined biophysical simulations of the Hsp90 crystal structures with the protein structure network analysis to characterize the statistical ensemble of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in the Hsp90 chaperones. We have found that principal structurally stable communities could be preserved during dynamic changes in the conformational ensemble. The dominant contribution of the inter-domain rigidity to the interaction networks has emerged as a common factor responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the active chaperone form during the ATPase cycle. Structural stability analysis using force constant profiling of the inter-residue fluctuation distances has identified a network of conserved structurally rigid residues that could serve as global mediating sites of allosteric communication. Mapping of the conformational landscape with the network centrality parameters has demonstrated that stable communities and mediating residues may act concertedly with the shifts in the conformational equilibrium and could describe the majority of functionally significant chaperone residues. The network analysis has revealed a relationship between structural stability, global centrality and functional significance of hotspot residues involved in chaperone regulation. We have found that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may be mediated by modules of structurally stable residues that display high betweenness in the global interaction network. The results of this study have suggested that allosteric interactions in the Hsp90 chaperone may operate via a mechanism that combines rapid and efficient communication by a single optimal pathway of structurally rigid residues and more robust signal transmission using an ensemble of suboptimal multiple communication routes. This

  10. The Hsp90-Dependent Proteome Is Conserved and Enriched for Hub Proteins with High Levels of Protein–Protein Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Krishna B.S.; Yu, Jau-Song; Schuyler, Scott C.; Leu, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 is one of the most abundant and conserved proteins in the cell. Reduced levels or activity of Hsp90 causes defects in many cellular processes and also reveals genetic and nongenetic variation within a population. Despite information about Hsp90 protein–protein interactions, a global view of the Hsp90-regulated proteome in yeast is unavailable. To investigate the degree of dependency of individual yeast proteins on Hsp90, we used the “stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture” method coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify around 4,000 proteins in low-Hsp90 cells. We observed that 904 proteins changed in their abundance by more than 1.5-fold. When compared with the transcriptome of the same population of cells, two-thirds of the misregulated proteins were observed to be affected posttranscriptionally, of which the majority were downregulated. Further analyses indicated that the downregulated proteins are highly conserved and assume central roles in cellular networks with a high number of protein interacting partners, suggesting that Hsp90 buffers genetic and nongenetic variation through regulating protein network hubs. The downregulated proteins were enriched for essential proteins previously not known to be Hsp90-dependent. Finally, we observed that downregulation of transcription factors and mating pathway components by attenuating Hsp90 function led to decreased target gene expression and pheromone response, respectively, providing a direct link between observed proteome regulation and cellular phenotypes. PMID:25316598

  11. Approaches for Defining the Hsp90-dependent Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Hartson, Steven D.; Matts, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Hsp90 is the target of ongoing drug discovery studies seeking new compounds to treat cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and protein folding disorders. To better understand Hsp90’s roles in cellular pathologies and in normal cells, numerous studies have utilized proteomics assays and related high-throughput tools to characterize its physical and functional protein partnerships. This review surveys these studies, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of the individual attacks. We also include downloadable spreadsheets compiling all of the Hsp90-interacting proteins identified in more than 23 studies. These tools include cross-references among gene aliases, human homologues of yeast Hsp90-interacting proteins, hyperlinks to database entries, summaries of canonical pathways that are enriched in the Hsp90 interactome, and additional bioinformatic annotations. In addition to summarizing Hsp90 proteomics studies performed to date and the insights they have provided, we identify gaps in our current understanding of Hsp90-mediated proteostasis. PMID:21906632

  12. Novobiocin: redesigning a DNA gyrase inhibitor for selective inhibition of hsp90.

    PubMed

    Burlison, Joseph A; Neckers, Len; Smith, Andrew B; Maxwell, Anthony; Blagg, Brian S J

    2006-12-06

    Novobiocin is a member of the coumermycin family of antibiotics and is a well-established inhibitor of DNA gyrase. Recent studies have shown that novobiocin binds to a previously unrecognized ATP-binding site at the C-terminus of Hsp90 and induces degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins at approximately 700 microM. In an effort to develop more efficacious inhibitors of the C-terminal binding site, a library of novobiocin analogues was prepared and initial structure-activity relationships revealed. These data suggested that the 4-hydroxy moiety of the coumarin ring and the 3'-carbamate of the noviose appendage were detrimental to Hsp90 inhibitory activity. In an effort to confirm these findings, 4-deshydroxy novobiocin (DHN1) and 3'-descarbamoyl-4-deshydroxynovobiocin (DHN2) were prepared and evaluated against Hsp90. Both compounds were significantly more potent than the natural product, and DHN2 proved to be more active than DHN1. In an effort to determine whether these moieties are important for DNA gyrase inhibition, these compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit DNA gyrase and found to exhibit significant reduction in gyrase activity. Thus, we have established the first set of compounds that clearly differentiate between the C-terminus of Hsp90 and DNA gyrase, converted a well-established gyrase inhibitor into a selective Hsp90 inhibitor, and confirmed essential structure-activity relationships for the coumermycin family of antibiotics.

  13. Hsp90 and angiogenesis in bone disorders--lessons from the avian growth plate.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Ayelet; Genin, Olga; Hasdai, Ahron; Shinder, Dima; Pines, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and vitamin-D deficiency rickets are avian bone disorders of different etiologies characterized by abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, enlarged and unvascularized growth plates, and lameness. Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a proangiogenic factor in mammalian tissues and in tumors; therefore, Hsp90 inhibitors were developed as antiangiogenic factors. In this study, we evaluated the association between Hsp90, hypoxia, and angiogenesis in the chick growth plate. Administration of the Hsp90 inhibitor to TD- and rickets-afflicted chicks at the time of induction resulted in reduction in growth-plate size and, contrary to its antiangiogenic effect in tumors, a major invasion of blood vessels occurred in the growth plates. This was the result of upregulation of the VEGF receptor Flk-1, the major rate-limiting factor of vascularization in TD and rickets. In addition, the abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, as characterized by collagen type II expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and the changes in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in both disorders were restored. All these changes resulted in prevention of lameness. Inhibition of Hsp90 activity reduced growth-plate size, increased vascularization, and mitigated lameness also in TD chicks with established lesions. In summary, this is the first reported demonstration of involvement of Hsp90 in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization. In contrast to the antiangiogenic effect of Hsp90 inhibitors observed in mammals, inhibition of Hsp90 activity in the unvascularized TD- and rickets-afflicted chicks resulted in activation of the angiogenic switch and reinstated normal growth-plate morphology.

  14. HSP90 is essential for Jak-STAT signaling in classical Hodgkin lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Nils; von Bonin, Frederike; Trümper, Lorenz; Kube, Dieter

    2009-07-16

    In classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with stagnant rates of secondary malignancies requiring the development of new therapeutic strategies. We and others have shown that permanently activated Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) molecules are essential for cHL cells. Recently an overexpression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in cHL cells has been shown and inhibition of HSP90 seems to affect cHL cell survival. Here we analysed the effects of HSP90 inhibition by geldanamycin derivative 17-AAG or RNA interference (RNAi) on aberrant Jak-STAT signaling in cHL cells. Treatment of cHL cell lines with 17-AAG led to reduced cell proliferation and a complete inhibition of STAT1, -3, -5 and -6 tyrosine phosphorylation probably as a result of reduced protein expression of Janus kinases (Jaks). RNAi-mediated inhibition of HSP90 showed similar effects on Jak-STAT signaling in L428 cHL cells. These results suggest a central role of HSP90 in permanently activated Jak-STAT signaling in cHL cells. Therapeutics targeting HSP90 may be a promising strategy in cHL and other cancer entities associated with deregulated Jak-STAT pathway activation.

  15. The Hsp90 co-chaperone Sgt1 governs Candida albicans morphogenesis and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Rebecca S; Zaas, Aimee K; Betancourt-Quiroz, Marisol; Perfect, John R; Cowen, Leah E

    2012-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 orchestrates regulatory circuitry governing fungal morphogenesis, biofilm development, drug resistance, and virulence. Hsp90 functions in concert with co-chaperones to regulate stability and activation of client proteins, many of which are signal transducers. Here, we characterize the first Hsp90 co-chaperone in the leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. We demonstrate that Sgt1 physically interacts with Hsp90, and that it governs C. albicans morphogenesis and drug resistance. Genetic depletion of Sgt1 phenocopies depletion of Hsp90, inducing yeast to filament morphogenesis and invasive growth. Sgt1 governs these traits by bridging two morphogenetic regulators: Hsp90 and the adenylyl cyclase of the cAMP-PKA signaling cascade, Cyr1. Sgt1 physically interacts with Cyr1, and depletion of either Sgt1 or Hsp90 activates cAMP-PKA signaling, revealing the elusive link between Hsp90 and the PKA signaling cascade. Sgt1 also mediates tolerance and resistance to the two most widely deployed classes of antifungal drugs, azoles and echinocandins. Depletion of Sgt1 abrogates basal tolerance and acquired resistance to azoles, which target the cell membrane. Depletion of Sgt1 also abrogates tolerance and resistance to echinocandins, which target the cell wall, and renders echinocandins fungicidal. Though Sgt1 and Hsp90 have a conserved impact on drug resistance, the underlying mechanisms are distinct. Depletion of Hsp90 destabilizes the client protein calcineurin, thereby blocking crucial responses to drug-induced stress; in contrast, depletion of Sgt1 does not destabilize calcineurin, but blocks calcineurin activation in response to drug-induced stress. Sgt1 influences not only morphogenesis and drug resistance, but also virulence, as genetic depletion of C. albicans Sgt1 leads to reduced kidney fungal burden in a murine model of systemic infection. Thus, our characterization of the first Hsp90 co-chaperone in a fungal pathogen establishes

  16. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition targets canonical TGF-β signalling to prevent fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Tomcik, Michal; Zerr, Pawel; Pitkowski, Jana; Palumbo-Zerr, Katrin; Avouac, Jérôme; Distler, Oliver; Becvar, Radim; Senolt, Ladislav; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg H

    2014-06-01

    Targeted therapies for systemic sclerosis (SSc) and other fibrotic diseases are not yet available. We evaluated the efficacy of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition as a novel approach to inhibition of aberrant transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling and for the treatment of fibrosis in preclinical models of SSc. Expression of Hsp90 was quantified by quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effects of Hsp90 inhibition were analysed in cultured fibroblasts, in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, in tight-skin (Tsk-1) mice and in mice overexpressing a constitutively active TGF-β receptor I (TβRI). Expression of Hsp90β was increased in SSc skin and in murine models of SSc in a TGF-β-dependent manner. Inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-DMAG) inhibited canonical TGF-β signalling and completely prevented the stimulatory effects of TGF-β on collagen synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation. Treatment with 17-DMAG decreased the activation of canonical TGF-β signalling in murine models of SSc and exerted potent antifibrotic effects in bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, in Tsk-1 mice and in mice overexpressing a constitutively active TβRI. Dermal thickness, number of myofibroblasts and hydroxyproline content were all significantly reduced on treatment with 17-DMAG. No toxic effects were observed with 17-DMAG at antifibrotic doses. Hsp90 is upregulated in SSc and is critical for TGF-β signalling. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 effectively blocks the profibrotic effects of TGF-β in cultured fibroblasts and in different preclinical models of SSc. These results have translational implications, as several Hsp90 inhibitors are in clinical trials for other indications.

  17. Delivery of HSP90 Inhibitor Using Water Soluble Polymeric Conjugates with High Drug Payload.

    PubMed

    Suárez Del Pino, Jose A; Kolhatkar, Rohit

    2017-09-14

    HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90kD) has been validated as a therapeutic target in Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer. Unfortunately, HSP90 inhibitors suffer from dose-limiting toxicities that hinder their clinical applications. Previously developed polymeric delivery systems for HSP90 inhibitors had either low drug content or low biological activity suggesting the need for better delivery system for HSP90 inhibitors. We developed a simplified synthetic strategy to prepare polyethylene glycol based water-soluble polymeric system for model HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM). We then investigated the effect of cathepsin B degradable linker and drug content in polymeric conjugates on their growth inhibitory property using DU145 (androgen independent) and LNCaP (androgen dependent) cell lines. Water-soluble polymeric conjugates were synthesized with GDM content ranging from 9 to 30% wt/wt. We demonstrated the importance of cathepsin B degradable linker from the context of drug content and different prostate cancer cell lines. The most active conjugate against DU145 cells exhibited IC50 value of 2.9 μM. This was similar to the IC50 (2.1 μM) of small molecular drug aminohexane geldanamycin. Water-soluble polymeric conjugate with high drug content was synthesized that exhibited in-vitro growth inhibitory activity similar to small molecular weight HSP90 inhibitor. Graphical Abstract Water soluble degradable polymeric conjugate for the delivery of Geldanamycin.

  18. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90): A novel antifungal target against Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Steinbach, William J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening and difficult to treat infection in immunosuppressed patients. The efficacy of current anti-Aspergillus therapies, targeting the cell wall or membrane, is limited by toxicity (polyenes), fungistatic activity and some level of basal resistance (echinocandins), or the emergence of acquired resistance (triazoles). The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a conserved molecular chaperone involved in the rapid development of antifungal resistance in the yeast Candida albicans. Few studies have addressed its role in filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, in which mechanisms of resistance may differ substantially. Hsp90 is at the center of a complex network involving calcineurin, lysine deacetylases (KDAC) and other client proteins, which orchestrate compensatory repair mechanisms of the cell wall in response to the stress induced by antifungals. In A. fumigatus, Hsp90 is a trigger for resistance to high concentrations of caspofungin, known as the paradoxical effect. Disrupting Hsp90 circuitry by different means (Hsp90 inhibitors, KDAC inhibitors and anti-calcineurin drugs) potentiates the antifungal activity of caspofungin, thus representing a promising novel antifungal approach. This review will discuss the specific features of A. fumigatus Hsp90 and the potential for antifungal strategies of invasive aspergillosis targeting this essential chaperone.

  19. The architecture of functional modules in the Hsp90 co-chaperone Sti1/Hop

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas B; Lagleder, Stephan; Gräwert, Melissa Ann; Röhl, Alina; Hagn, Franz; Wandinger, Sebastian K; Cox, Marc B; Demmer, Oliver; Richter, Klaus; Groll, Michael; Kessler, Horst; Buchner, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Sti1/Hop is a modular protein required for the transfer of client proteins from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone system in eukaryotes. It binds Hsp70 and Hsp90 simultaneously via TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains. Sti1/Hop contains three TPR domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two domains of unknown structure (DP1 and DP2). We show that TPR2A is the high affinity Hsp90-binding site and TPR1 and TPR2B bind Hsp70 with moderate affinity. The DP domains exhibit highly homologous α-helical folds as determined by NMR. These, and especially DP2, are important for client activation in vivo. The core module of Sti1 for Hsp90 inhibition is the TPR2A–TPR2B segment. In the crystal structure, the two TPR domains are connected via a rigid linker orienting their peptide-binding sites in opposite directions and allowing the simultaneous binding of TPR2A to the Hsp90 C-terminal domain and of TPR2B to Hsp70. Both domains also interact with the Hsp90 middle domain. The accessory TPR1–DP1 module may serve as an Hsp70–client delivery system for the TPR2A–TPR2B–DP2 segment, which is required for client activation in vivo. PMID:22227520

  20. HSP90 promotes Burkitt lymphoma cell survival by maintaining tonic B-cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Walter, Roland; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Doebele, Carmen; Comoglio, Federico; Tomska, Katarzyna; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Young, Ryan M; Jacobs, Laura; Keller, Ulrich; Bönig, Halvard; Engelke, Michael; Rosenwald, Andreas; Urlaub, Henning; Staudt, Louis M; Serve, Hubert; Zenz, Thorsten; Oellerich, Thomas

    2017-02-02

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is currently treated by intensive chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Because of their toxicity, current treatment regimens are often not suitable for elderly patients or for patients in developing countries where BL is endemic. Targeted therapies for BL are therefore needed. In this study, we performed a compound screen in 17 BL cell lines to identify small molecule inhibitors affecting cell survival. We found that inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced apoptosis in BL cells in vitro at concentrations that did not affect normal B cells. By global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, we show that, in BL, HSP90 inhibition compromises the activity of the pivotal B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-proximal effector spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which we identified as an HSP90 client protein. Consistently, expression of constitutively active TEL-SYK counteracted the apoptotic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Together, our results demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition impairs BL cell survival by interfering with tonic BCR signaling, thus providing a molecular rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors in the treatment of BL.

  1. Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a critical role in Drosophila spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yue, L; Karr, T L; Nathan, D F; Swift, H; Srinivasan, S; Lindquist, S

    1999-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone protein maintains the activities of a remarkable variety of signal transducers, but its most critical functions in the context of the whole organism are unknown. Point mutations of Hsp83 (the Drosophila Hsp90 gene) obtained in two different screens are lethal as homozygotes. We report that eight transheterozygous mutant combinations produce viable adults. All exhibit the same developmental defects: sterile males and sterile or weakly fertile females. We also report that scratch, a previously identified male-sterile mutation, is an allele of Hsp82 with a P-element insertion in the intron that reduces expression. Thus, it is a simple reduction in Hsp90 function, rather than possible altered functions in the point mutants, that leads to male sterility. As shown by light and electron microscopy, all stages of spermatogenesis involving microtubule function are affected, from early mitotic divisions to later stages of sperm maturation, individualization, and motility. Aberrant microtubules are prominent in yeast cells carrying mutations in HSP82 (the yeast Hsp90 gene), confirming that Hsp90 function is connected to microtubule dynamics and that this connection is highly conserved. A small fraction of Hsp90 copurifies with taxol-stabilized microtubule proteins in Drosophila embryo extracts, but Hsp90 does not remain associated with microtubules through repeated temperature-induced assembly and disassembly reactions. If the spermatogenesis phenotypes are due to defects in microtubule dynamics, we suggest these are indirect, reflecting a role for Hsp90 in maintaining critical signal transduction pathways and microtubule effectors, rather than a direct role in the assembly and disassembly of microtubules themselves. PMID:10049923

  2. Oxidative inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the super-chaperone complex and attenuates pancreatic adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Dutta, Devawati; Samanta, Suman Kumar; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Pal, Bikas Chandra; Li, Jinping; Datta, Kaustubh; Mandal, Chhabinath; Mandal, Chitra

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost always fatal, in part because of its delayed diagnosis, poor prognosis, rapid progression and chemoresistance. Oncogenic proteins are stabilized by the Hsp90, making it a potential therapeutic target. We investigated the oxidative stress-mediated dysfunction of Hsp90 and the hindrance of its chaperonic activity by a carbazole alkaloid, mahanine, as a strategic therapeutic in pancreatic cancer. Mahanine exhibited antiproliferative activity against several pancreatic cancer cell lines through apoptosis. It induced early accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to thiol oxidation, aggregation and dysfunction of Hsp90 in MIAPaCa-2. N-acetyl-l-cysteine prevented mahanine-induced ROS accumulation, aggregation of Hsp90, degradation of client proteins and cell death. Mahanine disrupted Hsp90-Cdc37 complex in MIAPaCa-2 as a consequence of ROS generation. Client proteins were restored by MG132, suggesting a possible role of ubiquitinylated protein degradation pathway. Surface plasmon resonance study demonstrated that the rate of interaction of mahanine with recombinant Hsp90 is in the range of seconds. Molecular dynamics simulation showed its weak interactions with Hsp90. However, no disruption of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex was observed at an early time point, thus ruling out that mahanine directly disrupts the complex. It did not impede the ATP binding pocket of Hsp90. Mahanine also reduced in vitro migration and tube formation in cancer cells. Further, it inhibited orthotopic pancreatic tumor growth in nude mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence for mahanine-induced ROS-mediated destabilization of Hsp90 chaperone activity resulting in Hsp90-Cdc37 disruption leading to apoptosis, suggesting its potential as a specific target in pancreatic cancer. PMID:22729780

  3. Remarkable stereospecific conjugate additions to the Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol

    PubMed Central

    Klaic, Lada; Trippier, Paul C.; Mishra, Rama K.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Celastrol, an important natural product and Hsp90 inhibitor with a wide range of biological and medical activities and broad use as a biological probe, acts by an as yet undetermined mode of action. It is known to undergo Michael additions with biological sulfur nucleophiles. Here it is demonstrated that nucleophiles add to the pharmacophore of celastrol in a remarkable stereospecific manner. Extensive characterization of the addition products have been obtained using NMR spectrometry, nuclear Overhauser effects, and density functional theory to determine facial selectivity and gain insight into the orbital interactions of the reactive centers. This stereospecificity of celastrol may be important to its protein target selectivity. PMID:22087583

  4. HSP90 functions in the circadian clock through stabilization of the client F-box protein ZEITLUPE.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-sung; Kim, Woe Yeon; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kim, Jeongsik; Cha, Joon-Yung; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Somers, David E

    2011-10-04

    The autoregulatory loops of the circadian clock consist of feedback regulation of transcription/translation circuits but also require finely coordinated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteostasis. Although protein degradation is important to establish steady-state levels, maturation into their active conformation also factors into protein homeostasis. HSP90 facilitates the maturation of a wide range of client proteins, and studies in metazoan clocks implicate HSP90 as an integrator of input or output. Here we show that the Arabidopsis circadian clock-associated F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is a unique client for cytoplasmic HSP90. The HSP90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin and RNAi-mediated depletion of cytoplasmic HSP90 reduces levels of ZTL and lengthens circadian period, consistent with ztl loss-of-function alleles. Transient transfection of artificial microRNA targeting cytoplasmic HSP90 genes similarly lengthens period. Proteolytic targets of SCF(ZTL), TOC1 and PRR5, are stabilized in geldanamycin-treated seedlings, whereas the levels of closely related clock proteins, PRR3 and PRR7, are unchanged. An in vitro holdase assay, typically used to demonstrate chaperone activity, shows that ZTL can be effectively bound, and aggregation prevented, by HSP90. GIGANTEA, a unique stabilizer of ZTL, may act in the same pathway as HSP90, possibly linking these two proteins to a similar mechanism. Our findings establish maturation of ZTL by HSP90 as essential for proper function of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Unlike metazoan systems, HSP90 functions here within the core oscillator. Additionally, F-box proteins as clients may place HSP90 in a unique and more central role in proteostasis.

  5. Production and purification of human Hsp90β in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Radli, Martina; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is an essential member of the cellular proteostasis system. It plays an important role in the stabilisation and activation of a large number of client proteins and is involved in fatal disease processes, e.g. Alzheimer disease, cancer and cystic fibrosis. This makes Hsp90 a crucial protein to study. Mechanistic studies require large amounts of protein but the production and purification of recombinant human Hsp90 in Escherichia coli is challenging and laborious. Here we identified conditions that influence Hsp90 production, and optimised a fast and efficient purification protocol. We found that the nutrient value of the culturing medium and the length of induction had significant effect on Hsp90 production in Escherichia coli. Our fast, single-day purification protocol resulted in a stable, well-folded and pure sample that was resistant to degradation in a reproducible manner. We anticipate that our results provide a useful tool to produce higher amount of pure, well-folded and stable recombinant human Hsp90β in Escherichia coli in an efficient way. PMID:28651008

  6. Development of Heat Shock Protein (Hsp90) Inhibitors To Combat Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors through Hsp90-Kinase Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meining; Shen, Aijun; Zhang, Chi; Song, Zilan; Ai, Jing; Liu, Hongchun; Sun, Liping; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Ao

    2016-06-23

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous chaperone of all of the oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Many Hsp90 inhibitors, alone or in combination, have shown significant antitumor efficacy against the kinase-positive naïve and mutant models. However, clinical trials of these inhibitors are unsuccessful due to insufficient clinical benefits and nonoptimal safety profiles. Recently, much progress has been reported on the Hsp90-cochaperone-client complex, which will undoubtedly assist in the understanding of the interactions between Hsp90 and its clients. Meanwhile, Hsp90 inhibitors have shown promise against patients' resistance caused by early generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and at least 13 Hsp90 inhibitors are being reevaluated in the clinic. In this regard, the objectives of the current perspective are to summarize the structure and function of the Hsp90-cochaperone-client complex, to analyze the structural and functional insights into the Hsp90-client interactions to address several existing unresolved problems with Hsp90 inhibitors, and to highlight the preclinical and clinical studies of Hsp90 inhibitors as an effective treatment against resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  7. NMNAT2:HSP90 Complex Mediates Proteostasis in Proteinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Yousuf O.; Allen, Hunter M.; Yu, Lei; Li-Kroeger, David; McCabe, Cristin; Xu, Jishu; Bjorklund, Nicole; Taglialatela, Giulio; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Here, we show that brain nmnat2 mRNA levels correlate positively with global cognitive function and negatively with AD pathology. In AD brains, NMNAT2 mRNA and protein levels are reduced. NMNAT2 shifts its solubility and colocalizes with aggregated Tau in AD brains, similar to chaperones, which aid in the clearance or refolding of misfolded proteins. Investigating the mechanism of this observation, we discover a novel chaperone function of NMNAT2, independent from its enzymatic activity. NMNAT2 complexes with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to refold aggregated protein substrates. NMNAT2’s refoldase activity requires a unique C-terminal ATP site, activated in the presence of HSP90. Furthermore, deleting NMNAT2 function increases the vulnerability of cortical neurons to proteotoxic stress and excitotoxicity. Interestingly, NMNAT2 acts as a chaperone to reduce proteotoxic stress, while its enzymatic activity protects neurons from excitotoxicity. Taken together, our data indicate that NMNAT2 exerts its chaperone or enzymatic function in a context-dependent manner to maintain neuronal health. PMID:27254664

  8. BIIB021, an orally available, fully synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of the heat shock protein Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Karen; Zhang, Hong; Brekken, John; Huser, Nanni; Powell, Rachel E; Timple, Noel; Busch, David J; Neely, Laura; Sensintaffar, John L; Yang, Yong-ching; McKenzie, Andres; Friedman, Jessica; Scannevin, Robert; Kamal, Adeela; Hong, Kevin; Kasibhatla, Srinivas R; Boehm, Marcus F; Burrows, Francis J

    2009-04-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) results in the degradation of oncoproteins that drive malignant progression, inducing cell death, making Hsp90 a target of substantial interest for cancer therapy. BIIB021 is a novel, fully synthetic inhibitor of Hsp90 that binds competitively with geldanamycin in the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90. In tumor cells, BIIB021 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including HER-2, AKT, and Raf-1 and up-regulated expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp27. BIIB021 treatment resulted in growth inhibition and cell death in cell lines from a variety of tumor types at nanomolar concentrations. Oral administration of BIIB021 led to the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins measured in tumor tissue and resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth in several human tumor xenograft models. Studies to investigate the antitumor effects of BIIB021 showed activity on both daily and intermittent dosing schedules, providing dose schedule flexibility for clinical studies. Assays measuring the HER-2 protein in tumor tissue and the HER-2 extracellular domain in plasma were used to show interdiction of the Hsp90 pathway and utility as potential biomarkers in clinical trials for BIIB021. Together, these data show that BIIB021 is a promising new oral inhibitor of Hsp90 with antitumor activity in preclinical models.

