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Sample records for ht-29 human colorectal

  1. Silencing Prion Protein in HT29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Enhances Anticancer Response to Fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chul Won; Yun, Seungpil; Lee, Jun Hee; Han, Yong-Seok; Yoon, Yeo Min; An, Daniel; Lee, Sang Hun

    2016-09-01

    The putative functions of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) are believed to be associated with cell signaling, differentiation, survival, and cancer progression. With respect to cancer development and progression, elevations and mutations of PrP(c) expression have been shown to increase the risk for malignancy and metastasis in breast and colorectal cancer. Since both natural supplements and direct regulation of PrP(c) expression contribute to inhibition of cancer progression and growth, we hypothesized that knockdown of PrP(c) could lead to an enhanced synergic effect on the inhibition of cancer growth by fucoidan. PrP(c) expression was suppressed in HT29 human colon cancer cells by utilizing small-interfering RNA (si-PRNP), and cells were subsequently used to study the antiproliferative and anticancer effects of fucoidan treatment of HT29 human colon cancer cells. Fucoidan treatment significantly inhibited growth and reduced cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, silencing PrP(c) expression with si-PRNP amplified the fucoidan-induced changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. Intraperitoneal injection of si-PRNP with fucoidan reduced proliferation and tumor volume in Balb/c nude mice. This enhanced antitumor efficacy was associated with decreased angiogenesis. Combination of fucoidan with silencing of PrP(c) has a synergic effect on the inhibition of HT29 colon cancer cell growth. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the therapeutic application of PrP(c) silencing with other anticancer drugs for cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Rosiglitazone enhances the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shu-Jun; Hsaio, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Su, Yu-Han; Shih, Wen-Ling; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chuah, Jennifer Qiu-Yu

    2010-04-09

    Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {gamma} used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, and may have the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of p53-wild type HCT116 cells but not p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiosensitivity in p53-mutant HT-29 cells but not HCT116 cells, and prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and enhanced radiation-induced cell growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone also suppressed radiation-induced H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and AKT activation for cell survival; on the contrary, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiation-induced caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells. In addition, pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, attenuated the levels of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in radiation-exposed cancer cells in combination with rosiglitazone pretreatment. Our results provide proof for the first time that rosiglitazone suppresses radiation-induced survival signals and DNA damage response, and enhances the radiation-induced apoptosis signaling cascade. These findings can assist in the development of rosiglitazone as a novel radiosensitizer.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand gene on human colorectal cancer cell line HT29

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang-Ming; He, Chao; Hu, Xiao-Tong; Fang, Bing-Liang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand (TRAIL) gene on human colorectal cancer cell line HT29. METHODS: Human embryonal kidney cells transformed by introducing sheared fragments of Ad5 DNA (293 cell) were used for amplification of adenoviral vectors: Ad/GT-TRAIL, Ad/GT-Bax, Ad/GT-LacZ and Ad/PGK-GV16. Human colorectal cancer cell line HT29 was transfected with binary adenovirus-mediated TRAIL gene. Bax gene was used as positive control, LacZ gene was used as the vector control, and cells treated with PBS only were used as a mock control. The morphological changes, cell growth and apoptosis were measured by reversmicroscope, MTT method and flow cytometry. RESULTS: All adenoviral vectors titer determined by optical absorbency at A260nm were 1 × 1010 viral particle/ml(vp/ml). Obviously morphological changes of HT29 cells were observed when infected with Ad/GT-TRAIL, and these changes were much more obviously when Ad/PGK-GV16 was coinfected. The cell suppression percentage and the percentage of apoptotic cells were 52.5% and 16.5% respectively when infected with Ad/GT-TRAIL alone, while combining with Ad/PGK-GV16, the growth of HT29 was suppressed by 85.2% and the percentage of apoptotic cells was 35.9%. It showed a significantly enhanced therapeutic efficiency with binary system (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A binary adenoviral vector system provides an effective approach to amplify viral vectors that express potentially toxic gene, TRAIL. Ad/GT-TRAIL showed a significantly enhanced therapeutic efficiency for HT29 when coinfected with Ad/PGK-GV16. Ad/GT-TRAIL could induce apoptosis of HT29 and inhibit its growth. PMID:12717839

  4. Effects of NVP-BEZ235 on the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and autophagy in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Jianxia; Tong, Yili; Yao, Jianfeng

    2016-07-01

    The phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a significant role in colorectal adenocarcinoma. NVP-BEZ235 (dactolisib) is a novel dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR. The effects of NVP-BEZ235 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma are still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and autophagy in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells were treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 3 µM) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Cells were also treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0.1 µM), DDP (100, 300 and 1,000 µM), and NVP-BEZ235 (0.1 µM) combined with DDP (100, 300 and 1,000 µM) respectively, and cultured for 24 h after treatment. MTT assay was utilized to evaluate the effects of NVP-BEZ235 alone or NVP-BEZ235 combined with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) on proliferation of HT-29 cells. Cell wound-scratch assay was used detect cell migration. In addition, expression of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (MAP1LC3B and LC3B) in HT-29 cells was detected by immunofluorescence at 48 h after NVP-BEZ235 (1 µM) treatment. Expression of proteins involved in cell cycle and proliferation (p-Akt, p-mTOR and cyclin D1), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and autophagy (cleaved LC3B and Beclin-1) were detected by western blot analysis. NVP-BEZ235 inhibited the proliferation and migration of HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. NVP-BEZ235 decreased protein expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR and cyclin D1, and increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved LC3B and Beclin-1 as the concentrations and the incubation time of NVP-BEZ235 increased. In addition, NVP-BEZ235 and DDP had synergic effects in inhibiting cell proliferation and migration. The expression of protein involved in apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) was higher in drug combination group compared to the NVP-BEZ235 single treatment group. NVP-BEZ235

  5. Modified bacterial cellulose scaffolds for localized doxorubicin release in human colorectal HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Cacicedo, Maximiliano L; León, Ignacio E; Gonzalez, Jimena S; Porto, Luismar M; Alvarez, Vera A; Castro, Guillermo R

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) films modified by the in situ method with the addition of alginate (Alg) during the microbial cultivation of Gluconacetobacter hansenii under static conditions increased the loading of doxorubicin by at least three times. Biophysical analysis of BC-Alg films by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and FTIR showed a highly homogeneous interpenetrated network scaffold without changes in the BC crystalline structure but with an increased amorphous phase. The main molecular interactions determined by FTIR between both biopolymers clearly suggest high compatibility. These results indicate that alginate plays a key role in the biophysical properties of the hybrid BC matrix. BC-Alg scaffold analysis by nitrogen adsorption isotherms revealed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method an increase in surface area of about 84% and in pore volume of more than 200%. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model also showed an increase of about 25% in the pore size compared to the BC film. Loading BC-Alg scaffolds with different amounts of doxorubicin decreased the cell viability of HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line compared to the free Dox from around 95-53% after 24h and from 63% to 37% after 48 h. Dox kinetic release from the BC-Alg nanocomposite displayed hyperbolic curves related to the different amounts of drug payload and was stable for at least 14 days. The results of the BC-Alg nanocomposites show a promissory potential for anticancer therapies of solid tumors.

  6. Gamma-tocopherol enhances apoptotic effects of lovastatin in human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29).

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohsen; Zeidooni, Leila; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Razzazzadeh, Sareh; Mahdavinia, Masoud; Ghasemi, Kosar

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we found that lovastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, and gamma-tocopherol, one of the significant types of vitamin E in diet, additively induced apoptosis in a colorectal carcinoma cell line. In this study we mechanistically monitored the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, amount of cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase 3 activity after treatment by lovastatin and gamma-tocopherol. HT29 cells were treated with different doses of lovastatin and gamma-tocopherol for 48 and 72 h. Lovastatin and gamma-tocopherol in combination induced the release of cytochrome c, caspase 3 activation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential more significantly compared to their controls. Our data showed that lovastatin plus gamma tocopherol potently induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c release along with caspase 3 activation that reveals the importance of targeting programmed cell death signaling at different points of its signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

  7. Imatinib and its combination with 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxibinduces apoptosis of human HT-29 colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Atari-Hajipirloo, Somayeh; Nikanfar, Saba; Heydari, Amir; Kheradmand, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Mono-targeting by imatinib as a main antitumor agent does not always accomplish complete cancer suppression. 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) is a close structural analog of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, celecoxib, that lacks COX-2 inhibitory function. In this study, we aimed to show the apoptotic effects of imatinib in combination with DMC in human HT-29 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. HT-29 CRC cells were treated with IC50 dose of imatinib (6.60 μM), DMC (23.45 μM), and their combination (half dose of IC50) for 24 h. The caspase-3 activity was estimated with colorimetric kit. The caspase-3 gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR method. There was a significant up-regulation in caspase-3 enzyme activity and caspase-3 expression by imatinib and its half dose combination with DMC as compared to control. As a summary, the results of this study strongly suggest that half dose combination of imatinib with DMC induced apoptosis as potent as full dose imatinib in human HT-29 CRC cells, while minimizing undesired side effects related to imatinib mono-therapy. This study also pointed towards possible caspase-dependent actions of imatinib and DMC. PMID:28255316

  8. Therapeutic efficacy evaluation of 111in-VNB-liposome on human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan-Chi; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chang, Ya-Fang; Lu, Yi-Ching; Ting, Gann; Whang-Peng, Jaqueline; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the liposome encaged with vinorelbine (VNB) and 111In-oxine on human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) using HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts. HT-29 cells stably transfected with plasmid vectors containing luciferase gene ( luc) were transplanted subcutaneously into the male NOD/SCID mice. Biodistribution of the drug was performed when tumor size reached 500-600 mm 3. The uptakes of 111In-VNB-liposome in tumor and normal tissues/organs at various time points postinjection were assayed. Multimodalities, including gamma scintigraphy, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and whole-body autoradiography (WBAR), were applied for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy when tumor size was about 100 mm 3. The tumor/blood ratios of 111In-VNB-liposome were 0.044, 0.058, 2.690, 20.628 and 24.327, respectively, at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h postinjection. Gamma scinitigraphy showed that the tumor/muscle ratios were 2.04, 2.25 and 4.39, respectively, at 0, 5 and 10 mg/kg VNB. BLI showed that significant tumor control was achieved in the group of 10 mg/kg VNB ( 111In-VNB-liposome). WBAR also confirmed this result. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive imaging technique with a luciferase reporter gene and BLI for evaluation of tumor treatment efficacy in vivo. The SCID mice bearing HT-29/ luc xenografts treated with 111In-VNB-liposome were shown with tumor reduction by this technique.

  9. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  10. Metallothionein 1G promotes the differentiation of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Juan Martín; Bravo, Alicia Inés; Mordoh, José; Bianchini, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low- molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins involved in zinc and redox metabolism, that are epigenetically downregulated during colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, but may be re-induced with a variety of agents. Since loss of MT expression is associated with a worse prognosis, in the present study we investigated the effects of overexpression of the most significantly downregulated isoform in CRC, namely MT1G, on the HT-29 cell line. Overexpression of MT1G resulted in xenograft tumors with an aberrant morphology, characterized by an evident increase in mucin-containing cells that were identified as goblet cells under electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical detection of CDX2 and cytokeratin 20 was also increased, as were goblet-cell and enterocyte-specific genes by qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis of gene expression confirmed the alteration of several differentiation signaling pathways, including the Notch pathway. Using sodium butyrate and post-confluent growth as inducers of differentiation, we demonstrated that MT1G does indeed play a functional role in promoting goblet over enterocyte differentiation in vitro. Labile zinc is also induced upon differentiation of CRC cells, functionally contributing to enterocyte over goblet differentiation, as revealed using zinc-specific chelating agents. Overall, our results uncover a new tumor-suppressor activity of MT1G in promoting the differentiation of at least some CRC tumors, and implicate MTs and zinc signaling as new players in colorectal differentiation. This further contributes to the hypothesis that re-induction of MTs may have therapeutic value by diminishing the aggressiveness of CRC tumors. PMID:28393194

  11. PKM2 Subcellular Localization Is Involved in Oxaliplatin Resistance Acquisition in HT29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ginés, Alba; Bystrup, Sara; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Guardia, Cristina; Musulén, Eva; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Manzano, José Luis; Layos, Laura; Abad, Albert; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells. PMID:25955657

  12. Morusin induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-{kappa}B activity in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.-C.; Won, S.-J.; Chao, C.-L.; Wu, F.-L.; Liu, H.-S.; Ling Pin; Lin, C.-N.; Su, C.-L.

    2008-07-18

    Morusin is a pure compound isolated from root bark of Morusaustralis (Moraceae). In this study, we demonstrated that morusin significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. Apoptosis induced by morusin was characterized by accumulation of cells at the sub-G{sub 1} phase, fragmentation of DNA, and condensation of chromatin. Morusin also inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK-{alpha}, IKK-{beta} and I{kappa}B-{alpha}, increased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and its DNA binding activity. Dephosphorylation of NF-{kappa}B upstream regulators PI3K, Akt and PDK1 was also displayed. In addition, activation of caspase-8, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 were observed at the early time point. Downregulation in the expression of Ku70 and XIAP was exhibited afterward. Caspase-8 or wide-ranging caspase inhibitor suppressed morusin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of morusin in HT-29 cells may be via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  13. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  14. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β-sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. PMID:23606884

  15. Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133(+) cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Movahhed, Tahereh Komeili; Barzegar, Elmira; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-07-01

    The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133(+) phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133(+) CSCs. The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. The CD133(+) CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells.

  16. Crataegus azarolus Leaves Induce Antiproliferative Activity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human HT-29 and HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Nadia; Pinon, Aline; Limami, Youness; Simon, Alain; Ghedira, Kamel; Hennebelle, Thierry; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Limited success has been achieved in extending the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). There is a strong need for novel agents in the treatment and prevention of CRC. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract in HCT-116 and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, we attempted to investigate the signaling pathways that should be involved in its cytotoxic effect. The Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced growth inhibitory effect was associated with DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 peak, loss of mitochondrial potential, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus induced the cleavage of caspase-8. It has no effect on steady-state levels of total Bcl-2 protein. Whereas Bax levels decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in both tested cell lines. Taken together, these findings confirm the involvement of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death induced by ethyl acetate extract of Crataegus azarolus was accompanied by an enhancement of the p21 expression but not through p53 activation in human colorectal cancer cells. The above-mentioned data provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of Crataegus azarolus ethyl acetate extract-induced apoptosis in CRC. Therefore, this compound should be a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of CRC.

  17. Differential roles of internal and terminal double bonds in docosahexaenoic acid: Comparative study of cytotoxicity of polyunsaturated fatty acids to HT-29 human colorectal tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Sato, Satoshi B; Sato, Sho; Kawamoto, Jun; Kurihara, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The role of the double bonds in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6(Δ4,7,10,13,16,19); DHA) in cytotoxic lipid peroxidation was studied in a superoxide dismutase-defective human colorectal tumor cell line, HT-29. In a conventional culture, DHA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to induce acute lipid peroxidation and subsequent cell death. PUFAs that lack one or both the terminal double bonds (Δ19 and Δ4) but share Δ7,10,13,16 such as 22:5(Δ7,10,13,16,19), 22:5(Δ4,7,10,13,16), and 22:4(Δ7,10,13,16) were more effective than DHA. Lipid peroxidation and cell death were completely inhibited, except by 22:4(Δ7,10,13,16) when radical-mediated reactions were suppressed by culturing cells in 2% O(2) in the presence of vitamin E. DHA and C22:5 PUFAs but not 22:4(Δ7,10,13,16) were efficiently incorporated in phosphatidylinositol, regardless of the culturing conditions. These and other results suggested that the internal unsaturations Δ7,10,13,16 were sensitive to lipid peroxidation, whereas the terminal ones Δ19 and Δ4 appeared to be involved in assimilation into phospholipids.

  18. Comprehensive and Holistic Analysis of HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor-Bearing Nude Mouse Model: Interactions Among Fractions Derived From the Chinese Medicine Formula Tian Xian Liquid in Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

    2016-06-03

    The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m

  19. Resistance to 3-HTMC-Induced Apoptosis Through Activation of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and p38/COX-2/PGE2 Pathways in Human HT-29 and HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Josiane; Pinon, Aline; Rioux, Benjamin; Hassan, Lama; Limami, Youness; Pouget, Christelle; Fagnère, Catherine; Sol, Vincent; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Simon, Alain; Liagre, Bertrand

    2016-12-01

    Increasing incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer brings the necessity to uncover new possibilities in its prevention and treatment. Chalcones have been identified as interesting compounds having chemopreventive and antitumor properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of the synthetic chalcone derivative 3-hydroxy-3',4,4',5'-tetra-methoxy-chalcone (3-HTMC) on proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and its mechanism of action in human colorectal HT-29 (COX-2 sufficient) and HCT116 (COX-2 deficient) cancer cells. We showed that 3-HTMC decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner with a more potent antiproliferative effect on HCT116 than HT-29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed G2 /M cell cycle accumulation in HT-29 cells and significant G2 /M arrest in HCT116 cells with a subsequent apoptosis shown by appearance of Sub-G1 peak. We demonstrated that 3-HTMC treatment on both cell lines induced apoptotic process associated with overexpression of death receptor DR5, activation of caspase-8 and -3, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, 3-HTMC induced activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK principal survival pathways which delay 3-HTMC-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Furthermore, COX-2 overexpression in HT-29 cells contributes to apoptosis resistance which explains the difference of sensitivity between HT-29 and HCT116 cells to 3-HTMC treatment. Even if resistance mechanisms to apoptosis reduced chalcone antitumoral potential, our results suggest that 3-HTMC may be considered as an interesting compound for colorectal cancer therapy or chemoprevention. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2875-2885, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Human SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 Proteins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reduce Proliferation of Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shulepko, M. A.; Bychkov, M. L.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Arseniev, A. S.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Human secreted Ly-6/uPAR related proteins (SLURP-1 and SLURP-2) are produced by various cells, including the epithelium and immune system. These proteins act as autocrine/paracrine hormones regulating the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and are also involved in the control of inflammation and malignant cell transformation. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the interactions of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 with the α7 and α3β2 subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), respectively. Available knowledge about the molecular mechanism underling the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects is very limited. SLURP-2 remains one of the most poorly studied proteins of the Ly-6/uPAR family. In this study, we designed for the first time a bacterial system for SLURP-2 expression and a protocol for refolding of the protein from cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Milligram quantities of recombinant SLURP-2 and its 13C-15N-labeled analog were obtained. The recombinant protein was characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and a structural model was developed. A comparative study of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects on the epithelial cell growth was conducted using human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, which express only α7-nAChRs. A pronounced antiproliferative effect of both proteins was observed. Incubation of cells with 1 μM SLURP-1 and 1 μM SLURP-2 during 48 h led to a reduction in the cell number down to ~ 54 and 63% relative to the control, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy did not reveal either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An analysis of the dose-response curve revealed the concentration-dependent mode of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 action with EC50 ~ 0.1 and 0.2 nM, respectively. These findings suggest that the α7-nAChR is the main receptor responsible for the antiproliferative effect of SLURP proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:25558396

  1. Ethyl acetate extract from Glycosmis parva leaf induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest by decreasing expression of COX-2 and altering BCL-2 family gene expression in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Buranabunwong, Nattaporn; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Chansriniyom, Chaisak; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee

    2015-04-01

    Glycosmis parva Craib (Rutaceae) is reported to have cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing COX-2 expression. To investigate the effect of G. parva on human colorectal cancer cells expressing COX-2, HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were treated with ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of G. parva (GPE 6.25-100 µg/ml) for 24-72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by the resuzurin reduction assay. An apoptotic study was performed using annexinV/FITC-PI staining. The cell-cycle pattern was investigated by PI staining. The expression of BCL-2 family genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and expression of cyclins and COX-2 were done by RT-PCR. GPE at 6.25-100 µg/ml reduced HT-29 cell viability with IC50 values of 69.49, 55.89, and 48.94 µg/ml at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. HT-29 apoptosis was induced by 18.23% at 100 µg/ml. Cells in S phase decreased by 5.22% and 13.28% at 50 and 100 µg/ml, respectively, causing G0/G1 (10.6% at 50 µg/ml) and G2/M (15.67% at 100 µg/ml) accumulation. GPE at 50 µg/ml downregulated cyclin A (11.46%), cyclin E (17.98%), BCL-2 (0.32-fold), and COX-2 (29.06%) expression with an increased BAK expression (1.79-fold). GPE reduced HT-29 cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and arrested the cell cycle. Underlying mechanisms may involve decreases in COX-2, cyclin A, and cyclin E expression in addition to changes in BCL-2 family gene expression. Fundamental knowledge of GPE anticancer effects found in this study could lead to future use of this compound for colorectal cancer treatment.

  2. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells in culture: PI3K/Akt pathway as a potential target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiyuan; Song, Yang; Cui, Lianhua; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in high amounts in almost all plants and mammalian cells. IP6 induces apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, skin tumor, liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the activity of IP6 against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) and to determine whether the IP6 regulates apoptosis in HT-29 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Method: A human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) was used for the study. HT-29 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL of IP6. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to observe the proliferation of HT-29 in vitro, and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells. The relative mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR, and relative protein levels were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Result: The results of MTT showed that HT-29 cells underwent inhibition of proliferation after exposure to IP6 (100-400 μg/mL) for 12 and 48 h, and this inhibition clearly relied on time and dosage. IP6 induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K and Akt decreased in the groups treated with IP6, and IP6 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt), whereas increased the expression of its downstream effector, caspase-9. Conclusion: Our results suggested that by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway, IP6 suppresses cell survival and proliferation, but induces death in HT-29 cells. PMID:25973024

  3. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells in culture: PI3K/Akt pathway as a potential target.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyuan; Song, Yang; Cui, Lianhua; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in high amounts in almost all plants and mammalian cells. IP6 induces apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, skin tumor, liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the activity of IP6 against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) and to determine whether the IP6 regulates apoptosis in HT-29 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. A human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) was used for the study. HT-29 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL of IP6. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to observe the proliferation of HT-29 in vitro, and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells. The relative mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR, and relative protein levels were analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results of MTT showed that HT-29 cells underwent inhibition of proliferation after exposure to IP6 (100-400 μg/mL) for 12 and 48 h, and this inhibition clearly relied on time and dosage. IP6 induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K and Akt decreased in the groups treated with IP6, and IP6 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt), whereas increased the expression of its downstream effector, caspase-9. Our results suggested that by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway, IP6 suppresses cell survival and proliferation, but induces death in HT-29 cells.

  4. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  5. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  6. TFF3-dependent resistance of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT-29/B6 to apoptosis is mediated by miR-491-5p regulation of lncRNA PRINS.

    PubMed

    Hanisch, Carlos; Sharbati, Jutta; Kutz-Lohroff, Barbara; Huber, Otmar; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a double-edged cytokine associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory-related cancers being also able to induce cancer cell death. In the process of tumour development or metastasis, cancer cells can become resistant to TNF-α. In trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpressing colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29/B6), we observed enhanced resistance against TNF-α/interferon gamma-induced apoptosis. TFF3 is a secreted small peptide that supports intestinal tissue repair but is also involved in intestinal tumour progression and scattering. We hypothesised that TFF3 rescues intestinal epithelial cancer cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis by involving regulatory RNA networks. In silico-based expression analysis revealed TFF3-mediated regulation of selected microRNAs as well as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), whereas miR-491-5p was identified to target the lncRNA 'psoriasis susceptibility-related RNA gene induced by stress' (PRINS). RNA interference-based gain- and loss-of-function experiments examined miR-491-PRINS axis to exert the TFF3-mediated phenotype. Chemical inhibition of selected pathways showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT accounts for TFF3-mediated downregulation of miR-491-5p and accumulation of PRINS. Moreover, we showed that PRINS colocalises with PMAIP1 (NOXA) in nuclei of HT-29/B6 possessing inhibitory effects. Immunoprecipitation experiments proved molecular interaction of PMAIP1 with PRINS. Our study provides an insight into RNA regulatory networks that determine resistance of colorectal cancer cells to apoptosis.

  7. TFF3-dependent resistance of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT-29/B6 to apoptosis is mediated by miR-491-5p regulation of lncRNA PRINS

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Carlos; Sharbati, Jutta; Kutz-Lohroff, Barbara; Huber, Otmar; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a double-edged cytokine associated with pathogenesis of inflammatory-related cancers being also able to induce cancer cell death. In the process of tumour development or metastasis, cancer cells can become resistant to TNF-α. In trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpressing colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29/B6), we observed enhanced resistance against TNF-α/interferon gamma-induced apoptosis. TFF3 is a secreted small peptide that supports intestinal tissue repair but is also involved in intestinal tumour progression and scattering. We hypothesised that TFF3 rescues intestinal epithelial cancer cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis by involving regulatory RNA networks. In silico-based expression analysis revealed TFF3-mediated regulation of selected microRNAs as well as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), whereas miR-491-5p was identified to target the lncRNA ‘psoriasis susceptibility-related RNA gene induced by stress’ (PRINS). RNA interference-based gain- and loss-of-function experiments examined miR-491-PRINS axis to exert the TFF3-mediated phenotype. Chemical inhibition of selected pathways showed that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT accounts for TFF3-mediated downregulation of miR-491-5p and accumulation of PRINS. Moreover, we showed that PRINS colocalises with PMAIP1 (NOXA) in nuclei of HT-29/B6 possessing inhibitory effects. Immunoprecipitation experiments proved molecular interaction of PMAIP1 with PRINS. Our study provides an insight into RNA regulatory networks that determine resistance of colorectal cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:28149533

  8. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  9. Pro-apoptotic effect of rice bran inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Nurul Husna; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Saad, Norazalina; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-12-02

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).

  10. Effects of inositol hexaphosphate on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ying; Song, Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on proliferation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. METHODS: Cells were exposed to various concen-trations (0, 1.8, 3.3, 5.0, 8.0, 13.0 mmol/L) of IP6 for a certain period of time. Its effect on growth of HT-29 cells was measured by MTT assay. The expressions of cell cycle regulators treated with IP6 for 2 d were detected by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: IP6 inhibited the HT-29 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle regulator expression revealed that IP6 reduced the abnormal expression of P53 and PCNA and induced the expression of P21. CONCLUSION: IP6 has potent inhibitory effect on proliferation of HT-29 cells by modulating the expression of special cell cycle regulators. PMID:16830361

  11. Adhesion of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to human mucus secreting HT-29 cell subpopulations in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kerneis, S; Bernet, M F; Coconnier, M H; Servin, A L

    1994-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bearing the fimbrial colonisation factor antigens CFA/I, CFA/II, CFA/III, and the non-fimbrial antigen 2230 were tested for their ability to adhere to two cultured human intestinal HT-29 mucus secreting cell subpopulations. These populations are referred to as HT29-MTX and HT29-FU, which differ in the amount of secreted mucins and in their gastric or colonic mucin immunoreactivity respectively. Adherence of radiolabelled bacteria to cell monolayers infected apically was assessed. All ETEC strains adhered to the mucus secreting HT29-FU subpopulation, which secretes mucins of colonic immunoreactivity. Visualisation of bacteria by scanning electron microscopy showed that ETEC bound to the HT29-FU cells possessing a brush border, but not to the mucus and that ETEC binding developed as a function of cell differentiation. The adhesion of ETEC to cells possessing a brush border and to mucus secreting cells was also analysed by indirect immunofluorescence in HT29-MTX cells, which secrete mucins of gastric immunoreactivity. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labelling using specific anti-CFA/I antibody was used to show ETEC; rhodamine isothiocyanate labelling using a monoclonal antibody (designated M1) against purified human gastric mucus was used to detect secreted mucins, and rhodamine isothiocyanate labelling using a monoclonal antibody (designated 4H3) against human dipeptidylpeptidase IV was used to show cells possessing a brush border. Binding of bacteria colocalised with dipeptidylpeptidase IV of enterocytes and not with mucins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7959203

  12. Chemopreventive Potential of Powdered Red Wine Pomace Seasonings against Colorectal Cancer in HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; García Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-01-11

    This study evaluates the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic actions of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (Sk-S, seedless; W-S, whole; Sd-S, seeds). In vitro gastrointestinal digested and colonic fermented fractions of the seasonings were used as cell treatments. Phenolic acids from Sk-S showed the highest bioaccessibility in the small intestine, whereas polyphenols contained in Sd-S might be the most fermentable in the colon. Dietary fiber from Sk-S was the best substrate for short chain fatty acids production by gut microbiota. Colon cancerous (HT-29) cell viability was inhibited by 50% (IC50 values) at treatment concentrations ranging from 845 (Sk-S) to 1085 (Sd-S) μg/mL prior digestion, but all digested fractions exhibited similar antiproliferative activities (mean IC50 = 814 μg/mL). Oxidative DNA damage in cells was also attenuated by the treatments (200 μg/mL, 24 h preincubation), with all colonic fermented fractions displaying similar genoprotective action. These results suggest the potential of red wine pomace seasonings as chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer.

  13. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    Highlight: •MiR-21 plays a significant role in 5-FU resistance. •This role might be attributed to targeting of hMSH2 as well as TP and DPD via miR-21 targeted hMSH2. •Indirectly targeted TP and DPD to influence 5-FU chemotherapy sensitivity. -- Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  14. Hemoglobin and hemin induce DNA damage in human colon tumor cells HT29 clone 19A and in primary human colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Klenow, Stefanie; Sauer, Julia; Wegewitz, Uta; Richter, Konrad; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2006-02-22

    Epidemiological findings have indicated that red meat increases the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Aim of this study was to investigate whether hemoglobin, or its prosthetic group heme, in red meat, is a genotoxic risk factor for cancer. Human colon tumor cells (HT29 clone 19A) and primary colonocytes were incubated with hemoglobin/hemin and DNA damage was investigated using the comet assay. Cell number, membrane damage, and metabolic activity were measured as parameters of cytotoxicity in both cell types. Effects on cell growth were determined using HT29 clone 19A cells. HT29 clone 19A cells were also used to explore possible pro-oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antigenotoxic effects of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additionally we determined in HT29 clone 19A cells intracellular iron levels after incubation with hemoglobin/hemin. We found that hemoglobin increased DNA damage in primary cells (> or =10 microM) and in HT29 clone 19A cells (> or =250 microM). Hemin was genotoxic in both cell types (500-1000 microM) with concomitant cytotoxicity, detected as membrane damage. In both cell types, hemoglobin and hemin (> or =100 microM) impaired metabolic activity. The growth of HT29 clone 19A cells was reduced by 50 microM hemoglobin and 10 microM hemin, indicating cytotoxicity at genotoxic concentrations. Hemoglobin or hemin did not enhance the genotoxic activity of H2O2 in HT29 clone 19A cells. On the contrary, DMSO reduced the genotoxicity of hemoglobin, which indicated that free radicals were scavenged by DMSO. Intracellular iron increased in hemoglobin/hemin treated HT29 clone 19A cells, reflecting a 40-50% iron uptake for each compound. In conclusion, our studies show that hemoglobin is genotoxic in human colon cells, and that this is associated with free radical mechanisms and with cytotoxicity, especially for hemin. Thus, hemoglobin/hemin, whether available from red meat or from bowel bleeding, may pose genotoxic and

  15. Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Hannah D; Davis, Steven R; Tappenden, Kelly A

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of gastrointestinal tract maturation is 1 of the many benefits of human milk. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and are reported to promote enterocyte differentiation in vitro. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 3 predominant HMOs on multiple aspects of enterocyte maturation in vitro. Ranging from crypt-like to differentiated enterocytes, we used the well-characterized intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe to model early and late stages of differentiation, respectively. With this model of the crypt-villus axis made up of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cultures, we characterized the impact of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), and 6'-sialyllactose on epithelial cell kinetics and function. All 3 HMOs dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in undifferentiated HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe cultures (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports, only treatment with 2'FL at concentrations similar to human milk increased alkaline phosphatase activity by 31% (P = 0.044) in HT-29 cultures and increased sucrase activity by 54% (P = 0.005) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cultures. LNnT at concentrations similar to that reported for human milk increased transepithelial resistance by 21% (P = 0.002) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cells. In summary, all 3 HMOs reduced cell proliferation in an epithelial cell model of the crypt-villus axis. However, effects on differentiation, digestive function, and epithelial barrier function differed between the HMOs tested. These results suggest differential roles for specific HMOs in maturation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. The cytotoxic effect of Bowman-Birk isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, from soybean (Glycine max) on HT29 human colorectal cancer cells is related to their intrinsic ability to inhibit serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Moreno, Francisco Javier; Marín-Manzano, Maria del Carmen; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Domoney, Claire

    2010-03-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from soybean and related proteins are naturally occurring protease inhibitors with potential health-promoting properties within the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we have investigated the effects of soybean BBI proteins on HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, compared with non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. Two major soybean isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, showing considerable amino acid sequence divergence within their inhibitory domains, were purified in order to examine their functional properties, including their individual effects on the proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells. IBB1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin whereas IBBD2 inhibited trypsin only. Despite showing significant differences in their enzyme inhibitory properties, the median inhibitory concentration values determined for IBB1 and IBBD2 on HT29 cell growth were not significantly different (39.9+/-2.3 and 48.3+/-3.5 microM, respectively). The cell cycle distribution pattern of HT29 colon cancer cells was affected by BBI treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with cells becoming blocked in the G0-G1 phase. Chemically inactive soybean BBI had a weak but non-significant effect on the proliferation of HT29 cells. The anti-proliferative properties of BBI isoinhibitors from soybean reveal that both trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases involved in carcinogenesis should be considered as potential targets of BBI-like proteins.

  17. Cobalt chloride induces necroptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yu; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis, also known as "programmed necrosis", has emerged as a critical factor in a variety of pathological and physiological processes and is considered a cell type-specific tightly regulated process with mechanisms that may vary rather greatly due to the change of cell line. Here we used HT-29, a human colon cancer cell line, to establish a necroptosis model and elucidate associated mechanisms. We discovered that cobalt chloride, a reagent that could induce hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF1α) expression and therefore mimic the hypoxic microenvironment of tumor tissue in some aspects induces necroptosis in HT-29 cells when caspase activity is compromised. On the other hand, apoptosis appears to be the predominant death form when caspases are functioning normally. HT-29 cells demonstrated significantly increased RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL expression in response to cobalt chloride plus z-VAD treatment, which was accompanied by drastically increased IL1α and IL6 expression, substantiating the notion that necrosis can induce profound immune reactions. The RIPK1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin-1 and the ROS scavenger NAC each could prevent necrosis in HT-29 cells and the efficiency was enhanced by combined treatment. Thus by building up a necroptosis model in human colon cancer cells, we uncovered that mechanically RIP kinases collaborate with ROS during necrosis promoted by cobalt chloride plus z-VAD, which leads to inflammation. Necroptosis may present a new target for therapeutic intervention in cancer cells that are resistant to apoptotic cell death.

  18. Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Rice Bran Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) on HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Nurul Husna; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Saad, Norazalina; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a “natural cancer fighter”, being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8). PMID:24317430

  19. Cytotoxic effects of bromelain in human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines (MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, and HT29-5M21)

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Ehteda, Anahid; Masoumi Moghaddam, Samar; Akhter, Javed; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract with a variety of therapeutic benefits arising from interaction with a number of different biological processes. Several preclinical studies and anecdotal clinical observations have reported the anticancer properties of bromelain. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of bromelain in four human cancer cell lines of gastrointestinal origin and the mechanisms involved. Methods The gastric carcinoma cell lines (KATO-III and MKN45) and two chemoresistant subpopulations of the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29-5M21 and HT29-5F12) were treated with a range of concentrations of bromelain, as well as with cisplatin as a positive control. The effect of bromelain on the growth and proliferation of cancer cells was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay after 72 hours of treatment. Expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in MKN45 cells treated with bromelain was analyzed by Western blotting. Results Data from our sulforhodamine B assay showed that bromelain inhibited proliferation of HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21, MKN45, and KATO-III cells, with respective half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 29, 34, 94, and 142 μg/mL. Analyzing the expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in bromelain-treated MKN45 cells, we observed activation of the caspase system, cleavage of PARP and p53, overexpression of cytochrome C, attenuation of phospho-Akt and Bcl2, and removal of MUC1. Apart from the caspase-dependent apoptosis observed, emergence of cleaved p53 supports a direct, extranuclear apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, interrupted Akt signaling and attenuation of Bcl2 and MUC1 oncoproteins suggest impaired survival of cancer cells. Conclusion Our findings collectively indicate that bromelain exerts cytotoxic effects in a panel of human gastric and colon carcinoma cells. Our study of MKN45 cells implicated different mechanisms in bromelain-induced cell death. While promoting apoptosis

  20. Effect of sulindac sulfide on metallohydrolases in the human colon cancer cell line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Ahlers, Hector; Tan, Jiangning; Castellino, Francis J; Ploplis, Victoria A

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), a metallohydrolase involved in the development of several cancers, is downregulated in the Apc(Min/+) colon cancer mouse model following sulindac treatment. To determine whether this effect is relevant to the human condition, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were treated with sulindac and its metabolites, and compared to results obtained from in vivo mouse studies. The expression of MMP7 was monitored. The results demonstrated that sulindac sulfide effectively downregulated both MMP7 expression and activity. Furthermore, activity-based proteomics demonstrated that sulindac sulfide dramatically decreased the activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in HT-29 cells as reflected by a decrease in the level of its product, leukotriene B4. This study demonstrates that the effect of sulindac treatment in a mouse model of colon cancer may be relevant to the human counterpart and highlights the effect of sulindac treatment on metallohydrolases.

  1. Effect of Sulindac Sulfide on Metallohydrolases in the Human Colon Cancer Cell Line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Guillen-Ahlers, Hector; Tan, Jiangning; Castellino, Francis J.; Ploplis, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), a metallohydrolase involved in the development of several cancers, is downregulated in the ApcMin/+ colon cancer mouse model following sulindac treatment. To determine whether this effect is relevant to the human condition, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were treated with sulindac and its metabolites, and compared to results obtained from in vivo mouse studies. The expression of MMP7 was monitored. The results demonstrated that sulindac sulfide effectively downregulated both MMP7 expression and activity. Furthermore, activity-based proteomics demonstrated that sulindac sulfide dramatically decreased the activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in HT-29 cells as reflected by a decrease in the level of its product, leukotriene B4. This study demonstrates that the effect of sulindac treatment in a mouse model of colon cancer may be relevant to the human counterpart and highlights the effect of sulindac treatment on metallohydrolases. PMID:21991341

  2. High folic acid increases cell turnover and lowers differentiation and iron content in human HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Linette; Dommels, Yvonne; Venema, Dini; Polanen, Ab van; Lips, Esther; Baykus, Hakan; Kok, Frans; Kampman, Ellen; Keijer, Jaap

    2008-04-01

    Folate, a water-soluble B vitamin, is a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism and is essential for DNA synthesis, amino acid interconversion, methylation and, consequently, normal cell growth. In animals with existing pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, folic acid supplementation increases the tumour burden. To identify processes that are affected by increased folic acid levels, we compared HT29 human colon cancer cells exposed to a chronic supplemental (100 ng/ml) level of folic acid to cells exposed to a normal (10 ng/ml) level of folic acid, in the presence of vitamin B12 and other micronutrients involved in the folate-methionine cycle. In addition to higher intracellular folate levels, HT29 cells at 100 ng folic acid/ml displayed faster growth and higher metabolic activity. cDNA microarray analysis indicated an effect on cell turnover and Fe metabolism. We fully confirmed these effects at the physiological level. At 100 ng/ml, cell assays showed higher proliferation and apoptosis, while gene expression analysis and a lower E-cadherin protein expression indicated decreased differentiation. These results are in agreement with the promoting effect of folic acid supplementation on established colorectal neoplasms. The lower expression of genes related to Fe metabolism at 100 ng folic acid/ml was confirmed by lower intracellular Fe levels in the cells exposed to folic acid at 100 ng/ml. This suggests an effect of folate on Fe metabolism.

  3. Regulation of membrane transport and metabolism in the HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of insulin on glucose transport and metabolism were examined in cultured HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells. The presence of glucose transporters was verified by D-glucose displaceable ({sup 3}H) cytochalasin B binding. Moreover, two classes of insulin binding sites were detected in radioligand binding experiments. Despite the presence of both glucose transporters and insulin receptors, insulin failed to stimulate glucose transport. However, insulin was found to activate glycolysis. These findings suggest that insulin directly influences substrate utilization through the glycolytic pathway in HT29 cells without activating the glucose transport pathway. A Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway was also detected in HT29 cells using {sup 86}Rb{sup +} as a K{sup +} congener. The identity of this pathway as a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter has been deduced from the following findings: (1) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx was inhibited by loop diuretics, (2) {sup 86}Rb{sup +} influx ceased in the absence of any one of the transported ions, and (3) cotransport exhibited a stoichiometry approaching 1Na{sup +}:1K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}}. Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was found to be exquisitely sensitive to cellular ATP and cyclic AMP levels. These results suggest that HT29 cells contain a Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport pathway that can be regulated by the second messenger cyclic AMP and is highly sensitive to the metabolic state of the cell. The involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}/Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport was also investigated. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulated protein kinase C activity, produced a transient increase in cotransport followed by a near abolition of cotransport by 2 h.

  4. Guaraná a richest caffeine food increase oxaliplatin sensitivity of colorectal HT-29 cells by apoptosis pathway modulation.

    PubMed

    Cadoná, Francine Carla; Machado, Alencar Kolinski; Azzolin, Verônica Farina; Barbisan, Fernanda; Dornelles, Eduardo Bortoluzzi; Glanzner, Werner; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias; Assmann, Charles Elias; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2015-12-17

    We investigated the in vitro effects of guaraná and its main metabolites (caffeine, theobromine and catechin) on cytotoxicity and cell proliferation on colorectal cancer (CRC) line HT-29 cells and on oxaliplatin sensitivity. The cells were exposed to different concentrations of guaraná extract with and without oxaliplatin. The concentrations of bioactive molecules were also estimated considering their potential proportion on guaraná hydro-alcoholic extract. Apoptosis effect was analyzed by annexin V quantification using flow cytometry, while apoptosis pathway gene modulation (p53, Bax/Bcl-2 genes ratio, caspases 8 and 3) was determined by qRT-PCR analysis. Cells exposed to guaraná at a concentration of 100 μg/mL presented a similar cytotoxic effect as HT-29 cells treated with oxaliplatin and did not affect the sensitivity of the drug. Guaraná presented cell antiproliferative effect and increased anti-proliferative oxaliplatin sensitivity at all concentrations tested here. Guaraná was able to induce apoptosis and up-regulate the p53 and Bax/Bcl-2 genes.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-independent effects of aspirin on HT-29 human colon cancer cells, revealed by oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongying; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Yongchao; Yang, Weiping; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Yuxiang

    2006-08-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit proliferation of human colon cancer cells in vitro. Transmission electron microscope detected morphological features of apoptosis in the aspirin-treated (5 mM, 72 h) HT-29 cells in which cyclooxygenoase-2 is catalytically inactive. We investigated aspirin-induced genome-wide expression changes in HT-29 cells and further studied the time- and concentration-dependent expression changes in 374 apoptosis-related genes, which is the first to show stimulation of genome-wide expression of HT-29 cells by aspirin. The most marked effects of aspirin are on ribosome assembly and rRNA metabolism, which could explain why the quasi-apoptotic morphological changes are not accompanied by a classical DNA ladder. These findings demonstrate that aspirin induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells, bolstering the hypothesis that apoptosis may be a mechanism by which NSAIDs inhibit colon carcinogenesis.

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of choline transporter in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Kouji, Hironobu; Inazu, Masato; Yamada, Tomoko; Tajima, Hirohisa; Aoki, Tatsuya; Matsumiya, Teruhiko

    2009-03-01

    We examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in human colon carcinomas using the cell line HT-29. Furthermore, we explored the possible correlation between choline uptake and cell proliferation. Choline uptake was saturable and mediated by a single transport system. Interestingly, removal of Na(+) from the uptake buffer strongly enhanced choline uptake. This increase in component of choline uptake under Na(+)-free conditions was inhibited by a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) inhibitor. Collapse of the plasma-membrane H(+) electrochemical gradient by a protonophore inhibited choline uptake. Choline uptake was inhibited by the choline analogue hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) and various organic cations, and was significantly decreased by acidification of the extracellular medium and by intracellular alkalinization. Real-time PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1), CTL2, CTL4 and NHE1 mRNA are mainly expressed in HT-29 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis indicated that CTL1 protein was expressed in plasma membrane. The biochemical and pharmacological data indicated that CTL1 is functionally expressed in HT-29 cells and is responsible for choline uptake in these cells. We conclude that choline transporters, especially CTL1, use a directed H(+) gradient as a driving force, and its transport functions in co-operation with NHE1. Finally, cell proliferation was inhibited by HC-3 and tetrahexylammonium chloride (THA), which strongly inhibits choline uptake. Identification of this novel CTL1-mediated choline uptake system provides a potential new target for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Vitamin D analogs combined with 5-fluorouracil in human HT-29 colon cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    MILCZAREK, MAGDALENA; FILIP-PSURSKA, BEATA; ŚWIĘTNICKI, WIESŁAW; KUTNER, ANDRZEJ; WIETRZYK, JOANNA

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effect of two synthetic analogs of vitamin D, namely PRI-2191 [(24R)-1,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3] and PRI-2205 (5,6-trans calcipotriol), in combined human colon HT-29 cancer treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Mice bearing HT-29 tumors transplanted subcutaneously or orthotopically were injected with vitamin D analogs and 5-FU in various schedules. A statistically significant inhibition of subcutaneous or orthotopic tumor growth was observed as a result of combined therapy. In HT-29 tumors and in cells from in vitro culture, we observed increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression after treatment with either PRI-2205 or 5-FU alone, or in combination. Moreover, PRI-2205 decreased the percentage of cells from intestinal tumors in G2/M and S stages and increased sub-G1. Increased VDR expression was also observed after combined treatment of mice with 5-FU and PRI-2191. Moreover, our docking studies showed that PRI-2205 has stronger affinity for VDR, DBP and CAR/RXR ligand binding domains than PRI-2191. PRI-2191 analog, used with 5-FU, increased the percentage of subcutaneous tumor cells in G0/G1 and decreased the percentage in G2/M, S and sub-G1 populations as compared to 5-FU alone. In in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of p21 and p-ERK1/2 diminution via use of both analogs as compared to use of 5-FU alone. Simultaneously, PRI-2191 antagonizes some pro-apoptotic activities of 5-FU in vitro. However, in spite of these disadvantageous effects in terms of apoptosis, the therapeutic effect expressed as tumor growth retardation by PRI-2191 is significant. Our results suggest that the mechanism of potentiation of 5-FU antitumor action by both analogs is realized via increased p21 expression and decreased p-ERK1/2 level which may lead to diminution of thymidylate synthase expression. Higher binding affinity for VDR, DBP, but also for CAR\\RXR ligand binding domain of PRI-2205 may, in part, explain its very low

  8. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  9. Cytotoxic triterpenes from Antrodia camphorata and their mode of action in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Yao, Chih-Jung; Yeh, Chuan-Feng; Li, Chi-Han; Chuang, Shuang-En; Luong, John H T; Lai, Gi-Ming; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2009-11-18

    Five lanostane (2, 3, 4, 6 and 8) and three ergostane-type (1, 5 and 7) triterpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic data against various cancer cell types. The three zhankuic acids, 1, 5 and 7 displayed the most potent cytotoxic effect with an IC(50) value of 22.3-75.0microM. The compound 3 was selectively cytotoxic in three colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116 and SW-480) and a breast cancer model (MDA-MB-231), whereas 8 only showed its cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231. None of these isolates was toxic to mammary epithelial (MCF10A) and primary foreskin fibroblast (HS68) cells, two human normal cell lines. The compounds 1, 5 and 7 were also demonstrated to induce apoptosis in HT-29 and SW-480 cells, as confirmed by sub-G1 cell cycle arrest. In HT-29 cells, the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 were suppressed by compounds 1, 5 and 7. A mixture containing 4microM each of compounds 1, 5 and 7 also showed a synergistic cytotoxic effect in HT-29 cells.

  10. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  11. Mechanisms underlying apoptosis-inducing effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-02-17

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0-60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway.

  12. Mechanisms Underlying Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Kaempferol in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Han Jin; Yu, Rina; Lee, Ki Won; Chun, Hyang Sook; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-01-01

    We previously noted that kaempferol, a flavonol present in vegetables and fruits, reduced cell cycle progression of HT-29 cells. To examine whether kaempferol induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, cells were treated with various concentrations (0–60 μmol/L) of kaempferol and analyzed by Hoechst staining, Annexin V staining, JC-1 labeling of the mitochondria, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assays, Western blot analyses, and caspase-8 assays. Kaempferol increased chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and the number of early apoptotic cells in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, kaempferol increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 as well as those of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, it increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytosolic cytochrome c concentrations. Further, kaempferol decreased the levels of Bcl-xL proteins, but increased those of Bik. It also induced a reduction in Akt activation and Akt activity and an increase in mitochondrial Bad. Additionally, kaempferol increased the levels of membrane-bound FAS ligand, decreased those of uncleaved caspase-8 and intact Bid and increased caspase-8 activity. These results indicate that kaempferol induces the apoptosis of HT-29 cells via events associated with the activation of cell surface death receptors and the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:24549175

  13. Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Altamimi, M; Abdelhay, O; Rastall, R A

    2016-06-01

    The influence of five oligosaccharides (cellobiose, stachyose, raffinose, lactulose and chito-oligosaccharides) on the adhesion of eight gut bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29148D-5, Clostridium leptum ATCC 29065, Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27766, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 23745, Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393) to mucous secreting and non-mucous secreting HT-29 human epithelial cells, was investigated. In pure culture, the bacteria showed variations in their ability to adhere to epithelial cells. The effect of oligosaccharides diminished adhesion and the presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. However, clostridia displayed almost the same level of adhesion either with or without mucus being present. Bl. coccoides adhesion was decreased by stachyose and cellobiose in non-mucus-secreting cells in pure culture, while in mixed faecal culture cellobiose displayed the highest antiadhesive activity with an overall average of 65% inhibition amongst tested oligomers and lactulose displayed the lowest with an average of 47.4%. Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, lactobacilli and clostridia were inhibited within the following ranges 47-78%, 32-65%, 11.7-58% and 64-85% respectively. This means that clostridia were the most strongly influenced members of the microflora amongst the bacterial groups tested in mixed culture. In conclusion, introducing oligosaccharides which are candidate prebiotics into pure or mixed cultures has affected bacterial adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diallyl disulfide inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells by inducing differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, You-Sheng; Xie, Na; Su, Qi; Su, Jian; Huang, Chen; Liao, Qian-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has been shown to have protective effects against colon carcinogenesis in several studies performed in rodent models. However, its molecular mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was designed to confirm the anti-proliferative activity of DADS and to screen for differentially expressed genes induced by DADS in human colon cancer cells with the aim of exploring its possible anticancer mechanisms. The anti-proliferative capability of DADS in the HT-29 human colon cancer cells was analyzed by MTT assays and flow cytometry. The differences in gene expression between DADS-treated (experimental group) and untreated (control group) HT-29 cells were identified using two-directional suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (semi-RT-PCR) was selected to confirm the results obtained by SSH. Based on the results, a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition was observed in the DADS-treated HT-29 cells. Forty-nine known genes and a new gene were found to be involved in the anti-proliferative effects of DADS by SSH analysis, and two cDNA libraries, DHDG and DHUG, containing both up- and down-regulated genes in colon tumor cells, were constructed. These genes were related to transduction, cell proliferation/growth/apoptosis and secreted/extracellular matrix proteins. Semi-RT-PCR results showed an expression pattern consistent with that of the SSH analysis. In conclusion, DADS showed anti-proliferative effects on colon cancer HT-29 cells, and DHDG and DHUG genes were found to be involved in this process. Further studies on the identification and description of these genes may allow a better understanding of the protective roles of DADS in colon carcinogenesis.

  15. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  16. Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells by the dietary compound luteolin.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Y; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Tyner, Angela L; Park, Jung H Y

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin is 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone found in celery, green pepper, and perilla leaf that inhibits tumorigenesis in animal models. We examined luteolin-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Luteolin decreased DNA synthesis and viable HT-29 cell numbers in a concentration-dependent manner. It inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK2 activity, resulting in G1 arrest with a concomitant decrease of phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Activities of CDK4 and CDK2 decreased within 2 h after luteolin treatment, with a 38% decrease in CDK2 activity (P < 0.05) observed in cells treated with 40 micromol/l luteolin. Luteolin inhibited CDK2 activity in a cell-free system, suggesting that it directly inhibits CDK2. Cyclin D1 levels decreased after luteolin treatment, although no changes in expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK4, or CDK2 were detected. Luteolin also promoted G2/M arrest at 24 h posttreatment by downregulating cyclin B1 expression and inhibiting cell division cycle (CDC)2 activity. Luteolin promoted apoptosis with increased activation of caspases 3, 7, and 9 and enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and decreased expression of p21(CIP1/WAF1), survivin, Mcl-1, Bcl-x(L), and Mdm-2. Decreased expression of these key antiapoptotic proteins could contribute to the increase in p53-independent apoptosis that was observed in HT-29 cells. We demonstrate that luteolin promotes both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line, providing insight about the mechanisms underlying its antitumorigenic activities.

