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Sample records for ht-29 human colorectal

  1. Rosiglitazone enhances the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shu-Jun; Hsaio, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Ho-Hsing; Su, Yu-Han; Shih, Wen-Ling; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Chuah, Jennifer Qiu-Yu

    2010-04-09

    Combined-modality treatment has improved the outcome in cases of various solid tumors, and radiosensitizers are used to enhance the radiotherapeutic efficiency. Rosiglitazone, a synthetic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors {gamma} used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been shown to reduce tumor growth and metastasis in human cancer cells, and may have the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy for human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of p53-wild type HCT116 cells but not p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Interestingly, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiosensitivity in p53-mutant HT-29 cells but not HCT116 cells, and prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and enhanced radiation-induced cell growth inhibition in HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with rosiglitazone also suppressed radiation-induced H2AX phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and AKT activation for cell survival; on the contrary, rosiglitazone pretreatment enhanced radiation-induced caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells. In addition, pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk, attenuated the levels of caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in radiation-exposed cancer cells in combination with rosiglitazone pretreatment. Our results provide proof for the first time that rosiglitazone suppresses radiation-induced survival signals and DNA damage response, and enhances the radiation-induced apoptosis signaling cascade. These findings can assist in the development of rosiglitazone as a novel radiosensitizer.

  2. Dehydroglyasperin D Inhibits the Proliferation of HT-29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Direct Interaction With Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Jeong, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite recent advances in therapy, colorectal cancer still has a grim prognosis. Although licorice has been used in East Asian traditional medicine, the molecular properties of its constituents including dehydroglyasperin D (DHGA-D) remain unknown. We sought to evaluate the inhibitory effect of DHGA-D on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and identify the primary signaling molecule targeted by DHGA-D. Methods: We evaluated anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The target protein of DHGA-D was identified by Western blot analysis with a specific antibody, and direct interaction between DHGA-D and the target protein was confirmed by kinase and pull-down assays. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and further Western blot analysis was performed to identify the signaling pathway involved. Results: DHGA-D significantly suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent HT-29 colorectal cancer cell proliferation. DHGA-D directly suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and subsequent Akt phosphorylation and bound to the p110 subunit of PI3K. DHGA-D also significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest, together with the suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and retinoblastoma phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression. Conclusions: DHGA-D has potent anticancer activity and targets PI3K in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to detail the molecular basis of DHGA-D in suppressing colorectal cancer cell growth. PMID:27051646

  3. Modified bacterial cellulose scaffolds for localized doxorubicin release in human colorectal HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Cacicedo, Maximiliano L; León, Ignacio E; Gonzalez, Jimena S; Porto, Luismar M; Alvarez, Vera A; Castro, Guillermo R

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) films modified by the in situ method with the addition of alginate (Alg) during the microbial cultivation of Gluconacetobacter hansenii under static conditions increased the loading of doxorubicin by at least three times. Biophysical analysis of BC-Alg films by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and FTIR showed a highly homogeneous interpenetrated network scaffold without changes in the BC crystalline structure but with an increased amorphous phase. The main molecular interactions determined by FTIR between both biopolymers clearly suggest high compatibility. These results indicate that alginate plays a key role in the biophysical properties of the hybrid BC matrix. BC-Alg scaffold analysis by nitrogen adsorption isotherms revealed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method an increase in surface area of about 84% and in pore volume of more than 200%. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model also showed an increase of about 25% in the pore size compared to the BC film. Loading BC-Alg scaffolds with different amounts of doxorubicin decreased the cell viability of HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line compared to the free Dox from around 95-53% after 24h and from 63% to 37% after 48 h. Dox kinetic release from the BC-Alg nanocomposite displayed hyperbolic curves related to the different amounts of drug payload and was stable for at least 14 days. The results of the BC-Alg nanocomposites show a promissory potential for anticancer therapies of solid tumors. PMID:26784658

  4. Modified bacterial cellulose scaffolds for localized doxorubicin release in human colorectal HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Cacicedo, Maximiliano L; León, Ignacio E; Gonzalez, Jimena S; Porto, Luismar M; Alvarez, Vera A; Castro, Guillermo R

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) films modified by the in situ method with the addition of alginate (Alg) during the microbial cultivation of Gluconacetobacter hansenii under static conditions increased the loading of doxorubicin by at least three times. Biophysical analysis of BC-Alg films by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and FTIR showed a highly homogeneous interpenetrated network scaffold without changes in the BC crystalline structure but with an increased amorphous phase. The main molecular interactions determined by FTIR between both biopolymers clearly suggest high compatibility. These results indicate that alginate plays a key role in the biophysical properties of the hybrid BC matrix. BC-Alg scaffold analysis by nitrogen adsorption isotherms revealed by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method an increase in surface area of about 84% and in pore volume of more than 200%. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model also showed an increase of about 25% in the pore size compared to the BC film. Loading BC-Alg scaffolds with different amounts of doxorubicin decreased the cell viability of HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line compared to the free Dox from around 95-53% after 24h and from 63% to 37% after 48 h. Dox kinetic release from the BC-Alg nanocomposite displayed hyperbolic curves related to the different amounts of drug payload and was stable for at least 14 days. The results of the BC-Alg nanocomposites show a promissory potential for anticancer therapies of solid tumors.

  5. Inhibitory effects of tetrandrine on epidermal growth factor-induced invasion and migration in HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine has been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation and to inhibit metastatic effects in multiple cancer models in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of tetrandrine on the underlying mechanism of HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was focused on tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells following epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment, and Transwell, gelatin zymography, gene expression and immunoblotting assays were performed to investigate metastatic effects in vitro. Tetrandrine was observed to dose‑dependently inhibit EGF‑induced HT29 cell invasion and migration, however, no effect on cell viability occurred following exposure to tetradrine between 0.5 and 2 µM. Tetrandrine treatment inhibited the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 in a concentration‑dependent manner. The present study also found a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9 in the tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells. Tetrandrine also suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathway, including phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase and phosphorylated AKT, suppressing the gene expression of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9. Furthermore, tetrandrine triggered mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling through the suppressing the activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase. These data suggested that targeting EGFR signaling and its downstream molecules contributed to the inhibition of EGF‑induced HT29 cell metastasis caused by tetrandrine, eventually leading to a reduction in the mRNA and gelatinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. PMID:26648313

  6. Therapeutic efficacy evaluation of 111in-VNB-liposome on human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan-Chi; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Tseng, Yun-Long; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Chang, Ya-Fang; Lu, Yi-Ching; Ting, Gann; Whang-Peng, Jaqueline; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the liposome encaged with vinorelbine (VNB) and 111In-oxine on human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) using HT-29/ luc mouse xenografts. HT-29 cells stably transfected with plasmid vectors containing luciferase gene ( luc) were transplanted subcutaneously into the male NOD/SCID mice. Biodistribution of the drug was performed when tumor size reached 500-600 mm 3. The uptakes of 111In-VNB-liposome in tumor and normal tissues/organs at various time points postinjection were assayed. Multimodalities, including gamma scintigraphy, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and whole-body autoradiography (WBAR), were applied for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy when tumor size was about 100 mm 3. The tumor/blood ratios of 111In-VNB-liposome were 0.044, 0.058, 2.690, 20.628 and 24.327, respectively, at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h postinjection. Gamma scinitigraphy showed that the tumor/muscle ratios were 2.04, 2.25 and 4.39, respectively, at 0, 5 and 10 mg/kg VNB. BLI showed that significant tumor control was achieved in the group of 10 mg/kg VNB ( 111In-VNB-liposome). WBAR also confirmed this result. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive imaging technique with a luciferase reporter gene and BLI for evaluation of tumor treatment efficacy in vivo. The SCID mice bearing HT-29/ luc xenografts treated with 111In-VNB-liposome were shown with tumor reduction by this technique.

  7. PKM2 Subcellular Localization Is Involved in Oxaliplatin Resistance Acquisition in HT29 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ginés, Alba; Bystrup, Sara; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Guardia, Cristina; Musulén, Eva; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Manzano, José Luis; Layos, Laura; Abad, Albert; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells.

  8. Morusin induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-{kappa}B activity in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.-C.; Won, S.-J.; Chao, C.-L.; Wu, F.-L.; Liu, H.-S.; Ling Pin; Lin, C.-N.; Su, C.-L.

    2008-07-18

    Morusin is a pure compound isolated from root bark of Morusaustralis (Moraceae). In this study, we demonstrated that morusin significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. Apoptosis induced by morusin was characterized by accumulation of cells at the sub-G{sub 1} phase, fragmentation of DNA, and condensation of chromatin. Morusin also inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK-{alpha}, IKK-{beta} and I{kappa}B-{alpha}, increased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and its DNA binding activity. Dephosphorylation of NF-{kappa}B upstream regulators PI3K, Akt and PDK1 was also displayed. In addition, activation of caspase-8, change of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 were observed at the early time point. Downregulation in the expression of Ku70 and XIAP was exhibited afterward. Caspase-8 or wide-ranging caspase inhibitor suppressed morusin-induced apoptosis. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of morusin in HT-29 cells may be via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  9. Human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell: electrochemistry and nicotine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S C B; Santarino, I B; Enache, T A; Nunes, C; Laranjinha, J; Barbosa, R M; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-12-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that colorectal cancer HT-29 cells can secrete epinephrine (adrenaline) in an autocrine manner to auto-stimulate cellular growth by adrenoreceptors activation, and that this secretion is enhanced by nicotine, showing an indirect relation between colorectal cancer and tobacco. The electrochemical behaviour of human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells from a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, the hormone and neurotransmitter epinephrine, and nicotine, were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, using indium tin oxide (ITO), glassy carbon (GC) and screen printed carbon (SPC) electrodes. The oxidation of the HT-29 cells, previously grown onto ITO or SPC surfaces, followed an irreversible oxidation process that involved the formation of a main oxidation product that undergoes irreversible reduction, as in the epinephrine oxidation mechanism. The effect of nicotine stimulation of the HT-29 cells was also investigated. Nicotine, at different concentration levels 1, 2 and 15 mM, was introduced in the culture medium and an increase with incubation time, 0 to 3h and 30 min, of the HT-29 cells oxidation and reduction peaks was observed. The interaction of nicotine with the HT-29 cells stimulated the epinephrine secretion causing an increase in epinephrine release concentration, and enabling the conclusion that epinephrine and nicotine play an important role in the colorectal tumour growth.

  10. Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133+ cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Movahhed, Tahereh Komeili; Barzegar, Elmira; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133+ phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133+ CSCs. Materials and Methods: The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. Results: The CD133+ CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Conclusion: The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells. PMID:26351552

  11. Human SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 Proteins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reduce Proliferation of Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, E N; Shulepko, M A; Bychkov, M L; Shenkarev, Z O; Paramonov, A S; Chugunov, A O; Arseniev, A S; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2014-10-01

    Human secreted Ly-6/uPAR related proteins (SLURP-1 and SLURP-2) are produced by various cells, including the epithelium and immune system. These proteins act as autocrine/paracrine hormones regulating the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and are also involved in the control of inflammation and malignant cell transformation. These effects are assumed to be mediated by the interactions of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 with the α7 and α3β2 subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), respectively. Available knowledge about the molecular mechanism underling the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects is very limited. SLURP-2 remains one of the most poorly studied proteins of the Ly-6/uPAR family. In this study, we designed for the first time a bacterial system for SLURP-2 expression and a protocol for refolding of the protein from cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Milligram quantities of recombinant SLURP-2 and its 13C-15N-labeled analog were obtained. The recombinant protein was characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and a structural model was developed. A comparative study of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 effects on the epithelial cell growth was conducted using human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, which express only α7-nAChRs. A pronounced antiproliferative effect of both proteins was observed. Incubation of cells with 1 μM SLURP-1 and 1 μM SLURP-2 during 48 h led to a reduction in the cell number down to ~ 54 and 63% relative to the control, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy did not reveal either apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An analysis of the dose-response curve revealed the concentration-dependent mode of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 action with EC50 ~ 0.1 and 0.2 nM, respectively. These findings suggest that the α7-nAChR is the main receptor responsible for the antiproliferative effect of SLURP proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:25558396

  12. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis. PMID:27064876

  13. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  14. Autophagy inhibition by chloroquine sensitizes HT-29 colorectal cancer cells to concurrent chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Schonewolf, Caitlin A; Mehta, Monal; Schiff, Devora; Wu, Hao; Haffty, Bruce G; Karantza, Vassiliki; Jabbour, Salma K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) sensitizes rectal tumors to radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiation (chemoRT). METHODS: In vitro, HCT-116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines were treated as following: (1) PBS; (2) CQ; (3) 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); (4) RT; (5) CQ and RT; (6) 5-FU and RT; (7) CQ and 5-FU; and (8) 5-FU and CQ and RT. Each group was then exposed to various doses of radiation (0-8 Gy) depending on the experiment. Cell viability and proliferative capacity were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and clonogenic assays. Clonogenic survival curves were constructed and compared across treatment groups. Autophagy status was determined by assessing the LC3-II to LC3-I ratio on western blot analysis, autophagosome formation on electron microscopy and identification of a perinuclear punctate pattern with GFP-labeled LC3 on fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle arrest and cell death were evaluated by FACS and Annexin V analysis. All experiments were performed in triplicate and statistical analysis was performed by the student’s t test to compare means between treatment groups. RESULTS: RT (2-8 Gy) induced autophagy in HCT-116 and HT-29 CRC cell lines at 4 and 6 h post-radiation, respectively, as measured by increasing LC3-II to LC3-I ratio on western blot. Additionally, electron microscopy demonstrated autophagy induction in HT-29 cells 24 h following irradiation at a dose of 8 Gy. Drug treatment with 5-FU (25 μmol/L) induced autophagy and the combination of 5-FU and RT demonstrated synergism in autophagy induction. CQ (10 μmol/L) alone and in combination with RT effectively inhibited autophagy and sensitized both HCT-116 and HT-29 cells to treatment with radiation (8 Gy; P < 0.001 and 0.00001, respectively). Significant decrease in clonogenic survival was seen only in the HT-29 cell line, when CQ was combined with RT at doses of 2 and 8 Gy (P < 0.5 and

  15. Protective activity of butyrate on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in isolated human colonocytes and HT29 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Rosignoli, P; Fabiani, R; De Bartolomeo, A; Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Pelli, M A; Morozzi, G

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiological studies support the involvement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in colon physiology and the protective role of butyrate on colon carcinogenesis. Among the possible mechanisms by which butyrate may exert its anti-carcinogenicity an antioxidant activity has been recently suggested. We investigated the effects of butyrate and mixtures of SCFA (butyrate, propionate and acetate) on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in isolated human colonocytes and in two human colon tumour cell lines (HT29 and HT29 19A). Human colonocytes were isolated from endoscopically obtained samples and the DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage in normal colonocytes in a dose-dependent manner which was statistically significant at concentrations over 10 microM. At 15 microM H(2)O(2) DNA damage in HT29 and HT29 19A cells was significantly lower than that observed in normal colonocytes (P < 0.01). Pre-incubation of the cells with physiological concentrations of butyrate (6.25 and 12.5 mM) reduced H(2)O(2) (15 microM) induced damage by 33 and 51% in human colonocytes, 45 and 75% in HT29 and 30 and 80% in HT29 19A, respectively. Treatment of cells with a mixture of 25 mM acetate + 10.4 mM propionate + 6.25 mM butyrate did not induce DNA damage, while a mixture of 50 mM acetate + 20.8 mM propionate + 12.5 mM butyrate was weakly genotoxic only towards normal colonocytes. However, both mixtures were able to reduce the H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by about 50% in all cell types. The reported protective effect of butyrate might be important in pathogenetic mechanisms mediated by reactive oxygen species, and aids understanding of the apparent protection toward colorectal cancer exerted by dietary fibres, which enhance the butyrate bioavailability in the colonic mucosa. PMID:11577008

  16. Hemoglobin and hemin induce DNA damage in human colon tumor cells HT29 clone 19A and in primary human colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Klenow, Stefanie; Sauer, Julia; Wegewitz, Uta; Richter, Konrad; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2006-02-22

    Epidemiological findings have indicated that red meat increases the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Aim of this study was to investigate whether hemoglobin, or its prosthetic group heme, in red meat, is a genotoxic risk factor for cancer. Human colon tumor cells (HT29 clone 19A) and primary colonocytes were incubated with hemoglobin/hemin and DNA damage was investigated using the comet assay. Cell number, membrane damage, and metabolic activity were measured as parameters of cytotoxicity in both cell types. Effects on cell growth were determined using HT29 clone 19A cells. HT29 clone 19A cells were also used to explore possible pro-oxidative effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antigenotoxic effects of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additionally we determined in HT29 clone 19A cells intracellular iron levels after incubation with hemoglobin/hemin. We found that hemoglobin increased DNA damage in primary cells (> or =10 microM) and in HT29 clone 19A cells (> or =250 microM). Hemin was genotoxic in both cell types (500-1000 microM) with concomitant cytotoxicity, detected as membrane damage. In both cell types, hemoglobin and hemin (> or =100 microM) impaired metabolic activity. The growth of HT29 clone 19A cells was reduced by 50 microM hemoglobin and 10 microM hemin, indicating cytotoxicity at genotoxic concentrations. Hemoglobin or hemin did not enhance the genotoxic activity of H2O2 in HT29 clone 19A cells. On the contrary, DMSO reduced the genotoxicity of hemoglobin, which indicated that free radicals were scavenged by DMSO. Intracellular iron increased in hemoglobin/hemin treated HT29 clone 19A cells, reflecting a 40-50% iron uptake for each compound. In conclusion, our studies show that hemoglobin is genotoxic in human colon cells, and that this is associated with free radical mechanisms and with cytotoxicity, especially for hemin. Thus, hemoglobin/hemin, whether available from red meat or from bowel bleeding, may pose genotoxic and

  17. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    Highlight: •MiR-21 plays a significant role in 5-FU resistance. •This role might be attributed to targeting of hMSH2 as well as TP and DPD via miR-21 targeted hMSH2. •Indirectly targeted TP and DPD to influence 5-FU chemotherapy sensitivity. -- Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  18. The cytotoxic effect of Bowman-Birk isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, from soybean (Glycine max) on HT29 human colorectal cancer cells is related to their intrinsic ability to inhibit serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Moreno, Francisco Javier; Marín-Manzano, Maria del Carmen; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Domoney, Claire