  9. Hsp90 Binds and Regulates the Ligand-Inducible α Subunit of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor Kinase Gcn2

    PubMed Central

    Donzé, Olivier; Picard, Didier

    1999-01-01

    The protein kinase Gcn2 stimulates translation of the yeast transcription factor Gcn4 upon amino acid starvation. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we show that Gcn2 is regulated by the molecular chaperone Hsp90 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specifically, we found that (i) several Hsp90 mutant strains exhibit constitutive expression of a GCN4-lacZ reporter plasmid; (ii) Gcn2 and Hsp90 form a complex in vitro as well as in vivo; (iii) the specific inhibitors of Hsp90, geldanamycin and macbecin I, enhance the association of Gcn2 with Hsp90 and inhibit its kinase activity in vitro; (iv) in vivo, macbecin I strongly reduces the levels of Gcn2; (v) in a strain expressing the temperature-sensitive Hsp90 mutant G170D, both the accumulation and activity of Gcn2 are abolished at the restrictive temperature; and (vi) the Hsp90 cochaperones Cdc37, Sti1, and Sba1 are required for the response to amino acid starvation. Taken together, these data identify Gcn2 as a novel target for Hsp90, which plays a crucial role for the maturation and regulation of Gcn2. PMID:10567567

  10. Hsp90 Governs Dispersion and Drug Resistance of Fungal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Jeniel; Rajendran, Ranjith; Ramage, Gordon; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Andes, David; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal biofilms are a major cause of human mortality and are recalcitrant to most treatments due to intrinsic drug resistance. These complex communities of multiple cell types form on indwelling medical devices and their eradication often requires surgical removal of infected devices. Here we implicate the molecular chaperone Hsp90 as a key regulator of biofilm dispersion and drug resistance. We previously established that in the leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, Hsp90 enables the emergence and maintenance of drug resistance in planktonic conditions by stabilizing the protein phosphatase calcineurin and MAPK Mkc1. Hsp90 also regulates temperature-dependent C. albicans morphogenesis through repression of cAMP-PKA signalling. Here we demonstrate that genetic depletion of Hsp90 reduced C. albicans biofilm growth and maturation in vitro and impaired dispersal of biofilm cells. Further, compromising Hsp90 function in vitro abrogated resistance of C. albicans biofilms to the most widely deployed class of antifungal drugs, the azoles. Depletion of Hsp90 led to reduction of calcineurin and Mkc1 in planktonic but not biofilm conditions, suggesting that Hsp90 regulates drug resistance through different mechanisms in these distinct cellular states. Reduction of Hsp90 levels led to a marked decrease in matrix glucan levels, providing a compelling mechanism through which Hsp90 might regulate biofilm azole resistance. Impairment of Hsp90 function genetically or pharmacologically transformed fluconazole from ineffectual to highly effective in eradicating biofilms in a rat venous catheter infection model. Finally, inhibition of Hsp90 reduced resistance of biofilms of the most lethal mould, Aspergillus fumigatus, to the newest class of antifungals to reach the clinic, the echinocandins. Thus, we establish a novel mechanism regulating biofilm drug resistance and dispersion and that targeting Hsp90 provides a much-needed strategy for improving clinical outcome in the

  11. Hsp90·Cdc37 Complexes with Protein Kinases Form Cooperatively with Multiple Distinct Interaction Sites.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Julia M; Scherr, Matthias J; Freiburger, Lee; Daake, Marina A; Sattler, Michael; Richter, Klaus

    2015-12-25

    Protein kinases are the most prominent group of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) clients and are recruited to the molecular chaperone by the kinase-specific cochaperone cell division cycle 37 (Cdc37). The interaction between Hsp90 and nematode Cdc37 is mediated by binding of the Hsp90 middle domain to an N-terminal region of Caenorhabditis elegans Cdc37 (CeCdc37). Here we map the binding site by NMR spectroscopy and define amino acids relevant for the interaction between CeCdc37 and the middle domain of Hsp90. Apart from these distinct Cdc37/Hsp90 interfaces, binding of the B-Raf protein kinase to the cochaperone is conserved between mammals and nematodes. In both cases, the C-terminal part of Cdc37 is relevant for kinase binding, whereas the N-terminal domain displaces the nucleotide from the kinase. This interaction leads to a cooperative formation of the ternary complex of Cdc37 and kinase with Hsp90. For the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2), we observe that certain features of the interaction with Cdc37·Hsp90 are conserved, but the contribution of Cdc37 domains varies slightly, implying that different kinases may utilize distinct variations of this binding mode to interact with the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Sulphoxythiocarbamates modify cysteine residues in HSP90 causing degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Dayalan Naidu, S; Samarasinghe, K; Van Hecke, G C; Pheely, A; Boronina, T N; Cole, R N; Benjamin, I J; Cole, P A; Ahn, Y-H; Dinkova-Kostova, A T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has a key role in the maintenance of the cellular proteostasis. However, HSP90 is also involved in stabilisation of oncogenic client proteins and facilitates oncogene addiction and cancer cell survival. The development of HSP90 inhibitors for cancer treatment is an area of growing interest as such agents can affect multiple pathways that are linked to all hallmarks of cancer. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that targeting cysteine residues of HSP90 will lead to degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Methods: Combining chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure–activity relationship analysis, we identified a new class of HSP90 inhibitors. Click chemistry and protease-mass spectrometry established the sites of modification of the chaperone. Results: The mildly electrophilic sulphoxythiocarbamate alkyne (STCA) selectively targets cysteine residues of HSP90, forming stable thiocarbamate adducts. Without interfering with the ATP-binding ability of the chaperone, STCA destabilises the client proteins RAF1, HER2, CDK1, CHK1, and mutant p53, and decreases proliferation of breast cancer cells. Addition of a phenyl or a tert-butyl group in tandem with the benzyl substituent at nitrogen increased the potency. A new compound, S-4, was identified as the most robust HSP90 inhibitor within a series of 19 derivatives. Conclusion: By virtue of their cysteine reactivity, sulphoxythiocarbamates target HSP90, causing destabilisation of its client oncoproteins and inhibiting cell proliferation. PMID:24322890

  13. A Remodeled Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone Ensemble with the Novel Cochaperone Aarsd1 Is Required for Muscle Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Pablo C; Briand, Pierre-André; Picard, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Hsp90 is the ATP-consuming core component of a very abundant molecular chaperone machine that handles a substantial portion of the cytosolic proteome. Rather than one machine, it is in fact an ensemble of molecular machines, since most mammalian cells express two cytosolic isoforms of Hsp90 and a subset of up to 40 to 50 cochaperones and regulate their interactions and functions by a variety of posttranslational modifications. We demonstrate that the Hsp90 ensemble is fundamentally remodeled during muscle differentiation and that this remodeling is not just a consequence of muscle differentiation but possibly one of the drivers to accompany and to match the vast proteomic changes associated with this process. As myoblasts differentiate into myotubes, Hsp90α disappears and only Hsp90β remains, which is the only isoform capable of interacting with the novel muscle-specific Hsp90 cochaperone Aarsd1L. Artificially maintaining Hsp90α or knocking down Aarsd1L expression interferes with the differentiation of C2C12 myotubes. During muscle differentiation, Aarsd1L replaces the more ubiquitous cochaperone p23 and in doing so dampens the activity of the glucocorticoid receptor, one of the Hsp90 clients relevant to muscle functions. This cochaperone switch protects muscle cells against the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids and may contribute to preventing muscle wasting induced by excess glucocorticoids.

  14. A Remodeled Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone Ensemble with the Novel Cochaperone Aarsd1 Is Required for Muscle Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Pablo C.; Briand, Pierre-André

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 is the ATP-consuming core component of a very abundant molecular chaperone machine that handles a substantial portion of the cytosolic proteome. Rather than one machine, it is in fact an ensemble of molecular machines, since most mammalian cells express two cytosolic isoforms of Hsp90 and a subset of up to 40 to 50 cochaperones and regulate their interactions and functions by a variety of posttranslational modifications. We demonstrate that the Hsp90 ensemble is fundamentally remodeled during muscle differentiation and that this remodeling is not just a consequence of muscle differentiation but possibly one of the drivers to accompany and to match the vast proteomic changes associated with this process. As myoblasts differentiate into myotubes, Hsp90α disappears and only Hsp90β remains, which is the only isoform capable of interacting with the novel muscle-specific Hsp90 cochaperone Aarsd1L. Artificially maintaining Hsp90α or knocking down Aarsd1L expression interferes with the differentiation of C2C12 myotubes. During muscle differentiation, Aarsd1L replaces the more ubiquitous cochaperone p23 and in doing so dampens the activity of the glucocorticoid receptor, one of the Hsp90 clients relevant to muscle functions. This cochaperone switch protects muscle cells against the inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids and may contribute to preventing muscle wasting induced by excess glucocorticoids. PMID:26884463

  15. Effects of treatment with an Hsp90 inhibitor in tumors based on 15 phase II clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Lu, Mingjie; Yao, Mengqian; Zhu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp)90 serves as a chaperone protein that promotes the proper folding of proteins involved in a variety of signal transduction processes involved in cell growth. Hsp90 inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of critical client proteins, have emerged as the accessory therapeutic agents for multiple human cancer types. To better understand the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer treatment, the present study reviewed 15 published phase II clinical trials to investigate whether Hsp90 inhibitors will benefit patients with cancer. Information of complete response, partial response, stable disease, objective response and objective response rate was collected to evaluate clinical outcomes. Overall, Hsp90 inhibitors are effective against a variety of oncogene-addicted cancers, including those that have developed resistance to specific receptors. PMID:27602225

  16. Hsp90 regulates O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase: a novel mechanism of modulation of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Connie M.; Catravas, John D.

    2012-01-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is involved in many important cellular processes. Increased O-GlcNAc has been implicated in major diseases, such as diabetes and its complications and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that O-GlcNAc modification occurs in the proteasome and serves to inhibit proteasome function by blocking the ATPase activity in the 19S regulatory cap, explaining, at least in part, the adverse effects of O-GlcNAc modification and suggesting that downregulating O-GlcNAc might be important in the treatment of human diseases. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism to modulate cellular O-GlcNAc modification, namely through heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. We observed that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat binding site of Hsp90. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitors, radicicol or 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, destabilized OGT in primary endothelial cell cultures and enhanced its degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition downregulated O-GlcNAc protein modifications and attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, including high glucose-induced increase in endothelial or type 3 isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) O-GlcNAcylation. These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification and that Hsp90 inhibitors might be used to modulate O-GlcNAc modification and reverse its adverse effects in human diseases. PMID:22496241

  17. Hsp90 regulates O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase: a novel mechanism of modulation of protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengxue; Snead, Connie M; Catravas, John D

    2012-06-15

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is involved in many important cellular processes. Increased O-GlcNAc has been implicated in major diseases, such as diabetes and its complications and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported that O-GlcNAc modification occurs in the proteasome and serves to inhibit proteasome function by blocking the ATPase activity in the 19S regulatory cap, explaining, at least in part, the adverse effects of O-GlcNAc modification and suggesting that downregulating O-GlcNAc might be important in the treatment of human diseases. In this study, we report on a novel mechanism to modulate cellular O-GlcNAc modification, namely through heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. We observed that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat binding site of Hsp90. Inhibition of Hsp90 by its specific inhibitors, radicicol or 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, destabilized OGT in primary endothelial cell cultures and enhanced its degradation by the proteasome. Furthermore, Hsp90 inhibition downregulated O-GlcNAc protein modifications and attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in O-GlcNAc protein modification, including high glucose-induced increase in endothelial or type 3 isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) O-GlcNAcylation. These results suggest that Hsp90 is involved in the regulation of OGT and O-GlcNAc modification and that Hsp90 inhibitors might be used to modulate O-GlcNAc modification and reverse its adverse effects in human diseases.

  18. In vivo detection of HSP90 identifies breast cancers with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Kaneko, Kensuke; Gwin, William R; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Pogue, Brian W; Hartman, Zachary C; Hughes, Philip F; Haystead, Timothy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2017-10-09

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone to numerous molecular pathways in malignant cells, is elevated in aggressive breast cancers (BC). We hypothesized that identifying breast cells with elevated Hsp90 activity in situ could result in early detection of aggressive BC. We exploited the uptake of a Hsp90 inhibitor by malignant cells to create an imaging probe (HS131) of Hsp90 activity by linking it to a near infrared (nIR) dye. HS131 uptake into cells correlated with cell membrane expression of Hsp90 and was used to image molecular subtypes of murine and human BC in vitro and in murine models. HS131 imaging was both sensitive and specific in detecting the murine 4T1 BC cell line, as well as subclones with differing metastatic potential. Highly metastatic subclones (4T07) had high HS131 uptake, but subclones with lower metastatic potential (67NR, 168FARN) had low HS131 uptake. We generated isogenic cell lines to demonstrate that overexpression of a variety of specific oncogenes resulted in high HS131 uptake and retention. Finally, we demonstrated that HS131 could be used to detect spontaneous tumors in MMTV-neu mice, as well as primary and metastatic human BC xenografts. HS131 could image invasive lobular BC, a histologic subtype of BC which is often undetectable by mammography. An HSP90-targeting nIR probe is sensitive and specific in imaging all molecular subtypes of murine and human BC, with higher uptake in aggressive and highly metastatic clones. Clinical studies with Hsp90-targeting nIR probes will be initiated shortly. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Modularity and intrinsic evolvability of Hsp90-buffered change.

    PubMed

    Carey, Charles C; Gorman, Kristen F; Rutherford, Suzannah

    2006-12-20

    Hsp90 controls dramatic phenotypic transitions in a wide array of morphological features of many organisms. The genetic-background dependence of specific abnormalities and their response to laboratory selection suggested Hsp90 could be an 'evolutionary capacitor', allowing developmental variation to accumulate as neutral alleles under normal conditions and manifest selectable morphological differences during environmental stress. The relevance of Hsp90-buffered variation for evolution has been most often challenged by the idea that large morphological changes controlled by Hsp90 are unconditionally deleterious. To address this issue, we tested an Hsp90-buffered abnormality in Drosophila for unselected pleiotropic effects and correlated fitness costs. Up to 120-fold differences in penetrance among six highly related selection lines, started from an initially small number of flies and rapidly selected for and against a deformed eye trait (dfe), did not translate into measurable differences in any of several tests of viability, lifespan or competitive fitness. Nor were 17 dfe Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with fitness effects in over 1,400 recombinant lines. Our ability to detect measurable effects of inbreeding, media environment and the white mutation in the selection line backgrounds independent of dfe penetrance suggests that, within the limitations of laboratory tests of fitness, this large morphological change controlled by Hsp90 was selectable independent of strong, correlated and unconditionally deleterious effects--abundant, polygenic variation hidden by Hsp90 allows potentially deleterious alleles to be readily replaced during selection by less deleterious alleles with similar phenotypic effects. Hsp90 links environmental stress with the expression of developmental variation controlling unprecedented morphological plasticity. As outlined here and in the companion paper of this issue, the complex genetic architecture of Hsp90-buffered variation

  20. Hsp90 dependence of a kinase is determined by its conformational landscape

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qi; Boczek, Edgar E.; Wang, Qi; Buchner, Johannes; Kaila, Ville R. I.

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an abundant molecular chaperone, involved in the folding and activation of 60% of the human kinome. The oncogenic tyrosine kinase v-Src is one of the most stringent client proteins of Hsp90, whereas its almost identical homolog c-Src is only weakly affected by the chaperone. Here, we perform atomistic molecular simulations and in vitro kinase assays to explore the mechanistic differences in the activation of v-Src and c-Src. While activation in c-Src is strictly controlled by ATP-binding and phosphorylation, we find that activating conformational transitions are spontaneously sampled in Hsp90-dependent Src mutants. Phosphorylation results in an enrichment of the active conformation and in an increased affinity for Hsp90. Thus, the conformational landscape of the mutated kinase is reshaped by a broken “control switch”, resulting in perturbations of long-range electrostatics, higher activity and increased Hsp90-dependence. PMID:28290541

  1. Hsp90-Dependent Assembly of the DBC2/RhoBTB2-Cullin3 E3-Ligase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez, Jacob R.; Sun, Liang; Prince, Thomas; Matts, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the wild-type tumor-suppressor gene DBC2 (Deleted-in-Breast Cancer 2, a.k.a RhoBTB2) is suppressed in many cancers, in addition to breast cancer. In a screen for Cdc37-associated proteins, DBC2 was identified to be a potential client protein of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperone machine. Pull down assays of ectopically expressed DBC2 confirmed that DBC2 associated with Hsp90 and its co-chaperone components in reticulocyte lysate and MCF7 cells. Similar to other atypical Rho GTPases, DBC2 was found to have retained the capacity to bind GTP. The ability of DBC2 to bind GTP was modulated by the Hsp90 ATPase cycle, as demonstrated through the use of the Hsp90 chemical inhibitors, geldanamycin and molybdate. The binding of full length DBC2 to GTP was suppressed in the presence of geldanamycin, while it was enhanced in the presence of molybdate. Furthermore, assembly of DBC2-Cullin3-COP9 E3 ligase complexes was Hsp90-dependent. The data suggest a new paradigm for Hsp90-modulated assembly of a Cul3/DBC2 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that may extend to other E3 ligase complexes. PMID:24608665

  2. Acetylation of androgen receptor by ARD1 promotes dissociation from HSP90 complex and prostate tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanyi; Qian, Chiping; Zhang, Haitao; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Liu, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an androgen receptor (AR)-driven disease and post-translational modification of AR is critical for AR activation. We previously reported that Arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1) is an oncoprotein in prostate cancer. It acetylates and activates AR to promote prostate tumorigenesis. However, the ARD1-targeted residue within AR and the mechanisms of the acetylation event in prostate tumorigenesis remained unknown. In this study, we show that ARD1 acetylates AR at lysine 618 (K618) in vitro and in vivo. An AR construct with the charged lysine substitution by arginine (AR-618R) reduces RNA Pol II binding, AR transcriptional activity, prostate cancer cell growth, and xenograft tumor formation due to attenuation of AR nuclear translocation, whereas, construct mimicking neutral polar substitution acetylation at K618 by glutamine (AR-618Q) enhanced these effects beyond that of the wild-type AR. Mechanistically, ARD1 forms a ternary complex with AR and HSP90 in vitro and in vivo. Expression of ARD1 increases levels of AR acetylation and AR-HSP90 dissociation in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the AR acetylation defective K618R mutant is unable to dissociate from HSP90 while the HSP90-dissociated AR is acetylated following ligand exposure. This work identifies a new mechanism for ligand-induced AR-HSP90 dissociation and AR activation. Targeting ARD1-mediated AR acetylation may be a potent intervention for AR-dependent prostate cancer therapy. PMID:27659526

  3. HSP90 Shapes the Consequences of Human Genetic Variation.

    PubMed

    Karras, Georgios I; Yi, Song; Sahni, Nidhi; Fischer, Máté; Xie, Jenny; Vidal, Marc; D'Andrea, Alan D; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-02-23

    HSP90 acts as a protein-folding buffer that shapes the manifestations of genetic variation in model organisms. Whether HSP90 influences the consequences of mutations in humans, potentially modifying the clinical course of genetic diseases, remains unknown. By mining data for >1,500 disease-causing mutants, we found a strong correlation between reduced phenotypic severity and a dominant (HSP90 ≥ HSP70) increase in mutant engagement by HSP90. Examining the cancer predisposition syndrome Fanconi anemia in depth revealed that mutant FANCA proteins engaged predominantly by HSP70 had severely compromised function. In contrast, the function of less severe mutants was preserved by a dominant increase in HSP90 binding. Reducing HSP90's buffering capacity with inhibitors or febrile temperatures destabilized HSP90-buffered mutants, exacerbating FA-related chemosensitivities. Strikingly, a compensatory FANCA somatic mutation from an "experiment of nature" in monozygotic twins both prevented anemia and reduced HSP90 binding. These findings provide one plausible mechanism for the variable expressivity and environmental sensitivity of genetic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    parental C42 cells. Lentiviral vector was transduced and integrated into the genomic material of the parental cells. Cells expressing GFP include...were performed. The resultant graph is generated from one experiment done in triplicate. Expression of Hsp90 mRNA in siHSP90- C42 stable cells is

  5. Role of Hsp90 in Androgen-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    into 293TN cells. The viral particles were then used to infect parental C42 cells. Lentiviral vector was transduced and integrated into the genomic...triplicate. Expression of Hsp90 mRNA in siHSP90- C42 stable cells is knocked down by 3.4 fold relative to the empty vector infected control cells

  6. Downregulation of the evolutionary capacitor Hsp90 is mediated by social cues.

    PubMed

    Peuß, Robert; Eggert, Hendrik; Armitage, Sophie A O; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-11-22

    The relationship between robustness and evolvability is a long-standing question in evolution. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone, has been identified as a potential capacitor for evolution, since it allows for the accumulation and release of cryptic genetic variation, and also for the regulation of novel genetic variation through transposon activity. However, to date, it is unknown whether Hsp90 expression is regulated upon demand (i.e. when the release of cryptic genetic variation is most needed). Here, we show that Hsp90 has reduced transcription under conditions where the mobilization of genetic variation could be advantageous. We designed a situation that indicates a stressful environment but avoids the direct effects of stress, by placing untreated (focal) red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, into groups together with wounded conspecifics, and found a consistent reduction in expression of two Hsp90 genes (Hsp83 and Hsp90) in focal beetles. We moreover observed a social transfer of immunity in this non-eusocial insect: there was increased activity of the phenoloxidase enzyme and downregulation of the immune regulator, imd. Our study poses the exciting question of whether evolvability might be regulated through the use of information derived from the social environment. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Downregulation of the evolutionary capacitor Hsp90 is mediated by social cues

    PubMed Central

    Eggert, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between robustness and evolvability is a long-standing question in evolution. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone, has been identified as a potential capacitor for evolution, since it allows for the accumulation and release of cryptic genetic variation, and also for the regulation of novel genetic variation through transposon activity. However, to date, it is unknown whether Hsp90 expression is regulated upon demand (i.e. when the release of cryptic genetic variation is most needed). Here, we show that Hsp90 has reduced transcription under conditions where the mobilization of genetic variation could be advantageous. We designed a situation that indicates a stressful environment but avoids the direct effects of stress, by placing untreated (focal) red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, into groups together with wounded conspecifics, and found a consistent reduction in expression of two Hsp90 genes (Hsp83 and Hsp90) in focal beetles. We moreover observed a social transfer of immunity in this non-eusocial insect: there was increased activity of the phenoloxidase enzyme and downregulation of the immune regulator, imd. Our study poses the exciting question of whether evolvability might be regulated through the use of information derived from the social environment. PMID:26582024

  8. A Cytosolic Relay of Heat Shock Proteins HSP70-1A and HSP90β Monitors the Folding Trajectory of the Serotonin Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    El-Kasaby, Ali; Koban, Florian; Sitte, Harald H.; Freissmuth, Michael; Sucic, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the C terminus of the serotonin transporter (SERT) disrupt folding and export from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we examined the hypothesis that a cytosolic heat shock protein relay was recruited to the C terminus to assist folding of SERT. This conjecture was verified by the following observations. (i) The proximal portion of the SERT C terminus conforms to a canonical binding site for DnaK/heat shock protein of 70 kDa (HSP70). A peptide covering this segment stimulated ATPase activity of purified HSP70-1A. (ii) A GST fusion protein comprising the C terminus of SERT pulled down HSP70-1A. The interaction between HSP70-1A and SERT was visualized in live cells by Förster resonance energy transfer: it was restricted to endoplasmic reticulum-resident transporters and enhanced by an inhibitor that traps HSP70-1A in its closed state. (iv) Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed complex formation of SERT with HSP70-1A and HSP90β. Consistent with an HSP relay, co-chaperones (e.g. HSC70-HSP90-organizing protein) were co-immunoprecipitated with the stalled mutants SERT-R607A/I608A and SERT-P601A/G602A. (v) Depletion of HSP90β by siRNA or its inhibition increased the cell surface expression of wild type SERT and SERT-F604Q. In contrast, SERT-R607A/I608A and SERT-P601A/G602A were only rendered susceptible to inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 by concomitant pharmacochaperoning with noribogaine. (vi) In JAR cells, inhibition of HSP90 also increased the levels of SERT, indicating that endogenously expressed transporter was also susceptible to control by HSP90β. These findings support the concept that the folding trajectory of SERT is sampled by a cytoplasmic chaperone relay. PMID:25202009

  9. Design and synthesis of pyrimidinyl acyl thioureas as novel Hsp90 inhibitors in invasive ductal breast cancer and its bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Koca, İrfan; Özgür, Aykut; Er, Muhammet; Gümüş, Mehmet; Açikalin Coşkun, Kübra; Tutar, Yusuf

    2016-10-21

    Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common breast malignancies tumors and has tendency to bone metastases. Many oncogenic client proteins involved in formation of metastatic pathways. Stabilization, regulation, and maintenance of these oncogenic client proteins are provided with Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 perform these processes through its ATP binding and subsequent hydrolysis energy. Therefore, designing Hsp90 inhibitors is a novel cancer treatment method. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors have solubility problems and showed adverse effects in clinical trials. Thus, we designed and synthesized novel pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives to selectively inhibit Hsp90 alpha in human invasive ductal breast (MCF-7) and human bone osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cell lines. In vitro experiments showed that the compounds inhibited cell proliferation, ATP hydrolysis, and exhibited cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines. Further, gene expression was analyzed by microarray studies on MCF-7 cell lines. Several genes that play vital roles in breast cancer pathogenesis displayed altered gene expression in the presence of a selected pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea compound. Molecular docking studies were also performed to determine interaction between Hsp90 ATPase domain and pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives. The results indicated that the compounds are able to interact with Hsp90 ATP binding pocket and inhibit ATPase function. The designed compounds powerfully inhibit Hsp90 by an average of 1 μM inhibition constant. And further, the compounds perturb Hsp90 N terminal domain proper orientation and ATP may not provide required conformational change for Hsp90 function as evidenced by in silico experiments. Therefore, the designed compounds effectively inhibited both invasive ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis. Pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives may provide a drug template for effective treatment of invasive ductal breast carcinoma and its bone metastasis as

  10. Topically Applied Hsp90 Blocker 17AAG Inhibits Autoantibody-Mediated Blister-Inducing Cutaneous Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tukaj, Stefan; Bieber, Katja; Kleszczyński, Konrad; Witte, Mareike; Cames, Rebecca; Kalies, Kathrin; Zillikens, Detlef; Ludwig, Ralf J; Fischer, Tobias W; Kasperkiewicz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Cell stress-inducible Hsp90 has been recognized as key player in mediating inflammatory responses. Although its systemic blockade was successfully used to treat autoimmune diseases in preclinical models, efficacy of a topical route of Hsp90 inhibitor administration has so far not been evaluated in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune-mediated dermatoses. Here, effects of the Hsp90 blocker 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) applied topically to the skin were determined in experimental inflammatory epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), an anti-type VII collagen autoantibody-induced blistering skin disease. Topical 17AAG ameliorated clinical disease severity when given before or during the occurrence of skin lesions without causing cutaneous or systemic toxicity in mice with antibody transfer- and immunization-induced EBA. In both EBA models and in the setting of locally induced inflammation, topical 17AAG treatment was associated with (i) reduced neutrophilic infiltrates, (ii) decreased NF-κB activation, (iii) lowered expression of matrix metalloproteinases and Flii, and (iv) induction of anti-inflammatory Hsp70 in the skin. Our results suggest that topical delivery of Hsp90 antagonists, offering the benefit of a reduced risk of systemic adverse effects of Hsp90 inhibition, may be useful for the control of EBA and possibly other related inflammatory skin disorders.