  17. Permeability of human HT-29/B6 colonic epithelium as a function of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bojarski, C; Gitter, A H; Bendfeldt, K; Mankertz, J; Schmitz, H; Wagner, S; Fromm, M; Schulzke, J D

    2001-01-01

    The barrier function of colonic epithelia is challenged by apoptotic loss of enterocytes. In monolayers of human colonic HT-29/B6 cells, apoptosis induced by camptothecin was assessed by poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) cleavage, histone ELISA and DNA-specific fluorochrome staining (with 4′,6′-diamidino-2′-phenylindoladihydrochloride (DAPI)). Epithelial barrier function was studied in Ussing chambers by measuring transepithelial conductivity and unidirectional tracer fluxes. The ion permeability associated with single cell apoptoses was investigated with the conductance scanning technique. The spontaneous rate of apoptotic cells was 3.5 ± 0.3 % with an overall epithelial conductivity of 3.2 ± 0.1 mS cm−2. Camptothecin induced a time- and dose-dependent increase of apoptosis and permeability. With 20 μg ml−1 of camptothecin for 48 h, apoptosis increased 4.1-fold to 14.3 ± 1.5 % and the conductivity doubled to 6.4 ± 1.0 mS cm−2. While 3H-mannitol flux increased 3.8-fold and 3H-lactulose flux increased 2.6-fold, the flux of 3H-polyethylene glycol 4000 remained unchanged. Hence, the higher permeability was limited to molecules < 4000 Da. The local epithelial conductivity was higher at the sites of apoptosis than in non-apoptotic areas. With camptothecin the leaks associated with apoptosis became more numerous and more conductive, while in non-apoptotic areas the conductivity remained at control level. Hence, the camptothecin-induced increase in epithelial conductivity reflected the opening of apoptotic leaks and thus the results described, for the first time, epithelial permeability as a function of apoptosis only. The conductivity of apoptotic leaks contributed 5.5 % to the epithelial conductivity of controls and 60 % to the conductivity of monolayers treated with 20 μg ml−1 of camptothecin. Thus apoptosis increased the contribution of paracellular pathways to the overall epithelial permeability. Under control conditions the paracellular

  18. Hyaluronic acid–nimesulide conjugates as anticancer drugs against CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jian, You-Sin; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lin, Chih-An; Yu, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Hua-Yang; Liao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Huan; Lin, Yan-Fu; Lai, Ping-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Carrier-mediated drug delivery systems are promising therapeutics for targeted delivery and improved efficacy and safety of potent cytotoxic drugs. Nimesulide is a multifactorial cyclooxygenase 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, antipyretic and potent anticancer properties; however, the low solubility of nimesulide limits its applications. Drugs conjugated with hyaluronic acid (HA) are innovative carrier-mediated drug delivery systems characterized by CD44-mediated endocytosis of HA and intracellular drug release. In this study, hydrophobic nimesulide was conjugated to HA of two different molecular weights (360 kDa as HA with high molecular weight [HAH] and 43kDa as HA with low molecular weight [HAL]) to improve its tumor-targeting ability and hydrophilicity. Our results showed that hydrogenated nimesulide (N-[4-amino-2-phenoxyphenyl]methanesulfonamide) was successfully conjugated with both HA types by carbodiimide coupling and the degree of substitution of nimesulide was 1%, which was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance 400 MHz and total correlation spectroscopy. Both Alexa Fluor® 647 labeled HAH and HAL could selectively accumulate in CD44-overexpressing HT-29 colorectal tumor area in vivo, as observed by in vivo imaging system. In the in vitro cytotoxic test, HA–nimesulide conjugate displayed >46% cell killing ability at a nimesulide concentration of 400 µM in HT-29 cells, whereas exiguous cytotoxic effects were observed on HCT-15 cells, indicating that HA–nimesulide causes cell death in CD44-overexpressing HT-29 cells. Regarding in vivo antitumor study, both HAL–nimesulide and HAH–nimesulide caused rapid tumor shrinkage within 3 days and successfully inhibited tumor growth, which reached 82.3% and 76.4% at day 24 through apoptotic mechanism in HT-29 xenografted mice, without noticeable morphologic differences in the liver or kidney, respectively. These results indicated that HA–nimesulide with improved selectivity

  19. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  20. TNF-alpha modulates the differentiation induced by butyrate in the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Kovaríková, M; Pacherník, J; Hofmanová, J; Zadák, Z; Kozubík, A

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) modulates butyrate effects. After the treatment of human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells with sodium butyrate (NaBt), TNF-alpha or with their combinations we detected cell cycle (flow cytometry), cell proliferation (amidoblack and MTT assays), the amount of dead (floating) and apoptotic cells (flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy), and the level of differentiation by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (spectrophotometry), relative F-actin content (confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis) and E-cadherin expression (Western blot analysis). Both TNF-alpha and NaBt decreased cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. After combined treatment of the cells with both agents used, either none or additive effects were observed as compared with NaBt treatment alone. The level of dead and apoptotic cells was dose-dependently increased after this combined treatment. In contrast, TNF-alpha suppressed ALP activity and F-actin accumulation induced by NaBt. The results suggest that TNF-alpha does not influence significantly the antiproliferative effects of NaBt but, contrary to its potentiation of apoptosis, it markedly reduces NaBt-induced differentiation of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  1. Cisplatin-induced CD95 redistribution into membrane lipid rafts of HT29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Sandrine; Hammann, Arlette; Grazide, Solène; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Athias, Anne; Sergent, Odile; Laurent, Guy; Gambert, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse

    2004-05-15

    We have shown previously that the death receptor CD95 could contribute to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells. In addition, anticancer drugs cooperate with CD95 cognate ligand or agonistic antibodies to trigger cancer cell apoptosis. In the present study, we show that the anticancer drug cisplatin induces clustering of CD95 at the surface of the human colon cancer cell line HT29, an event inhibited by the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) imipramine. The cholesterol sequestering agent nystatin also prevents cisplatin-induced CD95 clustering and decreases HT29 cell sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and the synergy between cisplatin and anti-CD95 agonistic antibodies. CD95, together with the adaptor molecule Fas-associated death domain and procaspase-8, is redistributed into cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched cell fractions after cisplatin treatment, suggesting plasma membrane raft involvement. Interestingly, nystatin prevents the translocation of the aSMase to the extracellular surface of plasma membrane and the production of ceramide, suggesting that these early events require raft integrity. In addition, nystatin prevents cisplatin-induced transient increase in plasma membrane fluidity that could be required for CD95 translocation. Together, these results demonstrate that cisplatin activates aSMase and induces ceramide production, which triggers the redistribution of CD95 into the plasma membrane rafts. Such redistribution contributes to cell death and sensitizes tumor cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis.

  2. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells in SCID mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Chen, Yung-Liang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Shih, Yung-Luen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Su-Tso; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as 'Cogumelo do Sol' in Brazil, or 'Himematsutake' in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses and is now considered one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. This study is the first tumor growth model to evaluate the amelioratory effect of ABM extract using HT-29 human colon cancer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Forty SCID mice were inoculated with HT-29 cells to induce tumor formation and were then divided into four groups. All the four groups (control, low, medium and high concentration treatment) of mice were separately orally administered 0 mg, 1.125 mg, 4.5 mg or 45 mg ABM extract daily. After six weeks of treatment, 8 out of the 40 mice had not survived including one mouse which scored +++ (tumor up to 15 mm diameter) and four mice which scored ++++ (tumor over 15 mm diameter) in the control group and three mice which scored ++++ on the low-dose ABM treatment. After high- or medium-dose treatment, all ten mice in each group survived. The oral administration of ABM does not prevent tumor growth, as shown by increased tumor mass, but compared with the control group, the tumor mass seems to grow more slowly depending on the ABM dose.

  3. Identification of an organic anion transport system in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 clone 19A.

    PubMed

    Abrahamse, S L; Rechkemmer, G

    2001-01-01

    The human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 c1.19A was studied for organic anion transporter activity by determining intracellular fluo-3 and fura-red accumulation and by measuring fluo-3 efflux. Modulators of organic anion transport systems were used to identify the transporters that are involved in dye extrusion. Addition of probenecid to the dye-loading medium, containing 10 microM fluo-3/AM and fura-red/AM, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in fluo-3 and fura-red accumulation in the cells. The increase in fluo-3 accumulation in the cells in the presence of probenecid was explained by the inhibitory effect of this compound on fluo-3 efflux. Fluo-3 efflux from the cells was also inhibited by sulfinpyrazone, another inhibitor of organic anion transport. Substrates of renal probenecid-sensitive organic anion exchange mechanisms as well as modulators of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) activity did not influence fluo-3 extrusion rates. However, reducing intracellular ATP contents completely blocked fluo-3 extrusion. Moreover, MK571, an inhibitor of MRP, significantly stimulated dye accumulation, whereas inhibitors of the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) product Pglycoprotein, cyclosporin A and verapamil, did not. As probenecid inhibits fluo-3 efflux across the apical membrane of cells grown on permeable supports, we conclude that a probenecid-sensitive organic anion transporter is present in the apical membrane of HT29 c1.19A cells. This organic anion transport system differs from MDRI and MRP2.

  4. Effects of lactoferrin on the production of interferon-λ by the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Oda, Hirotsugu; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2017-02-01

    We examined the in-vitro effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF) on the production of interferon-λ (IFN-λ), an antiviral cytokine important for the defense of enterocytes, using the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29. HT-29 cell cultures were treated with LF for 1 h, and the cultures were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). LF increased the concentration of IFN-λ in the culture supernatant after stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase in the concentration of IFN-λ was observed in the supernatant of cells washed between treatment with LF and stimulation with poly I:C. At 6 and 24 h after stimulation with poly I:C (early and late phases, respectively) treated cultures contained significantly higher concentrations of IFN-λ1 in the culture supernatant, and significantly higher IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2 mRNA levels, than controls. These results suggest that LF activates the innate cellular immunity of the enterocytes to double-stranded RNA and increases the production of IFN-λ.

  5. Novel irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor 324674 sensitizes human colon carcinoma HT29 and SW480 cells to apoptosis by blocking the EGFR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhiwei; Cui, Binbin; Jin, Yinghu; Chen, Haipeng; Wang, Xishan

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} This article described the effects of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the cell proliferation and the apoptosis induction of the colon carcinoma cell lines. {yields} Demonstrated that 326474 is a more potent EGFR inhibitor on colon cancer cells than other three TKIs. {yields} It can be important when considering chemotherapy for colonic cancer patients. -- Abstract: Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is widely expressed in multiple solid tumors including colorectal cancer by promoting cancer cell growth and proliferation. Therefore, the inhibition of EGFR activity may establish a clinical strategy of cancer therapy. Methods: In this study, using human colon adenocarcinoma HT29 and SW480 cells as research models, we compared the efficacy of four EGFR inhibitors in of EGFR-mediated pathways, including the novel irreversible inhibitor 324674, conventional reversible inhibitor AG1478, dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor GW583340 and the pan-EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB4 inhibitor. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT analysis, and apoptosis was evaluated by the Annexin-V binding assay. EGFR and its downstream signaling effectors were examined by western blotting analysis. Results: Among the four inhibitors, the irreversible EGFR inhibitor 324674 was more potent at inhibiting HT29 and SW480 cell proliferation and was able to efficiently induce apoptosis at lower concentrations. Western blotting analysis revealed that AG1478, GW583340 and pan-EGFR/ErbB2/ErbB4 inhibitors failed to suppress EGFR activation as well as the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (AKT) pathways. In contrast, 324674 inhibited EGFR activation and the downstream AKT signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our studies indicated that the novel irreversible EGFR inhibitor 324674 may have a therapeutic application in colon cancer therapy.

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water: hemagglutination, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity for a human intestinal cell line (HT-29).

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, M; Simard, P; Couillard, M; Letarte, R

    1996-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water was tested for pathogenicity by studying its hemolysis, hemagglutination, and cytotoxicity. Hemolysis, tested on erythrocytes from six different species, was more frequently seen with water isolates (64%) than with food isolates (48%). Hemagglutination was more frequently encountered with food isolates (92%) than with water isolates (73%). Cytotoxicity, evaluated on seven cell lines, was frequently observed with food isolates (92%) and with water isolates (73%). Heat treatment (56 degrees C for 10 min) of culture supernatant fluids inhibited the toxicity of some but not all toxin-producing isolates. Our results suggest that the human intestinal cell line HT-29 could be a useful complement for testing A. hydrophila exotoxins and for studying the enteropathogenicity of this species for humans. PMID:8795237

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water: hemagglutination, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity for a human intestinal cell line (HT-29).

    PubMed

    Handfield, M; Simard, P; Couillard, M; Letarte, R

    1996-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water was tested for pathogenicity by studying its hemolysis, hemagglutination, and cytotoxicity. Hemolysis, tested on erythrocytes from six different species, was more frequently seen with water isolates (64%) than with food isolates (48%). Hemagglutination was more frequently encountered with food isolates (92%) than with water isolates (73%). Cytotoxicity, evaluated on seven cell lines, was frequently observed with food isolates (92%) and with water isolates (73%). Heat treatment (56 degrees C for 10 min) of culture supernatant fluids inhibited the toxicity of some but not all toxin-producing isolates. Our results suggest that the human intestinal cell line HT-29 could be a useful complement for testing A. hydrophila exotoxins and for studying the enteropathogenicity of this species for humans.

  8. Anti-proliferative action of silibinin on human colon adenomatous cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Reyhan; Ali, Mohd; Mahmood, Safrunnisa; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-02-01

    Antecedentes: Silibinina un flavonoide a partir de la leche de cardo mariano (Silybum marianum) exhiben una variedad de acciones farmacológicas, incluyendo actividades anti-proliferativos y apoptóticos contra varios tipos de cánceres en animales intactos y líneas celulares de cáncer. En el presente estudio, se estudió el efecto de silibinina en células humanas de cáncer de colon HT-29. Método: Las incubaciones de las células con diferentes concentraciones silibinin (0,783-1.600 ug/ml) para 24, 48 o 72 horas mostró un descenso progresivo de la viabilidad celular. Resultados: La pérdida de la viabilidad celular fue de tiempo de inhibición dependiente y óptima de crecimiento de las células (78%) se observó a las 72 horas. Bajo microscopio invertido, las células muertas fueron vistos como los agregados de células. IC50 (concentración de silibinina matar a las células 50%) los valores fueron 180, 110 y 40 ug/ml a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, respectivamente. Conclusión: Estos resultados volver a hacer cumplir la potenciales contra el cáncer de silibinina, como se informó anteriormente para varias otras líneas celulares de cáncer (Ramasamy y Agarwal (2008), Cancer Letters, 269: 352-62).

  9. Inhibition of enteropathogens adhesion to human enterocyte-like HT-29 cells by a dairy strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Zárate, G; Palacios, J M; Villena, J; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2016-06-01

    Adhesion to the host intestinal mucosa is considered relevant for orally delivered probiotics as it prolongs their persistence in the gut and their health promoting effects. Classical propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest due to their role as dairy starters as well as for their functions as probiotics. Propionibacterium acidipropionici Q4, is a dairy strain isolated from a Swiss-type cheese made in Argentina that displays probiotic potential. In the present work we assessed the ability of this strain to adhere to the human enterocyte-like HT-29 cell line and to counteract the adhesion of two common human enteropathogens, such as Escherichia coli C3 and Salmonella Enteritidis 90/390. The results were compared with those obtained with the well-known probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. P. acidipropionici Q4 showed a high adhesion capacity, even higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG (42.3±4.4% and 36.2±2.3%, respectively), whereas adhesion of enteropathogens was significantly lower (25.2±2.2% for E. coli and 21.0±3.4% for S. Enteritidis). Propionibacteria as well as lactobacilli were able to inhibit by exclusion and competition the adherence of E. coli C3 and S. Enteritidis 90/390 whereas only L. rhamnosus GG displaced S. Enteritidis from HT-29 intestinal cells. Inhibition of pathogens by propionibacteria was not exerted by antimicrobials or coaggregation but was mainly due to exclusion by cell surface components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. The relevance of cell surface proteins (CSP) for preventing pathogens infection was confirmed by their concentration dependent effect observed for both pathogens: 100 µg/ml of CSP inhibited E. coli attachment almost as untreated propionibacteria, whereas it partially inhibited the attachment of S. Enteritidis. Results suggest that P. acidipropionici Q4 could be considered for the development of propionibacteria containing functional foods helpful in counteracting enteropathogen infection.

  10. A novel cycloartane triterpenoid from Cimicifuga induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death in human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoli; Liu, Jing; Nian, Yin; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2017-04-01

    The extract from Cimicifuga, a genus of flowering plants, has been demonstrated to have mainly therapeutic effects on menstrual and menopausal symptoms and also exhibits immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the anticancer effects of Cimicifuga have been reported, but the underlying mechanism causing cancer cell death has been poorly described. The present study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of cimigenol (KY17), a novel cycloartane triterpenoid from Cimicifuga. KY17-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) was investigated. KY17 treatment induced growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by a change in cell morphology, and an increase in the G2/M phase, as well as increased protein levels of cleaved-caspase-8 and -3; cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the HT-29 cells following KY17 treatment. In addition, autophagy was evaluated by the accumulation of acridine orange, the appearance of green fluorescent protein-light-chain 3 (LC3) punctate structures and increased levels of LC3-II protein expression. Furthermore, combination treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 enhanced the induction of apoptosis by KY17. Taken together, the present study provides new insight into the role of KY17 as a potential antitumor compound. Combination of KY17 with an autophagy inhibitor may be a valuable strategy for the chemoprevention or treatment of colon cancer.

  11. Identification of a Surface Protein from Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1081 That Adheres to Porcine Gastric Mucin and Human Enterocyte-Like HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Qiurong; Li, Yousheng; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion of lactobacilli to the host gastrointestinal (GI) tract is considered an important factor in health-promoting effects. However, studies addressing the molecular mechanisms of the adhesion of lactobacilli to the host GI tract have not yet been performed. The aim of this work was to identify Lactobacillus reuteri surface molecules mediating adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and mucins. Nine strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like HT-29 cells. The cell surface proteins involved in the adhesion of Lactobacillus to HT-29 cells and gastric mucin were extracted. The active fractions were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting with horseradish peroxidase-labeled mucin and NHS-Biotin-labeled HT-29 cells. Furthermore, tandem mass spectrometry analysis was performed to identify the surface protein that participates in adhesion. It was shown that the ability of lactobacilli to adhere to HT-29 cells in vitro varied considerably among different strains. The most adhesive strain was the chicken intestinal tract isolate Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1081 (495.07 ± 80.03 bacterial cells/100 HT-29 cells). The adhesion of L. reuteri JCM1081 to HT-29 cells appeared to be mediated by a cell surface protein, with an approximate molecular mass of 29 kDa. The peptides generated from the 29-kDa protein significantly matched the Lr0793 protein sequence of L. reuteri strain ATCC55730 (∼71.1% identity) and displayed significant sequence similarity to the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter protein CnBP. PMID:18379843

  12. Tephrosin induces internalization and degradation of EGFR and ErbB2 in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujin; Choi, Yunjin; Dat, Nguyen Tien; Hwangbo, Cheol; Lee, Jung Joon; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-07-01

    Inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are prime targets for cancer therapy. Here, we show that tephrosin, a natural rotenoid which has potent antitumor activities, induced internalization of EGFR and ErbB2, and thereby induced degradation of the receptors. Treatment of HT-29 cells with tephrosin inhibited both the ligand-induced and constitutive phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB3, and concomitantly suppressed the activation of the downstream signaling molecules such as Akt and Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Tephrosin caused internalization of EGFR and ErbB2 into vehicles, which resulted in degradation of the receptors. This degradation was blocked by the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine. We also showed that tephrosin induced apoptosis. Tephrosin did not induce the proteolytic processing of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), but did nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), suggesting that tephrosin may induce caspase-independent apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that tephrosin could exert antitumor effects by inducing internalization and degradation of inactivated EGFR and ErbB2 in human colon cancer cells.

  13. Aspirin induces cell death and caspase-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, E; Dalmau, M; Barragán, M; Pueyo, G; Bartrons, R; Gil, J

    1999-01-01

    The induction of cell death by aspirin was analysed in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. Aspirin induced two hallmarks of apoptosis: nuclear chromatin condensation and increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. However, aspirin did not induce either oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA, decrease in DNA content or nuclear fragmentation. The effect of aspirin on Annexin V binding was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases in the apoptotic action of aspirin. However, aspirin did not induce proteolysis of PARP, suggesting that aspirin does not increase nuclear caspase 3-like activity in HT-29 cells. This finding may be related with the ‘atypical’ features of aspirin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10496355

  14. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  15. Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kap-Rang; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Park, Joon-Hong; Chang, Eun-Young; Baek, Eun-Jung; Chang, Jong-Sun; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-05-19

    As part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of Solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. Evaluations were carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomatine, and their common aglycon tomatidine; the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine. All compounds were active in the assay, with the glycoalkaloids being the most active and the hydrolysis products less so. The effectiveness against the liver cells was greater than against the colon cells. Potencies of alpha-tomatine and alpha-chaconine at a concentration of 1 microg/mL against the liver carcinoma cells were higher than those observed with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin. Because alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, and alpha-tomatine also inhibited normal human liver HeLa (Chang) cells, safety considerations should guide the use of these compounds as preventative or therapeutic treatments against carcinomas.

  16. Synergistic Actions of Atorvastatin with γ-Tocotrienol and Celecoxib against Human Colon Cancer HT29 and HCT116 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhihong; Xiao, Hang; Jin, Huanyu; Koo, Phillip T.; Tsang, Dorothea J.; Yang, Chung S.

    2010-01-01

    The synergistic actions of atorvastatin (ATST) with γ-tocotrienol (γ-TT) and celecoxib (CXIB) were studied in human colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116. The synergistic inhibition of cell growth by ATST and γ-TT was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and isobologram analysis. δ-TT exhibited a similar inhibitory action when combined with ATST. Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate eliminated most of the growth inhibitory effect of ATST, but only marginally decreased that of γ-TT; whereas farnesyl pyrophosphate and squalene exhibited little effect on the inhibitory action of ATST and γ-TT, indicating protein geranylgeranylation, but not farnesylation are involved in the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth. Both mevalonate and squalene restored the cellular cholesterol level that was reduced by ATST treatment, but only mevalonate eliminated the cell growth inhibitory effect, suggesting that the cholesterol level in cells does not play an essential role in inhibiting cancer cell growth. Protein level of HMG-CoA reductase increased after ATST treatment, and the presence of γ-TT attenuated the elevated level of HMG-CoA reductase. ATST also decreased membrane-bound RhoA, possibly due to a reduced level of protein geranylgeranylation; addition of γ-TT enhanced this effect. The mediation of HMG-CoA reductase and RhoA provides a possible mechanism for the synergistic action of ATST and γ-TT. The triple combination of ATST, γ-TT, and CXIB showed a synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth in MTT assays. The synergistic action of these three compounds was also illustrated by their induction of G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:19626588

  17. Anti-cancer effect and apoptosis induction of cordycepin through DR3 pathway in the human colonic cancer cell HT-29.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Debnath, Trishna; Kim, Si-Kwan; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-10-01

    Cordycepin is known to have many pharmacological effects such as anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. However, cordycepin induced apoptosis through the DR3 pathway in human colon cancer cells has not been studied. The effect of cordycepin on anti-proliferation was investigated in this study. Cordycepin significantly inhibited cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin increased sub G1 and G2/M phase arrest on HT-29 cells at the concentration of 100 μM, whereas cordycepin at 200 μM and 400 μM increased G1 phase arrest. Cordycepin induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner as detected by Hoechst and Annexin V-FITC staining. Intracellular ROS levels were higher in cordycepin treated cells as compared to control cells. The protein related to apoptosis was determined by antibody array. p53 and Bax expression increased treatment with cordycepin for 18 h. DR3, caspase-8, caspase-1, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression increased. These finding suggest that the cordycepin induces apoptosis through the DR3 pathway in human colon cancer HT-29. These findings suggest that cordycepin should be evaluated further as a therapeutic agent in human colon cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiota source impact in vitro metabolite colonic production and anti-proliferative effect of spent coffee grounds on human colon cancer cells (HT-29).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arriaga, Angélica María; Dave Oomah, B; Campos-Vega, Rocio

    2017-07-01

    Human gut flora-mediated non-digestible fraction of spent coffee grounds (hgf-NDSCG) was evaluated for its chemopreventive effect and molecular mechanisms involved on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival using two different microbiota source [lean (L) and overweight (OW)]. The source of human gut flora (hgf) (L or OW) affected the pH of hgf-NDSCG only minimally, but linearly reduced those of hgf-inulin. The variability between lean and overweight microbiota was characterized by the metabolism and/or bioaccessibility of different phenolic metabolites, their intermediate and end products as well as by variable time courses. Apoptosis of colon cancer HT-29 cells depended on the microbiota source with the lean microbiota expressing a low lethal concentration 50 (LC50/L-hgf-NDSCG=13.5%). We demonstrate that NDSCG and its colonic metabolite from lean microbiota induced HT-29 cell apoptosis by reducing catalase and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α as biomarkers of in vivo oxidative stress as the primary mechanism underlying its overall chemoprotection against colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of sodium-alginate and laminaran on Salmonella Typhimurium infection in human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc cells and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Kosaka, Misa; Hirano, Shino; Kawahara, Miho; Sato, Masahiro; Kaneshima, Tai; Nishizawa, Makoto; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2015-07-10

    Brown algal polysaccharides such as alginate, polymers of uronic acids, and laminaran, beta-1,3 and 1,6-glucan, can be fermented by human intestinal microbiota. To evaluate the effects of these polysaccharides on infections caused by food poisoning pathogens, we investigated the adhesion and invasion of pathogens (Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc cells and in infections caused in BALB/c mice. Both sodium Na-alginate and laminaran (0.1% each) inhibited the adhesion of the pathogens to HT-29-Luc cells by approximately 70-90%. The invasion of S. Typhimurium was also inhibited by approximately 70 and 80% by Na-alginate and laminaran, respectively. We observed that incubation with Na-alginate for 18 h increased the transepithelial electrical resistance of HT-29-Luc monolayer cells. Four days after inoculation with 7 log CFU/mouse of S. Typhimurium, the faecal pathogen count in mice that were not fed polysaccharides (control mice) was about 6.5 log CFU/g while the count in mice that were fed Na-alginate had decreased to 5.0 log CFU/g. The liver pathogen count, which was 4.1 log CFU/g in the control mice, was also decreased in mice that were fed Na-alginate. In contrast, the mice that were fed laminaran exhibited a more severe infection than that exhibited by control mice.

  20. Antiproliferative effects of a new α-lipoic acid derivative, DHL-HisZnNa, in HT29 human colon cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yohei; Inomata, Masafumi; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kosuke; Koga, Hironori; Shiraishi, Norio; Noguchi, Takayuki; Kitano, Seigo

    2012-03-01

    α-Lipoic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. However, it is prone to oxidation, polymerization and desulfurization, and is insoluble in water. In this study an α-lipoic acid derivative, sodium N-(dihydrolipoyl)-l-histidinate zinc complex (DHL-HisZnNa), was synthesized, which can eliminate active oxygen species. The antiproliferative effects of DHL-HisZnNa, on human colon cancer cell HT29 in vitro, were evaluated. Whether DHL-HisZnNa elicits its antiproliferative effects by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, was investigated. Expressions of cell-cycle-related proteins and their phosphorylation on HT-29 was also analyzed. DHL-HisZnNa inhibited cancer cell growth in cultures. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed time-dependent accumulation of HT-29 cells in G1 phase after exposure to DHL-HisZnNa. Analysis of DNA fragmentation did not reveal evidence of apoptosis after exposure to DHL-HisZnNa. Cells treated with DHL-HisZnNa showed an increase in p53 phosphorylation with the Bio-Plex Phosphoprotein assay. DHL-HisZnNa increased protein levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decreased that of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by western blot analysis. Results obtained with DHL-HisZnNa are on a single colon cancer cell line and not comparative experiments with α-lipoic acid. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the antiproliferative effects of DHL-HisZnNa and the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits growth of HT29.

  1. Sorbus rufopilosa Extract Exhibits Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You Na; Jin, Soojung; Park, Hyun-Jin; Kwon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Byung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Sorbus rufopilosa, a tsema rowan, is a species of the small ornamental trees in the genus Sorbus and the family Rosaceae found in East Asia. The bioactivities of S. rufopilosa have not yet been fully determined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer effects of ethanol extract of S. rufopilosa (EESR) and to determine the molecular mechanism of its anticancer activity in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Methods To examine the antioxidant activity of EESR, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay was performed. Inhibitory effect of EESR on cancer cell growth and proliferation was determined by water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. To investigate the mechanism of EESR-mediated cytotoxicity, HT29 cells were treated with various concentrations of EESR and the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and Western blot analysis. Results EESR showed significant antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on HT29 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. EESR induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner by modulating cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK inhibitor p21 expression. EESR-induced apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of p53, a death receptor Fas, and a pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the activation of caspase 3, 8, and 9, resulting in the degradation of PARP. Conclusions EESR possessing antioxidant activity efficiently inhibits proliferation of HT29 cells by inducing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. EESR may be a possible candidate for the anticancer drug development. PMID:28053959

  2. Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways.

    PubMed

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Bodman-Smith, K B; Mansour, Anthony; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2015-07-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea, wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) has been used in folk medicine throughout the world and recently was shown to possess anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study aims to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). Treatment of cells with various concentrations of F1 or F2 fractions produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both fractions induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. Western blot revealed the activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and a considerable increase in Bax and p53 levels, and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt. Furthermore, the combined treatment of F1 or F2 with wortmannin showed no added inhibition of cell survival suggesting an effect of F1 or F2 through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study proposes that DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  3. Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Klenow, S; Glei, M; Haber, B; Owen, R; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2008-04-01

    An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.

  4. In Vitro Study of Influence of Au Nanoparticles on HT29 and SPEV Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Elena; Volkova, Nataliia; Yakymchuk, Elena; Perepelitsyna, Olena; Sydorenko, Michail; Goltsev, Anatoliy

    2017-08-01

    Cell culture models are excellent tools for potential toxicity of nanoparticles and fundamental investigations in cancer research. Thus, information about AuNP potential toxicity and effects on human health is necessary for the use of nanomaterials in clinical settings. The aim of our research is to examine the effects of AuNPs on the epithelial origin cell lines: continuous and oncogenic. Embryonic porcine kidney epithelial inoculated (SPEV) cell line and colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) were used. In the test cultures, the cell proliferation, necrosis/apoptosis, and multicellular spheroids generation were evaluated. We demonstrated that AuNP concentrations of 6-12 μg/ml reduced the proliferation of SPEV and HT29 cells and increased the cell number at early and late stages of apoptosis and necrosis. It was shown that small concentrations of AuNPs (1-3 μg/ml) stimulate multicellular spheroid formation by HT29 and SPEV cells. However, higher AuNP concentrations (6-12 μg/ml) had both cytotoxic and anti-cohesive effects on cell in suspension. The large sensitiveness to the action of AuNPs was shown by the line of HT29 (6 μg/ml) as compared to the SPEV cells (12 μg/ml). This experimental study of the effect of AuNPs on SPEV and HT29 cell lines will justify their further application in AuNP-mediated anticancer treatment.

  5. The Human Milk Oligosaccharide 2'-Fucosyllactose Quenches Campylobacter jejuni-Induced Inflammation in Human Epithelial Cells HEp-2 and HT-29 and in Mouse Intestinal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Nanthakumar, N Nanda; Newburg, David S

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C. jejuni pathogenesis have not been tested. Clinical isolates of C. jejuni infect humans, birds, and ferrets, limiting studies on its mammalian pathobiology. Human epithelial cells HEp-2 and HT-29 infected with the virulent C. jejuni strain 81-176 human isolate were treated with 5 g 2'-FL/L, and the degree of infection and inflammatory response was measured. Four-week-old male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed antibiotics to reduce their intestinal microbiota and were inoculated with C. jejuni strain 81-176. The sensitivity of the resulting acute transient enteric infection and immune response to inhibition by 2'-FL ingestion was tested. In HEp-2 and HT-29 cells, 2'-FL attenuated 80% of C. jejuni invasion (P < 0.05) and suppressed the release of mucosal proinflammatory signals of interleukin (IL) 8 by 60-70%, IL-1β by 80-90%, and the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) by 50% (P < 0.05). Ingestion of 2'-FL by mice reduced C. jejuni colonization by 80%, weight loss by 5%, histologic features of intestinal inflammation by 50-70%, and induction of inflammatory signaling molecules of the acute-phase mucosal immune response by 50-60% (P < 0.05). This acute model did not induce IL-17 (adaptive T cell response), a chronic response. In human cells in vitro (HEp-2, HT-29) and in a mouse infection model that recapitulated key pathologic features of C. jejuni clinical disease, 2'-FL inhibited pathogenesis and its sequelae. These data strongly support the hypothesis that 2

  6. Dichloromethane-methanol extract from Borassus aethiopumn mart. (Arecaceae) induces apoptosis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Sakandé, J; Rouet-benzineb, P; Devaud, H; Nikiema, J B; Lompo, M; Nacoulma, O G; Guissou, I P; Bado, A

    2011-05-15

    Borassus aetihiopum MART (Arecaceae) is a plant used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases (bronchitis, laryngitis, antiseptic). In particular, their male inflorcscences were reported to exhibit cicatrizing, antiseptic and fungicidal properties. In the present study, the biological activity of E2F2, an apolar extract from Borassus aethiopum male inflorescence was investigated on colon cancer HT29 cells. Phytochemical screening was carried according to methodology for chemical analysis for vegetable drugs. Cells proliferation was determined by the MTT assay and cells cycle distribution was analysed by using laser flow cytometer (Beckman coulter). The cytoskeleton organisation was examined under a laser scanning confocal microscope (Zess). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of E2F2 extract revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes and saponosids. E2F2 extract (1 microg and 100 microg mL(-1)) significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking cell population in G0/G1 phase. Flow Cytometric analysis of E2F2-treated HT29 cells showed that hypoploïd cell population (sub G1 phase) increased with processing time exposures. Immunofluorescence confocal analysis revealed a disrupt actin microfilaments network in E2F2 treated-cells with a significant reduction in actin stress fibres and appearance of a random, non-oriented distribution of focal adhesion sites. These data indicate that E2F2 extract has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms of action of E2F2 extract.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by tomato using space mutation breeding in human colon cancer SW480 and HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiahui; Yang, Bin; Feng, Pan; Li, Duo; Zhu, Jiajin

    2010-03-15

    As far as we know, there have been no reports concerning the functional characteristics of tomatoes using space mutation breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-colon cancer effect of tomatoes M1 and M2 using space mutation breeding. In the present study, obvious anti-cancer activity was shown with tomato juice of M1 and M2 and their parent CK treatment in colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 in cell growth inhibition. In addition, SW480 cells were more sensitive to M1 and M2 than HT-29 cells in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, M1 and M2 induced cell cycle arrest both in G0-G1 and G2/M phases. These data suggest that consumption of tomato using space mutation breeding may provide benefits to inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, tomato production using space mutation breeding may be a good candidate for development as a dietary supplement in drug therapy for colon cancer.

  8. Eradication of HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by controlled photorelease of CO from a CO-releasing polymer (photoCORP-1) triggered by visible light through an optical fiber-based device.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Miguel N; Chakraborty, Indranil; Sandoval, Cosme; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2017-10-28

    The gaseous signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been recognized for its wide range of physiological activity as well as its antineoplastic properties. However, site-specific delivery of this noxious gas presents a major challenge in hospital settings. In this work, a visible light-sensitive CO-releasing molecule (photoCORM) derived from manganese(I) and 2-(quinolyl)benzothiazole (qbt) namely, [Mn(CO)3(qbt)(4-vpy)](CF3SO3) (1), has been co-polymerized within a gas-permeable HEMA/EGDMA hydrogel. The resulting photoactive CO-releasing polymer (photoCORP-1) incorporates 1 such that neither the carbonyl complex nor its photoproduct(s) exits the polymer at any time. The material can be triggered to photorelease CO remotely by low-power broadband visible light (<1mWcm(-2)) with the aid of fiber optics technology. The CO photorelease rates of photoCORP-1 (determined by spectrophotometry) can be modulated by both the concentration of 1 in the hydrogel and the intensity of the light. A CO-delivery device has been assembled to deliver CO to a suspension of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) under the control of visible light and the extent of CO-induced apoptotic death of the cancer cells has been determined via Annexin V/Propidium iodide stain and flow cytometry. This photoactive CO-releasing polymer could find use in delivering controlled doses of CO to cellular targets such as malignant tissues in remote parts of the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiproliferative activity of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma (Hep3B), colon (HT-29) cancer cells and proteases, tyrosinase, β-lactamase enzyme inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Cömert Önder, Ferah; Ay, Mehmet; Aydoğan Türkoğlu, Sümeyye; Tura Köçkar, Feray; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the antiproliferation of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma carcinoma (Hep3B) and human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell lines along with enzyme inhibitory effects of the crude extracts. Potential cell cytotoxicity of six different H. lupulus extracts were assayed on various cancer cells using MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h intervals. Methanol-1 extract has inhibited the cell proliferation with doses of 0.6-1 mg/mL in a time dependent (48 and 72 hours) manner in Hep3B cells with 70% inhibition, while inhibitory effect was not seen in colon cancer cells. Acetone extract has increased the cell proliferation at low doses of 0.1 mg/mL for 72 h in Hep3B cells and 0.1-0.2 mg/mL for 48 and 72 h in HT29 cells. The inhibitory effects of the extracts were compared by relative maximum activity values (V(max)) using proteases such as α-chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain, tyrosinase and β-lactamase (penicillinase).

  10. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppresses murine xenograft tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lein, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In HT29 cells, DATS inhibited migration and invasion through the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 which was associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -7 and -9 and VEGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), DATS inhibited the migration and angiogenesis through FAK, Src and Ras. DATS also inhibited the secretion of VEGF. The capillary-like tube structure formation and migration by HUVEC was inhibited by DATS. The chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay indicated that DATS treatment inhibited ex-vivo angiogenesis. We investigated the anti-tumour effects of DATS against human colon cancer xenografts in BALB/c(nu/nu) mice and its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. In this in-vivo study, DATS also inhibited the tumour growth, tumour weight and angiogenesis (decreased the levels of haemoglobin) in HT29 cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the inhibition of angiogenesis may be an important mechanism in colon cancer chemotherapy by DATS. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  11. Quantification of intracellular phosphorylated carbohydrates in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vizán, Pedro; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Díaz-Moralli, Santiago; Rodríguez-Prados, Juan Carlos; Zanuy, Míriam; Centelles, Josep J; Jáuregui, Olga; Cascante, Marta

    2007-07-01

    The quantitative understanding of the role of sugar phosphates in regulating tumor energetic metabolism at the proteomic and genomic level is a prerequisite for an efficient rational design in combined drug chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the concentration of the main sugar phosphate pools at the lower concentrations present in the often-limited volume of tumor cell samples. Taking as an example the human adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, we here report a fast and reliable quantitative method based on the use of liquid nitrogen, a weak acid extraction, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to quantify simultaneously the intracellular concentration of sugar phosphate pools. The method was set up using standard addition curves. Thus, it is possible to identify and quantify hexose phosphate, pentose phosphate, and triose phosphate pools up to 0.02-0.10 ng x microL(-1), depending on the analyte. The method developed was here used for the quantitative study of changes in phosphorylated carbohydrates of central carbon metabolism when high or low glucose concentration conditions are induced in vitro in the HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.

  12. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppresses murine xenograft tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lein, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In HT29 cells, DATS inhibited migration and invasion through the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 which was associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -7 and -9 and VEGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), DATS inhibited the migration and angiogenesis through FAK, Src and Ras. DATS also inhibited the secretion of VEGF. The capillary-like tube structure formation and migration by HUVEC was inhibited by DATS. The chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay indicated that DATS treatment inhibited ex-vivo angiogenesis. We investigated the anti-tumour effects of DATS against human colon cancer xenografts in BALB/cnu/nu mice and its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. In this in-vivo study, DATS also inhibited the tumour growth, tumour weight and angiogenesis (decreased the levels of haemoglobin) in HT29 cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the inhibition of angiogenesis may be an important mechanism in colon cancer chemotherapy by DATS. PMID:25403643

  13. Alpha-chaconine, a potato glycoalkaloid, induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells through caspase-3 activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2006-06-01

    Although alpha-chaconine, one of the two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, have shown cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells, the exact mechanism of this action of alpha-chaconine is not completely understood. In this study, we found that alpha-chaconine induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by using flow cytometric analysis. We also found that caspase-3 activity and the active form of caspase-3 were increased 12 h after alpha-chaconine treatment. Caspase inhibitors, N-Ac-DEVD-CHO and Z-VAD-fmk, prevented alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis, whereas alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis was potentiated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. However, pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 and SB203580, inhibitors of PI3K and p38, respectively, BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox had no effect on the alpha-chaconine-induced cell death. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced by the treatment with alpha-chaconine. Moreover, alpha-chaconine-induced caspase-3 activity was further increased by the pretreatment with PD98059. Thus, the results indicate that alpha-chaconine induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells through inhibition of ERK and, in turn, activation of caspase-3.

  14. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Tennozu-SU2 on Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Human Enterocyte-Like HT-29-Luc Cells and BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shino; Yokota, Yasushi; Eda, Mika; Kuda, Takashi; Shikano, Ayane; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2016-12-10

    The probiotic properties and inhibitory effect on Salmonella Typhimurium adhesion on human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc cells of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from fermented fish, beach sand and a coastal plant were determined. Compared with the type strain L. plantarum NBRC 15891(T), which was isolated from pickled cabbage, L. plantarum Tennozu-SU2 isolated from the acorn of a coastal tree showed high autoaggregation in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and an antagonistic effect against S. Typhimurium in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. Furthermore, heat-killed L. plantarum Tennozu-SU2 cells inhibited S. Typhimurium adhesion on HT-29-Luc cells. Both live and heat-killed L. plantarum Tennozu-SU2 cells showed an inhibitory effect on gut colonisation in BALB/c mice, as assessed by viable Salmonella count in faecal samples and by invasion into liver and spleen tissues. The properties shown in this study suggest that L. plantarum Tennozu-SU2 is useful as a starter and probiotic bacteria in functional food material.

  15. Intracellular retention and subsequent release of bovine milk lactoferrin taken up by human enterocyte-like cell lines, Caco-2, C2BBe1 and HT-29.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuka; Oshima, Kenzi; Shin, Kouichirou; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Fumiaki; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2013-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein contained in milk and other exocrine fluids, and is believed to have multiple biological functions. We investigated the intracellular dynamics of LF taken up by three lines of human enterocytes and the subsequent release of internalized LF by using two-site ELISA and confocal microscopy. LF taken up by Caco-2 cells was kept partially intact within the cells and subsequently released to the medium as degraded fragments of 30-50 kDa. The retention and subsequent release of LF by Caco-2 cells were much more abundant than those of ovalbumin, ovomucoid and lysozyme. Such results characteristic of LF were also similarly observed in C2BBe1 and HT29 cells more markedly. LF was detected as punctate signals and partially colocalized with the lactoferrin receptor, intelectin-1, in the respective cytoplasm and nuclei of Caco-2 and C2BBe1 cells. In contrast, LF within the HT-29 cells was detected as much smaller punctate signals scattered in the cytoplasm.

  16. l-carnosine dipeptide overcomes acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in HT29 human colon cancer cells via downregulation of HIF1-alpha and induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Guardia, Francesca; Irace, Carlo; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) protein is over-expressed in many human cancers and is a major cause of resistance to drugs. HIF-1α up-regulation decreases the effectiveness of several anticancer agents, including 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), because it induces the expression of drug efflux transporters, alters DNA repair mechanisms and modifies the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic factors. These findings suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α activity may sensitize cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. We previously reported that l-carnosine reduces HIF-1α expression by inhibiting the proliferation of colon cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the effect of l-carnosine on HT29 colon cancer cells with acquired resistance to 5-FU. We found that l-carnosine reduces colon cancer cell viability, decreases HIF-1α and multi-drug resistant protein MDR1-pg expression, and induces apoptosis. Moreover, the l-carnosine/5-FU combination lowers the expression of some chemoresistance markers. The combination index evaluated in vitro on the HT29-5FU cell line by median drug effect analysis reveals a significant synergistic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Diallyl disulphide, a beneficial component of garlic oil, causes a redistribution of cell-cycle growth phases, induces apoptosis, and enhances butyrate-induced apoptosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29).

    PubMed

    Altonsy, Mohammed O; Andrews, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    Colon cancer is a leading and expanding cause of death worldwide. A major contributory factor to this disease is diet composition; some components are beneficial (e.g, dietary fiber), whereas others are detrimental (e.g., alcohol). Garlic oil is a prominent dietary constituent that prevents the development of colorectal cancer. This effect is believed to be mainly due to diallyl disulphide (DADS), which selectively induces redox stress in cancerous (rather than normal) cells that leads to apoptotic cell death. However, the detailed mechanism by which DADS causes apoptosis remains unclear. We show that DADS treatment of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) initiates a cascade of molecular events characteristic of apoptosis. These include a decrease in cellular proliferation, translocation of phosphatidylserine to the plasma-membrane outer-layer, activation of caspase-3 and -9, genomic DNA fragmentation, and G(2)/M phase cell-cycle arrest. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly butyrate (abundantly produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of dietary polysaccharides), enhance colonic cell integrity but, in contrast, inhibit colonic cancer cell growth. Combining DADS with butyrate augmented the apoptotic effect of butyrate on HT-29 cells. These results suggest that the anticancerous properties of DADS afford greater benefit when supplied with other favorable dietary factors (short chain fatty acids/polysaccharides) that likewise reduce colonic tumor development.

  18. Protein transport and processing by human HT29-19A intestinal cells: effect of interferon γ

    PubMed Central

    Terpend, K; Boisgerault, F; Blaton, M; Desjeux, J; Heyman, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—The nature of the breakdown products produced in enterocytes during epithelial transport of intact proteins may be critical in determining the functional consequences of protein absorption. 
Aim—(a) To measure the transepithelial transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and to identify the nature of HRP breakdown products released on the basal side of enterocytes and (b) to assess the role of interferon γ (IFNγ) on HRP transport and processing. 
Methods—HT29-19A intestinal cells were used to assess transepithelial transport of HRP in Ussing chambers, and the nature of breakdown products in the basal compartment was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 
Results—(1) In control conditions, [3H]HRP equivalent fluxes (3135 (219) ng/h per cm2; mean (SEM)) comprised 50% amino acids, 40% peptides, and 10% intact HRP. Steric exclusion HPLC of the breakdown products indicated a wide range of molecular masses including a major peptide of about 1150 Da. Lysosomal aspartyl and thiol proteases were expressed but no HLA-DR surface expression was noted. (2) At 48 to 72 hours after IFNγ stimulation, [3H]HRP equivalent fluxes increased significantly (7392 (1433) ng/h per cm2) without modification of the relative proportions of amino acids, peptides, and intact HRP, and without modification of the distribution of breakdown products in HPLC. Lysosomal protease activities were not modified by IFNγ but HLA-DR expression was increased. 
Conclusion—Intestinal cells are able to process HRP into peptides potentially capable of stimulating the immune system. IFNγ stimulates the transport and processing of HRP thus increasing the antigenic load in the intestinal mucosa. 

 Keywords: enterocyte; transcytosis; macromolecular degradation; HPLC; mucosal immunity PMID:9616317

  19. The effects of TNF-alpha and inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on human colon HT-29 cells depend on differentiation status.

    PubMed

    Kovaríková, Martina; Hofmanová, Jirina; Soucek, Karel; Kozubík, Alois

    2004-02-01

    The level of differentiation could influence sensitivity of colonic epithelial cells to various stimuli. In our study, the effects of TNF-alpha, inhibitors of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism (baicalein, BA; indomethacin, INDO; niflumic acid, NA; nordihydroguaiaretic acid, NDGA), and/or their combinations on undifferentiated or sodium butyrate (NaBt)-differentiated human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were compared. NaBt-treated cells became growth arrested (blocked in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle), and showed down-regulated Bcl-xL and up-regulated Bak proteins and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). These cells were more perceptive to anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of TNF-alpha. Both inhibitors of LOX (BA and NDGA) and COX (INDO and NA) in higher concentrations modulated cell cycle changes accompanying NaBt-induced differentiation and induced various level of cell death in undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Most important is our finding that TNF-alpha action on proliferation and cell death can be potentiated by co-treatment of cells with AA metabolism inhibitors, and that these effects were more significant in undifferentiated cells. TNF-alpha and INDO co-treatment was associated with accumulation of cells in G0/G1 cell cycle phase, increased reactive oxygen species production, and elevated caspase-3 activity. These results indicate the role of differentiation status in the sensitivity of HT-29 cells to the anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of TNF-alpha, AA metabolism inhibitors, and their combinations, and imply promising possibility for novel anti-cancer strategies.

  20. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Alcaide, Antonio; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier; Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helicteric Acid, Oleanic Acid, and Betulinic Acid, Three Triterpenes from Helicteres angustifolia L., Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells via Suppressing NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. The activation of both NF-κB and STAT3 signaling and the crosstalk between them play an important role in colorectal tumor. Helicteres angustifolia L. is a type of commonly used Chinese medicinal herb and possesses a wide variety of biological activities. In the present study, we investigate the effects of three triterpenes from H. angustifolia (HT) such as helicteric acid (HA), oleanic acid (OA), and betulinic acid (BA), on inhibiting CRC progression. Our results showed that HT extracts could decrease proliferation and induce apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, HT extracts could suppress LPS-triggered phosphorylation of IKK, IκB, and NF-κB, attenuate IL-6-induced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3, and suppress the expression of c-Myc, cyclin-D1, and BCL-xL, the downstream gene targets of NF-κB and STAT3. Therefore, HT extracts showed potent therapeutic and antitumor effects on CRC via inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 signaling. PMID:28331523

  2. Gold nanoparticles in combination with megavoltage radiation energy increased radiosensitization and apoptosis in colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Alihossein; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mahdi; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin; Baharlouei, Azam; Arab-Bafrani, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) act as a radiosensitizer in radiation therapy. However, recent studies have shown contradictory evidence in terms of radiosensitization in the presence of GNP combined with X-ray megavoltage energy (MV) on different cell types. In this study, the effect of GNP on radiosensitization enhancement of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells at MV X-ray energy was evaluated. The cytotoxicity and radiosensitization of GNP were evaluated in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells by MTS-assay and multiple MTS-assay, respectively. Cellular uptake was assayed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were determined by an Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) kit and PI/RNase solution with flow cytometry, respectively. Results showed that the cell viability of the HT-29 cells was not influenced by exposure to different concentrations of GNP (10-100 μM). GNP alone did not affect the cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In contrast, GNP, in combination with radiation (9 MV), induced more apoptosis. The interaction of GNP with MV energy resulted in a significant radiosensitization enhancement compared with irradiation alone. It was concluded that GNP may work as bio-inert material on HT-29 cancer cells and their enhancement of radiosensitization may be due to increase in the absorbed irradiation dose.

  3. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-09-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti‑cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti‑cancer effect of fucoidan on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 µg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT‑29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 in a dose‑dependent manner (0‑200 µg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti‑cancer effect on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells.

  4. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Flavokawain C on HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma via Enhancement of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, Upregulation of p21, p27, and GADD153, and Inactivation of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins.

    PubMed

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-07-01

    Chalcones have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties by targeting multiple molecular pathways. It was, therefore, of interest to investigate flavokawain C (FKC), a naturally occurring chalcone, which can be isolated from Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root extract. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of FKC on the growth of HT-29 cells and its underlying mechanism of action. Cell viability of HT-29 cells was assessed by Sulforhodamine B assay after FKC treatment. Induction of apoptosis was examined by established morphological and biochemical assays. ROS generation was determined by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence staining, and superoxide dismutase activity was measured using the spectrophotometric method. Western blotting was used to examine the changes in the protein levels. FKC markedly decreased the cell viability of HT-29 cells and the cells showed dramatic changes in cellular and nuclear morphologies with typical apoptotic features. The induction of apoptosis correlated well with the externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases, and PARP cleavage. This was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in SOD activity. The protein levels of XIAP, c-IAP1, and c-IAP2 were downregulated, whereas the GADD153 was upregulated after FKC treatment. FKC induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2/M phases via upregulation of p21 and p27 in a p53-independent manner. Our results provide evidence that FKC has the potential to be developed into chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of colon adenocarcinoma. Flavokawain C inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cellsFlavokawain C induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in SOD activityFlavokawain C induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2/M phases via upregulation of p21 and p27 in HT-29 cellsHT-29 cells

  5. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits TNF-α-induced release of high-mobility group box 1 through activation of HDAC in human intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jin-Hua; Seo, Geom Seog; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sung Hee

    2017-02-05

    The suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced inflammation responses is an attractive pharmacological target for the development of therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) in intestinal epithelial cells and determined its mechanism of action. ISL suppressed the expression of inflammatory molecules, including IL-8, IL-1β and COX-2, in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells. Moreover, ISL induced activation of Nrf2 and expression of its target genes, such as HO-1 and NQO1. ISL also inhibited the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in HT-29 cells. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is one of the critical mediators of inflammation, is actively secreted from inflammatory cytokine-stimulated immune or non-immune cells. ISL inhibited HMGB1 secretion by preventing TNF-α-stimulated HMGB1 relocation, whereas the RNA and protein expression levels of cellular HMGB1 did not change in response to TNF-α or ISL. Moreover, we found that HMGB1 acetylation was associated with HMGB1 translocation to the cytoplasm and the extracellular release in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells; however, ISL significantly decreased the amount of acetylated HMGB1 in both the cytoplasm and extracellular space of HT-29 cells. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition by Scriptaid abrogated ISL-induced HDAC activity and reversed the ISL-mediated decrease in acetylated HMGB1 release in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells, suggesting that, at least in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells, ISL suppresses acetylated HMGB1 release via the induction of HDAC activity. Together, the current results suggest that inhibition of HMGB1 release via the induction of HDAC activity using ISL may be a promising therapeutic intervention for IBD.