    2010-03-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from soybean and related proteins are naturally occurring protease inhibitors with potential health-promoting properties within the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we have investigated the effects of soybean BBI proteins on HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, compared with non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. Two major soybean isoinhibitors, IBB1 and IBBD2, showing considerable amino acid sequence divergence within their inhibitory domains, were purified in order to examine their functional properties, including their individual effects on the proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells. IBB1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin whereas IBBD2 inhibited trypsin only. Despite showing significant differences in their enzyme inhibitory properties, the median inhibitory concentration values determined for IBB1 and IBBD2 on HT29 cell growth were not significantly different (39.9+/-2.3 and 48.3+/-3.5 microM, respectively). The cell cycle distribution pattern of HT29 colon cancer cells was affected by BBI treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with cells becoming blocked in the G0-G1 phase. Chemically inactive soybean BBI had a weak but non-significant effect on the proliferation of HT29 cells. The anti-proliferative properties of BBI isoinhibitors from soybean reveal that both trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases involved in carcinogenesis should be considered as potential targets of BBI-like proteins. PMID:19885848

  19. Cytotoxic effects of bromelain in human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines (MKN45, KATO-III, HT29-5F12, and HT29-5M21)

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Ehteda, Anahid; Masoumi Moghaddam, Samar; Akhter, Javed; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David Lawson

    2013-01-01

    Background Bromelain is a pineapple stem extract with a variety of therapeutic benefits arising from interaction with a number of different biological processes. Several preclinical studies and anecdotal clinical observations have reported the anticancer properties of bromelain. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of bromelain in four human cancer cell lines of gastrointestinal origin and the mechanisms involved. Methods The gastric carcinoma cell lines (KATO-III and MKN45) and two chemoresistant subpopulations of the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29-5M21 and HT29-5F12) were treated with a range of concentrations of bromelain, as well as with cisplatin as a positive control. The effect of bromelain on the growth and proliferation of cancer cells was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay after 72 hours of treatment. Expression of apoptosis-associated proteins in MKN45 cells treated with bromelain was analyzed by Western blotting. Results Data from our sulforhodamine B assay showed that bromelain inhibited proliferation of HT29-5F12, HT29-5M21, MKN45, and KATO-III cells, with respective half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 29, 34, 94, and 142 μg/mL. Analyzing the expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins in bromelain-treated MKN45 cells, we observed activation of the caspase system, cleavage of PARP and p53, overexpression of cytochrome C, attenuation of phospho-Akt and Bcl2, and removal of MUC1. Apart from the caspase-dependent apoptosis observed, emergence of cleaved p53 supports a direct, extranuclear apoptotic function of p53. Moreover, interrupted Akt signaling and attenuation of Bcl2 and MUC1 oncoproteins suggest impaired survival of cancer cells. Conclusion Our findings collectively indicate that bromelain exerts cytotoxic effects in a panel of human gastric and colon carcinoma cells. Our study of MKN45 cells implicated different mechanisms in bromelain-induced cell death. While promoting apoptosis

  20. High folic acid increases cell turnover and lowers differentiation and iron content in human HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pellis, Linette; Dommels, Yvonne; Venema, Dini; Polanen, Ab van; Lips, Esther; Baykus, Hakan; Kok, Frans; Kampman, Ellen; Keijer, Jaap

    2008-04-01

    Folate, a water-soluble B vitamin, is a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism and is essential for DNA synthesis, amino acid interconversion, methylation and, consequently, normal cell growth. In animals with existing pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, folic acid supplementation increases the tumour burden. To identify processes that are affected by increased folic acid levels, we compared HT29 human colon cancer cells exposed to a chronic supplemental (100 ng/ml) level of folic acid to cells exposed to a normal (10 ng/ml) level of folic acid, in the presence of vitamin B12 and other micronutrients involved in the folate-methionine cycle. In addition to higher intracellular folate levels, HT29 cells at 100 ng folic acid/ml displayed faster growth and higher metabolic activity. cDNA microarray analysis indicated an effect on cell turnover and Fe metabolism. We fully confirmed these effects at the physiological level. At 100 ng/ml, cell assays showed higher proliferation and apoptosis, while gene expression analysis and a lower E-cadherin protein expression indicated decreased differentiation. These results are in agreement with the promoting effect of folic acid supplementation on established colorectal neoplasms. The lower expression of genes related to Fe metabolism at 100 ng folic acid/ml was confirmed by lower intracellular Fe levels in the cells exposed to folic acid at 100 ng/ml. This suggests an effect of folate on Fe metabolism.

  1. Interleukin-8 production by the human colon epithelial cell line HT-29: modulation by interleukin-13.

    PubMed Central

    Kolios, G.; Robertson, D. A.; Jordan, N. J.; Minty, A.; Caput, D.; Ferrara, P.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have determined which cytokines induce and modulate the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. 2. Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or vehicle added alone or in combination. The production of IL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA expression by Northern blot analysis. 3. The production of IL-8 in unstimulated cells was undetectable by both ELISA and Northern blot analysis. 4. HT-29 cells produced IL-8 following stimulation with IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner, while IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 did not induce IL-8 production by HT-29 cells. 5. IL-13 was found to up-regulate significantly (P < 0.01) the IL-1 alpha but not the TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 generation by HT-29 cells. In contrast, IL-10 had no effect on either IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production. 6. Experiments using cycloheximide demonstrated that this synergistic effect of IL-13 and IL-1 alpha on IL-8 secretion was not through de novo protein synthesis. Using actinomycin-D, we demonstrated that the IL-13 up-regulation was at the level of transcription rather than messenger RNA stability. 7. These findings suggest that colonic epithelial cells have a functional IL-13 receptor, which is coupled to an up-regulation of IL-1 alpha, but not TNF-alpha induced IL-8 generation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8886420

  2. Identification of potential pathways involved in induction of apoptosis by butyrate and 4-benzoylbutyrate in HT29 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kim Y C; Ooi, Cheng Cheng; Lewanowitsch, Tanya; Tan, Sandra; Tan, Hwee Tong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Williams, Desmond B; Lockett, Trevor J; Cosgrove, Leah J; Chung, Maxey C M; Head, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Butyrate and its analogues have long been investigated as potential chemotherapeutic agents. Our previous structure-activity relationship studies of butyrate analogues revealed that 4-benzoylbutyrate had comparable in vitro effects to butyrate when used to treat HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to identify potential mechanisms associated with the antitumorigenic effects of 4-benzoylbutyrate. In this study, butyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-benzoylbutyrate were also investigated for their effects on histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and histone H4 acetylation in HT29 and HCT116 cells. The biological effects of these analogues on HT29 cells were further investigated using quantitative proteomics to determine the proteins potentially involved in their apoptotic and antiproliferative effects. Because 3-hydroxybutyrate had minimal to no effect on apoptosis, proliferation or HDAC activity, this analogue was used to identify differentially expressed proteins that were potentially specific to the apoptotic effects of butyrate and/or 4-benzoylbutyrate. Butyrate treatment inhibited HDAC activity and induced H4 acetylation. 4-Benzoylbutyrate inhibited HDAC activity but failed to enhance H4 acetylation. Proteomic analysis revealed 20 proteins whose levels were similarly altered by both butyrate and 4-benzoylbutyrate. Proteins that showed common patterns of differential regulation in the presence of either butyrate or 4-benzoylbutyrate included c-Myc transcriptional targets, proteins involved in ER homeostasis, signal transduction pathways and cell energy metabolism. Although an additional 23 proteins were altered by 4-benzoylbutyrate uniquely, further work is required to understand the mechanisms involved in its apoptotic effects.

  3. Characterization of galactosyl glycerolipids in the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Påhlsson, P; Spitalnik, S L; Spitalnik, P F; Fantini, J; Rakotonirainy, O; Ghardashkhani, S; Lindberg, J; Konradsson, P; Larson, G

    2001-12-15

    Glycoglycerolipids constitute a family of glycolipids with apparently very restricted expression in human tissues. They have previously been detected only in the testis and the nervous system. In the present study, two glycoglycerolipids were isolated from the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line. The glycoglycerolipids were structurally characterized as a monogalactosylglycerolipid (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acyl-3-O-(beta-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol) and a digalactosylglycerolipid (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acyl-3-O-(beta-galactosyl(1-4)alpha-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol) using NMR and mass spectrometry. This digalactosylglycerolipid has not previously been structurally characterized. When HT29 cells were allowed to differentiate into more enterocyte-like cells by culture in glucose-free medium, expression of both of these glycoglycerolipids was greatly diminished. The presence of glycoglycerolipids in a human colon carcinoma cell line indicates that expression of this family of glycolipids may not be as restricted as previously thought. Instead this class of glycolipids may serve as differentiation antigens in various normal tissues and in tumor development. The Galalpha1-4Gal epitope was previously identified as a receptor for bacterial adhesins and toxins. The finding that this epitope is also linked to a glycerolipid moiety opens up new possible roles for this carbohydrate receptor in intracellular signaling.

  4. Vitamin D analogs combined with 5-fluorouracil in human HT-29 colon cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    MILCZAREK, MAGDALENA; FILIP-PSURSKA, BEATA; ŚWIĘTNICKI, WIESŁAW; KUTNER, ANDRZEJ; WIETRZYK, JOANNA

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effect of two synthetic analogs of vitamin D, namely PRI-2191 [(24R)-1,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3] and PRI-2205 (5,6-trans calcipotriol), in combined human colon HT-29 cancer treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Mice bearing HT-29 tumors transplanted subcutaneously or orthotopically were injected with vitamin D analogs and 5-FU in various schedules. A statistically significant inhibition of subcutaneous or orthotopic tumor growth was observed as a result of combined therapy. In HT-29 tumors and in cells from in vitro culture, we observed increased vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression after treatment with either PRI-2205 or 5-FU alone, or in combination. Moreover, PRI-2205 decreased the percentage of cells from intestinal tumors in G2/M and S stages and increased sub-G1. Increased VDR expression was also observed after combined treatment of mice with 5-FU and PRI-2191. Moreover, our docking studies showed that PRI-2205 has stronger affinity for VDR, DBP and CAR/RXR ligand binding domains than PRI-2191. PRI-2191 analog, used with 5-FU, increased the percentage of subcutaneous tumor cells in G0/G1 and decreased the percentage in G2/M, S and sub-G1 populations as compared to 5-FU alone. In in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of p21 and p-ERK1/2 diminution via use of both analogs as compared to use of 5-FU alone. Simultaneously, PRI-2191 antagonizes some pro-apoptotic activities of 5-FU in vitro. However, in spite of these disadvantageous effects in terms of apoptosis, the therapeutic effect expressed as tumor growth retardation by PRI-2191 is significant. Our results suggest that the mechanism of potentiation of 5-FU antitumor action by both analogs is realized via increased p21 expression and decreased p-ERK1/2 level which may lead to diminution of thymidylate synthase expression. Higher binding affinity for VDR, DBP, but also for CAR\\RXR ligand binding domain of PRI-2205 may, in part, explain its very low

  5. Leptin counteracts sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells via NF-kappaB signaling.

    PubMed

    Rouet-Benzineb, Patricia; Aparicio, Thomas; Guilmeau, Sandra; Pouzet, Cécile; Descatoire, Véronique; Buyse, Marion; Bado, André

    2004-04-16

    This study shows that leptin induced a rapid phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, an enhancement of both NF-kappaB DNA binding and transcriptional activities, and a concentration-dependent increase of HT-29 cell proliferation. These effects are consistent with the presence of leptin receptors on cell membranes. The leptin induction of cell growth was associated with an increase of cell population in S and G2/M phase compared with control cells found in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was enhanced in leptin-treated HT-29 cells and this increase was essentially associated with cell population in G0/G1 phase. On the other hand, we observed that sodium butyrate inhibited cell proliferation by blocking HT-29 cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, at physiological concentration, leptin prevented sodium butyrate-induced morphological nucleus changes, DNA laddering and suppressed butyrate-induced cell cycle arrest. This anti-apoptotic effect of leptin was associated with HT-29 cell proliferation and activation NF-kappaB pathways. However, the phosphorylation of p42/44 MAP kinase in response to leptin was reduced in butyrate-treated cells. These data demonstrated that leptin is a potent mitogenic factor for intestinal epithelial cells through the MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. They also showed, for the first time, that leptin promotes colon cancer HT-29 cell survival upon butyrate challenge by counteracting the apoptotic programs initiated by this short chain fatty acid probably through the NF-kappaB pathways. Although further studies are required to unravel the precise mechanism, these data may have significance in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis diseases.

  6. Human fecal water inhibits COX-2 in colonic HT-29 cells: role of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Pernilla C; Huss, Ulrika; Jenner, Andrew; Halliwell, Barry; Bohlin, Lars; Rafter, Joseph J

    2005-10-01

    The inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a major role in the regulation of inflammation and possibly in the development of colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to screen for COX-2 inhibitors in samples of fecal water (the aqueous phase of feces) and investigate whether phenolic compounds are responsible for any observed effects on COX-2. Volunteers (n = 20) were recruited and asked to supply a 24-h stool sample. Fecal water samples were prepared and analyzed by GC-MS for their content of phenolic compounds. These samples were also evaluated for their effects on COX-2 protein levels (Western blot) and prostaglandin (PG)E2 production in tumor necrosis-alpha-stimulated HT-29 cells and pure enzymatic activity in a COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro assay. The major phenolic compounds identified were phenylpropionic acid, phenylacetic acid, cinnamic acid, and benzoic acid derivatives. Of 13 fecal water samples analyzed, 12 significantly decreased PGE2 production (range 5.4-39.7% inhibition, P-value < 0.05) compared with control cells and 13 of 14 samples analyzed decreased COX-2 protein levels in HT-29 cells (19-63% inhibition). Of the 20 fecal water samples, 2 also weakly inhibited enzymatic activity of purified COX-2 (22-24% inhibition). Three compounds identified in fecal water, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, decreased the protein level at 250 micromol/L (15-62% inhibition). This study shows for the first time that human fecal water contains components that can affect both the COX-2 protein level and enzymatic activity. PMID:16177193

  7. Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Altamimi, M; Abdelhay, O; Rastall, R A

    2016-06-01

    The influence of five oligosaccharides (cellobiose, stachyose, raffinose, lactulose and chito-oligosaccharides) on the adhesion of eight gut bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29148D-5, Clostridium leptum ATCC 29065, Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27766, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 23745, Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393) to mucous secreting and non-mucous secreting HT-29 human epithelial cells, was investigated. In pure culture, the bacteria showed variations in their ability to adhere to epithelial cells. The effect of oligosaccharides diminished adhesion and the presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. However, clostridia displayed almost the same level of adhesion either with or without mucus being present. Bl. coccoides adhesion was decreased by stachyose and cellobiose in non-mucus-secreting cells in pure culture, while in mixed faecal culture cellobiose displayed the highest antiadhesive activity with an overall average of 65% inhibition amongst tested oligomers and lactulose displayed the lowest with an average of 47.4%. Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, lactobacilli and clostridia were inhibited within the following ranges 47-78%, 32-65%, 11.7-58% and 64-85% respectively. This means that clostridia were the most strongly influenced members of the microflora amongst the bacterial groups tested in mixed culture. In conclusion, introducing oligosaccharides which are candidate prebiotics into pure or mixed cultures has affected bacterial adhesion. PMID:27018325

  8. Purine-Metabolizing Ectoenzymes Control IL-8 Production in Human Colon HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kukulski, Filip; Tremblay, Alain; Pelletier, Julie; Rockenbach, Liliana; Sévigny, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays key roles in both chronic inflammatory diseases and tumor modulation. We previously observed that IL-8 secretion and function can be modulated by nucleotide (P2) receptors. Here we investigated whether IL-8 release by intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, a cancer cell line, is modulated by extracellular nucleotide metabolism. We first identified that HT-29 cells regulated adenosine and adenine nucleotide concentration at their surface by the expression of the ectoenzymes NTPDase2, ecto-5′-nucleotidase, and adenylate kinase. The expression of the ectoenzymes was evaluated by RT-PCR, qPCR, and immunoblotting, and their activity was analyzed by RP-HPLC of the products and by detection of Pi produced from the hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and AMP. In response to poly (I:C), with or without ATP and/or ADP, HT-29 cells released IL-8 and this secretion was modulated by the presence of NTPDase2 and adenylate kinase. Taken together, these results demonstrate the presence of 3 ectoenzymes at the surface of HT-29 cells that control nucleotide levels and adenosine production (NTPDase2, ecto-5′-nucleotidase and adenylate kinase) and that P2 receptor-mediated signaling controls IL-8 release in HT-29 cells which is modulated by the presence of NTPDase2 and adenylate kinase. PMID:25242873

  9. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  10. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  11. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer. PMID:27610172

  12. Primula auriculata Extracts Exert Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects against HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Ebrahim, Karim; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Primula auriculata (Tootia) is one of the most important local medicinal plants in Hamedan district, Iran. To investigate cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of crude methanolic extract and different fraction of it, we compared several methods on HT-29 human colon Adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5‑dimethylthiazolyl)2, 5‑diphenyl‑tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and apoptosis induction was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy (acridin orange/ethidium bromide, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, TUNEL assay and Caspase-3 activity assay). Crude methanolic extract (CM) inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions, the dichloromethane fraction (CF) was found to be the most toxic compared to other fractions. With double staining methods, high percentage of 40 µg/mL of (CM) and (CF) treated cells exhibited typical characteristics of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis induction was also revealed by apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA and activation of caspas-3 in treated cells. These findings indicate that crude methanolic extract and dichloromethan fraction of P.auriculata induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in colon cancer cells and could be used as a source for new lead structures in drug design to combat colon cancer.

  13. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Nicke, B; Kaiser, A; Wiedenmann, B; Riecken, E O; Rosewicz, S

    1999-08-11

    Although retinoids have been suggested to inhibit chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoid-mediated growth regulation in colon carcinoma cells are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the biological effects of retinoids on growth in HT29 colon carcinoma cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of HT29 cells resulted in a profound inhibition of anchorage-independent growth without biochemical or morphological evidence for induction of differentiation. Treatment with the selective RARalpha agonist Ro 40-6055 completely mimicked the effects of ATRA on growth and transactivation of a betaRAREx2-luciferase reporter construct, while RARbeta- and gamma-specific analogues were ineffective. Furthermore, ATRA-regulated growth and transactivation could be completely blocked by a RARalpha-selective receptor antagonist. Thus, ATRA potently inhibits anchorage-independent growth in HT29 cells and this effect is mainly if not exclusively mediated by the retinoic acid receptor alpha.