  11. Designed hybrid TPR peptide targeting Hsp90 as a novel anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Haramoto, Mari; Ohara, Koji; Kawakami, Koji

    2011-01-14

    Despite an ever-improving understanding of the molecular biology of cancer, the treatment of most cancers has not changed dramatically in the past three decades and drugs that do not discriminate between tumor cells and normal tissues remain the mainstays of anticancer therapy. Since Hsp90 is typically involved in cell proliferation and survival, this is thought to play a key role in cancer, and Hsp90 has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a potential therapeutic target. We focused on the interaction of Hsp90 with its cofactor protein p60/Hop, and engineered a cell-permeable peptidomimetic, termed "hybrid Antp-TPR peptide", modeled on the binding interface between the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and the TPR2A domain of Hop. It was demonstrated that this designed hybrid Antp-TPR peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain, inducing cell death of breast, pancreatic, renal, lung, prostate, and gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. In contrast, Antp-TPR peptide did not affect the viability of normal cells. Moreover, analysis in vivo revealed that Antp-TPR peptide displayed a significant antitumor activity in a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer in mice. These results indicate that Antp-TPR peptide would provide a potent and selective anticancer therapy to cancer patients.

  12. Designed hybrid TPR peptide targeting Hsp90 as a novel anticancer agent

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite an ever-improving understanding of the molecular biology of cancer, the treatment of most cancers has not changed dramatically in the past three decades and drugs that do not discriminate between tumor cells and normal tissues remain the mainstays of anticancer therapy. Since Hsp90 is typically involved in cell proliferation and survival, this is thought to play a key role in cancer, and Hsp90 has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a potential therapeutic target. Methods We focused on the interaction of Hsp90 with its cofactor protein p60/Hop, and engineered a cell-permeable peptidomimetic, termed "hybrid Antp-TPR peptide", modeled on the binding interface between the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and the TPR2A domain of Hop. Results It was demonstrated that this designed hybrid Antp-TPR peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain, inducing cell death of breast, pancreatic, renal, lung, prostate, and gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. In contrast, Antp-TPR peptide did not affect the viability of normal cells. Moreover, analysis in vivo revealed that Antp-TPR peptide displayed a significant antitumor activity in a xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer in mice. Conclusion These results indicate that Antp-TPR peptide would provide a potent and selective anticancer therapy to cancer patients. PMID:21235734

  13. Potential role of Hsp90 in rat islet function under the condition of high glucose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Zhang, Yuqing; Xu, Wan; Deng, Ruyuan; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Yao; Ji, Xueying; Bai, Mengyao; Zhou, Feiye; Zhou, Libin; Wang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    The preservation of pancreatic β-cell function is a key point in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is substantial evidence demonstrating that heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is needed for the stabilization and correct folding of client proteins and plays important roles in various biological processes. Here, we revealed the important role of Hsp90 in β-cell function. Islets from male Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated to be used for further RT-PCR, Western blot, and insulin secretion test ex vivo in response to different stimuli. Our results revealed that Hsp90 expression was significantly decreased in isolated rat islets exposed to high glucose, which was involved in glucokinase activation and glucose metabolism, not calcium signaling. Two kinds of Hsp90 inhibitors 17-DMAG and CCT018159 markedly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from rat islets, along with increased expressions of genes closely related to β-cell function. These data indicate that Hsp90 may be involved in high glucose-induced islet function adaptation.

  14. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

    PubMed

    Roundhill, Elizabeth; Turnbull, Doug; Burchill, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of plasma membrane multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) in Ewing's sarcoma (ES) predicts poor outcome. MRP-1 is also expressed in mitochondria, and we have examined the submitochondrial localization of MRP-1 and investigated the mechanism of MRP-1 transport and role of this organelle in the response to doxorubicin. The mitochondrial localization of MRP-1 was examined in ES cell lines by differential centrifugation and membrane solubilization by digitonin. Whether MRP-1 is chaperoned by heat shock proteins (HSPs) was investigated by immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and HSP knockout using small hairpin RNA and inhibitors (apoptozole, 17-AAG, and NVPAUY). The effect of disrupting mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux activity on the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin was investigated by counting viable cell number. Mitochondrial MRP-1 is glycosylated and localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where it is coexpressed with HSP90. MRP-1 binds to both HSP90 and HSP70, although only inhibition of HSP90β decreases expression of MRP-1 in the mitochondria. Disruption of mitochondrial MRP-1-dependent efflux significantly increases the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (combination index, <0.9). For the first time, we have demonstrated that mitochondrial MRP-1 is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a client protein of HSP90β, where it may play a role in the doxorubicin-induced resistance of ES.-Roundhill, E., Turnbull, D., Burchill, S. Localization of MRP-1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane by the chaperone protein HSP90β.

  15. A rat retinal damage model predicts for potential clinical visual disturbances induced by Hsp90 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Ye, Josephine; Ying, Weiwen; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Wada, Yumiko; Koya, Keizo; Huang, Qin; Bates, Richard C.; Sonderfan, Andrew J.

    2013-12-01

    In human trials certain heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, including 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922, have caused visual disorders indicative of retinal dysfunction; others such as 17-AAG and ganetespib have not. To understand these safety profile differences we evaluated histopathological changes and exposure profiles of four Hsp90 inhibitors, with or without clinical reports of adverse ocular effects, using a rat retinal model. Retinal morphology, Hsp70 expression (a surrogate marker of Hsp90 inhibition), apoptotic induction and pharmacokinetic drug exposure analysis were examined in rats treated with the ansamycins 17-DMAG and 17-AAG, or with the second-generation compounds NVP-AUY922 and ganetespib. Both 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 induced strong yet restricted retinal Hsp70 up-regulation and promoted marked photoreceptor cell death 24 h after the final dose. In contrast, neither 17-AAG nor ganetespib elicited photoreceptor injury. When the relationship between drug distribution and photoreceptor degeneration was examined, 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 showed substantial retinal accumulation, with high retina/plasma (R/P) ratios and slow elimination rates, such that 51% of 17-DMAG and 65% of NVP-AUY922 present at 30 min post-injection were retained in the retina 6 h post-dose. For 17-AAG and ganetespib, retinal elimination was rapid (90% and 70% of drugs eliminated from the retina at 6 h, respectively) which correlated with lower R/P ratios. These findings indicate that prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 activity in the eye results in photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, the results suggest that the retina/plasma exposure ratio and retinal elimination rate profiles of Hsp90 inhibitors, irrespective of their chemical class, may predict for ocular toxicity potential. - Highlights: • In human trials some Hsp90 inhibitors cause visual disorders, others do not. • Prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 in the rat eye results in photoreceptor cell death. • Retina/plasma ratio and retinal

  16. Hsp90 transcriptionally and post-translationally regulates the expression of NDRG1 and maintains the stability of its modifying kinase GSK3beta.

    PubMed

    Banz, Vanessa M; Medová, Michaela; Keogh, Adrian; Furer, Cynthia; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Candinas, Daniel; Stroka, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NRDG1) is a stress-induced protein whose putative function is suppression of tumor metastasis. A recent proteonomic study showed NDRG1 interacts with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). From their reported association, we investigated if NDRG1 is dependent on Hsp90 for its stability and is therefore a yet unidentified Hsp90 client protein. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NDRG1 and Hsp90 physically associate in hepatocellular cancer cell lines. However, geldanamycin (GA)-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 did not disrupt their interaction or result in NDRG1 protein destabilization. On the contrary, inhibition of Hsp90 led to a transcriptional increase of NDRG1 protein which was associated with cell growth arrest. We also observed that GA inhibited the phosphorylation of NDRG1 by targeting its regulating kinases, serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta). We demonstrate that in the presence of GA, GSK3beta protein and activity were decreased thus indicating that Hsp90 is necessary for GSK3beta stability. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NDRG1 is not a classic client protein but interacts with Hsp90 and is still dually regulated by Hsp90 at a transcriptional and post-translational level. Finally, we suggest for the first time GSK3beta as a new client protein of Hsp90.

  17. Spontaneous assembly of HSP90 inhibitors at water/octanol interface: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolghadr, Amin Reza; Boroomand, Samaneh

    2017-02-01

    Drug absorption at an acceptable dose depends on the pair of solubility and permeability. There are many potent therapeutics that are not active in vivo, presumably due to the lack of capability to cross the cell membrane. Molecular dynamics simulation of radicicol, diol-radicicol, cyclopropane-radicicol and 17-DMAG were performed at water/octanol interface to suggest interfacial activity as a physico-chemical characteristic of these heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors. We have observed that orally active HSP90 inhibitors form aggregates at the water/octanol and DPPC-lipid/water interfaces by starting from an initial configuration with HSP90 inhibitors embedded in the water matrix.

  18. New phagotrophic euglenoid species (new genus Decastava; Scytomonas saepesedens; Entosiphon oblongum), Hsp90 introns, and putative euglenoid Hsp90 pre-mRNA insertional editing.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E; Vickerman, Keith

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new phagotrophic euglenoid species by light microscopy and 18S rDNA and Hsp90 sequencing: Scytomonas saepesedens; Decastava edaphica; Entosiphon oblongum. We studied Scytomonas and Decastava ultrastructure. Scytomonas saepesedens feeds when sessile with actively beating cilium, and has five pellicular strips with flush joints and Calycimonas-like microtubule-supported cytopharynx. Decastava, sister to Keelungia forming new clade Decastavida on 18S rDNA trees, has 10 broad strips with cusp-like joints, not bifurcate ridges like Ploeotia and Serpenomonas (phylogenetically and cytologically distinct genera), and Serpenomonas-like feeding apparatus (8-9 unreinforced microtubule pairs loop from dorsal jaw support to cytostome). Hsp90 and 18S rDNA trees group Scytomonas with Petalomonas and show Entosiphon as the earliest euglenoid branch. Basal euglenoids have rigid longitudinal strips; derived clade Spirocuta has spiral often slideable strips. Decastava Hsp90 genes have introns. Decastava/Entosiphon Hsp90 frameshifts imply insertional RNA editing. Petalomonas is too heterogeneous in pellicle structure for one genus; we retain Scytomonas (sometimes lumped with it) and segregate four former Petalomonas as new genus Biundula with pellicle cross section showing 2-8 smooth undulations and typified by Biundula (=Petalomonas) sphagnophila comb. n. Our taxon-rich site-heterogeneous rDNA trees confirm that Heteronema is excessively heterogeneous; therefore we establish new genus Teloprocta for Heteronema scaphurum.

  19. Isoform-Specific Phosphorylation in Human Hsp90β Affects Interaction with Clients and the Cochaperone Cdc37.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh T N; Knieß, Robert A; Daturpalli, Soumya; Le Breton, Laura; Ke, Xiangyu; Chen, Xuemei; Mayer, Matthias P

    2017-03-10

    The 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90s) assist the maturation of many key regulators of signal transduction pathways and cellular control circuits like protein kinases and transcription factors and chaperone their stability and activity. In this function, Hsp90s cooperate with some 30 cochaperones and they are themselves subject to regulation by numerous post-translational modifications. In vertebrates, two major isoforms exist in the cytosol, Hsp90α and Hsp90β, which share a high degree of sequence identity and are expressed in tissue- and environmental condition-dependent manner. We identified an isoform-specific phosphorylation site in human Hsp90β. This phosphorylation site seems to be linked to vertebrate evolution since it is not found in invertebrata but in all tetrapoda and many but not all fish species. We provide data suggesting that this phosphorylation is important for the activation of Hsp90 clients like glucocorticoid receptor and a protein kinase. Replacement of the phosphorylation site by glutamate affects the conformational dynamics of Hsp90 and interaction with the kinase-specific cochaperone Cdc37. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A C-terminal HSP90 inhibitor restores glucocorticoid sensitivity and relieves a mouse allograft model of Cushing disease.

    PubMed

    Riebold, Mathias; Kozany, Christian; Freiburger, Lee; Sattler, Michael; Buchfelder, Michael; Hausch, Felix; Stalla, Günter K; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo

    2015-03-01

    One function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in corticotroph cells is to suppress the transcription of the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor of the stress hormone adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Cushing disease is a neuroendocrine condition caused by partially glucocorticoid-resistant corticotroph adenomas that excessively secrete ACTH, which leads to hypercortisolism. Mutations that impair GR function explain glucocorticoid resistance only in sporadic cases. However, the proper folding of GR depends on direct interactions with the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, refs. 7,8). We show here that corticotroph adenomas overexpress HSP90 compared to the normal pituitary. N- and C-terminal HSP90 inhibitors act at different steps of the HSP90 catalytic cycle to regulate corticotroph cell proliferation and GR transcriptional activity. C-terminal inhibitors cause the release of mature GR from HSP90, which promotes its exit from the chaperone cycle and potentiates its transcriptional activity in a corticotroph cell line and in primary cultures of human corticotroph adenomas. In an allograft mouse model, the C-terminal HSP90 inhibitor silibinin showed anti-tumorigenic effects, partially reverted hormonal alterations, and alleviated symptoms of Cushing disease. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of Cushing disease caused by overexpression of heat shock proteins and consequently misregulated GR sensitivity may be overcome pharmacologically with an appropriate HSP90 inhibitor.

  1. Hsp90 Selectively Modulates Phenotype in Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Yeyati, Patricia L; Bancewicz, Ruth M; Maule, John; van Heyningen, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Compromised heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) function reveals cryptic phenotypes in flies and plants. These observations were interpreted to suggest that this molecular stress-response chaperone has a capacity to buffer underlying genetic variation. Conversely, the protective role of Hsp90 could account for the variable penetrance or severity of some heritable developmental malformations in vertebrates. Using zebrafish as a model, we defined Hsp90 inhibitor levels that did not induce a heat shock response or perturb phenotype in wild-type strains. Under these conditions the severity of the recessive eye phenotype in sunrise, caused by a pax6b mutation, was increased, while in dreumes, caused by a sufu mutation, it was decreased. In another strain, a previously unobserved spectrum of severe structural eye malformations, reminiscent of anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and nanophthalmia complex in humans, was uncovered by this limited inhibition of Hsp90 function. Inbreeding of offspring from selected unaffected carrier parents led to significantly elevated malformation frequencies and revealed the oligogenic nature of this phenotype. Unlike in Drosophila, Hsp90 inhibition can decrease developmental stability in zebrafish, as indicated by increased asymmetric presentation of anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and nanophthalmia and sunrise phenotypes. Analysis of the sunrise pax6b mutation suggests a molecular mechanism for the buffering of mutations by Hsp90. The zebrafish studies imply that mild perturbation of Hsp90 function at critical developmental stages may underpin the variable penetrance and expressivity of many developmental anomalies where the interaction between genotype and environment plays a major role. PMID:17397257

  2. The association of Hsp90 expression induced by aspirin with anti-stress damage in chicken myocardial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Huai-sen; Qian, Zhuang; Tang, Shu; Wu, Di; Kemper, Nicole; Hartung, Joerg; Bao, En-dong

    2016-03-01

    The protective effect of aspirin during exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens was investigated. We assayed pathological damage, expression and distribution of Hsp90 protein and hsp90 mRNA expression in chicken heart tissues after oral administration of aspirin following exposure to high temperature for varying times. Heat stress induced increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while causing severe heart damage, which was characterized by granular and vacuolar degeneration, nuclear shrinkage and even myocardium fragmentation in cardiac muscle fibers. After aspirin administration, myocardial cells showed fewer pathological lesions than broilers treated with heat alone. A high positive Hsp90 signal was always detected in the nuclei of myocardial cells from broilers treated with aspirin, while in myocardial cells treated with heat alone, Hsp90 in the nuclei decreased, as did that in the cytoplasm. Aspirin induced rapid and significant synthesis of Hsp90 before and at the initial phase of heat stress, and significant expression of hsp90 mRNA was stimulated throughout the experiment when compared with cells exposed to heat stress alone. Thus, specific pre-induction of Hsp90 in cardiovascular tissue was useful for resisting heat stress damage because it produced stable damage-related enzymes and fewer pathologic changes.

  3. HSP90α plays an important role in piRNA biogenesis and retrotransposon repression in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyanagi, Tomoko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Ogawa, Ayako; Kuramochi-Miyagawa, Satomi; Nakano, Toru; Chuma, Shinichiro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Udono, Heiichiro

    2014-01-01

    HSP90, found in all kingdoms of life, is a major chaperone protein regulating many client proteins. We demonstrated that HSP90α, one of two paralogs duplicated in vertebrates, plays an important role in the biogenesis of fetal PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA), which act against the transposon activities, in mouse male germ cells. The knockout mutation of Hsp90α resulted in a large reduction in the expression of primary and secondary piRNAs and mislocalization of MIWI2, a PIWI homolog. Whereas the mutation in Fkbp6 encoding a co-chaperone reduced piRNAs of 28–32 nucleotides in length, the Hsp90α mutation reduced piRNAs of 24–32 nucleotides, suggesting the presence of both FKBP6-dependent and -independent actions of HSP90α. Although DNA methylation and mRNA levels of L1 retrotransposon were largely unchanged in the Hsp90α mutant testes, the L1-encoded protein was increased, suggesting the presence of post-transcriptional regulation. This study revealed the specialized function of the HSP90α isofom in the piRNA biogenesis and repression of retrotransposons during the development of male germ cells in mammals. PMID:25262350

  4. The association of Hsp90 expression induced by aspirin with anti-stress damage in chicken myocardial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Huai-sen; Qian, Zhuang; Tang, Shu; Wu, Di; Kemper, Nicole; Hartung, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of aspirin during exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens was investigated. We assayed pathological damage, expression and distribution of Hsp90 protein and hsp90 mRNA expression in chicken heart tissues after oral administration of aspirin following exposure to high temperature for varying times. Heat stress induced increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while causing severe heart damage, which was characterized by granular and vacuolar degeneration, nuclear shrinkage and even myocardium fragmentation in cardiac muscle fibers. After aspirin administration, myocardial cells showed fewer pathological lesions than broilers treated with heat alone. A high positive Hsp90 signal was always detected in the nuclei of myocardial cells from broilers treated with aspirin, while in myocardial cells treated with heat alone, Hsp90 in the nuclei decreased, as did that in the cytoplasm. Aspirin induced rapid and significant synthesis of Hsp90 before and at the initial phase of heat stress, and significant expression of hsp90 mRNA was stimulated throughout the experiment when compared with cells exposed to heat stress alone. Thus, specific pre-induction of Hsp90 in cardiovascular tissue was useful for resisting heat stress damage because it produced stable damage-related enzymes and fewer pathologic changes. PMID:27051338

  5. Interplay between HSP90 and Nrf2 pathways in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, Iolanda; Oguiza, Ainhoa; Recio, Carlota; Lopez-Sanz, Laura; Bernal, Susana; Egido, Jesus; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are determinant processes in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) overexpression in atherosclerotic plaques plays a role in sustaining inflammatory mechanisms, and its specific inhibition prevents atherosclerosis. The present work investigates, in a mouse model of diabetes-driven atherosclerosis, whether atheroprotection by pharmacological HSP90 inhibition is accomplished by bolstering antioxidant defense mechanisms headed by nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were randomized to receive vehicle or HSP90 inhibitor (17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, 4mg/kg) for 10 weeks. Aortic root sections were analyzed for plaque size and composition, transcription factor activity, and expression of inflammatory and antioxidant markers. In vitro studies were performed in murine macrophages cultured under hyperglycemic conditions. Treatment with HSP90 inhibitor promoted the activation of Nrf2 in the aortic tissue of diabetic mice (predominantly localized in macrophages and smooth muscle cells) and also in cultured cells. Nrf2 induction was associated with a concomitant inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in atherosclerotic plaques, thus resulting in a significant reduction in lesion size and inflammatory component (leukocytes and cytokines). Furthermore, atheroprotection by HSP90 inhibition was linked to the induction of cytoprotective HSP70, antioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and autophagy machinery (LC3 and p62/SQSTM1) in aortic tissue. HSP90 inhibition protects from atherosclerosis in experimental diabetes through the induction of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective mechanisms, reinforcing its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Hsp90β inhibition modulates nitric oxide production and nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in human chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hsp90β is a member of the Hsp90 family of protein chaperones. This family plays essential roles in the folding, maturation and activity of many proteins that are involved in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. The role of this protein in chondrocytes is not well understood, although its increase in osteoarthritic cells has been reported. The present study aimed to explore the role of Hsp90β in key aspects of OA pathogenesis. Methods Human OA chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage obtained from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery, and primary cultured. Cells were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β or TNF-α) and nitric oxide donors (NOC-12 or SNP). For Hsp90β inhibition, two different chemical inhibitors (Geldanamycin and Novobiocin) were employed, or siRNA transfection procedures were carried out. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry and ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated by the Griess method. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the presence of Hsp90β in stimulated cells. Results Hsp90β was found to be increased by proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of Hsp90β by the chemicals Geldanamycin (GA) and Novobiocin (NB) caused a dose-dependent decrease of the NO production induced by IL-1β in chondrocytes, up to basal levels. Immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that the NO donors NOC-12 and SNP also increased Hsp90β. Chemical inhibition or specific gene silencing of this chaperone reduced the DNA condensation and fragmentation, typical of death by apoptosis, that is induced by NO donors in chondrocytes. Conclusions The present results show how Hsp90β modulates NO production and NO-mediated cellular death in human OA chondrocytes. PMID:22004293

  7. FW-04-806 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by binding to N-terminus of Hsp90 and disrupting Hsp90-Cdc37 complex formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising therapeutic target and inhibition of Hsp90 will presumably result in suppression of multiple signaling pathways. FW-04-806, a bis-oxazolyl macrolide compound extracted from China-native Streptomyces FIM-04-806, was reported to be identical in structure to the polyketide Conglobatin. Methods We adopted the methods of chemproteomics, computational docking, immunoprecipitation, siRNA gene knock down, Quantitative Real-time PCR and xenograft models on the research of FW-04-806 antitumor mechanism, through the HER2-overexpressing breast cancer SKBR3 and HER2-underexpressing breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. Results We have verified the direct binding of FW-04-806 to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 and found that FW-04-806 inhibits Hsp90/cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37) chaperone/co-chaperone interactions, but does not affect ATP-binding capability of Hsp90, thereby leading to the degradation of multiple Hsp90 client proteins via the proteasome pathway. In breast cancer cell lines, FW-04-806 inhibits cell proliferation, caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, induced apoptosis, and downregulated Hsp90 client proteins HER2, Akt, Raf-1 and their phosphorylated forms (p-HER2, p-Akt) in a dose and time-dependent manner. Importantly, FW-04-806 displays a better anti-tumor effect in HER2-overexpressed SKBR3 tumor xenograft model than in HER2-underexpressed MCF-7 model. The result is consistent with cell proliferation assay and in vitro apoptosis assay applied for SKBR-3 and MCF-7. Furthermore, FW-04-806 has a favorable toxicity profile. Conclusions As a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, FW-04-806 binds to the N-terminal of Hsp90 and inhibits Hsp90/Cdc37 interaction, resulting in the disassociation of Hsp90/Cdc37/client complexes and the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. FW-04-806 displays promising antitumor activity against breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, especially for HER2-overexpressed breast cancer cells. PMID

  8. The Ribosomal Biogenesis Protein Utp21 Interacts with Hsp90 and Has Differing Requirements for Hsp90-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tenge, Victoria R.; Knowles, Jared; Johnson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 buffers the effects of genetic variation by assisting the stabilization and folding of multiple clients critical for cell signaling and growth. We identified an interaction of Hsp90 and associated proteins with the essential nucleolar protein, Utp21, part of a large complex required for biogenesis of the small ribosomal subunit. The utp21-S602F mutation, which causes minor defects in otherwise wild-type yeast, exhibited severe or lethal growth defects when combined with mutations in Hsp90 or co-chaperones. WT Utp21 and Utp21-S602F exhibited similar interactions with Hsp90, and steady-state levels of WT Utp21 were reduced upon Hsp90 mutation or inhibition. Mutations in the human homolog of UTP21, WDR36, have been associated with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Three different mutant forms of Utp21 analogous to glaucoma-associated WDR36 mutations exhibit reduced levels in yeast cells expressing mutations in Hsp90 or associated chaperones, suggesting that Hsp90 and co-chaperones buffer the effects of those mutations. PMID:24647762

  9. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Small Molecule Hsp90 Probes

    PubMed Central

    Taldone, Tony; Zatorska, Danuta; Patel, Pallav D.; Zong, Hongliang; Rodina, Anna; Ahn, James H.; Moulick, Kamalika; Guzman, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    A number of compounds from different chemical classes are known to bind competitively to the ATP-pocket of Hsp90 and inhibit its chaperone function. The natural product geldanamycin was the first reported inhibitor of Hsp90 and since then synthetic inhibitors from purine, isoxazole and indazol-4-one chemical classes have been discovered and are currently or soon to be in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. In spite of a similar binding mode to Hsp90, distinct biological profiles were demonstrated amongst these molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the molecular basis for these dissimilarities, we report here the synthesis of chemical tools for three Hsp90 inhibitor classes. These agents will be useful for probing tumor-by-tumor the Hsp90 complexes isolated by specific inhibitors. Such information will lead to better understanding of tumor specific molecular markers to aid in their clinical development. It will also help to elucidate the molecular basis for the biological differences observed among Hsp90 inhibitors. PMID:21459002

  10. A phase II trial of ganetespib, a heat shock protein 90 Hsp90) inhibitor, in patients with docetaxel-pretreated metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-a prostate cancer clinical trials consortium (PCCTC) study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Manish K; Heilbrun, Lance K; Sheng, Shijie; Stein, Mark; Liu, Glenn; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Dzinic, Sijana H; Li, Xiaohua; Freeman, Stacy; Smith, Daryn; Heath, Elisabeth I

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been studied as a therapeutic target in many cancers. In preclinical trials, the Hsp90 ATPase inhibitor ganetespib demonstrated potent inhibition of solid tumor growth, with superior potency than prior Hsp90 inhibitors. Given the promising preclinical outcome and favorable pharmacologic properties of ganetespib, we conducted a phase II trial of single-agent ganetespib in patients with metastatic, castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The primary objective of the study was to determine the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Patients with mCRPC who had been previously treated with docetaxel were enrolled after meeting eligibility criteria. All patients received ganetespib at 200 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 28 days (one cycle). Subjects who tolerated therapy were continued on ganetespib until disease progression. Considering that Hsp90 acetylation may confer insensitivity to Hsp90 inhibitors and maspin inhibits protein deacetylation, maspin-associated molecular markers were evaluated. Eighteen patients were recruited into the trial; most were Caucasian, had performance status 1, had received prior docetaxel, and were heavily pretreated. Of the 17 patients who were treated, none attained 6-month PFS. Only 2 patients achieved PFS > 4 months. The median PFS was 1.9 months. As per the study design, the trial was terminated after the interim analysis. The most frequent types of Grade 3 toxicity were dehydration, diarrhea, and fatigue. Molecular markers provided little additional insight regarding drug activity. Ganetespib demonstrated minimal clinical activity in men with mCRPC. The true 6-month PFS rate was, at most, 0.20. Possible reasons for this include selection of a heavily pretreated patient population and lack of agent potency in patients with mCRPC.