  6. AT7867 Inhibits Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via AKT-Dependent and AKT-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chen; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Shibing; Li, Xiangcheng

    2017-01-01

    AKT is often hyper-activated in human colorectal cancers (CRC). This current study evaluated the potential anti-CRC activity by AT7867, a novel AKT and p70S6K1 (S6K1) dual inhibitor. We showed that AT7867 inhibited survival and proliferation of established (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1 lines) and primary human CRC cells. Meanwhile, it provoked caspase-dependent apoptosis in the CRC cells. Molecularly, AT7867 blocked AKT-S6K1 activation in CRC cells. Restoring AKT-S6K1 activation, via expression of a constitutively-active AKT1 (“ca-AKT1”), only partially attenuated AT7867-induced HT-29 cell death. Further studies demonstrated that AT7867 inhibited sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity to promote pro-apoptotic ceramide production in HT-29 cells. Such effects by AT7867 were independent of AKT inhibition. AT7867-indued ceramide production and subsequent HT-29 cell apoptosis were attenuated by co-treatment of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), but were potentiated with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor PDMP. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of AT7867 inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. AKT activation was also inhibited in AT7867-treated HT-29 tumors. Together, the preclinical results suggest that AT7867 inhibits CRC cells via AKT-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:28081222

  7. Quercetin-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells via inhibition of the Akt-CSN6-Myc signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Mei; Qian, Yayun; Dong, Xiaoyun; Gu, Hao; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Shiyu; Hisamitsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN) consists of a total of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) in mammalian cells. CSN6 may promote carcinogenesis by positively regulating v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) and MDM2 proto-oncogene stability, and is regarded as a potential target for cancer therapy. Quercetin has a substantial anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. It was determined that quercetin inhibited HT-29 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse were observed in the 50, 100 and 200 µM quercetin groups. The exposure of HT-29 cells to quercetin led to significant cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin reduced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt and increased CSN6 protein degradation; therefore, affecting the expression levels of Myc, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein. The overexpression of CSN6 reduced the effect of quercetin treatment on HT-29 cells, suggesting that quercetin-induced apoptosis may involve the Akt-CSN6-Myc signaling axis in HT-29 cells. PMID:27748879

  8. Role of Caveolin 1, E-Cadherin, Enolase 2 and PKCalpha on resistance to methotrexate in human HT29 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Selga, Elisabet; Morales, Cristina; Noé, Véronique; Peinado, Miguel A; Ciudad, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    Background Methotrexate is one of the earliest cytotoxic drugs used in cancer therapy, and despite the isolation of multiple other folate antagonists, methotrexate maintains its significant role as a treatment for different types of cancer and other disorders. The usefulness of treatment with methotrexate is limited by the development of drug resistance, which may be acquired through different ways. To get insights into the mechanisms associated with drug resistance and sensitization we performed a functional analysis of genes deregulated in methotrexate resistant cells, either due to its co-amplification with the dhfr gene or as a result of a transcriptome screening using microarrays. Methods Gene expression levels were compared between triplicate samples from either HT29 sensitive cells and resistant to 10-5 M MTX by hybridization to the GeneChip® HG U133 PLUS 2.0 from Affymetrix. After normalization, a list of 3-fold differentially expressed genes with a p-value < 0.05 including multiple testing correction (Benjamini and Hochberg false discovery rate) was generated. RT-Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression levels of selected genes and copy-number was determined by qPCR. Functional validations were performed either by siRNAs or by transfection of an expression plasmid. Results Genes adjacent to the dhfr locus and included in the 5q14 amplicon were overexpressed in HT29 MTX-resistant cells. Treatment with siRNAs against those genes caused a slight reduction in cell viability in both HT29 sensitive and resistant cells. On the other hand, microarray analysis of HT29 and HT29 MTX resistant cells unveiled overexpression of caveolin 1, enolase 2 and PKCα genes in resistant cells without concomitant copy number gain. siRNAs against these three genes effectively reduced cell viability and caused a decreased MTX resistance capacity. Moreover, overexpression of E-cadherin, which was found underexpressed in MTX-resistant cells, also sensitized the cells toward

  9. Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybean Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest through Downregulation of Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c in Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mollah, Mohammad Lalmoddin; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM) is an insect-borne fungus that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine because of its wide range of pharmacological activities. In this paper, we studied CM grown on germinated soybean (GSC) and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying antiproliferative effect of GSC on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. In comparison with CM extracts and germinated soybean (GS) BuOH extracts, BuOH extracts of GSC showed remarkable inhibitory and antiproliferative effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells. After GSC treatment, HT-29 cells became smaller and irregular in shape. High G2/M phase cell populations were observed in the GSC-treated group. The levels of cyclin B1 and Cdc25 in the GSC-treated group were lower than those in the control group. These findings suggest that GSC BuOH extracts might act as an effective anti-proliferative agent by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells. PMID:22474493

  10. Cordyceps militaris Grown on Germinated Soybean Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest through Downregulation of Cyclin B1 and Cdc25c in Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Mollah, Mohammad Lalmoddin; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM) is an insect-borne fungus that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine because of its wide range of pharmacological activities. In this paper, we studied CM grown on germinated soybean (GSC) and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying antiproliferative effect of GSC on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. In comparison with CM extracts and germinated soybean (GS) BuOH extracts, BuOH extracts of GSC showed remarkable inhibitory and antiproliferative effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells. After GSC treatment, HT-29 cells became smaller and irregular in shape. High G2/M phase cell populations were observed in the GSC-treated group. The levels of cyclin B1 and Cdc25 in the GSC-treated group were lower than those in the control group. These findings suggest that GSC BuOH extracts might act as an effective anti-proliferative agent by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells.

  11. The effects of media on pharmaceutically relevant transporters in the human HT-29 adenocarcinoma cell line: does culture media need to be controlled?

    PubMed

    Lindley, David J; Roth, Wyatt J; Carl, Stephen M; Knipp, Gregory T

    2012-04-01

    The HT-29 cell line forms a confluent monolayer with tight junctions, but displays different phenotypes when cultured for 21 days in galactose-supplemented media (differentiated) versus glucose-supplemented media (dedifferentiated). This study is aimed at elucidating how media differences might affect selected drug transporter expression and peptide-based substrate transport toward reducing this variability. A vial of HT-29 cells was amplified and cultured over several passages in four different mediums (American Type Culture Collection recommended McCoy's 5A versus Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media containing glucose, galactose, or neither carbohydrate) with normal supplementation. Transporter mRNA expression was characterized at days 5 and 21 postseeding utilizing SABiosciences quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) drug transporter arrays. Transport studies using [H]histidine, [(3) H]glycylsarcosine, [(3) H]valacyclovir, and [(3) H]carnosine were performed to assess the functional effects of oligopeptide transporter expression changes in HT-29 cells grown in each media. qRT-PCR arrays illustrated variable, media-dependent transporter expression between both the initial and differentiated time points. Permeability studies illustrated considerable media-dependent differences in both paracellular and transcellular substrate fluxes. The results demonstrate that these cells exhibit differing monolayer characteristics and genotypic/phenotypic profile properties when cultured under different media. The results suggest a need for standardization of culture methodologies for reducing inter- and intralaboratory variability. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin . E-mail: chcho@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-06-15

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of {beta}-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-{beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an {alpha}7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and D{beta}H expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on {alpha}7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and {beta}-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role {alpha}7-nAChR and {beta}-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer.

  13. Annona muricata leaves induce G₁ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway in human HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Karimian, Hamed; Rouhollahi, Elham; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2014-10-28

    Annona muricata known as "the cancer killer" has been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anticancer properties of ethyl acetate extract of Annona muricata leaves (EEAM) on HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. The effect of EEAM on the cell proliferation of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells was analyzed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay. High content screening system (HCS) was applied to investigate the cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), nuclear condensation and cytochrome c translocation from mitochondria to cytosol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 were measured while treatment. Flow cytometric analysis was used to determine the cell cycle distribution and phosphatidylserine externalization. The protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was determined using immunofluorescence analysis. In addition, the potential of EEAM to suppress the migration and invasion of colon cancer cells was also examined. EEAM exerted significant cytotoxic effects on HCT-116 and HT-29 cells as determined by MTT and LDH assays. After 24 h treatment, EEAM exhibited the IC₅₀ value of 11.43 ± 1.87 µg/ml and 8.98 ± 1.24 µg/ml against HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and phosphatidylserine externalization confirming the induction of apoptosis. EEAM treatment caused excessive accumulation of ROS followed by disruption of MMP, cytochrome c leakage and activation of the initiator and executioner caspases in both colon cancer cells. Immunofluorescence analysis depicted the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins while treated with EEAM. Furthermore, EEAM conspicuously blocked the migration and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. These

  14. trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid induces depolarization of mitochondrial membranes in HT-29 human colon cancer cells: a possible mechanism for induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is naturally present in a variety of foods such as milk fat and the meat of ruminant animals, has been demonstrated to exert chemoprotective effects in several tissues in experimental animals. CLA is a collective term, which denotes one or more positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid, with cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) and trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10c12) being the principal isomers in commercial preparations. We observed previously that physiological levels of CLA inhibited HT-29 cell growth, and the growth inhibitory effects of CLA were attributed to the effect of t10c12, but not c9t11. In the present study, we assessed the mechanisms by which physiological levels of CLA and t10c12 induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cells were cultured for 3 days in serum-free medium in the presence of various concentrations of CLA (0-20 micromol/L) or t10c12 (0-4 micromol/L). Addition of CLA or t10c12 to culture medium resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the numbers of apoptotic cells. The results of western blot analysis of total cell lysates showed that CLA and t10c12 increased the levels of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase but did not alter the levels of Bcl-2 family member proteins. However, these fatty acids were shown to increase the translocation of Bad and Bax to the mitochondria, increase mitochondrial membrane permeability, and induce the release of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo from the mitochondria. In addition, CLA and t10c12 diminished Akt content and Akt phosphorylation. These findings indicate that physiological levels of t10c12 induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells, which is mediated via mitochondrion-mediated events associated with a decline in Akt activity, an increase in the translocation of the pro-apototic Bad and Bax to the mitochondria, and the subsequent disruption of normal mitochondrial membrane potential.

  15. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  16. Global metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Neil J; Lai, Lindsay; Wilkinson, Robert W; Odedra, Rajesh; Wilson, Ian D; Barnes, Alan J

    2013-06-07

    Reversed-phase gradient LC-MS was used to perform untargeted metabonomic analysis on extracts of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (COLO 205, HT-29, HCT 116 and SW620) subcutaneously implanted into age-matched athymic nude male mice to study small molecule metabolic profiles and examine possible correlations with human cancer biopsies. Following high mass accuracy data analysis using MS and MS/MS, metabolites were identified by searching against major metabolite databases including METLIN, MASSBANK, The Human Metabolome Database, PubChem, Biospider, LipidMaps and KEGG. HT-29 and COLO 205 tumor xenografts showed a distribution of metabolites that differed from SW620 and HCT 116 xenografts (predominantly on the basis of relative differences in the amounts of amino acids and lipids detected). This finding is consistent with NMR-based analysis of human colorectal tissue, where the metabolite profiles of HT-29 tumors exhibit the greatest similarity to human rectal cancer tissue with respect to changes in the relative amounts of lipids and choline-containing compounds. As the metabolic signatures of cancer cells result from oncogene-directed metabolic reprogramming, the HT-29 xenografts in mice may prove to be a useful model to further study the tumor microenvironment and cancer biology.

  17. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  18. Cladosporol a stimulates G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle by up-regulation of p21(waf1/cip1) expression in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, Diana; Leone, Cinzia; Assante, Gemma; Salzano, Salvatore; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Foresta, Caterina; Colantuoni, Vittorio; Lupo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Cladosporols, purified and characterized as secondary metabolites from Cladosporium tenuissimum, display an antifungal activity. In this study, we tested the antiproliferative properties of cladosporol A, the main isoform of this metabolite family, against human cancer cell lines. By assessing cell viability, we found that cladosporol A inhibits the growth of various human colon cancers derived cell lines (HT-29, SW480, and CaCo-2) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, specifically of HT-29  cells. The reduced cell proliferation was due to a G1-phase arrest, as assessed by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis on synchronized HT-29  cells, and was associated with an early and robust over-expression of p21(waf1/cip1) , the well-known cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor. This suggests that the drug may play a role in the control of cancer cell proliferation. Consistently, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4 proteins were reduced and histone H1-associated CDK2 kinase activity inhibited. In addition to p21(waf1/cip1) , exposure to 20 µM cladosporol A caused a simultaneous increase of pERK and pJNK, suggesting that this drug activates a circuit that integrates cell cycle regulation and the signaling pathways both involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation. Finally, we showed that the increase of p21(waf1/cip1) expression was generated by a Sp1-dependent p53-independent stimulation of its gene transcription as mutagenesis of the Sp1 binding sites located in the p21 proximal promoter abolished induction. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that cladosporol A inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation by modulating p21(waf1/cip1) expression. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Micropropagation effect on the anti-carcinogenic activitiy of polyphenolics from Mexican oregano (Poliomintha glabrescens Gray) in human colon cancer cells HT-29.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Enrique; Noratto, Giuliana D; García-Lara, Silverio; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic extracts obtained from spices are known to have anti-carcinogenic activities but little is known about the effect of micropropagation on these beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of flavonoid-enriched extracts (FEE) from the leaves of wild (WT), in vitro (IN), and ex vitro (EX) grown oregano plants in colon cancer cells HT-29 and the non-cancer cells CCD-18Co. Cell proliferation of HT-29 cells was reduced to 50 % by WT, IN, and EX at concentrations of 4.01, 1.32, and 4.84 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L, respectively. In contrast, in CCD-18Co cells, higher concentrations were required for the same cytotoxic effect. At 6 mg GAE/L, WT and IN reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated control cells to 59.89 and 59.43 %, respectively, and EX to 73.89 %. The mRNA of Caspase-3 was increased 1.53-fold when cells were treated with 4 mg GAE/L of IN extract, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) mRNA increased 2.55 and 1.53 fold, respectively. Results on protein expression corroborated the apoptotic effects with a significant decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression for all treatments but more remarkable for EX that also showed the most intense signal of BAX. Overall, FEE extracts derived from micropropagation had increased pro-apoptotic effects, however extracts from the in vitro plants produced more efficacy at the transcriptional level while extracts from the ex vitro plant were superior at the traductional level.

  20. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 inhibits multidrug resistance and c-Myc-dependent aggressiveness in colorectal cancer Caco-2 and HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lei; Liu, Xiangyu; Tang, Yichao; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Jilong; Liu, Huayan

    2017-09-07

    The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) prostate cancer-associated ncRNA transcript 1 (PCAT-1) has been shown to promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through c-Myc and is associated with the poor prognosis of CRC patients. In the current study, it was hypothesized that the effect of PCAT-1 on the aggressiveness of CRC cells was dependent on the function of c-Myc. Human CRC cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29 were transfected with specific PCAT-1 shRNAs, and cell migration, invasiveness, and resistance to 5-fluorouracil were measured. To elucidate the role of c-Myc in PCAT-1 function, c-Myc was overexpressed in PCAT-1-silenced CRC cells and the effect of c-Myc overexpression on the aggressiveness of PCAT-1-silenced cells was detected. The results showed that knockdown of PCAT-1 in CRC cells suppressed cell motility and invasiveness, and sensitized the cells to 5-fluorouracil, as evidenced by the reduced viability and induced apoptosis in PCAT-1-silenced cells compared to the parental cells in response to 5-fluorouracil treatment. The expression of c-Myc in PCAT-1-silenced CRC cells was down-regulated, and forced expression of c-Myc partially restored the invasiveness in PCAT-1-silenced cells. In summary, the findings outlined in the current study suggest that PCAT-1 regulates the invasiveness and drug resistance in CRC cells and that PCAT-1 may promote CRC cell invasion by modulating the expression of c-Myc.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  2. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  3. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  4. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  5. Phloroglucinol induces apoptosis via apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KANG, MI-HYE; KIM, IN-HYE; NAM, TAEK-JEO NG

    2014-01-01

    Phloroglucinol is a polyphenolic compound that is used to treat and prevent several human diseases, as it exerts beneficial biological activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of phloroglucinol on apoptotic signaling pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that phloroglucinol suppressed cell viability and induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Phloroglucinol treatment of HT-29 cells resulted in characteristic apoptosis-related changes: altered Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This study also showed that proteins involved in apoptosis were stimulated by treatment with phloroglucinol. These findings demonstrated that phloroglucinol exerts anticancer activity in HT-29 colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. PMID:25070748

  6. Synthetic Bichalcone TSWU-BR23 Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells by p53-Mediated Mitochondrial Oligomerization of BAX/BAK and Lipid Raft Localization of CD95/FADD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Chen, Shih-Shun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-10-01

    A synthetic bichalcone analog, (E)-1-(3-((4-(4-acetylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (TSWU-BR23), has been shown to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells involving the induction of CD95 and FAS-associated protein death domain (FADD), but its precise mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Using cell-surface biotinylation and sucrose density-gradient-based membrane flotation techniques, we showed that the disruption of TSWU-BR23-induced lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD by cholesterol-depleting agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) was reversed by cholesterol replenishment. Blockade of p53 expression by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed oligomeric Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis but did not inhibit lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD and pro-caspase-8 cleavage induced by TSWU-BR23. Co-expression of p53 shRNA and dominant-negative mutant of FADD completely inhibited TSWU-BR32-induced mitochondrial apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TSWU-BR23 leads to HT-29 cell apoptosis by inducing p53-mediated mitochondrial oligomerization of BAX/BAK and the localization of CD95/FADD with lipid rafts at the cell surface. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Ursolic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells by inhibiting the EGFR/MAPK pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jian-zhen; Xuan, Yan-yan; Zheng, Shu; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Su-zhan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of ursolic acid on the proliferation and apoptosis of human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the effects of ursolic acid on the growth and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. Western blot analysis was applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and the activity of B cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), B cell leukemia-xL (Bcl-xL), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Results: Ursolic acid inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values for 24, 48, and 72 h treatment were 26, 20, and 18 μmol/L, respectively. The apoptotic rates of 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L ursolic acid treatments for 24 h were 5.74%, 14.49%, and 33.05%, and for 48 h were 9%, 21.39%, and 40.49%, respectively. Ursolic acid suppressed the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK, which is well correlated with its growth inhibitory effect. 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L ursolic acid significantly inhibited the proliferation of EGF-stimulated HT-29 cells (P<0.05). Cell proliferation was most significantly inhibited when treated with 10 and 20 μmol/L ursolic acid combined with 200 nmol/L AG 1478 or 10 μmol/L U0126 (P<0.01). Besides, it also down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: Ursolic acid induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells by suppressing the EGFR/MAPK pathway, suggesting that it may be a potent agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:19735099

  8. Different responses of Fe transporters in Caco2/HT29-MTX cocultures than in independent Caco-2 cell cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The human intestinal epithelium is composed of several cell types; mainly enterocytes and globet (mucin-secreting) cells. This study compares the cellular response for Fe transporters in Caco-2, HT29-MTX, and Caco-2/HT29-MTX coculture models for Fe bioavailability studies. Under culture, Caco-2 cell...

  9. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, A.; Ghannadi, A.; Mohebi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents. PMID:25657780

  10. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  11. Control of the human osteopontin promoter by ERRα in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boudjadi, Salah; Bernatchez, Gérald; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Carrier, Julie C

    2013-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer. Osteopontin (OPN) is a component of tumor extracellular matrix identified as a key marker of cancer progression. The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) has been implicated in endocrine-related cancer development and progression, possibly through modulation of cellular energy metabolism. Previous reports that ERRα regulates OPN expression in bone prompted us to investigate whether ERRα controls OPN expression in human colorectal cancer. Using a tissue microarray containing 83 tumor-normal tissue pairs of colorectal cancer samples, we found that tumor epithelial cells displayed higher staining for ERRα than normal mucosa, in correlation with elevated OPN expression. In addition, knocking down endogenous ERRα led to reduced OPN expression in HT29 colon cancer cells. Promoter analysis, inhibition of ERRα activity, and expression and mutation of potential ERRα response elements in the proximal promoter of human OPN showed that ERRα and its obligate co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1 α, positively control human OPN promoter activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed in vivo occupancy of the OPN promoter by ERRα in HT29 cells, suggesting that OPN is a direct target of ERRα in colorectal cancer. These findings suggest an additional mechanism by which ERRα participates in the development and progression of colorectal cancer, further supporting the relevance of targeting ERRα with antagonists as anticancer agents.

  12. Adhesion of bile-adapted Bifidobacterium strains to the HT29-MTX cell line is modified after sequential gastrointestinal challenge simulated in vitro using human gastric and duodenal juices.

    PubMed

    de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Suárez, Adolfo; Fernández-García, María; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    According to the FAO/WHO, in vitro criteria for selection of probiotics for food application consist of testing survival when confronted with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) challenge and the ability to colonize the colon. We used a model that simulated GIT transit using sequential immersion in gastric and duodenal juices of human origin to evaluate survival of bile-adapted Bifidobacterium strains. Bifidobacterium animalis tolerated gastric juice, whereas Bifidobacterium longum showed poor survival under these conditions. In contrast, B. animalis strains were more sensitive to duodenal juice than B. longum. The percentage of survival after GIT transit simulation (GITTS), determined both by plate counts and fluorescent probes, was significantly higher for bile-adapted strains than for corresponding parental ones. This suggests that use of bile-adapted strains is a suitable approach for increasing survival of bifidobacteria under the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. However, the bile resistance phenotype was not related to improvement of adhesion capacity, after GITTS, of the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX which constitutively produces mucus. This work shows that sequential GITTS with human juices modified the in vitro adhesion properties of the strains challenged with colonocyte-like cells.

  13. Cell line-dependent cytotoxicity of poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles coated with chitosan and thiolated chitosan: Insights from cultured human epithelial HeLa, Caco2/TC7 and HT-29/MTX cells.

    PubMed

    Pradines, Bénédicte; Lievin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Vauthier, Christine; Ponchel, Gilles; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles composed of poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) core coated with a mixture of chitosan and thiolated chitosan have already shown promising results in terms of mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement properties of pharmaceutical active drugs delivered via mucosal routes. In the present work, the cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles was first investigated using direct contact assay on undifferentiated human cervix epithelial HeLa cells. The results showed strong toxicity in HeLa cells for the two investigated concentrations 25 and 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxic effect was mainly attributed to the poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) core since no significant differences in nanoparticle cytotoxicity were reported when nanoparticle shell composition was modified by adding chitosan or thiolated chitosan. In contrast, lower nanoparticle toxicity was reported using human fully-differentiated enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7, and fully-differentiated mucus-secreting HT-29/MTX cells forming monolayer in culture mimicking an intestinal epithelial barrier. This study demonstrated that the toxicity of poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles is highly cell line-dependent.

  14. Induction of apoptosis of 2,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    2,4',6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins.

  15. New tungstenocenes containing 3-hydroxy-4-pyrone ligands: antiproliferative activity on HT-29 and MCF-7 cell lines and binding to human serum albumin studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-García, Moralba; Ortega-Zúñiga, Carlos; Meléndez, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Three new water-soluble tungstenocene derivatives were synthesized and characterized using 3-hydroxy-4-pyrone ligands, which provide aqueous stability to the complexes. The antiproliferative activities of the complexes on HT-29 colon cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and showed the new tungstenocene derivatives have higher antiproliferative action than tungstenocene dichloride (Cp2WCl2, where Cp is cyclopentadienyl). The binding interactions of the tungstenocenes with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. Analysis of the fluorescence quenching spectra indicates that the tungstenocene complexes bind HSA by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding at fatty acid binding site 6 and drug binding site II. Docking studies provided a description of the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding by which the tungstenocenes become engaged with HSA. It was determined that the binding affinity of the tungstenoecenes for HSA is in the order Cp2WCl2 < [Cp2W(ethyl maltolato)]Cl < [Cp2W (maltolato)]Cl < [Cp2W(kojato)]Cl, consistent with the hydrophobic interactions and the number of hydrogen bonds involved. PMID:23212785

  16. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19).

  17. Characterization of a profile of the anthocyanins isolated from Vitis coignetiae Pulliat and their anti-invasive activity on HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong Won; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Min Jeong; Lu, Jing Nan; Kang, Myung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Kim, Dong Chul; Choi, Eun Ju; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Kim, Gonsup; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Ock Jin; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    We isolated anthocyanins from fruits of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat, characterized the anthocyanin profile, and investigated the anti-invasive effects of the anthocyanins on human colon cancer cells. The anthocyanins inhibited cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by Matrigel invasion assays, by suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. The anti-invasive activity of the anthocyanins was associated with modulation of constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. The activation of NF-kappaB triggered by tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also inhibited by the anthocyanins through suppression IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. AIMs inhibited the expression of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins. In conclusion, this study suggested that the anthocyanins isolated from fruits of V. coignetiae Pulliat should have anti-invasive activities on human colon cancer cells and the activities should be related to the inhibition of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potent in vivo anticancer activity and stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) xenografted mice.

    PubMed

    Sainakham, Mathukorn; Manosroi, Aranya; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo anticancer activity and stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) extracts (S5L), prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid technique, on human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) xenografted mice were investigated. For the stability and the physicochemical characteristics, S5L showed a high stability of pH, good dispersibility, small particle size and stable zeta potential. Liposomes can protect linoleic acid in the extract comparing with the free S5. S5L kept at 4 °C for 3 months showed the highest linoleic acid content of 63.50%, whereas at 45 °C, the lowest linoleic acid content of 42.66% was observed. The anticancer activity and toxicity on xenografted mice were observed for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, the relative tumor volume (RTV) in the S5L-treated xenografted mice showed a significant RTV reduction. The high dose of S5 and S5L were potent with the highest inhibition of tumor growth of 48.67 and 54.75%, which was 86.94% and 97.81% of 5-fluorouracil, respectively. The apoptotic activity was shown in xenografted mice treated with S5 at medium and high dose, S5L, 5-fluorouracil and commercial product. All treated xenografted mice showed no toxic signs and symptoms, abnormality of internal organs histopathology and blood chemistry. This study has demonstrated the high physicochemical stability of liposomes encapsulated with semi-purified Job's tear extract and their potent anticancer activity on human colon adenocarcinoma xenografted model with the potential for further development to anticolon cancer drug.

  19. Genistein Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Proliferation of HT29 Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Gholamreza; Saidijam, Massoud; Tavilani, Heidar; Ghasemkhani, Neda; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Soybean isoflavone genistein has multiple anticancer properties and its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects have been studied in different cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of action of genistein and its molecular targets on human colon cells have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, caspase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) as the main therapeutic targets were investigated in this study at both gene expression and protein levels in HT29 colon cancer cells. The caspase-3 and p38 MAPK gene expression levels were examined by real time PCR whereas flow cytometry technique was performed to determine their intracellular protein levels. The caspase-3 enzyme activity was obtained by colorimetric method while the gelatinase activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was determined by zymography. In addition, MTT test, wound healing assay and clonogenic assay were carried out to determine the effect of genistein on HT29 cell viability, migration, and proliferation, respectively. Genistein induced apoptotic death in HT29 cells through activation of caspase-3 pathway at the transcriptional, protein, and enzymatic levels. Moreover, genistein inhibited the proliferation of HT29 cells by reducing of both p38 MAPK gene expression and its active phosphorylated protein level. Also, we showed that genistein strongly suppressed the metastatic potency of HT29 colon cancer cells via the reduction of MMP2 activity. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that genistein may exhibit its anticancer properties on HT29 colon cancer cells by modulating caspase-3 and p38 MAPK pathway at different transcriptional and protein levels. PMID:27942504

  20. p62/sequestosome 1 in human colorectal carcinoma as a potent prognostic predictor associated with cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shun; Karasawa, Hideaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Aizawa, Takashi; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Mika; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Morikawa, Takanori; Sase, Tomohiko; Naitoh, Takeshi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2017-06-01

    p62/sequestosome 1 (p62) is a multi-domain protein that functions as a receptor for ubiquitinated targets in the selective autophagy and serves as a scaffold in various signaling cascades. p62 have been reported to be up-regulated in several human malignancies, but the biological roles and significance of p62 are still poorly understood in colorectal carcinoma. We immunohistochemically evaluated p62 in 118 colorectal adenocarcinoma and 28 colorectal adenoma cases. We used four colon carcinoma cells (HCT8, HT29, COLO320, and SW480) in the in vitro studies. p62 immunoreactivity was detected in 11% of colorectal adenoma cases and 31% of adenocarcinoma cases, while it was negligible in the normal epithelium. The immunohistochemical p62 status was significantly associated with synchronous liver metastasis, and it turned out to be an independent adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients. Following in vitro studies revealed that HCT8 and HT29 cells transfected with p62-specific siRNA showed significantly decreased cell proliferation activity, whereas COLO320 and SW480 cells transfected with p62 expression plasmid showed significantly increased cell proliferation activity. The p62-mediated cell proliferation was not associated with the autophagy activity. These findings suggest that p62 promotes the cell proliferation mainly as a scaffold protein, and that the p62 status is a potent prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Principal component analysis for the comparison of metabolic profiles from human rectal cancer biopsies and colorectal xenografts using high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seierstad, Therese; Røe, Kathrine; Sitter, Beathe; Halgunset, Jostein; Flatmark, Kjersti; Ree, Anne H; Olsen, Dag Rune; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Bathen, Tone F

    2008-04-25

    This study was conducted in order to elucidate metabolic differences between human rectal cancer biopsies and colorectal HT29, HCT116 and SW620 xenografts by using high-resolution magnetic angle spinning (MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and for determination of the most appropriate human rectal xenograft model for preclinical MR spectroscopy studies. A further aim was to investigate metabolic changes following irradiation of HT29 xenografts. HR MAS MRS of tissue samples from xenografts and rectal biopsies were obtained with a Bruker Avance DRX600 spectrometer and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. HR MAS MRS enabled assignment of 27 metabolites. Score plots from PCA of spin-echo and single-pulse spectra revealed separate clusters of the different xenografts and rectal biopsies, reflecting underlying differences in metabolite composition. The loading profile indicated that clustering was mainly based on differences in relative amounts of lipids, lactate and choline-containing compounds, with HT29 exhibiting the metabolic profile most similar to human rectal cancers tissue. Due to high necrotic fractions in the HT29 xenografts, radiation-induced changes were not detected when comparing spectra from untreated and irradiated HT29 xenografts. However, PLS calibration relating spectral data to the necrotic fraction revealed a significant correlation, indicating that necrotic fraction can be assessed from the MR spectra.

  2. Induction of Apoptosis of 2,4′,6-Trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2014-01-01

    2,4′,6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins. PMID:24579081

  3. Alisertib Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppresses EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Da-Jian; Ju, Yong-Le; Wu, Jin-Hao; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alisertib (ALS) is a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor with unclear effect and molecular interactome on CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome and anticancer effect of ALS and explore the underlying mechanisms in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. ALS markedly arrested cells in G2/M phase in both cell lines, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression level of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced apoptosis in HT29 and Caco-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. ALS also induced autophagy in HT29 and Caco-2 cells, with the suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. There was a differential modulating effect of ALS on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in both cell lines. Moreover, induction or inhibition of autophagy modulated basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. ALS potently suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, it suggests that induction of cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and autophagy, and suppression of EMT involving mitochondrial, death receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways contribute to the cancer cell killing effect of ALS on CRC cells. PMID:26729093

  4. The influence of TNF-alpha on concentration of soluble adhesion molecules in cultures of HT-29 cells exposed to inositol hexaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Parfiniewicz, Beata; Pendzich, Joanna; Kapral, Małgorzata; Bednarek, Ilona; Weglarz, Ludmiła

    2012-01-01

    The latest studies suggest that adhesion molecules are involved in the arising of malignant changes and in distant metastasis induction. The soluble forms of several adhesion molecules, have recently emerged as novel and potentially useful tumor markers. Among a number of identified, high interest wake soluble molecules similar to the immunoglobulin -- soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble E-cadherin (sE-cadherin). In the present work, the authors concentrate on one tumor type, colorectal carcinoma, in which distant metastases, are the main cause of failure, in spite of surgical curing of the primary tumor. It is known that TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor - alpha) serum concentration of patients with cancer is raised. The changes in soluble adhesion molecules concentrations in serum and others fluids, could be modulated by many different factors affecting cancer cells. In the case of colon cancer one of the factors is a high-fiber diet, containing an anti-cancer chemical, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of TNF-alpha on the concentration of sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin in the microenvironment of HT-29 malignant epithelial colorectal cells stimulated with IP6. Additonally, adhesive property of HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line to collagen I was estimated. The HT-29 cells were treated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL - estimation of sICAM and sE-cadherin concentration; 100 ng/mL - adhesion assay), IP6 (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM) and TNF-alpha in combination with IP6. The level of sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin in cultures of HT-29 cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems), and adhesion of the cells to collagen I was investigated by Cyquant Proliferation Assay Kit. The present findings demonstrate that TNF-alpha and inositol hexaphosphate have an effect on the sICAM-1 and sE-cadherin concentration in cultures of HT-29 cells. IP6 at a concentration of 2.0 mM induced a

  5. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Singh, Rana P; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2006-10-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest the beneficial effects of fruit-and-vegetable consumption in lowering the risk of various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Herein, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of proanthocyanidins, against colorectal cancer. Effects of GSE were examined on human colorectal cancer HT29 and LoVo cells in culture for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The in vivo effect of oral GSE was examined on HT29 tumor xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. Xenografts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for proliferation and apoptosis. The molecular changes associated with the biological effects of GSE were analyzed by Western blot analysis. GSE (25-100 microg/mL) causes a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth with concomitant increase in cell death. GSE induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest along with a marked increase in Cip1/p21 protein level and a decrease in G1 phase-associated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. GSE-induced cell death was apoptotic and accompanied by caspase-3 activation. GSE feeding to mice at 200 mg/kg dose showed time-dependent inhibition of tumor growth without any toxicity and accounted for 44% decrease in tumor volume per mouse after 8 weeks of treatment. GSE inhibited cell proliferation but increased apoptotic cell death in tumors. GSE-treated tumors also showed enhanced Cip1/p21 protein levels and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. GSE may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer, and that growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of GSE against colorectal cancer could be mediated via an up-regulation of Cip1/p21.

  6. Potential chemoprevention activity of pterostilbene by enhancing the detoxifying enzymes in the HT-29 cell line.

    PubMed

    Harun, Zaliha; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2012-01-01

    Detoxifying enzymes are present in most epithelial cells of the human gastrointestinal tract where they protect against xenobiotics which may cause cancer. Induction of examples such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and its thiol conjugate, glutathione (GSH) as well as NAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductase (NQO1) facilitate the excretion of carcinogens and thus preventing colon carcinogenesis. Pterostilbene, an analogue of resveratrol, has demonstrated numerous pharmacological activities linked with chemoprevention. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of pterostilbene as a chemopreventive agent using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line to study the modulation of GST and NQO1 activities as well as the GSH level. Initially, our group, established the optimum dose of 24 hours pterostilbene treatment using MTT assays. Then, effects of pterostilbene (0-50 μM) on GST and NQO1 activity and GSH levels were determined using GST, NQO1 and Ellman assays, respectively. MTT assay of pterostilbene (0-100 μM) showed no cytotoxicity toward the HT-29 cell line. Treatment increased GST activity in the cell line significantly (p<0.05) at 12.5 and 25.0 μM. In addition, treatment at 50 μM increased the GSH level significantly (p<0.05). Pterostilbene also enhanced NQO1 activity significantly (p<0.05) at 12.5 μM and 50 μM. Hence, pterostilbene is a potential chemopreventive agent capable of modulation of detoxifiying enzyme levels in HT-29 cells.

  7. The Effects of Bifidobacterium breve on Immune Mediators and Proteome of HT29 Cells Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Arboleya, Silvia; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25793196

  8. Usefulness of Caco-2/HT29-MTX and Caco-2/HT29-MTX/Raji B Coculture Models To Predict Intestinal and Colonic Permeability Compared to Caco-2 Monoculture.

    PubMed

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; Araújo, Francisca; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival; Sarmento, Bruno

    2017-04-03

    The Caco-2 cellular monolayer is a widely accepted in vitro model to predict human permeability but suffering from several and critical limitations. Therefore, some alternative cell cultures to mimic the human intestinal epithelium, as closely as possible, have been developed to achieve more physiological conditions, as the Caco-2/HT29-MTX coculture and the triple Caco-2/HT29-MTX/Raji B models. In this work the permeability of 12 model drugs of different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) characteristics, in the coculture and triple coculture models was assessed. Additionally, the utility of both models to classify compounds according to the BCS criteria was scrutinized. The obtained results suggested that the coculture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX and the triple coculture of Caco-2/HT29-MTX/Raji B were useful models to predict intestinal permeability and to classify the drugs in high or low permeability according to BCS. Moreover, to study thoroughly the transport mechanism of a specific drug, using a more complex model than Caco-2 monocultures is more suitable because coculture and triple coculture are more physiological models, so the results obtained with them will be closer to those obtained in the human intestine.

  9. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected with Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Muneyasu; He, Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing DN(dominant-negative)Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Materials and Methods Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 MOI) and irradiated with single doses or 0-5 doses of 3 Gy with 6 h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing 100% N2. Cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after (final) irradiation, and cell survival determined by colony formation. Survival data were fitted to L-Q model or exponential line. Results Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of HCT8 and HT29 cells. Virus enhancement ratio (VER) for single dose irradiation at surviving fraction of 0.1 was ~1.3 for both oxic and hypoxic HCT8, and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. Similar VER of 1.2–1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses but these values were smaller than values found for DNKu70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference is discussed. The OERs for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses were 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus-infection slightly altered them. Conclusion Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing DNKu70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple doses. PMID:20510198

  10. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected With Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Muneyasu; He Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 multiplicity of infection), and irradiated with a single dose or zero to five doses of 3 Gy each at 6-h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing with 100% nitrogen gas. The cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after the final irradiation, and cell survival was determined by colony formation. The survival data were fitted to linear-quadratic model or exponential line. Results: Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of the HCT8 and HT29 cells. The virus enhancement ratio for single-dose irradiation at a surviving fraction of 0.1 was {approx}1.3 for oxic and hypoxic HCT8 and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. A similar virus enhancement ratio of 1.2-1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses; however, these values were smaller than the values found for dominant-negative Ku70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference has been discussed. The oxygen enhancement ratio for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses was 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus infection altered them slightly. Conclusion: Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple radiation doses.

  11. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa Extract on Apoptosis Triggered by Oxaliplatin Exposure on HT29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Liliane Z.; Farias, Iria Luiza G.; Rigo, Melânia L.; Glanzner, Werner G.; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard D.; Cadoná, Francine C.; Cruz, Ivana B.; Farias, Júlia G.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Franco, Luzia; Bertol, Gustavo; Colpo, Elisangela; Brites, Patricia C.; Rocha, João Batista T.; Leal, Daniela B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The use of herbal products as a supplement to minimize the effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment requires further attention with respect to the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy. Uncaria tomentosa extract, which contains oxindole alkaloids, is one of these herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Uncaria tomentosa extract modulates apoptosis induced by chemotherapy exposure. Materials and Methods. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cells) were grown in the presence of oxaliplatin and/or Uncaria tomentosa extract. Results. The hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, with an increase in the percentage of Annexin positive cells, an increase in caspase activities, and an increase of DNA fragments in culture of the neoplastic cells. Moreover, antioxidant activity may be related to apoptosis. Conclusion. Uncaria tomentosa extract has a role for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. Further studies evaluating these beneficial effects with other chemotherapy drugs are recommended. PMID:25505920

  12. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa Extract on Apoptosis Triggered by Oxaliplatin Exposure on HT29 Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliane Z; Farias, Iria Luiza G; Rigo, Melânia L; Glanzner, Werner G; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard D; Cadoná, Francine C; Cruz, Ivana B; Farias, Júlia G; Duarte, Marta M M F; Franco, Luzia; Bertol, Gustavo; Colpo, Elisangela; Brites, Patricia C; Rocha, João Batista T; Leal, Daniela B R

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The use of herbal products as a supplement to minimize the effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment requires further attention with respect to the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy. Uncaria tomentosa extract, which contains oxindole alkaloids, is one of these herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Uncaria tomentosa extract modulates apoptosis induced by chemotherapy exposure. Materials and Methods. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cells) were grown in the presence of oxaliplatin and/or Uncaria tomentosa extract. Results. The hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, with an increase in the percentage of Annexin positive cells, an increase in caspase activities, and an increase of DNA fragments in culture of the neoplastic cells. Moreover, antioxidant activity may be related to apoptosis. Conclusion. Uncaria tomentosa extract has a role for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. Further studies evaluating these beneficial effects with other chemotherapy drugs are recommended.

  13. Effect of a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent containing a combination of trifluridine, tipiracil and the novel triple angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib, on human colorectal cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Norihiko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Takechi, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) is a combination drug that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was formerly known as TAS-102. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical compounds, trifluridine, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, which enhances the bioavailability of trifluridine in vivo. TFTD is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is resistant to standard therapies. In the present study, the anticancer effects of trifluridine in combination with nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor, on human colorectal cancer cell lines were investigated. The cytotoxicity against DLD-1, HT-29, and HCT116 cell lines was determined by the crystal violet staining method. The combination of trifluridine and nintedanib exerted an additive effect on the growth inhibition of DLD-1 and HT-29 cells and a sub-additive effect on HCT116 cells, as determined by isobologram analyses. Subsequently, the human colorectal cancer cell lines were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to allow the evaluation of the in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effects of TFTD and nintedanib combination therapy. TFTD (150 mg/kg/day) and/or nintedanib (40 mg/kg/day) were orally administered to the mice twice daily from day 1 to day 14. The tumor growth inhibition with combination therapy was 61.5, 72.8, 67.6 and 67.5% for the DLD-1, DLD-1/5-FU, HT-29, and HCT116 xenografts, respectively. This was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the effects of monotherapy with either TFTD or nintedanib. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the combination of TFTD and nintedanib in the treatment of colorectal cancer xenografts. The concentration of trifluridine incorporated into DNA in the HT-29 and HCT116 tumors was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The incorporation levels following treatment with TFTD and nintedanib for 14 consecutive days were higher than

  14. Effect of a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent containing a combination of trifluridine, tipiracil and the novel triple angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib, on human colorectal cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Norihiko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Takechi, Teiji

    2016-12-01

    Trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) is a combination drug that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was formerly known as TAS-102. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical compounds, trifluridine, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, which enhances the bioavailability of trifluridine in vivo. TFTD is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is resistant to standard therapies. In the present study, the anticancer effects of trifluridine in combination with nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor, on human colorectal cancer cell lines were investigated. The cytotoxicity against DLD-1, HT-29, and HCT116 cell lines was determined by the crystal violet staining method. The combination of trifluridine and nintedanib exerted an additive effect on the growth inhibition of DLD-1 and HT-29 cells and a sub-additive effect on HCT116 cells, as determined by isobologram analyses. Subsequently, the human colorectal cancer cell lines were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to allow the evaluation of the in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effects of TFTD and nintedanib combination therapy. TFTD (150 mg/kg/day) and/or nintedanib (40 mg/kg/day) were orally administered to the mice twice daily from day 1 to day 14. The tumor growth inhibition with combination therapy was 61.5, 72.8, 67.6 and 67.5% for the DLD-1, DLD-1/5-FU, HT-29, and HCT116 xenografts, respectively. This was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the effects of monotherapy with either TFTD or nintedanib. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the combination of TFTD and nintedanib in the treatment of colorectal cancer xenografts. The concentration of trifluridine incorporated into DNA in the HT-29 and HCT116 tumors was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The incorporation levels following treatment with TFTD and nintedanib for 14 consecutive days were

  15. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Menghua; Yang, Guiqing; Liu, Hanchen; Liu, Xiaoxu; Lin, Sixiang; Sun, Dongning; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans.

  16. Metabolomics of adherent mammalian cells by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: HT-29 cells as case study.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; Valdés, Alberto; Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2015-06-10

    In this work, the optimization of an effective protocol for cell metabolomics is described with special emphasis in the sample preparation and subsequent analysis of intracellular metabolites from adherent mammalian cells by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. As case study, colon cancer HT-29 cells, a human cell model to investigate colon cancer, are employed. The feasibility of the whole method for cell metabolomics is demonstrated via a fast and sensitive profiling of the intracellular metabolites HT-29 cells by capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The suitability of this methodology is further corroborated through the examination of the metabolic changes in the polyamines pathway produced in colon cancer HT-29 cells by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a known potent ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor. The selection of the optimum extraction conditions allowed a higher sample volume injection that led to an increase in CE-TOF MS sensitivity. Following a non-targeted metabolomics approach, 10 metabolites (namely, putrescine, ornithine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), oxidized and reduced glutathione, 5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine, N-acetylputrescine, cysteinyl-glycine, spermidine and an unknown compound) were found to be significantly altered by DFMO (p<0.05) in HT-29 cells. In addition to the effect of DFMO on polyamine metabolism, minor modifications of other metabolic pathways (e.g., related to intracellular thiol redox state) were observed.

  17. Arsenic downregulates tight junction claudin proteins through p38 and NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cell line, HT-29.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Hee; Seok, Jin Sil; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-03-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that often is found in foods and drinking water. Human exposure to arsenic is associated with the development of gastrointestinal problems such as fluid loss, diarrhea and gastritis. Arsenic is also known to induce toxic responses including oxidative stress in cells of the gastrointestinal track. Tight junctions (TJs) regulate paracellular permeability and play a barrier role by inhibiting the movement of water, solutes and microorganisms in the paracellular space. Since oxidative stress and TJ damage are known to be associated, we examined whether arsenic produces TJ damage such as downregulation of claudins in the human colorectal cell line, HT-29. To confirm the importance of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced TJ damage, effects of the antioxidant compound (e.g., N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) were also determined in cells. HT-29 cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (40μM, 12h) to observe the modified expression of TJ proteins. Arsenic decreased expression of TJ proteins (i.e., claudin-1 and claudin-5) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) whereas pretreatment of NAC (5-10mM, 1h) attenuated the observed claudins downregulation and TEER. Arsenic treatment produced cellular oxidative stress via superoxide generation and lowering glutathione (GSH) levels, while NAC restored cellular GSH levels and decreased oxidative stress. Arsenic increased phosphorylation of p38 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, while NAC attenuated these intracellular events. Results demonstrated that arsenic can damage intestinal epithelial cells by proinflammatory process (oxidative stress, p38 and NF-κB) which resulted in the downregulation of claudins and NAC can protect intestinal TJs from arsenic toxicity.

  18. Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves Induces Autophagy and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, Docetaxel, and 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chen-Jei; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Lin, Yi-Feng; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Chun-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer worldwide, and chemotherapy is a mainstream approach for advanced and recurrent cases. Development of effective complementary drugs could help improve tumor suppression efficiency and control adverse effects from chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AE-SN) is an essential component in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating cancer, but there is a lack of evidence verifying its tumor suppression efficacy in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tumor suppression efficacy of AE-SN using DLD-1 and HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells and examine the combined drug effect when combined with the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil. The results indicated that AE-SN induced autophagy via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B II accumulation but not caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. The IC50s after 48 hours of treatment were 0.541 and 0.948 mg/ml AE-SN in DLD-1 and HT-29, respectively. AE-SN also demonstrated a combined drug effect with all tested drugs by enhancing cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Our results suggest that AE-SN has potential in the development of complementary chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:23843876

  19. TNFα and IL-17 cooperatively stimulate glucose metabolism and growth factor production in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Straus, Daniel S

    2013-07-17

    Inflammation is a well-known etiological factor for colorectal cancer, but mechanisms underlying the linkage between inflammation and cancer are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that two pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-17, might play a role in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis. Aerobic glycolysis is a metabolic adaptation that promotes the survival/proliferation of cancer cells. Paracrine signaling between tumor cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts also plays a role in carcinogenesis. The effect of TNFα and IL-17 on aerobic glycolysis and growth factor production in cultured human colorectal cancer cells was investigated. Glucose utilization and lactate production were quantified by measuring the disappearance of glucose and appearance of lactate in the culture medium. Glucose transporter and glycolytic enzyme expression levels were measured by immunoblotting. TNFα and IL-17 cooperatively stimulated glycolysis in HT-29, T84, Caco-2 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with TNFα plus IL-17 also increased the expression of HIF-1α and c-myc, two factors know to induce the transcription of genes encoding components of the glycolytic pathway. To further investigate mechanisms for cytokine-stimulated glycolysis, the effects of TNFα and IL-17 on expression of six members and one regulator of the glycolytic pathway were investigated. TNFα and IL-17 cooperatively increased the expression of the glucose transporter SLC2A1 and hexokinase-2 but did not regulate expression of glucose transporter SLC2A3, enolase-1, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase A, or 6-phoshofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3). Experiments with inhibitors indicated that HIF-1α played a role in induction of SLC2A1 and that the transcription factor NF-κB played a role in induction of hexokinase-2 by TNFα and IL-17. TNFα and IL-17 also synergistically stimulated production by HT-29 cells of a growth factor that simulated

  20. Increased anticancer activity of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor BGC9331 combined with the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38 in human colorectal and breast cancer cells: induction of apoptosis and ROCK cleavage through caspase-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Anne-Marie; Louvet, Christophe; Kornprobst, Michel; Raymond, Eric; André, Thierry; Tournigand, Christophe; Faivre, Sandrine; De Gramont, Aimery; Larsen, Annette K; Gespach, Christian

    2005-08-01

    The folate analogue BGC9331 is a new thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor showing a broad spectrum of cyto-toxic activity against several human solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of BGC9331 either alone or combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), MTA (multi-target antifolate), oxali-platin and SN-38, the active metabolite of the topoisomerase I inhibitor CPT-11. The antiproliferative activity of each drug and BGC9331-based combinations was investigated in the HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line and its HT-29/5-FU counterparts selected for resistance to 5-FU. BGC9331 combined with MTA or SN-38 induced synergistic responses in HT-29 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either BGC9331 or SN-38 increased caspase-3 activity and the percentage of apoptotic cells from 3 to 13%. Both drugs also augmented the proteolytic cleavage of the Rho-kinase ROCK-1 that was attenuated by the caspase-3 pathway inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk. BGC9331 combined with SN-38 further increased the percentage of apoptotic cells to 25%, and inhibited cell cycle progression and cell proliferation by 65%. This was accompanied by proteolytic activation of ROCK-1, through both caspase-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms, as shown in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These encouraging results warrant further preclinical investigations and clinical trials on the use of BGC9331 combined with SN-38/CPT-11 in treatment of patients with advanced colorectal or gastric cancers.

  1. Liver X receptors inhibit proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and growth of intestinal tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Bovenga, Fabiola; Murzilli, Stefania; Salvatore, Lorena; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Martelli, Nicola; D'Orazio, Andria; Rainaldi, Stefania; Vacca, Michele; Mangia, Anita; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cholesterol metabolism, controlling cholesterol flow into cells, catabolism, and efflux. Cholesterol controls cell proliferation; disruptions in cholesterol metabolism have been associated with the development of colon cancer. We investigated whether expression of activated LXR protects against intestinal tumorigenesis in mice. We analyzed the development of colon cancer in mice that express a constitutive active form of LXRα only in the intestinal epithelium, under the control of villin promoter (iVP16LXRα). These mice were crossed with adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)(min/+) mice, or given azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulfate, to assess intestinal tumor formation. We also assessed proliferation and apoptosis of a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) transfected with an adenoviral vector that expressed Ad VP16hLXRα, compared with cells expressing AdVP16 (control), and their ability to form xenograft tumors in mice. HT29 cells also were incubated with the LXR ligand GW3965. In human colorectal cancer cells, ligand-induced activation of LXR or transfection with Ad VP16hLXRα blocked the G1 phase, increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and slowed growth of xenograft tumors in mice. iVP16LXRα mice formed fewer, smaller tumors than VP16 (control) mice after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. APC(min/+)/iVP16LXRα mice also developed fewer, smaller intestinal tumors than APC(min/+)/iVP16 mice. Gene expression analysis indicated that activation of LXRα affected lipid metabolic networks and increased cholesterol efflux in the intestine. Expression of activated LXRα blocks proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and slows the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. It also reduces intestinal tumor formation after administration of chemical carcinogens, and in Apc(min/+) mice. LXR agonists therefore might be developed as therapeutic treatments for colorectal cancer

  2. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  3. Downregulation of CD147 expression by RNA interference inhibits HT29 cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Xu, Yeqiong; Gao, Tianyi; Song, Guoqi; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Wang, Shukui

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of CD147 silencing on HT29 cell proliferation and invasion. We constructed a novel short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector pYr-mir30-shRNA. The plasmid was transferred to HT29 cells. The expression of CD147, MCT1 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 1) and MCT4 (lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4) were monitored by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. The MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activities were determined by gelatin zymography assay, while the intracellular lactate concentration was determined by the lactic acid assay kit. WST-8 assay was used to determine the HT29 cell proliferation and the chemosensitivity. Invasion assay was used to determine the invasion of HT29 cells. In addition, we established a colorectal cancer model, and detected CD147 expression in vivo. The results showed that the expression of CD147 and MCT1 was significantly reduced at both mRNA and protein levels, and also the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was reduced. The proliferation and invasion were decreased, but chemosensitivity to cisplatin was increased. In vivo, the CD147 expression was also significantly decreased, and reduced the tumor growth after CD147 gene silencing. The results demonstrated that silencing of CD147 expression inhibited the proliferation and invasion, suggesting CD147 silencing might be an adjuvant gene therapy strategy to chemotherapy.