  14. beta-Sitosterol inhibits HT-29 human colon cancer cell growth and alters membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Chen, Y C; Fink, C S; Hennessey, T

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-sitosterol, the main dietary phytosterol on the growth of HT-29 cells, a human colon cancer cell line. In addition, the incorporation of this phytosterol into cellular membranes and how this might influence the lipid composition of the membranes were investigated. Tumor cells were grown in DMEM containing 10% FBS and supplemented with sterols (cholesterol or beta-sitosterol) at final concentrations up to 16 microM. The sterols were supplied to the media in the form of sterol cyclodextrin complexes. The cyclodextrin used was 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The sterol to cyclodextrin molar ratio was maintained at 1:300. The study indicated that 8 and 16 microM beta-sitosterol were effective at cel growth inhibition as compared to cholesterol or to the control (no sterol supplementation). After supplementation with 16 microM beta-sitosterol for 9 days, cell growth was only one-third that of cells supplemented with equimolar concentration of cholesterol. No effect was observed on total membrane phospholipid concentration. At 16 microM beta-sitosterol supplementation, membrane cholesterol was reduced by 26%. Cholesterol supplementation resulted in a significant increase in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio compared to either beta-sitosterol supplemented cells or controls. There was a 50% reduction in membrane sphingomyelin (SM) of cells grown in 16 microM beta-sitosterol. Additional changes were observed in the fatty acid composition of minor phospholipids of beta-sitosterol supplemented cells, such as SM, phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Only in the case of PI, was there an effect of these fatty acid changes on the unsaturation index, beta-sitosterol incorporation resulted in an increase in the U.I. It is possible that the observed growth inhibition by beta-sitosterol may be mediated through the influence of signal transduction pathways that involve membrane phospholipids.

  15. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  16. Fermented wheat aleurone inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Borowicki, Anke; Stein, Katrin; Scharlau, Daniel; Scheu, Kerstin; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Obst, Ursula; Hollmann, Jürgen; Lindhauer, Meinolf; Wachter, Norbert; Glei, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microflora may enhance levels of SCFA, which are potentially chemoprotective against colon cancer. Functional food containing wheat aleurone may prevent cancer by influencing cell cycle and cell death. We investigated effects of fermented wheat aleurone on growth and apoptosis of HT29 cells. Wheat aleurone, flour and bran were digested and fermented in vitro. The resulting fermentation supernatants (fs) were analysed for their major metabolites (SCFA, bile acids and ammonia). HT29 cells were treated for 24-72 h with the fs or synthetic mixtures mimicking the fs in SCFA, butyrate or deoxycholic acid (DCA) contents, and the influence on cell growth was determined. Fs aleurone was used to investigate the modulation of apoptosis and cell cycle. The fermented wheat samples contained two- to threefold higher amounts of SCFA than the faeces control (blank), but reduced levels of bile acids and increased concentrations of ammonia. Fs aleurone and flour equally reduced cell growth of HT29 more effectively than the corresponding blank and the SCFA mixtures. The EC(50) (48 h) ranged from 10 % (flour) to 19 % (blank). Markedly after 48 h, fs aleurone (10 %) significantly induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. In conclusion, fermentation of wheat aleurone results in a reduced level of tumour-promoting DCA, but higher levels of potentially chemopreventive SCFA. Fermented wheat aleurone is able to induce apoptosis and to block cell cycle - two essential markers of secondary chemoprevention.

  17. Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor α (IL10RA)). The present study suggests

  18. Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor α (IL10RA)). The present study suggests

  19. Ethanolic extract from Derris scandens Benth mediates radiosensitzation via two distinct modes of cell death in human colon cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Hematulin, Arunee; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Sagan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing of radioresponsiveness of tumors by using radiosensitizers is a promising approach to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy. Recently, the ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Derris scandens Benth has been identified as a potent radiosensitizer of human colon cancer HT29 cells. However, cell death mechanisms underlying radiosensitization activity of D scandens extract have not been identified. Here, we show that treatment of HT-29 cells with D scandens extract in combination with gamma irradiation synergistically sensitizes HT-29 cells to cell lethality by apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Furthermore, the extract was found to decrease Erk1/2 activation. These findings suggest that D scandens extract mediates radiosensitization via at least two distinct modes of cell death and silences pro-survival signaling in HT-29 cells. PMID:24641423

  20. Characterization of the transport of. cap alpha. -methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, L.; Dantzig, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, /sup 14/C-..cap alpha..-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  1. A New HPLC-MS Method for Measuring Maslinic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in HT29 and HepG2 Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peragón, Juan; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; Muñoz-Espada, Irene; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) and oleanolic acid (OA), the main triterpenic acids present in olive, have important properties for health and disease prevention. MA selectively inhibits cell proliferation of the HT29 human colon-cancer cell line by inducing selective apoptosis. For measuring the MA and OA concentration inside the cell and in the culture medium, a new HPLC-MS procedure has been developed. With this method, a determination of the amount of MA and OA incorporated into HT29 and HepG2 human cancer-cell lines incubated with different concentrations of MA corresponding to 50% growth inhibitory concentration (IC50), IC50/2, IC50/4, and IC50/8 has been made. The results demonstrate that this method is appropriate for determining the MA and OA concentration in different types of cultured cells and reveals the specific dynamics of entry of MA into HT29 and HepG2 cells. PMID:26370984

  2. Anti-proliferative action of silibinin on human colon adenomatous cancer HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Reyhan; Ali, Mohd; Mahmood, Safrunnisa; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-02-01

    Antecedentes: Silibinina un flavonoide a partir de la leche de cardo mariano (Silybum marianum) exhiben una variedad de acciones farmacológicas, incluyendo actividades anti-proliferativos y apoptóticos contra varios tipos de cánceres en animales intactos y líneas celulares de cáncer. En el presente estudio, se estudió el efecto de silibinina en células humanas de cáncer de colon HT-29. Método: Las incubaciones de las células con diferentes concentraciones silibinin (0,783-1.600 ug/ml) para 24, 48 o 72 horas mostró un descenso progresivo de la viabilidad celular. Resultados: La pérdida de la viabilidad celular fue de tiempo de inhibición dependiente y óptima de crecimiento de las células (78%) se observó a las 72 horas. Bajo microscopio invertido, las células muertas fueron vistos como los agregados de células. IC50 (concentración de silibinina matar a las células 50%) los valores fueron 180, 110 y 40 ug/ml a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, respectivamente. Conclusión: Estos resultados volver a hacer cumplir la potenciales contra el cáncer de silibinina, como se informó anteriormente para varias otras líneas celulares de cáncer (Ramasamy y Agarwal (2008), Cancer Letters, 269: 352-62).

  3. Inhibition of enteropathogens adhesion to human enterocyte-like HT-29 cells by a dairy strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Zárate, G; Palacios, J M; Villena, J; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2016-06-01

    Adhesion to the host intestinal mucosa is considered relevant for orally delivered probiotics as it prolongs their persistence in the gut and their health promoting effects. Classical propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest due to their role as dairy starters as well as for their functions as probiotics. Propionibacterium acidipropionici Q4, is a dairy strain isolated from a Swiss-type cheese made in Argentina that displays probiotic potential. In the present work we assessed the ability of this strain to adhere to the human enterocyte-like HT-29 cell line and to counteract the adhesion of two common human enteropathogens, such as Escherichia coli C3 and Salmonella Enteritidis 90/390. The results were compared with those obtained with the well-known probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. P. acidipropionici Q4 showed a high adhesion capacity, even higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG (42.3±4.4% and 36.2±2.3%, respectively), whereas adhesion of enteropathogens was significantly lower (25.2±2.2% for E. coli and 21.0±3.4% for S. Enteritidis). Propionibacteria as well as lactobacilli were able to inhibit by exclusion and competition the adherence of E. coli C3 and S. Enteritidis 90/390 whereas only L. rhamnosus GG displaced S. Enteritidis from HT-29 intestinal cells. Inhibition of pathogens by propionibacteria was not exerted by antimicrobials or coaggregation but was mainly due to exclusion by cell surface components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. The relevance of cell surface proteins (CSP) for preventing pathogens infection was confirmed by their concentration dependent effect observed for both pathogens: 100 µg/ml of CSP inhibited E. coli attachment almost as untreated propionibacteria, whereas it partially inhibited the attachment of S. Enteritidis. Results suggest that P. acidipropionici Q4 could be considered for the development of propionibacteria containing functional foods helpful in counteracting enteropathogen infection.

  4. Inhibition of enteropathogens adhesion to human enterocyte-like HT-29 cells by a dairy strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Zárate, G; Palacios, J M; Villena, J; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2016-06-01

    Adhesion to the host intestinal mucosa is considered relevant for orally delivered probiotics as it prolongs their persistence in the gut and their health promoting effects. Classical propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest due to their role as dairy starters as well as for their functions as probiotics. Propionibacterium acidipropionici Q4, is a dairy strain isolated from a Swiss-type cheese made in Argentina that displays probiotic potential. In the present work we assessed the ability of this strain to adhere to the human enterocyte-like HT-29 cell line and to counteract the adhesion of two common human enteropathogens, such as Escherichia coli C3 and Salmonella Enteritidis 90/390. The results were compared with those obtained with the well-known probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. P. acidipropionici Q4 showed a high adhesion capacity, even higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG (42.3±4.4% and 36.2±2.3%, respectively), whereas adhesion of enteropathogens was significantly lower (25.2±2.2% for E. coli and 21.0±3.4% for S. Enteritidis). Propionibacteria as well as lactobacilli were able to inhibit by exclusion and competition the adherence of E. coli C3 and S. Enteritidis 90/390 whereas only L. rhamnosus GG displaced S. Enteritidis from HT-29 intestinal cells. Inhibition of pathogens by propionibacteria was not exerted by antimicrobials or coaggregation but was mainly due to exclusion by cell surface components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. The relevance of cell surface proteins (CSP) for preventing pathogens infection was confirmed by their concentration dependent effect observed for both pathogens: 100 µg/ml of CSP inhibited E. coli attachment almost as untreated propionibacteria, whereas it partially inhibited the attachment of S. Enteritidis. Results suggest that P. acidipropionici Q4 could be considered for the development of propionibacteria containing functional foods helpful in counteracting enteropathogen infection. PMID

  5. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways

    PubMed Central

    HAN, YONG-SEOK; LEE, JUN HEE; LEE, SANG HUN

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 μg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT-29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a dose-dependent manner (0–200 μg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti-cancer effect on HT-29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells. PMID:25998232

  6. Iron-overload induces oxidative DNA damage in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 clone 19A.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Klinder, Annett; Becker, Thomas W; Hermann, Uta; Voigt, Klaus; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2002-08-26

    Dietary iron may contribute to colon cancer risk via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the study was to determine whether physiological ferric/ferrous iron induces oxidative DNA damage in human colon cells. Therefore, differentiated human colon tumour cells (HT29 clone 19A) were incubated with ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) or with haemoglobin and DNA breaks and oxidised bases were determined by microgelelectrophoresis. The effects of Fe-NTA were measured with additional H(2)O(2) (75microM) and quercetin (25-100microM) treatment. Analytic detection of iron in cell cultures, treated with 250microM Fe-NTA for 15 min to 24h, showed that 48.02+/-5.14 to 68.31+/-2.11% were rapidly absorbed and then detectable in the cellular fraction. Fe-NTA (250-1000microM) induced DNA breaks and oxidised bases, which were enhanced by subsequent H(2)O(2) exposure. Simultaneous incubation of HT29 clone 19A cells with Fe-NTA and H(2)O(2) for 15 min, 37 degrees C did not change the effect of H(2)O(2) alone. The impact of Fe-NTA and H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage is reduced by the antioxidant quercetin (75-67% of H(2)O(2)-control). Haemoglobin was as effective as Fe-NTA in inducing DNA damage. From these results we can conclude that iron is taken up by human colon cells and participates in the induction of oxidative DNA damage. Thus, iron or its capacity to catalyse ROS-formation, is an important colon cancer risk factor. Inhibition of damage by quercetin reflects the potential of antioxidative compounds to influence this risk factor. Quantitative data on the genotoxic impact of ferrous iron (e.g. from red meat) relative to the concentrations of antioxidants (from plant foods) in the gut are now needed to determine the optimal balance of food intake that will reduce exposure to this type of colon cancer risk factor.

  7. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21)

    PubMed Central

    Nollevaux, Géraldine; Devillé, Christelle; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Zorzi, Willy; Deloyer, Patricia; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Peulen, Olivier; Dandrifosse, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium) did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules. PMID:16670004

  8. Aspirin induces cell death and caspase-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, E; Dalmau, M; Barragán, M; Pueyo, G; Bartrons, R; Gil, J

    1999-01-01

    The induction of cell death by aspirin was analysed in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. Aspirin induced two hallmarks of apoptosis: nuclear chromatin condensation and increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. However, aspirin did not induce either oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA, decrease in DNA content or nuclear fragmentation. The effect of aspirin on Annexin V binding was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases in the apoptotic action of aspirin. However, aspirin did not induce proteolysis of PARP, suggesting that aspirin does not increase nuclear caspase 3-like activity in HT-29 cells. This finding may be related with the ‘atypical’ features of aspirin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10496355

  9. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-9-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Sik; Jung, Won-Kyo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Taek Rim; Kim, Hyung Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sanguinarine is an alkaloid obtained from the bloodroot plant Sanguinaria canadensis and has beneficial effects on oxidative stress and inflammatory disorders. Previous reports have demonstrated that sanguinarine also exhibit anticancer properties. In the current study, we investigated the effects of sanguinarine on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. It was observed that sanguinarine treatment induces a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. We also investigated the effects of sanguinarine on the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, and the results revealed that there was an increase in Bax and a decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein levels. Moreover, sanguinarine treatment significantly increases the activation of caspases 3 and 9 that are the key executioners in apoptosis. Our results suggest that sanguinarine induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use in the treatment of human colon cancer.

  10. Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kap-Rang; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Park, Joon-Hong; Chang, Eun-Young; Baek, Eun-Jung; Chang, Jong-Sun; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-05-19

    As part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of Solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. Evaluations were carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomatine, and their common aglycon tomatidine; the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine. All compounds were active in the assay, with the glycoalkaloids being the most active and the hydrolysis products less so. The effectiveness against the liver cells was greater than against the colon cells. Potencies of alpha-tomatine and alpha-chaconine at a concentration of 1 microg/mL against the liver carcinoma cells were higher than those observed with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin. Because alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, and alpha-tomatine also inhibited normal human liver HeLa (Chang) cells, safety considerations should guide the use of these compounds as preventative or therapeutic treatments against carcinomas.

  11. Alkenyl group is responsible for the disruption of microtubule network formation in human colon cancer cell line HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosono, Takashi; Hosono-Fukao, Tomomi; Inada, Kahoru; Tanaka, Rie; Yamada, Haruhisa; Iitsuka, Yuji; Seki, Taiichiro; Hasegawa, Isao; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2008-01-01

    Alk(en)yl trisulfides (R-SSS-R′) are organosulfur compounds produced by crushed garlic and other Allium vegetables. We found that these compounds exhibit potent anticancer effects through the reaction with microtubules, causing cell cycle arrest. Nine alk(en)yl trisulfides including dimethyl trisulfide, diethyl trisulfide, dipropyl trisulfide (DPTS), dibutyl trisulfide, dipentyl trisulfide, diallyl trisulfide (DATS), dibutenyl trisulfide, dipentenyl trisulfide and allyl methyl trisulfide were synthesized and added to cultures of HT-29 human colon cancer cells at a concentration of 10 μM. The trisulfides with alkenyl groups such as DATS, but not those with alkyl groups, induced rapid microtubule disassembly at 30–60 min as well as cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase approximately at 4 h after the treatment. Both DATS-induced microtubule disassembly and the cell cycle arrest were cancelled by the simultaneous treatment of the cancer cells with 2 mM L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Reciprocally, L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (500 μM), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, enhanced the power of DATS in inducing the cell cycle arrest. These results indicate that alk(en)yl trisulfide react with sulfhydryl groups in cysteine residues of cellular proteins such as microtubule proteins. Thus, the present study provides evidence that trisulfides with alkenyl groups have potent anticancer activities, at least in part, directed toward microtubules. These findings suggest that alkenyl trisulfides and their structurally related compounds may provide novel and effective anticancer agents. PMID:18515280

  12. Hyperoside and rutin of Nelumbo nucifera induce mitochondrial apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mechanism in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    GUON, TAE EUN; CHUNG, HA SOOK

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the mechanism of 2 flavonol glycosides, hyperoside and rutin, in the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells through the bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation method. The chemical structure of hyperoside and rutin, isolated from the roots of Nelumbo nucifera, were established using extensive 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and absolute high resolution fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral analytical methods. The treatment of HT-29 colon cancer cells with hyperoside and rutin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The concomitant activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway of hyperoside and rutin occurred via modulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and B-cell lymphoma 2 expression, resulting in the activation of cleaved caspases-3, −8 and −9 and cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The findings of the present study indicate that hyperoside and rutin induce apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, and that this phenomenon is mediated via the death receptor-mediated and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways. These results suggest that hyperoside and rutin may be useful in the development of a colon cancer therapy protocol. PMID:27073499

  13. Effect of sodium-alginate and laminaran on Salmonella Typhimurium infection in human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc cells and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Kosaka, Misa; Hirano, Shino; Kawahara, Miho; Sato, Masahiro; Kaneshima, Tai; Nishizawa, Makoto; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon

    2015-07-10

    Brown algal polysaccharides such as alginate, polymers of uronic acids, and laminaran, beta-1,3 and 1,6-glucan, can be fermented by human intestinal microbiota. To evaluate the effects of these polysaccharides on infections caused by food poisoning pathogens, we investigated the adhesion and invasion of pathogens (Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in human enterocyte-like HT-29-Luc cells and in infections caused in BALB/c mice. Both sodium Na-alginate and laminaran (0.1% each) inhibited the adhesion of the pathogens to HT-29-Luc cells by approximately 70-90%. The invasion of S. Typhimurium was also inhibited by approximately 70 and 80% by Na-alginate and laminaran, respectively. We observed that incubation with Na-alginate for 18 h increased the transepithelial electrical resistance of HT-29-Luc monolayer cells. Four days after inoculation with 7 log CFU/mouse of S. Typhimurium, the faecal pathogen count in mice that were not fed polysaccharides (control mice) was about 6.5 log CFU/g while the count in mice that were fed Na-alginate had decreased to 5.0 log CFU/g. The liver pathogen count, which was 4.1 log CFU/g in the control mice, was also decreased in mice that were fed Na-alginate. In contrast, the mice that were fed laminaran exhibited a more severe infection than that exhibited by control mice.

  14. Carob fibre compounds modulate parameters of cell growth differently in human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells than in LT97 colon adenoma cells.