  11. Maturation of the tyrosine kinase c-src as a kinase and as a substrate depends on the molecular chaperone Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Singer, Mike A.; Lindquist, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Although Hsp90 displays general chaperone activity in vitro, few substrates of the chaperone have been identified in vivo, and the characteristics that render these substrates dependent on Hsp90 remain elusive. To investigate this issue, we exploited a paradoxical observation: several unrelated oncogenic viral tyrosine kinases, including v-src, attain their native conformation after association with Hsp90, yet their nearly identical cellular homologs interact only weakly with the chaperone. It has been controversial whether Hsp90 is vital for normal maturation of the cellular kinases or is simply binding a misfolded subfraction of the proteins. By modulating Hsp90 levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we determined that Hsp90 is indeed necessary for the maturation of c-src (the normal homolog of v-src). c-src maturation is, however, less sensitive to Hsp90 perturbations than is v-src maturation. Dependence of the two proteins on Hsp90 does not correspond to their relative efficiency in reaching their final destination (the plasma membrane); we observed that in yeast, unlike in vertebrate cells, neither c-src nor v-src concentrate in the membrane. Expression of different v/c-src chimeras in cells carrying wild-type or temperature-sensitive Hsp90 alleles revealed that the difference between the proteins instead arises from multiple, naturally occurring mutations in the C-terminal region of v-src. PMID:9874780

  12. Molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by Hsp90-targeted Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is vital to cell survival under conditions of stress, and binds client proteins to assist in protein stabilization, translocation of polypeptides across cell membranes, and recovery of proteins from aggregates. Therefore, Hsp90 has emerged as an important target for the treatment of cancer. We previously reported that novel Antp-TPR hybrid peptide, which can inhibit the interaction of Hsp90 with the TPR2A domain of Hop, induces selective cytotoxic activity to discriminate between normal and cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results In this study, we investigated the functional cancer-cell killing mechanism of Antp-TPR hybrid peptide in glioblastoma (GB) cell lines. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced effective cytotoxic activity in GB cells through the loss of Hsp90 client proteins such as p53, Akt, CDK4, and cRaf. Antp-TPR also did not induce the up-regulation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins, although a small-molecule inhibitor of Hsp90, 17-AAG, induced the up-regulation of these proteins. It was also found that Antp-TPR peptide increased the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, and the cytotoxic activity of this hybrid peptide to GB cells in the endoplasmic reticulum stress condition. Conclusion These results show that targeting of Hsp90 by Antp-TPR could be an attractive approach to selective cancer-cell killing because no other Hsp90-targeted compounds show selective cytotoxic activity. Antp-TPR might provide potent and selective therapeutic options for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22913813

  13. A large animal model to evaluate the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, Mariana; Golder, Matthew; Archer, Fabienne; Heras, Marcelo de las; Leroux, Caroline; Palmarini, Massimo

    2008-02-05

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring lung cancer of sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The JSRV envelope glycoprotein (Env) functions as a dominant oncoprotein in vitro and in vivo. In order to develop the basis for the use of OPA as a lung cancer model, we screened a variety of signal transduction inhibitors for their ability to block transformation by the JSRV Env. Most inhibitors were not effective in blocking JSRV Env-induced transformation. On the contrary, various Hsp90 inhibitors efficiently blocked JSRV transformation. This phenomenon was at least partly due to Akt degradation, which is activated in JSRV-transformed cells. Hsp90 was found expressed in tumor cells of sheep with naturally occurring OPA. In addition, Hsp90 inhibitors specifically inhibited proliferation of immortalized and moreover primary cells derived from OPA tumors. Thus, OPA could be used as a large animal model for comprehensive studies investigating the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors in lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Hsp90 N- and C-terminal double inhibition synergistically suppresses Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhuang, Yingting; Chen, Xianling; Chen, Xiaole; Li, Ding; Fan, Yingjuan; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yuanzhong; Wu, Lixian

    2017-02-07

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) contains amino (N)-terminal domain, carboxyl(C)-terminal domain, and middle domains, which activate Hsp90 chaperone function cooperatively in tumor cells. One terminal occupancy might influence another terminal binding with inhibitor. The Bcr-Abl kinase is one of the Hsp90 clients implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Present studies demonstrate that double inhibition of the N- and C-terminal termini can disrupt Hsp90 chaperone function synergistically, but not antagonistically, in Bcr-Abl-positive human leukemia cells. Furthermore, both the N-terminal inhibitor 17-AAG and the C-terminal inhibitor cisplatin (CP) have the capacity to suppress progenitor cells; however, only CP is able to inhibit leukemia stem cells (LSCs) significantly, which implies that the combinational treatment is able to suppress human leukemia in different mature states.

  15. Novel 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones as potential anticancer agents targeting Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Montoir, David; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Tonnerre, Alain; Juin, Philippe; Duflos, Muriel; Bazin, Marc-Antoine

    2016-08-25

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent chaperone known to be overexpressed in many cancers. This way, Hsp90 is an important target for drug discovery. Novobiocin, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, was reported to inhibit Hsp90 targeting C-terminal domain, and showed anti-proliferative properties, leading to the development of new and more active compounds. Consequently, a new set of novobiocin analogs derived from 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one scaffold was designed, synthesized and evaluated against two breast cancer cell lines. Subsequently, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were conducted on best candidates, finally Western Blot analysis was performed to measure their ability to induce degradation of Hsp90 client proteins.

  16. 17-DMCHAG, a new geldanamycin derivative, inhibits prostate cancer cells through Hsp90 inhibition and survivin downregulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jifeng; Li, Zhenyu; Lin, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Baobing; Wang, Yang; Peng, Ruixian; Wang, Meifang; Lu, Chunhua; Shi, Guowei; Shen, Yuemao

    2015-06-28

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone involved in the stability of many client proteins, including androgen receptor (AR) and survivin, making Hsp90 an attractive molecular therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Several Hsp90 inhibitors have shown antitumor activity in various preclinical models and in clinical trials. Geldanamycin is a well-known inhibitor of Hsp90, but its associated liver toxicity limited its clinical development. Here, we report a highly effective and low-hepatotoxic geldanamycin derivative that exhibits antitumor activity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of cells with 17-DMCHAG (17-(6-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamamido)hexylamino)-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin) dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cell lines. 17-DMCHAG exhibits anti-invasive and anti-migratory activities in prostate cancer cells through down-regulating of transcription factors Zeb1, Snail1, Slug, and mesenchymal marker Vimentin, while up-regulating the epithelial marker of E-cadherin. Furthermore, 17-DMCHAG treatment damaged the Hsp90/AR and Hsp90/survivin complexes and induced the proteasome-dependent degradation of AR and survivin, then inhibited the activity of these two proteins. In vivo, we observed that 17-DMCHAG showed strong antitumor effects in LNCaP and DU-145 cell-xenografted nude mice. Thus, 17-DMCHAG is a potential treatment for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Repurposing Strategy for Hsp90 Inhibitors Demonstrates Their Potency against Filarial Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Victoria; O'Neill, Kerry; Maitland, Kirsty; Sverdrup, Francis M.; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Novel drugs are required for the elimination of infections caused by filarial worms, as most commonly used drugs largely target the microfilariae or first stage larvae of these infections. Previous studies, conducted in vitro, have shown that inhibition of Hsp90 kills adult Brugia pahangi. As numerous small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 have been developed for use in cancer chemotherapy, we tested the activity of several novel Hsp90 inhibitors in a fluorescence polarization assay and against microfilariae and adult worms of Brugia in vitro. The results from all three assays correlated reasonably well and one particular compound, NVP-AUY922, was shown to be particularly active, inhibiting Mf output from female worms at concentrations as low as 5.0 nanomolar after 6 days exposure to drug. NVP-AUY922 was also active on adult worms after a short 24 h exposure to drug. Based on these in vitro data, NVP-AUY922 was tested in vivo in a mouse model and was shown to significantly reduce the recovery of both adult worms and microfilariae. These studies provide proof of principle that the repurposing of currently available Hsp90 inhibitors may have potential for the development of novel agents with macrofilaricidal properties. PMID:24551261

  18. Hsp90 can Accommodate the Simultaneous Binding of the FKBP52 and HOP Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L.; Molugu, Sudheer K.; Herrera, Nadia; Ramirez, Citlally; Xiao, Chuan; Bernal, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of steroidogenic hormone receptor-mediated activity plays an important role in the development of hormone-dependent cancers. For example, during prostate carcinogenesis, the regulatory function played by the androgen receptor is often converted from a growth suppressor to an oncogene thus promoting prostate cancer cell survival and eventual metastasis. Within the cytoplasm, steroid hormone receptor activity is regulated by the Hsp90 chaperone in conjunction with a series of co-chaperone proteins. Collectively, Hsp90 and its binding associates form a large heteromeric complex that scaffold the fully mature receptor for binding with the respective hormone. To date our understanding of the interactions between Hsp90 with the various TPR domain-containing co-chaperone proteins is limited due to a lack of available structural information. Here we present the stable formation of Hsp902-FKBP521- HOP2 and Hsp902-FKBP521-p232-HOP2 complexes as detected by immunoprecipitation, time course dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. The simultaneous binding of FKBP52 and HOP to the Hsp90 dimer provide direct evidence of a novel chaperone sub-complex that likely plays a transient role in the regulation of the fully mature steroid hormone receptor. PMID:21378414

  19. The Hsp90 machinery facilitates the transport of diphtheria toxin into human cells.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Manuel; Schnell, Leonie; Feigl, Peter; Birkhofer, Carina; Mohr, Katharina; Roeder, Maurice; Carle, Stefan; Langer, Simon; Tippel, Franziska; Buchner, Johannes; Fischer, Gunter; Hausch, Felix; Frick, Manfred; Schwan, Carsten; Aktories, Klaus; Schiene-Fischer, Cordelia; Barth, Holger

    2017-04-04

    Diphtheria toxin kills human cells because it delivers its enzyme domain DTA into their cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis. After receptor-mediated uptake of the toxin, DTA translocates from acidic endosomes into the cytosol, which might be assisted by host cell factors. Here we investigated the role of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones during the uptake of native diphtheria toxin into human cells and identified the components of the Hsp90 machinery including Hsp90, Hsp70, Cyp40 and the FK506 binding proteins FKBP51 and FKBP52 as DTA binding partners. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the chaperone activity of Hsp90 and Hsp70 and of the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of Cyps and FKBPs protected cells from intoxication with diphtheria toxin and inhibited the pH-dependent trans-membrane transport of DTA into the cytosol. In conclusion, these host cell factors facilitate toxin uptake into human cells, which might lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against diphtheria.

  20. Farnesylation of Ydj1 is required for in vivo interaction with Hsp90 client proteins.

    PubMed

    Flom, Gary A; Lemieszek, Marta; Fortunato, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Jill L

    2008-12-01

    Ydj1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an abundant cytosolic Hsp40, or J-type, molecular chaperone. Ydj1 cooperates with Hsp70 of the Ssa family in the translocation of preproteins to the ER and mitochondria and in the maturation of Hsp90 client proteins. The substrate-binding domain of Ydj1 directly interacts with steroid receptors and is required for the activity of diverse Hsp90-dependent client proteins. However, the effect of Ydj1 alteration on client interaction was unknown. We analyzed the in vivo interaction of Ydj1 with the protein kinase Ste11 and the glucocorticoid receptor. Amino acid alterations in the proposed client-binding domain or zinc-binding domain had minor effects on the physical interaction of Ydj1 with both clients. However, alteration of the carboxy-terminal farnesylation signal disrupted the functional and physical interaction of Ydj1 and Hsp90 with both clients. Similar effects were observed upon deletion of RAM1, which encodes one of the subunits of yeast farnesyltransferase. Our results indicate that farnesylation is a major factor contributing to the specific requirement for Ydj1 in promoting proper regulation and activation of diverse Hsp90 clients.

  1. 4,5-diarylisoxazole Hsp90 chaperone inhibitors: potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Brough, Paul A; Aherne, Wynne; Barril, Xavier; Borgognoni, Jenifer; Boxall, Kathy; Cansfield, Julie E; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Collins, Ian; Davies, Nicholas G M; Drysdale, Martin J; Dymock, Brian; Eccles, Suzanne A; Finch, Harry; Fink, Alexandra; Hayes, Angela; Howes, Robert; Hubbard, Roderick E; James, Karen; Jordan, Allan M; Lockie, Andrea; Martins, Vanessa; Massey, Andrew; Matthews, Thomas P; McDonald, Edward; Northfield, Christopher J; Pearl, Laurence H; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Ray, Stuart; Raynaud, Florence I; Roughley, Stephen D; Sharp, Swee Y; Surgenor, Allan; Walmsley, D Lee; Webb, Paul; Wood, Mike; Workman, Paul; Wright, Lisa

    2008-01-24

    Inhibitors of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone are showing considerable promise as potential chemotherapeutic agents for cancer. Here, we describe the structure-based design, synthesis, structure-activity relationships and pharmacokinetics of potent small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 based on the 4,5-diarylisoxazole scaffold. Analogues from this series have high affinity for Hsp90, as measured in a fluorescence polarization (FP) competitive binding assay, and are active in cancer cell lines where they inhibit proliferation and exhibit a characteristic profile of depletion of oncogenic proteins and concomitant elevation of Hsp72. Compound 40f (VER-52296/NVP-AUY922) is potent in the Hsp90 FP binding assay (IC50 = 21 nM) and inhibits proliferation of various human cancer cell lines in vitro, with GI50 averaging 9 nM. Compound 40f is retained in tumors in vivo when administered i.p., as evaluated by cassette dosing in tumor-bearing mice. In a human colon cancer xenograft model, 40f inhibits tumor growth by approximately 50%.

  2. Second-Generation HSP90 Inhibitor Onalespib Blocks mRNA Splicing of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Welti, Jonathan; Powers, Marissa V; Yuan, Wei; Smyth, Tomoko; Seed, George; Riisnaes, Ruth; Hedayat, Somaieh; Wang, Hannah; Crespo, Mateus; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ines; Miranda, Susana; Carreira, Suzanne; Lyons, John F; Sharp, Swee; Plymate, Stephen R; Attard, Gerhardt; Wallis, Nicola; Workman, Paul; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-05-01

    Resistance to available hormone therapies in prostate cancer has been associated with alternative splicing of androgen receptor (AR) and specifically, the expression of truncated and constitutively active AR variant 7 (AR-V7). The transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including AR, is dependent on interactions with the HSP90 chaperone machinery, but it is unclear whether HSP90 modulates the activity or expression of AR variants. Here, we investigated the effects of HSP90 inhibition on AR-V7 in prostate cancer cell lines endogenously expressing this variant. We demonstrate that AR-V7 and full-length AR (AR-FL) were depleted upon inhibition of HSP90. However, the mechanisms underlying AR-V7 depletion differed from those for AR-FL. Whereas HSP90 inhibition destabilized AR-FL and induced its proteasomal degradation, AR-V7 protein exhibited higher stability than AR-FL and did not require HSP90 chaperone activity. Instead, HSP90 inhibition resulted in the reduction of AR-V7 mRNA levels but did not affect total AR transcript levels, indicating that HSP90 inhibition disrupted AR-V7 splicing. Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing data confirmed that the second-generation HSP90 inhibitor onalespib altered the splicing of at least 557 genes in prostate cancer cells, including AR. These findings indicate that the effects of HSP90 inhibition on mRNA splicing may prove beneficial in prostate cancers expressing AR-V7, supporting further clinical investigation of HSP90 inhibitors in malignancies no longer responsive to androgen deprivation. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2731-42. ©2016 AACR.

  3. Hsp90 and environmental impacts on epigenetic states: a model for the trans-generational effects of diethylstibesterol on uterine development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruden, Douglas M; Xiao, Li; Garfinkel, Mark D; Lu, Xiangyi

    2005-04-15

    Hsp90 is a chaperone for over 100 'client proteins' in the cell, most of which are involved in signaling pathways. For example, Hsp90 maintains several nuclear hormone receptors, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), as agonist-receptive monomers in the cytoplasm. In the presence of agonist, Hsp90 dissociates and the receptors dimerize, enter the nucleus and ultimately activate transcription of the target genes. Increasing evidence suggests that Hsp90 also has a role in modifying the chromatin conformation of many genes. For example, Hsp90 has recently been shown to increase the activity of the histone H3 lysine-4 methyltransferase SMYD3, which activates the chromatin of target genes. Further evidence for chromatin-remodeling functions is that Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution by masking epigenetic variation. Release of the capacitor function of Hsp90, such as by environmental stress or by drugs that inhibit the ATP-binding activity of Hsp90, exposes previously hidden morphological phenotypes in the next generation and for several generations thereafter. The chromatin-modifying phenotypes of Hsp90 have striking similarities to the trans-generational effects of the ER agonist diethylstilbesterol (DES). Prenatal and perinatal exposure to DES increases the predisposition to uterine developmental abnormalities and cancer in the daughters and granddaughters of exposed pregnant mice. In this review, we propose that trans-generational epigenetic phenomena involving Hsp90 and DES are related and that chromatin-mediated WNT signaling modifications are required. This model suggests that inhibitors of Hsp90, WNT signaling and chromatin-remodeling enzymes might function as anticancer agents by interfering with epigenetic reprogramming and canalization in cancer stem cells.

  4. Sulforaphane Potentiates the Efficacy of 17-Allylamino 17-Demethoxygeldanamycin Against Pancreatic Cancer Through Enhanced Abrogation of Hsp90 Chaperone Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone that regulates the stability of a wide range of oncogenic proteins, is a promising target for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the combination efficacy and potential mechanisms of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, and 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, in pancreatic cancer. MTS assay demonstrated that sulforaphane sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to 17-AAG in vitro. Caspase-3 was activated to 6.4-fold in response to simultaneous treatment with sulforaphane and 17-AAG, whereas 17-AAG alone induced caspase-3 activity to 2-fold compared to control. ATP binding assay and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that sulforaphane disrupted Hsp90-p50Cdc37 interaction, whereas 17-AAG inhibited ATP binding to Hsp90. Concomitant use of sulforaphane and 17-AAG synergistically downregulated Hsp90 client proteins in Mia Paca-2 cells. Co-administration of sulforaphane and 17-AAG in pancreatic cancer xenograft model led to more than 70% inhibition of the tumor growth, whereas 17-AAG alone only suppressed the tumor growth by 50%. Our data suggest that sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of 17-AAG against pancreatic cancer through enhanced abrogation of Hsp90 function. These findings provide a rationale for further evaluation of broccoli/broccoli sprout preparations combined with 17-AAG for better efficacy and lower dose-limiting toxicity in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21875325

  5. Current Understanding of HSP90 as a Novel Therapeutic Target: An Emerging Approach for the Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Haque, Absarul; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Azhar, Esam I; Sait, Khalid Hussain Wali; Anfinan, Nisrin; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone that is considered to be the most abundantly expressed protein in various human cancers such as breast, lung, colon, prostate, leukemia and skin. The master regulator, HSP90 plays a pivotal role in the conformational stabilization, maturation and activity of its various labile oncogenic client proteins such as p53, ErbB2, Bcr-Abl, Akt, Her-2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Raf-1 and v-Src in altered cells. Hence, making a guaranteed attempt to inhibit such a master regulator for cancer therapy appears to be a potential approach for combinatorial inhibition of numerous oncogenic signaling pathways simultaneously. Considerable efforts are being under way to develop novel molecular targets and its inhibitors that may block key signaling pathways involved in the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this regards, HSP90 has acquired immense interest as a potent anticancer drug-target due to its key functional link with multiple signaling pathways involved in the process of cell proliferation and cell survival. Notably, geldanamycin and its derivatives (17-AAG, 17-DMAG) have shown quite encouraging results in inhibiting HSP90 function in several cancers and currently almost 17 drug candidates known to be target HSP90 are being under clinical trials either as single agents or combinatorial therapy. Hence, this review is an attempt to get new insight into novel drug target therapy by focusing on recent advances made in understanding HSP90 chaperone structure-function relationships, identification of new HSP90 client proteins and, more importantly, on the advancements of HSP90 targeted therapy based on various existing and emerging classical inhibitors.

  6. HSP90 and HSP70: Implication in Inflammation Processes and Therapeutic Approaches for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sevin, Margaux; Girodon, François; Garrido, Carmen; de Thonel, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal stem cell disorders that lead to the excessive production of one or more blood cell lineages. It has been reported that, in most MPN, inflammatory cytokines are frequently increased, indicating that inflammation plays a crucial role in these disorders. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are induced in response to many stressful conditions from heat shock to hypoxia and inflammation. Besides their chaperone and cytoprotective functions, HSPs are key players during inflammation, hence the term “chaperokine.” Through their chaperone activity, HSP90, a stabilizer of many oncogenes (e.g., JAK2), and HSP70, a powerful antiapoptotic chaperone, tightly regulate Nuclear Factor-kappa B signalling, a critical pathway in mediating inflammatory responses. In light of this potential, several HSP90 inhibitors have been generated as anticancer agents able to degrade oncogenes. As it turns out, however, these drugs are also potent inhibitors of the inflammatory response in various diseases. Given the chaperone potential of HSP70 and the fact that HSP90 inhibitors induce HSP70, interest in HSP70 inhibitors is also increasing. Here, we focus on the implication of HSP90 and HSP70 in inflammatory responses and on the emergence of new therapeutic approaches in MPN based on HSP inhibitors. PMID:26549943

  7. HSP90 is a therapeutic target in JAK2-dependent myeloproliferative neoplasms in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Sachie; Koppikar, Priya; Taldone, Tony; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; West, Nathan; Bhagwat, Neha; Caldas-Lopes, Eloisi; Ross, Kenneth N.; Gönen, Mithat; Gozman, Alex; Ahn, James H.; Rodina, Anna; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Yang, Guangbin; Hedvat, Cyrus; Bradner, James E.; Chiosis, Gabriela; Levine, Ross L.

    2010-01-01

    JAK2 kinase inhibitors were developed for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), following the discovery of activating JAK2 mutations in the majority of patients with MPN. However, to date JAK2 inhibitor treatment has shown limited efficacy and apparent toxicities in clinical trials. We report here that an HSP90 inhibitor, PU-H71, demonstrated efficacy in cell line and mouse models of the MPN polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET) by disrupting JAK2 protein stability. JAK2 physically associated with both HSP90 and PU-H71 and was degraded by PU-H71 treatment in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that JAK2 is an HSP90 chaperone client. PU-H71 treatment caused potent, dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and signaling in JAK2 mutant cell lines and in primary MPN patient samples. PU-H71 treatment of mice resulted in JAK2 degradation, inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling, normalization of peripheral blood counts, and improved survival in MPN models at doses that did not degrade JAK2 in normal tissues or cause substantial toxicity. Importantly, PU-H71 treatment also reduced the mutant allele burden in mice. These data establish what we believe to be a novel therapeutic rationale for HSP90 inhibition in the treatment of JAK2-dependent MPN. PMID:20852385

  8. Chaperoning steroidal physiology: lessons from mouse genetic models of Hsp90 and its cochaperones.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Edwin R

    2012-03-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is abundant, ubiquitous, and catholic to biological processes in eukaryotes, controlling phosphorylation cascades, protein stability and turnover, client localization and trafficking, and ligand-receptor interactions. Not surprisingly, Hsp90 does not accomplish these activities alone. Instead, an ever-growing number of cochaperones have been identified, leading to an explosion of reports on their molecular and cellular effects on Hsp90 chaperoning of client substrates. Notable among these clients are many members of the steroid receptor family, such as glucocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Cochaperones typically associated with the mature, hormone-competent states of these receptors include p23, the FK506-binding protein 52 (FKBP52), FKBP51, protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) and cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40). The ultimate relevance of these cochaperones to steroid receptor action depends on their physiological effects. In recent years, the first mouse genetic models of these cochaperones have been developed. This work will review the complex and intriguing phenotypes so far obtained in genetically-altered mice and compare them to the known molecular and cellular impacts of cochaperones on steroid receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90).