  4. Efficacy of temoporfin-loaded invasomes in the photodynamic therapy in human epidermoid and colorectal tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Gräfe, Susanna; Gitter, Burkhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-12-02

    In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a temoporfin (mTHPC)-containing formulation would be advantageous. Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with low percutaneous absorption and novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes for enhanced skin delivery were developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate photodynamic efficacy of mTHPC-loaded invasomes in vitro in two cell lines, i.e. the human colorectal tumour cell line HT29 and the epidermoid tumour cell line A431. Invasomes are vesicles containing besides phospholipids a mixture of terpenes or only one terpene and ethanol. Dark toxicity, phototoxicity and intracellular localization of mTHPC were studied. Laser scanning microscopy indicated perinuclear localization of mTHPC. Results revealed that mTHPC-invasomes and mTHPC-ethanolic solution used at a 2μM mTHPC-concentration and photoirradiation at 20J/cm(2) were able to reduce survival of HT29 cells and especially of A431 cells, being more sensitive to PDT. In contrast to HT29 cells, where there was not a significant difference between cytotoxicity of mTHPC-ethanolic solution and mTHPC-invasomes, in A431 cells mTHPC-invasomes were more cytotoxic. Survival of about 16% of A431 cells treated with mTHPC-invasomes is very promising, since it demonstrates invasomes' potential to be used in topical PDT of cutaneous malignant diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microenvironment and Dose-Delivery-Dependent Response after Exposure to Ionizing Radiation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Rynkeviciene, Ryte; Venius, Jonas; Pasukoniene, Vita; Aleknavicius, Eduardas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2017-09-01

    A significant body of knowledge about radiobiology is based on studies of single dose cellular irradiation, despite the fact that conventional clinical applications using dose fractionation. In addition, cellular radiation response strongly depends on cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, which are poorly established in cancer cells grown under standard 2D cell culture conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) DLD1 and HT29 cell lines, bearing distinct p53 mutations, to a single 2 or 10 Gy dose or fractionated 5 × 2 Gy doses of radiation using global transcriptomics analysis. To examine cellular response to radiation in a cell-ECM-interaction-dependent manner, CRC cells were grown under laminin-rich ECM 3D cell culture conditions. Microarray data analysis revealed that, overall, a total of 1,573 and 935 genes were differentially expressed (fold change >1.5; P < 0.05) in DLD1 and HT29 cells, respectively, at 4 h postirradiation. However, compared to a single dose of radiation, fractionated doses resulted in significantly different transcriptomic response in both CRC cell lines. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis indicated that p53 pathway and cell cycle/DNA damage repair or immune response functional categories were most significantly altered in DLD1 or HT29 cells, respectively, after fractionated irradiations. Novel observations of radiation-response-mediated activation of pro-survival pathways in CRC cells grown under lr-ECM 3D cell culture conditions using fractionated doses provide new directions for the development of more efficient radiotherapy strategies. Our results also indicated that cell line specific radiation response with or without activation of the conventional p53 pathway is ECM dependent, suggesting that the ECM is a key component in cellular radiation response.

  6. Ciprofloxacin decreases survival in HT-29 cells via the induction of TGF-β1 secretion and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Bourikas, Leonidas A; Kolios, George; Valatas, Vassilis; Notas, George; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Pelagiadis, Iordanis; Manousou, Pinelopi; Klironomos, Stefanos; Mouzas, Ioannis A; Kouroumalis, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fluoroquinolones are potent anti-microbial agents with multiple effects on host cells and tissues. Previous studies have highlighted their pro-apoptotic effect on human cancer cells and an immunoregulatory role in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effect of ciprofloxacin on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of HT-29 cells, a human colonic epithelial cell line sensitive to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated growth inhibition and its role in TGF-β1 production. We also examined the effect of ciprofloxacin on proliferation of HT-29 cells in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a well-established pro-apoptotic agent. Experimental approach: Using subconfluent cultures of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, we studied the effect of ciprofloxacin, TGF-β1 and 5-FU on proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and cell cycle. The effect of ciprofloxacin on TGF-β1 mRNA expression and production was studied in RNA extracts and cell culture supernatants respectively, using confluent cultures. Key results: Ciprofloxacin decreased proliferation of HT-29 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. This was mediated by accumulation of HT-29 cells into the S-phase but without any effect on apoptosis or necrosis. Additionally, ciprofloxacin enhanced the antiproliferative effect of 5-FU. Interestingly, ciprofloxacin was found to up-regulate TGF-β1 production by HT-29 cells and its anti-proliferative effect was abolished when TGF-β1 was blocked. Confirming this mechanism further, ciprofloxacin had no effect on Caco-2, a human colonic epithelial cell line that lacks functional TGF-β1 receptors. Conclusions and implications: We demonstrate a novel anti-proliferative and immunoregulatory effect of ciprofloxacin on human intestinal epithelial cells mediated via TGF-β1. PMID:19371339

  7. β-Lactam analogues of combretastatin A-4 prevent metabolic inactivation by glucuronidation in chemoresistant HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Malebari, Azizah M; Greene, Lisa M; Nathwani, Seema M; Fayne, Darren; O'Boyle, Niamh M; Wang, Shu; Twamley, Brendan; Zisterer, Daniela M; Meegan, Mary J

    2017-04-21

    Glucuronidation by uridine 5-diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase enzymes (UGTs) is a cause of intrinsic drug resistance in cancer cells. Glucuronidation of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) was previously identified as a mechanism of resistance in hepatocellular cancer cells. Herein, we propose chemical manipulation of β-lactam bridged analogues of Combretastatin A-4 as a novel means of overcoming drug resistance associated with glucuronidation due to the expression of UGTs in the CA-4 resistant human colon cancer HT-29 cells. The alkene bridge of CA-4 is replaced with a β-lactam ring to circumvent potential isomerisation while the potential sites of glucuronate conjugation are deleted in the novel 3-substituted-1,4-diaryl-2-azetidinone analogues of CA-4. We hypothesise that glucuronidation of CA-4 is the mechanism of drug resistance in HT-29 cells. Ring B thioether containing 2-azetidinone analogues of CA-4 such as 4-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-3-phenyl-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one (27) and 3-hydroxy-4-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one (45) were identified as the most potent inhibitors of tumour cell growth, independent of UGT status, displaying antiproliferative activity in the low nanomolar range. These compounds also disrupted the microtubular structure in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells, and caused G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential of chemical manipulation as a means of overcoming glucuronidation attributed drug resistance in CA-4 resistant human colon cancer HT-29 cells, allowing the development of therapeutically superior analogues.

  8. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae-Il; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Dong Ki; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods EtOAC extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAC, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAC extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB. PMID:24075343

  9. Metabolism and apoptotic properties of elevated ceramide in HT29rev cells.

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, R J; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D; Kok, J W

    1998-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we elevated cellular Cer levels in human colon-carcinoma (HT29(rev)) cells by incubating the cells in the presence of bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) or, alternatively, in the presence of C2-Cer, a short-chain analogue of the sphingolipid. bSMase treatment did not induce apoptosis in these cells, as revealed by a lack of both DNA fragmentation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. In contrast, apoptosis did occur upon addition of C2-Cer. These findings led us to study whether differences in the metabolic fate of the excess of Cer, as generated by both treatments, contributed to the observed difference in apoptosis-inducing capacity. C2-Cer was rapidly taken up by HT29(rev) cells and accumulated due to the absence of substantial metabolic conversion. Upon addition of bSMase, hydrolysis of sphingomyelin resulted in a reduction of that pool to 20% compared with control values, accompanied by a multi-fold increase in Cer level. In spite of the continuous presence of active bSMase, the Cer increase turned out to be transient. Cer levels reached their maximum 1-2 h after addition of bSMase, followed by a significant decrease. Excessive Cer was mainly turned over via cerebrosides into complex glycolipids, including gangliosides. In the presence of glucosylceramide synthase- and/or ceramidase inhibitors, this conversion was significantly blocked and bSMase-generated Cer accumulated in the cells. However, even under these conditions apoptosis did not occur. In conclusion, the inability of bSMase to induce apoptosis of HT29(rev) cells does not appear to be due to rapid metabolic conversion of excessive Cer. Since apoptosis is induced upon addition of C2-Cer, we therefore propose that the intracellular target involved in the propagation of the apoptotic signal is reached by C2-Cer, but not by bSMase-generated Cer. PMID:9531498

  10. The Effects of Oral and Enteric Campylobacter concisus Strains on Expression of TLR4, MD-2, TLR2, TLR5 and COX-2 in HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Yazan; Lee, Hoyul; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The effects of different C. concisus strains on intestinal epithelial expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) have not been investigated. This study examined the effects of C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and controls on expression of TLR4, its co-receptor myeloid differentiation factor (MD)-2; TLR2, TLR5, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin (IL)-8 in HT-29 cells. Fourteen oral and enteric C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and healthy controls were co-incubated with HT-29 cells. Expression of TLR4, MD-2, TLR2, TLR5 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells in response to C. concisus infection was examined by Western blot, flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescent staining visualized by confocal microscope. Production of IL-8 was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both oral and enteric C. concisus strains upregulated expression of TLR4 in HT-29 cells. The levels of glycosylated TLR4 (Gly-TLR4) and surface TLR4 induced by C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD were significantly higher than those induced by C. concisus strains isolated from the healthy controls. Four C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD induced more than two-fold increase of surface expression of MD-2. C. concisus did not affect expression of TLR2 and TLR5. All C. concisus strains induced production of IL-8 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells. This study shows that some C. concisus strains, most from patients with IBD, upregulate surface expression of TLR4 and MD-2 in HT-29 cells. These data suggest that a potential role of specific C. concisus strains in modulating the intestinal epithelial responses to bacterial LPS needs to be investigated. PMID:23437263

  11. The effects of oral and enteric Campylobacter concisus strains on expression of TLR4, MD-2, TLR2, TLR5 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Yazan; Lee, Hoyul; Riordan, Stephen M; Grimm, Michael C; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter concisus, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The effects of different C. concisus strains on intestinal epithelial expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) have not been investigated. This study examined the effects of C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and controls on expression of TLR4, its co-receptor myeloid differentiation factor (MD)-2; TLR2, TLR5, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin (IL)-8 in HT-29 cells.Fourteen oral and enteric C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and healthy controls were co-incubated with HT-29 cells. Expression of TLR4, MD-2, TLR2, TLR5 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells in response to C. concisus infection was examined by Western blot, flow cytometry analysis and immunofluorescent staining visualized by confocal microscope. Production of IL-8 was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Both oral and enteric C. concisus strains upregulated expression of TLR4 in HT-29 cells. The levels of glycosylated TLR4 (Gly-TLR4) and surface TLR4 induced by C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD were significantly higher than those induced by C. concisus strains isolated from the healthy controls. Four C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD induced more than two-fold increase of surface expression of MD-2. C. concisus did not affect expression of TLR2 and TLR5. All C. concisus strains induced production of IL-8 and COX-2 in HT-29 cells.This study shows that some C. concisus strains, most from patients with IBD, upregulate surface expression of TLR4 and MD-2 in HT-29 cells. These data suggest that a potential role of specific C. concisus strains in modulating the intestinal epithelial responses to bacterial LPS needs to be investigated.

  12. Identification of hepatic microvascular adhesion-related genes of human colon cancer cells using random homozygous gene perturbation.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Joana; Kohli, Manu; Arteta, Beatriz; Chang, Shaojing; Li, Wu-Bo; Goldblatt, Michael; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Random homozygous gene perturbation (RHGP), in combination with liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) adhesion screening of clonal colon cancer cells with perturbed genes, was used to identify genes contributing to the hepatic microvascular adhesion of colon cancer cells. Plasmid vector encoding transactivator and gene search vector were transfected into HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells to create a HT-29 RHGP cell library; the adhesion of these library cells to primary cultured mouse LSEC significantly decreased in the presence of RSL1 ligand (inducer), indicating that most of the genes contributing to HT-29 adhesion to LSEC were altered. Next, HT-29 RHGP cell library fractions with upregulated or silenced LSEC adhesion-related genes were isolated. Around 160 clones having altered expression in LSEC adhesion-related genes were obtained, and nine relevant protein-coding genes were identified. Some were proadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in adherent HT-29 cells (DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes) and their silenced status in nonadherent HT-29 cells (DGKE, DPY19L1, KIAA0753, PVR and USP11 genes). Others were antiadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in nonadherent HT-29 cells (ITPKC gene) and their silenced status in adherent HT-29 cells (PPP6R2 gene). Silencing of PVR, DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes decreased adhesion to LSEC and hepatic microvascular retention of HT-29 cells. The results conclude that RHGP was a valuable strategy for the discovery of mechanisms regulating microvascular adhesion of circulating colon cancer cells before hepatic metastasis formation. Identified genes may contribute to understand the metastatic process of colon cancer and to discovering molecular targets for hepatic metastasis therapeutics.

  13. Five Stabilized 111In-labeled neurotensin analogs in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paul J J M; de Visser, Moniaue; Verwijnen, Suzanne M; Bernard, Bert F; Srinivasan, Ananth; Erion, Jack L; Breeman, Wouter A P; Vulto, Arnold G; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion

    2007-06-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors are overexpressed in different human tumors, such as human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. New stable neurotensin analogs with high receptor affinity have been synthesized by replacing arginine residues with lysine and arginine derivatives. The aim of this study was to explore the biodistribution, tumor uptake, kidney localization, and stability characteristics of these new analogs in order to develop new diagnostic tools for exocrine pancreatic cancer. Four (111)In-labeled DTPA-chelated NT analogs and one (111)In-labeled DOTA-chelated NT analog were evaluated in NMRI nude mice bearing NT receptor-positive HT29 tumors. Experiments with a coinjection of unlabeled NT or lysine were performed to investigate receptor-mediated uptake and kidney protection, respectively. In addition, the in vivo serum stability of the most promising analog was analyzed. In the biodistribution study in mice, at 4 hours postinjection, a low percentage of the injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tissue for all compounds was found in NT receptor-negative organs, such as the blood, spleen, pancreas, liver, muscle, and femur. A high uptake was found in the colon, intestine, kidneys, and in implanted HT29 tumors. The coinjection of excess unlabeled neurotensin significantly reduced tumor uptake, showing tumor uptake to be receptor-mediated. To a lesser extent, this was also observed for the colon, but not for other tissues. We concluded that DTPA-(Pip)Gly-Pro-(PipAm)Gly-Arg-Pro-Tyr-tBuGly-Leu-OH and the DOTA-linked counterpart have the most favorable biodistribution properties regarding tumor uptake.

  14. Characterization of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX co-cultures in an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Co-cultures of two human cell lines, Caco-2 and HT29-MTX mucus producing cells, have been incorporated into an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability. A range of different foods were subjected to in vitro digestion and iron bioavailability from digests was assesse...

  15. Inhibitory effect of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome on HT-29 colon cancer cells through mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Zahedifard, Maryam; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Ahmed Hamdi, Omer Abdalla; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Awang, Khalijah; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-02-05

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Koneng Tinggang' and 'Temu Tis' is a Javanese medicinal plant which has been used for numerous ailments and diseases in rural Javanese communities. In the present study, the apoptogenic activity of dichloromethane extract of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) was investigated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Acute toxicity study of DECPR was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds of DECPR were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-MS-TOF) analysis. Cytotoxic effect of DECPR on HT-29 cells was analyzed by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Effects of DECPR on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial-initiated events were investigated using a high content screening system. The activities of the caspases were also measured using a fluorometric assay. The quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins. The in vivo acute toxicity study of DECPR on rats showed the safety of this extract at the highest dose of 5 g/kg. The GC-MS-TOF analysis of DECPR detected turmerone as the major compound in dichloromethane extract. IC50 value of DECPR towards HT-29 cells after 24 h treatment was found to be 7.79 ± 0.54 μg/mL. In addition, DECPR induced LDH release and ROS generation in HT-29 cells through a mechanism involving nuclear fragmentation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. The mitochondrial-initiated events, including collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage was also triggered by DECPR treatment. Initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 was dose-dependently activated by DECPR. The quantitative PCR analysis on the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins showed a significant up-regulation of Bax associated with down-regulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression. The findings presented in the current study showed that DECP suppressed the

  16. New insight into the influence of carob extract and gallic acid on hemin induced modulation of HT29 cell growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Klenow, Stefanie; Glei, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Red meat intake is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. This is possibly related to the heme content of red meat. Plant derived polyphenols might protect from cancer development via their antioxidant activities. In this study, the impact of an aqueous extract of carob (CE) on hemin-modulated proliferation was investigated. CE, gallic acid (GA) and a known iron chelator (deferoxamine: DFO) significantly reduced the number of human colon cancer HT29 cells. CE and GA were more effective under serum-free conditions than in normal cell culture medium. These effects were abolished by addition of 1 microM hemin at low concentrations of CE and GA. At higher concentrations of CE and GA, both substances reduced cell number despite hemin supplementation. Effects of CE, GA and DFO on cell number could not be linked to iron chelation even though CE and DFO were capable of chelating iron. Furthermore, the effects of high CE concentration point to antioxidative effects other than iron chelation. However, a connection to a reduction of colorectal cancer risk due to consumption of meat with high heme content by CE could not be drawn, since the effective concentrations are beyond the physiologically relevant concentrations.

  17. G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells induced by water extract from residues of jelly fig achene.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wing-Ming; Chen, Chun-Nan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Ting; Lo, Tsui-Yun; Juan, Pei-Yi; Mai, Fu-Der

    2015-01-01

    Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) achenes have been utilized to prepare a traditional drink in Taiwan. Herein, we evaluated the effect of water extract from jelly fig seed residues (WERJFA) on cancer cells. WERJFA could inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, COLO205 and HT29 in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) showed that WERJFA primarily arrested COLO205 and HT29 cells at the G2/M phase of cell cycle as the concentration reached to at least 0.5 mg/ml. WERJFA induced apoptosis of these two cell lines, as evidenced by annexin V-FITC/PI and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in WERJFA-treated cells were detected by flow cytometry with H2DCF-DA and 5,5', 6,6'-Tetrachloro-1, 1', 3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Our results showed that WERJFA exerted anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. WERJFA arrested cell cycle, and caused apoptotic death in these cancer cells possibly via mitochondrial pathway involved with exceeding ROS level.

  18. G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells induced by water extract from residues of jelly fig achene.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wing-Ming; Chen, Chun-Nan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Ting; Lo, Tsui-Yun; Juan, Pei-Yi; Mai, Fu-Der

    2015-09-10

    Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) achenes have been utilized to prepare a traditional drink in Taiwan. Herein, we evaluated the effect of water extract from jelly fig seed residues (WERJFA) on cancer cells. WERJFA could inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, COLO205 and HT29 in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) showed that WERJFA primarily arrested COLO205 and HT29 cells at the G2/M phase of cell cycle as the concentration reached to at least 0.5 mg/ml. WERJFA induced apoptosis of these two cell lines, as evidenced by annexin V-FITC/PI and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in WERJFA-treated cells were detected by flow cytometry with H2DCF-DA and 5,5', 6,6'-Tetrachloro-1, 1', 3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Our results showed that WERJFA exerted anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. WERJFA arrested cell cycle, and caused apoptotic death in these cancer cells possibly via mitochondrial pathway involved with exceeding ROS level.

  19. Effects of KRC-108 on the Aurora A activity and growth of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Jin; Park, Kyeong Ryang; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Lee, Jongkook; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chul; Han, Sun-Young

    2015-06-12

    Aurora A is involved in regulating multiple steps of mitosis. Over-expression of Aurora A is related to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis. KRC-108 is a novel multi-kinase inhibitor which has anti-tumor activity in vivo. In this study, we identified the inhibitory effects of KRC-108 on Aurora A kinase and growth-inhibitory characteristics of KRC-108. The in vitro kinase activity assay, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated that KRC-108 inhibited Aurora A activity. KRC-108 exhibited cytotoxicity against human colorectal cancer cell line HT-29. Colony formation assays showed that KRC-108 reduced the colony growth of HT-29 cells. KRC-108 also inhibited migration of HT-29 cells. The expression levels of cyclin B1 and CDC2 were decreased by KRC-108 in HT-29 cells. Cell cycle analysis and flow cytometry indicated that the inhibitory effects of KRC-108 on cell growth are due to induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis by inhibition of Aurora A. KRC-108 induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell line by Aurora A inhibition. The reported in vivo anti-tumor effects of KRC-108 might partly be due to anti-Aurora A effects. This study suggests that KRC-108 has potential for development as an anti-tumor agent, although further studies are needed.

  20. Screening of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli Able to Antagonize the Cytotoxic Effect of Clostridium difficile upon Intestinal Epithelial HT29 Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Varela, Lorena; Alonso-Guervos, Marta; García-Suárez, Olivia; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen inhabiting the human gut, often being the aetiological agent of infections after a microbiota dysbiosis following, for example, an antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infections (CDI) constitute a growing health problem with increasing rates of morbidity and mortality at groups of risk, such as elderly and hospitalized patients, but also in populations traditionally considered low-risk. This could be related to the occurrence of virulent strains which, among other factors, have high-level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, more efficient sporulation and markedly high toxin production. Several novel intervention strategies against CDI are currently under study, such as the use of probiotics to counteract the growth and/or toxigenic activity of C. difficile. In this work, we have analyzed the capability of twenty Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, from human intestinal origin, to counteract the toxic effect of C. difficile LMG21717 upon the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29. For this purpose, we incubated the bacteria together with toxigenic supernatants obtained from C. difficile. After this co-incubation new supernatants were collected in order to quantify the remnant A and B toxins, as well as to determine their residual toxic effect upon HT29 monolayers. To this end, the real time cell analyser (RTCA) model, recently developed in our group to monitor C. difficile toxic effect, was used. Results obtained showed that strains of Bifidobacterium longum and B. breve were able to reduce the toxic effect of the pathogen upon HT29, the RTCA normalized cell-index values being inversely correlated with the amount of remnant toxin in the supernatant. The strain B. longum IPLA20022 showed the highest ability to counteract the cytotoxic effect of C. difficile acting directly against the toxin, also having the highest capability for removing the toxins from the clostridial toxigenic supernatant. Image analysis

  1. The plant alkaloid and anti-leukemia drug homoharringtonine sensitizes resistant human colorectal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Beranova, Lenka; Pombinho, Antonio R; Spegarova, Jarmila; Koc, Michal; Klanova, Magdalena; Molinsky, Jan; Klener, Pavel; Bartunek, Petr; Andera, Ladislav

    2013-06-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a pro-apoptotic ligand from the TNF-alpha family that is under consideration, along with agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies, as a potential anti-tumor agent. However, most primary human tumors are resistant to monotherapy with TRAIL apoptogens, and thus the potential applicability of TRAIL in anti-tumor therapy ultimately depends on its rational combination with drugs targeting these resistances. In our high-throughput screening for novel agents/drugs that could sensitize TRAIL-resistant colorectal cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, we found homoharringtonine (HHT), a cephalotaxus alkaloid and tested anti-leukemia drug, to be a very effective, low nanomolar enhancer of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis/growth suppression of these resistant cells. Co-treatment of TRAIL-resistant RKO or HT-29 cells with HHT and TRAIL led to the effective induction of apoptosis and the complete elimination of the treated cells. HHT suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and cFLIP and enhanced the TRAIL-triggered activation of JNK and p38 kinases. The shRNA-mediated down-regulation of cFLIP or Mcl-1 in HT-29 or RKO cells variably enhanced their TRAIL-induced apoptosis but it did not markedly sensitize them to TRAIL-mediated growth suppression. However, with the notable exception of RKO/sh cFLIP cells, the downregulation of cFLIP or Mcl-1 significantly lowered the effective concentration of HHT in HHT + TRAIL co-treatment. Combined HHT + TRAIL therapy also led to the strong suppression of HT-29 tumors implanted into immunodeficient mice. Thus, HHT represents a very efficient enhancer of TRAIL-induced apoptosis with potential application in TRAIL-based, anti-cancer combination therapy.

  2. The antiproliferative effects of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid on human colorectal and prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Palombo, John D; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Bistrian, Bruce R; Menard, Michael P

    2002-03-28

    The antiproliferative effects of two commercial preparations of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and their constituent isomers, cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11)-CLA, c9,c11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA, were determined in vitro using human colorectal (HT-29, MIP-101) and prostate (PC-3) carcinoma cells adapted to serum-free medium. The antiproliferative effects of the preparations were dependent upon the type and concentration of CLA isomer present. The t10,c12-CLA isomer exhibited the greatest potency against colorectal cancer proliferation, and the c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers were moderately effective against prostate cancer. The t10,c12 isomer induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in MIP-101 and PC-3 cells. The results are the first to demonstrate that physiologic levels of two CLA preparations, their constituent isomers, and the c9,t11-CLA elongation product, c11,t13-conjugated eicosadienoic acid, induce dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cancer proliferation in vitro. Novel CLA preparations may prove effective as chemopreventive supplements for individuals at risk of or diagnosed with colorectal or prostate cancer.

  3. Suppression of the growth of human colorectal cancer cells by therapeutic stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-β via their tumor-tropic effect in cellular and xenograft mouse models.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo-Rim; Park, Min-Ah; Lee, Hye-Rim; Kang, Nam-Hee; Choi, Kelvin J; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-06-01

    Genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) exhibit a potent therapeutic efficacy via their strong tumor tropism toward cancer cells. In this study, we introduced the human parental neural stem cells, HB1.F3, with the human interferon beta (IFN-β) gene which is a typical cytokine gene that has an antitumor effect and the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene from Escherichia coli (E. coli) that could convert the non-toxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to a toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Two types of stem cells expressing the CD gene (HB1.F3.CD cells) and both the CD and human IFN-β genes (HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β) were generated. The present study was performed to examine the migratory and therapeutic effects of these GESTECs against the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. When co-cultured with colorectal cancer cells in the presence of 5-FC, HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells exhibited the cytotoxicity on HT-29 cells via the bystander effect. In particular, HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells showed the synergistic cytotoxic activity of 5-FU and IFN-β. We also confirmed the migration ability of HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells toward HT-29 cells by a modified migration assay in vitro, where chemoattractant factors secreted by HT-29 cells attracted the GESTECs. In a xenograft mouse model, the volume of tumor mass was decreased up to 56% in HB1.F3.CD injected mice while the tumor mass was greatly inhibited about 76% in HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β injected mice. The therapeutic treatment by these GESTECs is a novel strategy where the combination of the migration capacity of stem cells as a vector for therapeutic genes towards colorectal cancer and a synergistic antitumor effect of CD and IFN-β genes can selectively target this type of cancer.

  4. Sulforaphane Regulates NFE2L2/Nrf2-Dependent Xenobiotic Metabolism Phase II and Phase III Enzymes Differently in Human Colorectal Cancer and Untransformed Epithelial Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Lubelska, Katarzyna; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Mielczarek, Lidia; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Zbroińska-Bregisz, Ilona; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring chemopreventive and anticancer agent, is a nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) inducer. Nrf2 plays a critical role in coordinating the cell defense system by initiating the transcription of cytoprotective genes, including detoxification enzymes such as NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and transport proteins such as ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP). Recently, the essential role of Nrf2 in tumor development and progression and in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells has been highlighted. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of SFN on the Nrf2 system and the Nrf2-target enzymes NQO1 and MRP in human untransformed epithelial colon CRL-1790 cells and in HT-29 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the role of SFN in cancer prevention and treatment. We have demonstrated that SFN has excellent cytoprotective properties in CRL-1790 cells, as it induced Nrf2-dependent expression of MRP1 and NQO1. SFN induced Nrf2 target enzyme activity in HT-29 and Caco-2 cancer cells but regulated the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway differently in cancer and untransformed cells.

  5. Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa – an Effective Chemotherapeutic for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin; Shim, Ji Hwan; Gim, Huijin; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally used to relieve the symptoms of and to treat various diseases, but its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied. In the present study, the authors investigated the anti-cancer effects of an ethanol extract of Oldenlandia diffusa (EOD) on HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells. Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations of an EOD, and cell death was assessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial membrane depolarizations were conducted to confirm cell death by apoptosis. Also, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using carboxy-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-carboxy-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate). Results: EOD inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells for 24 hours by 78.6% ± 8.1% at 50 μg/mL, 74.4% ± 4.6% at 100 μg/mL, 65.9% ± 5.2% at 200 μg/mL, 51.4% ± 6.2% at 300 μg/mL, and by 41.7% ± 8.9% at 400 μg/mL, and treatment for 72 hours reduced the proliferation at the corresponding concentrations by 43.3% ± 8.8%, 24.3 ± 5.1 mV, 13.5 ± 3.2 mV, 6.5 ± 2.3 mV, and by 2.6 ± 2.3 mV. EOD increased the number of cells in the sub-G1 peak in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondrial membrane depolarization was elevated by EOD. Also, caspase activities were dose-dependently elevated in the presence of EOD, and these activities were repressed by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk). The ROS generation was significantly increased by EOD and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) remarkably abolished EOD-induced cell death. In addition, a combination of sub-optimal doses of EOD and chemotherapeutic agents noticeably suppressed the growth of HT-29 cancer cells. Conclusion: These results indicate that EOD might be an effective chemotherapeutic for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:27280050

  6. HT-29 and Caco-2 Reporter Cell Lines for Functional Studies of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mastropietro, Giuliana; Tiscornia, Inés; Perelmuter, Karen; Astrada, Soledad; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    The NF-κB is a transcription factor which plays a key role in regulating biological processes. In response to signals, NF-κB activation occurs via phosphorylation of its inhibitor, which dissociates from the NF-κB dimer allowing the translocation to the nucleus, inducing gene expression. NF-κB activation has direct screening applications for drug discovery for several therapeutic indications. Thus, pathway-specific reporter cell systems appear as useful tools to screen and unravel the mode of action of probiotics and natural and synthetic compounds. Here, we describe the generation, characterization, and validation of human epithelial reporter cell lines for functional studies of NF-κB activation by different pro- and anti-inflammatory agents. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were transfected with a pNF-κB-hrGFP plasmid which contains the GFP gene under the control of NF-κB binding elements. Three proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and LPS) were able to activate the reporter systems in a dose-response manner, which corresponds to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, the reporter cell lines were validated using lactic acid bacteria and a natural compound. We have established robust Caco-2-NF-κB-hrGFP and HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter cell lines which represent a valuable tool for primary screening and identification of bacterial strains and compounds with a potential therapeutic interest. PMID:25861164

  7. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-05-01

    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET.

  8. Effect of fermented wheat germ extract with lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on HT-29 cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Yan; Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying; Wu, Jing; Yao, Fang; Zhou, Xing-Hua

    2015-03-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activities of aqueous extract of fermented wheat germ with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFWGE). The anticarcinogenic activities, including antiproliferative effects and the induction of apoptosis, were studied in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. The 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone and total phenol contents in LFWGE were determined by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, some functional proteins were separated and purified by gel filtration chromatography. There were 21 proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. The sugars isolated from LFWGE did not possess any anticarcinogenic activity. The results of an MTT assay showed high antiproliferative effects of LFWGE. In addition, LFWGE attenuated the progression from the G0-G1 to the G2-M phase of the cell cycle, and LFWGE-induced cell apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-3. LFWGE and its major bioactive ingredients inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells via apoptosis and thus may be a potential anticarcinogenic agent.

  9. Culturing in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I-coated plate increases expression of CD133 and retains original phenotype of HT-29 cancer stem cell.

    PubMed

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mehdi; Saberi, Alihossein; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Manshaee, Samira

    2016-01-01

    A sub-population of tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) has an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Selecting a suitable procedure for isolation and enrichment of CSCs is the biggest challenge in the study of CSCs. In the present study, the role of the combination of stem cell culture medium and collagen type-I was evaluated for successful isolation and enrichment of HT-29 CSCs. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-containing medium (parental culture medium: Medium + 10% fetal bovine serum) and serum-free medium (stem cell culture medium); both on collagen-coated plates. Spheres forming ability and CD133 expression, as a potential marker of colorectal CSCs, were evaluated in two culture mediums. The results show spheroids usually give rise completely within 15 days in the stem cell culture medium on the collagen-coated plate. CD133 expression in spheroid cells (84%) is extensively higher than in parental cells (25%). Moreover, relative to parental cells, spheroid cells were more radioresistance. Finding of this study suggested that CSCs derived from colon cancer cell line (HT-29) can be propagated and form colonospheres in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I. According to maintenance of their original phenotype in these conditions, it seems serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I is a suitable way to drug screening of HT-29 CSCs.

  10. The expression of cancer stem cell markers in human colorectal carcinoma cells in a microenvironment dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Kunigenas, Linas; Stankunas, Edvinas; Kuodyte, Karolina; Strainiene, Egle; Cicenas, Jonas; Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2017-03-18

    Numerous lines of evidence support the hierarchical model of cancer development and tumor initiation. According to the theory, cancer stem cells play a crucial role in the formation of the tumor and should be targeted for more effective anticancer treatment. However, cancer stem cells quickly loose their characteristics when propagated as 2D cell culture, indicating that the 2D cell culture does not provide the appropriate settings to maintain an in vivo environment. In this study we have investigated the expression of self-renewal, cancer stem cell and epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers after the transfer of human colorectal carcinoma cell DLD1 and HT29 lines from 2D cell cultures to scaffold-attached laminin rich extracellular matrix and scaffold-free multicellular spheroid 3D culture models. Based on the up-regulated expression of multipotency, CSC and EMT markers, our data suggests that human colorectal carcinoma cells grown in 3D exhibit enhanced cancer stem cell characteristics. Therefore, in order to design more efficient targeted therapies, we suggest that 3D cell culture models should be employed in cancer stem cell research. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiosensitization of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells by MLN4924: An Inhibitor of NEDD8-Activating Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Wan, Juefeng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and the combination of radiation with capecitabine has been shown to achieve only 15% to 25% of pathologic complete response. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MLN4924, a potent small molecule inhibitor of SKP1-Cullin-F-box proteins E3 ubiquitin ligases, as a novel radiosensitizing agent in colorectal cancer cells. Indeed, we found that MLN4924 effectively sensitized colorectal cancer cells to radiation with a sensitivity-enhancement ratio of 1.61 for HT-29 cells and 1.35 for HCT-116 cells. Mechanistically, MLN4924 significantly enhanced radiation-induced G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage response through accumulation of p27. Knockdown of p27 via small interfering RNA partially inhibited MLN4924-induced radiosensitization, indicating a causal role played by p27. Our study suggested that MLN4924 could be further developed as a novel radiosensitizing agent against colorectal cancer.

  12. Compound K induces apoptosis via CAMK-IV/AMPK pathways in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Min Woo; Yuan, Hai Dan; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2009-11-25

    Although compound K (CK), an intestinal metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins, has been known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells, association of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells remains unclear. We hypothesized that CK may exert an anticancer activity through modulating the AMPK pathway in HT-29 cells. CK-induced apoptosis was associated with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic factors (cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor) from mitochondria, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-8, Bid, and PARP proteins. This apoptotic effect of CK on colon cancer cells was found to be initiated by AMPK activation, and AMPK was activated through phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-activated protein kinase-IV (CAMK-IV). Treatment of HT-29 cells with compound C (AMPK inhibitor) or siRNA for AMPK completely abolished the CK-induced apoptosis. STO-609, CAMKs inhibitor, also attenuated CK-induced AMPK activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CK-mediated cell death of HT-29 colon cancer cells is regulated by CAMK-IV/AMPK pathways, and these findings provide a molecular basis for the anticancer effect of CK.

  13. Cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-Glucoside Demonstrates Apoptogenesis in Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells (HT-29): Involvement of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.; Yagi, Sakina M. Ahmed; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan Taha, Manal Mohamed; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Syam, Suvitha; Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species can contribute to diverse signalling pathways of inflammatory and tumour cells. Cucurbitacins are a group of highly oxygenated triterpenes. Many plants used in folk medicine to treat cancer have been found to contain cucurbitacins displaying potentially important anti-inflammatory actions. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-ROS and -RNS effects of cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-glucoside (CLG) and the role of these signaling factors in the apoptogenic effects of CLG on human colon cancer cells (HT-29). This natural cucurbitacin was isolated purely from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed that CLG was cytotoxic to HT-29. CLG increased significantly (P < 0.05) RNA and protein levels of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells when verified using a colorimetric assay and realtime qPCR, respectively. The results showed that lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/INF-γ) increased nitrous oxide (NO) production inR AW264.7macrophages, whereas N(G)-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME) and CLG curtailed it. This compound did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 macrophages and human normal liver cells (WRL-68) when tested using the MTT assay. Findings of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays demonstrate the antioxidant properties of CLG. The apoptogenic property of CLG on HT-29 cells is thus related to inhibition of reactive nitrogen and oxygen reactive species and the triggering of caspase-3-regulated apoptosis. PMID:22685485

  14. Growth and adhesion to HT-29 cells inhibition of Gram-negatives by Bifidobacterium longum BB536 e Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Inturri, R; Stivala, A; Furneri, P M; Blandino, G

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inhibitory effect of supernatants of broth cultures of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against Gram-negative strains (uropathogens, enteropathogens and a reference strain). Moreover, in vitro protection of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, both individually and in combination, against pathogen adhesion to HT-29 cell line, was investigated. The inhibitory activity was performed by the agar diffusion test and in vitro antagonistic activity against pathogen adhesion to human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells was performed using standardized culture techniques. The study showed that B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001, individually and in combination have inhibitory activity against the majority of the Gram negative strains tested. Furthermore, the results showed that both probiotic strains have a good capacity to inhibit pathogenic adhesion to HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 to inhibit pathogenic adhesion increased when they were used in combination. The combination of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 showed inhibitory activity against Gram-negatives and an improved ability to reduce their adhesion properties and to compete with them. The simultaneous presence of the two-probiotic strains could promote competitive mechanisms able to reduce the adhesion properties of pathogen strains and have an important ecological role within the highly competitive environment of the human gut.

  15. Photodynamic action of palmatine hydrochloride on colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xiao, Qicai; Zhang, Na; Xue, Changhu; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chuanshan; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2016-09-01

    Palmatine hydrochloride (PaH) is a natural active compound from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The present study aims to evaluate the effect of PaH as a new photosensitizer on colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells upon light irradiation. Firstly, the absorption and fluorescence spectra of PaH were measured using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and RF-1500PC spectrophotometer, respectively. Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) production of PaH was determined using 1, 3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). Dark toxicity of PaH was estimated using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular uptake of PaH in HT-29 cells was detected at different time intervals. Subellular localization of PaH in HT-29 cells was observed using confocal laser fluorescence microscopy. For photodynamic treatment, HT-29 cells were incubated with PaH and then irradiated by visible light (470nm) from a LED light source. Photocytotoxicity was investigated 24h after photodynamic treatment using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was observed 18h after photodynamic treatment using a flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. Results showed that PaH has an absorption peak in the visible region from 400nm to 500nm and a fluorescence emission peak at 406nm with an excitation wavelength of 365nm. PaH was activated by the 470nm visible light from a LED light source to produce (1)O2. Dark toxicity showed that PaH alone treatment had no cytotoxicity to HT-29 cancer cells and NIH-3T3 normal cells after incubation for 24h. After incubation for 40min, the cellular uptake of PaH reached to the maximum and PaH was located in mitochondria. Photodynamic treatment of PaH demonstrated a significant photocytotoxicity on HT-29 cells. The rate of cell death increased significantly in a PaH concentration-dependent and light dose-dependent manner. Further evaluation revealed that the early and late apoptotic rate of HT-29 cells increased remarkably up to 21.54% and 5.39% after photodynamic treatment of

  16. Cannabinoid receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of cannabinoids in human colorectal carcinoma cells: synergism with 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Sofia B; Lindgren, Theres; Jonsson, Maria; Jacobsson, Stig O P

    2009-03-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) have been found to exert antiproliferative effects upon a variety of cancer cells, including colorectal carcinoma cells. However, little is known about the signalling mechanisms behind the antitumoural effect in these cells, whether the effects are shared by endogenous lipids related to endocannabinoids, or whether such effects are synergistic with treatment paradigms currently used in the clinic. The aim of this preclinical study was to investigate the effect of synthetic and endogenous CBs and their related fatty acids on the viability of human colorectal carcinoma Caco-2 cells, and to determine whether CB effects are synergistic with those seen with the pyrimidine antagonist 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The synthetic CB HU 210, the endogenous CB anandamide, the endogenous structural analogue of anandamide, N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly), as well as the related polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in the Caco-2 cells, as measured by using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay, the CyQUANT proliferation assay and calcein-AM fluorescence. HU 210 was the most potent compound examined, followed by anandamide, whereas NAGly showed equal potency and efficacy as the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, HU 210 and 5-FU produced synergistic effects in the Caco-2 cells, but not in the human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116 or HT29. The compounds examined produced cytotoxic, rather than antiproliferative effects, by a mechanism not involving CB receptors, since the CB receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 did not attenuate the effects, nor did pertussis toxin. However, alpha-tocopherol and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME attenuated the CB toxicity, suggesting involvement of oxidative stress. It is concluded that the CB system may provide new targets for the development of drugs to treat colorectal cancer.

  17. Dual Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Proliferative Activity Assessment of Two Probiotics on HeLa and HT-29 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Zahra; Karami, Fatemeh; Neyazi, Nadia; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Roya; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Taheri, Behrooz; Motevaseli, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lactobacilli are a group of probiotics with beneficial effects on prevention of cancer. However, there is scant data in relation with the impacts of probiotics in late-stage cancer progration, especially metastasis. The present original work was aimed to evaluate the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative activity of lactobacillus rhamnosus supernatant (LRS) and lactobacillus crispatus supernatant (LCS) on the human cervical and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa and HT-29, respectively). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the anti-proliferative activities of LRS and LCS were determined through MTT assay. MRC-5 was used as a normal cell line. Expression analysis of CASP3, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 genes was performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), following the cell synchronization. Results Supernatants of these two lactobacilli had cytotoxic effect on HeLa, however LRS treatment was only effective on HT-29 cell line. In addition, LRS had no side-effect on normal cells. It was shown that CASP3 gene expression has been reduced after treatment with supernatants of two studied lactobacilli. According to our study, LRS and LCS are efficacious in the prevention of metastasis potency in HeLa cells with decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and increased expression of their inhibitors. In the case of HT-29 cells, only LRS showed this effect. Conclusion Herein, we have demonstrated two probiotics which have anti-metastatic effects on malignant cells and they can be administrated to postpone late-stage of cancer disease. LRS and LCS are effective on HeLa cell lines while only the effect of LRS is significant on HT-29, through cytotoxic and anti-metastatic mechanisms. Further assessments are required to evaluate our results on the other cancer cell lines, in advance to use these probiotics in other extensive trial studies. PMID:27551673

  18. The effect of five artificial sweeteners on Caco-2, HT-29 and HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    van Eyk, Armorel Diane

    2015-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners (AS) have been associated with tumor development (including colon cancer) in both animals and humans although evidence has been conflicting. Additional research was thus conducted by studying the effects of 5 AS on the morphology, cell proliferation and DNA in cells by utilizing Caco-2, HT-29 (colon) and HEK-293 (kidney) cell lines. Cells were exposed to sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, sucralose and acesulfame-K (0-50 mM) and aspartame (0-35 mM) over 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological changes were presented photographically and % cell viability was determined by using the MTT cell viability assay. Possible DNA damage (comet assay) induced by the AS (0.1, 1 and 10 mM, treated for 24, 48 and 72 hours) was studied. The appearance of "comets" was scored from no damage to severe damage (0-4). Cells became flatter and less well defined at higher AS concentrations (>10 mM). At concentrations >10 mM, decreased cell viability was noted with both increasing concentration and increasing incubation time for all cell lines tested. In general, HEK-293 cells seemed to be less affected then the colon cancer cells. Sucralose and sodium saccharin seemed to elicit the greatest degree of DNA fragmentation of all the sweeteners tested in all the cell lines used. Morphological cell alterations, cell viability and DNA fragmentation seemed to be more in the colon cancer cells. Further studies have to be performed to clarify mechanisms involved causing these alterations in mammalian cells.

  19. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on E-type prostaglandin synthesis and EP4 receptor signaling in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hawcroft, Gillian; Loadman, Paul M; Belluzzi, Andrea; Hull, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the free fatty acid (FFA) form, has been demonstrated to reduce adenoma number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the mechanistic basis of the antineoplastic activity of EPA in the colorectum remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that EPA-FFA negatively modulates synthesis of and signaling by prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. EPA-FFA induced apoptosis of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-positive human HCA-7 CRC cells in vitro. EPA-FFA in cell culture medium was incorporated rapidly into phospholipid membranes of HCA-7 human CRC cells and acted as a substrate for COX-2, leading to reduced synthesis of PGE(2) and generation of PGE(3). Alone, PGE(3) bound and activated the PGE(2) EP4 receptor but with reduced affinity and efficacy compared with its "natural" ligand PGE(2). However, in the presence of PGE(2), PGE(3) acted as an antagonist of EP4 receptor-dependent 3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate induction in naturally EP4 receptor-positive LoVo human CRC cells and of resistance to apoptosis in HT-29-EP4 human CRC cells overexpressing the EP4 receptor. We conclude that EPA-FFA drives a COX-2-dependent "PGE(2)-to-PGE(3) switch" in human CRC cells and that PGE(3) acts as a partial agonist at the PGE(2) EP4 receptor.

  20. Salidroside induces apoptosis and autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Mingyan

    2016-12-01

    The role of salidroside in colon cancer remains unknown. Here we show that salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea, exhibited potent anti-proliferative properties in human colorectal cancer cells via inducing apoptosis and autophagy. We ascertained that salidroside exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, salidroside induced cell apoptosis, accompanied by an increase of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, and a decrease of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression ratio. We also found that salidroside induced autophagy, evidenced by increased LC3+ autophagic vacuoles, positive acridine orange-stained cells, enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, and elevation of Beclin-1. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors [3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafilomycin A1 (BA)] enhanced salidroside-induced apoptosis, indicating that salidroside-mediated autophagy may protect HT29 cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death. Additionally, salidroside decreased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 augmented the effects of salidroside on the expression of Akt and mTOR. These findings indicate that salidroside could suppress the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. This study may provide a rationale for future clinical application using salidroside as a chemotherapeutic agent for human colorectal cancer.

  1. Interaction of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with radiation therapy in two different colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fang; Sorg, Olivier; Granci, Virginie; Lecumberri, Elena; Miralbell, Raymond; Dupertuis, Yves M; Pichard, Claude

    2014-02-01

    This study aims at evaluating if docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increases the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) on two human colorectal cancer cell lines with different radio-sensitivity. LS174T and HT-29 cells were treated with 20 or 50 μmol/L EPA or DHA followed by single X-ray RT of 0, 2 or 4 Gy, to evaluate cell survival, apoptosis, peroxide and malondialdehyde productions. Inflammation- and apoptosis-related proteins were analyzed by Western Blot. ANOVAs were used for statistical analysis. LS174T was more sensitive to RT than HT-29. DHA and to a lesser extent EPA increased cell death, apoptosis and peroxide production after RT in LS174T and to a lesser extent in HT-29 (p < 0.05). This was associated with increased expression of heat shock protein 70, decreased expression of NF-kB p65, COX-2 and Bcl-2 proteins. The effect of RT combination with DHA and to a lesser extent EPA was synergistic in the radio-sensitive LS174T cells, but additive in the radio-resistant HT-29 cells. This enhanced cytotoxicity was provoked at least partly by lipid peroxidation, which consequently modulated inflammatory response and induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. The receptor and transporter for internalization of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin into HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Atsushi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Lee, Jae-Chul; Miura, Yutaka; Fujinaga, Yukako; Nakada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Oguma, Keiji

    2004-06-25

    Orally ingested botulinum toxin enters the circulatory system and eventually reaches the peripheral nerves, where it elicits a response of neurological dysfunction. In this study, we report the important findings concerning the mechanism of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin (C16S) endocytic mechanism. C16S toxin bound to high molecular weight proteins on the surface of human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells and was internalized, but not if the cells were pretreated with neuraminidase. Benzyl-GalNAc which inhibited O-glycosylation of glycoproteins also interfered in the toxin's ability to bind the cell surface. On the other hand, the toxin was internalized in spite of pretreatment of the cells with PPMP, an inhibitor of ganglioside synthesis. These results suggest that the glycoproteins, like mucin, fulfill the important roles of receptor and transporter of C16S toxin.

  3. Listeriolysin O affects barrier function and induces chloride secretion in HT-29/B6 colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan F; Gitter, Alfred H; Günzel, Dorothee; Weiss, Siegfried; Mohamed, Walid; Chakraborty, Trinad; Fromm, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg D

    2009-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen, which is able to induce diarrhea when residing in the intestine. We studied the effect of listeriolysin O (LLO), an extracellular virulence factor of L. monocytogenes, on intestinal transport and barrier function in monolayers of HT-29/B6 human colon cells using the Ussing technique to understand the pathomechanisms involved. Mucosal addition of LLO, but not a LLO mutant, induced a dose- and pH-dependent increase in short-circuit current (I(SC)). Sodium and chloride tracer flux and DIDS sensitivity studies revealed that I(SC) was mainly due to electrogenic chloride secretion. Barrier function was impaired by LLO, as assessed by transepithelial resistance (R(t)) and mannitol flux measurements. Intracellular signal transduction occurred through Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and PKC activation. In conclusion, listeriolysin induces chloride secretion and perturbs epithelial barrier function, thus potentially contributing to Listeria-induced diarrhea.

  4. Continuous administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine, even after acquired resistance to bevacizumab, restored anti-angiogenic and antitumor effect in a human colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Masamichi; Harada, Suguru; Yorozu, Keigo; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Kaname

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralizing therapy with bevacizumab has become increasingly important for treating colorectal cancer. It was demonstrated that second-line chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) on first-line therapy including bevacizumab showed clinical benefits in metastatic colorectal and breast cancers (ML18147 trial, TANIA trial). One of the rationales for these trials was that the refractoriness to first-line therapy is caused by resistance to not so much bevacizumab as to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, resistance to bevacizumab cannot be ruled out because VEGF-independent angiogenesis has been reported to be a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. In this study, we used a xenograft model with the human colon cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of continued administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine even after resistance to bevacizumab was acquired. The combination of capecitabine plus bevacizumab exhibited significantly stronger antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities than did monotherapy with either agent. Capecitabine treatment significantly increased the intratumoral VEGF level compared with the control group; however, the combination with bevacizumab neutralized the VEGF. Among angiogenic factors other than VEGF, intratumoral galectin-3, which reportedly promotes angiogenesis both dependent on, and independently of VEGF, was significantly decreased in the capecitabine group and the combination group compared with the control group. In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an active metabolite of capecitabine, inhibited galectin-3 production by HT-29 cells. These results suggested that capecitabine has a dual mode of action: namely, inhibition of tumor cell growth and inhibition of galectin-3 production by tumor cells. Thus, capecitabine and bevacizumab may work in a mutually complementary manner in tumor angiogenesis inhibition

  5. Induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells by extracts from isothiocyanates-rich varieties of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Deulofeu, Ramon; Molina, Rafael; Ballesta, Antonio; Kensler, Thomas W; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    Among the vegetables with anti-carcinogenic properties, members of the genus Brassica are the most effective at reducing the risk of cancer. This property may be explained by their principle bioactive compounds, isothiocyanates (ITCs). The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of ITCs in extracts from vegetables of the Brasssica genus and assay them for potency of induction of apoptosis in a colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29). ITCs were determined by the cyclocondensation assay with 1,2-benzenedithiol and induction of apoptosis by assessment of cell viability, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Purple cabbage extract showed the highest ITC concentration per gram, fresh weight, followed by black cabbage and Romanesco cauliflower. At ITC concentrations of 7.08 microg/mL these extracts decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation at 48h. Brussels sprouts showed the strongest effects on cell viability and caspase-3 activity. Varieties of Brassica Oleracea are rich sources of ITCs that potently inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells by inducting apoptosis. All the extracts showed anticancer activity at ITC concentrations of between 3.54 to 7.08 mug/mL, which are achievable in vivo. Our results showed that ITC concentration and the chemopreventive responses of plant extracts vary among the varieties of Brassica Oleracea studied and among their cultivars.

  6. Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Analhuda Abdullah; Sani, Nur Fathiah Abdul; Murad, Noor Azian; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2015-04-01

    The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29. The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined. The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of < 1, suggesting synergism. Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner. In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.

  7. All Trans-Retinoic Acid Mediates MED28/HMG Box-Containing Protein 1 (HBP1)/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Li, Chun-I

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin A is required for normal body function, including vision, epithelial integrity, growth, and differentiation. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a family member of vitamin A, has been explored in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disrupted cadherin-catenin complex often contribute to colorectal malignancy. MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, is found highly expressed in breast and colorectal cancers. Our laboratory has also reported that MED28 regulates cell growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of ATRA on MED28 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer. HCT116, HT29, SW480, and SW620, four human colorectal cancer cell lines representing different stages of carcinogenesis and harboring critical genetic changes, were employed. Our data indicated that regardless of genetic variations among these cells, suppression of MED28 reduced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and nuclear β-catenin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin and HMG box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) where HBP1 has been described as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The reporter activity of an HBP1 promoter increased upon MED28 knockdown, but decreased upon MED28 overexpression. ATRA reduced the expression of MED28 and mimicked the effect of MED28 suppression in down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, ATRA can reverse the suppressive effect of MED28 on HBP1 and E-cadherin and inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer, suggesting a protective effect of ATRA against colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1796-1803, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Age and cellular context influence rectal prolapse formation in mice with caecal wall colorectal cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Tommelein, Joke; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; De Vlieghere, Elly; Wagemans, Glenn; Gespach, Christian; Boterberg, Tom; Demetter, Pieter; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer. PMID:27689329

  9. Apoptotic effect of quercetin on HT-29 colon cancer cells via the AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Sang-Ki; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Park, Young-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon; Kim, So-Jung; Kim, Jin; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sung-Dae; Jung, Ji-Won; Roh, Kyong-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2010-08-11

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, quercetin increased cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulated apoptosis-related proteins, such as AMPK, p53, and p21, within 48 h. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that quercetin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over 6 weeks, and apoptosis-related protein induction by quercetin was significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg treated group compared to the control group. All of these results indicate that quercetin induces apoptosis via AMPK activation and p53-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT-29 colon cancer cells and that it may be a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against HT-29 colon cancer.

  10. Antiproliferative activity of tea catechins associated with casein micelles, using HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Haratifar, S; Meckling, K A; Corredig, M

    2014-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that green tea polyphenols display anticancer activities in many organ sites by using different experimental models in rodents and in cultured cell lines in vitro. The present study tested the ability of casein micelles to deliver biologically active concentrations of polyphenols to HT-29 colon cancer cells. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, was used as the model molecule, as it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells. In the present work, we hypothesized that due to the binding of caseins with EGCG, casein micelles may be an ideal platform for the delivery of this bioactive molecule and that the binding would not affect the bioaccessibility of EGCG. The cytotoxicity and proliferation behavior of HT-29 colon cancer cells when exposed to free EGCG was compared with that of nanoencapsulated EGCG in casein micelles of skim milk. Epigallocatechin gallate-casein complexes were able to decrease the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells, demonstrating that bioavailability may not be reduced by the nanoencapsulation. As casein micelles may act as protective carriers for EGCG in foods, it was concluded that nanoencapsulation of tea catechins in casein micelles may not diminish their antiproliferative activity on colon cancer cells compared with free tea catechins.