    PubMed

    Klenow, S; Glei, M; Haber, B; Owen, R; Pool-Zobel, B L

    2008-04-01

    An extract of the Mediterranean carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod (carob fibre extract), products formed after its fermentation by the gut flora and the major phenolic ingredient gallic acid (GA), were comparatively investigated for their influence on survival and growth parameters of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells and adenoma LT97 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was quantified. After 1h 97+/-4 microM or 70+/-15 microM were found in HT29 medium and 6+/-1 microM or 3+/-3 microM in LT97 medium for carob fibre extract or GA, respectively. After 72 h carob fibre extract reduced survival of rapidly proliferating HT29 cells (by 76.4+/-12.9%) whereas metabolic activity and DNA-synthesis were only transiently impaired. Survival of slower growing LT97 cells was less decreased (by 21.5+/-12.9%), but there were marked effects on DNA-synthesis (reduction by 95.6+/-7%, 72 h). GA and fermented carob fibre did not have comparable effects. Thus, carob fibre extract resulted in H2O2 formation, which, however, could not explain impairment of cell growth. The differently modulated growth of human colon cell lines was more related to proliferation rates and impairment of DNA-synthesis than to H2O2 formation.

  15. Daucus carota Pentane-Based Fractions Suppress Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells by Inhibiting the MAPK and PI3K Pathways.

    PubMed

    Shebaby, Wassim N; Bodman-Smith, K B; Mansour, Anthony; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Daher, Costantine F

    2015-07-01

    Daucus carota L. ssp. carota (Apiacea, wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) has been used in folk medicine throughout the world and recently was shown to possess anticancer and antioxidant activities. This study aims to determine the anticancer activity of the pentane fraction (F1) and the 1:1 pentane:diethyl ether fraction (F2) of the Daucus Carota oil extract (DCOE) against human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). Treatment of cells with various concentrations of F1 or F2 fractions produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that both fractions induced sub-G1 phase accumulation and increased apoptotic cell death. Western blot revealed the activation of caspase-3, PARP cleavage, and a considerable increase in Bax and p53 levels, and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either fraction markedly decreased the levels of both phosphorylated Erk and Akt. Furthermore, the combined treatment of F1 or F2 with wortmannin showed no added inhibition of cell survival suggesting an effect of F1 or F2 through the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study proposes that DCOE fractions (F1 and F2) inhibit cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells through the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  16. Lichen secondary metabolites are responsible for induction of apoptosis in HT-29 and A2780 human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bačkorová, M; Jendželovský, R; Kello, M; Bačkor, M; Mikeš, J; Fedoročko, P

    2012-04-01

    Lichens are a known source of approximately 800 unique secondary metabolites, many of which play important ecological roles, including regulating the equilibrium between symbionts. However, only a few of these compounds have been assessed for their effectiveness against various in vitro cancer models. Moreover, the mechanisms of biological activity of lichen secondary metabolites on living cells (including cancer cells) are still almost entirely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of four lichen secondary metabolites (parietin, atranorin, usnic acid and gyrophoric acid) on A2780 and HT-29 cancer cell lines. We found that usnic acid and atranorin were more effective anti-cancer compounds when compared to parietin and gyrophoric acid. Usnic acid and atranorin were capable of inducing a massive loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, along with caspase-3 activation (only in HT-29 cells) and phosphatidylserine externalization in both tested cell lines. Induction of both ROS and especially RNS may be responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds. Based on the detection of protein expression (PARP, p53, Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, Bax, p38, pp38) we found that usnic acid and atranorin are activators of programmed cell death in A2780 and HT-29, probably through the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22285236

  17. Alteration of membrane fatty acid composition and inositol phosphate metabolism in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Fink, C S; Horvath, P J

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of membrane fatty acid (FA) composition on inositol phosphate (InsP) release by a human colon tumor cell line. Cells were supplemented for five days in culture with 0, 10, 30, or 100 microM sodium stearate (18:0), linoleate [18:2(omega-6)], or linolineate [18:3(omega-3)]. These FAs were supplied as a complex with FA-free bovine serum albumin. InsP release was examined in these cells with or without stimulation with deoxycholic acid (DCA) after they were labeled with [3H]myoinositol. FA enrichment was found to influence inositol incorporation into membrane lipids. Although 18:0 had no effect, 18:2(omega-6) decreased the incorporation. On the other hand, 18:3(omega-3) increased the incorporation of inositol compared with the cells supplemented with the other FAs, but they were not different from control. Basal release of total InsP was elevated only with supplementation of 10 and 30 microM 18:3(omega-3). FA supplementation with 18:0 at 30 microM and 18:2 at 30 and 100 microM resulted in downregulation of bsal release of InsP. Enrichment of HT-29 cell membranes with polyunsaturated FAs resulted in a significant increase in stimulated release of InsP, but this was not seen with saturated FA supplementation. At 10 microM supplementation, 18:2 had the greatest effect on stimulated InsP release. This effect of 18:2 disappeared at 30 microM. However, the increase in the stimulated InsP release caused by 18:3 occurred at 10 and 30 microM. DCA-stimulated release of InsP was not downregulated by any FA supplementation. This study showed that enrichment of the membranes with polyunsaturated FAs increases the response of the phosphatidylinositol cycle to DCA stimulation. In addition, enrichment with 18:3(omega-3) increases the basal turnover of InsP. It is concluded that alteration of membrane FAs has a profound effect on the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  18. Antiproliferative activity of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma (Hep3B), colon (HT-29) cancer cells and proteases, tyrosinase, β-lactamase enzyme inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Cömert Önder, Ferah; Ay, Mehmet; Aydoğan Türkoğlu, Sümeyye; Tura Köçkar, Feray; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the antiproliferation of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma carcinoma (Hep3B) and human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell lines along with enzyme inhibitory effects of the crude extracts. Potential cell cytotoxicity of six different H. lupulus extracts were assayed on various cancer cells using MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h intervals. Methanol-1 extract has inhibited the cell proliferation with doses of 0.6-1 mg/mL in a time dependent (48 and 72 hours) manner in Hep3B cells with 70% inhibition, while inhibitory effect was not seen in colon cancer cells. Acetone extract has increased the cell proliferation at low doses of 0.1 mg/mL for 72 h in Hep3B cells and 0.1-0.2 mg/mL for 48 and 72 h in HT29 cells. The inhibitory effects of the extracts were compared by relative maximum activity values (V(max)) using proteases such as α-chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain, tyrosinase and β-lactamase (penicillinase).

  19. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits migration, invasion and angiogenesis of human colon cancer HT-29 cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppresses murine xenograft tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lein, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis inhibitors are beneficial for the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In HT29 cells, DATS inhibited migration and invasion through the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 which was associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -7 and -9 and VEGF. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), DATS inhibited the migration and angiogenesis through FAK, Src and Ras. DATS also inhibited the secretion of VEGF. The capillary-like tube structure formation and migration by HUVEC was inhibited by DATS. The chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay indicated that DATS treatment inhibited ex-vivo angiogenesis. We investigated the anti-tumour effects of DATS against human colon cancer xenografts in BALB/cnu/nu mice and its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo. In this in-vivo study, DATS also inhibited the tumour growth, tumour weight and angiogenesis (decreased the levels of haemoglobin) in HT29 cells. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the inhibition of angiogenesis may be an important mechanism in colon cancer chemotherapy by DATS. PMID:25403643

  20. Reduced tumour growth of the human colonic cancer cell lines COLO-320 and HT-29 in vivo by dietary n-3 lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, M.; Rowley, S.; Kane, N.; Imray, C.; Davies, A.; Jones, C.; Newbold, M.; Keighley, M. R.; Baker, P.; Neoptolemos, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-five nude mice received subcutaneous inoculation with 1 X 10(7) cells of the human colonic cancer cell lines COLO-320 or HT-29. Tumour growth was assessed over 4 weeks in animals given one of three iso-caloric diets; standard diet, high saturated fat (20% coconut) diet and high n-3 fat (20% Maxepa fish oil) diet. The n-3 diet produced significant tumour growth reduction compared to the other diets for COLO-320 at 3 to 4 weeks (P less than 0.05 at least) and similarly for HT-29 at 4 weeks (P less than 0.05). Significant incorporation of n-3 fatty acids occurred in red cell membranes, adipose tissue and both neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions of tumour lipids in animals fed Maxepa (P less than 0.01 at least). This was accompanied by reduction of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in these tissues (P less than 0.01 at least) but was most marked in the metabolically labile phospholipid fraction. There was high mitotic activity in the tumours from all the groups but there was no difference according to diet. PMID:2245166

  1. Alpha-chaconine, a potato glycoalkaloid, induces apoptosis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells through caspase-3 activation and inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2006-06-01

    Although alpha-chaconine, one of the two major potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids, have shown cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells, the exact mechanism of this action of alpha-chaconine is not completely understood. In this study, we found that alpha-chaconine induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by using flow cytometric analysis. We also found that caspase-3 activity and the active form of caspase-3 were increased 12 h after alpha-chaconine treatment. Caspase inhibitors, N-Ac-DEVD-CHO and Z-VAD-fmk, prevented alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis, whereas alpha-chaconine-induced apoptosis was potentiated by PD98059, an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. However, pretreatment of the cells with LY294002 and SB203580, inhibitors of PI3K and p38, respectively, BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox had no effect on the alpha-chaconine-induced cell death. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced by the treatment with alpha-chaconine. Moreover, alpha-chaconine-induced caspase-3 activity was further increased by the pretreatment with PD98059. Thus, the results indicate that alpha-chaconine induces apoptosis of HT-29 cells through inhibition of ERK and, in turn, activation of caspase-3.

  2. Over-expression of EphB3 enhances cell-cell contacts and suppresses tumor growth in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sou-Tyau; Chang, King-Jen; Ting, Chen-Hung; Shen, Hsi-Che; Li, Hung; Hsieh, Fon-Jou

    2009-09-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase EphB3 is expressed in cells in the bottom of intestinal crypts near stem cell niches. Loss of Ephb3 has recently been reported to produce invasive colorectal carcinoma in Apc(Min/+) mice and EphB-mediated compartmentalization was demonstrated to be a mechanism suppressing colorectal cancer progression; however, it is unknown whether other factors contribute to EphB-mediated tumor suppression. EphA4-ephrin-A and EphB4-ephrin-B2 signaling have been reported to promote mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Here, we examine whether EphB3-ephrin-B interaction has a similar effect and investigate its role in tumor suppression. We found in a clinical cohort that EphB3 expression was significantly reduced in advanced Dukes' stage tumor specimens, so we over-expressed EphB3 in HT-29 cells by stable transfection. EphB3 over-expression inhibited HT-29 growth in monolayer cultures, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and xenograft growth in nude mice and initiated morphological, behavioral and molecular changes consistent with MET. Specifically, EphB3 over-expression re-organized cytoskeleton (converting spreading cells to a cobble-like epithelial morphology, patterning cortical actin cytoskeleton and polarizing E-cadherin and ZO-1), induced functional changes favoring MET (decreased transwell migration, increased apoptosis and Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion), decreased mesenchymal markers (fibronectin and nuclear beta-catenin), increased epithelial markers (ZO-1, E-cadherin and plakoglobin) and inactivated CrkL-Rac1, a known epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signaling pathway. Additionally, cross talk from Wnt signaling potentiated the restoration of epithelial cell polarity. Noteworthily, the same factors contributing to MET, owing to EphB3 signaling, also facilitated tumor suppression. We conclude that EphB3-ephrin-B interaction promotes MET by re-establishing epithelial cell-cell junctions and such an MET-promoting effect

  3. Effects of differentiation on purinergic and neurotensin-mediated calcium signaling in human HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammad A; Peters, Amelia A; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-09-13

    Calcium signaling is a key regulator of processes important in differentiation. In colon cancer cells differentiation is associated with altered expression of specific isoforms of calcium pumps of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane, suggesting that differentiation of colon cancer cells is associated with a major remodeling of calcium homeostasis. Purinergic and neurotensin receptor activation are known regulators of cytosolic free Ca(2+) levels in colon cancer cells. This study aimed to assess changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+) levels in response to ATP and neurotensin with differentiation induced by sodium butyrate or culturing post-confluence. Parameters assessed included peak cytosolic free Ca(2+) level after activation; time to reach peak cytosolic free Ca(2+) and the EC50 of dose response curves. Our results demonstrate that differentiation of HT-29 colon cancer cells is associated with a remodeling of both ATP and neurotensin mediated Ca(2+) signaling. Neurotensin-mediated calcium signaling appeared more sensitive to differentiation than ATP-mediated Ca(2+) signaling.

  4. Use of purified F1845 fimbrial adhesin to study localization and expression of receptors for diffusely adhering Escherichia coli during enterocytic differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kerneis, S; Bilge, S S; Fourel, V; Chauviere, G; Coconnier, M H; Servin, A L

    1991-01-01

    Whole diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 cells bearing the F1845 adhesive factor bind diffusely to differentiated human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2. By using antibodies directed against the purified fimbrial adhesin F1845 factor, the expression of the DAEC F1845-specific brush border receptors in the polarized human intestinal HT-29 and Caco-2 epithelial cells was studied by indirect immunofluorescence. A low level of DAEC F1845 receptors in undifferentiated intestinal cells was detected; they were localized in a cluster of cells. DAEC F1845 receptors were expressed at a high level in differentiated HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. DAEC F1845 receptors were expressed at a strikingly high level in the apical domains of the cells and developed during enterocytic differentiation in culture, in parallel with the apical expression of the intestinal brush border hydrolase, sucrase-isomaltase. Images PMID:1682255

  5. Induction of apoptosis by laminarin, regulating the insulin-like growth factor-IR signaling pathways in HT-29 human colon cells

    PubMed Central

    PARK, HEE-KYOUNG; KIM, IN-HYE; KIM, JOONGKYUN; NAM, TAEK-JEONG

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, algae have been highlighted as potential sources of anticancer agents. Laminarin is a molecule found in marine brown algae that has potentially beneficial biological activities. However, these activities have not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of laminarin on HT-29 cells and analyzed its effect on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-IR) signaling pathway. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assays revealed that laminarin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting showed that laminarin decreased mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and ERK phosphorylation. Decreased proliferation depended on IGF-IR, which was associated with the downregulation of MAPK/ERK. These results are important for understanding the roles of IGF-IR in colon cancer cell tumorigenesis, and suggest that laminarin shows activity against human colon cancer. PMID:22859258

  6. Transcriptional regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1C1 in HT29 human colon cancer cells resistant to methotrexate: role in the cell cycle and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Selga, Elisabet; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J

    2008-01-15

    While studying differentially expressed genes between sensitive and 10(-5)M Methotrexate (MTX) resistant HT29 human colon cancer cells, we identified some members of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. The study was followed with the member AKR1C1 (EC 1.1.1.213), validating its increase in mRNA and protein levels in MTX resistant cells. The genomic content for AKR1C1 remained unchanged between sensitive and resistant cells, thereby excluding a mechanism of AKR1C1 gene amplification. Thus, we cloned the AKR1C1 human promoter and performed luciferase experiments that revealed a transcriptional regulation of the gene in the resistant cells. Computational studies showed a putative binding site for the transcription factor Sp1. The co-transfection of Sp1 or Sp3 with different constructs of AKR1C1 promoter deletions, including and excluding the proximal GC-box, demonstrated a key role for these factors in regulating AKR1C1 transcriptional activity. Gel-shift assays revealed an increase in Sp1 and Sp3 binding in resistant compared to sensitive cells, without differences in Sp1 protein levels. Dephosphorylation of the extracts coincided with a decrease in Sp1 binding, which is consistent with a process of regulation of Sp1 by phosphorylation. We also investigated the possible relationship between AKR1C1 expression and MTX action. Overexpression of AKR1C1 counteracted the S-phase accumulation of cells and apoptosis caused by MTX treatment. This suggests a role of AKR1C1 in cell proliferation. Finally, overexpression of AKR1C1 in MTX sensitive HT29 cells conferred resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent and silencing of AKR1C1 by means of iRNA technology sensitized the cells to MTX.

  7. Mixtures of SCFA, composed according to physiologically available concentrations in the gut lumen, modulate histone acetylation in human HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Jeannette; Beyer-Sehlmeyer, Gabriele; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2006-11-01

    Intake of fibre has beneficial properties on gut health. Butyrate, a product of bacterial gut fermentation, is thought to contribute to positive effects by retarding growth and enhancing apoptosis of tumour cells. One mechanism is seen in its capacity to modulate histone acetylation and thereby transcriptional activity of genes. Next to butyrate, propionate and acetate are also major products of gut fermentation and together they may exert different potencies of cellular effects than butyrate alone. Since virtually nothing is known on combination effects by SCFA mixtures, here we had the aim to assess how physiological relevant concentrations and mixtures of SCFA modulate histone acetylation in human colon cells. HT29 colon cancer cells were incubated with mixtures of butyrate, acetate and propionate and with the individual compounds as controls. Histone acetylation was determined with acid-urea gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Acetylated histones slowly increased over 24 h and persisted up to 72 h in butyrate-treated HT29 cells. Butyrate (5-40 mM) and propionate (20-40 mM) enhanced histone acetylation significantly after 24 h incubation, whereas acetate (2.5-80 mM) was ineffective. Mixtures of these SCFA also modulated histone acetylation, mainly due to additive effects of butyrate and propionate, but not due to acetate. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of propionate together with butyrate could have more profound biological activities than generally assumed. Together, these SCFA could possibly mediate important processes related to an altered transcriptional gene activation and thus contribute to biological effects possibly related to cancer progression or prevention.

  8. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line.

    PubMed

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Alcaide, Antonio; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier; Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer.

  9. Fucoidan inhibits the migration and proliferation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells via the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin pathways.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-09-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of fucoidan as an anti‑cancer agent remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the anti‑cancer effect of fucoidan on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells. The cell growth of HT29 cells was significantly decreased following treatment with fucoidan (200 µg/ml). In addition, fucoidan inhibited the migration of HT‑29 cells by decreasing the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 in a dose‑dependent manner (0‑200 µg/ml). The underlying mechanism of these inhibitory effects included the downregulation of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by treatment with fucoidan. Furthermore, fucoidan increased the expression of cleaved caspase‑3 and decreased cancer sphere formation. The present study suggested that fucoidan exerts an anti‑cancer effect on HT‑29 human colon cancer cells by downregulating the PI3K‑Akt‑mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, fucoidan may be a potential therapeutic reagent against the growth of human colon cancer cells.