  9. Effectively delivering a unique hsp90 inhibitor using star polymers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Jong; Ramsey, Deborah M; Boyer, Cyrille; Davis, Thomas P; McAlpine, Shelli R

    2013-07-25

    We report the synthesis of a novel heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor conjugated to a star polymer. Using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, we prepared star polymers comprised of PEG attached to a predesigned functional core. The stars were cross-linked using disulfide linkers, and a tagged version of our hsp90 inhibitor was conjugated to the polymer core to generate nanoparticles (14 nM). Dynamic light scattering showed that the nanoparticles were stable in cell growth media for 5 days, and HPLC analysis of compound-release at 3 different pH values showed that release was pH dependent. Cell cytotoxicity studies and confocal microscopy verify that our hsp90 inhibitor was delivered to cells using this nanoparticle delivery system. Further, delivery of our hsp90 inhibitor using star polymer induces apoptosis by a caspase 3-dependent pathway. These studies show that we can deliver our hsp90 inhibitor effectively using star polymers, and induce apoptosis by the same pathway as the parent compound.

  10. Hsp90 and p23 Molecular Chaperones Control Chromatin Architecture by Maintaining the Functional Pool of the RSC Chromatin Remodeler.

    PubMed

    Echtenkamp, Frank J; Gvozdenov, Zlata; Adkins, Nicholas L; Zhang, Yang; Lynch-Day, Melinda; Watanabe, Shinya; Peterson, Craig L; Freeman, Brian C

    2016-12-01

    Molecular chaperones govern protein homeostasis, being allied to the beginning (folding) and ending (degradation) of the protein life cycle. Yet, the Hsp90 system primarily associates with native factors, including fully assembled complexes. The significance of these connections is poorly understood. To delineate why Hsp90 and its cochaperone p23 interact with a mature structure, we focused on the RSC chromatin remodeler. Both Hsp90 and p23 triggered the release of RSC from DNA or a nucleosome. Although Hsp90 only freed bound RSC, p23 enhanced nucleosome remodeling prior to discharging the complex. In vivo, RSC mobility and remodeling function were chaperone dependent. Our results suggest Hsp90 and p23 contribute to proteostasis by chaperoning mature factors through energetically unfavorable events, thereby maintaining the cellular pool of active native proteins. In the case of RSC, p23 and Hsp90 promote a dynamic action, allowing a limited number of remodelers to effectively maintain chromatin in a pliable state. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Hsp70 inhibiting peptide aptamer A17 potentiates radiosensitization of tumor cells by Hsp90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Daniela; Garrido, Carmen; Combs, Stephanie E; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a promising strategy to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. However, Hsp90 inhibition induces the expression of Hsp70 which is a prominent cytoprotective protein. Therefore, dual targeting of Hsp70 and Hsp90 might be beneficial to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Hsp70 inhibiting peptide aptamers have been shown to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to apoptosis induced by different anticancer drugs. Herein, we studied the radiosensitizing activity of the Hsp70 inhibiting peptide aptamer A17 in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922. Whereas A17 significantly increased apoptosis induction by NVP-AUY922 it did not significantly affect the radiosensitivity of human lung and breast cancer cells. However, Hsp70 inhibition by the aptamer A17 potentiated the radiosensitizing effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922. Mechanistically we speculate that an increased number of DNA double strand breaks and an enhanced G2/M arrest might be responsible for the increased radiosensitization in A17 expressing tumor cells. Therefore, the simultaneous inhibition of Hsp90 and Hsp70 combined with radiotherapy might provide a promising anti-cancer strategy.

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals molecular mechanism of gamabufotalin and its potential inhibition on Hsp90 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lianru; Wang, Chao; Yue, Qingxi; Wang, Xun; Deng, Sa; Huo, Xiaokui; Tian, Xiangge; Huang, Shanshan; Zhang, Baojing; Ma, Xiaochi

    2016-01-01

    Gamabufotalin (CS-6) is a major bufadienolide of Chansu, which shows desirable metabolic stability and less adverse effect in cancer therapy. CS-6 treatment inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC in a nanomolar range. And CS-6 could induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. However, its molecular mechanism in antitumor activity remains poorly understood. We employed a quantitative proteomics approach to identify the potential cellular targets of CS-6, and found 38 possible target-related proteins. Among them, 31 proteins were closely related in the protein-protein interaction network. One of the regulatory nodes in key pathways was occupied by Hsp90. Molecular docking revealed that CS-6 interacted with the ATP-binding sites of Hsp90. In addition, CS-6 inhibited the chaperone function of Hsp90 and reduced expression of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Moreover, CS-6 markedly down-regulated the protein level of Hsp90 in tumor tissues of the xenograft mice. Taken together, our results suggest that CS-6 might be a novel inhibitor of Hsp90, and the possible network associated with CS-6 target-related proteins was constructed, which provided experimental evidence for the preclinical value of using CS-6 as an effective antitumor agent in treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27384878

  13. Interaction of the Hsp90 cochaperone cyclophilin 40 with Hsc70.

    PubMed

    Carrello, Amerigo; Allan, Rudi K; Morgan, Sarah L; Owen, Barbara A L; Mok, Danny; Ward, Bryan K; Minchin, Rodney F; Toft, David O; Ratajczak, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    triphosphatase activity of Hsc70. Our results suggest that CyP40 may have a modulating role in Hsc70 as well as Hsp90 cellular function.

  14. Hsp90 inhibitors reduce influenza virus replication in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, Geoffrey; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Leung, B.W.; Mayer, Daniel; Schwemmle, Martin Brownlee, George

    2008-08-01

    The viral RNA polymerase complex of influenza A virus consists of three subunits PB1, PB2 and PA. Recently, the cellular chaperone Hsp90 was shown to play a role in nuclear import and assembly of the trimeric polymerase complex by binding to PB1 and PB2. Here we show that Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin or its derivative 17-AAG, delay the growth of influenza virus in cell culture resulting in a 1-2 log reduction in viral titre early in infection. We suggest that this is caused by the reduced half-life of PB1 and PB2 and inhibition of nuclear import of PB1 and PA which lead to reduction in viral RNP assembly. Hsp90 inhibitors may represent a new class of antiviral compounds against influenza viruses.

  15. The ATPase cycle of the endoplasmic chaperone Grp94.

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephan; Leskovar, Adriane; Reinstein, Jochen; Buchner, Johannes

    2007-12-07

    Grp94, the Hsp90 paralog of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a crucial role in protein secretion. Like cytoplasmic Hsp90, Grp94 is regulated by nucleotide binding to its N-terminal domain. However, the question of whether Grp94 hydrolyzes ATP was controversial. This sets Grp94 apart from other members of the Hsp90 family where a slow but specific turnover of ATP has been unambiguously established. In this study we aimed at analyzing the nucleotide binding properties and the potential ATPase activity of Grp94. We show here that Grp94 has an ATPase activity comparable with that of yeast Hsp90 with a k(cat) of 0.36 min(-1) at 25 degrees C. Kinetic and equilibrium constants of the partial reactions of the ATPase cycle were determined using transient kinetic methods. Nucleotide binding appears to be tighter compared with other Hsp90s investigated, with dissociation constants (K(D)) of approximately 4 microm for ADP, ATP, and AMP-PCP. Interestingly, all nucleotides and inhibitors (radicicol, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) studied here bind with similar rate constants for association (0.2-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). Furthermore, there is a marked difference from cytosolic Hsp90s in that after binding, the ATP molecule does not seem to become trapped by conformational changes in Grp94. Grp94 stays predominantly in the open state concerning the nucleotide-binding pocket as evidenced by kinetic analyses. Thus, Grp94 shows mechanistically important differences in the interaction with adenosine nucleotides, but the basic hydrolysis reaction seems to be conserved between cytosolic and endoplasmic members of the Hsp90 family.

  16. Immunohistochemical detection of Hsp90 and Ki-67 in pterygium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the immunohistochemical expression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and Ki-67 protein in human pterygium. Materials and methods Tissues obtained during pterygium surgery of 15 patients who underwent the bare-sclera procedure and 10 normal conjunctivae were studied. All of these pterygia were primary ones. Recurrent pterygia were excluded. Normal bulbar conjunctivas (2 x 2 mm) were obtained from the nasal region close to the limbus from patients during their cataract and retina surgeries. Immunohistochemical detection of Hsp90 and Ki67 was done using the streptavidin–biotin method in paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results The percentage of cells stained for Hsp90 was greater for pterygium epithelium (76 ± 10.8) than for normal conjunctiva (1.4 ± 0.8). In each pterigyum sample more than 60% of cells were positive. The differences in positive cells between normal and pterigyum epithelium were highly significant for Hsp90 (P < 0,001). Pterygium epithelium also showed a higher percentage of cells that stained for Ki67 (10.1 ± 9.5) than for normal conjunctiva (2.1 ± 1.9). The differences in positive cells were also statistically significant for Ki67 (P < 0.01). Although there were significant differences in the majority of samples observed. It was noted that in some samples there was no difference between normal and pterygium epithelium for Ki67. Conclusion Our results indicate an abnormal expression of Hsp90 and ki-67 in pterygium samples when compared to normal conjunctiva.The finding of abnormal expression of levels of Hsp90 in pterygium samples can stimulate new research into pterygium and its recurrence. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1128478792898812 PMID:23432803

  17. Hsp90 and hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Davidson, Peter J; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Brown, C Titus; Whyard, Steven; Li, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a human infant disease with inflammatory fibrous obstructions in the bile ducts and is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult. Therefore, sea lamprey liver metamorphosis may serve as an etiological model for human BA and provide pivotal information for hepatobiliary transformation and possible therapeutics. We hypothesized that liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey is due to transcriptional reprogramming that dictates cellular remodeling during metamorphosis. We determined global gene expressions in liver at several metamorphic landmark stages by integrating mRNA-Seq and gene ontology analyses, and validated the results with real-time quantitative PCR, histological and immunohistochemical staining. These analyses revealed that gene expressions of protein folding chaperones, membrane transporters and extracellular matrices were altered and shifted during liver metamorphosis. HSP90, important in protein folding and invertebrate metamorphosis, was identified as a candidate key factor during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey. Blocking HSP90 with geldanamycin facilitated liver metamorphosis and decreased the gene expressions of the rate limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, HMGCoA reductase (hmgcr), and bile acid biosynthesis, cyp7a1. Injection of hsp90 siRNA for 4 days altered gene expressions of met, hmgcr, cyp27a1, and slc10a1. Bile acid concentrations were increased while bile duct and gall bladder degeneration was facilitated and synchronized after hsp90 siRNA injection. HSP90 appears to play crucial roles in hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis. Sea lamprey is a useful animal model to study postembryonic development and mechanisms for hsp90-induced hepatobiliary transformation.

  18. Hsp90 modulation for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiping; Michaelis, Mary L; Blagg, Brian S J

    2012-01-01

    Hsp90 serves as the master regulator of the prosurvival, heat shock response. Upon exposure to cellular stress or small molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, various heat shock proteins are induced to assist in the rematuration of misfolded proteins. Several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, manifest through the accumulation of misfolded proteins, suggesting that induction of the heat shock response may provide a viable approach toward the management of such diseases. In this chapter, the rationale for such an approach and potential therapeutics are discussed.

  19. HSP90: the Rosetta stone for cellular protein dynamics?

    PubMed

    Dezwaan, Diane C; Freeman, Brian C

    2008-04-15

    The Hsp90 proteomic network is expansive and includes a variety of cell processes operating within the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Though the functional significance of the extensive interactions has not been defined, we suggest that the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machinery promotes dynamic behaviors for client proteins that is critical to achieve homeostasis. A general rapid action by cell factors would permit both proper assembly of biological complexes and efficient transitions between distinct structures. Here, we describe why the properties that are inherent to molecular chaperones place these proteins in a unique position to drive the dynamic cellular environment.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Axonemes Exposed to Acute Alcohol: Role of eNOS and HSP90 in Cilia Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Simet, Samantha M.; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Sisson, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cilia are fingerlike motor-driven organelles, which propel inhaled particles and mucus from the lung and airways. We have previously shown that brief alcohol exposure stimulates ciliary motility through an endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS)-dependent pathway localized in the ciliary metabolon. However, the signaling molecules of the ciliary metabolon involved in alcohol-triggered cilia beat frequency (CBF) stimulation upstream of eNOS activation are unknown. Methods and Results We hypothesized that brief alcohol exposure alters threonine and serine phosphorylation of proteins involved in stimulating ciliary beat frequency. Two-dimensional electrophoresis indicated both increases and deceases in the serine and threonine phosphorylation states of several proteins. One of the proteins identified was heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), which undergoes increased threonine phosphorylation after brief alcohol exposure. Because HSP90 has been shown to associate with eNOS in lung tissue, we hypothesized that HSP90 is a key component in alcohol-triggered eNOS activation and that these two proteins co-localize within the ciliary metabolon. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that eNOS and HSP90 co-localize within basal bodies of the ciliary metabolon and partially translocate to the axoneme upon brief alcohol exposure. Pretreatment with geldanamycin, which disrupts HSP90 chaperone functions, prevented eNOS-HSP90 association and prevented the translocation of eNOS from the ciliary metabolon to the axoneme. Functional cilia motility studies revealed that geldanamycin blocked alcohol-stimulated ciliary motility in bovine bronchial epithelial cells and mouse tracheal rings. Conclusions Based on the HSP90 localization with eNOS, alcohol activation of HSP90 phosphorylation, and geldanamycin’s ability inhibit HSP90-eNOS association, prevent eNOS translocation to the axoneme, and block alcohol-stimulated ciliary motility, we conclude that alcohol-induced cilia stimulation

  1. The soluble recombinant Neisseria meningitidis adhesin NadA(Δ351-405) stimulates human monocytes by binding to extracellular Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Paola; Tavano, Regina; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Montanari, Paolo; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The adhesin NadA favors cell adhesion/invasion by hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis B (MenB). Its recombinant form NadA(Δ351-405,) devoid of the outer membrane domain, is an immunogenic candidate for an anti-MenB vaccine able to stimulate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of NadA(Δ351-405) cellular effects in monocytes. We show that NadA(Δ351-405) (against which we obtained polyclonal antibodies in rabbits), binds to hsp90, but not to other extracellular homologous heat shock proteins grp94 and hsp70, in vitro and on the surface of monocytes, in a temperature dependent way. Pre-incubation of monocytes with the MenB soluble adhesin interfered with the binding of anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies to hsp90 and hsp70 at 37°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding occurs, but not at 0°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding is very diminished. Conversely, pre-incubation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies did not affected NadA(Δ351-405) cell binding in any temperature condition, indicating that it associates to another receptor on their plasma membrane and then laterally diffuses to encounter hsp90. Consistently, polymixin B interfered with NadA(Δ351-405) /hsp90 association, abrogated the decrease of anti-hsp90 antibodies binding to the cell surface due to NadA(Δ351-405) and inhibited adhesin-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion without affecting monocyte-adhesin binding. Co-stimulation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 antibodies and NadA(Δ351-405) determined a stronger but polymixin B insensitive cell activation. This indicated that the formation of a recombinant NadA/hsp90/hsp70 complex, although essential for full monocyte stimulation, can be replaced by anti-hsp90 antibody/hsp90 binding. Finally, the activation of monocytes by NadA(Δ351-405) alone or in the presence of anti-hsp90 antibodies were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibodies, but not by

  2. The Soluble Recombinant Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin NadAΔ351–405 Stimulates Human Monocytes by Binding to Extracellular Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Paola; Tavano, Regina; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Montanari, Paolo; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    The adhesin NadA favors cell adhesion/invasion by hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis B (MenB). Its recombinant form NadAΔ351–405, devoid of the outer membrane domain, is an immunogenic candidate for an anti-MenB vaccine able to stimulate monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of NadAΔ351–405 cellular effects in monocytes. We show that NadAΔ351–405 (against which we obtained polyclonal antibodies in rabbits), binds to hsp90, but not to other extracellular homologous heat shock proteins grp94 and hsp70, in vitro and on the surface of monocytes, in a temperature dependent way. Pre-incubation of monocytes with the MenB soluble adhesin interfered with the binding of anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies to hsp90 and hsp70 at 37°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding occurs, but not at 0°C, a condition in which specific cell-binding is very diminished. Conversely, pre-incubation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 and anti-hsp70 antibodies did not affected NadAΔ351–405 cell binding in any temperature condition, indicating that it associates to another receptor on their plasma membrane and then laterally diffuses to encounter hsp90. Consistently, polymixin B interfered with NadAΔ351–405 /hsp90 association, abrogated the decrease of anti-hsp90 antibodies binding to the cell surface due to NadAΔ351–405 and inhibited adhesin-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion without affecting monocyte-adhesin binding. Co-stimulation of monocytes with anti-hsp90 antibodies and NadAΔ351–405 determined a stronger but polymixin B insensitive cell activation. This indicated that the formation of a recombinant NadA/hsp90/hsp70 complex, although essential for full monocyte stimulation, can be replaced by anti-hsp90 antibody/hsp90 binding. Finally, the activation of monocytes by NadAΔ351–405 alone or in the presence of anti-hsp90 antibodies were both inhibited by neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibodies, but not by

  3. High-Content, High-Throughput Analysis of Cell Cycle Perturbations Induced by the HSP90 Inhibitor XL888

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Susan K.; Crawley, Suzanne C.; Gong, Ruoyu; Adamkewicz, Joanne I.; McGrath, Garth; Chew, Jason Y.; Choi, Jennifer; Holst, Charles R.; Goon, Leanne H.; Detmer, Scott A.; Vaclavikova, Jana; Gerritsen, Mary E.; Blake, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many proteins that are dysregulated or mutated in cancer cells rely on the molecular chaperone HSP90 for their proper folding and activity, which has led to considerable interest in HSP90 as a cancer drug target. The diverse array of HSP90 client proteins encompasses oncogenic drivers, cell cycle components, and a variety of regulatory factors, so inhibition of HSP90 perturbs multiple cellular processes, including mitogenic signaling and cell cycle control. Although many reports have investigated HSP90 inhibition in the context of the cell cycle, no large-scale studies have examined potential correlations between cell genotype and the cell cycle phenotypes of HSP90 inhibition. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question, we developed a novel high-content, high-throughput cell cycle assay and profiled the effects of two distinct small molecule HSP90 inhibitors (XL888 and 17-AAG [17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin]) in a large, genetically diverse panel of cancer cell lines. The cell cycle phenotypes of both inhibitors were strikingly similar and fell into three classes: accumulation in M-phase, G2-phase, or G1-phase. Accumulation in M-phase was the most prominent phenotype and notably, was also correlated with TP53 mutant status. We additionally observed unexpected complexity in the response of the cell cycle-associated client PLK1 to HSP90 inhibition, and we suggest that inhibitor-induced PLK1 depletion may contribute to the striking metaphase arrest phenotype seen in many of the M-arrested cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis of the cell cycle phenotypes induced by HSP90 inhibition in 25 cancer cell lines revealed that the phenotypic response was highly dependent on cellular genotype as well as on the concentration of HSP90 inhibitor and the time of treatment. M-phase arrest correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations, while G2 or G1 arrest was more commonly seen in cells bearing wt TP53. We draw upon previous literature

  4. [Changes in heat shock protein synthesis and thermotolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings as a result of inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin].

    PubMed

    Kozeko, L G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of geldanamycin (GA), which is a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein Hsp90 activities, on synthesis of Hsp70 and Hsp90 and thermotolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings has been studied. Incubation of seedlings with GA was shown to induce synthesis of these stress proteins under normal conditions. Treatment of seeds with the Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in the elevated constitutive levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90 in seedlings as well as increased induction of their synthesis under heat shock, at that the effect of GA increased with its concentration. These up-regulation of Hsp promoted thermotolerance of seedlings. The obtained results are considered as evidence for autoregulation of heat shock protein synthesis and regulation of plant tolerance by Hsp90.

  5. The HSP90 Inhibitor, AT13387, Is Effective against Imatinib-Sensitive and -Resistant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Tomoko; Van Looy, Thomas; Curry, Jayne E.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Ana M.; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Zhu, Meijun; Donsky, Rachel; Morgan, Jennifer G.; Mayeda, Mark; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Schöffski, Patrick; Lyons, John; Thompson, Neil T.; Wallis, Nicola G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are characterized by activating mutations of KIT, an HSP90 client protein. Further secondary resistance mutations within KIT limit clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. The dependence of KIT and its mutated forms on HSP90 suggests that HSP90 inhibition might be a valuable treatment option for GIST, which would be equally effective on imatinib-sensitive and -resistant clones. We investigated the activity of AT13387, a potent HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in clinical trials, in both in vitro and in vivo GIST models. AT13387 inhibited the proliferation of imatinib-sensitive (GIST882, GIST-T1) and -resistant (GIST430, GIST48) cell lines, including those resistant to the geldanamycin analogue HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG. Treatment with AT13387 resulted in depletion of HSP90 client proteins, KIT and AKT, along with their phospho-forms in imatinib-sensitive and -resistant cell lines, irrespective of KIT mutation. KIT signaling was ablated, whereas HSP70, a marker of HSP90 inhibition, was induced. In vivo, antitumor activity of AT13387 was showed in both the imatinib-sensitive, GIST-PSW, xenograft model and a newly characterized imatinib-resistant, GIST430, xenograft model. Induction of HSP70, depletion of phospho-KIT and inhibition of KIT signaling were seen in tumors from both models after treatment with AT13387. A combination of imatinib and AT13387 treatment in the imatinib-resistant GIST430 model significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition over either of the monotherapies. Importantly, the combination of AT13387 and imatinib was well tolerated. These results suggest AT13387 is an excellent candidate for clinical testing in GIST in combination with imatinib. PMID:22714264

  6. Heat shock factor 1 confers resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors through p62/SQSTM1 expression and promotion of autophagic flux.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Wales, Christina T K; Taylor, Frederick R; Jacobs, Aaron T

    2014-02-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has an important role in many cancers. Biochemical inhibitors of Hsp90 are in advanced clinical development for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies. At the cellular level, their efficacy is diminished by the fact that Hsp90 inhibition causes activation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). We report a mechanism by which HSF1 activation diminishes the effect of Hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin and 17-allylaminogeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin). Silencing HSF1 with siRNA or inhibiting HSF1 activity with KRIBB11 lowers the threshold for apoptosis in geldanamycin and 17-AAG-treated cancer cells. Autophagy also mitigates the actions of Hsp90 inhibitors. Blocking autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1, or beclin 1 siRNA also lower the threshold for apoptosis. Exploring a potential relationship between HSF1 and autophagy, we monitored autophagosome formation and autophagic flux in control and HSF1-silenced cells. Results show HSF1 is required for autophagy in Hsp90 inhibitor-treated cells. The reduced autophagy observed in HSF1-silenced cells correlates with enhanced cell death. To investigate how HSF1 promotes autophagy, we monitored the expression of genes involved in the autophagic cascade. These data show that sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), a protein involved in the delivery of autophagic substrates and nucleation of autophagosomes, is an HSF1-regulated gene. Gene silencing was used to evaluate the significance of p62/SQSTM1 in Hsp90 inhibitor resistance. Cells where p62/SQSTM1 was silenced showed a dramatic increase in sensitivity to Hsp90 inhibitors. Results highlight the importance of HSF1 and HSF1-dependent p62/SQSTM1 expression in resistance Hsp90 inhibitors, underscoring the potential of targeting HSF1 to improve the efficacy of Hsp90 inhibitors in cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Hsp90-binding peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP52 potentiates glucocorticoid signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Daniel L; Roberts, Patricia J; Chirillo, Samantha C; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Prapapanich, Viravan; Ratajczak, Thomas; Gaber, Richard; Picard, Didier; Smith, David F

    2003-03-03

    Hsp90 is required for the normal activity of steroid receptors, and in steroid receptor complexes it is typically bound to one of the immunophilin-related co-chaperones: the peptidylprolyl isomerases FKBP51, FKBP52 or CyP40, or the protein phosphatase PP5. The physiological roles of the immunophilins in regulating steroid receptor function have not been well defined, and so we examined in vivo the influences of immunophilins on hormone-dependent gene activation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. FKBP52 selectively potentiates hormone-dependent reporter gene activation by as much as 20-fold at limiting hormone concentrations, and this potentiation is readily blocked by co-expression of the closely related FKBP51. The mechanism for potentiation is an increase in GR hormone-binding affinity that requires both the Hsp90-binding ability and the prolyl isomerase activity of FKBP52.

  8. The Hsp90-binding peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP52 potentiates glucocorticoid signaling in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Daniel L.; Roberts, Patricia J.; Chirillo, Samantha C.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Prapapanich, Viravan; Ratajczak, Thomas; Gaber, Richard; Picard, Didier; Smith, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Hsp90 is required for the normal activity of steroid receptors, and in steroid receptor complexes it is typically bound to one of the immunophilin-related co-chaperones: the peptidylprolyl isomerases FKBP51, FKBP52 or CyP40, or the protein phosphatase PP5. The physiological roles of the immunophilins in regulating steroid receptor function have not been well defined, and so we examined in vivo the influences of immunophilins on hormone-dependent gene activation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function. FKBP52 selectively potentiates hormone-dependent reporter gene activation by as much as 20-fold at limiting hormone concentrations, and this potentiation is readily blocked by co-expression of the closely related FKBP51. The mechanism for potentiation is an increase in GR hormone-binding affinity that requires both the Hsp90-binding ability and the prolyl isomerase activity of FKBP52. PMID:12606580

  9. P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux limits intestinal absorption of the Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-2112 in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Sun, Hua; Wu, Zhufeng; Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2014-08-01

    1. The promising anticancer agent SNX-2112 (a novel Hsp90 inhibitor) is poorly bioavailable after oral administration. Here, we aim to determine the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestinal absorption of SNX-2112. 2. We found that SNX-2112 significantly stimulated P-gp ATPase activity in in vitro ATPase assay with a small EC50 (the half-maximal effective concentration) value of 0.32 µM. 3. In the single-pass perfused rat intestine model, absorption of SNX-2112 was not favored in the small intestine with a [Formula: see text] (the wall permeability) value of 0.38-0.64. By contrast, the compound was well absorbed in the colon with a [Formula: see text] value of 1.19. The P-gp inhibitors cyclosporine and elacridar (i.e. GF120918A) markedly enhanced SNX-2112 absorption in all four intestinal segments (i.e. duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the fold change ranged from 3.1 to 14.1. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that cyclosporine increased the systemic exposure of SNX-2112 by a 2.5-fold after oral administration. 4. This is the first report that P-gp-mediated efflux is a limiting factor for intestinal absorption of SNX-2112 in rats.