  11. Low molecular weight apple polysaccharides induced cell cycle arrest in colorectal tumor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Mei, Lin; Niu, Yinbo; Sun, Yang; Huang, Haitao; Li, Qian; Kong, Xianghe; Liu, Li; Li, Zhiquan; Mei, Qibing

    2012-04-01

    Dietary components play an important role in cancer prevention. Many ingredients from apples have been proven to have antitumor potency. We thus made low molecular weight apple polysaccharides (LMWAP) and evaluated the effects of it on colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of LMWAP on human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) were evaluated using a microarray. Then, cell-cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometric analysis. A colitis-associated colorectal cancer mouse model was used to assess the effect of LMWAP on in vivo CRC prevention. Treatment of HT-29 cells with LMWAP resulted in 333 genes expression over cutoff values (≥2-fold). Further analysis demonstrated that pathways of cell cycle were mainly influenced. At the concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/mL, LMWAP induced a G(0)/G(1) phase block in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent way. In vivo studies revealed that administration of LMWAP could protect ICR mice against CRC effectively. The results of Western blot suggested LMWAP induced cell-cycle arrest in a p53 independent manner. These data indicate that LMWAP could inhibit the development of CRC through affecting cell cycle, and it has potential for clinical prevention for colon cancer.

  12. Elucidation of a novel phenformin derivative on glucose-deprived stress responses in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh-Hashi, Kentaro; Irie, Nao; Sakai, Takayuki; Okuda, Kensuke; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hirata, Yoko; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi

    2016-08-01

    Recently, we developed a variety of phenformin derivatives as selective antitumor agents. Based on previous findings, this study evaluated a promising compound, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethylbiguanide (2-Cl-Phen), on the basis of stress responses in the human colon cancer cell line HT-29 under a serum- and glucose-deprived condition. 2-Cl-Phen triggered morphological changes such as shrinkage and plasma membrane disintegration, as well as a decrease in mitochondrial activity and an increase in LDH leakage. To understand intracellular issues relating to 2-Cl-Phen, this study focused on the expression levels of ER stress-inducible genes and several oncogenic genes. Serum and glucose deprivation significantly induced a variety of ER stress-inducible genes, but a 12-h treatment of 2-Cl-Phen down-regulated expression of several ER stress-related genes, with the exception of GADD153. Interestingly, the expression levels of ATF6α, GRP78, MANF, and CRELD2 mRNA were almost completely decreased by 2-Cl-Phen. This study also observed that a 24-h treatment of 2-Cl-Phen attenuated the expression levels of GRP78, GADD153, and c-Myc protein. The decrease in c-Myc protein occurred before the fluctuation of GRP78 protein, while the expression of c-Myc mRNA showed little change with cotreatment of serum and glucose deprivation with 2-Cl-Phen. To further understand the 2-Cl-Phen-induced down-regulation of ATF6-related genes, this study investigated the stability of ATF6α and GRP78 proteins using NanoLuc-tagged constructs. The expression levels of NanoLuc-tagged ATF6α and GRP78 were significantly down-regulated by 2-Cl-Phen in the presence or absence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide. Taken together, our novel phenformin derivative 2-Cl-Phen has the unique characteristic of diminishing tumor adaptive responses, especially the expression of ATF6-related genes, as well as that of c-Myc protein, in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional manner under a serum- and glucose

  13. Effects of PHA-665752 and cetuximab combination treatment on in vitro and murine xenograft growth of human colorectal cancer cells with KRAS or BRAF mutations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi-Tao; Yang, Dong-Hai; Zhao, Zhaolong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Han, Wei-Hua; Feng, Bo; Zhi, Jie; Gu, Bin; Duan, Zhihui; Wu, Jian-Hua; Ju, Ying-Chao; Wang, Ming-Xia; Li, Zhong-Xin

    2017-03-30

    It remains unknown whether blockade of c-Met signaling and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling is effective in suppressing the growth of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of the c-Met inhibitor PHA-665752 alone and in combination with cetuximab on the growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Human CRC cell lines (Caco2, HCT-116, and HT-29) and mice bearing HCT-116 xenografts were treated with cetuximab in the absence or presence of PHA-665752. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined using the MTT and TUNEL assays, respectively. Vimentin was measured by immunohistochemistry as a marker for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Western blotting was used to determine signaling protein expression levels. The MTT assay showed that the growth of Caco2, HCT-116, and HT-29 cells was inhibited by PHA-665752 in a dose-dependent manner, but only Caco2 cell growth was suppressed by cetuximab. Combination treatment with PHA-665752 and cetuximab inhibited the proliferation of Caco2 cells and RAS mutant CRC cell lines. However, relative to the PHA-665752-alone treatment group, HT-29 cells with a BRAF mutation showed no noticeable effect. The mean tumor volume in mice treated with cetuximab in combination with PHA-665752 was significantly smaller than that in the mice treated with only cetuximab (P = 0.033) or PHA-665752 (P < 0.01). Similarly, the expression of vimentin in the mice treated with PHA-665752 in combination with cetuximab was significantly lower than that in the mice treated with cetuximab or PHA-665752 alone (P < 0.05 in each case). TUNEL assays revealed that treatment with PHA-665752 in combination with cetuximab markedly increased CRC cell apoptosis. Western blotting analysis of signaling protein expression showed that PHA-665752 inhibited Met phosphorylation (P < 0.05). In addition, treatment with cetuximab alone or in combination with PHA-665752 effectively inhibited EGFR

  14. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers. PMID:27304964

  15. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-06-13

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  16. Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa - an Effective Chemotherapeutic for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer in Humans: -Anti-Cancer Effects of Oldenlandia diffusa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojin; Shim, Ji Hwan; Gim, Huijin; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-03-01

    Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally used to relieve the symptoms of and to treat various diseases, but its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied. In the present study, the authors investigated the anti-cancer effects of an ethanol extract of Oldenlandia diffusa (EOD) on HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells. Cells were treated with different concentrations of an EOD, and cell death was assessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial membrane depolarizations were conducted to confirm cell death by apoptosis. Also, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using carboxy-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-carboxy-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate). EOD inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells for 24 hours by 78.6% ± 8.1% at 50 μg/mL, 74.4% ± 4.6% at 100 μg/mL, 65.9% ± 5.2% at 200 μg/mL, 51.4% ± 6.2% at 300 μg/mL, and by 41.7% ± 8.9% at 400 μg/mL, and treatment for 72 hours reduced the proliferation at the corresponding concentrations by 43.3% ± 8.8%, 24.3 ± 5.1 mV, 13.5 ± 3.2 mV, 6.5 ± 2.3 mV, and by 2.6 ± 2.3 mV. EOD increased the number of cells in the sub-G1 peak in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondrial membrane depolarization was elevated by EOD. Also, caspase activities were dose-dependently elevated in the presence of EOD, and these activities were repressed by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk). The ROS generation was significantly increased by EOD and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) remarkably abolished EOD-induced cell death. In addition, a combination of sub-optimal doses of EOD and chemotherapeutic agents noticeably suppressed the growth of HT-29 cancer cells. These results indicate that EOD might be an effective chemotherapeutic for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  17. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer. PMID:28103302

  18. Crude Extracts, Flavokawain B and Alpinetin Compounds from the Rhizome of Alpinia mutica Induce Cell Death via UCK2 Enzyme Inhibition and in Turn Reduce 18S rRNA Biosynthesis in HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Malami, Ibrahim; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdullah, Rasedee; Kassim, Nur Kartinee Bt; Rosli, Rozita; Yeap, Swee Keong; Waziri, Peter; Etti, Imaobong Christopher; Bello, Muhammad Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that is overexpressed in abnormal cell growth and its implication is considered a hallmark of cancer. Due to the selective expression of UCK2 in cancer cells, a selective inhibition of this key enzyme necessitates the discovery of its potential inhibitors for cancer chemotherapy. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the potentials of natural phytochemicals from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica to inhibit UCK2 useful for colorectal cancer. Here, we employed the used of in vitro to investigate the effectiveness of natural UCK2 inhibitors to cause HT-29 cell death. Extracts, flavokawain B, and alpinetin compound from the rhizome of Alpinia mutica was used in the study. The study demonstrated that the expression of UCK2 mRNA were substantially reduced in treated HT-29 cells. In addition, downregulation in expression of 18S ribosomal RNA was also observed in all treated HT-29 cells. This was confirmed by fluorescence imaging to measure the level of expression of 18S ribosomal RNA in live cell images. The study suggests the possibility of MDM2 protein was downregulated and its suppression subsequently activates the expression of p53 during inhibition of UCK2 enzyme. The expression of p53 is directly linked to a blockage of cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and upregulates Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase 3 while Bcl2 was deregulated. In this respect, apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation were observed in treated HT-29 cells. Initial results from in vitro studies have shown the ability of the bioactive compounds of flavokawain B and alpinetin to target UCK2 enzyme specifically, inducing cell cycle arrest and subsequently leading to cancer cell death, possibly through interfering the MDM2-p53 signalling pathway. These phenomena have proven that the bioactive compounds could be useful for future therapeutic use in colon cancer.

  19. Diverse effect of WWOX overexpression in HT29 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Karolina; Lewandowska, Urszula; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka W; Bednarek, Andrzej Kazimierz

    2014-09-01

    WW-domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is the tumour suppressor gene from the common fragile site FRA16D, whose altered expression has been observed in tumours of various origins. Its suppressive role and influence on basic cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis have been confirmed in many in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, its protein is thought to take part in the regulation of tissue morphogenesis and cell differentiation. However, its role in colon cancer formation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of WWOX on the process of colon cancerogenesis, the basic features of the cancer cell and its expression profiles. Multiple biological tests, microarray experiments and quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR were performed on two colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and SW480, which differ in morphology, expression of differentiation markers, migratory characteristics and metastasis potential and which represent negative (HT29) and low (SW480) WWOX expression levels. The cell lines were subjected to retroviral transfection, inducting WWOX overexpression. WWOX was found to have diverse effects on proliferation, apoptosis and the adhesion potential of modified cell lines. Our observations suggest that in the HT29 colon cancer cell line, increased expression of WWOX may result in the transition of cancer cells into a more normal colon epithelium phenotype, while in SW480, WWOX demonstrated well-known tumour suppressor properties. Our results also suggest that WWOX does not behave as classical tumour suppressor gene, and its influence on cell functioning is more global and complicated.

  20. [Transport of PLGA nanoparticles across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhen; Li, Gang; Lin, Dong-Hai; Wang, Jun-Teng; Qin, Li-Fang; Guo, Gui-Ping

    2013-12-01

    The present study is to establish Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells and investigate the transport capability of PLGA nanoparticles with different surface chemical properties across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells. PLGA-NPs, mPEG-PLGA-NPs and chitosan coated PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as carrier material with surface modified by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and chitosan. The particle size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were measured by dynamic light scattering. Coumarin 6 was used as a fluorescent marker in the transport of nanoparticles investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The transport of furanodiene (FDE) loaded nanoparticles was quantitively determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Colchicine and nocodazole were used in the transport study to explore the involved endocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles. Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 was also analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that the nanoparticles dispersed uniformly. The zeta potential of PLGA-NPs was negative, the mPEG-PLGA-NPs was close to neutral and the CS-PLGA-NPs was positive. The entrapment efficiency of FDE in all nanoparticles was higher than 75%. The transport capability of mPEG-PLGA-NPs across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells was higher than that of PLGA-NPs and CS-PLGA-NPs. Colchicine and nocodazole could significantly decrease the transport amount of nanoparticles. mPEG-PLGA-NPs could obviously reduce the distribution of ZO-1 protein than PLGA-NPs and CS-PLGA-NPs. The transport mechanism of PLGA-NPs and mPEG-PLGA-NPs were indicated to be a combination of endocytosis and paracellular way, while CS-PLGA-NPs mainly relied on the endocytosis way. PEG coating could shield the surface charge and enhance the hydrophilicity of PLGA nanoparticles, which leads mPEG-PLGA-NPs to possess higher anti-adhesion activity. As a result, mPEG-PLGA-NPs could penetrate the mucus

  1. Inhibition of CD147 expression by RNA interference reduces proliferation, invasion and increases chemosensitivity in cancer stem cell-like HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Sun, Huiling; Deng, Qiwen; Liu, Xian; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Cho, William C; Wang, Shukui

    2015-10-01

    The association between CD147 and cancer stem cells (CSCs) provides a new angle for cancer treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological roles of CD147 in colorectal CSCs. The Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector was used to isolate CSCs and pYr-mir30-shRNA was used to generate short hairpin RNA (shRNA) specifically for CD147. After RNA interference (RNAi), CD147 was evaluated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and its biological functions were assessed by MTT and invasion assays. The results showed that the differentiation of isolated CSC-like HT-29 cells was blocked and these cells were highly positive for CD44 and CD147. RNAi-mediated CD147 silencing reduced the expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the activities of proliferation and invasion were decreased obviously in CSCs. Knockdown of CD147 increased the chemosensitivity of CSC-like cells to gemcitabine, cisplatin, docetaxel at 0.1, 1 and 10 µM respectively, however, there was no significant difference among the three groups to paclitaxel at 10 µM. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD147 plays an important role in colorectal CSCs and might be regarded as a novel CSC-specific targeted strategy against colorectal cancer.

  2. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-02-22

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V-FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  3. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-02-01

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V-FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  4. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V–FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:28225083

  5. Pectic oligosaccharide structure-function relationships: Prebiotics, inhibitors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 adhesion and reduction of Shiga toxin cytotoxicity in HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Di, Rong; Vakkalanka, Malathi S; Onumpai, Chatchaya; Chau, Hoa K; White, Andre; Rastall, Robert A; Yam, Kit; Hotchkiss, Arland T

    2017-07-15

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing, food-contaminating Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major health concern. Plant-derived pectin and pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) have been considered as prebiotics and for the protection of humans from Stx. Of five structurally different citrus pectic samples, POS1, POS2 and modified citrus pectin 1 (MCP1) were bifidogenic with similar fermentabilities in human faecal cultures and arabinose-rich POS2 had the greatest prebiotic potential. Pectic oligosaccharides also enhanced lactobacilli growth during mixed batch faecal fermentation. We demonstrated that all pectic substrates were anti-adhesive for E. coli O157:H7 binding to human HT29 cells. Lower molecular weight and deesterification enhanced the anti-adhesive activity. We showed that all pectic samples reduced Stx2 cytotoxicity in HT29 cells, as measured by the reduction of human rRNA depurination detected by our novel TaqMan-based RT-qPCR assay, with POS1 performing the best. POS1 competes with Stx2 binding to the Gb3 receptor based on ELISA results, underlining the POS anti-STEC properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic and growth inhibitory effects of conjugated fatty acids in the cell line HT-29 with special regard to the conversion of t11,t13-CLA.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christian; Ecker, Josef; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) exhibit growth inhibitory effects on colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. To investigate whether the anticancerogenic potency depends on number or configuration of the conjugated double bonds, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2) isomers and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA; C18:3) isomers on viability and growth of HT-29 cells were compared. Low concentrations of CLnAs (<10μM) yielded a higher degree of inhibitory effects compared to CLAs (40μM). All trans-CFAs were more effective compared to cis/trans-CFAs as follows: t9,t11,t13-CLnA≥c9,t11,t13-CLnA>t11,t13-CLA≥t9,t11-CLA>c9,t11-CLA. The mRNA expression analysis of important genes associated with fatty acid metabolism showed an absence of ∆5-/∆6-desaturases and elongases in HT-29 cells, which was confirmed by fatty acid analysis. Using time- and dose-dependent stimulation experiments several metabolites were determined. Low concentrations of all trans-CFAs (5-20μM) led to dose-dependent increase of conjugated t/t-C16:2 formed by β-oxidation of C18 CFAs, ranging from 1-5% of total FAME. Importantly, it was found that CLnA is converted to CLA and that CLA is inter-converted (t11,t13-CLA is metabolized to c9,t11-CLA) by HT-29 cells. In summary, our study shows that growth inhibition of human cancer cells is associated with a specific cellular transcriptomic and metabolic profile of fatty acid metabolism, which might contribute to the diversified ability of CFAs as anti-cancer compounds.

  7. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gestl, Erin E.; Anne Boettger, S.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated with p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed elevated p53

  8. Effects of Lidocaine on HT-29 and SW480 Colon Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bundscherer, Anika C; Malsy, Manuela; Bitzinger, Diane I; Wiese, Christoph H R; Gruber, Michael A; Graf, Bernhard M

    2017-04-01

    Evidence is growing that the risk of cancer dissemination may be enhanced during the perioperative period. Whether particular anesthetic techniques influence oncological outcome is still under discussion. For pain management, lidocaine can be administered perioperatively by intravenous, intraperitoneal or epidural infusion. Here we investigated the effect of lidocaine on colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and SW480) in vitro. ELISA BrdU (Roche) for cell proliferation and FITC Annexin V detection kit (BD Pharming) for apoptosis analysis were applied. Cell-cycle profiles were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell-cycle arrest was induced in both cell lines by 1000 μM lidocaine, while no inhibition of cell proliferation was detected. Apoptosis decreased in SW480 but not in HT-29 cells. Lidocaine induces cell-cycle arrest in both colon carcinoma cell lines in vitro. The effective drug concentration can be obtained by local infiltration. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Shigella flexneri Dissemination in HT-29 Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Talman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that infects the intestinal epithelium and utilizes actin-based motility to spread from cell to cell. S. flexneri actin-based motility has been characterized in various cell lines, but studies in intestinal cells are limited. Here we characterized S. flexneri actin-based motility in HT-29 intestinal cells. In agreement with studies conducted in various cell lines, we showed that S. flexneri relies on neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) in HT-29 cells. We tested the potential role of various tyrosine kinases involved in N-WASP activation and uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) in actin tail formation in intestinal cells. We showed that Btk depletion led to a decrease in N-WASP phosphorylation which affected N-WASP recruitment to the bacterial surface, decreased the number of bacteria displaying actin-based motility, and ultimately affected the efficiency of spread from cell to cell. Finally, we showed that the levels of N-WASP phosphorylation and Btk expression were increased in response to infection, which suggests that S. flexneri infection not only triggers the production of proinflammatory factors as previously described but also manipulates cellular processes required for dissemination in intestinal cells. PMID:23230296

  10. Cellular Homeostasis and Antioxidant Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Mat, Ishak

    2017-01-01

    Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA) have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense) was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes. These mechanisms furnish to protect DNA during cellular division from an oxidative challenge, set in motion with XRRC5 and RAD50 genes for DNA damage and repair activities. The cell fate decision on TNA-nanoenvironment has been reported to possibly regulate proliferative activities via expression of p27 and BCL2 tumor suppressor proteins, cogent with SKP2 and BCL2 oncogenic proteins suppression. Findings suggested that epithelial HT29 cells on the surface of TNA may have a positive regulation via cell-homeostasis mechanisms: a careful circadian orchestration between cell proliferation, survival, and death. This nanomolecular knowledge could be beneficial for advanced medical applications such as in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutics. PMID:28337249

  11. Claudin-7 promotes the epithelial – mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Rahel; Heiler, Sarah; Mu, Wei; Büchler, Markus W.; Zöller, Margot; Thuma, Florian

    2015-01-01

    In colorectal cancer (CoCa) EpCAM is frequently associated with claudin-7. There is evidence that tumor-promoting EpCAM activities are modulated by the association with claudin-7. To support this hypothesis, claudin-7 was knocked-down (kd) in HT29 and SW948 cells. HT29-cld7kd and SW948-cld7kd cells display decreased anchorage-independent growth and the capacity for holoclone-, respectively, sphere-formation is reduced. Tumor growth is delayed and cld7kd cells poorly metastasize. In line with this, migratory and invasive potential of cld7kd clones is strongly impaired, migration being inhibited by anti-CD49c, but not anti-EpCAM, although motility is reduced in EpCAM siRNA-treated cells. This is due to claudin-7 recruiting EpCAM in glycolipid-enriched membrane fractions towards claudin-7-associated TACE and presenilin2, which cleave EpCAM. The cleaved intracellular domain, EpIC, promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated transcription factor expression, which together with fibronectin and vimentin are reduced in claudin-7kd cells. But, uptake of HT29wt and SW948wt exosomes by the claudin-7kd lines sufficed for transcription factor upregulation and for restoring motility. Thus, claudin-7 contributes to motility and invasion and is required for recruiting EpCAM towards TACE/presenilin2. EpIC generation further supports motility by promoting a shift towards EMT. Notably, EMT features of cld7-competent metastatic CoCa cells can be transferred via exosomes to poorly metastatic cells. PMID:25514462

  12. Trifluridine/tipiracil increases survival rates in peritoneal dissemination mouse models of human colorectal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Norihiko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Takechi, Teiji

    2017-01-01

    A number of patients exhibit peritoneal dissemination of gastric or colorectal cancer, which is a predominant cause of cancer-associated mortality. Currently, there is no markedly effective treatment available. The present study was designed to determine the efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD), formerly known as TAS-102, which is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies. Four colorectal cancer cell lines and one gastric cancer cell line were intraperitoneally inoculated into nude mice, as models of peritoneal dissemination. TFTD (200 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 drug-free days for 6 weeks. The increase in the lifespan (ILS) of the TFTD-treated mice compared with that of the drug-free control mice was 66.7, 43.3, 106.3, 98.3 and 133.3% for DLD-1, DLD-1/5-fluorouracil [5-fluorouracil (5FU)-resistant subline of DLD-1], HT-29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines, and MKN45 gastric cancer cell line, respectively. This ILS was similar to that of the irinotecan-treated mice (ILS, 70–84%), but was significantly (P<0.05) increased compared with that of the 5FU-, tegafur, gimeracil and potassium oxonate- and cisplatin-treated mice (ILS, 1–53%, 0.8–60% and 85%, respectively). No significant increase in body weight loss was observed during the dosing periods with any of the drugs used. The increase in CEA levels with progressive peritoneal dissemination was inhibited by TFTD treatment. TFTD also exhibited marked anticancer effects against Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog-mutated tumors and 5FU-resistant tumors. The results of the present study indicate that TFTD may be a potential drug against peritoneal dissemination of colorectal and/or gastric cancer in humans and may be utilized for chemo-naïve tumors and recurrent tumors following 5FU treatment. PMID:28693216

  13. Trifluridine/tipiracil increases survival rates in peritoneal dissemination mouse models of human colorectal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Norihiko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Takechi, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    A number of patients exhibit peritoneal dissemination of gastric or colorectal cancer, which is a predominant cause of cancer-associated mortality. Currently, there is no markedly effective treatment available. The present study was designed to determine the efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD), formerly known as TAS-102, which is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies. Four colorectal cancer cell lines and one gastric cancer cell line were intraperitoneally inoculated into nude mice, as models of peritoneal dissemination. TFTD (200 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 drug-free days for 6 weeks. The increase in the lifespan (ILS) of the TFTD-treated mice compared with that of the drug-free control mice was 66.7, 43.3, 106.3, 98.3 and 133.3% for DLD-1, DLD-1/5-fluorouracil [5-fluorouracil (5FU)-resistant subline of DLD-1], HT-29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines, and MKN45 gastric cancer cell line, respectively. This ILS was similar to that of the irinotecan-treated mice (ILS, 70-84%), but was significantly (P<0.05) increased compared with that of the 5FU-, tegafur, gimeracil and potassium oxonate- and cisplatin-treated mice (ILS, 1-53%, 0.8-60% and 85%, respectively). No significant increase in body weight loss was observed during the dosing periods with any of the drugs used. The increase in CEA levels with progressive peritoneal dissemination was inhibited by TFTD treatment. TFTD also exhibited marked anticancer effects against Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog-mutated tumors and 5FU-resistant tumors. The results of the present study indicate that TFTD may be a potential drug against peritoneal dissemination of colorectal and/or gastric cancer in humans and may be utilized for chemo-naïve tumors and recurrent tumors following 5FU treatment.

  14. Protective Effect of Carnobacterium spp. against Listeria monocytogenes during Host Cell Invasion Using In vitro HT29 Model

    PubMed Central

    Pilchová, Tereza; Pilet, Marie-France; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Pazlarová, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of listeriosis results mainly from the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to attach, invade, replicate and survive within various cell types in mammalian tissues. In this work, the effect of two bacteriocin-producing Carnobacterium (C. divergens V41 and C. maltaromaticum V1) and three non-bacteriocinogenic strains: (C. divergens V41C9, C. divergens 2763, and C. maltaromaticum 2762) was investigated on the reduction of L. monocytogenes Scott A plaque-forming during human infection using the HT-29 in vitro model. All Carnobacteria tested resulted in a reduction in the epithelial cell invasion caused by L. monocytogenes Scott A. To understand better the mechanism underlying the level of L. monocytogenes infection inhibition by Carnobacteria, infection assays from various pretreatments of Carnobacteria were assessed. The results revealed the influence of bacteriocin production combined with a passive mechanism of mammalian cell monolayers protection by Carnobacteria. These initial results showing a reduction in L. monocytogenes virulence on epithelial cells by Carnobacteria would be worthwhile analyzing further as a promising probiotic tool for human health. PMID:27617232

  15. Assessing global transitions in human development and colorectal cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Miranda M; Bray, Freddie; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-06-15

    Colorectal cancer incidence has paralleled increases in human development across most countries. Yet, marked decreases in incidence are now observed in countries that have attained very high human development. Thus, in this study, we explored the relationship between human development and colorectal cancer incidence, and in particular assessed whether national transitions to very high human development are linked to temporal patterns in colorectal cancer incidence. For these analyses, we utilized the Human Development Index (HDI) and annual incidence data from regional and national cancer registries. Truncated (30-74 years) age-standardized incidence rates were calculated. Yearly incidence rate ratios and HDI ratios, before and after transitioning to very high human development, were also estimated. Among the 29 countries investigated, colorectal cancer incidence was observed to decrease after reaching the very high human development threshold for 12 countries; decreases were also observed in a further five countries, but the age-standardized incidence rates remained higher than that observed at the threshold. Such declines or stabilizations are likely due to colorectal cancer screening in some populations, as well as varying levels of exposure to protective factors. In summary, it appears that there is a threshold at which human development predicts a stabilization or decline in colorectal cancer incidence, though this pattern was not observed for all countries assessed. Future cancer planning must consider the increasing colorectal cancer burden expected in countries transitioning towards higher levels of human development, as well as possible declines in incidence among countries reaching the highest development level. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Effect of phytic acid and inositol on the proliferation and apoptosis of cells derived from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schröterová, L; Hasková, P; Rudolf, E; Cervinka, M

    2010-03-01

    We characterized the effect of phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate, IP6) as a potential adjuvant in treatment of colorectal carcinoma and evaluated the optimal concentration and treatment time to produe the maximal therapeutic effect. There is some evidence that myoinositol (Ins) can potentiate anti-cancer effects of IP6. Therefore, we tested both IP6 and Ins individually and in combination on human cell lines HT-29, SW-480 and SW-620 derived from colorectal carcinoma in different stages of malignancy. The effect of tested chemicals on the cells was measured using metabolic activity assay (WST-1), DNA synthesis assay (BrdU), protein synthesis assay (Brilliant Blue) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity). We tested IP6 and Ins at three concentrations: 0.2, 1 and 5 mM for 24, 48 and 72 h. The concentrations and incubation periods were chosen according to low toxicity of the tested substance that was observed in a long-term clinical study. We found that all employed concentrations of IP6 or IP6/Ins decreased proliferation of the cell lines, with the maximum decrease being observed in HT-29 cells. Metabolic activity of treated cells differed in response to IP6 and IP6/Ins treatment; in HT-29 and SW-620 significant decrease was observed only at the highest concentration, whereas in SW-480 cells metabolic activity was lower at each concentration except 0.2 and 1 mM IP6 or IP6/Ins in 24-h incubation. The results from protein content assay corresponded to the results obtained from WST assay. In addition, we found maximum increase in caspase-3 activity at concentration 5 mM IP6 or IP6/Ins in HT-29 cells and with IP6 at concentration of 0.2 mM or IP6/Ins in SW-480 cells with clear indication of Ins enhancing the proapoptotic effect of IP6 in all the cell lines studied.

  17. Overexpression of protein kinase C in HT29 colon cancer cells causes growth inhibition and tumor suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, P M; Tchou-Wong, K M; Weinstein, I B

    1990-01-01

    By using a retrovirus-derived vector system, we generated derivatives of the human colon cancer cell line HT29 that stably overexpress a full-length cDNA encoding the beta 1 isoform of rat protein kinase C (PKC). Two of these cell lines, PKC6 and PKC7, displayed an 11- to 15-fold increase in PKC activity when compared with the C1 control cell line that carries the vector lacking the PKC cDNA insert. Both of the overexpresser cell lines exhibited striking alterations in morphology when exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Following exposure to TPA, PKC6 and PKC7 cells displayed increased doubling time, decreased saturation density, and loss of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar; but these effects were not seen with the C1 cells. Also, in contrast to the control cells, the PKC-overproducing cells failed to display evidence of differentiation, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity, when exposed to sodium butyrate. In addition, the PKC-overexpresser cells displayed decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice, even in the absence of treatment with TPA. These results provide the first direct evidence that PKC can inhibit tumor cell growth. Thus, in some tumors, PKC might act as a growth-suppressor gene. Images PMID:2388620

  18. Probiotic Colonization of the Adherent Mucus Layer of HT29MTXE12 Cells Attenuates Campylobacter jejuni Virulence Properties▿

    PubMed Central

    Alemka, Abofu; Clyne, Marguerite; Shanahan, Fergus; Tompkins, Thomas; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae; Bourke, Billy

    2010-01-01

    The HT29MTXE12 (E12) cell line harbors an adherent mucus layer, providing a novel technique to model mucosal infection in vitro. In this study, we have characterized the interaction of Campylobacter jejuni with the E12 cell line and exploited its unique mucus layer to examine the potential efficacy of probiotic treatment to attenuate C. jejuni virulence properties. C. jejuni 81-176 colonized and reproduced in E12 mucus. Adhesion to and internalization of C. jejuni were enhanced in E12 cells harboring mucus compared to parental cells without mucus. Translocation of C. jejuni occurred at early time points following infection. C. jejuni aligned with tight junctions and colocalized with the tight junction protein occludin, suggesting a paracellular route of translocation. Probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Lactobacillus salivarius AH102, Bifidobacterium longum AH1205, a commercial combination of L. rhamnosus R0011 and L. helveticus R0052 (Lacidofil), and a cocktail consisting of L. rhamnosus, L. helveticus, and L. salivarius (RhHeSa) colonized E12 mucus and bound to underlying cells. Probiotics attenuated C. jejuni association with and internalization into E12 cells and translocation to the basolateral medium of transwells. Live bacteria and prolonged precolonization of E12 cells with probiotics were necessary for probiotic action. These results demonstrate the potential for E12 cells as a model of mucosal pathogenesis and provide a rationale for the further investigation of probiotics as prophylaxis against human campylobacteriosis. PMID:20308300

  19. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on E-type Prostaglandin Synthesis and EP4 Receptor Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Hawcroft, Gillian; Loadman, Paul M; Belluzzi, Andrea; Hull, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the free fatty acid (FFA) form, has been demonstrated to reduce adenoma number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the mechanistic basis of the antineoplastic activity of EPA in the colorectum remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that EPA-FFA negatively modulates synthesis of and signaling by prostaglandin (PG) E2 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. EPA-FFA induced apoptosis of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-positive human HCA-7 CRC cells in vitro. EPA-FFA in cell culture medium was incorporated rapidly into phospholipid membranes of HCA-7 human CRC cells and acted as a substrate for COX-2, leading to reduced synthesis of PGE2 and generation of PGE3. Alone, PGE3 bound and activated the PGE2 EP4 receptor but with reduced affinity and efficacy compared with its “natural” ligand PGE2. However, in the presence of PGE2, PGE3 acted as an antagonist of EP4 receptor-dependent 3′,5′ cyclic adenosine monophosphate induction in naturally EP4 receptor-positive LoVo human CRC cells and of resistance to apoptosis in HT-29-EP4 human CRC cells overexpressing the EP4 receptor. We conclude that EPA-FFA drives a COX-2-dependent “PGE2-to-PGE3 switch” in human CRC cells and that PGE3 acts as a partial agonist at the PGE2 EP4 receptor. PMID:20689756

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces apoptosis associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaculová, Alena; Hofmanova, Jirina; Soucek, Karel; Kovariková, Martina; Kozubík, Alois

    2002-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known for its selective cytotoxic activity on tumour cells. We analysed the response of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells to this cytokine. After TNF-alpha treatment, cell proliferation, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (flow cytometry), the amount of apoptotic cells (flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy), cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activity (Western blotting) were detected. TNF-alpha induced a decrease of cell growth and viability, an accumulation of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, an increase of subdiploid cell population and nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, but not sooner than 96-120 hours. However, earlier events characteristic of apoptosis occurred, such as caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage to 89 kDa fragment and changes in ROS production. We demonstrated that, in addition to being an early marker of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and degradation of PARP may play a causative role in HT-29 cell death induced by TNF-alpha.

  1. Time-resolved investigations of singlet oxygen luminescence in water, in phosphatidylcholine, and in aqueous suspensions of phosphatidylcholine or HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maier, Max; Engl, Roland; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2005-02-24

    Singlet oxygen was generated by energy transfer from the photoexcited sensitizer, Photofrin or 9-acetoxy-2,7,12,17-tetrakis-(beta-methoxyethyl)-porphycene (ATMPn), to molecular oxygen. Singlet oxygen was detected time-resolved by its luminescence at 1270 nm in an environment of increasing complexity, water (H2O), pure phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine in water (lipid suspensions), and aqueous suspensions of living cells. In the case of the lipid suspensions, the sensitizers accumulated in the lipids, whereas the localizations in the cells are the membranes containing phosphatidylcholine. By use of Photofrin, the measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen were 3.5 +/- 0.5 micros in water, 14 +/- 2 micros in lipid, 9 +/- 2 micros in aqueous suspensions of lipid droplets, and 10 +/- 3 micros in aqueous suspensions of human colonic cancer cells (HT29). The decay time in cell suspensions was much longer than in water and was comparable to the value in suspensions of phosphatidylcholine. That luminescence signal might be attributed to singlet oxygen decaying in the lipid areas of cellular membranes. The measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen excited by ATMPn in pure lipid and lipid suspensions were the same within the experimental error as for Photofrin. In contrast to experiments with Photofrin, the decay time in aqueous suspension of HT29 cells was 6 +/- 2 micros when using ATMPn.

  2. Patrinia scabiosaefolia induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liya; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Wei, Lihui; Lin, Jiumao; Sferra, Thomas J; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Disrupted apoptosis not only confers a survival advantage to cancer cells but also causes resistance to chemotherapies. Therefore, inducing cell apoptosis has become a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has long been used to clinically treat various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity remains largely unclear. Using a CRC mouse xenograft model and a human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29, in the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activities of an ethanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EEPS), and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS inhibited CRC growth both in vivo and in vitro, without apparent adverse side-effects. Moreover, EEPS treatment promoted apoptosis in CRC tumor tissues and in HT-29 cells, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of EEPS on tumor growth was due to its pro-apoptotic activity. Furthermore, EEPS treatment inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 but enhanced pro-apoptotic Bax expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, EEPS induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HT-29 cells. Taken together, data in this study suggest that induction of cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent pathway may be one of the mechanisms whereby PS exerts anticancer activity.

  3. Sorafenib and Radiation: A Promising Combination in Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Andrew W.; Galoforo, Sandra; Marples, Brian; McGonagle, Michele; Downing, Laura; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.; Wilson, George D.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the combination of radiation and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in human colorectal cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: HT29 and SW48 colorectal cancer cells were studied in vitro using MTT assays to establish the optimal timing of radiation and sorafenib. This optimal timing was then investigated in clonogenic survival assays. Xenografts were established, and the effect of a 3-week schedule of daily radiation and sorafenib was studied by growth delay. Results: Sorafenib predominantly had minimal effects on cell growth or radiation response in MTT growth assays, though growth inhibition was significantly enhanced in HT29 cells when sorafenib was administered after radiation. The highest dose of sorafenib altered the {alpha} component of the cell survival curve in clonogenic assays. The combination of radiation and sorafenib was synergistic in SW48 xenografts, with a mean time to threshold tumor size of 11.4 {+-} 1.0 days, 37.0 {+-} 9.5 days, 15.5 {+-} 3.2 days, and 98.0 {+-} 11.7 days in the control, radiation, sorafenib, and combined treatment group, respectively. The effect on HT29 tumors was additive, with mean time to threshold volume of 12.6 {+-} 1.1 days, 61.0 {+-} 4.3 days, 42.6 {+-} 11.7 days, and 100.2 {+-} 12.4 days. Conclusions: Sorafenib had little effect on radiation response in vitro but was highly effective when combined with radiation in vivo, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation and interference with angiogenesis may be the basis for the interaction.

  4. Antitumor Activity of Total Flavonoids from Daphne genkwa in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Zi-Jing; Wang, Jiao-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Jun; He, Xin; Zhang, Run-Qi; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Li, Fei; Yu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-02-01

    Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. is a well-known medicinal plant. This study was designed to investigate the anticancer effects of total flavonoids in D. genkwa (TFDG) in vitro and in vivo. HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells were cultured to investigate the anticancer activity of TFDG. In addition, the Apc(Min/+) mouse model was applied in the in vivo experiment. Results of the cell experiment revealed that TFDG possessed significant inhibitory effects on HT-29 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells (both p < 0.01). Furthermore, our in vivo data showed that after treatment with TFDG, there was a significant increase in life span (both p < 0.01) and tumor numbers were reduced in the colon (both p < 0.01), which was supported by the data of tumor distribution, body weight changes and organ index. Our results also indicated that expressions of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in gut tissue were downregulated by treatments of TFDG, and immunity cytokine secretions in the serum were regulated after oral administration of TFDG. Taken together, these findings suggested that TFDG has a potential clinical utility in colorectal cancer therapeutics, and TFDG's action is likely linked to its ability to regulate immune function and inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of destruxin B as a novel Wnt signaling target suppressing proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Ye, Min; Wu, Wen-Shi; Chang, Tung-Chen; Wang, Liang-Shun; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Wu, Alexander T.H.; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2012-05-15

    In continuation to our studies toward the identification of direct anti-cancer targets, here we showed that destruxin B (DB) from Metarhizium anisopliae suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in human colorectal cancer (CRC) HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. Additionally, DB induced apoptosis in HT29 cells by decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while increased pro-apoptotic Bax. On the other hand, DB attenuated Wnt-signaling by downregulation of β-catenin, Tcf4 and β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activity, concomitantly with decreased expression of β-catenin target genes cyclin D1, c-myc and survivin. Furthermore, DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through suppressed MMPs-2 and -9 enzymatic activities. We also found that DB targeted the MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt pathway by reduced expression of Akt, IKK-α, JNK, NF-κB, c-Jun and c-Fos while increased that of IκBα. Finally, we demonstrated that DB inhibited tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice using non-invasive bioluminescence technique. Consistently, tumor samples from DB-treated mice demonstrated suppressed expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, survivin, and endothelial marker CD31 while increased caspase-3 expression. Collectively, our data supports DB as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway that may be beneficial in the CRC management. Highlights: ► Destruxin B (DB) inhibited colorectal cancer cells growth and induced apoptosis. ► MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt cascade cooperates in DB induced apoptosis. ► DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through MMP-9. ► DB attenuated Wnt-signaling components β-catenin, Tcf4. ► DB attenuated cyclin D1, c-myc, survivin and tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice.

  6. [Synergistic effect of rapamycin (RPM) and PD98059 on cell cycle and mTOR signal transduction in human colorectal cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Sun, Dan-Feng; Zhao, Shu-Liang; Shen, Guan-Feng; Zheng, Qing; Zhu, Hong-Yin

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the synergistic effect of rapamycin (RPM) and PD98059 on human colorectal cancer cells and its potential mechanisms. Three human colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HCT116 and HT29 were treated with RPM 10 nmol/L, PD98059 (10 micromol/L, 20 micromol/L, 40 micromol/L, 50 micromol/L), or RPM plus PD98059, respectively, and the sensitivity was analyzed by MTT assay. The cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry. Western blotting analysis was performed to examine the total and phosphorylated levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream translational signaling intermediates, 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Both RPM and PD98059 could inhibit viability of the three cell lines. The anti-proliferative effect of PD98059 exhibited a time/dose dependent manner and was strengthen by RPM. All the treatment with RPM, PD98059, and RPM + PD98059 induced arrest of cell cycle, although the arrest was confined at different cell cycle phases. In addition to their effect on proliferation and cell cycle, both inhibitors also reduced phosphorylation levels of mTOR, p70s6k, and 4E-BP1, as well as total 4E-BP1 levels in SW480 and HCT116 cells. That effect was reinforced when cells were treated with RPM plus PD98059 simultaneously, whereas total protein levels of mTOR and p70s6k remained unchanged. RPM and PD98059 inhibit proliferation of colorectal cancer cells synergistically, and induce cell cycle arrest. The modulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway is involved in its potential mechanisms.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on human colorectal cancer liver metastasis in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-10-13

    Liver metastasis is the most frequent cause of death from colon and other cancers. Generally, liver metastasis is recalcitrant to treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on liver metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used in the present study. S. typhimurium A1-R infected HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, inhibiting cancer-cell proliferation in vitro. S. typhimurium A1-R promoted tumor necrosis and inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model of HT-29-RFP. In orthotopic mouse models, S. typhimurium A1-R targeted liver metastases and significantly reduced their growth. The results of this study demonstrate the future clinical potential of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of liver metastasis.

  8. Data for comparative proteomics analysis of the antitumor effect of CIGB-552 peptide in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Núñez de Villavicencio-Díaz, Teresa; Ramos Gómez, Yassel; Oliva Argüelles, Brizaida; Fernández Masso, Julio R.; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; Cruz García, Yiliam; Guirola-Cruz, Osmany; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Javier González, Luis; Tiscornia, Inés; Victoria, Sabina; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Besada Pérez, Vladimir; Guerra Vallespi, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-552 is a second generation antitumor peptide that displays potent cytotoxicity in lung and colon cancer cells. The nuclear subproteome of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells treated with CIGB-552 peptide was identified and analyzed [1]. This data article provides supporting evidence for the above analysis. PMID:26306321

  9. Adrenaline promotes cell proliferation and increases chemoresistance in colon cancer HT29 cells through induction of miR-155

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Jun; Bai, Danna; Yang, Xia; Lu, Xiaozhao; Xu, Lijuan; Lu, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline increases colon cancer cell proliferation and its resistance to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline activates NF{kappa}B in a dose dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway contributes to cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Recently, catecholamines have been described as being involved in the regulation of cancer genesis and progression. Here, we reported that adrenaline increased the cell proliferation and decreased the cisplatin induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. Further study found that adrenaline increased miR-155 expression in an NF{kappa}B dependent manner. HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 had a higher cell growth rate and more resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis. In contrast, HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 inhibitor displayed decreased cell proliferation and sensitivity to cisplatin induced cell death. In summary, our study here revealed that adrenaline-NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced proliferation and chemoresistance in HT29 cells, shedding light on increasing the therapeutic strategies of cancer chemotherapy.

  10. Down-regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 activity during differentiation of the intestinal cell line HT-29.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Diomira; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Della, Ragione Fulvio; Maurano, Francesco; Rossi, Mauro

    2002-02-01

    The role and regulation of signal transduction pathways in proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells are still poorly understood. However, growing evidences have been recently accumulated demonstrating that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a pivotal function in the normal development of intestine. We have investigated, in the intestinal cell line HT-29, the regulation (namely activity and phosphorylation degree) of MAP kinases ERK 1 (p44) and ERK 2 (p42) during differentiation. Addition of fetal calf serum to HT-29 undifferentiated resting cells caused a rapid phosphorylation of both ERKs and an increase of their specific kinase activity. Moreover, nuclear translocation of ERK 1 and ERK 2 occurred concurrently to their activation, leading to the conclusion that ERK 1 and ERK 2 are classically regulated when quiescent HT-29 cells are induced to proliferate. Butyrate addition to the intestinal cell line resulted in terminal differentiation and in a selective down-regulation of ERK 2 activity (and phosphorylation degree) without any effect on ERK 1. Conversely, when HT-29 cells were differentiated by repeated passages in a glucose-free medium, we observed a progressive dephosphorylation and inactivation of p42 and p44 kinases along with the failure of serum to activate both the enzymes. Our findings suggest that, during the differentiation of intestinal cells, remarkable changes occur in ERK 1 and ERK 2 control mechanisms leading to an unresponsiveness of MAP kinase pathway.

  11. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Athymic Mice Bearing HT-29 Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging technology is a highly sensitive imaging modality and has been widely used in noninvasively studying the status of receptor expression in small animal models, with an appropriate NIRF probe targeting a specific receptor. In this report, Cy5.5-conjugated anti-CAIX monoclonal antibody (Mab-Cy5.5) was evaluated in athymic mice bearing HT-29 tumor xenografts in order to investigate the effect of conjugate on tumor targeting efficacy. In vitro binding studies showed that Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the cells which expressed CAIX. Results from in vivo imaging showed that HT-29 tumor xenografts can be clearly visualized at 48 h after injection of Mab-Cy5.5, and in the blocking experiment, free anti-CAIX antibody effectively blocked the concentration of Mab-Cy5.5 in the tumors. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of HT-29 tumor xenografts verified the expression of CAIX in HT-29 tumors. Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the tumors which expressed CAIX. These results suggested that Mab-Cy5.5 was suitable for CAIX expression imaging in the preclinical research. PMID:27652266

  12. Defining conditions for the co-culture of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells using Taguchi design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2010-01-01

    The co-culture of Caco-2 and HT29 cells for testing intestinal drug and nutrient transport and metabolism provides the presence of both absorptive and goblet cells, both of which have different culture requirements for optimal growth and function. The research on the co-culture of Caco-2 and HT29 cells is very limited in respect to refining specific conditions that reduce intra- and inter-laboratory variations. In the present study we reported conditions that enable reproducible results to be obtained for drug permeability using in vitro co-culture of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX based on Taguchi experimental design. The selection of four factors that specified cell culture conditions, namely culture medium, seeding time, seeding density, and Caco-2:HT29-MTX ratio on TEER value and individual permeability coefficients of propranolol, ketoprofen and furosemide was established. Based on the selected conditions for co-culture, we also confirmed the functionality of the final chosen culture condition using nitric oxide as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Choice of cell culture time and culture medium represented two of the most important factors that affected TEER values and the permeability coefficients of the model drugs. On the other hand, the seeding density and the Caco-2:HT29-MTX ratio exerted no significant influence on TEER values and the drug permeability coefficients. No absolute optimal cell culture condition could be obtained for all drugs; however subsequent confirmation experiments concluded that excellent precision for TEER values and drug permeability coefficients was obtained from the two operators using the following combination of conditions, namely an initial seeding density of 1 x 10(5) Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells/cm(2) at a ratio of 9:1, followed by a 21day culture time in MEM medium. Finally, functionality of the co-culture model system using the above selected in vitro conditions resulted in comparable nitric oxide synthesis to that of a Caco-2

  13. Chios mastic fractions in experimental colitis: implication of the nuclear factor κB pathway in cultured HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Papalois, Apostolos; Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Lymperopoulou, Aikaterini; Agrogiannis, George; Papada, Efstathia; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2012-11-01

    The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.

  14. Catabolism of neurotensin by neural (neuroblastoma clone N1E115) and extraneural (HT29) cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Checler, F.; Amar, S.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.

    1986-11-01

    The mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) was inactivated by differentiated neuroblastoma and HT29 cells were characterized. In both cell lines, the sites of primary cleavages of NT were Pro7-Arg8, Arg8-Arg9 and Pro10-Tyr11 bonds. The cleavage at the Pro7-Arg8 bond was totally inhibited by N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Prolyl-Prolinal and therefore resulted from the action of proline endopeptidase. This peptidase also contributed in a major way to the cleavage at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond. However the latter breakdown was partly due to an NT-degrading neutral metallopeptidase. Finally, we demonstrated the involvement of a recently purified rat brain soluble metalloendopeptidase at the Arg8-Arg9 site by the use of its specific inhibitor N-(1(R,S)-carboxy-2-Phenylethyl)-alanylalanylphenylalanine-p-amino benzoate. The secondary processing of NT degradation products revealed differences between HT29 and N1E115 cells. Angiotensin converting enzyme was shown to degrade NT1-10 and NT1-7 in N1E115 cells but was not detected in HT29 cells. A post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity converted NT9-13 into NT11-13 in HT29 cells but not in N1E115 cells. Finally, bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidases rapidly broke down NT11-13 to Tyr in both cell lines. Models for the inactivation of NT in HT29 and N1E115 cells are proposed and compared to that previously described for purified rat brain synaptic membranes.

  15. Gold nanoparticles and electroporation impose both separate and synergistic radiosensitizing effects in HT-29 tumor cells: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Zohre; Yadollahpour, Ali; Bayati, Vahid; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Radiation therapy (RT) is the gold standard treatment for more than half of known tumors. Despite recent improvements in RT efficiency, the side effects of ionizing radiation (IR) in normal tissues are a dose-limiting factor that restricts higher doses in tumor treatment. One approach to enhance the efficiency of RT is the application of radiosensitizers to selectively increase the dose at the tumor site. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and electroporation (EP) have shown good potential as radiosensitizers for RT. This study aims to investigate the sensitizing effects of EP, GNPs, and combined GNPs-EP on the dose enhancement factor (DEF) for 6 MV photon energy. Methods Radiosensitizing effects of EP, GNPs, and combinations of GNPs-EP were comparatively investigated in vitro for intestinal colon cancer (HT-29) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines by MTT assay and colony formation assay at 6 MV photon energy in six groups: IR (control group), GNPs+IR, GNPs (24 h)+IR, EP+IR, GNPs+EP+IR, and GNPs (24 h)+EP+IR. Results Treatment of both cell lines with EP, GNPs, and combined GNPs-EP significantly enhanced the response of cells to irradiation. However, the HT-29 showed higher DEF values for all groups. In addition, the DEF value for HT-29 cells for GNPs+IR, GNPs (24 h)+IR, EP+IR, GNPs+EP+IR, and GNPs (24 h)+EP+IR was, respectively, 1.17, 1.47, 1.36, 2.61, and 2.89, indicating synergistic radiosensitizing effect for the GNPs (24 h)+EP+IR group. Furthermore, the synergistic effect was observed just for HT-29 tumor cell lines. Conclusion Combined GNPs-EP protocols induced synergistic radiosensitizing effect in HT-29 cells, and the effect is also tumor specific. This combined therapy can be beneficially used for the treatment of intrinsically less radiosensitive tumors. PMID:28260889

  16. Activation of AP-1 and of a nuclear redox factor, Ref-1, in the response of HT29 colon cancer cells to hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, K S; Xanthoudakis, S; Curran, T; O'Dwyer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Many solid tumors contain substantial fractions of hypoxic cells which are relatively resistant to both radiation therapy and certain cytotoxic drugs. We have previously shown that exposure of human HT29 cells to hypoxic conditions results in the overexpression of certain enzymes involved in the detoxication of xenobiotics, including NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductase (DT)-diaphorase, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione synthesis. This hypoxic effect on DT-diaphorase was shown to involve both transcriptional induction and altered message stability. We have investigated the effects of hypoxia on elements in the promoter region of DT-diaphorase. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate the induction of a binding activity to the AP-1 response element of DT-diaphorase. Supershift assays suggest that this binding is due to AP-1 nuclear factors and that members of the jun family are induced to a greater degree than fos by hypoxia. Analysis of the kinetics of transcription factor expression indicates that the expression of c-jun and junD is induced during hypoxic exposure; mRNA levels fall during reoxygenation. Induction of fos on the other hand is not as florid during hypoxia (5-fold) and is most pronounced (17-fold) 24 h after the restoration of an oxic environment. Thus, the hypoxic response of DT-diaphorase expression is mediated in part through AP-1, initially by a jun-related mechanism and then by the involvement of fos. The affinity of transcription factors for the AP-1 binding site depends on the redox state of a cysteine residue located close to the DNA-binding region of both Fos and Jun. A nuclear protein, Ref-1, maintains the reduced state of Fos and Jun and promotes binding to AP-1. Nuclear extracts of HT29 cells exposed to hypoxia show markedly increased Ref-1 protein content. Elevation of ref-1 steady-state mRNA levels occurs as an early event following induction of hypoxia and persists when cells

  17. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA) solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp) and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein) after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43), 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19). Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8), compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6). Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular lipid composition

  18. Cell internalization and traffic pathway of Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Uotsu, Nobuo; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Tonozuka, Takashi; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Oguma, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    The bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C produces a progenitor toxin (C16S toxin) that binds to O-linked sugar chains terminating with sialic acid on the surface of HT-29 cells prior to internalization [A. Nishikawa, N. Uotsu, H. Arimitsu, J.C. Lee, Y. Miura, Y. Fujinaga, H. Nakada, T. Watanabe, T. Ohyama, Y. Sakano, K. Oguma, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319 (2004) 327-333] [21]. Based on this, it was hypothesized that the C16S toxin is internalized via clathrin-coated pits. To examine this possibility, the internalized toxin was observed with a fluorescent antibody using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The confocal images clearly indicated that the C16S toxin was internalized mainly via clathrin-coated pits and localized in early endosomes. The toxin was colocalized with caveolin-1 which is one of the components of caveolae, however, implying the toxin was also internalized via caveolae. The confocal images also showed that the neurotoxin transported to the endosome was transferred to the Golgi apparatus. However, the non-toxic components were not merged with the Golgi marker protein, TGN38, implying the neurotoxin was dissociated from progenitor toxin in endosomes. These results suggested that the C16S toxin was separated to the neurotoxin and other proteins in endosome and the neurotoxin was further transferred to the Golgi apparatus which is the center for protein sorting.

