Suzuki, H R; Sakamoto, H; Yoshida, T; Sugimura, T; Terada, M; Solursh, M
The HstI gene is a transforming gene, coding for a protein of the fibroblast growth factor family (Sakamoto et al., 1986). Previous RNA hybridization studies with the mouse homolog demonstrated the presence of a 3.0-kb transcript in Day 11 and 14 mouse embryos. Here we detect a 3.0-kb transcript in the limb and body of the dissected Day 11 mouse embryo. PCR amplification using HstI-specific primers also showed comparable results. In order to localize the HstI transcripts during development, corresponding HstI cDNA was isolated, and an HstI-specific region was used as a probe for in situ hybridization analysis. Serial sections of embryos from Day 8 (early-somite stages) through Days 9, 10, 11, and 12 of gestation were examined. With the antisense probe, a signal was detected in the Day 11 and 12 embryo, where it was localized to the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the limb bud. This structure is well known for its role in promoting the distal outgrowth of the developing limb bud. Signal was detected in both fore- and hindlimbs during the period of rapid distal growth. This restricted localization suggests a role for HstI in normal embryogenesis, including outgrowth of the limb bud.
Ochiai, Mika; Niu, Aimin; Steffens, Heike; Balogh, Werner; Haubold, Hans; Othman, Mazlan; Doi, Takao
The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary science activities including the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project and the Drop Tower Experiment Series aimed at promoting capacity-building activities in microgravity science and education, particularly in developing countries.
Balogh, Werner; Miyoshi, Takanori
The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) in 2010 within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, based on relevant recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III). The activities of HSTI are characterized by the following "Three Pillars": International Cooperation, Outreach, and Capacity-building. For International Cooperation, OOSA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) jointly launched a new programme entitled "KiboCUBE". KiboCUBE aims to provide educational or research institutions located in developing countries with opportunities to deploy cube satellites of their own design and manufacture from Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The Announcement of Opportunity was released on 8 September 2015 and the selected institution is to be announced by 1 August 2016. OOSA is also collaborating with WHO and with the COPUOS Expert Group on Space and Global Health to promote space technologies and ground- and space-based research activities that can contribute to improving global health. For Outreach, OOSA and the government of Costa Rica are jointly organising the United Nations/Costa Rica Workshop on Human Space Technology from 7 to 11 March 2016. Participants will exchange information on achievements in human space programmes and discuss how to promote international cooperation by further facilitating the participation of developing countries in human space exploration-related activities. Also, it will address the role of space industries in human space exploration and its related activities, considering that they have become significant stakeholders in this field. For Capacity-building, OOSA has been carrying out two activities: the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project (ZGIP) and the Drop Tower Experiment Series (DropTES). In ZGIP, OOSA has annually distributed
Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.
The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to