  10. Reactivation of ERK and Akt confers resistance of mutant BRAF colon cancer cells to the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Wang, Jia Yu; Yan, Xu Guang; Farrelly, Margaret; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Liu, Fen; Yari, Hamed; La, Ting; Lei, Fu Xi; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2016-08-02

    Oncogenic mutations of BRAF occur in approximately 10% of colon cancers and are associated with their resistance to clinically available therapeutic drugs and poor prognosis of the patients. Here we report that colon cancer cells with mutant BRAF are also resistant to the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor AUY922, and that this is caused by rebound activation of ERK and Akt. Although AUY922 triggered rapid reduction in ERK and Akt activation in both wild-type and mutant BRAF colon cancer cells, activation of ERK and Akt rebounded shortly in the latter leading to resistance of the cells to AUY922-induced apoptosis. Reactivation of ERK was associated with the persistent expression of mutant BRAF, which, despite being a client of HSP90, was only partially degraded by AUY922, whereas reactivation of Akt was related to the activity of the HSP90 co-chaperone, cell division cycle 37 (CDC37), in that knockdown of CDC37 inhibited Akt reactivation in mutant colon cancer cells treated with AUY922. In support, as a HSP90 client protein, Akt was only diminished by AUY922 in wild-type but not mutant BRAF colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results reveal that reactivation of ERK and Akt associated respectively with the activity of mutant BRAF and CDC37 renders mutant BRAF colon cancer cells resistant to AUY922, with implications of co-targeting mutant BRAF and/or CDC37 and HSP90 in the treatment of mutant BRAF colon cancers.

  11. Overexpression of AtHsp90.2, AtHsp90.5 and AtHsp90.7 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhances plant sensitivity to salt and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongmiao; Zhao, Rongmin; Fan, Pengxiang; Wang, Xuchu; Chen, Xianyang; Li, Yinxin

    2009-03-01

    Three AtHsp90 isoforms, cytosolic AtHsp90.2, chloroplast-located AtHsp90.5, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-located AtHsp90.7, were characterized by constitutive overexpressing their genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Both types of the transgenic plants overexpressing cytosolic and organellar AtHsp90s showed reduced tolerance to salt and drought stresses with lower germination rates and fresh weights, but improved tolerance to high concentration of Ca(2+) comparing with the wild type plants. Transcriptional analysis of ABA-responsive genes, RD29A, RD22 and KIN2 under salt and drought stresses, indicated that the induction expression of these genes was delayed by constitutive overexpression of cytosolic AtHsp90.2, but was hardly affected by that of organellar AtHsp90.5 and AtHsp90.7. These results implied that Arabidopsis different cellular compartments-located Hsp90s in Arabidopsis might be involved in abiotic stresses by different functional mechanisms, probably through ABA-dependent or Ca(2+) pathways, and proper homeostasis of Hsp90 was critical for cellular stress response and/or tolerance in plants.

  12. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of alkylamino biphenylamides as Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garg, Gaurav; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S J

    2017-01-15

    Hsp90 is a promising therapeutic target for the development of anti-cancer agents due to its integral role in the stability and function of proteins associated with all ten hallmarks of cancer. Novobiocin, a coumarin antibiotic, was the first natural product identified that targeted the Hsp90 C-terminal domain and manifested anti-proliferative activity (SKBr3 IC50∼700μM). Subsequent structural investigations on novobiocin led to analogues with significantly improved anti-proliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines. In an effort to develop more efficacious and diverse analogues, it was recently found that the coumarin ring of novobiocin could be replaced with the biphenyl core without compromising activity. Based on these prior studies, a series of alkylamino biphenylamides was designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-proliferative activity against two breast cancer cell lines. SAR studies demonstrated that the incorporation of an alkylamino side chain onto the biphenyl core improved anti-proliferative activity and resulted in compounds that exhibit sub-micromolar to mid-nanomolar activity through Hsp90 inhibition. Importantly, these studies indicate the presence of a hydrophilic region about the central core that can be exploited for the design of new inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dimeric and trimeric triazole based molecules as a new class of Hsp90 molecular chaperone inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Stefania; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Vassallo, Antonio; Riccio, Raffaele; Bruno, Ines; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    In the last decade Hsp90 inhibitors have emerged as attractive candidates for the development of new potent anticancer therapeutics. In order to identify novel agents able to block the chaperone activity, following a structure-based approach, we used in silico screening to direct the synthesis of potential inhibitors bearing the triazole scaffold, a widespread motif in drug-like molecules. Docking results, performed on a larger collection of dimeric and trimeric triazole derivatives, suggested the synthesis of some molecules showing different calculated binding energies and modes. Surface Plasmon Resonance Binding assay, performed on the synthesized compounds, allow to identify a series of molecules able to potently interact with the target enzyme and to disclose an interesting hit: compound 2b showed to interact with the ATP binding site in the N-terminus domain of Hsp90 and to efficiently inhibit the chaperone activity.

  14. CONTROL OF TUMOR BIOENERGETICS AND SURVIVAL STRESS SIGNALING BY MITOCHONDRIAL HSP90s

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Young Chan; Caino, M. Cecilia; Lisanti, Sofia; Ghosh, Jagadish C.; Dohi, Takehiko; Danial, Nika N.; Villanueva, Jessie; Ferrero, Stefano; Vaira, Valentina; Santambrogio, Luigi; Bosari, Silvano; Languino, Lucia R.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Altieri, Dario C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Tumors successfully adapt to constantly changing intra- and extra-cellular environments, but the wirings of this process are still largely elusive. Here, we show that Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90)-directed protein folding in mitochondria, but not cytosol, maintains energy production in tumor cells. Interference with this process activates a signaling network that involves phosphorylation of nutrient-sensing AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), induction of autophagy, and expression of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). This signaling network confers a survival and proliferative advantage to genetically disparate tumors, and correlates with worse outcome in lung cancer patients. Therefore, mitochondrial HSP90s are adaptive regulators of tumor bioenergetics, and tractable targets for cancer therapy. PMID:22975376

  15. Extracellular Hsp90 as a Novel Epigenetic of EMT and Metastatic Risk in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    only for E-cadherin repression, but also for upregulated expression of several EMT effectors, including Snail , also a known repressor of E-cadherin...epigenetic reprogramming at select target genes to enforce EMT events. Our collective findings indicate that HDAC1/2, Snail , and EZH2 cooperate to...essential to clarify their effects upon chromatin remodeling at sites of eHsp90-activated targets such as Snail and Zeb. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  16. Inhibition of Hsp90 Augments Docetaxel Therapy in Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ku, ShengYu; Lasorsa, Elena; Adelaiye, Remi; Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    First line treatment of patients with castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) primarily involves administration of docetaxel chemotherapy. Unfortunately, resistance to docetaxel therapy is an ultimate occurrence. Alterations in androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling are associated mechanisms underlying resistance to docetaxel treatment in CRPC. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone, which regulates the activation, maturation and stability of critical signaling proteins involved in prostate cancer, including the AR. This knowledge and recent advances in compound design and development have highlighted Hsp90 as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of CRPC. We recently reported the development of a MYC-CaP castrate resistant (MYC-CaP/CR) transplant tumor model, which expresses amplified wild type AR. Within, we report that a second generation Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, inhibits cell growth and significantly induces cell death in MYC-CaP/CR and Pten-CaP/cE2 cell lines. NVP-AUY922 induced proteasome degradation of AR, though interestingly does not require loss of AR protein to inhibit AR transcriptional activity. Further, NVP-AUY922 increased docetaxel toxicity in MYC-CaP/CR and Pten-CaP/cE2 cell lines in vitro. Finally, NVP-AUY922/docetaxel combination therapy in mice bearing MYC-CaP/CR tumors resulted in greater anti-tumor activity compared to single treatment. This study demonstrates that NVP-AUY922 elicits potent activity towards AR signaling and augments chemotherapy response in a mouse model of CRPC, providing rationale for the continued clinical development of Hsp90 inhibitors in clinical trials for treatment of CRPC patients. PMID:25072314

  17. The Hsp70/Hsp90 Chaperone Machinery in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lackie, Rachel E.; Maciejewski, Andrzej; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Marques-Lopes, Jose; Choy, Wing-Yiu; Duennwald, Martin L.; Prado, Vania F.; Prado, Marco A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the human brain is one of the critical features of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Assembles of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide—either soluble (oligomers) or insoluble (plaques) and of tau protein, which form neurofibrillary tangles, are the major hallmarks of AD. Chaperones and co-chaperones regulate protein folding and client maturation, but they also target misfolded or aggregated proteins for refolding or for degradation, mostly by the proteasome. They form an important line of defense against misfolded proteins and are part of the cellular quality control system. The heat shock protein (Hsp) family, particularly Hsp70 and Hsp90, plays a major part in this process and it is well-known to regulate protein misfolding in a variety of diseases, including tau levels and toxicity in AD. However, the role of Hsp90 in regulating protein misfolding is not yet fully understood. For example, knockdown of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones in a Caenorhabditis elegans model of Aβ misfolding leads to increased toxicity. On the other hand, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors in AD mouse models reduces Aβ toxicity, and normalizes synaptic function. Stress-inducible phosphoprotein 1 (STI1), an intracellular co-chaperone, mediates the transfer of clients from Hsp70 to Hsp90. Importantly, STI1 has been shown to regulate aggregation of amyloid-like proteins in yeast. In addition to its intracellular function, STI1 can be secreted by diverse cell types, including astrocytes and microglia and function as a neurotrophic ligand by triggering signaling via the cellular prion protein (PrPC). Extracellular STI1 can prevent Aβ toxic signaling by (i) interfering with Aβ binding to PrPC and (ii) triggering pro-survival signaling cascades. Interestingly, decreased levels of STI1 in C. elegans can also increase toxicity in an amyloid model. In this review, we will discuss the role of intracellular and extracellular STI1 and the

  18. Expression of hsp90 mediates cytoprotective effects in the gastrodermis of planarians.

    PubMed

    Conte, Maria; Isolani, Maria Emilia; Deri, Paolo; Mannini, Linda; Batistoni, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a crucial role in the protection of cells. In the present study, we have identified an hsp90-related gene (Djhsp90) encoding a cytosolic form of HSP90 that is primarily expressed in gastrodermis of the planarian Dugesia japonica. Djhsp90 becomes significantly induced after traumatic amputation or other stress stimuli, such as exposure to X-ray or ultraviolet radiations, heat shock, or prolonged starvation. When Djhsp90 is silenced by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), planarians dramatically decrease in size, becoming unable to eat, and die in a few weeks. Our results indicate that this gene plays an essential cytoprotective role in the gastrodermis of planarians and suggest that this chaperone can be involved in autophagic processes that are activated by this tissue.

  19. Sti1 and Cdc37 can stabilize Hsp90 in chaperone complexes with a protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Shabbir, Arsalan; Cardozo, Christopher; Caplan, Avrom J

    2004-04-01

    Hsp90 functions in association with several cochaperones for folding of protein kinases and transcription factors, although the relative contribution of each to the overall reaction is unknown. We assayed the role of nine different cochaperones in the activation of Ste11, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Studies on signaling via this protein kinase pathway was measured by alpha-factor-stimulated induction of FIG1 or lacZ, and repression of HHF1. Several cochaperone mutants tested had reduced FIG1 induction or HHF1 repression, although to differing extents. The greatest defects were in cpr7Delta, sse1Delta, and ydj1Delta mutants. Assays of Ste11 kinase activity revealed a pattern of defects in the cochaperone mutant strains that were similar to the gene expression studies. Overexpression of CDC37, a chaperone required for protein kinase folding, suppressed defects the sti1Delta mutant back to wild-type levels. CDC37 overexpression also restored stable Hsp90 binding to the Ste11 protein kinase domain in the sti1Delta mutant strain. These data suggest that Cdc37 and Sti1 have functional overlap in stabilizing Hsp90:client complexes. Finally, we show that Cns1 functions in MAP kinase signaling in association with Cpr7.

  20. The flavonoid TL-2-8 induces cell death and immature mitophagy in breast cancer cells via abrogating the function of the AHA1/Hsp90 complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Guo, Yi-Zhen; Sun, Fang-Hui; Kou, Xin-Hui; Bao, Yong; Zhang, Zhu-Qing; Lin, Zhao-Hu; Ding, Ting-Bo; Jiang, Lan; Lei, Xin-Sheng; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2017-10-01

    The flavonoid quercetin exhibits significant anticancer activities with few side effects. In the current study, we characterized TL-2-8, a quercetin derivative, as a novel anticancer agent in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 and CellTiter-Blue assay, respectively. Cell death was examined using PI staining or a TUNEL assay. Mitophagy was determined by measuring autophagic flux and by confocal imaging. Protein expression was examined by Western blotting. We found that TL-2-8 selectively inhibited the proliferation and decreased the viability of various cancer cells (the anti-proliferation IC50 values in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells at 72 h were 8.28, 8.56, and 9.58 μmol/L, respectively), and it displayed only slight cytotoxicity against normal MCF-10A and HEK-293 cells. In MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, TL-2-8 treatment induced the degradation of multiple Hsp90 client proteins without inducing Hsp70. TL-2-8 (3, 6, 12 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of AHA1, an activator of Hsp90 ATPase, and decreased Hsp90-AHA1 complex formation, leading to decreased Hsp90 chaperone function and reduced polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signaling. Consequently, impaired mitophagy was induced via the downregulation of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2). The in vivo anticancer effects of TL-2-8 were evaluated in an MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model, which was treated with TL-2-8 (25, 50, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po). Administration of TL-2-8 resulted in tumor growth inhibition rates of 37.9%, 58.9% and 70.9%, respectively, whereas quercetin treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) produced only a lower tumor growth inhibition rate (49.5%). Furthermore, TL-2-8 treatment significantly extended the lifespan of mice bearing MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell xenografts. Our results demonstrate that TL-2-8 induces significant cell death and immature mitophagy in breast

  1. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG inhibits progression of LuCaP35 xenograft prostate tumors to castration resistance

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Katherine J.; Langmann, Gabrielle; Ai, Junkui; Ramos-Garcia, Raquel; Vessella, Robert L.; Wang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced prostate cancer is currently treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT initially results in tumor regression, however, all patients eventually relapse with castration-resistant prostate cancer. New approaches to delay the progression of prostate cancer to castration resistance are in desperate need. This study addresses whether targeting HSP90 regulation of androgen receptor (AR) can inhibit prostate cancer progression to castration resistance. METHODS The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG was injected intraperitoneally into nude mice bearing LuCaP35 xenograft tumors to determine the effect of HSP90 inhibition on prostate cancer progression to castration resistance and host survival. RESULTS Administration of 17-AAG maintained androgen-sensitivity, delayed the progression of LuCaP35 xenograft tumors to castration resistance and prolonged the survival of host. In addition, 17-AAG prevented nuclear localization of endogenous AR in LuCaP35 xenograft tumors in castrated nude mice. CONCLUSIONS Targeting Hsp90 or the mechanism by which HSP90 regulates androgen-independent AR nuclear localization and activation may lead to new approaches to prevent and/or treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22161776

  2. HSP90 empowers evolution of resistance to hormonal therapy in human breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Luke; Santagata, Sandro; Mendillo, Marc L; Lin, Nancy U; Proia, David A; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-12-23

    The efficacy of hormonal therapies for advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers is limited by the nearly inevitable development of acquired resistance. Efforts to block the emergence of resistance have met with limited success, largely because the mechanisms underlying it are so varied and complex. Here, we investigate a new strategy aimed at the very processes by which cancers evolve resistance. From yeast to vertebrates, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays a unique role among molecular chaperones by promoting the evolution of heritable new traits. It does so by regulating the folding of a diverse portfolio of metastable client proteins, many of which mediate adaptive responses that allow organisms to adapt and thrive in the face of diverse challenges, including those posed by drugs. Guided by our previous work in pathogenic fungi, in which very modest HSP90 inhibition impairs resistance to mechanistically diverse antifungals, we examined the effect of similarly modest HSP90 inhibition on the emergence of resistance to antiestrogens in breast cancer models. Even though this degree of inhibition fell below the threshold for proteotoxic activation of the heat-shock response and had no overt anticancer activity on its own, it dramatically impaired the emergence of resistance to hormone antagonists both in cell culture and in mice. Our findings strongly support the clinical testing of combined hormone antagonist-low-level HSP90 inhibitor regimens in the treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. At a broader level, they also provide promising proof of principle for a generalizable strategy to combat the pervasive problem of rapidly emerging resistance to molecularly targeted therapeutics.

  3. HSP90 empowers evolution of resistance to hormonal therapy in human breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Luke; Santagata, Sandro; Mendillo, Marc L.; Lin, Nancy U.; Proia, David A.; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of hormonal therapies for advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers is limited by the nearly inevitable development of acquired resistance. Efforts to block the emergence of resistance have met with limited success, largely because the mechanisms underlying it are so varied and complex. Here, we investigate a new strategy aimed at the very processes by which cancers evolve resistance. From yeast to vertebrates, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays a unique role among molecular chaperones by promoting the evolution of heritable new traits. It does so by regulating the folding of a diverse portfolio of metastable client proteins, many of which mediate adaptive responses that allow organisms to adapt and thrive in the face of diverse challenges, including those posed by drugs. Guided by our previous work in pathogenic fungi, in which very modest HSP90 inhibition impairs resistance to mechanistically diverse antifungals, we examined the effect of similarly modest HSP90 inhibition on the emergence of resistance to antiestrogens in breast cancer models. Even though this degree of inhibition fell below the threshold for proteotoxic activation of the heat-shock response and had no overt anticancer activity on its own, it dramatically impaired the emergence of resistance to hormone antagonists both in cell culture and in mice. Our findings strongly support the clinical testing of combined hormone antagonist-low-level HSP90 inhibitor regimens in the treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. At a broader level, they also provide promising proof of principle for a generalizable strategy to combat the pervasive problem of rapidly emerging resistance to molecularly targeted therapeutics. PMID:25489079

  4. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor increases plant resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Resistance of plants to unfavourable conditions is an important feature to use them as an autotrophic link of Life Support Systems in space exploration missions. It significantly depends on basic and stress-induced levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) in cells. It is known that HSP90 can bind and maintain heat shock transcription factors (HSF) as a monomer that lacks DNA binding activity and thereby regulate HSP expression. Modulation of activity of the HSP synthesis and resistance by HSP90 in plants is not well investigated. The objective of this study was to determine how treatment of seeds with an HSP90 inhibitor affects environmental responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seed treatment with geldanamycin (GDA) was used to reduce HSP90 function. The affect of space flight stressors was simulated by gamma-irradiation and thermal upshift. Two series of experiments were carried out: 1) exposure of dry seeds to gamma-irradiation (1 kGy, ^{60}Co); 2) heat shock of seedlings. It was shown that GDA treatment of seeds stimulated the seedling growth after seed irradiation. It also increased both the basic thermotolerance (45°C for 45 min) and induced thermotolerance (45°C for 1,5-2,5 h after pretreatment at 37°C for 2 h) in seedlings. In addition, seed treatment with GDA had a prolonged effect on the HSP70 production in seedlings under normal and stressful conditions. It shows that the stimulatory effects of GDA may be caused by induction of HSP70 synthesis. The obtained data demonstrate that pre-treatment of seeds with GDA before planting allows inducing the stress resistance at least at early growth stages of plants.

  5. Geranylgeranylacetone protects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury: HSP90 and eNOS phosphorylation involved.

    PubMed

    He, Dake; Song, Xiaoqing; Li, Ling

    2015-03-02

    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) can trigger a cytotoxic cascade with overflow of reactive oxygen species, paradoxically causing neurological dysfunction, redox imbalance, inflammation and apoptosis. The present study aims to investigate the effect of geranylgeranylacetone(GGA) on cerebral I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that cerebral I/R increased the neurological function abnormality, brain edema, inflammation and oxidative injury in rats as well as the cognitive impairment, which was significantly reversed by GGA in a dose-dependent manner. GGA also suppressed the cell injury and apoptosis caused by cerebral I/R. Moreover, the protective effect of GGA was found to involve heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Both the HSP90 and eNOS inhibitor abolished the effect of GGA. The data showed that GGA could protect rats against cerebral I/R injury, which may be related to the induction of HSP90 and activation of eNOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-07-14

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato.

  7. Targeting SRC Family Kinases and HSP90 in Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    goal of this proposal is to try to improve application of a drug , dasatinib, which has some promise for lung cancer treatment. Dasatinib is a...targeted drug , with action that involves blocking the function of a group of proteins (defined as the Src group) whose action is important in lung cancer...protein (HSP) 90 are both associated with cancer progression, invasion, tumor angiogenesis and drug -resistance, and both are targets of inhibitors

  8. Co-targeting AR and HSP90 suppresses prostate cancer cell growth and prevents resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Centenera, Margaret M; Carter, Sarah L; Gillis, Joanna L; Marrocco-Tallarigo, Deborah L; Grose, Randall H; Tilley, Wayne D; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-10-01

    Persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) underpins the urgent need for therapeutic strategies that better target this pathway. Combining classes of agents that target different components of AR signaling has the potential to delay resistance and improve patient outcomes. Many oncoproteins, including the AR, rely on the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) for functional maturation and stability. In this study, enhanced anti-proliferative activity of the Hsp90 inhibitors 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) and AUY922 in androgen-sensitive and CRPC cells was achieved when the agents were used in combination with AR antagonists bicalutamide or enzalutamide. Moreover, significant caspase-dependent cell death was achieved using sub-optimal agent doses that individually have no effect. Expression profiling demonstrated regulation of a broadened set of AR target genes with combined 17-AAG and bicalutamide compared with the respective single agent treatments. This enhanced inhibition of AR signaling was accompanied by impaired chromatin binding and nuclear localization of the AR. Importantly, expression of the AR variant AR-V7 that is implicated in resistance to AR antagonists was not induced by combination treatment. Likewise, the heat shock response that is typically elicited with therapeutic doses of Hsp90 inhibitors, and is a potential mediator of resistance to these agents, was significantly reduced by combination treatment. In summary, the co-targeting strategy in this study more effectively inhibits AR signaling than targeting AR or HSP90 alone and prevents induction of key resistance mechanisms in prostate cancer cells. These findings merit further evaluation of this therapeutic strategy to prevent CRPC growth.

  9. Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (hop): beyond interactions with chaperones and prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Baindur-Hudson, Swati; Edkins, Adrienne L; Blatch, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    The Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop), also known as stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1), has received considerable attention for diverse cellular functions in both healthy and diseased states. There is extensive evidence that intracellular Hop is a co-chaperone of the major chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90, playing an important role in the productive folding of Hsp90 client proteins. Consequently, Hop is implicated in a number of key signalling pathways, including aberrant pathways leading to cancer. However, Hop is also secreted and it is now well established that Hop also serves as a receptor for the prion protein, PrP(C). The intracellular and extracellular forms of Hop most likely represent two different isoforms, although the molecular determinants of these divergent functions are yet to be identified. There is also a growing body of research that reports the involvement of Hop in cellular activities that appear independent of either chaperones or PrP(C). While Hop has been shown to have various cellular functions, its biological function remains elusive. However, recent knockout studies in mammals suggest that Hop has an important role in embryonic development. This review provides a critical overview of the latest molecular, cellular and biological research on Hop, critically evaluating its function in healthy systems and how this function is adapted in diseases states.

  10. Hsp90α Mediates BMI1 Expression in Breast Cancer Stem/Progenitor Cells through Facilitating Nuclear Translocation of c-Myc and EZH2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yueh-Chun; Chang, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ying; Tsai, Yu-Hung; Chou, Ying-Hsiang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chen, Hsin-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chang-Chien, Ju; Lee, Hsueh-Te; Yang, Huei-Fan; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2017-09-15

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that facilitates the correct folding and functionality of its client protein. Numerous Hsp90-client proteins are involved in cancer development. Thus, Hsp90 inhibitors have potential applications as anti-cancer drugs. We previously discovered that Hsp90α expression increased in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which can initiate tumorigenesis and metastasis and resist treatment. In the present study, we further demonstrated that 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), an inhibitor of Hsp90, could suppress the self-renewal of BCSCs by downregulating B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1), a polycomb family member with oncogenic activity in breast cancer. Through immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that BMI1 did not interact with Hsp90α and that the downregulation of BMI1 by 17-DMAG was mediated by the inhibition of c-Myc and enhancement of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression. The transcriptional and BMI1 promoter-binding activities of c-Myc in BCSCs were inhibited by 17-DMAG treatment. The overexpression of EZH2 attenuated the inhibitory effect of 17-DMAG on BMI1 and c-Myc expression. Furthermore, Hsp90α could be co-immunoprecipitated with c-Myc and EZH2 and bind to the BMI1 promoter. Treatment with 17-DMAG decreased the nuclear expression of EZH2 and c-Myc but not that of Hsp90α. In conclusion, our data suggested that Hsp90α could positively regulate the self-renewal of BCSCs by facilitating the nuclear translocation of c-Myc and EZH2 to maintain BMI1 expression.

  11. A compound that inhibits the HOP-Hsp90 complex formation and has unique killing effects in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Genaro; Herbert, Kristina M; Regan, Lynne

    2011-12-05

    The chaperone Hsp90 is required for the correct folding and maturation of certain "client proteins" within all cells. Hsp90-mediated folding is particularly important in cancer cells, because upregulated or mutant oncogenic proteins are often Hsp90 clients. Hsp90 inhibitors thus represent a route to anticancer agents that have the potential to be active against several different types of cancer. Currently, various Hsp90 inhibitors that bind to Hsp90 at its ATP-binding site are in preclinical and clinical trials. Some of the most promising Hsp90 ATP-binding site inhibitors are the well characterized geldanamycin derivative 17-AAG and the recently described compounds PU-H71 and NVP-AUY922. An undesirable characteristic of these compounds is the transcriptional upregulation of Hsp70 that has prosurvival effects. Here we characterize the activity of a new type of chaperone inhibitor, 1,6-dimethyl-3-propylpyrimido[5,4-e][1,2,4]triazine-5,7-dione (named C9 for simplicity). Using purified protein components in vitro, C9 prevents Hsp90 from interacting with the cochaperone HOP and is thus expected to impair the Hsp90-dependent folding pathway in vivo. We show that this compound is effective in killing various breast cancer cell lines including the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231. An important property of this compound is that it does not induce the transcriptional upregulation of Hsp70. Moreover, when cells are treated with a combination of C9 and either 17-AAG or NVP-AUY922, the overexpression of Hsp70 is counteracted considerably and C9's lethal-IC50 decreases compared to its value when added alone.