  19. DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen

    2017-08-01

    As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.

  20. Development of drug-loaded chitosan-vanillin nanoparticles and its cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu-Wang; Wang, Guang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Duan, Wei; Peng, Zheng; Kong, Ling-Xue; Wang, Qing-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan as a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin of arthropods like shrimp and crab, attracts much interest due to its inherent properties, especially for application in biomedical materials. Presently, biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles are attractive for drug delivery. However, some physicochemical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles still need to be further improved in practice. In this work, chitosan nanoparticles were produced by crosslinking chitosan with 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) through a Schiff reaction. Chitosan nanoparticles were 200-250 nm in diameter with smooth surface and were negatively charged with a zeta potential of - 17.4 mV in neutral solution. Efficient drug loading and drug encapsulation were achieved using 5-fluorouracil as a model of hydrophilic drug. Drug release from the nanoparticles was constant and controllable. The in vitro cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and cellular uptake of the chitosan nanoparticles were evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method, confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometer, respectively. The results indicate that the chitosan nanoparticles crosslinked with vanillin are a promising vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

  1. Exploring the Colonic Metabolism of Grape and Strawberry Anthocyanins and Their in Vitro Apoptotic Effects in HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    López de Las Hazas, María-Carmen; Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Ludwig, Iziar A; Motilva, María-José

    2017-08-09

    Beneficial properties attributed to the intake of fruit and red wine have been associated with the presence of significant amounts of anthocyanins. However, their low absorption and consequent accumulation in the gut have generated the suspicion that colonic metabolites of anthocyanins are probably involved in these protective effects. Grape pomace and strawberry extracts, rich in malvidin- and pelargonidin-glucoside, respectively, were fermented in vitro using human feces as microbial inoculum. After 8 h of anaerobic incubation, the anthocyanins were almost completely degraded, whereas their microbial metabolite concentrations were highest at 24 h. Syringic acid and tyrosol were the main metabolites of grape and strawberry extracts, respectively. On the basis of the metabolites detected, metabolic pathways of malvidin- and pelargonidin-glucosides were proposed. Anthocyanin-rich grape and strawberry extracts and their generated metabolites such as hydroxyphenylacetic acid showed apoptotic effects in HT-29 colon cancer cells and may suggest their possible contribution as anticarcinogenic agents.

  2. Microencapsulation of human cells: its effects on growth of normal and tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, S. M.; Hopwood, D.; Newman, E. L.; Cuschieri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth kinetics of established human colorectal tumour cell lines (HT29, HT115 and COLO 320DM) and human diploid fibroblasts (Flow 2002) were studied in conventional culture and in microcapsules formed from alginate-poly(L-lysine)-alginate membranes. The tumour lines grew rapidly in microcapsules but, in the case of the substrate-adherent lines HT29 and HT115, only after a prolonged lag phase. This phase was reduced by serial passage in microcapsules. The anchorage-independent line COLO 320DM showed no lengthening in lag phase. Microencapsulated fibroblasts underwent negligible growth but remained viable. Some evidence for functional differentiation (microvilli, cell-cell junctions) of the tumour line HT115 within the microcapsules was observed. We conclude that the use of microcapsules provides an alternative system with some advantages for the study of human cancer and its metastases in vitro. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2039691

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans.

  4. Noninvasive molecular imaging of hypoxia in human xenografts: comparing hypoxia-induced gene expression with endogenous and exogenous hypoxia markers.

    PubMed

    He, Fuqiu; Deng, Xuelong; Wen, Bixiu; Liu, Yueping; Sun, Xiaorong; Xing, Ligang; Minami, Akiko; Huang, Yunhong; Chen, Qing; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Li, Gloria C

    2008-10-15

    Tumor hypoxia is important in the development and treatment of human cancers. We have developed a novel xenograft model for studying and imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression. A hypoxia-inducible dual reporter herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (HSV1-TKeGFP), under the control of hypoxia response element (9HRE), was stably transfected into human colorectal HT29 cancer cells. Selected clones were further enriched by repeated live cell sorting gated for hypoxia-induced eGFP expression. Fluorescent microscopy, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and radioactive substrate trapping assays showed strong hypoxia-induced expression of eGFP and HSV1-tk enzyme in the HT29-9HRE cells in vitro. Sequential micropositron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor-bearing animals, using the hypoxic cell tracer (18)F-FMISO and the reporter substrate (124)I-FIAU, yielded similar tumor hypoxia images for the HT29-9HRE xenograft but not in the parental HT29 tumor. Using autoradiography and IHC, detailed spatial distributions in tumor sections were obtained and compared for the following hypoxia-associated biomarkers in the HT29-9HRE xenograft: (124)I-FIAU, (18)F-FMISO, Hoechst (perfusion), lectin-TRITC (functional blood vessels), eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9. Intratumoral distributions of (124)I-FIAU and (18)F-FMISO were similar, and eGFP, pimonidazole, EF5, and CA9 colocalized in the same areas but not in well-perfused regions that were positive for Hoechst and lectin-TRITC. In enabling the detection of hypoxia-induced molecular events and mapping their distribution in vivo with serial noninvasive positron emission tomography imaging, and multiple variable analysis with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, this human xenograft model provides a valuable tool for studying tumor hypoxia and in validating existing and future exogenous markers for tumor hypoxia.

  5. Herbal infusions; their phenolic profile, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in HT29 and PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kogiannou, Dimitra A A; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Polissiou, Moschos G; Kaliora, Andriana C

    2013-11-01

    In this survey, we analyzed the phenolic profile of six herbal infusions namely Cretan marjoram, pink savory, oregano, mountain tea, pennyroyal and chamomile by LCDAD-MS and by GC-MS. Further, we investigated their anticarcinogenic effect as to their ability to (a) scavenge free radicals (b) inhibit proliferation (c) decrease IL-8 levels and (d) regulate nuclear factor-kappa B in epithelial colon cancer (HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells. All herbal infusions exhibited antiradical activity correlated positevely with total phenolic content. Further, infusions exhibited the potential to inhibit cell proliferation and to reduce IL-8 levels in HT29 colon and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The molecular target for chamomile in HT29 seemed to be the NF-κB, while for the other herbal infusions needs to be identified. This study is the first to show the potential chemopreventive activity of infusions prepared from the examined herbs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. C. butyricum lipoteichoic acid inhibits the inflammatory response and apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by S. aureus lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Mei, Lehe; Wu, Zhige; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-07-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules of gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated that Clostridium butyricum LTA (bLTA) significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and apoptosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus LTA (aLTA) in HT-29 cells. aLTA stimulated the inflammatory responses by activating a strong signal transduction cascade through NF-κB and ERK, but bLTA did not activate the signaling pathway. bLTA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway induced by aLTA. The expression and release of cytokines such as IL-8 and TNF-α were also suppressed by bLTA pretreatment. aLTA treatment induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, but bLTA did not affect the viability of the cells. Further study indicated that bLTA inhibited apoptosis in HT-29 cells induced by aLTA. These results suggest that bLTA may act as an aLTA antagonist and that an antagonistic bLTA may be a useful agent for suppressing the pro-inflammatory activities of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different effects of lipoteichoic acid from C. butyricum and S. aureus on inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbo; Qi, Lili; Wu, Zhige; Mei, Lehe; Wang, Hengzheng

    2016-06-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria and represents one of the most critical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules. In this study, we isolated and purified LTA from Clostridium butyricum (bLTA) and compared its effects on the inflammatory responses of HT-29 cells with those of LTA from Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA). We also compared the effects of bLTA and aLTA on cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. The results showed that the length and saturation degree of the acyl chains in the two LTA molecules were obviously different. aLTA stimulated the phosphorylation of p65 and activated the NF-κB signaling pathway, inducing the expression and secretion of cytokines. Moreover, aLTA also inhibited the growth and proliferation of HT-29 cells and induced cell apoptosis. However, bLTA had no significant effects on the NF-κB signaling pathway in HT-29 cells and did not stimulate cellular inflammatory responses or induce apoptosis. These differences in activity may result from the different lengths and saturation degrees of the acyl fatty acid chains of the two LTA molecules. These differences may also account for the distinct effects elicited by probiotic bacteria and pathogenic bacteria on host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface layer protein from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM inhibit intestinal pathogen-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal pathogens have been proposed to adhere to epithelial cells and cause apoptosis. This study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of surface layer protein (SLP, 46kDa) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on Escherichia coli and Salmonella-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells and the mechanism of the inhibition was also studied. The SLP could alleviate the chromatin condensation caused by intestinal pathogens as observed under fluorescent microscope. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the SLP decreased E. coli and Salmonella-induced apoptosis by 46% and 48%, respectively. The SLP could also inhibit the mitochondrial membrane potential reduction and Ca(2+) level increase in HT-29 cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 induced by E. coli and Salmonella was significantly decreased by the addition of SLP. These results suggested that L. acidophilus NCFM SLP could protect HT-29 cells against intestinal pathogen-induced apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway. These findings may reveal a new method for the treatment of intestinal infection and provide a theoretical basis for the practical application of SLP in food, biological and pharmaceutical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rutin inhibits proliferation, attenuates superoxide production and decreases adhesion and migration of human cancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Pagano, Alessandra; Mousslim, Mohamed; Ammari, Youssef; Kovacic, Hervé; Luis, José

    2016-12-01

    Lung and colorectal cancer are the principal causes of death in the world. Rutin, an active flavonoid compound, is known for possessing a wide range of biological activities. In this study, we examined the effect of rutin on the viability, superoxide anion production, adhesion and migration of human lung (A549) and colon (HT29 and Caco-2) cancer cell lines. In order to control the harmlessness of the tested concentrations of rutin, the viability of cancer cell lines was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ROS generation was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence detecting superoxide ions. To investigate the effect of rutin on the behavior of human lung and colon cancer cell lines, we performed adhesion assays, using various purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Finally, in vitro cell migration assays were explored using modified Boyden chambers. The viability of cancerous cells was inhibited by rutin. It also significantly attenuated the superoxide production in HT29 cells. In addition, rutin affected adhesion and migration of A549 and HT29 cell. These findings indicate that rutin, a natural molecule, might have potential as anticancer agent against lung and colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Human gut flora-fermented nondigestible fraction from cooked bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) modifies protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Campos-Vega, Rocio; García-Gasca, Teresa; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramón; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2012-12-26

    Metabolism of the nondigested fraction (NDF) from common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by the human gut flora (hgf) produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that may benefit cancer by reducing colorectal tumor risks. This paper reports the effect of fermentation products (FP) by hgf (FP-hgf) from NDF of cooked beans on survival and protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation in human adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells. FP-hgf was the only inoculum eliciting butyrate production after 24 h of NDF fermentation using different bacterial sources. FP-hgf inhibited HT-29 cell growth and modulated protein expression associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and proliferation, as well as morphological changes linked to apoptosis evaluated by TUNEL and hematoxylin and eosin stains, confirming previous results on gene expression. The current results suggest that fermentation of NDF from common beans can elicit beneficial chemoprotective effects in colon cancer by modulating protein expression in HT-29 cells.

  11. Extracellular Matrix-dependent Pathways in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Potential Targets for Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Noreikiene, Rimante; Kuodyte, Karolina; Valius, Mindaugas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells grown in a 3D culture are more resistant to anticancer therapy treatment compared to those in a monolayer 2D culture. Emerging evidence has suggested that the key reasons for increased cell survival could be gene expression changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-dependent manner. Global gene-expression changes were obtained in human colorectal carcinoma HT29 and DLD1 cell lines between 2D and laminin-rich (lr) ECM 3D growth conditions by gene-expression microarray analysis. The most significantly altered functional categories were revealed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The microarray data revealed that 841 and 1190 genes were differentially expressed in colorectal carcinoma DLD1 and HT29 cells. KEGG analysis indicated that the most significantly altered categories were cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase and immune response. Our results indicate altered pathways related to cancer development and progression and suggest potential ECM-regulated targets for the development of anticancer therapies. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the roles of exosomes in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Ding, Xiaoling; Nan, Lijuan; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jihong; Zhu, Wei; Ni, Bing; Dong, Suzhen; Yu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    The leading cause of death among cancer patients is tumor metastasis. Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as mediators of metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that exosomes play a pivotal role in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. First, a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis was established and characterized. Then, we demonstrated that exosomes from a highly liver metastatic colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) could significantly increase the metastatic tumor burden and distribution in the mouse liver of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which ordinarily exhibit poor liver metastatic potential. We further investigated the mechanisms by which HT-29-derived-exosomes influence the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and found that mice treated with HT-29-derived exosomes had a relatively higher level of CXCR4 in the metastatic microenvironment, indicating that exosomes may promote colorectal cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR4-expressing stromal cells to develop a permissive metastatic microenvironment. Finally, the migration of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased following treatment with HT-29-derived exosomes in vitro, further supporting a role for exosomes in modulating colorectal tumor-derived liver metastasis. The data from the present study may facilitate further translational medicine research into the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  13. α(1,2)fucosylation in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MUINELO-ROMAY, L.; GIL-MARTÍN, E.; FERNÁNDEZ-BRIERA, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lewisb and Lewisy (Le) antigens are known to be elevated in colorectal tumours. Alterations in the catalytic behaviour of GDP-L-fucose:β-D-galactoside α(1,2)fucosyltransferase [α(1,2)FT, EC: 2.4.1.69], the key enzyme in their synthesis, have been suggested as being responsible for these changes. In particular, an aberrant tumour-specific α(1,2)FT activity that converts Lea and Lex to Leb and Ley determinants, respectively, has been reported in colorectal cancer tissues. To clarify the catalytic function of this enzyme during colorectal tumorigenesis, we analyzed α(1,2)FT activity levels in healthy and tumour colon specimens using different acceptor substrates and determined the kinetic properties of the enzyme. To complete the study, the aberrant Lea/Lex α(1,2)fucosylation was determined in healthy and tumour colorectal tissues. A correlation analysis between the activity levels and various standard clinicopathological features, such as tumour stage, was also carried out to elucidate the role of these activities in tumour progression. The results obtained confirm the enhanced α(1,2)fucosylation in colorectal neoplastic tissues and the importance of the aberrant Lea/Lex α(1,2)FT activity in this increase. However, taking into account the high levels of Lea/Lex fucosylation observed in healthy control tissues, we must rule out the idea of a colorectal tumour-specific α(1,2)FT. On the other hand, no significant association was observed between α(1,2)FT activity levels and the clinicopathological characteristics. Overall, our results suggest that α(1,2)FT activity plays a critical role in the accumulation of Leb and Ley antigens in human colorectal carcinoma. PMID:22966309

  14. Lysosomal alpha-glucosidase: cell-specific processing and altered maturation in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Francí, C; Egea, G; Arribas, R; Reuser, A J; Real, F X

    1996-01-01

    We have previously described the abnormal localization of resident Golgi proteins and O-glycans in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of mucin-secreting HT-29 M6 colon cancer cells, suggesting altered protein trafficking in these cells [Egea, Francí, Gambús, Lesuffleur, Zweibaum and Real (1993) J. Cell Sci. 105, 819-830]. In the present work, we have chosen lysosomal alpha-glucosidase as a reporter to examine the intracellular traffic of glycoproteins in M6 cells. We have compared the synthesis and processing of alpha-glucosidase in mucin-secreting M6 cells and in Caco-2 colon cancer cells, the latter resembling normal absorptive intestinal epithelium. Our results show that alpha-glucosidase processing and secretion is markedly delayed in M6 cells as compared to Caco-2 cells or normal fibroblasts, and this delay is caused by an accumulation of alpha-glucosidase precursor form in the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, treatment in Caco-2 cells with brefeldin A led to changes in alpha-glucosidase maturation similar to those observed in untreated M6 cells. To determine whether altered processing occurs in other cultured cells, a panel of cancer cell lines and cultures from normal exocrine pancreas were examined. In pancreas-derived cultures, alpha-glucosidase showed a processing pattern different from that described until now. Only HT-29 cells and HT-29-derived subpopulations displayed a defect in alpha-glucosidase maturation. In conclusion, alpha-glucosidase processing is more diverse than has previously been described; this finding may have tissue-specific functional implications. PMID:8660303

  15. Optimization of in vitro inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by Solanum tuberosum L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Holm, D; Byrne, P; Ducreux, L; Taylor, M; Kaiser, M; Stushnoff, C

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites in potato have been reported to possess bioactive properties, including growth inhibition of cancer cells. Because potatoes are widely consumed globally, potential health benefits may have broad application. Thus we investigated growth inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by extracts from 13 diverse genetic breeding clones. Extracts from three pigmented selections (CO97226-2R/R, CO97216-1P/P, CO04058-3RW/RW) inhibited growth of in vitro HT-29 cell cultures more effectively than other clones tested. While inhibition was highest from pigmented selections and pigmented tuber tissue sectors, not all pigmented breeding lines tested had appreciable inhibitory properties. Thus, inhibition was not uniquely linked to pigmentation. Immature tubers had the highest inhibitory properties, and in most cases mature tubers retained very low inhibition properties. Flowers and skins inhibited strongly at lower extract concentrations. An extract consisting of 7.2 mg mL⁻¹ cell culture medium was the lowest effective concentration. While raw tuber extracts inhibited most effectively, a few clones at higher concentrations retained inhibition after cooking. Heated whole tubers retained higher inhibition than heated aqueous extracts. While all aqueous extracts from the two tuber selections (CO97216-1P/P and CO97226-2R/R) inhibited HT-29 cell cultures, inhibition was significantly enhanced in purple pigmented tubers of CO97216-1P/P prepared cryogenically as liquid nitrogen powders compared to extracts from freeze dried samples. Upregulation of caspase-3 protease activity, indicative of apoptosis, was highest among the most inhibitory clone samples. The unique sectorial red pigment expressing selection (CO04058-3RW/RW) provided a model system that isolated expression in pigmented sectors, and thus eliminated developmental, environmental and genetic confounding.

  16. Genetic inactivation of ADAMTS15 metalloprotease in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Viloria, Cristina G; Obaya, Alvaro J; Moncada-Pazos, Angela; Llamazares, María; Astudillo, Aurora; Capellá, Gabriel; Cal, Santiago; López-Otín, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have been traditionally linked to cancer dissemination through their ability to degrade most extracellular matrix components, thus facilitating invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, recent functional studies have revealed that some metalloproteases, including several members of the ADAMTS family, also exhibit tumor suppressor properties. In particular, ADAMTS1, ADAMTS9, and ADAMTS18 have been found to be epigenetically silenced in malignant tumors of different sources, suggesting that they may function as tumor suppressor genes. Herein, we show that ADAMTS15 is genetically inactivated in colon cancer. We have performed a mutational analysis of the ADAMTS15 gene in human colorectal carcinomas, with the finding of four mutations in 50 primary tumors and 6 colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, functional in vitro and in vivo studies using HCT-116 and SW-620 colorectal cancer cells and severe combined immunodeficient mice have revealed that ADAMTS15 restrains tumor growth and invasion. Furthermore, the presence of ADAMTS15 in human colorectal cancer samples showed a negative correlation with the histopathologic differentiation grade of the corresponding tumors. Collectively, these results provide evidence that extracellular proteases, including ADAMTS15, may be targets of inactivating mutations in human cancer and further validate the concept that secreted metalloproteases may show tumor suppressor properties.

  17. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells.

  18. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24591829

  19. Expression Status of UBE2Q2 in Colorectal Primary Tumors and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Sayed Mohammad; Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Nikseresht, Mohsen; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Alizadeh-Naeeni, Mahvash; Safaei, Akbar; Owji, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in various malignancies, including colorectal cancer, is established. This pathway mediates the degradation of damaged proteins and regulates growth and stress response. The novel human gene, UBE2Q2, with a putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme activity, is reported to be overexpressed in some malignancies. We sought to investigate the expression levels of the UBE2Q2 gene in colorectal cell lines as well as in cancerous and normal tissues from patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Levels of UBE2Q2 mRNA in cell lines were assessed by Real-Time PCR. Western blotting was employed to investigate the levels of the UBE2Q2 protein in 8 colorectal cell lines and 43 colorectal tumor samples. Results: Expression of UBE2Q2 was observed at the level of both mRNA and protein in colorectal cell lines, HT29/219, LS180, SW742, Caco2, HTC116, SW48, SW480, and SW1116. Increased levels of UBE2Q2 immunoreactivity was observed in the 65.11% (28 out of 43) of the colorectal carcinoma tissues when compared with their corresponding normal tissues. Difference between the mean intensities of UBE2Q2 bands from cancerous and normal tissues was statistically significant at P<0.001 (paired t test). Conclusion: We showed the expression pattern of the novel human gene, UBE2Q2, in 8 colorectal cell lines. Overexpression of UBE2Q2 in the majority of the colorectal carcinoma samples denotes that it may have implications for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. PMID:24753643

  20. Processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides in HT-29 cells is a function of their state of enterocytic differentiation: an accumulation of Man/sub 9-8/-GlcNAc/sub 2/-Asn species is indicative of an impaired N-glycan trimming in undifferentiated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ogier-Denis, E.; Codogno, P.; Chantret, I.; Trugnan, G.

    1988-05-05

    Studies on the regulation of the enterocytic differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29, which is differentiated in the absence (Glc/sup -/) but not in the presence of glucose (Glc/sup +/), have recently shown that the post-translational processing of sucrase-isomaltase and particularly its glycosylation vary as a function of cell differentiation. Other studies indicate that in undifferentiated HT-29 Glc/sup +/ cells there is an accumulation of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine, which is involved in the glycosylation process. The purpose of the present work is to investigate whether an overall alteration of protein glycosylation is associated with the inability of HT-29 cells to differentiate. At least three alterations are detected: (i) after a 10-min pulse, the incorporation of D-(2-/sup 3/H)mannose in undifferentiated cells is severely reduced, compared to differentiated cells. (ii) After a 24-h period of labeling with D-(2-/sup 3/H)mannose, undifferentiated cells accumulate more than 60% of the radioactivity in the high mannose glycopeptides, whereas differentiated HT-29 Glc/sup -/ cells accumulate only 38%. (iii) The analysis of the high mannose oligosaccharides transferred en bloc from the lipid precursor shows that Man/sub 9-8/-GlcNAc/sub 2/ species accumulate in undifferentiated cells, whereas no such accumulation can be detected in differentiated cells. This glycosylation pattern is consistent with an impairment of the trimming of high mannose into complex glycans. It is concluded that N-glycan processing is correlated with the state of enterocytic differentiation of HT-29 cells.

  1. Significance of Bcl-xL in human colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, You-Li; Pang, Li-Qun; Wu, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Chong-Qiang; Fan, Yu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of Bcl-xL gene in the pathogenesis of human colon carcinoma. METHODS: Fifty-six pair tissue samples from patients with colon cancer were collected, and protein level of the Bcl-xL gene was measured by immunohistochemistry method. The correlation of Bcl-xL expression with clinical index was evaluated. After human colon cancer cell line HT29 was transfected with Bcl-xL small interfering RNA (siRNA), the anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells was detected by colony formation in soft agar and invasion ability of cancer cells was determined by a transwell model. RESULTS: The Bcl-xL expression was higher in cancerous tissue samples than in normal tissue samples (38.78 ±11.36 vs 0.89 ± 0.35, P < 0.001), and was associated with the pathological grade, lymphnode metastasis and Duke’s stage of colorectal carcinoma. Transfection with Bcl-xL siRNA inhibited the colony formation and invasion ability of human colon cancer cell line HT29 in vitro. CONCLUSION: Bcl-xL gene plays an important role in carcinogenesis of human colorectal carcinoma and is associated with malignant biological behaviors of human colorectal carcinoma. PMID:18494061

  2. Expression of 5-Lipoxygenase in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soumaoro, Labile Togba; Iida, Satoru; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Ishiguro, Megumi; Takagi, Yoko; Higuchi, Tetsuro; Yasuno, Masamichi; Enomoto, Masayuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the 5-lipoxygenases (Loxs) expression level in human colorectal cancer specimens in order to determine its clinicopathologic significance in human tumorigenesis. METHODS: The relative quantity of 5-Lox mRNA in paired 91 colorectal tumor and adjacent normal mucosa samples was determined by real time quantitative PCR. Additionally, the expression of 5-Lox and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 proteins was also examined using immunohistochemical staining methods. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in 5-Lox mRNA levels in the tumor compared with paired normal mucosa samples (P < 0.0001). Sixty six (72.5%) tumors showed high 5-Lox mRNA levels. The positivity rate of 5-Lox and Cox-2 protein expression was 68.7% and 79.1% respectively. There was a significant association between tumoral 5-Lox mRNA level and tumor size (Rho = 0.392, P = 0.0002), depth or vessel invasion. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that 5-Lox is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and that inhibition of its expression might be valuable in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:17072961

  3. MicroRNA-627 Mediates the Epigenetic Mechanisms of Vitamin D to Suppress Proliferation of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Growth of Xenograft Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Sathish K.R.; Zhang, Qunshu; Rustum, Youcef M; Morrison, Carl; Guo, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effects of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D) on levels of different microRNAs (miRs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells from humans and xenograft tumors in mice. Methods Expression of microRNAs in CRC cell lines was examined using the Ambion mirVana miRNA Bioarray. The effects of calcitriol on expression of miR-627 and cell proliferation were determined by real-time PCR and WST-1 assay, respectively; growth of colorectal xenograft tumors was examined in nude mice. Real-time PCR was used to analyze levels of miR-627 in human colon adenocarcinoma samples and non-tumor colon mucosa tissues (controls). Results In HT-29 cells, miR-627 was the only microRNA significantly upregulated by calcitriol. Jumonji domain containing 1A (JMJD1A), which encodes a histone demethylase, was found to be a target of miR-627. By downregulating JMJD1A, miR-627 increased methylation of histone H3K9 and suppressed expression of proliferative factors such as GDF15. Calcitriol induced expression of miR-627, which downregulated JMJD1A and suppressed growth of xenograft tumors from HCT-116 cells in nude mice. Overexpression of miR-627 prevented proliferation of CRC cell lines in culture and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Conversely, blocking the activity of miR-627 inhibited the tumor suppressive effects of calcitriol in cultured CRC cells and in mice. Levels of miR-627 were decreased in human colon adenocarcinoma samples, compared with controls. Conclusions miR-627 mediates tumor-suppressive epigenetic activities of vitamin D on CRC cells and xenograft tumors in mice. The mRNA that encodes the histone demethylase JMJD1A is a direct target of miR-627. Reagents designed to target JMJD1A or its mRNA, or increase the function of miR-627, might have the same antitumor activities of vitamin D without the hypercalcemic side effects. PMID:23619147

  4. Anticancer activity of calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb. through downregulation of cyclin D1 via inducing proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Bin; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Son, Ho-Jun; Um, Yurry; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2017-09-05

    Although it has been reported to contain high polyphenols, the pharmacological studies of the calyx of Diospyros kaki Thunb (DKC) have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of DKC against human colorectal cancer cells. Anti-cell proliferative effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the calyx of Diospyros kaki (DKC-E70) was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of DKC-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. DKC-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29. Although DKC-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by DKC-E70 occurred at the earlier time than that of cyclin D1 mRNA, which indicates that DKC-E70-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 protein may be a consequence of the induction of degradation and transcriptional inhibition of cyclin D1. In cyclin D1 degradation, we found that cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, DKC-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1 and T286A abolished cyclin D1 downregulation by DKC-E70. We also observed that DKC-E70-mediated T286 phosphorylation and subsequent cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of the inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β. In cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition, DKC-E70 inhibited the expression of β-catenin and TCF4, and β-catenin/TCF-dependent luciferase activity. Our results suggest that DKC-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through cyclin D1 degradation by T286 phosphorylation dependent on ERK1/2, p38 or GSK3β, and cyclin D1 transcriptional inhibition through Wnt signaling. From these findings, DKC-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

  5. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  6. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  7. The Chemopotential Effect of Annona muricata Leaves against Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  8. 18:1 n7 fatty acids inhibit growth and decrease inositol phosphate release in HT-29 cells compared to n9 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Herrmann, T; Fink, C S; Horvath, P J

    1995-05-04

    Studies have shown that trans fatty acids may play a role in the development of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The objective of the present project was to examine the effect of supplementation with 18:1 isomers, both positional and geometrical, as compared to 18:0 on the growth, membrane fatty acid composition and the phosphoinositide cycle of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cells were supplemented with 30 microM stearic acid (18:0), elaidic acid (18:1, n9, trans), oleic acid (18:1, n9, cis), vaccenic acid (18:1, n7, cis) or trans-vaccenic acid (18:1, n7, trans) as sodium salts complexed to fatty acid-free bovine serum. Cells were grown in these media for 9 days. Cell growth was examined by counting the number of cells and expressed as percentage of control (18:0 supplemented cells). The phosphoinositide (PI) cycle was examined by measuring the inositol phosphate (IP) released from phosphoinositides in the absence (basal) or presence of stimuli (0.1 mM carbachol, 0.1 mM A23187 or 20 mM NaF). The results obtained indicated that cis and trans n7 fatty acids inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells by 11% and 23%, respectively, as compared to 18:0 supplementation. 18:1, n9 had no effect on tumor growth. Supplementation with all forms of 18:1 resulted in an increase in IP and IP2 production as compared to 18:0 supplemented cells without influencing IP3. The presence of the double bond at the 9 position in the supplemented fatty acid increases total IP production by 59% and in the cis form by 37% above the control. The breakdown of phosphoinositides in the absence and presence of several stimuli supports the observed finding on IP. Trans fatty acid supplementation resulted in lower hydrolysis of PI as compared to cis fatty acids. It is concluded that the observed inhibition of tumor growth by the vaccenic acids may be mediated by their effect(s) on the PI cycle which may be associated with their incorporation into membrane lipids.

  9. Green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera extract and their biomedical applications: Cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles against HT-29 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasi, A Angel; Vijaya, J Judith; Kaviyarasu, K; Maaza, M; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, L John

    2016-11-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera plant extract has been reported in the present study as they are cost effective and ecofriendly, moreover this paper records that the nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles prepared from green method shows better cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity. The NiO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The formation of a pure nickel oxide phase was confirmed by XRD and FTIR. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles was single crystalline having face centered cubic phase and has two intense photoluminescence emissions at 305.46nm and 410nm. The formation of nano- and micro-structures was confirmed by HRTEM. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability of human cancer cell HT-29 (Colon Carcinoma cell lines) and antibacterial studies against various bacterial strains were studied with various concentrations of nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared from Moringa oleifera plant extract. MTT assay measurements on cell viability and morphological studies proved that the synthesized NiO nanoparticles posses cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and the various zones of inhibition (mm), obtained revealed the effective antibacterial activity of NiO nanoparticles against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens.

  10. Evidence for a weak angiogenic response to human colorectal cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, A. J.; Chatterjee, T.; Wilkinson, M.; Powe, D. G.; Gray, T.; Hewitt, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Many previous qualitative studies have shown that tumours are less vascular in the centre, and that host tissues become more vascular in close proximity to tumours. However, quantitative findings presented here for human colorectal cancer reveal some significant differences. Sections from 20 colorectal carcinomas (ten moderately and ten poorly differentiated) were immunostained with the QB/end/10 monoclonal to demonstrate blood vessels. These were measured by interactive morphometry and vascular volume density, surface density (Sv) and length density were recorded. In poorly differentiated carcinomas, the tumour centre was significantly less vascular than the periphery for all three parameters (P = 0.008 for Sv). However, no significant difference was seen for moderately differentiated tumours, which constitute the majority of colorectal cancers. Surrounding host tissues did not show a general increase in vascular density close to tumours. Furthermore, when total viable tissue was considered, the vascular density of carcinomas was not markedly different from normal mucosa. In the centre of moderately differentiated carcinomas for example, the mean value for Sv was only 1.4 times higher than the mean value for normal mucosa. These findings suggest that colorectal cancers may elicit a relatively weak angiogenic response, consistent with their exceptionally slow growth rate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7537517

  11. Combination Therapy of Lactobacillus plantarum Supernatant and 5-Fluouracil Increases Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    An, JaeJin; Ha, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. Although 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the representative chemotherapy drug for colorectal cancer, it has therapeutic limits due to its chemoresistant characteristics. Colorectal cancer cells can develop into cancer stem cells (CSCs) with self-renewal potential, thereby causing malignant tumors. The human gastrointestinal tract contains a complex gut microbiota that is essential for the host's homeostasis. Recently, many studies have reported correlations between gut flora and the onset, progression, and treatment of CRC. The present study confirms that the most representative symbiotic bacteria in humans, Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) supernatant (SN), selectively inhibit the characteristics of 5-FU-resistant colorectal cancer cells (HT-29 and HCT- 116). LP SN inhibited the expression of the specific markers CD44, 133, 166, and ALDH1 of CSCs. The combination therapy of LP SN and 5-FU inhibited the survival of CRCs and led to cell death by inducing caspase-3 activity. The combination therapy of LP SN and 5-FU induced an anticancer mechanism by inactivating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling of chemoresistant CRC cells, and reducing the formation and size of colonospheres. In conclusion, our results show that LP SN can enhance the therapeutic effect of 5-FU for colon cancer, and reduce colorectal cancer stem-like cells by reversing the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. This implies that probiotic substances may be useful therapeutic alternatives as biotherapeutics for chemoresistant CRC.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed circular RNAs in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peili; Zuo, Zhigui; Shang, Wenjing; Wu, Aihua; Bi, Ruichun; Wu, Jianbo; Li, Shaotang; Sun, Xuecheng; Jiang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Circular RNA, a class of non-coding RNA, is a new group of RNAs and is related to tumorigenesis. Circular RNAs are suggested to be ideal candidate biomarkers with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. However, little is known about their expression in human colorectal cancer. In our study, differentially expressed circular RNAs were detected using circular RNA array in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from six colorectal cancer patients. Expression levels of selected circular RNAs (hsa_circRNA_103809 and hsa_circRNA_104700) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 170 paired colorectal cancer samples for validation. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the association between hsa_circRNA_103809 and hsa_circRNA_104700 expression levels and respective patient clinicopathological features. Receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate the diagnostic values. Our results indicated that there were 125 downregulated and 76 upregulated circular RNAs in colorectal cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. We also first demonstrated that the expression levels of hsa_circRNA_103809 ( p < 0.0001) and hsa_circRNA_104700 ( p = 0.0003) were significantly lower in colorectal cancer than in normal tissues. The expression level of hsa_circRNA_103809 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.021) and tumor-node-metastasis stage ( p = 0.011), and the expression level of hsa_circRNA_104700 was significantly correlated with distal metastasis ( p = 0.036). The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of hsa_circRNA_103809 and hsa_circRNA_104700 were 0.699 ( p < 0.0001) and 0.616 ( p < 0.0001), respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that hsa_circRNA_103809 and hsa_circRNA_104700 may be potentially involved in the development of colorectal cancer and serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  13. Carnosic acid inhibits the proliferation and migration capacity of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    BARNI, M.V.; CARLINI, M.J.; CAFFERATA, E.G.; PURICELLI, L.; MORENO, S.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether carnosic acid (CA), the main antioxidant compound of Rosmarinus officinalis L., would inhibit the cell viability of three CRC cell lines: Caco-2, HT29 and LoVo in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the range of 24–96 μM. CA induced cell death by apoptosis in Caco-2 line after 24 h of treatment and inhibited cell adhesion and migration, possibly by reducing the activity of secreted proteases such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and metalloproteinases (MMPs). These effects may be associated through a mechanism involving the inhibition of the COX-2 pathway, because we have determined that CA downregulates the expression of COX-2 in Caco-2 cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, CA modulates different targets involved in the development of CRC. These findings indicate that carnosic acid may have anticancer activity and may be useful as a novel chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:22246562

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Extracts on HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus and Its Alpha-Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, septic shock, pneumonia, and wound infections. Here, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus plantarum extracts inhibited S. aureusinduced cell death of a human epithelial cell line, HT-29. In particular, we have shown that S. aureus-induced cell death was abolished by neutralization of α-toxin, indicating that α-toxin is the major mediator of S. aureus-induced cell death. DNA fragmentation experiment and caspase assay revealed that the S. aureus-induced cell death was apoptosis. L. plantarum extracts inhibited the generation of effector caspase-3 and the initiator caspase-9 in S. aureusor α-toxin-induced cell death. Moreover, expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, was activated in L. plantarum extract-treated cells as compared with the S. aureus- or α-toxintreated only cells. Furthermore, S. aureus-induced apoptosis was efficiently inhibited by lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan of L. plantarum. Together, our results suggest that L. plantarum extracts can inhibit the S. aureus-mediated apoptosis, which is associated with S. aureus spreading, in intestinal epithelial cells, and may provide a new therapeutic reagent to treat bacterial infections.

  15. CXC receptor-4 mRNA silencing abrogates CXCL12-induced migration of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions between CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 have been shown to be involved in cancer progression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a comparative CXCL12/CXCR4 expression analysis and assessed the effect of external CXCL12 stimulation on migration of CRC cells without and with CXCR4 inhibition. Methods Expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry in resection specimens of 50 CRC patients as well as in the corresponding normal tissues and in three human CRC cell lines with different metastatic potential (Caco-2, SW480 and HT-29). Migration assays were performed after stimulation with CXCL12 and CXCR4 was inhibited by siRNA and neutralizing antibodies. Results In CRC tissues CXCL12 was significantly down-regulated and CXCR4 was significantly up-regulated compared to the corresponding normal tissues. In cell lines CXCR4 was predominantly expressed in SW480 and less pronounced in HT-29 cells. CXCL12 was only detectable in Caco-2 cells. CXCL12 stimulation had no impact on Caco-2 cells but significantly increased migration of CXCR4 bearing SW480 and HT-29 cells. This effect was significantly abrogated by neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody as well as by CXCR4 siRNAs (P < 0.05). Conclusions CXCR4 expression was up-regulated in CRC and CXCL12 stimulation increased migration in CXCR4 bearing cell lines. Migration was inhibited by both neutralizing CXCR4 antibodies and CXCR4 siRNAs. Thus, the expression and functionality of CXCR4 might be associated with the metastatic potential of CRC cells and CXCL12/CXCR4 interactions might therefore constitute a promising target for specific treatment interventions. PMID:21349176

  16. Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Liu, Shen-Lin; Qi, Ming-Hao; Zou, Xi

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is an active monomer isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which is known to possess marked antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential advantages of using cinnamaldehyde in combination with chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) therapy, as well as to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on chemotherapeutic-associated gene expression. The synergistic interaction of cinnamaldehyde and chemotherapeutic agents on human CRC HT-29 and LoVo cells was evaluated using the combination index (CI) method. The double staining with Annexin V conjugated to fluorescein-isothiocyanate and phosphatidylserine was employed for apoptosis detection. The expression of drug-metabolizing genes, including excision repair cross‑complementing 1 (ERCC1), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and topoisomerase 1 (TOPO1), all in HT-29 and LoVo cells, with or without the addition of cinnamaldehyde, was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cinnamaldehyde had a synergistic effect on the chemotherapeutic agents cytotoxicity in HT-29 and LoVo cells. In addition, cinnamaldehyde suppressed BRCA1, TOPO1, ERCC1 and TS mRNA expression, except for OPRT expression, which was markedly upregulated. Our findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde appears to be a promising candidate as an adjuvant in combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OXA), two chemotherapeutic agents used in CRC treatment. The possible mechanisms of its action may involve the regulation of drug‑metabolizing genes.

  17. Fluorescent detection of peritoneal metastasis in human colorectal cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yutaka; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Kubota, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Sakakura, Chouhei; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Inoue, Katsushi; Nakajima, Motowo; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-07-01

    A precise diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination is necessary to determine the appropriate treatment strategy for colorectal cancer. However, small peritoneal dissemination is difficult to diagnose. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is an intermediate substrate of heme metabolism. The administration of 5-ALA to cancer patients results in tumor-specific accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which emits red fluorescence with blue light irradiation. We evaluated the usefulness of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using 5-ALA to detect the peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer. EGFP-tagged HT-29 cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c nude mice. After 2 weeks, the mice were given 5-ALA hydrochloride, and metastatic nodules in the omentum were observed with white light and fluorescence images. Twelve colorectal cancer patients suspected to have serosal invasion according to preoperative computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in this study. 5-ALA (15-20 mg per kg body weight) was administered orally to the patients 3 h before surgery. The abdominal cavity was observed under white light and fluorescence. Fluorescence images were analyzed with image analysis software (ImageJ 1.45s, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). The mice developed peritoneal disseminations. The observed 5-ALA-induced red fluorescence was consistent with the EGFP fluorescent-positive nodules. Peritoneal dissemination was observed with conventional white light imaging in 8 patients. All nodules suspected as being peritoneal dissemination lesions by white light observation were similarly detected by ALA-induced fluorescence. In 1 patient, a small, flat lesion that was missed under white light observation was detected by ALA-induced fluorescence; the lesion was pathologically diagnosed as peritoneal metastasis. In the quantitative fluorescence image analysis, the red/(red + green + blue) ratio was higher in the metastatic nodules compared to the non-metastatic sites of

  18. Fluorescent detection of peritoneal metastasis in human colorectal cancer using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    KONDO, YUTAKA; MURAYAMA, YASUTOSHI; KONISHI, HIROTAKA; MORIMURA, RYO; KOMATSU, SHUHEI; SHIOZAKI, ATSUSHI; KURIU, YOSHIAKI; IKOMA, HISASHI; KUBOTA, TAKESHI; NAKANISHI, MASAYOSHI; ICHIKAWA, DAISUKE; FUJIWARA, HITOSHI; OKAMOTO, KAZUMA; SAKAKURA, CHOUHEI; TAKAHASHI, KIWAMU; INOUE, KATSUSHI; NAKAJIMA, MOTOWO; OTSUJI, EIGO

    2014-01-01

    A precise diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination is necessary to determine the appropriate treatment strategy for colorectal cancer. However, small peritoneal dissemination is difficult to diagnose. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is an intermediate substrate of heme metabolism. The administration of 5-ALA to cancer patients results in tumor-specific accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which emits red fluorescence with blue light irradiation. We evaluated the usefulness of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) using 5-ALA to detect the peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer. EGFP-tagged HT-29 cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c nude mice. After 2 weeks, the mice were given 5-ALA hydrochloride, and metastatic nodules in the omentum were observed with white light and fluorescence images. Twelve colorectal cancer patients suspected to have serosal invasion according to preoperative computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in this study. 5-ALA (15-20 mg per kg body weight) was administered orally to the patients 3 h before surgery. The abdominal cavity was observed under white light and fluorescence. Fluorescence images were analyzed with image analysis software (ImageJ 1.45s, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). The mice developed peritoneal disseminations. The observed 5-ALA-induced red fluorescence was consistent with the EGFP fluorescent-positive nodules. Peritoneal dissemination was observed with conventional white light imaging in 8 patients. All nodules suspected as being peritoneal dissemination lesions by white light observation were similarly detected by ALA-induced fluorescence. In 1 patient, a small, flat lesion that was missed under white light observation was detected by ALA-induced fluorescence; the lesion was pathologically diagnosed as peritoneal metastasis. In the quantitative fluorescence image analysis, the red/(red + green + blue) ratio was higher in the metastatic nodules compared to the non-metastatic sites of

  19. Suppression of colorectal cancer metastasis by nigericin through inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hou-Min; Dong, Tao-Tao; Wang, Lin-Lin; Feng, Bo; Zhao, Hong-Chao; Fan, Xiu-Ke; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2012-06-07

    To evaluate the effect of nigericin on colorectal cancer and to explore its possible mechanism. The human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HT29 and SW480 were treated with nigericin or oxaliplatin under the conditions specified. Cell viability assay and invasion and metastasis assay were performed to evaluate the effect of nigericin on CRC cells. Sphere-forming assay and soft agar colony-forming assay were implemented to assess the action of nigericin on the cancer stem cell properties of CRC cells undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Compared with oxaliplatin, nigericin showed more toxicity for the HT29 cell line (IC50, 12.92 ± 0.25 μmol vs 37.68 ± 0.34 μmol). A similar result was also obtained with the SW116 cell line (IC50, 15.86 ± 0.18 μmol vs 41.02 ± 0.23 μmol). A Boyden chamber assay indicated that a significant decrease in the number of HT29 cells migrating through polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was observed in the nigericin-treated group, relative to the vehicle-treated group [11 ± 2 cells per high-power field (HPF) vs 19.33 ± 1.52 cells per HPF, P < 0.05]. Compared to the control group, the numbers of HT29 cells invading through the Matrigel-coated membrane also decreased in the nigericin-treated group (6.66 ± 1.52 cells per HPF vs 14.66 ± 1.52 cells per HPF, P < 0.05). Nigericin also reduced the proportion of CD133+ cells from 83.57% to 63.93%, relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Nigericin decreased the number of spheres relative to the control group (0.14 ± 0.01 vs 0.35 ± 0.01, P < 0.05), while oxaliplatin increased the number of spheres relative to the control group (0.75 ± 0.02 vs 0.35 ± 0.01; P < 0.05). Nigericin also showed a decreased ability to form colonies under anchorage-independent conditions in a standard soft agar assay after 14 d in culture, relative to the control group (1.66 ± 0.57 vs 7 ± 1.15, P < 0.05), whereas the colony numbers were higher in the oxaliplatin group relative to the vehicle

  20. Suppression of colorectal cancer metastasis by nigericin through inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hou-Min; Dong, Tao-Tao; Wang, Lin-Lin; Feng, Bo; Zhao, Hong-Chao; Fan, Xiu-Ke; Zheng, Min-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of nigericin on colorectal cancer and to explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: The human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HT29 and SW480 were treated with nigericin or oxaliplatin under the conditions specified. Cell viability assay and invasion and metastasis assay were performed to evaluate the effect of nigericin on CRC cells. Sphere-forming assay and soft agar colony-forming assay were implemented to assess the action of nigericin on the cancer stem cell properties of CRC cells undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RESULTS: Compared with oxaliplatin, nigericin showed more toxicity for the HT29 cell line (IC50, 12.92 ± 0.25 μmol vs 37.68 ± 0.34 μmol). A similar result was also obtained with the SW116 cell line (IC50, 15.86 ± 0.18 μmol vs 41.02 ± 0.23 μmol). A Boyden chamber assay indicated that a significant decrease in the number of HT29 cells migrating through polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was observed in the nigericin-treated group, relative to the vehicle-treated group [11 ± 2 cells per high-power field (HPF) vs 19.33 ± 1.52 cells per HPF, P < 0.05]. Compared to the control group, the numbers of HT29 cells invading through the Matrigel-coated membrane also decreased in the nigericin-treated group (6.66 ± 1.52 cells per HPF vs 14.66 ± 1.52 cells per HPF, P < 0.05). Nigericin also reduced the proportion of CD133+ cells from 83.57% to 63.93%, relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Nigericin decreased the number of spheres relative to the control group (0.14 ± 0.01 vs 0.35 ± 0.01, P < 0.05), while oxaliplatin increased the number of spheres relative to the control group (0.75 ± 0.02 vs 0.35 ± 0.01; P < 0.05). Nigericin also showed a decreased ability to form colonies under anchorage-independent conditions in a standard soft agar assay after 14 d in culture, relative to the control group (1.66 ± 0.57 vs 7 ± 1.15, P < 0.05), whereas the colony numbers were higher in the oxaliplatin group

  1. An aqueous polysaccharide extract from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus induces anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lavi, Iris; Friesem, Dana; Geresh, Shimona; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

    2006-11-28

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of fractions of Pleurotus ostreatus were examined using HT-29 colon cancer cells in vitro. A hot-water-soluble fraction of the mycelium of the liquid cultured mushroom was partially isolated and chemically characterized as a low-molecular-weight alpha-glucan. HT-29 cells were exposed to the different isolates and significant inhibition of proliferation was obtained in a dose-dependent manner. Proliferation inhibition was shown to be the result of apoptotic induction because the pro-apoptotic molecules Bax and cytosolic cytochrome-c were upregulated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses of polysaccharide-treated HT-29 cells showed a high percentage of Annexin-positive cells. Here, we describe a newly identified low-molecular-weight alpha-glucan with promising anti-tumorigenic properties, and demonstrate its direct effect on colon cancer cell proliferation via induction of programmed cell death.

  2. Asporin enhances colorectal cancer metastasis through activating the EGFR/Src/cortactin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonggang; Hu, Lei; Wu, Haoxuan; Ye, Feng; Zhao, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Asporin has been implicated as an oncogene in various types of human cancers; however, the roles of asporin in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not yet been determined. With clinical samples, we found that asporin was highly expressed in CRC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and the asporin expression levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis status and TNM stage of the patients. Through knockdown of asporin in CRC cell lines RKO and SW620 or overexpression of asporin in cell lines HT-29 and LoVo, we found that asporin could enhance wound healing, migration and invasion abilities of the CRC cells. Further more, with the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) tube formation assays and the xenograft model, we found that asporin promoted the tumor growth through stimulating the VEGF signaling pathway. The portal vein injection models suggested that asporin overexpression stimulated the liver metastasis of HT29 cell line, while asporin knockdown inhibited the liver metastasis of RKO cell line. In addition, asporin was found to augment the phosphorylation of EGFR/Src/cortactin signaling pathway, which might be contributed to the biological functions of asporin in CRC metastasis. These results suggested that asporin promoted the tumor growth and metastasis of CRC, and it could be a potential therapeutic target for CRC patients in future. PMID:27705916

  3. Patrinia scabiosaefolia inhibits colorectal cancer growth through suppression of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liwu; Liu, Liya; Ye, Ling; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor development and metastasis, therefore inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a promising strategy for anticancer treatments. Patrinia scabiosaefolia, a well-known Oriental folk medicine, has been shown to be effective in the clinical treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. However, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity remains largely unknown. Using a colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse xenograft model, the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), in the present study we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EEPS) on tumor angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS treatment significantly reduced the tumor volume in CRC mice and decreased the intratumoral microvessel density in tumor tissues. In addition, EEPS inhibited several key processes of angiogenesis, including the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Moreover, EEPS treatment suppressed the expression of VEGF-A in CRC tumors and HT-29 cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Patrinia scabiosaefolia inhibits CRC growth likely via suppression of tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future. PMID:27763535

  5. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD).

    PubMed

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-10-18

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future.

  6. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targets regions with activated DNA repair and enrichment of CD133(+) cells in an HT-29 tumor model: Sensitization with a nucleic acid antimetabolite.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Kiyono, Yasushi; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-06-28

    (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis (N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) is a potential theranostic agent targeting the over-reduced state under hypoxia within tumors. Recent clinical Cu-ATSM positron emission tomography studies have revealed a correlation between uptake and poor prognosis; however, the reason is unclear. Here, using a human colon carcinoma HT-29 model, we demonstrated that the intratumoral (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions exhibited malignant characteristics, such as upregulated DNA repair and elevated %CD133(+) cancer stem-like cells. Based on this evidence, we developed a strategy to enhance the efficacy of (64)Cu-ATSM internal radiotherapy (IRT) by inhibiting DNA repair with a nucleic acid (NA) antimetabolite. The results of the analyses showed upregulation of pathways related to DNA repair along with NA incorporation (bromodeoxyuridine uptake) and elevation of %CD133(+) cells in (64)Cu-ATSM high-uptake regions. In an in vivo(64)Cu-ATSM treatment study, co-administration of an NA antimetabolite and (64)Cu-ATSM synergistically inhibited tumor growth, with little toxicity, and effectively reduced %CD133(+) cells. (64)Cu-ATSM therapy targeted malignant tumor regions with activated DNA repair and high concentrations of CD133(+) cells in the HT-29 model. NA antimetabolite co-administration can be an effective approach to enhance the therapeutic effect of (64)Cu-ATSM IRT.

  7. Erastin Disrupts Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (mPTP) and Induces Apoptotic Death of Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Haizhong; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Qin, Jian; Liu, Wenyong; Wang, Bing; Gu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We here evaluated the potential anti-colorectal cancer activity by erastin, a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)-binding compound. Our in vitro studies showed that erastin exerted potent cytotoxic effects against multiple human colorectal cancer cell lines, possibly via inducing oxidative stress and caspase-9 dependent cell apoptosis. Further, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was observed in erastin-treated cancer cells, which was evidenced by VDAC-1 and cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) association, mitochondrial depolarization, and cytochrome C release. Caspase inhibitors, the ROS scavenger MnTBAP, and mPTP blockers (sanglifehrin A, cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid), as well as shRNA-mediated knockdown of VDAC-1, all significantly attenuated erastin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. On the other hand, over-expression of VDAC-1 augmented erastin-induced ROS production, mPTP opening, and colorectal cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that intraperitoneal injection of erastin at well-tolerated doses dramatically inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Together, these results demonstrate that erastin is cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic to colorectal cancer cells. Erastin may be further investigated as a novel anti-colorectal cancer agent. PMID:27171435

  8. Grape Seed Extract Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjinder; Mandair, Reinuka; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2008-01-01

    One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, since most of these products are often consumed by patients as an alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism and standardized preparation, needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely consumed by humans for its several health benefits. We reported recently that GSE inhibits CRC cell HT29 growth in culture and nude mice xenograft. Since GSE is available commercially through different vendors, here we assessed whether GSE from two different manufacturers produces comparable biological effects in a panel of human CRC cell lines. Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29 and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells, but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all three cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all three cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects. PMID:19003575

  9. Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Mandair, Reinuka; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2008-01-01

    One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, because most of these products are often consumed by patients as an complementary and alternative medicine practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism, and standardized preparation needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely consumed by humans for its several health benefits. We reported recently that GSE inhibits CRC cell HT29 growth in culture and nude mice xenograft. Because GSE is available commercially through different vendors, here we assessed whether GSE from 2 different manufacturers produces comparable biological effects in a panel of human CRC cell lines. Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29, and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all 3 cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all 3 cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects.