  10. Silencing of CD59 enhanced the sensitivity of HT29 cells to 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haipeng; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Shaoyu; Guo, Qiang; Ren, Xia; Jiang, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Complement regulatory proteins (CD55 and CD59) were known to be expressed in many tumors and tumor cell lines including colorectal carcinoma, and were proposed as immunotherapy targets, however whether knocking down of CD55 and CD59 will affect the sensitivity of HT-29 cells to chemotherapy drugs for example, 5-Fluorouracil and Oxaliplatin and their possible mechanisms haven't been studied. To address this question, SiRNAs targeting CD55 and CD59 were chemically synthesized and transfected into HT-29 cells by lipofectamine. HT-29 growth curves of CD55 and CD59 knockdown cells were detected by MTT assay, HT29 inhibition curves to chemotherapy drugs (5-Fu and Oxaliplatin) were also assayed, in addition, chemotherapy sensitivity changes of HT29 affected by CD55 and CD59 knockdown were equally detected. Complement mediated lysis was examined by calcein-AM. We found that silencing CD59 in HT-29 cells could significantly enhance their sensitivity to 5-FU (P < 0.05) and Oxaliplatin (P < 0.05), and significantly reduced their IC50 concentration. On the contrary, knocking down of CD55 could inhibit HT-29 growth (P < 0.05). Mechanisms included increasing apoptosis rate of HT-29 by CD59 knocking down and G1/G0 blocking by silencing CD55. Our results thus shed light on the novel mechanism of chemotherapy resistance and provide an alternative strategy to overcome the resistance problem. PMID:25444672

  11. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  12. Global metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Neil J; Lai, Lindsay; Wilkinson, Robert W; Odedra, Rajesh; Wilson, Ian D; Barnes, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Reversed-phase gradient LC-MS was used to perform untargeted metabonomic analysis on extracts of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (COLO 205, HT-29, HCT 116 and SW620) subcutaneously implanted into age-matched athymic nude male mice to study small molecule metabolic profiles and examine possible correlations with human cancer biopsies. Following high mass accuracy data analysis using MS and MS/MS, metabolites were identified by searching against major metabolite databases including METLIN, MASSBANK, The Human Metabolome Database, PubChem, Biospider, LipidMaps and KEGG. HT-29 and COLO 205 tumor xenografts showed a distribution of metabolites that differed from SW620 and HCT 116 xenografts (predominantly on the basis of relative differences in the amounts of amino acids and lipids detected). This finding is consistent with NMR-based analysis of human colorectal tissue, where the metabolite profiles of HT-29 tumors exhibit the greatest similarity to human rectal cancer tissue with respect to changes in the relative amounts of lipids and choline-containing compounds. As the metabolic signatures of cancer cells result from oncogene-directed metabolic reprogramming, the HT-29 xenografts in mice may prove to be a useful model to further study the tumor microenvironment and cancer biology. PMID:23631600

  13. Global metabolite profiling of human colorectal cancer xenografts in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Neil J; Lai, Lindsay; Wilkinson, Robert W; Odedra, Rajesh; Wilson, Ian D; Barnes, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Reversed-phase gradient LC-MS was used to perform untargeted metabonomic analysis on extracts of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines (COLO 205, HT-29, HCT 116 and SW620) subcutaneously implanted into age-matched athymic nude male mice to study small molecule metabolic profiles and examine possible correlations with human cancer biopsies. Following high mass accuracy data analysis using MS and MS/MS, metabolites were identified by searching against major metabolite databases including METLIN, MASSBANK, The Human Metabolome Database, PubChem, Biospider, LipidMaps and KEGG. HT-29 and COLO 205 tumor xenografts showed a distribution of metabolites that differed from SW620 and HCT 116 xenografts (predominantly on the basis of relative differences in the amounts of amino acids and lipids detected). This finding is consistent with NMR-based analysis of human colorectal tissue, where the metabolite profiles of HT-29 tumors exhibit the greatest similarity to human rectal cancer tissue with respect to changes in the relative amounts of lipids and choline-containing compounds. As the metabolic signatures of cancer cells result from oncogene-directed metabolic reprogramming, the HT-29 xenografts in mice may prove to be a useful model to further study the tumor microenvironment and cancer biology.

  14. Comparison of the Caco-2, HT-29 and the mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal cell models to investigate Salmonella adhesion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Mélanie; Zihler Berner, Annina; Chervet, Noémie; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    Human intestinal cell models are widely used to study host-enteric pathogen interactions, with different cell lines exhibiting specific characteristics and functions in the gut epithelium. In particular, the presence of mucus may play an important role in adhesion and invasion of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cell model to test adhesion and invasion of Salmonella strains and compare with data obtained with the more commonly used Caco-2 and HT-29 models. Adhesion of Salmonella to HT29-MTX cell model was significantly higher, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface, compared to the non- and low-mucus producing Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models, respectively. In addition, invasion percentages of some clinical Salmonella strains to HT29-MTX cultures were remarkably higher than to Caco-2 and HT-29 cells suggesting that these Salmonellae have subverted the mucus to enhance pathogenicity. The transepithelial electrical resistances of the infected HT29-MTX cell model decreased broadly and were highly correlated with invasion ability of the strain. Staining of S. Typhimurium-infected cell epithelium confirmed the higher invasion by Salmonella and subsequent disruption of tight junctions of HT29-MTX cell model compared with the Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models. Data from this study suggest that the HT29-MTX cell model, with more physiologically relevant characteristics with the mucus layer formation, could be better suited for studying cells-pathogens interactions.

  15. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin . E-mail: chcho@cuhk.edu.hk

    2007-06-15

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a {beta}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 2}-selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of {beta}-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-{beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of {alpha}7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an {alpha}7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and D{beta}H expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on {alpha}7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and {beta}-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role {alpha}7-nAChR and {beta}-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer.

  16. Ponicidin suppresses HT29 cell growth via the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie; Chen, Chunyou; Sun, Yiqun; Zheng, Lin; Wang, Wanchen

    2015-10-01

    Ponicidin is a diterpenoid extracted from the Chinese herb Isodon adenolomus, which has been reported as a therapeutic cytotoxic drug that may be used to treat various types of human cancer. The present study aimed to determine the antitumor effects of ponicidin, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms in colorectal cancer. The HT29 colorectal cancer cell line was used to detect the cytotoxicity of various doses of ponicidin. Cell proliferation was measured using a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins following treatment with ponicidin. Treatment with ponicidin significantly suppressed HT29 cell growth by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The AKT and MEK signaling pathways were also suppressed by ponicidin; however, the p38 signaling pathway was significantly activated. The expression levels of caspase 3 and Bax protein were markedly upregulated following treatment with ponicidin. These results suggest that ponicidin exerts significant antitumor effects via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cells. In conclusion, ponicidin acted as an inducer of apoptosis, and may be used as a therapeutic cytotoxic drug to treat human cancer, including colorectal cancer. PMID:26239027

  17. Ponicidin suppresses HT29 cell growth via the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    DU, JIE; CHEN, CHUNYOU; SUN, YIQUN; ZHENG, LIN; WANG, WANCHEN

    2015-01-01

    Ponicidin is a diterpenoid extracted from the Chinese herb Isodon adenolomus, which has been reported as a therapeutic cytotoxic drug that may be used to treat various types of human cancer. The present study aimed to determine the antitumor effects of ponicidin, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms in colorectal cancer. The HT29 colorectal cancer cell line was used to detect the cytotoxicity of various doses of ponicidin. Cell proliferation was measured using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins following treatment with ponicidin. Treatment with ponicidin significantly suppressed HT29 cell growth by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The AKT and MEK signaling pathways were also suppressed by ponicidin; however, the p38 signaling pathway was significantly activated. The expression levels of caspase 3 and Bax protein were markedly upregulated following treatment with ponicidin. These results suggest that ponicidin exerts significant antitumor effects via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cells. In conclusion, ponicidin acted as an inducer of apoptosis, and may be used as a therapeutic cytotoxic drug to treat human cancer, including colorectal cancer. PMID:26239027

  18. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  19. EGCG synergizes the therapeutic effect of cisplatin and oxaliplatin through autophagic pathway in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fen; Wei, Fei; Wang, Yulei; Wu, Bibo; Fang, Yuan; Xiong, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Application of the platinum-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is restricted due to its severe cytotoxic effects. In this study we used synergistic strategies by combining (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with cisplatin or oxaliplatin to minimize the ill effects of platinum-based therapy. MTS assay was used to examine the effect of EGCG, cisplatin and oxaliplatin on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer DLD-1 and HT-29 cells. Autophagic process was evaluated by detection of LC3-II protein, autophagosome formation, and quantification of Acidic Vesicular. Treatment of DLD-1 and HT-29 cells with EGCG plus cisplatin or oxaliplatin showed a synergistic effect on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. EGCG enhanced the effect of cisplatin and oxaliplatin-induced autophagy in DLD-1 and HT-29 cells, as characterized by the accumulation of LC3-II protein, the increase of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), and the formation of autophagosome. In addition, transfection of DLD-1 and HT-29 cells with siRNA against ATG genes reduced EGCG synergistic effect. Our findings suggest that combining EGCG with cisplatin or oxaliplatin could potentiate the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer cells through autophagy related pathway.

  20. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  1. Micropropagation effect on the anti-carcinogenic activitiy of polyphenolics from Mexican oregano (Poliomintha glabrescens Gray) in human colon cancer cells HT-29.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Enrique; Noratto, Giuliana D; García-Lara, Silverio; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic extracts obtained from spices are known to have anti-carcinogenic activities but little is known about the effect of micropropagation on these beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of flavonoid-enriched extracts (FEE) from the leaves of wild (WT), in vitro (IN), and ex vitro (EX) grown oregano plants in colon cancer cells HT-29 and the non-cancer cells CCD-18Co. Cell proliferation of HT-29 cells was reduced to 50 % by WT, IN, and EX at concentrations of 4.01, 1.32, and 4.84 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L, respectively. In contrast, in CCD-18Co cells, higher concentrations were required for the same cytotoxic effect. At 6 mg GAE/L, WT and IN reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated control cells to 59.89 and 59.43 %, respectively, and EX to 73.89 %. The mRNA of Caspase-3 was increased 1.53-fold when cells were treated with 4 mg GAE/L of IN extract, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) mRNA increased 2.55 and 1.53 fold, respectively. Results on protein expression corroborated the apoptotic effects with a significant decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression for all treatments but more remarkable for EX that also showed the most intense signal of BAX. Overall, FEE extracts derived from micropropagation had increased pro-apoptotic effects, however extracts from the in vitro plants produced more efficacy at the transcriptional level while extracts from the ex vitro plant were superior at the traductional level.

  2. Micropropagation effect on the anti-carcinogenic activitiy of polyphenolics from Mexican oregano (Poliomintha glabrescens Gray) in human colon cancer cells HT-29.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Enrique; Noratto, Giuliana D; García-Lara, Silverio; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2013-06-01

    Phenolic extracts obtained from spices are known to have anti-carcinogenic activities but little is known about the effect of micropropagation on these beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of flavonoid-enriched extracts (FEE) from the leaves of wild (WT), in vitro (IN), and ex vitro (EX) grown oregano plants in colon cancer cells HT-29 and the non-cancer cells CCD-18Co. Cell proliferation of HT-29 cells was reduced to 50 % by WT, IN, and EX at concentrations of 4.01, 1.32, and 4.84 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/L, respectively. In contrast, in CCD-18Co cells, higher concentrations were required for the same cytotoxic effect. At 6 mg GAE/L, WT and IN reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated control cells to 59.89 and 59.43 %, respectively, and EX to 73.89 %. The mRNA of Caspase-3 was increased 1.53-fold when cells were treated with 4 mg GAE/L of IN extract, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (FAS), and BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) mRNA increased 2.55 and 1.53 fold, respectively. Results on protein expression corroborated the apoptotic effects with a significant decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression for all treatments but more remarkable for EX that also showed the most intense signal of BAX. Overall, FEE extracts derived from micropropagation had increased pro-apoptotic effects, however extracts from the in vitro plants produced more efficacy at the transcriptional level while extracts from the ex vitro plant were superior at the traductional level. PMID:23435631

  3. Expression of human TFF3 in relation to growth of HT-29 cell subpopulations: involvement of PI3-K but not STAT6.

    PubMed

    Durual, Stéphane; Blanchard, Carine; Estienne, Monique; Jacquier, Marie-France; Cuber, Jean-Claude; Perrot, Valérie; Laboisse, Christian; Cuber, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    The trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides 1 and 2 (TFF1 and 2) are expressed in mucus cells of the stomach, whereas TFF3 is localized in goblet cells of the intestine. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) or signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 6 (STAT6) is involved in the expression of goblet cell specific markers. TFF3 expression was analyzed by RT-PCR, Northern blot, and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in relation to cell growth in subclones of HT-29 cells including the CL.16E and methotrexate (MTX) cell lines, which both exhibit a phenotype of mucus-secreting intestinal cells. A 30-fold increase in TFF3 mRNA levels and a 10-fold increase in TFF3-cell content were observed between the early proliferative and the late confluency states. The levels of MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA were also increased in the course of the differentiation process. A three to fourfold increase in PI3-K and Akt activities was observed in early post-confluent cells as compared with pre-confluent cells. Exposure of pre- and post-confluent cells to LY294002, a specific PI3-K inhibitor, for 1-4 days profoundly reduced TFF3 and MUC2 expression. A marked reduction in mucin granules content was also observed in LY-treated cells. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase (MEK) with PD98059 did not modify the course of differentiation of the goblet cell lines. Moreover, stable transfection of HT-29 CL.16E cells with a dominant negative form of STAT6 had no effect on TFF3 induction. Together, these data indicate that PI3-K promotes the expression of TFF3 and MUC2 and that the PI3-K/Akt pathway may play a pivotal role in intestinal goblet cell differentiation.

  4. 1H MRS markers of tumour growth in intrasplenic tumours and liver metastasis induced by injection of HT-29 cells in nude mice spleen.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; López, L A; Fabra, A; Arús, C

    1998-05-01

    We have characterized, by in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), the metabolite pattern of perchloric acid (PCA) extracts of intrasplenic tumours and hepatic metastasis, produced by intra-spleen injection of the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29 and its metastatic variant HT-29 MMM into nude mice. Our aim was to gain further understanding of colorectal tumour metabolism as a basis for future in vivo studies of human colon cancer by 1H MRS. Metabolite PCA extract analysis showed a good reproduction of the spectral pattern observed in human primary colon tumours, while they were very different from the spectral pattern of the host tissues (spleen and liver). The main differences between host and tumour tissues involved taurine, phosphocholine (PC), phosphoethanolamine (PE), creatine, glycogen and glucose. Creatine is the most promising marker to follow tumour growth because of its practical absence in the nude mice host tissues. Detection of variable levels of this compound and of taurine in hepatic foci in man, are suggested as possible diagnostic markers. No correlation could be found between spectral pattern differences and the different ability to metastasize of the two HT-29 cell lines used. Furthermore, indirect evidence for a functional link between taurine and myo-inositol in colon tumour cells is presented. In summary, our data suggest that the nude mice model may be a suitable system for the MRS study of the changes taking place in host tissues upon tumour progression.

  5. Synthetic Bichalcone TSWU-BR23 Induces Apoptosis of Human Colon Cancer HT-29 Cells by p53-Mediated Mitochondrial Oligomerization of BAX/BAK and Lipid Raft Localization of CD95/FADD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Liang; Chen, Shih-Shun; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2015-10-01

    A synthetic bichalcone analog, (E)-1-(3-((4-(4-acetylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (TSWU-BR23), has been shown to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells involving the induction of CD95 and FAS-associated protein death domain (FADD), but its precise mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Using cell-surface biotinylation and sucrose density-gradient-based membrane flotation techniques, we showed that the disruption of TSWU-BR23-induced lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD by cholesterol-depleting agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) was reversed by cholesterol replenishment. Blockade of p53 expression by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed oligomeric Bcl-2-associated x protein (BAX)/Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (BAK)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis but did not inhibit lipid raft localization of CD95/FADD and pro-caspase-8 cleavage induced by TSWU-BR23. Co-expression of p53 shRNA and dominant-negative mutant of FADD completely inhibited TSWU-BR32-induced mitochondrial apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TSWU-BR23 leads to HT-29 cell apoptosis by inducing p53-mediated mitochondrial oligomerization of BAX/BAK and the localization of CD95/FADD with lipid rafts at the cell surface.

  6. Effect of butyrate on aromatase cytochrome P450 levels in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rawłuszko, Agnieszka Anna; Sławek, Sylwia; Gollogly, Armin; Szkudelska, Katarzyna; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that colonic production of butyrate and estrogen may be involved in human susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Estrone (E1) can be produced by the aromatase pathway during the conversion of androstenedione (A) to E1. Therefore, we studied the effect of sodium butyrate (NaBu) on the CYP19A1 transcript and protein levels and on the conversion of A to E1 in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo CRC cells. We found that NaBu significantly downregulated CYP19A1 transcript and protein levels, a phenomenon that was associated with reduced conversion of A to E1 in HT29, DLD-1 and LoVo cells. Our studies demonstrated that, although butyrate exhibited a protective role in CRC development, this compound may reduce aromatase activity and the production of E1 in colon cancer cells.

  7. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  8. Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a ‘Metastatic’ Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Fűri, István; Kalmár, Alexandra; Wichmann, Barnabás; Spisák, Sándor; Schöller, Andrea; Barták, Barbara; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Background Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions. Aims To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts. Materials and Methods DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin), DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells). Results Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05) mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A), metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1), tumor biomarker (CEACAM5), metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG), messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2). Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β), STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1) and the FGF2 gene. Conclusions DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from

  9. Different responses of Fe transporters in Caco2/HT29-MTX cocultures than in independent Caco-2 cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human intestinal epithelium is composed of several cell types; mainly enterocytes and globet (mucin-secreting) cells. This study compares the cellular response for Fe transporters in Caco-2, HT29-MTX, and Caco-2/HT29-MTX coculture models for Fe bioavailability studies. Under culture, Caco-2 cell...