  12. Evidence for a role of heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) in TLR4 mediated pain enhancement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R.; Ramos, Khara M.; Loram, Lisa C.; Wieseler, Julie; Sholar, Paige W.; Kearney, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Makenzie T.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Zhang, Yingning; Harrison, Jacqueline A.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord microglial toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been implicated in enhancing neuropathic pain and opposing morphine analgesia. The present study was initiated to explore TLR4-mediated pain modulation by intrathecal lipopolysaccharide, a classic TLR4 agonist. However, our initial study revealed that intrathecal lipopolysaccharide failed to induce low-threshold mechanical allodynia in naive rats, suggestive that TLR4 agonism may be insufficient to enhance pain. These studies explore the possibility that a second signal is required; namely, heat shock protein-90 (HSP90). This candidate was chosen for study given its known importance as a regulator of TLR4 signaling. A combination of in vitro TLR4 cell signaling and in vivo behavioral studies of pain modulation suggest that TLR4-enhancement of neuropathic pain and TLR4-suppression of morphine analgesia each likely require HSP90 as a cofactor for the effects observed. In vitro studies revealed that DMSO enhances HSP90 release, suggestive that this may be a means by which DMSO enhances TLR4 signaling. While 2 µg and 100 µg lipopolysaccharide intrathecally did not induce mechanical allodynia across the time course tested, co-administration of 1 µg lipopolysaccharide with a drug that enhances HSP90-mediated TLR4 signaling now induced robust allodynia. In support of this allodynia being mediated via a TLR4/HSP90 pathway, it was prevented or reversed by intrathecal co-administration of a HSP90 inhibitor, a TLR4 inhibitor, a microglia/monocyte activation inhibitor (as monocytes-derived cells are the predominant cell type expressing TLR4), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (as this proinflammatory cytokine is a downstream consequence of TLR4 activation). Together, these results suggest for the first time that TLR4 activation is necessary but not sufficient to induce spinally mediated pain enhancement. Rather, the data suggest that TLR4-dependent pain phenomena may require contributions by multiple components of

  13. 17AAG Treatment Accelerates Doxorubicin Induced Cellular Senescence: Hsp90 Interferes with Enforced Senescence of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Upasana; Paithankar, Khande Rao; Kumar, Jonnala Ujwal; Subramaniam, Vaidyanathan; Sreedhar, Amere Subbarao

    2012-01-01

    Hsp90 chaperone has been identified as an attractive pharmacological target to combat cancer. However, some metastatic tumors either fail to respond to Hsp90 inhibition or show recovery necessitating irreversible therapeutic strategies. In response to this enforced senescence has been proposed as an alternate strategy. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting Hsp90 with 17AAG sensitizes human neuroblastoma to DNA damage response mediated cellular senescence. Among individual and combination drug treatments, 17AAG pre-treatment followed by doxorubicin treatment exhibited senescence-like characteristics such as increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, cell cycle arrest, SA-β-gal staining and the perpetual increase in SAHF. Doxorubicin induced senescence signaling was mediated by p53-p21CIP/WAF-1 and was accelerated in the absence of functional Hsp90. Sustained p16INK4a and H3K4me3 expressions correlating with unaffected telomerase activation annulled replicative senescence and appraised stress induced senescence. Despite increases in [(ROS)i] and [(Ca2+)i], a concomitant increase in cellular antioxidant defense system suggested oxidation independent senescence activation. Sustained activation of survival (Akt) and proliferative (ERK1/2) kinases fosters robustness of cells. Invigorating senescent cells with growth factor or snooping with mTOR or PI3 kinase inhibitors compromised cell survival but not senescence. Intriguingly, senescence-associated secretory factors from the senescence cells manifested established senescence in neuroblastoma, which offers clinical advantage to our approach. Our study discusses tumor selective functions of Hsp90 and discusses irrefutable strategies of Hsp90 inhibition in anticancer treatments. PMID:22915839

  14. Extracellular Hsp90 as a Novel Epigenetic Regulator of EMT and Metastatic Risk in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0324 TITLE: Extracellular Hsp90 as a ovel pigenetic egulator of EMT and etastatic...COVERED 20September2012-19September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracellular Hsp90 as a ovel pigenetic egulator of EMT and etastatic isk in rostate...mechanism by which extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer (PCa). It is widely believed that

  15. ATM is the primary kinase responsible for phosphorylation of Hsp90α after ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Ahsan, Aarif; Marsh, Katherine; Pratt, William B.; Ray, Dipankar; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Nyati, Mukesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 is a chaperone that plays an essential role in the stabilization of a large number of signal transduction molecules, many of which are associated with oncogenesis. An Hsp90 isoform (Hsp90α) has been shown to be selectively phosphorylated on two N-terminal threonine residues (threonine 5 and 7) and is involved in the DNA damage response and apoptosis. However, the kinase that phosphorylates Hsp90α after ionizing radiation (IR) and its role in post-radiation DNA repair remains unclear. Inasmuch as several proteins of the DNA damage response machinery are Hsp90 clients, the functional consequences of Hsp90α phosphorylation following IR have implications for the design of novel radiosensitizing agents that specifically target the Hsp90α isoform. Here we show that ATM phosphorylates Hsp90α at the T5/7 residues immediately after IR. The kinetics of Hsp90α T5/7 phosphorylation correlate with the kinetics of H2AX S139 phosphorylation (γH2AX). Although Hsp90α is located in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, only nuclear Hsp90α is phosphorylated by ATM after IR. The siRNA mediated knockdown of Hsp90α sensitizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells, lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts to IR. Furthermore, MEF cells that are Hsp90α null have reduced levels of γH2AX indicating that Hsp90α is important for the formation of γH2AX. Thus, this study provides evidence that Hsp90α is a component of the signal transduction events mediated by ATM following IR, and that Hsp90α loss decreases γH2AX levels. This work supports additional investigation into Hsp90α T5/7 phosphorylation with the goal of developing targeted radiosensitizing therapies. PMID:27738310

  16. Hsp70 and the Cochaperone StiA (Hop) Orchestrate Hsp90-Mediated Caspofungin Tolerance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Steinbach, William J

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major cause of death among immunosuppressed patients. Echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin) are increasingly used as second-line therapy for IA, but their activity is only fungistatic. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was previously shown to trigger tolerance to caspofungin and the paradoxical effect (i.e., decreased efficacy of caspofungin at higher concentrations). Here, we demonstrate the key role of another molecular chaperone, Hsp70, in governing the stress response to caspofungin via Hsp90 and their cochaperone Hop/Sti1 (StiA in A. fumigatus). Mutation of the StiA-interacting domain of Hsp70 (C-terminal EELD motif) impaired thermal adaptation and caspofungin tolerance with loss of the caspofungin paradoxical effect. Impaired Hsp90 function and increased susceptibility to caspofungin were also observed following pharmacologic inhibition of the C-terminal domain of Hsp70 by pifithrin-μ or after stiA deletion, further supporting the links among Hsp70, StiA, and Hsp90 in governing caspofungin tolerance. StiA was not required for the physical interaction between Hsp70 and Hsp90 but had distinct roles in the regulation of their function in caspofungin and heat stress responses. In conclusion, this study deciphering the physical and functional interactions of the Hsp70-StiA-Hsp90 complex provided new insights into the mechanisms of tolerance to caspofungin in A. fumigatus and revealed a key C-terminal motif of Hsp70, which can be targeted by specific inhibitors, such as pifithrin-μ, to enhance the antifungal activity of caspofungin against A. fumigatus.

  17. Definition of the minimal fragments of Sti1 required for dimerization, interaction with Hsp70 and Hsp90 and in vivo functions.

    PubMed

    Flom, Gary; Behal, Robert H; Rosen, Luke; Cole, Douglas G; Johnson, Jill L

    2007-05-15

    The molecular chaperone Hsp (heat-shock protein) 90 is critical for the activity of diverse cellular client proteins. In a current model, client proteins are transferred from Hsp70 to Hsp90 in a process mediated by the co-chaperone Sti1/Hop, which may simultaneously interact with Hsp70 and Hsp90 via separate TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains, but the mechanism and in vivo importance of this function is unclear. In the present study, we used truncated forms of Sti1 to determine the minimal regions required for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. We found that both TPR1 and TPR2B contribute to the Hsp70 interaction in vivo and that mutations in both TPR1 and TPR2B were required to disrupt the in vitro interaction of Sti1 with the C-terminus of the Hsp70 Ssa1. The TPR2A domain was required for the Hsp90 interaction in vivo, but the isolated TPR2A domain was not sufficient for the Hsp90 interaction unless combined with the TPR2B domain. However, isolated TPR2A was both necessary and sufficient for purified Sti1 to migrate as a dimer in solution. The DP2 domain, which is essential for in vivo function, was dispensable for the Hsp70 and Hsp90 interaction, as well as Sti1 dimerization. As evidence for the role of Sti1 in mediating the interaction between Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vivo, we identified Sti1 mutants that result in reduced recovery of Hsp70 in Hsp90 complexes. We also identified two Hsp90 mutants that exhibit a reduced Hsp70 interaction, which may help clarify the mechanism of client transfer between the two molecular chaperones.

  18. Identification of in vivo HSP90-interacting proteins reveals modularity of HSP90 complexes is dependent on the environment in psychrophilic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    García-Descalzo, Laura; Alcazar, Alberto; Baquero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a conserved molecular chaperone that functions as part of complexes in which different client proteins target it to diverse sets of substrates. In this paper, HSP90 complexes were investigated in γ-proteobacteria from mild (Shewanella oneidensis) and cold environments (Shewanella frigidimarina and Psychrobacter frigidicola), to determine changes in HSP90 interactions with client proteins in response to the adaptation to cold environments. HSP90 participation in cold adaptation was determined using the specific inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin. Then, HSP90 was immunoprecipitated from bacterial cultures, and the proteins in HSP90 complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. According to HSP90-associated protein analysis, only 15 common proteins were found in both species from the same genus, S. oneidensis and S. frigidimarina, whereas a significant higher number of common proteins were found in both psychrophilic species S. frigidimarina and P. frigidicola 21 (p < 0.001). Only two HSP90-interacting proteins, the chaperone proteins DnaK and GroEL, were common to the three species. Interestingly, some proteins related to energy metabolism (isocitrate lyase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD(+) synthase, and malate dehydrogenase) and some translation factors only interacted with HSP90 in psychrophilic bacteria. We can conclude that HSP90 and HSP90-associated proteins might take part in the mechanism of adaptation to cold environments, and interestingly, organisms living in similar environments conserve similar potential HSP90 interactors in opposition to phylogenetically closely related organisms of the same genus but from different environments. PMID:20890740

  19. CD24 promoted cancer cell angiogenesis via Hsp90-mediated STAT3/VEGF signaling pathway in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingying; Liang, Yanling; Xiang, Cheng; Zhou, Huanyu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Qing, Haitao; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Huabao; Peng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    CD24 is involved in tumor progression of various cancers, but the effects of CD24 on tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer are still unknown. We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism and role of CD24 on colorectal cancer (CRC) angiogenesis. Our data showed that the microvessal density (MVD) was related to the expression of CD24 in primary and metastasis CRC. Silencing of CD24 could dramatically decrease human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration, invasion and tubule formation, but trivially affected cell proliferation. We also mechanically showed that silencing CD24 could downregulate the expression of VEGF via inhibiting the phosphorylation and translocation of STAT3. Moreover, Hsp90 was identified as the down-interaction protein of CD24 with co-immunoprecipitation assay and systematic mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence results showed Hsp90 partly co-localized with CD24 in CRC cell membrane and there was a positive correlation between CD24 and Hsp90 expression in CRC tissues. We gradually evidenced that Hsp90 modulated the stability and degradation of CD24 in a proteasome-depended manner, and transferred the signal transmission from CD24 to STAT3. 17-AAG, a specific Hsp90, could abrogate the CD24 induce- HUVEC migration, invasion and tubule formation in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our results suggested that CD24 induced CRC angiogenesis in Hsp90-dependent manner and activated STAT3-mediated transcription of VEGF. We provided a new insight into the regulation mechanism of tumor angiogenesis by exploring the role of CD24 in angiogenesis. PMID:27494878

  20. The complementation of yeast with human or Plasmodium falciparum Hsp90 confers differential inhibitor sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Wider, Diana; Péli-Gulli, Marie-Pierre; Briand, Pierre-André; Tatu, Utpal; Picard, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Developing novel drugs against the unicellular parasite Plasmodium is complicated by the paucity of simple screening systems. Heat-shock proteins are an essential class of proteins for the parasite's cyclical life style between different cellular milieus and temperatures. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 assists a large variety of proteins, but its supporting functions for many proteins that are important for cancer have made it into a well-studied drug target. With a better understanding of the differences between Hsp90 and of the malarial parasite and Hsp90 of its human host, new therapeutic options might become available. We have generated a set of isogenic strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae where the essential yeast Hsp90 proteins have been replaced with either of the two human cytosolic isoforms Hsp90alpha or Hsp90beta, or with Hsp90 from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). All strains express large amounts of the Flag-tagged Hsp90 proteins and are viable. Even though the strain with Pf Hsp90 grows more poorly, it provides a tool to reconstitute additional aspects of the parasite Hsp90 complex and its interactions with substrates in yeast as a living test tube. Upon exposure of the set of Hsp90 test strains to the two Hsp90 inhibitors radicicol (Rd) and geldanamycin (GA), we found that the strain with Pf Hsp90 is relatively more sensitive to GA than to Rd compared to the strains with human Hsp90's. This indicates that this set of yeast strains could be used to screen for new Pf Hsp90 inhibitors with a wider therapeutic window.

  1. Comparative genomics and evolution of the HSP90 family of genes across all kingdoms of organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Monteiro, Antónia

    2006-01-01

    Background HSP90 proteins are essential molecular chaperones involved in signal transduction, cell cycle control, stress management, and folding, degradation, and transport of proteins. HSP90 proteins have been found in a variety of organisms suggesting that they are ancient and conserved. In this study we investigate the nuclear genomes of 32 species across all kingdoms of organisms, and all sequences available in GenBank, and address the diversity, evolution, gene structure, conservation and nomenclature of the HSP90 family of genes across all organisms. Results Twelve new genes and a new type HSP90C2 were identified. The chromosomal location, exon splicing, and prediction of whether they are functional copies were documented, as well as the amino acid length and molecular mass of their polypeptides. The conserved regions across all protein sequences, and signature sequences in each subfamily were determined, and a standardized nomenclature system for this gene family is presented. The proeukaryote HSP90 homologue, HTPG, exists in most Bacteria species but not in Archaea, and it evolved into three lineages (Groups A, B and C) via two gene duplication events. None of the organellar-localized HSP90s were derived from endosymbionts of early eukaryotes. Mitochondrial TRAP and endoplasmic reticulum HSP90B separately originated from the ancestors of HTPG Group A in Firmicutes-like organisms very early in the formation of the eukaryotic cell. TRAP is monophyletic and present in all Animalia and some Protista species, while HSP90B is paraphyletic and present in all eukaryotes with the exception of some Fungi species, which appear to have lost it. Both HSP90C (chloroplast HSP90C1 and location-undetermined SP90C2) and cytosolic HSP90A are monophyletic, and originated from HSP90B by independent gene duplications. HSP90C exists only in Plantae, and was duplicated into HSP90C1 and HSP90C2 isoforms in higher plants. HSP90A occurs across all eukaryotes, and duplicated into HSP

  2. Blocking the survival of the nastiest by HSP90 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Paul; Clarke, Paul A.; Al-Lazikani, Bissan

    2016-01-01

    It is now recognised that genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within individual human cancers is responsible for therapeutic resistance – knowledge that is having a profound impact on current thinking and experimentation. There has been concern that molecularly targeted therapy is doomed to failure, with resistant clones emerging in response to the Darwinian selective pressure of any drug treatment. However, two studies have shown that the evolution of drug resistance can be restrained by co-administration of a pharmacologic inhibitor of the HSP90 molecular chaperone. PMID:26820296

  3. COMPARTMENTALIZED CANCER DRUG DISCOVERY TARGETING MITOCHONDRIAL Hsp90 CHAPERONES

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byoung Heon; Altieri, Dario C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a plethora of attractive drug targets in cancer, but their therapeutic exploitation proved more difficult than expected, and only rarely truly successful. One possibility not often considered in drug discovery is that cancer signaling pathways are not randomly arranged in cells, but orchestrated in specialized subcellular compartments. The identification of Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) chaperones in mitochondria of tumors, but not most normal tissues, provides an example of a compartmentalized network of cell survival, opening fresh prospects for novel, subcellularly-targeted cancer drug discovery. PMID:19648961

  4. Lupus-specific kidney deposits of HSP90 are associated with altered IgG idiotypic interactions of anti-HSP90 autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    KENDEROV, A; MINKOVA, V; MIHAILOVA, D; GILTIAY, N; KYURKCHIEV, S; KEHAYOV, I; KAZATCHKINE, M; KAVERI, S; PASHOV, A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that autoantibodies to heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who are more likely to have renal disease and a low C3 level. Using samples from 24 patients, we searched for glomerular deposits of HSP90 in renal biopsy specimens from seven patients with lupus nephritis and 17 cases of glomerulonephritis from patients without SLE. Positive glomerular immunofluorescent staining for HSP90 was observed in six of seven cases of SLE and positive tubular staining in two of seven SLE patients. The staining for HSP90 was granular in nature and was located in subepithelial, subendothelial and mesangial areas. None of the non-SLE renal biopsies revealed positive staining for HSP90 deposition. Further we showed the presence of anti-HSP90 IgG autoantibodies in IgG from sera of patients with SLE as well as in normal human IgG (IVIg). In normal IgG this autoreactivity could be adsorbed almost completely on F(ab′)2 fragments from the same IgG preparation, coupled to Sepharose and could be inhibited by the effluent obtained after subjecting normal IgG to HSP90 affinity column. These findings indicate that anti-HSP90 natural autoantibodies are blocked by idiotypic interactions within the IgG repertoire. Unlike natural autoantibodies, anti-HSP90 IgG from SLE patients’ sera were only moderately adsorbed on F(ab′)2 fragments of normal IgG. These results demonstrate that immunopathogenesis of lupus nephritis is associated with HSP90 (as an autoantigen) and that the pathology is associated with altered idiotypic regulation of the anti-HSP90 IgG autoantibodies. PMID:12100037

  5. High-Throughput Screen of Natural Product Libraries for Hsp90 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Jason; Balch, Maurie; Galam, Lakshmi; Girgis, Antwan; Hall, Jessica; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Matts, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Hsp90 has become the target of intensive investigation, as inhibition of its function has the ability to simultaneously incapacitate proteins that function in pathways that represent the six hallmarks of cancer. While a number of Hsp90 inhibitors have made it into clinical trials, a number of short-comings have been noted, such that the search continues for novel Hsp90 inhibitors with superior pharmacological properties. To identify new potential Hsp90 inhibitors, we have utilized a high-throughput assay based on measuring Hsp90-dependent refolding of thermally denatured luciferase to screen natural compound libraries. Over 4,000 compounds were screen with over 100 hits. Data mining of the literature indicated that 51 compounds had physiological effects that Hsp90 inhibitors also exhibit, and/or the ability to downregulate the expression levels of Hsp90-dependent proteins. Of these 51 compounds, seven were previously characterized as Hsp90 inhibitors. Four compounds, anthothecol, garcinol, piplartine, and rottlerin, were further characterized, and the ability of these compounds to inhibit the refolding of luciferase, and reduce the rate of growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells, correlated with their ability to suppress the Hsp90-dependent maturation of the heme-regulated eIF2α kinase, and deplete cultured cells of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Thus, this screen has identified an additional 44 compounds with known beneficial pharmacological properties, but with unknown mechanisms of action as possible new inhibitors of the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:24833337

  6. The HSP90 binding mode of a radicicol-like E-oxime from docking, binding free energy estimations, and NMR 15N chemical shifts

    PubMed Central

    Spichty, Martin; Taly, Antoine; Hagn, Franz; Kessler, Horst; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas; Karplus, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We determine the binding mode of a macrocyclic radicicol-like oxime to yeast HSP90 by combining computer simulations and experimental measurements. We sample the macrocyclic scaffold of the unbound ligand by parallel tempering simulations and dock the most populated conformations to yeast HSP90. Docking poses are then evaluated by the use of binding free energy estimations with the linear interaction energy method. Comparison of QM/MM-calculated NMR chemical shifts with experimental shift data for a selective subset of back-bone 15N provides an additional evaluation criteria. As a last test we check the binding modes against available structure-activity-relationships. We find that the most likely binding mode of the oxime to yeast HSP90 is very similar to the known structure of the radicicol-HSP90 complex. PMID:19482409

  7. Stabilization of integrin-linked kinase by the Hsp90-CHIP axis impacts cellular force generation, migration and the fibrotic response

    PubMed Central

    Radovanac, Korana; Morgner, Jessica; Schulz, Jan-Niklas; Blumbach, Katrin; Patterson, Cam; Geiger, Tamar; Mann, Matthias; Krieg, Thomas; Eckes, Beate; Fässler, Reinhard; Wickström, Sara A

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an adaptor protein required to establish and maintain the connection between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. This linkage is essential for generating force between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell during migration and matrix remodelling. The mechanisms by which ILK stability and turnover are regulated are unknown. Here we report that the E3 ligase CHIP–heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) axis regulates ILK turnover in fibroblasts. The chaperone Hsp90 stabilizes ILK and facilitates the interaction of ILK with α-parvin. When Hsp90 activity is blocked, ILK is ubiquitinated by CHIP and degraded by the proteasome, resulting in impaired fibroblast migration and a dramatic reduction in the fibrotic response to bleomycin in mice. Together, our results uncover how Hsp90 regulates ILK stability and identify a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate fibrotic diseases. PMID:23612611

  8. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) selectively regulates the stability of KDM4B/JMJD2B histone demethylase.

    PubMed

    Ipenberg, Inbal; Guttmann-Raviv, Noga; Khoury, Hanan P; Kupershmit, Ilana; Ayoub, Nabieh

    2013-05-24

    The family of KDM4A-D histone demethylases selectively demethylates H3K9 and H3K36 and is implicated in key cellular processes including DNA damage response, transcription, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, senescence, and carcinogenesis. Various human cancers exhibit elevated protein levels of KDM4A-D members, and their depletion impairs tumor formation, suggesting that their enhanced activity promotes carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating the KDM4 protein stability remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the molecular chaperon Hsp90 interacts with and stabilizes KDM4B protein. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 with geldanamycin resulted in ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of KDM4B, but not of KDM4C, suggesting that the turnover of these demethylases is regulated by distinct mechanisms. This degradation was accompanied by increased methylation of H3K9. We further show that KDM4B is ubiquitinated on lysines 337 and 562; simultaneous substitution of these residues to arginine suppressed the geldanamycin-induced degradation of KDM4B, suggesting that the ubiquitination of Lys-337 and Lys-562 targets KDM4B for proteasomal degradation upon Hsp90 inhibition. These findings constitute a novel pathway by which Hsp90 activity alters the histone code via regulation of KDM4B stability. This pathway may prove a druggable target for the treatment of tumors driven by enhanced KDM4B activity.

  9. HSP90 Inhibitor-SN-38 Conjugate Strategy for Targeted Delivery of Topoisomerase I Inhibitor to Tumors.

    PubMed

    Proia, David A; Smith, Donald L; Zhang, Junyi; Jimenez, John-Paul; Sang, Jim; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Sequeira, Manuel; Acquaviva, Jaime; He, Suqin; Zhang, Chaohua; Khazak, Vladimir; Astsaturov, Igor; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Osman, Sami; Bates, Richard C; Chimmanamada, Dinesh; Ying, Weiwen

    2015-11-01

    The clinical benefits of chemotherapy are commonly offset by insufficient drug exposures, narrow safety margins, and/or systemic toxicities. Over recent decades, a number of conjugate-based targeting approaches designed to overcome these limitations have been explored. Here, we report on an innovative strategy that utilizes HSP90 inhibitor-drug conjugates (HDC) for directed tumor targeting of chemotherapeutic agents. STA-12-8666 is an HDC that comprises an HSP90 inhibitor fused to SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. Mechanistic analyses in vitro established that high-affinity HSP90 binding conferred by the inhibitor backbone could be exploited for conjugate accumulation within tumor cells. In vivo modeling showed that the HSP90 inhibitor moiety was required for selective retention of STA-12-8666, and this enrichment promoted extended release of active SN-38 within the tumor compartment. Indeed, controlled intratumoral payload release by STA-12-8666 contributed to a broad therapeutic window, sustained biomarker activity, and remarkable degree of efficacy and durability of response in multiple cell line and patient-derived xenograft models. Overall, STA-12-8666 has been developed as a unique HDC agent that employs a distinct mechanism of targeted drug delivery to achieve potent and sustained antitumor effects. These findings identify STA-12-8666 as a promising new candidate for evaluation as novel anticancer therapeutic.