  10. Polyphenol stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles from Abutilon indicum leaf extract induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2016-07-01

    Green synthesized gold nanoparticles have received substantial attention owing to their biomedical applications, particularly in cancer therapy. Although anticancer activities of green synthesized gold nanoparticles have been reported earlier, the underlying mechanism behind their anticancer activity is still to be understood. The present study, describes the green synthesis of Abutilon indicum gold nanoparticles (AIGNPs) from Abutilon indicum leaf extract (AILE) and their cytotoxic mechanism in colon cancer cells. Dimensions of spherical shaped AIGNPs were found to be in the range of 1-20nm as determined by TEM. GC-MS and FTIR analysis indicated the presence of polyphenolic groups in AILE, which might have been involved in the stabilization of AIGNPs. In vitro free radical scavenging analysis revealed the radical quenching activity of AIGNPs. Further, the AIGNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cells with IC50 values of 210 and 180μg/mL after 24 and 48h. This was mediated through nuclear morphological changes and cell membrane damage as evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and AnnexinV-Cy3 staining methods. Mechanism of the observed cytotoxicity of AIGNPs was explained on the basis of increased levels of reactive oxygen species and simultaneous reduction in cellular antioxidants, which might have caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss, DNA damage and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. Expression of cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Lamin A/C and PARP, provided the clues for the induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in AIGNPs treated HT-29 cells. The study provides a preliminary guidance towards the development of colon cancer therapy using green synthesized gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro study of alpha 2-adrenoceptor turnover and metabolism using the adenocarcinoma cell line HT29

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, H.; Taouis, M.; Galitzky, J.

    1987-11-01

    The biosynthesis rate of the receptor was studied in postconfluent HT29 cells, when its density expressed as fmol/mg of cell membrane protein is constant, by following the recovery of the receptor binding capacity after blockade with the non-reversible alpha-adrenergic antagonist benextramine. Study of the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)yohimbine and (/sup 3/H)UK-14,304 binding showed that benextramine was a more potent antagonist at alpha 2-adrenoceptor than phenoxybenzamine. The incubation of intact HT29 cells for 30 min in the presence of 10(-5) M benextramine irreversibly blocked more than 95% of the alpha 2-adrenoceptors and totally suppressed the inhibitory effect of UK-14,304 on cyclic AMP production. The blockade appeared specific, since benextramine effects were prevented by alpha 2-adrenergic agents. Moreover, neither vasoactive intestinal polypeptide responsiveness nor other tested aspects of the regulation of the adenylate cyclase was altered by the treatment. Study of the time course of receptor recovery after irreversible blockade indicated that alpha 2-adrenoceptors reappeared in the cells with a monoexponential kinetic. The linearization of the repopulation curve obtained with the labeled antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine allowed the determination of the rate constant for receptor degradation (k = 0.0268 +/- 0.0025 hr-1) and the rate of receptor synthesis (6.91 +/- 0.64 fmol/mg of cell membrane protein/hr) corresponding to the synthesis of about 500 receptors/cell/hr. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor half-life was 26 +/- 3 hr. Measurement of the biological effects associated to the alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation during the course of receptor recovery indicated a relationship between the number of cell receptors and the percentage of inhibition of the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by forskolin.

  12. Hedgehog signaling pathway is inactive in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chatel, Guillaume; Ganeff, Corine; Boussif, Naima; Delacroix, Laurence; Briquet, Alexandra; Nolens, Gregory; Winkler, Rosita

    2007-12-15

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in human development. Abnormal activation of this pathway has been observed in several types of human cancers, such as the upper gastro-intestinal tract cancers. However, activation of the Hh pathway in colorectal cancers is controversial. We analyzed the expression of the main key members of the Hh pathway in 7 colon cancer cell lines in order to discover whether the pathway is constitutively active in these cells. We estimated the expression of SHH, IHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, SUFU and HHIP genes by RT-PCR. Moreover, Hh ligand, Gli3 and Sufu protein levels were quantified by western blotting. None of the cell lines expressed the complete set of Hh pathway members. The ligands were absent from Colo320 and HCT116 cells, Smo from Colo205, HT29 and WiDr. GLI1 gene was not expressed in SW480 cells nor were GLI2/GLI3 in Colo205 or Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the repressive form of Gli3, characteristic of an inactive pathway, was detected in SW480 and Colo320 cells. Finally treatment of colon cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Hh pathway, did not downregulate PTCH and GLI1 genes expression in the colorectal cells, whereas it did so in PANC1 control cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is not common in colorectal cancer cell lines.

  13. Acquisition of anticancer drug resistance is partially associated with cancer stemness in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Flaria; Corcos, Laurent; Durand, Stéphanie; Simon, Brigitte; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide. Several anticancer agents are available to treat CRC, but eventually cancer relapse occurs. One major cause of chemotherapy failure is the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells, suspected to originate from the stem cell compartment. The aim of this study was to ask whether drug resistance was associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. We isolated drug-resistant derivatives of two human CRC cell lines, HT29 and HCT116, using two anticancer drugs with distinct modes of action, oxaliplatin and docetaxel. HT29 cells resistant to oxaliplatin and both HT29 and HCT116 cells resistant to docetaxel were characterized for their expression of genes potentially involved in drug resistance, cell growth and cell division, and by surveying stem cell-like phenotypic traits, including marker genes, the ability to repair cell-wound and to form colonospheres. Among the genes involved in platinum or taxane resistance (MDR1, ABCG2, MRP2 or ATP7B), MDR1 was uniquely overexpressed in all the resistant cells. An increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, in cyclin D1 and in CD26, CD166 cancer stem cell markers, was noted in the resistant cells, together with a higher ability to form larger and more abundant colonospheres. However, many phenotypic traits were selectively altered in either HT29- or in HCT116-resistant cells. Expression of EPHB2, ITGβ-1 or Myc was specifically increased in the HT29-resistant cells, whereas only HCT116-resistant cells efficiently repaired cell- wounds. Taken together, our results show that human CRC cells selected for their resistance to anticancer drugs displayed a few stem cell characteristics, a small fraction of which was shared between cell lines. The occurrence of marked phenotypic differences between HT29- and HCT116-drug resistant cells indicates that the acquired resistance depends mostly on the parental cell characteristics, rather than on the

  14. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L; Stevens, Jan F; Maier, Claudia S

    2009-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 microg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified beta-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as anticarcinogenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement.

  15. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 μg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified β-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as antitumorgenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement. PMID:19271284

  16. DHL‑TauZnNa, a newly synthesized α-lipoic acid derivative, induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Inomata, Masafumi; Kono, Yohei; Yokoyama, Shigeo; Shiraishi, Norio; Kitano, Seigo

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, several antioxidant substances have been found to have an antiproliferative effect on various types of carcinomas. α-lipoic acid (ALA) induces apoptosis in several types of cancer cell lines, but it is difficult to apply α-lipoic acid in clinical use as it is easily oxidized and unstable. Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing the α-lipoic acid derivative sodium N-[6,8-dimercaptooctanoyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonate zinc complex (DHL-TauZnNa), which has highly stable antioxidant effects. We investigated whether DHL-TauZnNa elicits its antiproliferative effects in vivo and in vitro by inducing apoptosis, autophagy or cell cycle arrest, and we analyzed the expression of proteins related to these phenomena and their phosphorylation in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Subcutaneously administered DHL-TauZnNa treatment applied daily for 41 days significantly inhibited tumor growth by 43% in a xenograft mouse model (P=0.0271). DHL-TauZnNa significantly reduced cell viability over that of controls in the trypan-blue exclusion test in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). DHL-TauZnNa increased the proportion of cells in S phase and decreased that of cells in G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle analysis of HT-29 cells. Although DHL-TauZnNa did not increase caspase-3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation in flow cytometry analysis, it increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II. Autophagosomes and autolysosomes were observed by electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of HT-29 cells treated with DHL-TauZnNa. These results suggest that DHL-TauZnNa inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells through the mechanisms of G2/M cell cycle arrest and autophagy but not that of apoptosis. The newly synthesized ALA derivative DHL-TauZnNa may be expected to become a novel cancer therapeutic strategy through its induction of autophagy.

  17. Proneoplastic effects of PGE2 mediated by EP4 receptor in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Glen A; Byrne, Sinead M; Molloy, Eamonn S; Malhotra, Vikrum; Austin, Sandra C; Kay, Elaine W; Murray, Frank E; Fitzgerald, Desmond J

    2009-06-26

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the major product of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess PGE2 cell surface receptors (EP 1-4) to examine the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates tumour progression. Gene expression studies were performed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cell cycle was analysed by flow cytometry with cell proliferation quantified by BrdU incorporation measured by enzyme immunoassay. Immunohistochemistry was employed for expression studies on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour tissue. EP4 was the most abundant subtype of PGE2 receptor in HT-29 and HCA7 cells (which show COX-2 dependent PGE2 generation) and was consistently the most abundant transcript in human colorectal tumours (n = 8) by qRT-PCR (ANOVA, p = 0.01). G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in HT-29 cells treated with SC-236 5 microM (selective COX-2 inhibitor) for 24 hours (p = 0.02), an effect abrogated by co-incubation with PGE2 (1 microM). G0/G1 arrest was also seen with a specific EP4 receptor antagonist (EP4A, L-161982) (p = 0.01). Treatment of HT-29 cells with either SC-236 or EP4A caused reduction in intracellular cAMP (ANOVA, p = 0.01). Early induction in p21WAF1/CIP1 expression (by qRT-PCR) was seen with EP4A treatment (mean fold increase 4.4, p = 0.04) while other genes remained unchanged. Similar induction in p21WAF1/CIP1 was also seen with PD153025 (1 microM), an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting EGFR transactivation by EP4 as a potential mechanism. Additive inhibition of HCA7 proliferation was observed with the combination of SC-236 and neutralising antibody to amphiregulin (AR), a soluble EGFR ligand. Concordance in COX-2 and AR localisation in human colorectal tumours was noted. COX-2 regulates cell cycle transition via EP4 receptor and altered p21WAF1/CIP1 expression. EGFR pathways appear important. Specific targeting of the EP4 receptor or downstream targets may offer a safer alternative to COX-2 inhibition in the chemoprevention of CRC.

  18. Trillium tschonoskii steroidal saponins suppress the growth of colorectal Cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Liu, Changxu; Xiao, Dan; Han, Jing; Yue, Zhenggang; Sun, Yang; Fan, Lei; Zhang, Feng; Meng, Jin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhipeng; Mei, Qibing; Wen, Aidong

    2015-06-20

    Saponins of many herbs are known to possess anti-cancer effect. The present study aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory effect of Trillium tschonoskii steroidal saponins in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer and a human colorectal cancer cell line HT-29, and isolate some major constituents and evaluate their anti-tumor activity. Forty male ICR mice were administered with 1, 2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Ten mice were given no further treatment, the rest were administered with different doses of TTS (5, 10, 20mg/kg) orally, every three days from the 9th week to the 20th week. TTS effectively protected ICR mice against DMH/DSS-induced tumorigenesis. The incidence of tumor development was 90% (9/10) in the mice treated with DMH/DSS, but that was reduced to 50% (5/10), 40% (4/10), and 20% (2/10), respectively, in the mice treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% of TTS. Results of Ki-67 staining, TUNEL assay and caspase-3 activity assay revealed that TTS moderately decreased abnormal proliferation and increased apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells. It inhibited the growth and triggered the apoptosis of HT-29 cells, partly through suppressing mitogen-actived protein kinases (MAPKs) and triggering mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway. Three compounds, namely, Paris saponin VII, polyphylloside III and Paris saponin VI, were important active compounds in TTS. These data suggest that TTS has a potential role in clinical prevention and treatment for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular mechanism of anticancer effect of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin in HT29 cells involves differential expression of genes associated with multiple signaling pathways: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkeer, Srikanth; Guha, Nilanjan; Hothpet, Vishwanathreddy; Saligrama Adavigowda, Deepak; Hegde, Prajna; Padmanaban, Arunkumar; Yu, Lu-Gang; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is a lectin isolated from fungus S. rolfsii and has high binding specificity toward the oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr, T or TF), which is expressed in more than 90% of human cancers. Our previous studies have shown that binding of SRL to human colon, breast and ovarian cancer cells induces cell apoptosis in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. This study investigated the SRL-mediated cell signaling in human colon cancer HT29 cells by mRNA and miRNA microarrays. It was found that SRL treatment results in altered expression of several hundred molecules including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-JUN-associated, apoptosis-associated and cell cycle and DNA replication-associated signaling molecules. Pathway analysis using GeneSpring 12.6.1 revealed that SRL treatment induces changes of MAPK and c-JUN-associated signaling pathways as early as 2 h while changes of cell cycle, DNA replication and apoptosis pathways were significantly affected only after 24 h. A significant change of cell miRNA expression was also observed after 12 h treatment of the cells with SRL. These changes were further validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. This study thus suggests that the presence of SRL affects multiple signaling pathways in cancer cells with early effects on cell proliferation pathways associated with MAPK and c-JUN, followed by miRNA-associated cell activity and apoptosis. This provides insight information into the molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of this fungal lectin.

  20. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on chloride in HT29 cells studied by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Roomans, G M

    1999-01-01

    The colon cancer cell line HT29 is a useful model to study intestinal chloride secretion. These cells have both cAMP-activated and calcium-activated chloride channels. Changes in elemental content of the cells after stimulation with agonists were determined by X-ray microanalysis in the scanning or scanning transmission electron microscope. Exposure of HT29 cells to pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) caused a transient decrease in the cellular Cl and K concentrations, indicating (net) efflux of chloride. The effect of PACAP is inhibited by somatostatin, which is known to inhibit cAMP-activated as well as calcium-activated chloride secretion and by U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C. Alloxan, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, did not significantly affect the PACAP-induced loss of chloride. The calcium-chelating agent EGTA inhibited the PACAP-induced loss of chloride, indicating the need for extracellular calcium ions. Also vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) caused a decrease of the cellular chloride concentration in HT29 cells. VIP-induced loss of chloride could be inhibited by pre-treating the cells with somatostatin or UK14,304, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has been shown previously to inhibit purinergically activated chloride efflux. Our results indicate that there is cross-talk between the cAMP- and the calcium-activated pathways for chloride secretion in HT29 cells.

  1. Immunotherapy in human colorectal cancer: Challenges and prospective

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although new chemotherapeutic regimen improves survival rates, therapy with better efficacy and less adverse effects is drastically needed. Immunotherapy has been investigated in human CRC for decades with limited success. However, recent developments of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have achieved promising clinical benefits in many types of cancer and revived the hope for utilizing such therapy in human CRC. In this review, we will discuss important immunological landscape within the CRC microenvironment and introduce immunoscore system to better describe immunophenotyping in CRC. We will also discuss different immunotherapeutic approaches currently utilized in different phases of clinical trials. Some of those completed or ongoing trials are summarized. Finally, we provide a brief prospective on the future human CRC immunotherapy. PMID:27605872

  2. Peptides in common bean fractions inhibit human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luna Vital, Diego A; González de Mejía, Elvira; Dia, Vermont P; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize peptides present in common bean non-digestible fractions (NDF) produced after enzymatic digestion and determine their antiproliferative action on human colorectal cancer cells. Five NDF peptides represented 70% of total protein (GLTSK, LSGNK, GEGSGA, MPACGSS and MTEEY) with antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cells. Based on the antiproliferative effect, HCT116 cell line was most sensitive to bean Azufrado Higuera (IC50=0.53 mg/ml) and RKO to Bayo Madero (IC50=0.51 mg/ml) peptide extracts. Both cultivars increased significantly (p<0.05) the expression of p53 in HCT116 by 76% and 68%, respectively. Azufrado Higuera modified the expression of cell cycle regulation proteins p21 and cyclin B1. Bayo Madero modified the expression of mitochondrial activated apoptotic proteins BAD, cytC, c-casp3, Survivin, BIRC7. Results suggest that peptides present in common bean NDF contributed to the antiproliferative effect on human colorectal cancer cells by modifying molecules involved in either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. AXL is an oncotarget in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Erika; Martini, Giulia; Cardone, Claudia; Troiani, Teresa; Liguori, Giuseppina; Vitagliano, Donata; Napolitano, Stefania; Morgillo, Floriana; Rinaldi, Barbara; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Liotti, Federica; Nappi, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Berrino, Liberato; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Ciardiello, Davide; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Ferraiolo, Fiorella; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-09-15

    AXL is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by GAS6 and regulates cancer cell proliferation migration and angiogenesis. We studied AXL as new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression and activation of AXL and GAS6 were evaluated in a panel of human CRC cell lines. AXL gene silencing or pharmacologic inhibition with foretinib suppressed proliferation, migration and survival in CRC cells. In an orthotopic colon model of human HCT116 CRC cells overexpressing AXL, foretinib treatment caused significant inhibition of tumour growth and peritoneal metastatic spreading. AXL and GAS6 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found in 76,7% and 73.5%, respectively, of 223 human CRC specimens, correlating with less differentiated histological grading. GAS6 overexpression was associated with nodes involvement and tumour stage. AXL gene was found amplified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 8/146 cases (5,4%) of CRC samples. Taken together, AXL inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic approach in CRC.

  4. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge structure (TXRF-XANES), and micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging to obtain information on the intracellular storage of overloaded iron (Fe). The determined TfR1 mRNA expression for the investigated cells correlated with their proliferation rate. In all cases, the Fe XANES of cells overloaded with inorganic Fe was found to be similar to that of deliquescent Fe(III) sulfate characterized by a distorted octahedral geometry. A fitting model using a linear combination of the XANES of Tf and deliquescent Fe(III) sulfate allowed to explain the near edge structure recorded for HT-29 cells indicating that cellular overload with inorganic Fe results in a non-ferritin-like fast Fe storage. Hierarchical cluster analysis of XANES spectra recorded for Fe overloaded HT-29 and HCA-7 cells was able to distinguish between Fe treatments performed with different Fe species with a 95% hit rate, indicating clear differences in the Fe storage system. Micro-X-ray fluorescence imaging of Fe overloaded HT-29 cells revealed that Fe is primarily located in the cytosol of the cells. By characterizing the cellular Fe uptake, Fe/S content ratios were calculated based on the X-ray fluorescence signals of the analytes. These Fe/S ratios were dramatically lower for HCA-7 treated with organic Fe(III) treatments suggesting dissimilarities from the Tf-like Fe uptake.

  5. An in vitro study of mucoadhesion and biocompatibility of polymer coated liposomes on HT29-MTX mucus-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Hagesaether, Ellen; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-02-10

    Drug delivery to the oral cavity poses a significant challenge due to the short residence time of the formulations at the site of action. From this point of view, nanoparticulate drug delivery systems with ability to adhere to the oral mucosa are advantageous as they could increase the effectiveness of the therapy. Positively, negatively and neutrally charged liposomes were coated with four different types of polymers: alginate, low-ester pectin, chitosan and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose. The mucoadhesion was studied using a novel in vitro method allowing the liposomes to interact with a mucus-producing confluent HT29-MTX cell-line without applying any external force. MTT viability and paracellular permeability tests were conducted on the same cell-line. The alginate-coated liposomes achieved a high specific (genuine) mucin interaction, with a low potential of cell-irritation. The positively charged uncoated liposomes achieved the highest initial mucoadhesion, but also displayed a higher probability of cell-irritation. The chitosan-coated liposomes displayed the highest potential for long lasting mucoadhesion, but with the drawback of a higher general adhesion (tack) and a higher potential for irritating the cells.

  6. Rottlerin Inhibits ROS Formation and Prevents NFκB Activation in MCF-7 and HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maioli, Emanuela; Greci, Lucedio; Soucek, Karel; Hyzdalova, Martina; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Fortino, Vittoria; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Rottlerin, a polyphenol isolated from Mallotus Philippinensis, has been recently used as a selective inhibitor of PKC δ, although it can inhibit many kinases and has several biological effects. Among them, we recently found that Rottlerin inhibits the Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB), activated by either phorbol esters or H2O2. Because of the redox sensitivity of NFκB and on the basis of Rottlerin antioxidant property, we hypothesized that Rottlerin could prevent NFκB activation acting as a free radicals scavenger, as other natural polyphenols. The current study confirms the antioxidant property of Rottlerin against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in vitro and against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and by menadione in culture cells. We also demonstrate that Rottlerin prevents TNFα-dependent NFκB activation in MCF-7 cells and in HT-29 cells transfected with the NFκB-driven plasmid pBIIX-LUC, suggesting that Rottlerin can inhibit NFκB via several pathways and in several cell types. PMID:20168983

  7. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of thiosemicarbazones and 1,3-Thiazoles in Jurkat and HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Thiago André R; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Silva, Elany Barbosa; Gomes, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes; Espíndola, José Wanderlan Pontes; Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; Pereira, Valéria R A

    2016-08-01

    Cancer remains a high incidence and mortality disease, causing around 8.2 million of deaths in the last year. Current chemotherapy needs to be expanded, making research for new drugs a necessary task. Immune system modulation is an emerging concept in cancer cell proliferation control. In fact, there are a number of mechanisms underlying the role immune system plays in tumor cells. In this work, we describe the structural design, synthesis, antitumor and immunomodulatory potential of 31 new 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds. Cisplatin was used as anticancer drug control. Cytotoxicity against J774A.1 macrophages and antitumor activity against HT-29 and Jurkat cells was determined. These 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds not only exhibited cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but were able to cause irreversible cancer cell damage by inducing necrosis and apoptosis. In addition, these compounds, especially pyridyl-thiazoles compounds, regulated immune factors such as interleukin 10 and tumor necrosis factor, possible by directing immune system in favor of modulating cancer cell proliferation. By examining their pharmacological activity, we were able to identify new potent and selective anticancer compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Propionibacterium freudenreichii Surface Protein SlpB Is Involved in Adhesion to Intestinal HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Fillipe L. R.; Rabah, Houem; Huang, Song; Gaucher, Floriane; Deplanche, Martine; Dutertre, Stéphanie; Jardin, Julien; Le Loir, Yves; Azevedo, Vasco; Jan, Gwénaël

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium traditionally used as a cheese ripening starter and more recently for its probiotic abilities based on the release of beneficial metabolites. In addition to these metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, and bifidogenic factor), P. freudenreichii revealed an immunomodulatory effect confirmed in vivo by the ability to protect mice from induced acute colitis. This effect is, however, highly strain-dependent. Local action of metabolites and of immunomodulatory molecules is favored by the ability of probiotics to adhere to the host cells. This property depends on key surface compounds, still poorly characterized in propionibacteria. In the present study, we showed different adhesion rates to cultured human intestinal cells, among strains of P. freudenreichii. The most adhesive one was P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129, which is known to expose surface-layer proteins. We evidenced here the involvement of these proteins in adhesion to cultured human colon cells. We then aimed at deciphering the mechanisms involved in adhesion. Adhesion was inhibited by antibodies raised against SlpB, one of the surface-layer proteins in P. freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129. Inactivation of the corresponding gene suppressed adhesion, further evidencing the key role of slpB product in cell adhesion. This work confirms the various functions fulfilled by surface-layer proteins, including probiotic/host interactions. It opens new perspectives for the understanding of probiotic determinants in propionibacteria, and for the selection of the most efficient strains within the P. freudenreichii species. PMID:28642747

  9. Patrinia scabiosaefolia inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo via G1/S cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Guodong; Shen, Aling; Liu, Liya; Ding, Jingzhen; Peng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has long been used as an important component in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat gastrointestinal malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). We recently reported that PS can inhibit CRC growth through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. To further elucidate the mode of action of PS, in the present study, we used a CRC mouse xenograft model and a human CRC cell line HT-29 to evaluate the effect of the ethanol extract of PS (EEPS) on cancer cell proliferation and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS inhibited CRC growth both in vivo and in vitro, which was associated with the inhibitory effects of EEPS on cancer cell proliferation. In addition, EEPS treatment significantly blocked G1 to S phase cell cycle progression in HT-29 cells. Moreover, EEPS treatment decreased the expression of pro-proliferative CyclinD1 and CDK4, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Thus, inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest might be a potential mechanism whereby PS effectively treats cancers.

  10. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  11. Detection of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Palma, Marco; Lopez, Lissett; García, Margarita; de Roja, Nuria; Ruiz, Tamara; García, Julita; Rosell, Elisabet; Vela, Carmen; Rueda, Paloma; Rodriguez, María-Jose

    2012-02-09

    Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing-1 (CTHRC1) and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3 (NFE2L3) may be useful biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) since they have shown an increase messenger RNA transcripts (mRNA) expression level in adenomas and colorectal tumours when compared to normal tissues. To evaluate CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 as cancer biomarkers, it was generated and characterised several novel specific polyclonal antibodies (PAb), monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and soluble Fab fragments (sFabs) against recombinant CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 proteins, which were obtained from different sources, including a human antibody library and immunised animals. The antibodies and Fab fragments were tested for recognition of native CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 proteins by immunoblotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in colorectal cell lines derived from tumour and cancer tissues. Both, antibodies and a Fab fragment showed high specificity since they recognised only their corresponding recombinant antigens, but not a panel of different unrelated- and related proteins.In Western blot analysis of CTHRC1, a monoclonal antibody designated CH21D7 was able to detect a band of the apparent molecular weight of a full-length CTHRC1 in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. This result was confirmed by a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with the monoclonal antibodies CH21D7 and CH24G2, detecting CTHRC1 in HT29 and in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW620.Similar experiments were performed with PAb, MAbs, and sFab against NFE2L3. The immunoblot analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody 41HF8 recognised NFE2L3 in HT29, and leukocytes. These results were verified by DAS-ELISA assay using the pairs PAb/sFab E5 and MAb 41HF8/sFab E5.Furthermore, an immunoassay for simultaneous detection of the two cancer biomarkers was developed using a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorescent Immunoassay

  12. Detection of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3 in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing-1 (CTHRC1) and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3 (NFE2L3) may be useful biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) since they have shown an increase messenger RNA transcripts (mRNA) expression level in adenomas and colorectal tumours when compared to normal tissues. Methods To evaluate CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 as cancer biomarkers, it was generated and characterised several novel specific polyclonal antibodies (PAb), monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and soluble Fab fragments (sFabs) against recombinant CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 proteins, which were obtained from different sources, including a human antibody library and immunised animals. The antibodies and Fab fragments were tested for recognition of native CTHRC1 and NFE2L3 proteins by immunoblotting analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in colorectal cell lines derived from tumour and cancer tissues. Results Both, antibodies and a Fab fragment showed high specificity since they recognised only their corresponding recombinant antigens, but not a panel of different unrelated- and related proteins. In Western blot analysis of CTHRC1, a monoclonal antibody designated CH21D7 was able to detect a band of the apparent molecular weight of a full-length CTHRC1 in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29. This result was confirmed by a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with the monoclonal antibodies CH21D7 and CH24G2, detecting CTHRC1 in HT29 and in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW620. Similar experiments were performed with PAb, MAbs, and sFab against NFE2L3. The immunoblot analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody 41HF8 recognised NFE2L3 in HT29, and leukocytes. These results were verified by DAS-ELISA assay using the pairs PAb/sFab E5 and MAb 41HF8/sFab E5. Furthermore, an immunoassay for simultaneous detection of the two cancer biomarkers was developed using a Dissociation

  13. Activation of JNK Contributes to Evodiamine-Induced Apoptosis and G2/M Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells: A Structure-Activity Study of Evodiamine

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ching-Huai; Chen, Chih-Hung; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Evodiamine (EVO; 8,13,13b,14-tetrahydro-14-methylindolo[2′3′-3,4]pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-5-[7H]-one derived from the traditional herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa was reported to possess anticancer activity; however, the anticancer mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EVO on human colon COLO205 and HT-29 cells and their potential mechanisms. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed that the viability of COLOL205 and HT-29 cells was inhibited by EVO at various concentrations in accordance with increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential by EVO was accompanied by increased Bax, caspase-9 protein cleavage, and cytochrome (Cyt) c protein translocation in COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Application of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis, but did not affect EVO-induced apoptosis of COLO205 or HT-29 cells. Significant increases in the G2/M ratio and cyclinB1/cdc25c protein expression by EVO were respectively identified in colon carcinoma cells via a flow cytometric analysis and Western blotting. Induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein phosphorylation was detected in EVO-treated cells, and the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, U0126, inhibited EVO-induced phosphorylated JNK protein expression, apoptosis, and G2/M arrest of colon carcinoma cells. Data of the structure-activity analysis showed that EVO-related chemicals containing an alkyl group at position 14 were able to induce apoptosis, G2/M arrest associated with increased DNA ladder formation, cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, and elevated cycB1 and cdc25c protein expressions in COLO205 and HT-29 cells. Evidence supporting JNK activation leading to EVO-induced apoptosis and G

  14. Self-renewal as a therapeutic target in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kreso, Antonija; van Galen, Peter; Pedley, Nicholas M; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Frelin, Catherine; Davis, Thomas; Cao, Liangxian; Baiazitov, Ramil; Du, Wu; Sydorenko, Nadiya; Moon, Young-Choon; Gibson, Lianne; Wang, Yadong; Leung, Cherry; Iscove, Norman N; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Szentgyorgyi, Eva; Gallinger, Steven; Dick, John E; O'Brien, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Tumor recurrence following treatment remains a major clinical challenge. Evidence from xenograft models and human trials indicates selective enrichment of cancer-initiating cells (CICs) in tumors that survive therapy. Together with recent reports showing that CIC gene signatures influence patient survival, these studies predict that targeting self-renewal, the key 'stemness' property unique to CICs, may represent a new paradigm in cancer therapy. Here we demonstrate that tumor formation and, more specifically, human colorectal CIC function are dependent on the canonical self-renewal regulator BMI-1. Downregulation of BMI-1 inhibits the ability of colorectal CICs to self-renew, resulting in the abrogation of their tumorigenic potential. Treatment of primary colorectal cancer xenografts with a small-molecule BMI-1 inhibitor resulted in colorectal CIC loss with long-term and irreversible impairment of tumor growth. Targeting the BMI-1-related self-renewal machinery provides the basis for a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  15. Anthocyanins and Phenolic Acids of Hybrid and Native Blue Maize (Zea mays L.) Extracts and Their Antiproliferative Activity in Mammary (MCF7), Liver (HepG2), Colon (Caco2 and HT29) and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Urias-Lugo, D A; Heredia, J B; Muy-Rangel, M D; Valdez-Torres, J B; Serna-Saldívar, S O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J A

    2015-06-01

    Blue maize is an excellent source of bioactive components such as phenolic acids and anthocyanins but when it is processed for human consumption, these compounds decrease considerably. Therefore, blue maize could be directed to produce nutraceutical extracts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between anthocyanins composition of acidified and non-acidified extracts from native and hybrid blue maize genotypes and their antiproliferative effect in mammary (MCF7), liver (HepG2), colon (Caco2 and HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells. The most abundant phenolic acid was ferulic acid. Nine anthocyanins were quantified in the extracts, being Cy3-Glu the most abundant. Acylated forms were also obtained in high abundance depending of the extraction method. An extract concentration range of 4.31 to 7.23 mg/mL inhibited by 50% the growth of untransformed cells NIH3T3. Antiproliferative effect on PC3, Caco2, HepG2 and MCF7 cancer cells of acidified extracts from hybrid blue maize was larger than the observed using non-acidified extracts. Among the nine compounds that were quantified in the extracts tested, CyMalGlu I showed the strongest correlation with the reduction of cell viability in Caco2 (-0.876), HepG2 (-0.813), MCF7 (-0.765) and PC3 (-0.894). No significant correlation or differences in antiproliferative effect on HT29 was found among the extracts. The method of extraction of maize anthocyanins must be selected to obtain a high yield of CyMalGlu I more than only Cy3-Glu since acylation affects the inhibition of cancer cell growth.

  16. Genistein suppresses FLT4 and inhibits human colorectal cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Rui; Wang, Jiayin; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xiqiang; Wu, Kaichun; Bergan, Raymond C; Xu, Li; Fan, Daiming

    2015-02-20

    Dietary consumption of genistein, found in soy, has been associated with a potentially protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Herein we demonstrate that genistein will inhibit human CRC cell invasion and migration, that it does so at non-cytotoxic concentrations and we demonstrate this in multiple human CRC cell lines. After orthotopic implantation of human CRC tumors into mice, oral genistein did not inhibit tumor growth, but did inhibit distant metastasis formation, and was non-toxic to mice. Using a qPCR array, we screened for genistein-induced changes in gene expression, followed by Western blot confirmation, demonstrating that genistein downregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 and Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase 4 (FLT4; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3). After demonstrating that genistein suppressed neo-angiogenesis in mouse tumors, we examined FLT4 expression in primary CRC and adjacent normal colonic tissue from 60 human subjects, demonstrating that increased FLT4 significantly correlates with increased stage and decreased survival. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that genistein inhibits human CRC metastasis at dietary, non-toxic, doses. FLT4 is identified as a marker of metastatic disease, and as a response marker for small molecule therapeutics that inhibit CRC metastasis.

  17. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications.

  18. The proteins (12 and 15 kDa) isolated from heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L67 induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Oh, S; Lim, K T

    2015-03-01

    A number of scientific studies have revealed that Lactobacillus strains have beneficial bioactivities in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the amounts of intracellular calcium, protein kinase C activity, cytochrome c, Bid, Bcl-2, Bax and the apoptosis-mediated proteins [caspase-8, caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP)] were evaluated to understand the induction of programmed cell death in HT-29 cells by Lactobacillus plantarum L67. The results obtained from this study indicated that the relative intensities of the apoptotic-related factors (intracellular ROS and intracellular calcium) and of apoptotic signals (Bax and t-Bid) increased with increasing concentrations of the membrane proteins isolated from heat-killed L. plantarum L67, whereas the relative intensities of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, caspase-8, caspase-3 and PARP decreased. This study determines whether proteins (12 and 15 kDa) isolated from heat-killed L. plantarum L67 induce programmed cell death in HT-29 cells. Proteins isolated from L. plantarum L67 can stimulate the apoptotic signals and then consequently induce programmed cell death in HT-29 cells. The results in this study suggest that the proteins isolated from L. plantarum L67 could be used as an antitumoural agent in probiotics and as a component of supplements or health foods.

  19. Inhibition of GSK-3β reverses the pro-apoptotic effect of proadifen (SKF-525A) in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jendželovský, Rastislav; Koval, Ján; Mikeš, Jaromír; Papčová, Zuzana; Plšíková, Jana; Fedoročko, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Proadifen (SKF-525A) is a well-known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Besides the prevention of drug metabolism it affects the proliferation of cancer cells, although the mechanisms of possible anti-cancer activity of proadifen have not been fully understood yet. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the potential anti-proliferative effect of proadifen on HT-29 colon cancer cells. Our results show that proadifen inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells by the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, reduction of metabolic activity and colony formation and by the induction of apoptosis. Analyses of Western blots and flow cytometry revealed time- and dose-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Intense upregulation of NAG-1 and ATF3 and downregulation of Mcl-1 and Egr-1 were also observed. Further investigation showed that NAG-1 gene silencing by siRNA had no effect on the pro-apoptotic action of proadifen. In contrast, we found that AR-A014418, the specific inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β), significantly decreased proadifen-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of GSK-3β (phosphorylation at serine 9) resulted in changes in phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase-3 activation. These data suggest that GSK-3β is an important factor in the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells treated with proadifen.

  20. Oleic Acid Uptake Reveals the Rescued Enterocyte Phenotype of Colon Cancer Caco-2 by HT29-MTX Cells in Co-Culture Mode.

    PubMed

    Berger, Emmanuelle; Nassra, Merian; Atgié, Claude; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain

    2017-07-20

    Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets. Experimental validations were performed in real-time experiments, immunochemistry, and gene expression analyses on Caco-2 versus co-cultures of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX (10%) cells. Partial maintenance of cancer-cell phenotype in differentiated Caco-2 cells was confirmed and fatty acids merged as potential regulators of cancer signaling pathways. HT29-MTX cells induced morphological changes in Caco-2 cells, slightly increased their proliferation rate and profoundly modified gene transcription of phenotype markers, fatty acid receptors, intracellular transporters, and lipid droplet components as well as functional responses to oleic acid. In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through oleic acid interaction with signaling pathways dysregulated in cancer cells.

  1. Loss of fatty acid synthase suppresses the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer cells by down-regulating energy metabolism and mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ligong; Wu, Peng; Senthilkumar, Ravichandran; Tian, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Hui; Shen, Xia; Tao, Zijian; Huang, Peilin

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular metabolism has received increased attention as an important hallmark of cancer. Activation of FASN has been found to be involved in many human tumors. Despite extensive research in FASN function on cancer, the underlying mechanism is not entirely understood yet. Cerulenin was used to suppress the FASN expression in human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and LoVo). Expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, p-mTOR, FASN, and AZGP1 was measured using western blotting and qPCR. ATP and lactic acid were assessed to investigate the activation of energy metabolism. Cell cytotoxicity assay was studied by cell counting kit-8 assay. The capacity of cell proliferation and migration was investigated by clonogenic and invasion assay. Analysis of apoptosis and the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. We found that the expression of FASN was down-regulated, while the expression of PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, and AZGP1 was down-regulated in HT29 and LoVo cells treated with FASN inhibitor. Proliferation was reduced in FASN inhibitor-treated cells, which is consistent with an increased apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the migration of FASN inhibitor-treated cells was decreased and the content of ATP and lactic acid was also dropped. These findings suggest that inhibited FASN suppresses the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer cells by down-regulating energy metabolism and mTOR signaling pathway. The results have paved the way to understand the relations of FASN, mTOR signaling pathway, and energy metabolism in colorectal cancer cells.

  2. AXL is an oncotarget in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; Liguori, Giuseppina; Vitagliano, Donata; Napolitano, Stefania; Morgillo, Floriana; Rinaldi, Barbara; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Liotti, Federica; Nappi, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Berrino, Liberato; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Ciardiello, Davide; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Ferraiolo, Fiorella; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    AXL is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by GAS6 and regulates cancer cell proliferation migration and angiogenesis. We studied AXL as new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression and activation of AXL and GAS6 were evaluated in a panel of human CRC cell lines. AXL gene silencing or pharmacologic inhibition with foretinib suppressed proliferation, migration and survival in CRC cells. In an orthotopic colon model of human HCT116 CRC cells overexpressing AXL, foretinib treatment caused significant inhibition of tumour growth and peritoneal metastatic spreading. AXL and GAS6 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found in 76,7% and 73.5%, respectively, of 223 human CRC specimens, correlating with less differentiated histological grading. GAS6 overexpression was associated with nodes involvement and tumour stage. AXL gene was found amplified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 8/146 cases (5,4%) of CRC samples. Taken together, AXL inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic approach in CRC. PMID:25966280

  3. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  4. Oxaliplatin induces different cellular and molecular chemoresistance patterns in colorectal cancer cell lines of identical origins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer cells frequently adopt cellular and molecular alterations and acquire resistance to cytostatic drugs. Chemotherapy with oxaliplatin is among the leading treatments for colorectal cancer with a response rate of 50%, inducing intrastrand cross-links on the DNA. Despite of this drug’s efficiency, resistance develops in nearly all metastatic patients. Chemoresistance being of crucial importance for the drug’s clinical efficiency this study aimed to contribute to the identification and description of some cellular and molecular alterations induced by prolonged oxaliplatin therapy. Resistance to oxaliplatin was induced in Colo320 (Colo320R) and HT-29 (HT-29R) colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines by exposing the cells to increasing concentrations of the drug. Alterations in morphology, cytotoxicity, DNA cross-links formation and gene expression profiles were assessed in the parental and resistant variants with microscopy, MTT, alkaline comet and pangenomic microarray assays, respectively. Results Morphology analysis revealed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the resistant vs parental cells suggesting alterations of the cells’ adhesion complexes, through which they acquire increased invasiveness and adherence. Cytotoxicity measurements demonstrated resistance to oxaliplatin in both cell lines; Colo320 being more sensitive than HT-29 to this drug (P < 0.001). The treatment with oxaliplatin caused major DNA cross-links in both parental cell lines; in Colo320R small amounts of DNA cross-links were still detectable, while in HT-29R not. We identified 441 differentially expressed genes in Colo320R and 613 in HT-29R as compared to their parental counterparts (at least 1.5 -fold up- or down- regulation, p < 0.05). More disrupted functions and pathways were detected in HT-29R cell line than in Colo320R, involving genes responsible for apoptosis inhibition, cellular proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Several upstream

  5. Role of SIRT6 in Metabolic Reprogramming During Colorectal Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    test this hypothesis, we used a lentiviral system to efficiently knock-down SIRT6 expression in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT29...upon APC loss, could give rise to intestinal adenomas. To test this possibility, we first performed in situ hybridization to detect Olfm4 mRNA...patients and surviving iPSCs were allowed to grow and form colonies that were picked up two weeks later and expanded. However, all the clones tested

  6. Chlorpyrifos promotes colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth through the activation of EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway.

    PubMed

    Suriyo, Tawit; Tachachartvanich, Phum; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-12-02

    Aside from the effects on neuronal cholinergic system, epidemiological studies suggest an association between chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure and cancer risk. This in vitro study examined the effects of CPF and its toxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPF-O), on the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma H508, colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29, normal colon epithelial CCD841, liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and normal liver hepatocyte THLE-3 cells. The results showed that CPF (5-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased viability of H508 and CCD841 cells in serum-free conditions. This increasing trend was not found in HT-29, HepG2 and THLE-3 cells. In contrast, CPF-O (50-100 μM) reduced the viability of all cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed the induction of cells in the S phase, and EdU incorporation assay revealed the induction of DNA synthesis in CPF-treated H508 cells indicating that CPF promotes cell cycle progression. Despite the observation of acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, atropine (a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and N-acetylcysteine (a potent antioxidant) failed to inhibit the growth-promoting effect of CPF. CPF increased the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effector, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), in H508 cells. AG-1478 (a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and U0126 (a specific MEK inhibitor) completely mitigated the growth promoting effect of CPF. Altogether, these results suggest that EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway involves in CPF-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth.

  7. Correlation between the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase and the stages of human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Ikeda, S; Kojima, N; Miura, M; Shimizu-Saito, K; Yamaguchi, I; Katsuyama, I; Sanada, K; Iwai, T; Senoo, H; Horikawa, S

    2000-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) from ATP and L-methionine. AdoMet is the major methyl donor in most transmethylation reactions in vivo, and it is also the propylamino donor in the biosynthesis of polyamines. In the present study, we assessed MAT activity in human colons with colorectal carcinoma and the values were compared with those of morphologically normal adjacent mucosa. Higher levels of MAT activity were observed in the colorectal carcinoma than in the normal colon. The ratio of MAT activity in tumor tissue versus normal tissue seemed to be correlated well will the stage of the colorectal tumor. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis showed that the high levels of MAT activity observed in colorectal carcinoma were due to the increased amounts of MAT protein. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MAT was most abundant in goblet cells, particularly in granules in the supranuclear area of these cells. In the colorectal carcinoma tissues, MAT was strongly stained in the cancerous cells and localized in granules in the supranuclear region. The results of this preliminary study suggest that determination of the relative ratio of MAT activity in both normal and tumor regions in human colorectal carcinoma could be a clinically useful tool for determining the stage of malignancy of colorectal carcinomas.

  8. Human intestinal microbiota: cross-talk with the host and its potential role in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Candela, Marco; Guidotti, Marco; Fabbri, Alessia; Brigidi, Patrizia; Franceschi, Claudio; Fiorentini, Carla

    2011-02-01

    In this review, we discuss the multifactorial role of intestinal microbiota in colorectal cancer. The peculiar metabolism of dietary compounds of the individual microbiota complement, its overall immunostimulation and immunomodulatory activity, and eventually the production of toxins that perturb the regulation of cell growth, define the balance of positive and negative risk factors for colorectal cancer development. Moreover, shaping the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, diet has an indirect impact in determining the balance between health and disease. The integration of diet, microbial, and host factors in a system approach is mandatory to determine the overall balance of risk and protective factors for colorectal cancer onset.

  9. Libidibia ferrea presents antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant effects in a colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Andreza Conceição Véras de Aguiar; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira; Medeiros, Juliana Silva de; Cavalcante, Rômulo Dos Santos; Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes de Araújo

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is noted for being one of the most frequent of tumors, with expressive morbidity and mortality rates. In new drug discovery, plants stand out as a source capable of yielding safe and high-efficiency products. Well known in Brazilian popular medicine, Libidibia ferrea (Mart. Ex Tul.) L.P. Queiroz var. ferrea (better known as "ironwood" or "jucá"), has been used to treat a wide spectrum of conditions and to prevent cancer. Using methodologies that involved flow cytometry, spectrophotometry and RT-qPCR assays, crude extracts of the fruits of L. ferrea (20T, 40T, 60T and 80T) were evaluated at 24h and/or 48h for: their ability to inhibit cell proliferation; induce apoptosis through Bcl-2, caspase-3 and Apaf-1; their antioxidant activity and effects on important targets related to cell proliferation (EGFR and AKT) in the HT-29 human colorectal cancer lineage. The results revealed high antiproliferative potential as compared to the controls, induction of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway, and probable tumor inhibition activity under the mediation of important targets in tumorigenesis. In addition, L. ferrea revealed antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and chemoprotective effects in healthy cells. Thus, L. ferrea derivatives have important anticancer effects, and may be considered promising candidate for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyaluronan and calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for colorectal cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jinghui; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Rui

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid drug delivery system (DDS) composed of hyaluronan and calcium carbonate (CC) was developed. By taking advantage of the tumor-targeting ability of hyaluronan and the drug-loading property of CC, the well-formed hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles were able to serve as a DDS targeting colorectal cancer with a decent drug loading content, which is beneficial in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer. In this study, hyaluronan–CC nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm were successfully developed to load the wide-range anti-cancer drug adriamycin (Adr) to construct hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles. On the other hand, we also found that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles can possibly increase the uptake ratio of Adr into HT29 colorectal cancer cells when compared with hyaluronan-free nanoparticles (CC/Adr) via the CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis via competitive uptake and in vivo imaging assays. Note that both in vitro (CCK-8 assay on HT29 cells) and in vivo (anti-cancer assay on HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice model) experiments revealed that hyaluronan–CC/Adr nanoparticles exhibited stronger anti-cancer activity than free Adr or CC/Adr nanoparticles with minimized toxic side effects and preferable cancer-suppression potential.

  11. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  12. Application of PBPK modeling to predict monoclonal antibody disposition in plasma and tissues in mouse models of human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abuqayyas, Lubna; Balthasar, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the utility of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, which incorporates model parameters representing key determinants of monoclonal antibody (mAb) target-mediated disposition, to predict, a priori, mAb disposition in plasma and in tissues, including tumors that express target antigens. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to predict the disposition of two mAbs, 8C2 (as a non-binding control mouse IgG1 mAb) and T84.66 (a high-affinity murine IgG1 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen mAb), in mice bearing no tumors, or bearing colorectal HT29 or LS174T xenografts. Model parameters were obtained or derived from the literature. 125I-T84.66 and 125I-8C2 were administered to groups of SCID mice, and plasma and tissue concentrations were determined via gamma counting. The PBPK model well-predicted the experimental data. Comparisons of the population predicted versus observed areas under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) for T84.66 were 95.4 ± 67.8 versus 84.0 ± 3.0, 1,859 ± 682 versus 2,370 ± 154, and 5,930 ± 1,375 versus 5,960 ± 317 (nM × day) at 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg in LS174T xenograft-bearing SCID mice; and 215 ± 72 versus 233 ± 30, 3,070 ± 346 versus 3,120 ± 180, and 7,884 ± 714 versus 7,440 ± 626 in HT29 xenograft-bearing mice. Model predicted versus observed 8C2 plasma AUCs were 312.4 ± 30 versus 182 ± 7.6 and 7,619 ± 738 versus 7,840 ± 24.3 (nM × day) at 1 and 25 mg/kg. High correlations were observed between the predicted median plasma concentrations and observed median plasma concentrations (r2 = 0.927, for all combinations of treatment, dose, and tumor model), highlighting the utility ofthe PBPK model forthe a priori prediction of in vivo data. PMID:23184417

  13. Neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation: from basic science to human clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Brookes, S J; Dinning, P G; Gladman, M A

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal physiology is complex and involves programmed, coordinated interaction between muscular and neuronal elements. Whilst a detailed understanding remains elusive, novel information has emerged from recent basic science and human clinical studies concerning normal sensorimotor mechanisms and the organization and function of the key elements involved in the control of motility. This chapter summarizes these observations to provide a contemporary review of the neuroanatomy and physiology of colorectal function and defaecation.

  14. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A.; Salomon, Matthew P.; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    What happens in the early, still undetectable human malignancy is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a “Big Bang” model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed sub-clones that are not subject to stringent selection, and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors revealed the absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH), and sub-clone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations, and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear born-to-be-bad, with sub-clone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH with significant clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  15. Umbelliprenin is Potentially Toxic Against the HT29, CT26, MCF-7, 4T1, A172, and GL26 Cell Lines, Potentially Harmful Against Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells, and Non-Toxic Against Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohsen; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh; Khalilnezhad, Ahad; Jamshidi, Hamidreza; Amani, Davar

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing concern, thus natural anticancer agents are drawing the attention of many scientists and clinicians. One natural anticancer agent, umbelliprenin, is a coumarin produced by many species of Ferula. Objectives We aimed to examine the inhibitory effect of umbelliprenin on human and mouse bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and different cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods In this in vitro experimental study, the HT29, CT26, MCF-7, 4T1, A172, and GL26 cancer cells and human and mouse BMDSCs and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), incubated at 37°C for 24 hours in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, and then were treated with different concentrations of umbelliprenin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 37°C. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. Finally, the cell survival rate was assessed by MTT assay. The IC50 values were calculated based on the log values using GraphPad Prism version 5 software for windows (La Jolla CA, USA) and were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results Umbelliprenin inhibited the cancer cells in a concentration-dependent (P < 0.05) but not time-dependent manner (P > 0.05). The most sensitive and resistant cell lines at the 24-hour incubation time were 4T1 (IC50, 30.9 ± 3.1 µg/mL) and A172 (IC50, 51.9 ± 6.7 µg/mL); at the 48-hour incubation time: 4T1 (IC50, 30.6 ± 2.6 µg/mL) and CT26 (IC50, 53.2 ± 3.6 µg/mL); and at the 72-hour incubation time: HT29 (IC50, 37.1 ± 1.4 µg/mL) and 4T1 (IC50, 62.2 ± 4.8 µg/mL). Both human and mouse BMDSCs showed the highest resistance at the 24-hour incubation time (IC50s, 254.7 ± 21 and 204.4 ± 4.5 µg/mL, respectively) and the highest sensitivity at the 72-hour incubation time (IC50s, 120.4 ± 5 and 159.0 ± 7.3 µg/mL, respectively). The PBMCs of both human and mouse origin revealed very

  16. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis in a human immunodeficiency negative-virus patient.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Kilani, Houda; Bouassida, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Chalbi, Emna; Siai, Karima; Ezzine, Heykel; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed M'saddak; Sassi, Sadok

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of immunomodulator therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative heterosexual man.

  17. Oxidative stress triggered by naturally occurring flavone apigenin results in senescence and chemotherapeutic effect in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kacoli; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies involving phytochemical polyphenolic compounds have suggested flavones often exert pro-oxidative effect in vitro against wide array of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro pro-oxidative activity of apigenin, a plant based flavone against colorectal cancer cell lines and investigate cumulative effect on long term exposure. In the present study, treatment of colorectal cell lines HT-29 and HCT-15 with apigenin resulted in anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects characterized by biochemical and morphological changes, including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential which aided in reversing the impaired apoptotic machinery leading to negative implications in cancer pathogenesis. Apigenin induces rapid free radical species production and the level of oxidative damage was assessed by qualitative and quantitative estimation of biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Increased level of mitochondrial superoxide suggested dose dependent mitochondrial oxidative damage which was generated by disruption in anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic protein balance. Continuous and persistent oxidative stress induced by apigenin at growth suppressive doses over extended treatment time period was observed to induce senescence which is a natural cellular mechanism to attenuate tumor formation. Senescence phenotype inducted by apigenin was attributed to changes in key molecules involved in p16-Rb and p53 independent p21 signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma was inhibited and significant up-regulation of p21 led to simultaneous suppression of cyclins D1 and E which indicated the onset of senescence. Pro-oxidative stress induced premature senescence mediated by apigenin makes this treatment regimen a potential chemopreventive strategy and an in vitro model for aging research.