  10. 1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) Ethanone-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/G0 in HT-29 Cells Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2014-01-01

    1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (DMHE) was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational) cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed. PMID:24451128

  11. 1-(2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone-induced cell cycle arrest in G₁/G₀ in HT-29 cells human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    1-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (DMHE) was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruits and the structure confirmed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis. This compound was tested on the HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT (method of transcriptional and translational) cell proliferation assay. The results of MTT assay showed that DMHE exhibited good cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but no cytotoxic effect on the MRC-5 cell line after 72 h incubation. Morphological features of apoptotic cells upon treatment by DMHE, e.g., cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, were examined by an inverted and phase microscope. Other features, such as chromatin condension and nuclear fragmentation were studied using acridine orange and propidium iodide staining under the fluorescence microscope. Future evidence of apoptosis/necrosis was provided by result fromannexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) staining revealed the percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, necrotic and live cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner using flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis showed G0/G1 arrest in a time-dependent manner. A western blot analysis indicated that cell death might be associated with the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax PUMA. However, the anit-apotptic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 were also found to increase in a time-dependent manner. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak was not observed. PMID:24451128

  12. Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Girolamo Jose; Sanchez, Gabriela; Gonzalez, Jose Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF) are secretory products of mucin producing cells. They play a key role in the maintenance of the surface integrity of oral mucosa and enhance healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa by a process called restitution. TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2), and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). They have an important and necessary role in epithelial restitution within the gastrointestinal tract. Significant amounts of TFF are present in human milk. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between TFF3 isolated from human breast milk and levels of cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and defensins (hBD2 and hBD4) in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 treated with trefoil. Samples of human milk were collected within 2-4 weeks postpartum from healthy human mothers (18-30-years-old) by manual breast massage, and TFF3 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, isoelectric precipitation, DEAE-chromatography, and gel filtration. In this work we measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of cytokines and defensins by immunoassay (ELISA) and semiquantitative RT-PCR technique, respectively. Also we measured the peroxidase activity. We present the first evidence of human milk TFF3 purification. Here we show that the presence of TFF3 isolated from milk strongly correlates with downregulation of IL8 and IL6 in human intestinal epithelial cells. On the other hand, TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2) and beta defensins 4 (hBD4). These findings suggest that TFF can activate intestinal epithelial cells and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies by inducing the production of peptides related to innate defence, such as defensins.

  13. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, A.; Ghannadi, A.; Mohebi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents. PMID:25657780

  14. Induction of apoptosis of 2,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    2,4',6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins. PMID:24579081

  15. Targeting Hsp90 with small molecule inhibitors induces the over-expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule, survivin, in human A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Survivin is a dual functioning protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cancer cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Since the molecular chaperone Hsp90 binds and stabilizes survivin, it is widely believed that down-regulation of survivin is one of the important therapeutic functions of Hsp90 inhibitors such as the phase III clinically trialed compound 17-AAG. However, Hsp90 interferes with a number of molecules that up-regulate the intracellular level of survivin, raising the question that clinical use of Hsp90 inhibitors may indirectly induce survivin expression and subsequently enhance cancer anti-drug responses. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting Hsp90 can alter survivin expression differently in different cancer cell lines and to explore possible mechanisms that cause the alteration in survivin expression. Results Here, we demonstrated that Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, induced the over-expression of survivin in three different human cancer cell lines as shown by Western blotting. Increased survivin mRNA transcripts were observed in 17-AAG and geldanamycin-treated HT-29 and HONE-1 cancer cells. Interestingly, real-time PCR and translation inhibition studies revealed that survivin was over-expressed partially through the up-regulation of protein translation instead of gene transcription in A549 cancer cells. In addition, 17-AAG-treated A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cells showed reduced proteasomal activity while inhibition of 26S proteasome activity further increased the amount of survivin protein in cells. At the functional level, down-regulation of survivin by siRNA further increased the drug sensitivity to 17-AAG in the tested cancer cell lines. Conclusions We showed for the first time that down-regulation of survivin is not a definite therapeutic function of Hsp90 inhibitors. Instead, targeting Hsp90 with small molecule inhibitors will induce the

  16. Calpains are involved in Entamoeba histolytica-induced death of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun Soo; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Sang Kyou; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2011-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that can cause amebic colitis and liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica has the capability to kill colon epithelial cells in vitro; however, information regarding the role of calpain in colon cell death induced by ameba is limited. In this study, we investigated whether calpains are involved in the E. histolytica-induced cell death of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. When HT-29 cells were co-incubated with E. histolytica, the propidium iodide stained dead cells markedly increased compared to that in HT-29 cells incubated with medium alone. This pro-death effect induced by ameba was effectively blocked by pretreatment of HT-29 cells with the calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. Moreover, knockdown of m- and µ-calpain by siRNA significantly reduced E. histolytica-induced HT-29 cell death. These results suggest that m- and µ-calpain may be involved in colon epithelial cell death induced by E. histolytica. PMID:21738275

  17. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19). PMID:27546365

  18. Principal component analysis for the comparison of metabolic profiles from human rectal cancer biopsies and colorectal xenografts using high-resolution magic angle spinning 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seierstad, Therese; Røe, Kathrine; Sitter, Beathe; Halgunset, Jostein; Flatmark, Kjersti; Ree, Anne H; Olsen, Dag Rune; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Bathen, Tone F

    2008-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in order to elucidate metabolic differences between human rectal cancer biopsies and colorectal HT29, HCT116 and SW620 xenografts by using high-resolution magnetic angle spinning (MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and for determination of the most appropriate human rectal xenograft model for preclinical MR spectroscopy studies. A further aim was to investigate metabolic changes following irradiation of HT29 xenografts. Methods HR MAS MRS of tissue samples from xenografts and rectal biopsies were obtained with a Bruker Avance DRX600 spectrometer and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Results and conclusion HR MAS MRS enabled assignment of 27 metabolites. Score plots from PCA of spin-echo and single-pulse spectra revealed separate clusters of the different xenografts and rectal biopsies, reflecting underlying differences in metabolite composition. The loading profile indicated that clustering was mainly based on differences in relative amounts of lipids, lactate and choline-containing compounds, with HT29 exhibiting the metabolic profile most similar to human rectal cancers tissue. Due to high necrotic fractions in the HT29 xenografts, radiation-induced changes were not detected when comparing spectra from untreated and irradiated HT29 xenografts. However, PLS calibration relating spectral data to the necrotic fraction revealed a significant correlation, indicating that necrotic fraction can be assessed from the MR spectra. PMID:18439252

  19. Evaluation of cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 gene expression through the retinoic acid pathway by co-incubation of Blastocystis ST-1 with HT29 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Chieh; Song, Eing-Ju; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Lin, Wei-Chen; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Chen, Lih-Ren; Huang, Lynn L H; Shin, Jyh-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis is a parasitic protist with a worldwide distribution that is commonly found in patients with colon and gastrointestinal pathological symptoms. Blastocystis infection has also commonly been reported in colorectal cancer and HIV/AIDS patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. To understand the pathway networks of gene regulation and the probable mechanisms influencing functions of HT-29 host cells in response to parasite infection, we examined the expression of 163 human oncogenes and kinases in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells co-incubated with Blastocystis by in-house cDNA microarray and PCR analysis. At least 10 genes were shown to be modified following Blastocystis co-incubation, including those with immunological, tumorigenesis, and antitumorigenesis functions. The expression of genes encoding cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2 (CRABP2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was markedly upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR validated the modified transcript expression of CRABP2 and other associated genes such as retinoic acid (RA)-related nuclear-receptor (RARα). Together, our data indicate that CRABP2, RARα, and PCNA expressions are involved in RA signaling regulatory networks that affect the growth, proliferation, and inflammation of HT-29 cells. PMID:26911149

  20. Efficacy of temoporfin-loaded invasomes in the photodynamic therapy in human epidermoid and colorectal tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Gräfe, Susanna; Gitter, Burkhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-12-01

    In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a temoporfin (mTHPC)-containing formulation would be advantageous. Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with low percutaneous absorption and novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes for enhanced skin delivery were developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate photodynamic efficacy of mTHPC-loaded invasomes in vitro in two cell lines, i.e. the human colorectal tumour cell line HT29 and the epidermoid tumour cell line A431. Invasomes are vesicles containing besides phospholipids a mixture of terpenes or only one terpene and ethanol. Dark toxicity, phototoxicity and intracellular localization of mTHPC were studied. Laser scanning microscopy indicated perinuclear localization of mTHPC. Results revealed that mTHPC-invasomes and mTHPC-ethanolic solution used at a 2μM mTHPC-concentration and photoirradiation at 20J/cm(2) were able to reduce survival of HT29 cells and especially of A431 cells, being more sensitive to PDT. In contrast to HT29 cells, where there was not a significant difference between cytotoxicity of mTHPC-ethanolic solution and mTHPC-invasomes, in A431 cells mTHPC-invasomes were more cytotoxic. Survival of about 16% of A431 cells treated with mTHPC-invasomes is very promising, since it demonstrates invasomes' potential to be used in topical PDT of cutaneous malignant diseases.

  1. Induction of Apoptosis of 2,4′,6-Trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2014-01-01

    2,4′,6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins. PMID:24579081

  2. Alisertib Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppresses EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Da-Jian; Ju, Yong-Le; Wu, Jin-Hao; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alisertib (ALS) is a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor with unclear effect and molecular interactome on CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome and anticancer effect of ALS and explore the underlying mechanisms in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. ALS markedly arrested cells in G2/M phase in both cell lines, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression level of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced apoptosis in HT29 and Caco-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. ALS also induced autophagy in HT29 and Caco-2 cells, with the suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. There was a differential modulating effect of ALS on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in both cell lines. Moreover, induction or inhibition of autophagy modulated basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. ALS potently suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, it suggests that induction of cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and autophagy, and suppression of EMT involving mitochondrial, death receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways contribute to the cancer cell killing effect of ALS on CRC cells. PMID:26729093

  3. Response to Multiple Radiation Doses of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells Infected With Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Dominant-Negative Ku70 Fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Muneyasu; He Fuqiu; Minami, Akiko; Ling, C. Clifton; Li, Gloria C.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment on the response of tumor cells to multiple small radiation doses. Our ultimate goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using this virus in gene-radiotherapy to enhance the radiation response of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Human colorectal HCT8 and HT29 carcinoma cells were plated in glass tubes, infected with virus (25 multiplicity of infection), and irradiated with a single dose or zero to five doses of 3 Gy each at 6-h intervals. Hypoxia was induced by flushing with 100% nitrogen gas. The cells were trypsinized 0 or 6 h after the final irradiation, and cell survival was determined by colony formation. The survival data were fitted to linear-quadratic model or exponential line. Results: Virus infection enhanced the radiation response of the HCT8 and HT29 cells. The virus enhancement ratio for single-dose irradiation at a surviving fraction of 0.1 was {approx}1.3 for oxic and hypoxic HCT8 and 1.4 and 1.1 for oxic and hypoxic HT29, respectively. A similar virus enhancement ratio of 1.2-1.3 was observed for both oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated with multiple doses; however, these values were smaller than the values found for dominant-negative Ku70-transfected Rat-1 cells. This difference has been discussed. The oxygen enhancement ratio for HCT8 and HT29 receiving fractionated doses was 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, and virus infection altered them slightly. Conclusion: Infection of recombinant replication-defective adenovirus containing dominant-negative Ku70 fragment enhanced the response of human colorectal cancer cells to single and multiple radiation doses.

  4. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits human colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Swanson, X; Mhashilkar, A M; Oida, Y; Schrock, R; Branch, C D; Chada, S; Zumstein, L; Ramesh, R

    2003-11-01

    The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN encodes a multifunctional phosphatase that is mutated in a variety of human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and downstream functions, including activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), cell survival, and cell proliferation in tumor cells carrying mutant- or deletion-type PTEN. In such tumor cells, enforced expression of PTEN decreases cell proliferation through cell-cycle arrest at G1 phase accompanied, in some cases, by induction of apoptosis. More recently, the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN has been reported in ovarian and thyroid tumors that are wild type for PTEN. In the present study, we examined the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN in human colorectal cancer cells that are wild type for PTEN. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of PTEN (Ad-PTEN) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis significantly in colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1, HT29, and SW480) carrying wtPTEN than in normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) carrying wtPTEN. This suppression was induced through downregulation of the Akt/PKB pathway, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, but not the G1 phase. Furthermore, treatment of human colorectal tumor xenografts (HT-29, and SW480) with Ad-PTEN resulted in significant (P=0.01) suppression of tumor growth. These results indicate that Ad-PTEN exerts its tumor-suppressive effect on colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of cell-cycle progression and induction of cell death. Thus Ad-PTEN may be a potential therapeutic for treatment of colorectal cancers. PMID:14528320

  5. Moguntinones--new selective inhibitors for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Maderer, Annett; Plutizki, Stanislav; Kramb, Jan-Peter; Göpfert, Katrin; Linnig, Monika; Khillimberger, Katrin; Ganser, Christopher; Lauermann, Eva; Dannhardt, Gerd; Galle, Peter R; Moehler, Markus

    2014-06-01

    3-Indolyl and 3-azaindolyl-4-aryl maleimide derivatives, called moguntinones (MOG), have been selected for their ability to inhibit protein kinases associated with angiogenesis and induce apoptosis. Here, we characterize their mode of action and their potential clinical value in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. MOG-19 and MOG-13 were characterized in vitro using kinase, viability, and apoptosis assays in different human colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW480) and normal colon cell lines (CCD-18Co, FHC, and HCoEpiC) alone or in combination with topoisomerase I inhibitors. Intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. To determine their potential to inhibit tumor growth in vivo, the human HT-29 tumor xenograft model was used. Moguntinones prominently inhibit several protein kinases associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Specific signaling pathways such as GSK3β and mTOR downstream targets were inhibited with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range. GSK3β signaling inhibition was independent of KRAS, BRAF, and PI3KCA mutation status. While moguntinones alone induced apoptosis only in concentrations >10 μmol/L, MOG-19 in combination with topoisomerase I inhibitors induced apoptosis synergistically at lower concentrations. Consistent with in vitro data, MOG-19 significantly reduced tumor volume and weight in combination with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in vivo. Our in vitro and in vivo data present significant proapoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antiproliferative effects of MOG-19 in different human colon cancer cells. Combination with clinically relevant topoisomerase I inhibitors in vitro and xenograft mouse model demonstrate a high potency of moguntinones to complement and improve standard chemotherapy options in human colorectal cancer. PMID:24743703

  6. Potential chemoprevention activity of pterostilbene by enhancing the detoxifying enzymes in the HT-29 cell line.

    PubMed

    Harun, Zaliha; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2012-01-01

    Detoxifying enzymes are present in most epithelial cells of the human gastrointestinal tract where they protect against xenobiotics which may cause cancer. Induction of examples such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and its thiol conjugate, glutathione (GSH) as well as NAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductase (NQO1) facilitate the excretion of carcinogens and thus preventing colon carcinogenesis. Pterostilbene, an analogue of resveratrol, has demonstrated numerous pharmacological activities linked with chemoprevention. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of pterostilbene as a chemopreventive agent using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line to study the modulation of GST and NQO1 activities as well as the GSH level. Initially, our group, established the optimum dose of 24 hours pterostilbene treatment using MTT assays. Then, effects of pterostilbene (0-50 μM) on GST and NQO1 activity and GSH levels were determined using GST, NQO1 and Ellman assays, respectively. MTT assay of pterostilbene (0-100 μM) showed no cytotoxicity toward the HT-29 cell line. Treatment increased GST activity in the cell line significantly (p<0.05) at 12.5 and 25.0 μM. In addition, treatment at 50 μM increased the GSH level significantly (p<0.05). Pterostilbene also enhanced NQO1 activity significantly (p<0.05) at 12.5 μM and 50 μM. Hence, pterostilbene is a potential chemopreventive agent capable of modulation of detoxifiying enzyme levels in HT-29 cells.

  7. The Effects of Bifidobacterium breve on Immune Mediators and Proteome of HT29 Cells Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Arboleya, Silvia; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25793196

  8. Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves Induces Autophagy and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, Docetaxel, and 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chen-Jei; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Lin, Yi-Feng; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Chun-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer worldwide, and chemotherapy is a mainstream approach for advanced and recurrent cases. Development of effective complementary drugs could help improve tumor suppression efficiency and control adverse effects from chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AE-SN) is an essential component in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating cancer, but there is a lack of evidence verifying its tumor suppression efficacy in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tumor suppression efficacy of AE-SN using DLD-1 and HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells and examine the combined drug effect when combined with the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil. The results indicated that AE-SN induced autophagy via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B II accumulation but not caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. The IC50s after 48 hours of treatment were 0.541 and 0.948 mg/ml AE-SN in DLD-1 and HT-29, respectively. AE-SN also demonstrated a combined drug effect with all tested drugs by enhancing cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Our results suggest that AE-SN has potential in the development of complementary chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:23843876

  9. Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves Induces Autophagy and Enhances Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, Docetaxel, and 5-Fluorouracil in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chen-Jei; Wang, Chien-Kai; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Lin, Yi-Feng; Lin, Chi-Shian; Jian, Jiun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Jia; Chang, Chun-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common cancer worldwide, and chemotherapy is a mainstream approach for advanced and recurrent cases. Development of effective complementary drugs could help improve tumor suppression efficiency and control adverse effects from chemotherapy. The aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AE-SN) is an essential component in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for treating cancer, but there is a lack of evidence verifying its tumor suppression efficacy in colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tumor suppression efficacy of AE-SN using DLD-1 and HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells and examine the combined drug effect when combined with the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-fluorouracil. The results indicated that AE-SN induced autophagy via microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 A/B II accumulation but not caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in both cell lines. The IC50s after 48 hours of treatment were 0.541 and 0.948 mg/ml AE-SN in DLD-1 and HT-29, respectively. AE-SN also demonstrated a combined drug effect with all tested drugs by enhancing cytotoxicity in tumor cells. Our results suggest that AE-SN has potential in the development of complementary chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:23843876

  10. Increased anticancer activity of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor BGC9331 combined with the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38 in human colorectal and breast cancer cells: induction of apoptosis and ROCK cleavage through caspase-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Coudray, Anne-Marie; Louvet, Christophe; Kornprobst, Michel; Raymond, Eric; André, Thierry; Tournigand, Christophe; Faivre, Sandrine; De Gramont, Aimery; Larsen, Annette K; Gespach, Christian

    2005-08-01

    The folate analogue BGC9331 is a new thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor showing a broad spectrum of cyto-toxic activity against several human solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of BGC9331 either alone or combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), MTA (multi-target antifolate), oxali-platin and SN-38, the active metabolite of the topoisomerase I inhibitor CPT-11. The antiproliferative activity of each drug and BGC9331-based combinations was investigated in the HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell line and its HT-29/5-FU counterparts selected for resistance to 5-FU. BGC9331 combined with MTA or SN-38 induced synergistic responses in HT-29 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with either BGC9331 or SN-38 increased caspase-3 activity and the percentage of apoptotic cells from 3 to 13%. Both drugs also augmented the proteolytic cleavage of the Rho-kinase ROCK-1 that was attenuated by the caspase-3 pathway inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk. BGC9331 combined with SN-38 further increased the percentage of apoptotic cells to 25%, and inhibited cell cycle progression and cell proliferation by 65%. This was accompanied by proteolytic activation of ROCK-1, through both caspase-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms, as shown in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These encouraging results warrant further preclinical investigations and clinical trials on the use of BGC9331 combined with SN-38/CPT-11 in treatment of patients with advanced colorectal or gastric cancers.