  10. Hsp90β is involved in the development of high salt-diet-induced nephropathy via interaction with various signalling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi-hai; Zhao, Ning-wei; Jiang, Wei-min; Wang, Xin-tong; Zhang, Si-qi; Zhu, Xuan-xuan; Zhang, Chun-bing; Gao, Yan-hong; Gao, Feng; Liu, Fu-ming; Fang, Zhu-yuan

    2016-01-01

    A high-salt diet often leads to a local intrarenal increase in renal hypoxia and oxidative stress, which are responsible for an excess production of pathogenic substances. Here, Wistar Kyoto/spontaneous hypertensive (WKY/SHR) rats fed a high-salt diet developed severe proteinuria, resulting from pronounced renal inflammation, fibrosis and tubular epithelial cell apoptosis. All these were mainly non-pressure-related effects. Hsp90β, TGF-β, HIF-1α, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 were shown to be highly expressed in response to salt loading. Next, we found that Hsp90β might play the key role in non-pressure-related effects of salt loading through a series of cellular signalling events, including the NF-κB, p38 activation and Bcl-2 inactivation. Hsp90β was previously proven to regulate the upstream mediators in multiple cellular signalling cascades through stabilizing and maintaining their activities. In our study, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) or Hsp90β knockdown dramatically alleviated the high-salt-diet-induced proteinuria and renal damage without altering blood pressure significantly, when it reversed activations of NF-κB, mTOR and p38 signalling cascades. Meanwhile, Co-IP results demonstrated that Hsp90β could interact with and stabilize TAK1, AMPKα, IKKα/β, HIF-1α and Raptor, whereas Hsp90β inhibition disrupted this process. In addition, Hsp90β inhibition-mediated renal improvements also accompanied the reduction of renal oxidative stress. In conclusion, salt loading indeed exhibited non-pressure-related impacts on proteinuria and renal dysfunction in WKY/SHR rats. Hsp90β inhibition caused the destabilization of upstream mediators in various pathogenic signalling events, thereby effectively ameliorating this nephropathy owing to renal hypoxia and oxidative stress. PMID:27248656

  11. A Tetrahymena Hsp90 co-chaperone promotes siRNA loading by ATP-dependent and ATP-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Woehrer, Sophie L; Aronica, Lucia; Suhren, Jan H; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Noto, Tomoko; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2015-02-12

    The loading of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs into Argonaute proteins is enhanced by Hsp90 and ATP in diverse eukaryotes. However, whether this loading also occurs independently of Hsp90 and ATP remains unclear. We show that the Tetrahymena Hsp90 co-chaperone Coi12p promotes siRNA loading into the Argonaute protein Twi1p in both ATP-dependent and ATP-independent manners in vitro. The ATP-dependent activity requires Hsp90 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of Coi12p, whereas these factors are dispensable for the ATP-independent activity. Both activities facilitate siRNA loading by counteracting the Twi1p-binding protein Giw1p, which is important to specifically sort the 26- to 32-nt siRNAs to Twi1p. Although Coi12p lacking its TPR domain does not bind to Hsp90, it can partially restore the siRNA loading and DNA elimination defects of COI12 knockout cells, suggesting that Hsp90- and ATP-independent loading of siRNA occurs in vivo and plays a physiological role in Tetrahymena. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Targeting Heat-Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) as a Complementary Strategy to Immune Checkpoint Blockade for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Proia, David A; Kaufmann, Gunnar F

    2015-06-01

    The demonstration that immune checkpoint blockade can meaningfully improve outcomes for cancer patients has revolutionized the field of immuno-oncology. New biologic agents targeting specific checkpoints have shown remarkable durability in terms of patient response and, importantly, exhibit clinical activity across a range of human malignancies, including many that have traditionally proven refractory to other immunotherapies. In this rapidly evolving area, a key consideration relates to the identification of novel combinatorial strategies that exploit existing or investigational cancer therapies in order to optimize patient outcomes and the proportion of individuals able to derive benefit from this approach. In this regard, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) represents an important emerging target for cancer therapy because its inactivation results in the simultaneous blockade of multiple signaling pathways and can sensitize tumor cells to other anticancer agents. Within the context of immunology, HSP90 plays a dual regulatory role, with its functional inhibition resulting in both immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory effects. In this Cancer Immunology at the Crossroads overview, the anticancer activity profile of targeted HSP90 inhibitors is discussed along with their paradoxical roles in immunology. Overall, we explore the rationale for combining the modalities of HSP90 inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade in order to augment the antitumor immune response in cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Regulatory role of the 90-kDa-heat-shock protein (Hsp90) and associated factors on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Erlejman, Alejandra G; Lagadari, Mariana; Toneatto, Judith; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela; Galigniana, Mario D

    2014-02-01

    The term molecular chaperone was first used to describe the ability of nucleoplasmin to prevent the aggregation of histones with DNA during the assembly of nucleosomes. Subsequently, the name was extended to proteins that mediate the post-translational assembly of oligomeric complexes protecting them from denaturation and/or aggregation. Hsp90 is a 90-kDa molecular chaperone that represents the major soluble protein of the cell. In contrast to most conventional chaperones, Hsp90 functions as a refined sensor of protein function and its principal role in the cell is to facilitate biological activity to properly folded client proteins that already have a preserved tertiary structure. Consequently, Hsp90 is related to basic cell functions such as cytoplasmic transport of soluble proteins, translocation of client proteins to organelles, and regulation of the biological activity of key signaling factors such as protein kinases, ubiquitin ligases, steroid receptors, cell cycle regulators, and transcription factors. A growing amount of evidence links the protective action of this molecular chaperone to mechanisms related to posttranslational modifications of soluble nuclear factors as well as histones. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the regulatory action of Hsp90 on transcriptional regulation and how this effect could have impacted genetic assimilation mechanism in some organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactivation of ERK and Akt confers resistance of mutant BRAF colon cancer cells to the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Wang, Jia Yu; Yan, Xu Guang; Farrelly, Margaret; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Liu, Fen; Yari, Hamed; La, Ting; Lei, Fu Xi; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations of BRAF occur in approximately 10% of colon cancers and are associated with their resistance to clinically available therapeutic drugs and poor prognosis of the patients. Here we report that colon cancer cells with mutant BRAF are also resistant to the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor AUY922, and that this is caused by rebound activation of ERK and Akt. Although AUY922 triggered rapid reduction in ERK and Akt activation in both wild-type and mutant BRAF colon cancer cells, activation of ERK and Akt rebounded shortly in the latter leading to resistance of the cells to AUY922-induced apoptosis. Reactivation of ERK was associated with the persistent expression of mutant BRAF, which, despite being a client of HSP90, was only partially degraded by AUY922, whereas reactivation of Akt was related to the activity of the HSP90 co-chaperone, cell division cycle 37 (CDC37), in that knockdown of CDC37 inhibited Akt reactivation in mutant colon cancer cells treated with AUY922. In support, as a HSP90 client protein, Akt was only diminished by AUY922 in wild-type but not mutant BRAF colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results reveal that reactivation of ERK and Akt associated respectively with the activity of mutant BRAF and CDC37 renders mutant BRAF colon cancer cells resistant to AUY922, with implications of co-targeting mutant BRAF and/or CDC37 and HSP90 in the treatment of mutant BRAF colon cancers. PMID:27391062

  15. Cns1 Is an Essential Protein Associated with the Hsp90 Chaperone Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae That Can Restore Cyclophilin 40-Dependent Functions in cpr7Δ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, James A.; Kalton, Helen M.; Gaber, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors two cyclophilin 40-type enzymes, Cpr6 and Cpr7, which are components of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone machinery. Cpr7 is required for normal growth and is required for maximal activity of heterologous Hsp90-dependent substrates, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase pp60v-src. In addition, it has recently been shown that Cpr7 plays a major role in negative regulation of the S. cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor (HSF). To better understand functions associated with Cpr7, a search was undertaken for multicopy suppressors of the cpr7Δ slow-growth phenotype. The screen identified a single gene, designated CNS1 (for cyclophilin seven suppressor), capable of suppressing the cpr7Δ growth defect. Overexpression of CNS1 in cpr7Δ cells also largely restored GR activity and negative regulation of HSF. In vitro protein retention experiments in which Hsp90 heterocomplexes were precipitated resulted in coprecipitation of Cns1. Interaction between Cns1 and the carboxy terminus of Hsp90 was also shown by two-hybrid analysis. The functional consequences of CNS1 overexpression and its physical association with the Hsp90 machinery indicate that Cns1 is a previously unidentified component of molecular chaperone complexes. Thus far, Cns1 is the only tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of Hsp90 heterocomplexes found to be essential for cell viability under all conditions tested. PMID:9819422

  16. Disruption of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90)-Protein Kinase Cδ (PKCδ) Interaction by (-)-Maackiain Suppresses Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Transcription in HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Yuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Takeyasu; Nagai, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yohei; Okamoto, Yasunobu; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nemoto, Hisao; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-06

    The histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is an allergic disease sensitive gene, and its expression level is strongly correlated with the severity of allergic symptoms. (-)-Maackiain was identified as a Kujin-derived anti-allergic compound that suppresses the up-regulation of the H1R gene. However, the underlying mechanism of H1R gene suppression remains unknown. Here, we sought to identify a target protein of (-)-maackiain and investigate its mechanism of action. A fluorescence quenching assay and immunoblot analysis identified heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as a target protein of (-)-maackiain. A pull-down assay revealed that (-)-maackiain disrupted the interaction of Hsp90 with PKCδ, resulting in the suppression of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced up-regulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells. Additional Hsp90 inhibitors, including 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, celastrol, and novobiocin also suppressed PMA-induced H1R gene up-regulation. 17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibited PKCδ translocation to the Golgi and phosphorylation of Tyr(311) on PKCδ. These data suggest that (-)-maackiain is a novel Hsp90 pathway inhibitor. The underlying mechanism of the suppression of PMA-induced up-regulation of H1R gene expression by (-)-maackiain and Hsp90 inhibitors is the inhibition of PKCδ activation through the disruption of Hsp90-PKCδ interaction. Involvement of Hsp90 in H1R gene up-regulation suggests that suppression of the Hsp90 pathway could be a novel therapeutic strategy for allergic rhinitis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. HSP90 gene expression induced by aspirin is associated with damage remission in a chicken myocardial cell culture exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Qian, Z; Zhu, H; Tang, S; Wu, D; Zhang, M; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential protection of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced by aspirin against heat stress damage in chicken myocardial cells, enzyme activities related to stress damage, cytopathological changes, the expression and distribution of HSP90, and HSP90 mRNA levels in the myocardial cells exposed to heat stress (42°C) for different durations with or without aspirin administration (1 mg/ml, 2 h prior) in vitro were investigated. Significant increase of enzyme levels in the supernatant of heat-stressed myocardial cells and cellular lesions characterised by acute degeneration, karyopyknosis and karyorrhexis were observed, compared to non-treated cells. However, the lesions of cells treated with aspirin were milder, characterised by earlier recovery of enzyme levels to the control levels and no obvious heat stress-related cellular necrosis. Stronger positive signals in the cytoplasm and longer retention of HSP90 signal in nuclei were observed in aspirin-treated myocardial cells than those of only heat-stressed cells. HSP90 level in the aspirin-treated myocardial cells was 11.1-fold higher than that in non-treated cells, and remained at a high level at the early stage of heat stress, whereas it was just 4.1-fold higher in only heat-stressed cells and returned rapidly to a low level. Overexpression of HSP90 mRNA in aspirin-treated cells was observed throughout the experiment, whereas HSP90 mRNA decreased significantly only in heat-stressed cells. The early higher HSP90 expression induced by aspirin during heat stress was accompanied by decreased heat stress damage, suggesting that aspirin might play an important role in preventing myocardial cells from heat stress damage in vitro.

  18. Tomato plant cell death induced by inhibition of HSP90 is alleviated by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena; Liu, Yule; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-02-01

    To ensure a successful long-term infection cycle, begomoviruses must restrain their destructive effect on host cells and prevent drastic plant responses, at least in the early stages of infection. The monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) does not induce a hypersensitive response and cell death on whitefly-mediated infection of virus-susceptible tomato plants until diseased tomatoes become senescent. The way in which begomoviruses evade plant defences and interfere with cell death pathways is still poorly understood. We show that the chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) and its co-chaperone SGT1 (suppressor of the G2 allele of Skp1) are involved in the establishment of TYLCV infection. Inactivation of HSP90, as well as silencing of the Hsp90 and Sgt1 genes, leads to the accumulation of damaged ubiquitinated proteins and to a cell death phenotype. These effects are relieved under TYLCV infection. HSP90-dependent inactivation of 26S proteasome degradation and the transcriptional activation of the heat shock transcription factors HsfA2 and HsfB1 and of the downstream genes Hsp17 and Apx1/2 are suppressed in TYLCV-infected tomatoes. Following suppression of the plant stress response, TYLCV can replicate and accumulate in a permissive environment. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of photoaffinity labelling reagents towards the Hsp90 C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Simon, Binto; Huang, Xuexia; Ju, Huangxian; Sun, Guoxuan; Yang, Min

    2017-02-21

    Glucosyl-novobiocin-based diazirine photoaffinity labelling reagents (PALs) were designed and synthesized to probe the Hsp90 C-terminal domain unknown binding pocket and the structure-activity relationship. Five PALs were successfully synthesized from novobiocin in six consecutive steps employing phase transfer catalytic glycosylation. Reactions were monitored and guided by analytical LC/MS which led to different strategies of adding either a PAL precursor or a sugar moiety first. The structures and bonding linkages of these compounds were characterised by various 2D-NMR spectroscopy and MS techniques. Synthetic techniques provide powerful probes for unknown protein binding pockets.

  20. Hsp90 oligomerization process: How can p23 drive the chaperone machineries?

    PubMed

    Lepvrier, Eléonore; Nigen, Michaël; Moullintraffort, Laura; Chat, Sophie; Allegro, Diane; Barbier, Pascale; Thomas, Daniel; Nazabal, Alexis; Garnier, Cyrille

    2015-10-01

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a highly flexible dimer that is able to self-associate in the presence of divalent cations or under heat shock. In a previous work, we focused on the Mg2+-induced oligomerization process of Hsp90, and characterized the oligomers. Combining analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering and high-mass matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we studied the interaction of p23 with both Hsp90 dimer and oligomers. Even if p23 predominantly binds the Hsp90 dimer, we demonstrated, for the first time, that p23 is also able to interact with Hsp90 oligomers, shifting the Hsp90 dimer-oligomers equilibrium toward dimer. Our results showed that the Hsp90:p23 binding stoichiometry decreases with the Hsp90 oligomerization degree. Therefore, we propose a model in which p23 would act as a "protein wedge" regarding the Hsp90 dimer closure and the Hsp90 oligomerization process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Cloning and Expression of a Cytosolic HSP90 Gene in Chlorella vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Lei; Pu, Yang; Liu, Zhaopu; Li, Zhiling; Zhao, Yushan; Qin, Song

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a highly conserved molecular chaperone, plays essential roles in folding, keeping structural integrity, and regulating the subset of cytosolic proteins. We cloned the cDNA of Chlorella vulgaris HSP90 (named CvHSP90) by combining homology cloning with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis indicated that CvHSP90 is a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in CvHSP90 under different stress conditions. C. vulgaris was kept in different temperatures (5–45°C) for 1 h. The mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased with temperature from 5 to 10°C, went further from 35 to 40°C, and reached the maximum at 40°C. On the other hand, for C. vulgaris kept at 35°C for different durations, the mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased gradually and reached the peak at 7 h and then declined progressively. In addition, the expression level of CvHSP90 at 40 or 45 in salinity (‰) was almost fourfold of that at 25 in salinity (‰) for 2 h. Therefore, CvHSP90 may be a potential biomarker to monitor environment changes. PMID:24738061

  2. 17-DMAG targets the nuclear factor-kappaB family of proteins to induce apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clinical implications of HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Erin; Wagner, Amy J; Jones, Jeffrey; Lin, Thomas S; Maddocks, Kami J; Towns, William H; Goettl, Virginia M; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jarjoura, David; Raymond, Chelsey A; West, Derek A; Croce, Carlo M; Byrd, John C; Johnson, Amy J

    2010-07-08

    The HSP90 client chaperone interaction stabilizes several important enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins, and pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 results in rapid client protein degradation. Therefore, HSP90 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic approach when this protein is active, a phenotype commonly observed in transformed but not normal cells. However, preclinical studies with HSP90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG demonstrated depletion of only a subset of client proteins and very modest tumor cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Herein, we describe another HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, which is cytotoxic to CLL but not normal lymphocytes. Treatment with 17-DMAG leads to depletion of the HSP90 client protein IKK, resulting in diminished NF-kappaB p50/p65 DNA binding, decreased NF-kappaB target gene transcription, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with 17-DMAG significantly decreased the white blood cell count and prolonged the survival in a TCL1-SCID transplant mouse model. The ability of 17-DMAG to function as an NF-kappaB inhibitor is of great interest clinically, as few currently available CLL drugs target this transcription factor. Therefore, the effect of 17-DMAG on NF-kappaB signaling pathways represents a novel therapy warranting further clinical pursuit in this and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. 17-DMAG targets the nuclear factor-κB family of proteins to induce apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clinical implications of HSP90 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, Erin; Wagner, Amy J.; Jones, Jeffrey; Lin, Thomas S.; Maddocks, Kami J.; Towns, William H.; Goettl, Virginia M.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jarjoura, David; Raymond, Chelsey A.; West, Derek A.; Croce, Carlo M.; Byrd, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The HSP90 client chaperone interaction stabilizes several important enzymes and antiapoptotic proteins, and pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 results in rapid client protein degradation. Therefore, HSP90 inhibition is an attractive therapeutic approach when this protein is active, a phenotype commonly observed in transformed but not normal cells. However, preclinical studies with HSP90 inhibitors such as 17-AAG demonstrated depletion of only a subset of client proteins and very modest tumor cytotoxicity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Herein, we describe another HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, which is cytotoxic to CLL but not normal lymphocytes. Treatment with 17-DMAG leads to depletion of the HSP90 client protein IKK, resulting in diminished NF-κB p50/p65 DNA binding, decreased NF-κB target gene transcription, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment with 17-DMAG significantly decreased the white blood cell count and prolonged the survival in a TCL1-SCID transplant mouse model. The ability of 17-DMAG to function as an NF-κB inhibitor is of great interest clinically, as few currently available CLL drugs target this transcription factor. Therefore, the effect of 17-DMAG on NF-κB signaling pathways represents a novel therapy warranting further clinical pursuit in this and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20351313

  4. Novel Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant; Wild, Aaron T.; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aziz, Khaled; Kato, Yoshinori; Gajula, Rajendra P.; Williams, Russell D.; Cades, Jessica A.; Annadanam, Anvesh; Song, Danny; Zhang, Yonggang; Hales, Russell K.; Herman, Joseph M.; Armour, Elwood; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes for poor-risk localized prostate cancers treated with radiation are still insufficient. Targeting the “non-oncogene” addiction or stress response machinery is an appealing strategy for cancer therapeutics. Heat-shock-protein-90 (Hsp90), an integral member of this machinery, is a molecular chaperone required for energy-driven stabilization and selective degradation of misfolded “client” proteins, that is commonly overexpressed in tumor cells. Hsp90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in prostate cancer cell survival and radioresistance, such as androgen receptor signaling and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. We examined the effects of a novel non-geldanamycin Hsp90 inhibitor, AUY922, combined with radiation (RT) on two prostate cancer cell lines, Myc-CaP and PC3, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γ-H2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for prostate cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined treatment (RT-AUY922) on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and AR pathways in a hind-flank tumor graft model. We observed that AUY922 caused supra-additive radiosensitization in both cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.4–1.7 (p < 0.01). RT-AUY922 increased apoptotic cell death compared with either therapy alone, induced G2-M arrest and produced marked changes in client protein expression. These results were confirmed in vivo, where RT-AUY922 combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in Myc-CaP and PC3 tumor grafts (both p < 0.0001). Our data suggest that combined RT-AUY922 therapy exhibits promising activity against prostate cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies. PMID:23358469

  5. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) inhibit heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) signaling in human lung fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Li-Chu; Tan, Yuen-Fen; Tan, Boon Shing; Chung, Felicia Fei-Lei; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2017-08-15

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that possess immense industrial potential. Despite accumulating evidence that exposure to SWCNTs might be toxic to humans, our understanding of the mechanisms for cellular toxicity of SWCNTs remain limited. Here, we demonstrated that acute exposure of short (1-3μm) and regular-length (5-30μm) pristine, carboxylated or hydroxylated SWCNTs inhibited cell proliferation in human somatic and human stem cells in a cell type-dependent manner. The toxicity of regular-length pristine SWCNT was most evidenced in NP69>CYT00086>MCF-10A>MRC-5>HaCaT > HEK-293T>HepG2. In contrast, the short pristine SWCNTs were relatively less toxic in most of the cells being tested, except for NP69 which is more sensitive to short pristine SWCNTs as compared to regular-length pristine SWCNTs. Interestingly, carboxylation and hydroxylation of regular-length SWCNTs, but not the short SWCNTs, significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. Exposure of SWCNTs also induced caspase 3 and 9 activities, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and significant apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 embryonic lung fibroblasts. In contrast, SWCNTs inhibited the proliferation of HaCaT human keratinocytes without inducing cell death. Further analyses by gene expression profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that SWCNTs induced a gene expression signature characteristic of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition in MRC-5 cells, suggesting that SWCNTs may inhibit the HSP90 signaling pathway. Indeed, exposure of MRC-5 cells to SWCNTs results in a dose-dependent decrease in HSP90 client proteins (AKT, CDK4 and BCL2) and a concomitant increase in HSP70 expression. In addition, SWCNTs also significantly inhibited HSP90-dependent protein refolding. Finally, we showed that ectopic expression of HSP90, but not HSP40 or HSP70, completely abrogated the cytotoxic effects of SWCNTs, suggesting that SWCNT-induced cellular toxicity is HSP90 dependent. In

  6. Looking for adaptive footprints in the HSP90AA1 ovine gene.

    PubMed

    Salces-Ortiz, Judit; González, Carmen; Martínez, Marta; Mayoral, Tomás; Calvo, Jorge H; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2015-02-04

    Climatic factors play an important role in determining species distributions and phenotypic variation of populations over geographic space. Since domestic sheep is managed under low intensive systems animals could have retained some genome adaptive footprints. The gene encoding the Hsp90α has been extensively studied in sheep and some polymorphisms located at its promoter have been associates with differences in the transcription rate of the gene depending on climatic conditions. In this work the relationships among the distribution and frequencies of 11 polymorphisms of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene promoter in 31 sheep breeds and the climatic and geographic variables prevailing in their regions of origin have been studied. Also the promoter sequence has been characterized in 9 species of the Caprinae subfamily. Correlations among several climatic variables and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms of the HSP90AA1 gene promoter linked with differences in the transcription activity of the gene under heat stress conditions have been assessed. A group of breeds reared in semi dry climates have high frequencies of the insertion allele of the g.667-668insC associated with the heat stress response. Other group of breeds native to semi arid conditions showed very low frequencies of this same allele. However, in some cases, this previous correlation has not been achieved, revealing the high levels of gene flow among populations occurred following domestication. The Bayesian Test of Beaumont and Balding identified two outlier loci, the g.522A > G and g.703_704del(2)A candidates to balancing and directional selection, respectively. Polymorphisms detected in O. aries are also present in several species of the Caprinae subfamily being C. hircus, O. musimon and O. moschatus those sharing the highest number of them with O. aries. Despite domestication, sheep breeds showed some genetic footprints related to climatic variables. Adaptation of breeds to heat climates can suppose a

  7. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90α1 Function Results in Different Effects on Myofibril Organization in Skeletal Muscles of Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Codina, Marta; Li, Junling; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Kao, Joseph P. Y.; Du, Shao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90α1 (Hsp90α1) has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90α1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90α1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide) in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1) resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90α1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. Conclusion/Significance Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90α1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90α1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures. PMID:20049323

  8. Fused kinase is stabilized by Cdc37/Hsp90 and enhances Gli protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kise, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Kei; Tezuka, Tohru; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Miki, Hiroaki . E-mail: miki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Serine/threonine kinase Fused (Fu) is an essential component of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in Drosophila, but the biochemical functions of Fu remain unclear. Here, we have investigated proteins co-precipitated with mammalian Fu and identified a kinase-specific chaperone complex, Cdc37/Hsp90, as a novel-binding partner of Fu. Inhibition of Hsp90 function by geldanamycin (GA) induces rapid degradation of Fu through a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We next show that co-expression of Fu with transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2 significantly increases their protein levels and luciferase reporter activities, which are blocked by GA. These increases can be ascribed to Fu-mediated stabilization of Gli because co-expression of Fu prolongs half-life of Gli1 and reduces polyubiquitination of Gli1. Finally, we show that GA inhibits proliferation of PC3, a Hh signaling-activated prostate cancer cell line. This growth inhibition is partially rescued by expression of ectopic Gli1, suggesting that Fu may contribute to enhance Hh signaling activity in cancer cells.

  9. Chiral resolution and pharmacological characterization of the enantiomers of the Hsp90 inhibitor 2-amino-7-[4-fluoro-2-(3-pyridyl)phenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-quinazolin-5-one oxime.

    PubMed

    Amici, Raffaella; Bigogno, Chiara; Boggio, Roberto; Colombo, Andrea; Courtney, Stephen M; Dal Zuffo, Roberto; Dondio, Giulio; Fusar, Fulvia; Gagliardi, Stefania; Minucci, Saverio; Molteni, Marco; Montalbetti, Christian A G N; Mortoni, Annalisa; Varasi, Mario; Vultaggio, Stefania; Mercurio, Ciro

    2014-07-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone involved in the stabilization of key oncogenic signaling proteins, and therefore, inhibition of Hsp90 represents a new strategy in cancer therapy. 2-Amino-7-[4-fluoro-2-(3-pyridyl)phenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-dihydro-6H-quinazolin-5-one oxime is a racemic Hsp90 inhibitor that targets the N-terminal adenosine triphosphatase site. We developed a method to resolve the enantiomers and evaluated their inhibitory activity on Hsp90 and the consequent antitumor effects. The (S) stereoisomer emerged as a potent Hsp90 inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. In addition, this enantiomer exhibited high oral bioavailability in mice and excellent antitumor activity in two different human cancer xenograft models.

  10. Selection Transforms the Landscape of Genetic Variation Interacting with Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry A.; Zhu, Yuan O.; Goulet, Benjamin E.; Hall, David W.; Siegal, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The protein-folding chaperone Hsp90 has been proposed to buffer the phenotypic effects of mutations. The potential for Hsp90 and other putative buffers to increase robustness to mutation has had major impact on disease models, quantitative genetics, and evolutionary theory. But Hsp90 sometimes contradicts expectations for a buffer by potentiating rapid phenotypic changes that would otherwise not occur. Here, we quantify Hsp90’s ability to buffer or potentiate (i.e., diminish or enhance) the effects of genetic variation on single-cell morphological features in budding yeast. We corroborate reports that Hsp90 tends to buffer the effects of standing genetic variation in natural populations. However, we demonstrate that Hsp90 tends to have the opposite effect on genetic variation that has experienced reduced selection pressure. Specifically, Hsp90 tends to enhance, rather than diminish, the effects of spontaneous mutations and recombinations. This result implies that Hsp90 does not make phenotypes more robust to the effects of genetic perturbation. Instead, natural selection preferentially allows buffered alleles to persist and thereby creates the false impression that Hsp90 confers greater robustness.