  18. Oxidative stress triggered by naturally occurring flavone apigenin results in senescence and chemotherapeutic effect in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Kacoli; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies involving phytochemical polyphenolic compounds have suggested flavones often exert pro-oxidative effect in vitro against wide array of cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro pro-oxidative activity of apigenin, a plant based flavone against colorectal cancer cell lines and investigate cumulative effect on long term exposure. In the present study, treatment of colorectal cell lines HT-29 and HCT-15 with apigenin resulted in anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects characterized by biochemical and morphological changes, including loss of mitochondrial membrane potential which aided in reversing the impaired apoptotic machinery leading to negative implications in cancer pathogenesis. Apigenin induces rapid free radical species production and the level of oxidative damage was assessed by qualitative and quantitative estimation of biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Increased level of mitochondrial superoxide suggested dose dependent mitochondrial oxidative damage which was generated by disruption in anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic protein balance. Continuous and persistent oxidative stress induced by apigenin at growth suppressive doses over extended treatment time period was observed to induce senescence which is a natural cellular mechanism to attenuate tumor formation. Senescence phenotype inducted by apigenin was attributed to changes in key molecules involved in p16-Rb and p53 independent p21 signaling pathways. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma was inhibited and significant up-regulation of p21 led to simultaneous suppression of cyclins D1 and E which indicated the onset of senescence. Pro-oxidative stress induced premature senescence mediated by apigenin makes this treatment regimen a potential chemopreventive strategy and an in vitro model for aging research. PMID:25965143

  19. 13C-MR Spectroscopic Imaging with Hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate Detects Early Response to Radiotherapy in SCC Tumors and HT-29 Tumors.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Matsumoto, Shingo; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Morris, H Douglas; Lizak, Martin J; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2015-11-15

    X-ray irradiation of tumors causes diverse effects on the tumor microenvironment, including metabolism. Recent developments of hyperpolarized (13)C-MRI enabled detecting metabolic changes in tumors using a tracer [1-(13)C]pyruvate, which participates in important bioenergetic processes that are altered in cancers. Here, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation on pyruvate metabolism in squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) and colon cancer (HT-29) using hyperpolarized (13)C-MRI. SCCVII and HT-29 tumors were grown by injecting tumor cells into the hind legs of mice. [1-(13)C]pyruvate was hyperpolarized and injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice, and (13)C-MR signals were acquired using a 4.7 T scanner. [1-(13)C]pyruvate and [1-(13)C]lactate were detected in the tumor-bearing legs immediately after hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate administration. The [1-(13)C]lactate to [1-(13)C]pyruvate ratio (Lac/Pyr) increased as the tumors grew in nonirradiated SCCVII tumors. The increase in Lac/Pyr was suppressed modestly with a single 10 Gy of irradiation, but it significantly decreased by further irradiation (10 Gy × 3). Similar results were obtained in HT-29; Lac/Pyr significantly dropped with fractionated 30 Gy irradiation. Independent ex vivo measurements revealed that the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein level were significantly smaller in the irradiated SCCVII tumors compared with the nonirradiated tumors, indicating that a decrease in LDH activity was one of the main factors responsible for the decrease of Lac/Pyr observed on (13)C-MRI. Robust changes of Lac/Pyr observed in the HT-29 after the radiation suggested that lactate conversion from pyruvate monitored with hyperpolarized (13)C-MRI could be useful for the evaluation of early response to radiotherapy. See related commentary by Lai et al., p. 4996. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Sildenafil inhibits the growth of human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xiao-Long; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Li, Yong; Zhao, Jin-Ming; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Xue, You-Qiu; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Qin, Wu-Ming; Wei, Meng-Ning; Shi, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common human cancer with frequent overexpression of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). In the present study, we investigated that the anticancer effect of sildenafil on human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of PDE5 for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension in the clinic. Sildenafil significantly induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer with increased intracellular reactive oxidative specie (ROS) levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins and PARP etc. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine could reverse sildenafil-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. Inhibition of the activity of protein kinase G with KT-5823 could enhance sildenafil-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, sildenafil caused the reduction of xenograft models of human colorectal cancer in nude mice. Overall, these findings suggest that sildenafil has the potential to be used for treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:26807313

  1. The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Théret, Nathalie; Brenner, Catherine; Jouan, Elodie; Le Moigne-Muller, Gwénaëlle; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propionibacteria induce intrinsic apoptosis of colon cancer cells, via the production and release of SCFA (propionate and acetate) acting on mitochondria. Here, we investigated possible synergistic effect between Propionibacterium freudenreichii and TRAIL. Indeed, we hypothesized that acting on both extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways may exert a synergistic pro-apoptotic effect. Whole transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that propionibacterial supernatant or propionibacterial metabolites (propionate and acetate), in combination with TRAIL, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and decreased anti-apoptotic gene expression (FLIP, XIAP) in HT29 human colon cancer cells. The revealed synergistic pro-apoptotic effect, depending on both death receptors (TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5) and caspases (caspase-8, -9 and -3) activation, was lethal on cancer cells but not on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), and was inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. Finally, milk fermented by P. freudenreichii induced HT29 cells apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL cytotoxic activity, as did P. freudenreichii DMEM culture supernatants or its SCFA metabolites. These results open new perspectives for food grade P. freudenreichii-containing products in order to potentiate TRAIL-based cancer therapy in colorectal cancer. PMID:26771233

  2. Knockdown of CSE1L Gene in Colorectal Cancer Reduces Tumorigenesis in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pimiento, Jose M; Neill, Kevin G; Henderson-Jackson, Evita; Eschrich, Steven A; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Husain, Kazim; Shibata, David; Coppola, Domenico; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2016-10-01

    Human cellular apoptosis susceptibility (chromosomal segregation 1-like, CSE1L) gene plays a role in nuclear-to-cytoplasm transport and chromosome segregation during mitosis, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis. CSE1L is involved in colon carcinogenesis. CSE1L gene expression was assessed with three data sets using Affymetrix U133 + gene chips on normal human colonic mucosa (NR), adenomas (ADs), and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CSE1L protein expression in CRC, AD, and NR from the same patients was measured by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. We evaluated CSE1L expression in CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, and HT29) and its biological functions. CSE1L mRNA was significantly increased in all AD and CRC compared with NR (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectivly). We observed a change in CSE1L staining intensity and cellular localization by immunohistochemistry. CSE1L was significantly increased during the transition from AD to CRC when compared with NR in a CRC tissue microarray (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001). HCT116, SW480, and HT29 cells also expressed CSE1L protein. CSE1L knockdown by shRNA inhibited protein, resulting in decreased cell proliferation, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and induction of apoptosis. CSE1L protein is expressed early and across all stages of CRC development. shRNA knockdown of CSE1L was associated with inhibition of tumorigenesis in CRC cells. CSE1L may represent a potential target for treatment of CRC.

  3. Hierridin B Isolated from a Marine Cyanobacterium Alters VDAC1, Mitochondrial Activity, and Cell Cycle Genes on HT-29 Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Sara; Martins, Rosário; Costa, Margarida; Leão, Pedro N.; Vitorino, Rui; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hierridin B was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium Cyanobium sp. strain and induced cytotoxicity selectively in HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells. The underlying molecular mechanism was not yet elucidated. Methods: HT-29 cells were exposed to the IC50 concentration of hierridin B (100.2 μM) for 48 h. Non-targeted proteomics was performed using 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The mRNA expression of apoptotic and cell cycle genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. Automated quantification of 160 cytoplasm and mitochondrial parameter was done by fluorescence microscopy using CellProfiler software. Results: Proteomics identified 21 significant different proteins, which belonged to protein folding/synthesis and cell structure amongst others. Increase of VDAC1 protein responsible for formation of mitochondrial channels was confirmed by mRNA expression. A 10-fold decrease of cytoskeleton proteins (STMN1, TBCA) provided a link to alterations of the cell cycle. CCNB1 and CCNE mRNA were decreased two-fold, and P21CIP increased 10-fold, indicative of cell cycle arrest. Morphological analysis of mitochondrial parameter confirmed a reduced mitochondrial activity. Conclusion: Hierridin B is a potential anticancer compound that targets mitochondrial activity and function. PMID:27589771

  4. LDH-A influences hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1 α) and is critical for growth of HT29 colon carcinoma cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Stefan; Najjar, Maher; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Thierauch, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a well-known clinical surrogate parameter. A high activity of LDH is associated with a poor prognosis in different tumor types. Here we demonstrate by a gene silencing approach that LDH-A is critical for in vivo but not in vitro growth of HT29 colon carcinoma cells. We provide evidence that the suppression of the LDH-A gene leads to an increased level of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) but in consequence not to an increase of HIF1 regulated proteins such as carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prolyl-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), and factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH) in cell cultures and tumor lysates. This effect is independent of LDH activity in vivo. We conclude that LDH-A has an influence on the activity of HIF1α and thus on the adaptation of cells to a hypoxic tumor microenvironment in HT29 colon cells. We suggest the use of LDH-M as a potential therapeutic target for anticancer treatment.

  5. Apo-neocarzinostatin: a protein carrier for Cu(II) glycocomplexes and Cu(II) into U937 and HT29 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ludivine; Franzoni, Susanna; Mussi, Francesca; Aumont-Niçaise, Magali; Bertrand, Hélène; Desmadril, Michel; Pelosi, Giorgio; Buschini, Annamaria; Policar, Clotilde

    2014-06-01

    In the field of pharmaceuticals there is an increasing need for new delivery systems to overcome the issues of solubility, penetration, toxicity and drug resistance. One of the possible strategies is to use biocarriers such as proteins to encourage the cell-penetration of drugs. In this paper, the use of the apo-protein neocarzinostatin (apo-NCS) as a carrier-protein for two Cu(II) glycocomplexes, previously characterized, and Cu(II) ions was investigated. Its interaction with the metallic compounds was analyzed using microcalorimetry. The dissociation constants were shown to be in the micromolar range. The Cu(II) glycocomplexes, in absence of apo-NCS, were found to be cytotoxic in the U937 and HT29 cell lines whereas the corresponding glycoligands showed no toxicity. The leukemic cell line (U937) seems to be more sensitive to glycocomplexes than the colon cancer cell line (HT29). Interestingly, apo-NCS was shown to increase systematically the antiproliferative activity by a factor of 2 and 3 for Cu(II) glycocomplexes and Cu(II) respectively. The antiproliferative activity detected was not related to proteasome inhibition. This result stresses the importance of new molecular tools for the delivery of Cu(II) to tumor cells using non-covalent association with carriers proteins.

  6. Efficiency of newly formulated camptothecin with β-cyclodextrin-EDTA-Fe3O4 nanoparticle-conjugated nanocarriers as an anti-colon cancer (HT29) drug.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Poorani; Rajan, Mariappan; Kumari, Sharmilah; Sakinah, S; Priya, Sivan Padma; Amira, Fatin; Danjuma, Lawal; Pooi Ling, Mok; Fakurazi, Sharida; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Higuchi, Akon; Arumugam, Ramitha; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, S Suresh

    2017-09-08

    Camptothecin (CPT) is an anti-cancer drug that effectively treats various cancers, including colon cancer. However, poor solubility and other drawbacks have restricted its chemotherapeutic potential. To overcome these restrictions, CPT was encapsulated in CEF (cyclodextrin-EDTA-FE3O4), a composite nanoparticle of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4), and β-cyclodextrin was cross-linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This formulation improved CPT's solubility and bioavailability for cancer cells. The use of magnetically responsive anti-cancer formulation is highly advantageous in cancer chemotherapy. The chemical characterisation of CPT-CEF was studied here. The ability of this nano-compound to induce apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells was evaluated. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of CPT-CEF was shown using MTT. Propidium iodide and Annexin V staining, mitochondrial membrane depolarisation (JC-1 dye), and caspase-3 activity were assayed to detect apoptosis in CPT-CEF-treated cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis also showed G1 phase arrest, which indicated possible synergistic effects of the nano-carrier. These study results show that CPT-CEF causes a dose-dependent cell viability reduction in HT29 and A549 cells and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via caspase-3 activation. These data strongly suggest that CPT could be used as a major nanocarrier for CPT to effectively treat colon cancer.

  7. Effect of edible oils on quercetin, kaempferol and galangin transport and conjugation in the intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Jailani, Fadhilah; Williamson, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Solubility and matrix play an important role in the gut lumen in delivering bioactive compounds to the absorptive surface of enterocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of certain commonly consumed lipids, soybean, olive and corn oil, on the transport and conjugation of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and galangin) using the conjugation-competent co-cultured Caco-2/HT29-MTX intestinal cell monolayer model. To enable identification and quantification of conjugates, each flavonol was enzymatically glucuronidated or sulphated, then analysed by HPLC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Quantification showed large differences in mass spectrometric peak area response factors between the aglycones and many of the conjugates, with galangin-sulphate for example ionising ∼15-fold better than galangin. Flavonol aglycones and conjugates were transported to the basolateral side of Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures. The total amount of methyl, sulphate and glucuronide conjugates was in the order: galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > myricetin. All oils inhibited the transport and conjugation of galangin, the most hydrophobic flavonol, whereas they increased the sulphation, and to some extent glucuronidation, of quercetin and kaempferol. The results show that the lipid matrix has the potential to modify both transport and conjugation of dietary flavonols, but that the effect depends upon the structure and hydrophobicity.

  8. Discerning Apical and Basolateral Properties of HT-29/B6 and IPEC-J2 Cell Layers by Impedance Spectroscopy, Mathematical Modeling and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Thomas; Bogdan, Martin; Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying changes in partial resistances of epithelial barriers in vitro is a challenging and time-consuming task in physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that electrical properties of epithelial barriers can be estimated reliably by combining impedance spectroscopy measurements, mathematical modeling and machine learning algorithms. Conventional impedance spectroscopy is often used to estimate epithelial capacitance as well as epithelial and subepithelial resistance. Based on this, the more refined two-path impedance spectroscopy makes it possible to further distinguish transcellular and paracellular resistances. In a next step, transcellular properties may be further divided into their apical and basolateral components. The accuracy of these derived values, however, strongly depends on the accuracy of the initial estimates. To obtain adequate accuracy in estimating subepithelial and epithelial resistance, artificial neural networks were trained to estimate these parameters from model impedance spectra. Spectra that reflect behavior of either HT-29/B6 or IPEC-J2 cells as well as the data scatter intrinsic to the used experimental setup were created computationally. To prove the proposed approach, reliability of the estimations was assessed with both modeled and measured impedance spectra. Transcellular and paracellular resistances obtained by such neural network-enhanced two-path impedance spectroscopy are shown to be sufficiently reliable to derive the underlying apical and basolateral resistances and capacitances. As an exemplary perturbation of pathophysiological importance, the effect of forskolin on the apical resistance of HT-29/B6 cells was quantified. PMID:23840862

  9. Human papillomavirus DNA and oncogene alterations in colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; Barbisan, Gisela; Ottino, Anabel; Pianzola, Horacio; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the presence and molecular integrity of high-risk HPV types in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to assess whether viral DNA is related to common proto-oncogene alterations, such as k-ras mutations and c-myc gene amplification, in colorectal cancer. Seventy-five colorectal adenocarcinomas were screened for HPV infection using nested-PCR (MY09/11-GP5+/6+). HPV typing was performed by type-specific PCR for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA. Unidentified samples were subsequently sequenced to determine the viral genotype. The physical status of HPV was determined by a nested PCR approach for type-specific E2 sequences. C-myc amplification was assessed by co-amplification with β-globin as control locus, and mutation in k-ras codons 12 and 13 by ARMS-PCR. Overall, HPV was detected in thirty-three colorectal specimens (44%). HPV 16 was the prevalent type (16/75), followed by HPV 18 (15/75), HPV 31 (1/75) and HPV 66 (1/75). E2 disruption was detected in 56.3% of HPV 16 and in 40% of HPV 18 positive tumors. C-myc amplification was detected in 29.4% of cases, while k-ras mutations in 30.7%. There was no significant trend for HPV infection in tumors harboring either k-ras or c-myc alterations. This study demonstrates HPV DNA and viral integration in colorectal tumors, suggesting a potential role of this virus in colorectal carcinogenesis. There was no concurrence, however, of k-ras and c-myc activation with viral infection.

  10. Type, Density, and Location of Immune Cells Within Human Colorectal Tumors Predict Clinical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galon, Jérôme; Costes, Anne; Sanchez-Cabo, Fatima; Kirilovsky, Amos; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Lagorce-Pagès, Christine; Tosolini, Marie; Camus, Matthieu; Berger, Anne; Wind, Philippe; Zinzindohoué, Franck; Bruneval, Patrick; Cugnenc, Paul-Henri; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Fridman, Wolf-Herman; Pagès, Franck

    2006-09-01

    The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and location of immune cells within the tumor samples) were found to be a better predictor of patient survival than the histopathological methods currently used to stage colorectal cancer. The results were validated in two additional patient populations. These data support the hypothesis that the adaptive immune response influences the behavior of human tumors. In situ analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells may therefore be a valuable prognostic tool in the treatment of colorectal cancer and possibly other malignancies.

  11. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  12. Molecular evidence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in colorectal tumours from Cuban patients

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Yudira; Limia, Celia Maria; González, Licet; Grá, Bienvenido; Hano, Olga Marina; Martínez, Pedro Ariel; Kourí, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis). DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58). Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63) of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24) and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18). HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009). The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients. PMID:27812599

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Calcium Remodeling in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Riesgo, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Lucía G; Ubierna, Daniel; Acedo, Alberto; Moyer, Mary P; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos

    2017-04-27

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) cells undergo the remodeling of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, which contributes to cancer hallmarks such as enhanced proliferation, invasion and survival. Ca(2+) remodeling includes critical changes in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and Ca(2+) store content. Some changes have been investigated at the molecular level. However, since nearly 100 genes are involved in intracellular Ca(2+) transport, a comprehensive view of Ca(2+) remodeling in CRC is lacking. We have used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to investigate differences in expression of 77 selected gene transcripts involved in intracellular Ca(2+) transport in CRC. To this end, mRNA from normal human colonic NCM460 cells and human colon cancer HT29 cells was isolated and used as a template for transcriptomic sequencing and expression analysis using Ion Torrent technology. After data transformation and filtering, exploratory analysis revealed that both cell types were well segregated. In addition, differential gene expression using R and bioconductor packages show significant differences in expression of selected voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels and store-operated Ca(2+) entry players, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, Ca(2+) release channels, Ca(2+) pumps, Na⁺/Ca(2+) exchanger isoforms and genes involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) transport. These data provide the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of Ca(2+) remodeling in CRC.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis of Calcium Remodeling in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Riesgo, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Lucía G.; Ubierna, Daniel; Acedo, Alberto; Moyer, Mary P.; Núñez, Lucía; Villalobos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) cells undergo the remodeling of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, which contributes to cancer hallmarks such as enhanced proliferation, invasion and survival. Ca2+ remodeling includes critical changes in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and Ca2+ store content. Some changes have been investigated at the molecular level. However, since nearly 100 genes are involved in intracellular Ca2+ transport, a comprehensive view of Ca2+ remodeling in CRC is lacking. We have used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to investigate differences in expression of 77 selected gene transcripts involved in intracellular Ca2+ transport in CRC. To this end, mRNA from normal human colonic NCM460 cells and human colon cancer HT29 cells was isolated and used as a template for transcriptomic sequencing and expression analysis using Ion Torrent technology. After data transformation and filtering, exploratory analysis revealed that both cell types were well segregated. In addition, differential gene expression using R and bioconductor packages show significant differences in expression of selected voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry players, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, Ca2+ release channels, Ca2+ pumps, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger isoforms and genes involved in mitochondrial Ca2+ transport. These data provide the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of Ca2+ remodeling in CRC. PMID:28448473

  15. Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk: evidence from human population studies.

    PubMed

    Kocic, B; Kitic, D; Brankovic, S

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are biologically active polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. More than 5000 individual flavonoids have been identified, which are classified into at least 10 subgroups according to their chemical structure. Flavonoids of 6 principal subgroups- flavonols, flavones, anthocyanidins, catechins, flavanones, and isoflavones- are relatively common in human diets. Flavonoids are a large and diverse group of phytochemicals and research into their anti-carcinogenic potential with animal and cellular model systems supports a protective role. Whether dietary intake of flavonoids is protective against colorectal cancer in humans cannot be easily extrapolated from cell line and animal findings. Epidemiological assessment of the relationship between dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer is limited, with different case-control and cohort study design investigating different combinations of flavonoids. Epidemiologic studies on flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk that were conducted yielded inconsistent results, with positive, inverse, and null associations. Because only a very limited number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the associations of dietary intake of flavonoids with colorectal cancer risk, it is premature to make public health recommendations at this time. However, the data to date are promising and emphasize the need for further investigation of these important bioactive plant compounds. This review summarises the epidemiological evidence from case-control and cohort studies on the associations of dietary flavonoid intake with the risk for colorectal cancer. The difficulties in investigating this topic and possibilities for further research are then discussed.

  16. Prostaglandin E2 Induces Human Enhancer of Filamentation 1 to Promote Proliferation of Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dianren; Holla, Vijaykumar R.; Wang, Dingzhi; Menter, David G.; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and one of its downstream enzymatic products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been directly linked to colorectal carcinogenesis in a number of ways. Among which, PGE2 promotes cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and thus tumor growth. All of the mechanism(s) by which PGE2 signaling regulates cell growth are not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment induces human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1) expression and its link with cell cycle machinery in colorectal cancer cells. PGE2 rapidly stimulated the expression of HEF1 mRNA and protein in colorectal cancer cells. Both PGE2 treatment and HEF1 overexpression resulted in similar effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and tumor growth. Moreover, knockdown of HEF1 using shRNA suppressed PGE2-driven cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Cell cycle alterations involved HEF1 fragmentation as well as co-distribution of HEF1 and Aurora A along spindle asters during cell division. Furthermore, HEF1 co-immunoprecipitated with and activated Aurora A. Intriguingly, HEF1 expression was increased in 50% of human colorectal cancers compared with expression in paired normal tissue. These data suggest that PGE2 induces HEF1 expression, which in turn promotes cell cycle progression through its interaction and activation of Aurora A. Clearly, HEF1 is a downstream mediator of PGE2 action during colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20068165

  17. The expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and splice variants of its receptor in human gastroenteropancreatic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Rebeca; Schally, Andrew V.; Varga, Jozsef L.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. Olga; Groot, Kate; Armatis, Patricia; Szepeshazi, Karoly

    2002-01-01

    Splice variants (SVs) of receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been found in primary human prostate cancers and diverse human cancer cell lines. GHRH antagonists inhibit growth of various experimental human cancers, including pancreatic and colorectal, xenografted into nude mice or cultured in vitro, and their antiproliferative action could be mediated in part through SVs of GHRH receptors. In this study we examined the expression of mRNA for GHRH and for SVs of its receptors in tumors of human pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancer cell lines grown in nude mice. mRNA for both GHRH and SV1 isoform of GHRH receptors was expressed in tumors of pancreatic (SW1990, PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, Capan-1, Capan-2, and CFPAC1), colonic (COLO 320DM and HT-29), and gastric (NCI-N87, HS746T, and AGS) cancer cell lines; mRNA for SV2 was also present in Capan-1, Capan-2, CFPAC1, HT-29, and NCI-N87 tumors. In proliferation studies in vitro, the growth of pancreatic, colonic, and gastric cancer cells was stimulated by GHRH(1–29)NH2 and inhibited by GHRH antagonist JV-1–38. The stimulation of some gastroenteropancreatic cancer cells by GHRH was followed by an increase in cAMP production, and GHRH antagonist JV-1–38 competitively inhibited this effect. Our study indicates the presence of an autocrine/paracrine stimulatory loop based on GHRH and SV1 of GHRH receptors in human pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancers. The finding of SV1 receptor in human cancers provides an approach to an antitumor therapy based on the blockade of this receptor by specific GHRH antagonists. PMID:12186980

  18. Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA signature in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yao; Ma, Gaoxiang; Gu, Dongying; Zhu, Lingjun; Hua, Qiuhan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Chen, Jinfei; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2015-02-10

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been widely regarded as crucial regulators in various biological processes involved in carcinogenesis. However, the comprehensive lncRNA expression signature in colorectal cancer remains fully unknown. We performed a high throughput microarray assay to detect lncRNA expression profile in three paired human colorectal cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. Additional 90 paired colorectal samples were collected to verify differently expression levels of two selected lncRNAs using q-RT-PCR assay. Bioinformatic approaches were performed to explore into the functions of these differently expressed lncRNAs. Microarray assay showed a series of lncRNAs were differently expressed in colorectal cancer. Two of the lncRNAs, HOTAIR and a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-422 were confirmed in more samples (P=0.015 for HOTAIR and P=0.027 for lncRNA-422, respectively). GSEA indicated that gene sets most correlated with them were those named up-regulated in KRAS-over, down-regulated in JAK2-knockout, down-regulated in PDGF-over and down-regulated in TBK1-knockout, all of which were cancer-related. Subsequently, GO analyses of most significantly correlated coding genes of HOTAIR and lncRNA-422 showed that these two lncRNAs may participate in carcinogenesis by regulating protein coding genes involved in special biological process relevant to cancer. Our study demonstrated that different lncRNA expression patterns were involved in colorectal cancer. Besides, HOTAIR and lncRNA-422 were identified to participate in colorectal cancer. Further studies into biological mechanisms of differently expressed lncRNAs identified in our study will help to provide new perspective in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of a characteristic vascular belt zone in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Frank Gerrit; Schad, Lothar R.; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Marx, Alexander; Gaiser, Timo; Weis, Cleo-Aron

    2017-01-01

    Blood vessels in cancer Intra-tumoral blood vessels are of supreme importance for tumor growth, metastasis and therapy. Yet, little is known about spatial distribution patterns of these vessels. Most experimental or theoretical tumor models implicitly assume that blood vessels are equally abundant in different parts of the tumor, which has far-reaching implications for chemotherapy and tumor metabolism. In contrast, based on histological observations, we hypothesized that blood vessels follow specific spatial distribution patterns in colorectal cancer tissue. We developed and applied a novel computational approach to identify spatial patterns of angiogenesis in histological whole-slide images of human colorectal cancer. A characteristic spatial pattern of blood vessels in colorectal cancer In 33 of 34 (97%) colorectal cancer primary tumors blood vessels were significantly aggregated in a sharply limited belt-like zone at the interface of tumor tissue to the intestinal lumen. In contrast, in 11 of 11 (100%) colorectal cancer liver metastases, a similar hypervascularized zone could be found at the boundary to surrounding liver tissue. Also, in an independent validation cohort, we found this vascular belt zone: 22 of 23 (96%) samples of primary tumors and 15 of 16 (94%) samples of liver metastases exhibited the above-mentioned spatial distribution. Summary and implications We report consistent spatial patterns of tumor vascularization that may have far-reaching implications for models of drug distribution, tumor metabolism and tumor growth: luminal hypervascularization in colorectal cancer primary tumors is a previously overlooked feature of cancer tissue. In colorectal cancer liver metastases, we describe a corresponding pattern at the invasive margin. These findings add another puzzle piece to the complex concept of tumor heterogeneity. PMID:28253263

  20. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) overexpression in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Francisco; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Wang, Shuli; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Lewin, Tal M; Orntoft, Torben F; Coleman, Rosalind A; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The alteration of the choline metabolite profile is a well-established characteristic of cancer cells. In colorectal cancer (CRC), phosphatidylcholine is the most prominent phospholipid. In the present study, we report that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1; NM_024830.3), the enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylcholine, was highly overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to normal mucosas. Our microarray transcription profiling study showed a significant (p < 10(-8)) transcript overexpression in 168 colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to ten normal mucosas. Immunohistochemical analysis of colon tumors with a polyclonal antibody to LPCAT1 confirmed the upregulation of the LPCAT1 protein. Overexpression of LPCAT1 in COS7 cells localized the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria and increased LPCAT1 specific activity 38-fold. In cultured cells, overexpressed LPCAT1 enhanced the incorporation of [(14)C]palmitate into phosphatidylcholine. COS7 cells transfected with LPCAT1 showed no growth rate alteration, in contrast to the colon cancer cell line SW480, which significantly (p < 10(-5)) increased its growth rate by 17%. We conclude that LPCAT1 may contribute to total choline metabolite accumulation via phosphatidylcholine remodeling, thereby altering the CRC lipid profile, a characteristic of malignancy.

  1. Soy Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four ...

  2. Soy Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four ...

  3. The preclinical evaluation of the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor INK-128 as a potential anti-colorectal cancer agent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Cui, Jian-Feng; Chen, Min-Bin; Liu, Chao-Ying; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Qian-De; Zou, Jian; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The colorectal cancer is the leading contributor of cancer-related mortality. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in 2 complexes (mTORC1/2), is frequently dysregulated and constitutively activated in colorectal cancers. It represents an important drug target. Here we found that INK-128, the novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of mTOR, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in colorectal cancer cells (both primary and transformed cells). The immunoprecipitation results showed that the assembly of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-Sin1 association) was also disrupted by INK-128. INK-128 inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and survival, and induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cancer cell death. Further, INK-128 showed no effect on Erk/MAPK activation, while MEK/Erk inhibition by MEK-162 enhanced INK-128-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Meanwhile, INK-128 downregulated Fascin1 (FSCN1)/E-Cadherin expressions and inhibited HT-29 cell in vitro migration. In vivo, daily INK-128 oral administration inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in mice, which was further enhanced by MEK-162 administration. Finally, we found that INK-128 sensitized 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-mediated anti-HT-29 activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our preclinical studies strongly suggest that INK-128 might be investigated for colorectal cancer treatment in clinical trials. PMID:25692620

  4. The preclinical evaluation of the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor INK-128 as a potential anti-colorectal cancer agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Cui, Jian-Feng; Chen, Min-Bin; Liu, Chao-Ying; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Qian-De; Zou, Jian; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The colorectal cancer is the leading contributor of cancer-related mortality. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in 2 complexes (mTORC1/2), is frequently dysregulated and constitutively activated in colorectal cancers. It represents an important drug target. Here we found that INK-128, the novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of mTOR, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in colorectal cancer cells (both primary and transformed cells). The immunoprecipitation results showed that the assembly of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-Sin1 association) was also disrupted by INK-128. INK-128 inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and survival, and induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic cancer cell death. Further, INK-128 showed no effect on Erk/MAPK activation, while MEK/Erk inhibition by MEK-162 enhanced INK-128-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Meanwhile, INK-128 downregulated Fascin1 (FSCN1)/E-Cadherin expressions and inhibited HT-29 cell in vitro migration. In vivo, daily INK-128 oral administration inhibited HT-29 xenograft growth in mice, which was further enhanced by MEK-162 administration. Finally, we found that INK-128 sensitized 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-mediated anti-HT-29 activity in vivo and in vitro. Thus, our preclinical studies strongly suggest that INK-128 might be investigated for colorectal cancer treatment in clinical trials.

  5. Study on image feature extraction and classification for human colorectal cancer using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Shan-Yi; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Mo; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Most of the colorectal cancer has grown from the adenomatous polyp. Adenomatous lesions have a well-documented relationship to colorectal cancer in previous studies. Thus, to detect the morphological changes between polyp and tumor can allow early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and simultaneous removal of lesions. OCT (Optical coherence tomography) has been several advantages including high resolution and non-invasive cross-sectional image in vivo. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the B-scan OCT image features and histology of malignant human colorectal tissues, also en-face OCT image and the endoscopic image pattern. The in-vitro experiments were performed by a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system; the swept source has a center wavelength at 1310 nm and 160nm in wavelength scanning range which produced 6 um axial resolution. In the study, the en-face images were reconstructed by integrating the axial values in 3D OCT images. The reconstructed en-face images show the same roundish or gyrus-like pattern with endoscopy images. The pattern of en-face images relate to the stages of colon cancer. Endoscopic OCT technique would provide three-dimensional imaging and rapidly reconstruct en-face images which can increase the speed of colon cancer diagnosis. Our results indicate a great potential for early detection of colorectal adenomas by using the OCT imaging.

  6. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species.

  7. In vitro cytotoxic effects of modified zinc oxide quantum dots on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7), colon cancer cell lines (HT29) and various fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhroueian, Zahra; Dehshiri, Alireza Mozafari; Katouzian, Fatemeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Pegah

    2014-07-01

    An important ideal objective of this study was to perform surface functionalization of fine (1-3 nm) ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) in order to inhibit decomposition and agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous media. Polymers, oily herbal fatty acids, PEG (polyethylene glycol), and organosilanes are the main reagents used in these reactions, because they are completely soluble in water, and can be used as biological probes in nanomedicine. Vegetable fatty acid-capped ZnO (QD NPs) was fabricated by dissolving at a suitable pH after sol-gel method in the presence of nonionic surfactants as efficient templates with a particular HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) value (9.7 and 8.2). In the present research, we focused on the cellular toxicity of fine zinc oxide QD NPs containing particular blue fluorescence for targeted delivery of MCF7 and HT29 cancer cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 10.66 and 5.75 µg/ml for MCF7 and HT29, respectively. These findings showed that ZnO QDs have low toxicity in normal cells (MDBK) and can display potential application in cancer chemotherapy in the near future. These properties could result in the generation of a promising candidate in the field of nanobiomedicine. The robust-engineered ZnO QD NPs showed their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and also different fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, compared with the standard antibiotic agents like Gentamicin and Clotrimazol.

  8. The pro-apoptotic and anti-invasive effects of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy are enhanced by hyperforin or aristoforin in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Šemeláková, Martina; Mikeš, Jaromír; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Fedoročko, Peter

    2012-12-05

    Photodynamic therapy is a rapidly-developing anti-cancer approach for the treatment of various types of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases. In this study, hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (HY-PDT) in sub-optimal dose was combined with hyperforin (HP) or its stable derivative aristoforin (AR) in an effort to improve efficacy on the cellular level. The logic of this combination is based on the fact that both bioactive compounds naturally occur in plants of Hypericum sp. At relatively low concentrations up to 5 μM, hyperforin and aristoforin were able to stimulate onset of apoptosis in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to HY-PDT, inhibit cell cycle progression, suppress expression of matrixmetalloproteinases-2/-9 together with cell adhesivity, thereby affecting the clonogenic potential of the cells. As the action of aristoforin was more pronounced, in line with our assumption, these changes were also linked in this case with hypericin accumulation and increased ROS generation leading to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in a significant portion of the cells, as well as activation of caspase-3. Comparison of HT-29 cells to another colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line HCT-116 demonstrated significant differences in sensitivity of different cell lines to PDT, however, accumulated effect of HY-PDT with HP/AR proved similar in both tested cell lines. The presented data may help to elucidate the mechanisms of action for different bioactive constituents of St. John's wort, which are increasingly recognized as being able to regulate a variety of pathobiological processes, thus possessing potential therapeutic properties.

  9. Chitosan nanoparticles for lipophilic anticancer drug delivery: Development, characterization and in vitro studies on HT29 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Belluti, Federica; Provenzano, Simona; Verardi, Laura; Bigucci, Federica; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Calonghi, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop chitosan-based nanoparticles that could encapsulate lipophilic molecules and deliver them to cancer cells. Nanoparticles were prepared with different molar ratios of chitosan, hyaluronic acid and sulphobutyl-ether-β-cyclodextrin and with or without curcumin. The nanosystems were characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency and stability in different media. Intestinal epithelial and colorectal cancer cells were treated with unloaded nanoparticles in order to study their effect on cellular membrane organization and ROS production. Finally, in vitro assays on both cellular lines were performed in order to evaluate the ability of nanoparticles to promote curcumin internalization and to study their effect on cell proliferation and cell cycle. Results show that nanoparticles were positively charged and their size increased with the increasing amounts of the anionic excipient. Nanoparticles showed good encapsulation efficiency and stability in water. Unloaded nanoparticles led to a change in lipid organization in the cellular membrane of both cell lines, without inducing ROS generation. Confocal microscopy, cell proliferation and cell cycle studies allowed the selection of the best formulation to limit curcumin cytotoxicity in normal intestinal epithelial cells and to reduce cancer cell proliferation. The latter was the result of the increase of expression for genes involved in apoptosis.

  10. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota. PMID:26916597

  11. Pre-clinical evaluation of a novel CEA-targeting near-infrared fluorescent tracer delineating colorectal and pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Martin C.; Tolner, Berend; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Boogerd, Leonora S.F.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M; Bhavsar, Guarav; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Chester, Kerry A.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Surgery is the cornerstone of oncologic therapy with curative intent. However, identification of tumor cells in the resection margins is difficult, resulting in non-radical resections, increased cancer recurrence and subsequent decreased patient survival. Novel imaging techniques that aid in demarcating tumor margins during surgery are needed. Overexpression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is found in the majority of gastro-intestinal carcinomas, including colorectal and pancreas. We developed ssSM3E/800CW, a novel CEA-targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracer, based on a disulphide stabilized single-chain antibody fragment (ssScFv), to visualize colorectal and pancreatic tumors in a clinically translatable setting. The applicability of the tracer was tested for cell and tissue binding characteristics and dosing using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, cell-based plate assays and orthotopic colorectal (HT-29, well differentiated) and pancreatic (BXPC-3, poorly differentiated) xenogeneic human-mouse models. NIRF signals were visualized using the clinically compatible FLARE™ imaging system. Calculated clinically relevant doses of ssSM3E/800CW selectively accumulated in colorectal and pancreatic tumors/cells, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.1±0.6 at 72 h post-injection, which proved suitable for intra-operative detection and delineation of tumor boarders and small (residual) tumor-nodules in mice, between 8 h and 96 h post-injection. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging and pathologic examination confirmed tumor-specificity and the distribution of the tracer. Our results indicate that ssSM3E/800CW shows promise as a diagnostic tool to recognize colorectal and pancreatic cancers for fluorescent-guided surgery applications. If successful translated clinically, this tracer could help improve the completeness of surgery and thus survival. PMID:25895046

  12. Quantitative analysis of lymphangiogenic markers in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parr, C; Jiang, W G

    2003-08-01

    Lymphatic spread of colorectal cancer cells to regional lymph nodes is one of the early events in metastatic cancer, and is often associated with distant metastatic spread and a poor prognosis. This study examined lymphangiogenic factors, and in particular a panel of newly discovered lymphangiogenic markers, in colorectal cancer tissues from a cohort of patients. Paired samples (background normal mucosa and cancer) of colon tissue were obtained from patients with colorectal cancer. The expression and levels of the VEGF-C and VEGF-D cytokines, the VEGF receptors VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, and newly described lymphatic endothelial markers, LYVE-1, Prox-1, podoplanin and 5'-nucleotidase were assessed. RNA was extracted from the frozen colon tissues. The level of expression for each factor/marker was determined using RT-PCR and quantified using a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) technique, with respective cloned cDNA plasmids as internal standards. VEGF-D was expressed to a significantly higher degree in the colon tumour tissues. There was no significant difference between the expression levels for both VEGF-C and its receptor, VEGFR-2, in background and cancer tissues. However, levels of the VEGFR-3 receptor were found to be significantly higher in colon cancer than the normal background tissues. LYVE-1 levels were below detection in most cases. There was a significant increase in the degree of Prox-1 and 5'-nucleotidase expression in colon cancer tissue. Podoplanin expression was also increased in the cancer samples. These markers indicate an increase in lymphangiogenesis in colon cancer, and may therefore have prognostic value for colon cancer patients.

  13. Sphingosine kinase 1 is upregulated with lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shida, Dai; Inoue, Satoru; Yoshida, Yuki; Kodaka, Atsushi; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Tsuiji, Makoto

    2016-02-28

    To examine the expression of SphK1, an oncogenic kinase that produces sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and its correlation with the expression of LPAR2, a major lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor overexpressed in various cancers, in human colorectal cancer. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA expression of SphK1, LPAR2, and the three major S1P receptors in 27 colorectal cancer samples and corresponding normal tissue samples. We also examined the correlation between the expression of SphK1 and LPAR2. Colorectal cancer tissue in 22 of 27 patients had higher levels of SphK1 mRNA than in normal tissue. In two-thirds of the samples, SphK1 mRNA expression was more than two-fold higher than in normal tissue. Consistent with previous reports, LPAR2 mRNA expression in 20 of 27 colorectal cancer tissue samples was higher compared to normal tissue samples. Expression profiles of all three major S1P receptors, S1PR1, S1PR2, and S1PR3, varied without any trend, with no significant difference in expression between cancer and normal tissues. A highly significant positive correlation was found between SphK1 and LPAR2 expression [Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) = 0.784 and P < 0.01]. The mRNA levels of SphK1 and LPAR2 did not correlate with TNM stage. Our findings suggest that S1P and LPA may play important roles in the development of colorectal cancer via the upregulation of SphK1 and LPAR2, both of which could serve as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  14. 3-D visualization and quantitation of microvessels in transparent human colorectal carcinoma [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-An; Pan, Shien-Tung; Hou, Yung-Chi; Shen, Ming-Yin; Peng, Shih-Jung; Tang, Shiue-Cheng; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic analysis of tumor vasculature plays an important role in understanding the progression and malignancy of colorectal carcinoma. However, due to the geometry of blood vessels and their connections, standard microtome-based histology is limited in providing the spatial information of the vascular network with a 3-dimensional (3-D) continuum. To facilitate 3-D tissue analysis, we prepared transparent human colorectal biopsies by optical clearing for in-depth confocal microscopy with CD34 immunohistochemistry. Full-depth colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal carcinoma. Specimens were prepared away from (control) and at the tumor site. Taking advantage of the transparent specimens, we acquired anatomic information up to 200 μm in depth for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the vasculature. Examples are given to illustrate: (1) the association between the tumor microstructure and vasculature in space, including the perivascular cuffs of tumor outgrowth, and (2) the difference between the 2-D and 3-D quantitation of microvessels. We also demonstrate that the optically cleared mucosa can be retrieved after 3-D microscopy to perform the standard microtome-based histology (H&E staining and immunohistochemistry) for systematic integration of the two tissue imaging methods. Overall, we established a new tumor histological approach to integrate 3-D imaging, illustration, and quantitation of human colonic microvessels in normal and cancerous specimens. This approach has significant promise to work with the standard histology to better characterize the tumor microenvironment in colorectal carcinoma.

  15. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and Smac/DIABLO release are not sufficient to account for induction of apoptosis by sulindac sulfide in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Daouphars, Mikael; Koufany, Meriem; Benani, Alexandre; Marchal, Sophie; Merlin, Jean-Louis; Netter, Patrick; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have shown chemopreventive properties in colorectal cancer, involving both cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Apart from their selectivity for COX isoenzymes, NSAIDs differ in their acidic character which supports ability to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. To assess the possible contribution of uncoupling to their antineoplastic properties, we compared the effect of sulindac sulfide (SS), an acidic NSAID and NS-398, a non-acidic tricyclic, on mitochondrial function and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29, Caco-2, HCT15 and HCT116). Although cell lines displayed a different COX status, SS and NS-398 caused growth arrest in a dose-related manner. High dose (10(-4)M) of SS but not of NS-398, increased the percentage of subG1 cell population while reducing mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim). Cyclosporin A (CsA, 1 microM) prevented collapse of DeltaPsim induced by 10(-4)M SS but not by 7.5 microM FCCP used as a protonophoric control. SS and FCCP increased the cytosolic release of Smac/DIABLO which was differently affected by CsA pretreatment depending on the uncoupler. Finally, 7.5 microM FCCP failed to induce apoptosis whereas CsA prevented apoptosis induced by SS from 16% in HCT15 to 41% in HCT116. The present study shows that despite the ability of sulindac sulfide to behave as a protonophoric uncoupler, CsA-sensitive opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore contributes little to its pro-apoptotic effect in colorectal cancer cells.

  16. The fermented non-digestible fraction of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) triggers cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-González, R G; Ramos-Gómez, M; Oomah, B D; Wiersma, P; Campos-Vega, R; Loarca-Piña, G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with colorectal cancer (CRC) ranking as the third contributing to overall cancer mortality. Non-digestible compounds such as dietary fiber have been inversely associated with CRC in epidemiological in vivo and in vitro studies. In order to investigate the effect of fermentation products from a whole non-digestible fraction of common bean versus the short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) on colon cancer cells, we evaluated the human gut microbiota fermented non-digestible fraction (hgm-FNDF) of cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 and a synthetic mixture SCFAs, mimicking their concentration in the lethal concentration 50 (SCFA-LC50) of FNDF (hgm-FNDF-LC50), on the molecular changes in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Total mRNA from hgm-FNDF-LC50 and SCFA-LC50 treated HT-29 cells were used to perform qPCR arrays to determine the effect of the treatments on the transcriptional expression of 84 genes related to the p53-pathway. This study showed that both treatments inhibited cell proliferation in accordance with modulating RB1, CDC2, CDC25A, NFKB and E2F genes. Furthermore, we found an association between the induction of apoptosis and the modulation of APAF1, BID, CASP9, FASLG, TNFR10B and BCL2A genes. The results suggest a mechanism of action by which the fermentation of non-digestible compounds of common bean exert a beneficial effect better than the SCFA mixture by modulating the expression of antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic genes in HT-29 cells to a greater extent, supporting previous results on cell behavior, probably due to the participation of other compounds, such as phenolic fatty acids derivatives and biopetides.

  17. Expression of set is downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WEN, XIAOXIA; CHEN, YAO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism through which rapamycin treatment affects the expression of the set gene in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of rapamycin treatment on set expression was evaluated by assessing the mRNA and protein expression of set in the SW480 and LoVo human colon carcinoma cell lines following treatment with rapamycin by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of set were significantly decreased subsequent to rapamycin treatment in the two cell lines, indicating that set expression may be downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Our findings suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway may play a role in tumorigenesis through the regulation of the set gene. PMID:24649018

  18. Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castellarin, Mauro; Warren, René L; Freeman, J Douglas; Dreolini, Lisa; Krzywinski, Martin; Strauss, Jaclyn; Barnes, Rebecca; Watson, Peter; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Moore, Richard A; Holt, Robert A

    2012-02-01

    An estimated 15% or more of the cancer burden worldwide is attributable to known infectious agents. We screened colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue specimens using RNA-seq followed by host sequence subtraction and found marked over-representation of Fusobacterium nucleatum sequences in tumors relative to control specimens. F. nucleatum is an invasive anaerobe that has been linked previously to periodontitis and appendicitis, but not to cancer. Fusobacteria are rare constituents of the fecal microbiota, but have been cultured previously from biopsies of inflamed gut mucosa. We obtained a Fusobacterium isolate from a frozen tumor specimen; this showed highest sequence similarity to a known gut mucosa isolate and was confirmed to be invasive. We verified overabundance of Fusobacterium sequences in tumor versus matched normal control tissue by quantitative PCR analysis from a total of 99 subjects (p = 2.5 × 10(-6)), and we observed a positive association with lymph node metastasis.

  19. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Schoen, Robert E.; Whelan, Richard L.; Steele, Robert J.; Scholefield, John; Dilnot, Elizabeth M.; Shantha Kumara, H. M. C.; Robertson, John F. R.; Sewell, Herbert F.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls) from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls) and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls) were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19), stage II (n = 40), stage III (n = 34) and stage IV (n = 6) was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively), with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice. PMID:27383396

  20. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Schoen, Robert E; Whelan, Richard L; Steele, Robert J; Scholefield, John; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Robertson, John F R; Sewell, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls) from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls) and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls) were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19), stage II (n = 40), stage III (n = 34) and stage IV (n = 6) was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively), with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice.

  1. The Adhesion of Lactobacillus salivarius REN to a Human Intestinal Epithelial Cell Line Requires S-layer Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Jiang, Lun; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Liang; Hao, Yanling; Guo, Huiyuan; Sang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Ren, Fazheng

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius REN, a novel probiotic isolated from Chinese centenarians, can adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and subsequently colonize the host. We show here that the surface-layer protein choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of L. salivarius REN was involved in adherence to the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. Adhesion of a cbpA deletion mutant was significantly reduced compared with that of wild-type, suggesting that CbpA acts as an adhesin that mediates the interaction between the bacterium and its host. To identify the molecular mechanism of adhesion, we determined the crystal structure of a truncated form of CbpA that is likely involved in binding to its cell-surface receptor. The crystal structure identified CbpA as a peptidase of the M23 family whose members harbor a zinc-dependent catalytic site. Therefore, we propose that CbpA acts as a multifunctional surface protein that cleaves the host extracellular matrix and participates in adherence. Moreover, we identified enolase as the CbpA receptor on the surface of HT-29 cells. The present study reveals a new class of surface-layer proteins as well as the molecular mechanism that may contribute to the ability of L. salivarius REN to colonize the human gut. PMID:28281568

  2. Morphological and quantitative analysis of BCL6 expression in human colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sena, Paola; Mariani, Francesco; Benincasa, Marta; De Leon, Maurizio Ponz; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Mancini, Stefano; Cavani, Francesco; Smargiassi, Alberto; Palumbo, Carla; Roncucci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether BCL6 is expressed during malignant transformation of the large bowel and to assess whether, and to what extent, immunoreactivity is related to the different stages of neoplastic progression. Samples of normal colorectal mucosa (n=22), microadenomas (n=22) and colorectal cancer (n=22), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence coupled with confocal microscopy and western blotting. Our results clearly outlined the marked increase occurring in both intensity and density of BCL6 protein expression in the normal mucosa-microadenoma-carcinoma sequence. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses showed that BCL6 is expressed at low levels in normal mucosa and increases in microadenoma and in cancer with statistical significance. These results were confirmed by western blotting data. The increasing expression of BCL6 in human colorectal cancer development suggests the involvement of BCL6 in tumor progression, from the earliest stages of carcinogenesis with significant increase in cancer. The enhanced understanding of the biological role of BCL6, previously shown to exert a key role in lymphomagenesis, may lead to a re-evaluation of this protein and may highlight the importance of performing further studies in order to identify novel therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer.

  3. Novel mouse model recapitulates genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Nicole E; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Buishand, Floryne O; Hue, Yue; Ried, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Human colorectal carcinomas are defined by a nonrandom distribution of genomic imbalances that are characteristic for this disease. Often, these imbalances affect entire chromosomes. Understanding the role of these aneuploidies for carcinogenesis is of utmost importance. Currently, established transgenic mice do not recapitulate the pathognonomic genome aberration profile of human colorectal carcinomas. We have developed a novel model based on the spontaneous transformation of murine colon epithelial cells. During this process, cells progress through stages of pre-immortalization, immortalization and, finally, transformation, and result in tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. We analyzed our model for genome and transcriptome alterations using ArrayCGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and array based gene expression profiling. ArrayCGH revealed a recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances. These results were confirmed by SKY. Comparing these imbalances with orthologous maps of human chromosomes revealed a remarkable overlap. We observed focal deletions of the tumor suppressor genes Trp53 and Cdkn2a/p16. High-level focal genomic amplification included the locus harboring the oncogene Mdm2, which was confirmed by FISH in the form of double minute chromosomes. Array-based global gene expression revealed distinct differences between the sequential steps of spontaneous transformation. Gene expression changes showed significant similarities with human colorectal carcinomas. Pathways most prominently affected included genes involved in chromosomal instability and in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our novel mouse model therefore recapitulates the most prominent genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal cancer, and might serve as a valuable tool for understanding the dynamic process of tumorigenesis, and for preclinical drug testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Differential expression of epidermal growth factor-related proteins in human colorectal tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Ciardiello, F; Kim, N; Saeki, T; Dono, R; Persico, M G; Plowman, G D; Garrigues, J; Radke, S; Todaro, G J; Salomon, D S

    1991-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) and cripto are proteins that are structurally related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). AR is also functionally related to this family of growth regulatory molecules and is able to bind and activate the 170-kDa EGF receptor (EGFR). Human EGFR-3 (HER3)/ERBB3 is a recently identified protein related to the EGFR that is widely expressed in breast carcinomas and is a candidate receptor for EGF-like growth factors. Differential expression of these putative ligands and receptors in transformed cells suggests that they may function in an autocrine manner to regulate tumor cell growth. Specific mRNA transcripts for TGF-alpha [4.8 kilobases (kb)], AR (1.4 kb), cripto (2.2 kb), and HER3 (6.2 kb) were expressed in a majority of human colon cancer cell lines. HER3 mRNA was detected in 55% of primary or metastatic human colorectal carcinomas but in only 22% of normal colon mucosa and 32% of normal liver samples. In contrast, cripto and AR mRNA were expressed in 60-70% of primary or metastatic human colorectal cancers but in only 2-7% of normal human colonic mucosa. Immunostaining also detected AR protein in primary and metastatic colorectal tumors but not in normal colon or uninvolved liver. These findings suggest that cripto and AR may be useful markers to discriminate between normal and malignant colonic epithelium and may provide a selective growth advantage for colorectal carcinomas. Images PMID:1715580

  5. Genotoxicity of Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT) on Isogenic Human Colorectal Cell Lines: Potential Promoting Effects for Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Graillot, Vanessa; Dormoy, Inge; Dupuy, Jacques; Shay, Jerry W.; Huc, Laurence; Mirey, Gladys; Vignard, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the human microbiota influences tumorigenesis, notably in colorectal cancer (CRC). Pathogenic Escherichia coli possesses a variety of virulent factors, among them the Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT). CDT displays dual DNase and phosphatase activities and induces DNA double strand breaks, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a broad range of mammalian cells. As CDT could promote malignant transformation, we investigated the cellular outcomes induced by acute and chronic exposures to E. coli CDT in normal human colon epithelial cells (HCECs). Moreover, we conducted a comparative study between isogenic derivatives cell lines of the normal HCECs in order to mimic the mutation of three major genes found in CRC genetic models: APC, KRAS, and TP53. Our results demonstrate that APC and p53 deficient cells showed impaired DNA damage response after CDT exposure, whereas HCECs expressing oncogenic KRASV12 were more resistant to CDT. Compared to normal HCECs, the precancerous derivatives exhibit hallmarks of malignant transformation after a chronic exposure to CDT. HCECs defective in APC and p53 showed enhanced anchorage independent growth and genetic instability, assessed by the micronucleus formation assay. In contrast, the ability to grow independently of anchorage was not impacted by CDT chronic exposure in KRASV12 HCECs, but micronucleus formation is dramatically increased. Thus, CDT does not initiate CRC by itself, but may have promoting effects in premalignant HCECs, involving different mechanisms in function of the genetic alterations associated to CRC. PMID:27047802

  6. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H. J.; Huang, R. F.; Kao, T. H.; Inbaraj, B. S.; Chen, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g-1), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g-1), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g-1), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g-1), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of CapryolTM 90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoemulsion, carotenoid extract and carotenoid nanoemulsion by differential scanning calorimetry curves and Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed a good dispersion of zeaxanthin-dominated carotenoid extract with no significant chemical change after incorporation into nanoemulsion. The in vitro release kinetic study showed a higher release profile at pH 5.2 than at physiological pH 7.4, suggesting a rapid release of carotenoids in the acidic environment (pH 4.5-6.5) characteristic of tumors. Both the carotenoid nanoemulsion and the extract were effective at inhibiting growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.5 and 4.9 μg ml-1, respectively. Also, both treatments could up-regulate p53 and p21 expression and down-regulate CDK2, CDK1, cyclin A and cyclin B expression and arrest the cell cycle at G2/M. The

  7. Preparation of carotenoid extracts and nanoemulsions from Lycium barbarum L. and their effects on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H J; Huang, R F; Kao, T H; Inbaraj, B S; Chen, B H

    2017-03-07

    Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v). Nine carotenoids, including neoxanthin (4.47 μg g(-1)), all-trans-zeaxanthin and its cis-isomers (1666.3 μg g(-1)), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (51.69 μg g(-1)), all-trans-β-carotene and its cis-isomers (20.11 μg g(-1)), were separated within 45 min and quantified using a YMC C30 column and a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water (9:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (B). A highly stable carotenoid nanoemulsion composed of Capryol(TM) 90, Transcutol(®)HP, Tween 80 and deionized water was prepared with a mean particle size of 15.1 nm. Characterization of zeaxanthin standard, blank nanoem