  11. Justicidin A-induced autophagy flux enhances apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via class III PI3K and Atg5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Su, Chun-Li

    2015-04-01

    Our previous reports showed that justicidin A (JA), a novel and pure arylnaphthalide lignan isolated from Justicia procumbens, induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cells, leading to the suppression of both tumor cell growth in NOD-SCID mice. Here, we reveal that JA induces autophagy in human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells by conversion of autophagic marker LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, LC3 puncta and autophagic vesicle formation, and SQSTM1/p62 suppression were observed. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine) and transfection of a tandem fluorescent-tagged LC3 (mRFP-GFP) reporter plasmid (ptfLC3) demonstrated that JA induces autophagy flux in HT-29 cells. Expression of LC3, SQSTM1, Beclin 1, and nuclear DNA double-strand breaks (representing apoptosis) were also detected in the tumor tissue of HT-29 cells transplanted into NOD-SCID mice orally administrated with JA. In addition, the expression of autophagy signaling pathway-related molecules p-PDK1, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k/p-RPS6KB2 was decreased, whereas that of class III PI3K, Beclin 1, Atg5-Atg12, and mitochondrial BNIP3 was increased in response to JA. Pre-treatment of the cells with class III PI3K inhibitor 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA attenuated JA-induced LC3-II expression and LC3 puncta formation, indicating the involvement of class III PI3K and Atg5. A novel mechanism was demonstrated in the anticancer compound JA; pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 shRNA blocked JA-induced suppression in cell growth and colony formation, respectively, via inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, administration of apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD did not affect JA-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the chemotherapeutic potential of JA for treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  12. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa Extract on Apoptosis Triggered by Oxaliplatin Exposure on HT29 Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Liliane Z; Farias, Iria Luiza G; Rigo, Melânia L; Glanzner, Werner G; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard D; Cadoná, Francine C; Cruz, Ivana B; Farias, Júlia G; Duarte, Marta M M F; Franco, Luzia; Bertol, Gustavo; Colpo, Elisangela; Brites, Patricia C; Rocha, João Batista T; Leal, Daniela B R

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The use of herbal products as a supplement to minimize the effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment requires further attention with respect to the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy. Uncaria tomentosa extract, which contains oxindole alkaloids, is one of these herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Uncaria tomentosa extract modulates apoptosis induced by chemotherapy exposure. Materials and Methods. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cells) were grown in the presence of oxaliplatin and/or Uncaria tomentosa extract. Results. The hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, with an increase in the percentage of Annexin positive cells, an increase in caspase activities, and an increase of DNA fragments in culture of the neoplastic cells. Moreover, antioxidant activity may be related to apoptosis. Conclusion. Uncaria tomentosa extract has a role for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. Further studies evaluating these beneficial effects with other chemotherapy drugs are recommended.

  13. Effect of Uncaria tomentosa Extract on Apoptosis Triggered by Oxaliplatin Exposure on HT29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Liliane Z.; Farias, Iria Luiza G.; Rigo, Melânia L.; Glanzner, Werner G.; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard D.; Cadoná, Francine C.; Cruz, Ivana B.; Farias, Júlia G.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Franco, Luzia; Bertol, Gustavo; Colpo, Elisangela; Brites, Patricia C.; Rocha, João Batista T.; Leal, Daniela B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The use of herbal products as a supplement to minimize the effects of chemotherapy for cancer treatment requires further attention with respect to the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy. Uncaria tomentosa extract, which contains oxindole alkaloids, is one of these herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Uncaria tomentosa extract modulates apoptosis induced by chemotherapy exposure. Materials and Methods. Colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT29 cells) were grown in the presence of oxaliplatin and/or Uncaria tomentosa extract. Results. The hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, with an increase in the percentage of Annexin positive cells, an increase in caspase activities, and an increase of DNA fragments in culture of the neoplastic cells. Moreover, antioxidant activity may be related to apoptosis. Conclusion. Uncaria tomentosa extract has a role for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. Further studies evaluating these beneficial effects with other chemotherapy drugs are recommended. PMID:25505920

  14. Surface expression and CEA binding of hnRNP M4 protein in HT29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Laguinge, Luciana; Bajenova, Olga; Bowden, Emma; Sayyah, Jacqueline; Thomas, Peter; Juhl, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to participate in the progression and metastatic growth of colorectal cancer. However, its biological function remains elusive. Recently, we found that CEA protects colon cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis, suggesting a complex role that includes signal transduction activity. Additionally, it was reported that CEA binds to Kupffer cells and macrophages to a membrane-anchored homolog of heterogeneous nuclear protein M4 (hnRNP M4), which subsequently was named CEA-receptor (CEAR). Cytoplasmatic and membranous expression of CEAR in CEA-positive colon cancer tissues prompted us to analyze the CEA-CEAR interaction in HT29 colon cancer cells. Both, CEA and CEAR were found on the cell surface of HT29 cells, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Imaging analysis suggested co-localization and, thus, interaction of both molecules. To confirm this observation, immunoprecipitation experiments and Western blot analysis were performed and indicated binding of CEA and CEAR. Immunoprecipitation of CEA resulted in a pull down of CEAR. The pull down of CEAR correlated with the amount of CEA as demonstrated by ribozyme targeting of CEA. Finally, external treatment of HT29 cells with soluble CEA induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CEAR, suggesting a CEA-dependent role of CEAR in signal transduction. Future experiments will elucidate whether the CEA-CEAR interaction is involved in CEA's antiapoptotic role and mediates the prometastatic properties of CEA in colon cancer cells. PMID:15816515

  15. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Menghua; Yang, Guiqing; Liu, Hanchen; Liu, Xiaoxu; Lin, Sixiang; Sun, Dongning; Wang, Yishan

    2014-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans. PMID:24649105

  16. Enhanced antitumor activity of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody IMC-C225 in combination with irinotecan (CPT-11) against human colorectal tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Prewett, Marie C; Hooper, Andrea T; Bassi, Rajiv; Ellis, Lee M; Waksal, Harlan W; Hicklin, Daniel J

    2002-05-01

    Colon carcinomas frequently express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and this expression correlates with more aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Previous studies have shown that EGFR blockade by monoclonal antibody IMC-C225 can inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma tumor cells in vitro and xenografts of these tumors in athymic mice. In this report, we have studied the in vivo activity of IMC-C225 combined with the topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan (CPT-11) using two models of human colorectal carcinoma in nude mice. IMC-C225 was tested at a dose of 1 or 0.5 mg administered q3d. CPT-11 was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/week or a maximum tolerated dose of 150 mg/kg/week. Treatment with the combination of IMC-C225 (1 and 0.5 mg) and CPT-11 (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the growth of established DLD-1 and HT-29 tumors compared with either CPT-11 or IMC-C225 monotherapy (P < 0.05). Combination therapy with IMC-C225 (1 mg) and the MTD of CPT-11 (150 mg/kg) resulted in a regression rate of 100 and 60% of established DLD-1 and HT-29 tumors, respectively. In a refractory tumor model, combined treatment with IMC-C225 and CPT-11 significantly inhibited the growth of CPT-11 refractory DLD-1 and HT-29 tumors, whereas either agent alone did not control tumor growth. Histological examination of treated tumors showed extensive tumor necrosis, decreased tumor cell proliferation, increased tumor cell apoptosis, and a marked decrease in tumor vasculature. These results suggest that EGFR blockade by IMC-C225 combined with topoisomerase I inhibitors may be an effective therapy against chemorefractory colorectal carcinoma tumors.

  17. Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Nourazarian, Alireza; Majidinia, Maryam; Roshaniasl, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

  18. Sensitivity to CPT-11 of xenografted human colorectal cancers as a function of microsatellite instability and p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Bras-Gonçalves, R A; Rosty, C; Laurent-Puig, P; Soulié, P; Dutrillaux, B; Poupon, M-F

    2000-01-01

    Biological parameters influencing the response of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) to CPT-11, a topoisomerase 1 (top1) inhibitor, were investigated using a panel of nine CRCs xenografted into nude mice. CRC xenografts differed in their p53 status (wt or mut) and in their microsatellite instability phenotype (MSI+when altered). Five CRC xenografts were established from clinical samples. All five had a functional p53, two were MSI+and three were MSI–. Tumour-bearing nude mice were treated intraperitonealy (i.p.) with CPT-11. At 10 mg kg–1of CPT-11, four injections at 4-day intervals, four of the five xenografts responded to CPT-11 (growth delay of up to 10 days); the non-responder tumour was MSI−. At 40 mg kg−1of CPT-11, six injections at 4-day intervals, the five CRCs displayed variable but marked responses with complete regressions. In order to assess the role of p53 status in CPT-11 response, four CRC lines were used. HT29 cell line was MSI−/ Ala273-mutp53, its subclone HT29A3 being transfected by wtp53. LoVo cell line was MSI+/ wtp53, its subclone X17LoVo dominantly expressed Ala273-mutp53 after transfection. LoVo tumours (MSI+/ mutp53) were more sensitive than X17LoVo (MSI+/ mutp53. HT 29 tumours (MSI−Imutp53), were refractory to CPT-11 while HT29A3 tumours (MSI−/ wtp53) were sensitive, showing that wtp53 improves the drug-response in these MSI−tumours. Levels of mRNA expression of top1, fasR, TP53 and mdr1 were semi-quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. None of these parameters correlated with CPT-11 response. Taken together, these observations indicate that MSI and p53 alterations could be associated with different CPT-11 sensitivities; MSI phenotype moderately influences the CPT-11 sensitivity, MSI+being more sensitive than MSI−CRC freshly obtained from patients, mutp53 status being associated with a poor response to CPT-11. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10732766

  19. Effects of Oplopanax horridus on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-LI; SUN, SHI; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; WILLIAMS, STAINLEY; YUAN, CHUN-SU

    2011-01-01

    Aim In this study, we investigated the inhibitive effects of Oplopanax horridus extract (OhE) and its fractions (OhF1, OhF2, OhF3, OhF4 and OhF5) on the growth of human colorectal cancer cells and the possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods The anti-proliferative effects were evaluated by MTS cell proliferation assay. Apoptotic effects and cell cycle distribution were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with Annexin V/PI or PI/RNase. Results After treatment for 48 hr, OhE, OhF4 and OhF5 (10–100 μg/ml) inhibited proliferation of HCT-116, SW-480 and HT-29 cell lines. And cell growth decreased most with the treatment of OhF4. On the other hand, OhF1, OhF2 and OhF3 were not observed to have obvious suppressive effects on these cell lines at concentrations of 10–100 μg/ml. OhE, OhF4 and OhF5 (1–10 μg/ml) noticeably induced apoptosis time- and concentration-dependently compared to the control at the same time point. Treatement with OhE, OhF4 or OhF5 (1–10 μg/ml) for 24 hr distinctly induced the G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner. The trend of increasing cyclin A and cyclin B1 were similar to the increase of G2/M phase cells in all treated groups. Conclusion These results showed that OhE had potential anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells, and the active components were enriched in the fractions OhF4 and OhF5. The anticancer mechanism of OhE, OhF4 and OhF5 might be attributed to the induction of apoptotic cells and the regulation of cell cycle transition. PMID:20332432

  20. Identification of hepatic microvascular adhesion-related genes of human colon cancer cells using random homozygous gene perturbation.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Joana; Kohli, Manu; Arteta, Beatriz; Chang, Shaojing; Li, Wu-Bo; Goldblatt, Michael; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Random homozygous gene perturbation (RHGP), in combination with liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) adhesion screening of clonal colon cancer cells with perturbed genes, was used to identify genes contributing to the hepatic microvascular adhesion of colon cancer cells. Plasmid vector encoding transactivator and gene search vector were transfected into HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells to create a HT-29 RHGP cell library; the adhesion of these library cells to primary cultured mouse LSEC significantly decreased in the presence of RSL1 ligand (inducer), indicating that most of the genes contributing to HT-29 adhesion to LSEC were altered. Next, HT-29 RHGP cell library fractions with upregulated or silenced LSEC adhesion-related genes were isolated. Around 160 clones having altered expression in LSEC adhesion-related genes were obtained, and nine relevant protein-coding genes were identified. Some were proadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in adherent HT-29 cells (DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes) and their silenced status in nonadherent HT-29 cells (DGKE, DPY19L1, KIAA0753, PVR and USP11 genes). Others were antiadhesive genes detected because of their overexpression in nonadherent HT-29 cells (ITPKC gene) and their silenced status in adherent HT-29 cells (PPP6R2 gene). Silencing of PVR, DGCR8 and EFEMP1 genes decreased adhesion to LSEC and hepatic microvascular retention of HT-29 cells. The results conclude that RHGP was a valuable strategy for the discovery of mechanisms regulating microvascular adhesion of circulating colon cancer cells before hepatic metastasis formation. Identified genes may contribute to understand the metastatic process of colon cancer and to discovering molecular targets for hepatic metastasis therapeutics.

  1. G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells induced by water extract from residues of jelly fig achene.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wing-Ming; Chen, Chun-Nan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Ting; Lo, Tsui-Yun; Juan, Pei-Yi; Mai, Fu-Der

    2015-01-01

    Jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang) achenes have been utilized to prepare a traditional drink in Taiwan. Herein, we evaluated the effect of water extract from jelly fig seed residues (WERJFA) on cancer cells. WERJFA could inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, COLO205 and HT29 in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis with propidium iodide (PI) showed that WERJFA primarily arrested COLO205 and HT29 cells at the G2/M phase of cell cycle as the concentration reached to at least 0.5 mg/ml. WERJFA induced apoptosis of these two cell lines, as evidenced by annexin V-FITC/PI and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in WERJFA-treated cells were detected by flow cytometry with H2DCF-DA and 5,5', 6,6'-Tetrachloro-1, 1', 3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Our results showed that WERJFA exerted anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. WERJFA arrested cell cycle, and caused apoptotic death in these cancer cells possibly via mitochondrial pathway involved with exceeding ROS level.

  2. Fermented nondigestible fraction from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 modulates HT-29 cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Bravo, R K; Guevara-Gonzalez, R; Ramos-Gomez, M; Garcia-Gasca, T; Campos-Vega, R; Oomah, B D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a fermented nondigestible fraction (FNDF) of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Negro 8025 on human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell survival. Negro 8025 was chosen for in vitro fermentation based on comparison of chemical composition with 2 other cultivars: Azufrado Higuera and Pinto Durango. Negro 8025 had 58% total dietary fiber, 27% resistant starch, and 20 mg of (+)-catechin equivalents per gram of sample. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and pH of the medium were measured after fermentation as indicators of colon protection through induced arrest on cell culture and apoptosis. Butyrate and pH of FNDF of Negro 8025 were higher than the control fermented raffinose extract. The FNDF inhibited HT-29 cell survival in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) was 13.63% FNDF (equivalent to 7.36, 0.33, and 3.31 mmol of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, respectively). DNA fragmentation, an apoptosis indicator, was detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method in cells treated with the LC(50)-FNDF and a synthetic mixture of SCFAs mimicking LC(50)-FNDF. Our results suggest that common bean is a reliable source of fermentable substrates in colon, producing compounds with potential chemoprotective effect on HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells, so it may present an effective alternative to mitigate colon cancer development.

  3. Tumour Cell Lines HT-29 and FaDu Produce Proinflammatory Cytokines and Activate Neutrophils In Vitro: Possible Applications for Neutrophil-Based Antitumour Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brú, Antonio; Souto, Juan-Carlos; Alcolea, Sonia; Antón, Rosa; Remacha, Angel; Camacho, Mercedes; Soler, Marta; Brú, Isabel; Porres, Amelia; Vila, Luis

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) can exert severe antineoplastic effects. Cross-talk between tumour cells and endothelial cells (ECs) is necessary for the accumulation of PMN around a tumour. This work reports the ability of two PMN-sensitive, human, permanent cell lines—colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and pharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (FaDu) cells—to act as inflammatory foci. PMNs were cytotoxic to both lines, the adhesion of the PMNs to the tumour cells being important in this effect. The tumour cells released appreciable amounts of IL-8 and GROα, and induced the transmigration of PMN through human microvascular-EC monolayers. Conditioning media associated with both lines induced the adhesion of PMN and the surface expression of ICAM-1 in microvascular-EC. In addition, FaDu-conditioning-medium strongly induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines by microvascular-EC. These results support the idea that tumour cells might normally induce a potent acute inflammatory response, leading to their own destruction. PMID:20169105

  4. The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Carmen Marín-Manzano, M; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Carmen Arques, M; Domoney, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from legumes, such as soyabean, pea, lentil and chickpea, are naturally occurring plant protease inhibitors which have potential health-promoting properties within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. BBI can survive both acidic conditions and the action of proteolytic enzymes within the stomach and small intestine, permitting significant amounts to reach the large intestine in active form to exert their reported anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study, we reported the ability of a recombinant form of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major BBI isoinhibitor from pea, to influence negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigate if this effect is related directly to the intrinsic ability of BBI to inhibit serine proteases. rTI1B and a novel engineered mutant, having amino acid substitutions at the P1 positions in the two inhibitory domains, were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rTI1B proved to be active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing K i values at nanomolar concentrations, whereas the related mutant protein was inactive against both serine proteases. The proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells was significantly affected by rTI1B in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 31 (sd 7) μm), whereas the inactive mutant did not show any significant effect on colon cancer cell growth. In addition, neither recombinant protein affected the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. These findings suggest that serine proteases should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:22916809

  5. New insight into the influence of carob extract and gallic acid on hemin induced modulation of HT29 cell growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Klenow, Stefanie; Glei, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Red meat intake is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. This is possibly related to the heme content of red meat. Plant derived polyphenols might protect from cancer development via their antioxidant activities. In this study, the impact of an aqueous extract of carob (CE) on hemin-modulated proliferation was investigated. CE, gallic acid (GA) and a known iron chelator (deferoxamine: DFO) significantly reduced the number of human colon cancer HT29 cells. CE and GA were more effective under serum-free conditions than in normal cell culture medium. These effects were abolished by addition of 1 microM hemin at low concentrations of CE and GA. At higher concentrations of CE and GA, both substances reduced cell number despite hemin supplementation. Effects of CE, GA and DFO on cell number could not be linked to iron chelation even though CE and DFO were capable of chelating iron. Furthermore, the effects of high CE concentration point to antioxidative effects other than iron chelation. However, a connection to a reduction of colorectal cancer risk due to consumption of meat with high heme content by CE could not be drawn, since the effective concentrations are beyond the physiologically relevant concentrations. PMID:19527781

  6. New insight into the influence of carob extract and gallic acid on hemin induced modulation of HT29 cell growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Klenow, Stefanie; Glei, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Red meat intake is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. This is possibly related to the heme content of red meat. Plant derived polyphenols might protect from cancer development via their antioxidant activities. In this study, the impact of an aqueous extract of carob (CE) on hemin-modulated proliferation was investigated. CE, gallic acid (GA) and a known iron chelator (deferoxamine: DFO) significantly reduced the number of human colon cancer HT29 cells. CE and GA were more effective under serum-free conditions than in normal cell culture medium. These effects were abolished by addition of 1 microM hemin at low concentrations of CE and GA. At higher concentrations of CE and GA, both substances reduced cell number despite hemin supplementation. Effects of CE, GA and DFO on cell number could not be linked to iron chelation even though CE and DFO were capable of chelating iron. Furthermore, the effects of high CE concentration point to antioxidative effects other than iron chelation. However, a connection to a reduction of colorectal cancer risk due to consumption of meat with high heme content by CE could not be drawn, since the effective concentrations are beyond the physiologically relevant concentrations.

  7. Characterization of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX co-cultures in an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-cultures of two human cell lines, Caco-2 and HT29-MTX mucus producing cells, have been incorporated into an in vitro digestion/cell culture model used to predict iron bioavailability. A range of different foods were subjected to in vitro digestion and iron bioavailability from digests was assesse...

  8. Ethanol Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa – an Effective Chemotherapeutic for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soojin; Shim, Ji Hwan; Gim, Huijin; Park, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally used to relieve the symptoms of and to treat various diseases, but its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied. In the present study, the authors investigated the anti-cancer effects of an ethanol extract of Oldenlandia diffusa (EOD) on HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells. Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations of an EOD, and cell death was assessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Analyses of the sub G1 peak, the caspase-3 and -9 activities, and the mitochondrial membrane depolarizations were conducted to confirm cell death by apoptosis. Also, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using carboxy-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-carboxy-20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate). Results: EOD inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells for 24 hours by 78.6% ± 8.1% at 50 μg/mL, 74.4% ± 4.6% at 100 μg/mL, 65.9% ± 5.2% at 200 μg/mL, 51.4% ± 6.2% at 300 μg/mL, and by 41.7% ± 8.9% at 400 μg/mL, and treatment for 72 hours reduced the proliferation at the corresponding concentrations by 43.3% ± 8.8%, 24.3 ± 5.1 mV, 13.5 ± 3.2 mV, 6.5 ± 2.3 mV, and by 2.6 ± 2.3 mV. EOD increased the number of cells in the sub-G1 peak in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondrial membrane depolarization was elevated by EOD. Also, caspase activities were dose-dependently elevated in the presence of EOD, and these activities were repressed by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk). The ROS generation was significantly increased by EOD and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) remarkably abolished EOD-induced cell death. In addition, a combination of sub-optimal doses of EOD and chemotherapeutic agents noticeably suppressed the growth of HT-29 cancer cells. Conclusion: These results indicate that EOD might be an effective chemotherapeutic for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:27280050

  9. Increased expression of S100A4, a metastasis-associated gene, in human colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, K; Nakanishi, H; Wada, K; Suzuki, M; Matsuzaki, O; Matsuura, A; Endo, H

    1997-12-01

    The S100A4 gene (also known as pEL98/mts1/p9Ka/18A2/42A/calvasculin /FSP1/CAPL) encoding an S100-related calcium-binding protein is implied to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of murine tumor cells. In the present study, the expression of S100A4 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (SW837, LoVo, DLD-1, HT-29, SW480, SW620, WiDr, and Colo201) and surgically resected neoplastic tissues was examined to investigate whether S100A4 plays a role in the invasion and metastasis of human tumor cells. Northern blot analysis using total RNA isolated from the adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed that five of the eight cell lines expressed substantial amounts of S100A4 mRNA. Normal colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) expressed little of the RNA. Using surgically resected specimens, it seemed that the amount of S100A4 mRNA in adenomas was nearly equal to that in normal colonic mucosa, whereas adenocarcinomas expressed a significantly higher amount of the RNA than did the adjacent normal colonic mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens and monoclonal anti-S100A4 antibody demonstrated that none of 12 adenoma specimens were immunopositive, whereas 8 of 18 (44%) focal carcinomas in carcinoma in adenoma specimens and 50 of 53 (94%) adenocarcinoma specimens were immunopositive. Interestingly, the incidence of immunopositive cells increased according to the depth of invasion, and nearly all of the carcinoma cells in 14 metastases in the liver were positive. These results suggest that S100A4 may be involved in the progression and the metastatic process of human colorectal neoplastic cells. PMID:9815629

  10. Screening of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli Able to Antagonize the Cytotoxic Effect of Clostridium difficile upon Intestinal Epithelial HT29 Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Varela, Lorena; Alonso-Guervos, Marta; García-Suárez, Olivia; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen inhabiting the human gut, often being the aetiological agent of infections after a microbiota dysbiosis following, for example, an antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infections (CDI) constitute a growing health problem with increasing rates of morbidity and mortality at groups of risk, such as elderly and hospitalized patients, but also in populations traditionally considered low-risk. This could be related to the occurrence of virulent strains which, among other factors, have high-level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, more efficient sporulation and markedly high toxin production. Several novel intervention strategies against CDI are currently under study, such as the use of probiotics to counteract the growth and/or toxigenic activity of C. difficile. In this work, we have analyzed the capability of twenty Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, from human intestinal origin, to counteract the toxic effect of C. difficile LMG21717 upon the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29. For this purpose, we incubated the bacteria together with toxigenic supernatants obtained from C. difficile. After this co-incubation new supernatants were collected in order to quantify the remnant A and B toxins, as well as to determine their residual toxic effect upon HT29 monolayers. To this end, the real time cell analyser (RTCA) model, recently developed in our group to monitor C. difficile toxic effect, was used. Results obtained showed that strains of Bifidobacterium longum and B. breve were able to reduce the toxic effect of the pathogen upon HT29, the RTCA normalized cell-index values being inversely correlated with the amount of remnant toxin in the supernatant. The strain B. longum IPLA20022 showed the highest ability to counteract the cytotoxic effect of C. difficile acting directly against the toxin, also having the highest capability for removing the toxins from the clostridial toxigenic supernatant. Image analysis

  11. Screening of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli Able to Antagonize the Cytotoxic Effect of Clostridium difficile upon Intestinal Epithelial HT29 Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Varela, Lorena; Alonso-Guervos, Marta; García-Suárez, Olivia; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic pathogen inhabiting the human gut, often being the aetiological agent of infections after a microbiota dysbiosis following, for example, an antibiotic treatment. C. difficile infections (CDI) constitute a growing health problem with increasing rates of morbidity and mortality at groups of risk, such as elderly and hospitalized patients, but also in populations traditionally considered low-risk. This could be related to the occurrence of virulent strains which, among other factors, have high-level of resistance to fluoroquinolones, more efficient sporulation and markedly high toxin production. Several novel intervention strategies against CDI are currently under study, such as the use of probiotics to counteract the growth and/or toxigenic activity of C. difficile. In this work, we have analyzed the capability of twenty Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains, from human intestinal origin, to counteract the toxic effect of C. difficile LMG21717 upon the human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29. For this purpose, we incubated the bacteria together with toxigenic supernatants obtained from C. difficile. After this co-incubation new supernatants were collected in order to quantify the remnant A and B toxins, as well as to determine their residual toxic effect upon HT29 monolayers. To this end, the real time cell analyser (RTCA) model, recently developed in our group to monitor C. difficile toxic effect, was used. Results obtained showed that strains of Bifidobacterium longum and B. breve were able to reduce the toxic effect of the pathogen upon HT29, the RTCA normalized cell-index values being inversely correlated with the amount of remnant toxin in the supernatant. The strain B. longum IPLA20022 showed the highest ability to counteract the cytotoxic effect of C. difficile acting directly against the toxin, also having the highest capability for removing the toxins from the clostridial toxigenic supernatant. Image analysis

  12. An in vivo rat model for early development of colorectal cancer metastasis to liver.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John H P; Yang, Shi Yu; Iga, Arthur M; Seifalian, Alexander M; Winslet, Marc C

    2008-12-01

    At diagnosis of colorectal cancer, approximately 25% of the patients have established colorectal liver metastasis. Optimal management of disseminated disease requires therapies targeting multiple stages in hepatic colorectal cancer metastasis development. To facilitate this, biologically accurate in vivo models are required. Early colonic cancer liver metastases development was studied using BDIX and Sprague-Dawley rat strains with human HT29 and rat DHDK12 colonic cancer cell lines. Different cancer cell-host combinations were used. Rat DHDK12 was previously chemically induced in the BDIX rat. Real-time intra-vital microscopy was employed to analyse the early development of liver metastases in four groups (n = 6 per group) (HT29-BDIX, DHDK12-BDIX, HT29-SD and DHDK12-SD). Data were compared using one-way anova with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. The total number of tumour cells visualized, adherent cells within the hepatic sinusoids, extravasated tumour cells and migration rates were significantly higher in the DHDK12-BDIX combination. Maximum number of visualized cells and maximum migration rate were also significantly higher in this group. No significant differences were observed in these experimental parameters among the other three groups or in the haemodynamic parameters among all groups. In conclusion, cancer cell line-host selection has a significant effect on early colonic cancer liver metastasis development.

  13. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on E-type prostaglandin synthesis and EP4 receptor signaling in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hawcroft, Gillian; Loadman, Paul M; Belluzzi, Andrea; Hull, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the free fatty acid (FFA) form, has been demonstrated to reduce adenoma number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the mechanistic basis of the antineoplastic activity of EPA in the colorectum remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that EPA-FFA negatively modulates synthesis of and signaling by prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. EPA-FFA induced apoptosis of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-positive human HCA-7 CRC cells in vitro. EPA-FFA in cell culture medium was incorporated rapidly into phospholipid membranes of HCA-7 human CRC cells and acted as a substrate for COX-2, leading to reduced synthesis of PGE(2) and generation of PGE(3). Alone, PGE(3) bound and activated the PGE(2) EP4 receptor but with reduced affinity and efficacy compared with its "natural" ligand PGE(2). However, in the presence of PGE(2), PGE(3) acted as an antagonist of EP4 receptor-dependent 3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate induction in naturally EP4 receptor-positive LoVo human CRC cells and of resistance to apoptosis in HT-29-EP4 human CRC cells overexpressing the EP4 receptor. We conclude that EPA-FFA drives a COX-2-dependent "PGE(2)-to-PGE(3) switch" in human CRC cells and that PGE(3) acts as a partial agonist at the PGE(2) EP4 receptor.

  14. Microcystin-LR promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer through matrix metalloproteinase-13 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chen; Ren, Yan; Chen, Meng; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is an environmental toxin from blooms of cyanobacteria and it has been shown to be one of the environmental carcinogens for the progression of colorectal carcinoma. However, there is no direct evidence that MC-LR can induce colorectal cancer migration and invasion. In the present study, 0.04 or 40 µg/kg/d (human tolerable daily intake value of MC-LR) MC-LR treatment was observed to induce Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression in tumor tissues and local invasion in DLD-1 xenograft model. The results are consistent with those of cell test showing that MC-LR treatment enhanced migration and invasion of DLD-1, HT-29, and SW480 cells and are also correlated with the increased mRNA and protein levels of MMP-13 by Quantitative real-time PCR, Luciferase assay, and Western blot assay respectively in DLD-1 cells and HT-29 cells after MC-LR exposure. In addition, MMP-13 siRNA inhibited MC-LR induced migration and invasion enhancement and MMP-13 over-expression in DLD-1 cells and HT-29 cells. This is the first paper confirming MC-LR-induced MMP-13 expression can promote colorectal cancer invasion and migration. Further investigation revealed that phosphorylation of AKT increased in MC-LR-treated cells, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt. (PI3-K/AKT) inhibitor LY294002 effectively abolished MC-LR-enhanced migration and invasion and MMP-13 expression. Therefore, based on these observations, we concluded that the activation of PI3K/AKT by MC-LR results in MMP-13 expression, leading to the migration and invasion of DLD-1 cells and HT-29 cells. The study provides a mechanistic insight into the promoting colorectal cancer functions of MC-LR.

  15. All Trans-Retinoic Acid Mediates MED28/HMG Box-Containing Protein 1 (HBP1)/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Li, Chun-I

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin A is required for normal body function, including vision, epithelial integrity, growth, and differentiation. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a family member of vitamin A, has been explored in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disrupted cadherin-catenin complex often contribute to colorectal malignancy. MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, is found highly expressed in breast and colorectal cancers. Our laboratory has also reported that MED28 regulates cell growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of ATRA on MED28 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer. HCT116, HT29, SW480, and SW620, four human colorectal cancer cell lines representing different stages of carcinogenesis and harboring critical genetic changes, were employed. Our data indicated that regardless of genetic variations among these cells, suppression of MED28 reduced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and nuclear β-catenin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin and HMG box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) where HBP1 has been described as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The reporter activity of an HBP1 promoter increased upon MED28 knockdown, but decreased upon MED28 overexpression. ATRA reduced the expression of MED28 and mimicked the effect of MED28 suppression in down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, ATRA can reverse the suppressive effect of MED28 on HBP1 and E-cadherin and inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer, suggesting a protective effect of ATRA against colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1796-1803, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. All Trans-Retinoic Acid Mediates MED28/HMG Box-Containing Protein 1 (HBP1)/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Fen; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Li, Chun-I

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin A is required for normal body function, including vision, epithelial integrity, growth, and differentiation. All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a family member of vitamin A, has been explored in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of cancer. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disrupted cadherin-catenin complex often contribute to colorectal malignancy. MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, is found highly expressed in breast and colorectal cancers. Our laboratory has also reported that MED28 regulates cell growth, migration, and invasion in human breast cancer cells. In the current study we investigated the effect of ATRA on MED28 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer. HCT116, HT29, SW480, and SW620, four human colorectal cancer cell lines representing different stages of carcinogenesis and harboring critical genetic changes, were employed. Our data indicated that regardless of genetic variations among these cells, suppression of MED28 reduced the expression of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and nuclear β-catenin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin and HMG box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) where HBP1 has been described as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The reporter activity of an HBP1 promoter increased upon MED28 knockdown, but decreased upon MED28 overexpression. ATRA reduced the expression of MED28 and mimicked the effect of MED28 suppression in down-regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, ATRA can reverse the suppressive effect of MED28 on HBP1 and E-cadherin and inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer, suggesting a protective effect of ATRA against colorectal cancer. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1796-1803, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26660958

  17. Continuous administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine, even after acquired resistance to bevacizumab, restored anti-angiogenic and antitumor effect in a human colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Masamichi; Harada, Suguru; Yorozu, Keigo; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Kaname

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralizing therapy with bevacizumab has become increasingly important for treating colorectal cancer. It was demonstrated that second-line chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) on first-line therapy including bevacizumab showed clinical benefits in metastatic colorectal and breast cancers (ML18147 trial, TANIA trial). One of the rationales for these trials was that the refractoriness to first-line therapy is caused by resistance to not so much bevacizumab as to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, resistance to bevacizumab cannot be ruled out because VEGF-independent angiogenesis has been reported to be a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. In this study, we used a xenograft model with the human colon cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of continued administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine even after resistance to bevacizumab was acquired. The combination of capecitabine plus bevacizumab exhibited significantly stronger antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities than did monotherapy with either agent. Capecitabine treatment significantly increased the intratumoral VEGF level compared with the control group; however, the combination with bevacizumab neutralized the VEGF. Among angiogenic factors other than VEGF, intratumoral galectin-3, which reportedly promotes angiogenesis both dependent on, and independently of VEGF, was significantly decreased in the capecitabine group and the combination group compared with the control group. In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an active metabolite of capecitabine, inhibited galectin-3 production by HT-29 cells. These results suggested that capecitabine has a dual mode of action: namely, inhibition of tumor cell growth and inhibition of galectin-3 production by tumor cells. Thus, capecitabine and bevacizumab may work in a mutually complementary manner in tumor angiogenesis inhibition

  18. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-05-01

    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET.

  19. Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-05-01

    Black raspberry (BRB) seeds are a major waste product after fruit processing. The seeds are abundant in ellagitannins (ET), a class of hydrolysable tannins, which are hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA) and further metabolized to urolithin A (UA) and urolithin B (UB), known to be bioavailable in the colon and the prostate. In this study, the anti-cancer activities of these compounds were evaluated on HT-29 colon cancer cells. ET, EA, UA and UB inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. EA caused a slight, but significant cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and urolithins caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and upregulated p21 expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay when treated with the compounds. Disruption in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases 8 and 9 suggest that both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways may be involved. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP further confirmed the induction of the apoptosis. ET, EA, UA and UB showed anti-cancer activity by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This study suggests that the BRB seeds could be a potential source of anti-cancer ET. PMID:25906041

  20. HT-29 and Caco-2 Reporter Cell Lines for Functional Studies of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mastropietro, Giuliana; Tiscornia, Inés; Perelmuter, Karen; Astrada, Soledad; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    The NF-κB is a transcription factor which plays a key role in regulating biological processes. In response to signals, NF-κB activation occurs via phosphorylation of its inhibitor, which dissociates from the NF-κB dimer allowing the translocation to the nucleus, inducing gene expression. NF-κB activation has direct screening applications for drug discovery for several therapeutic indications. Thus, pathway-specific reporter cell systems appear as useful tools to screen and unravel the mode of action of probiotics and natural and synthetic compounds. Here, we describe the generation, characterization, and validation of human epithelial reporter cell lines for functional studies of NF-κB activation by different pro- and anti-inflammatory agents. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were transfected with a pNF-κB-hrGFP plasmid which contains the GFP gene under the control of NF-κB binding elements. Three proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and LPS) were able to activate the reporter systems in a dose-response manner, which corresponds to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, the reporter cell lines were validated using lactic acid bacteria and a natural compound. We have established robust Caco-2-NF-κB-hrGFP and HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter cell lines which represent a valuable tool for primary screening and identification of bacterial strains and compounds with a potential therapeutic interest. PMID:25861164

  1. Optimization of Caco-2 and HT29 co-culture in vitro cell models for permeability studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengguang; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriate proportion of Caco-2 and HT29 co-culture in vitro cell models for permeability studies. The results showed that the transepithelial electrical resistance values of 9:1 and 1:0 groups (263 ± 3.61 and 300 ± 7.55) after 21-day culture were >250 Ω cm(2), which were suitable for further experiments. The confocal laser microscopy showed that the group of 9:1 (Caco-2:HT29) had the highest integrity, whereas the group of 0:1 (Caco-2:HT29) exhibited the lowest. The staining study confirmed that mucus was successfully produced by HT29 cells, and it was also produced in co-cultures with Caco-2 cells model, but the Caco-2 monocultures did not have any blue staining, which made us affirm that mucus is only produced in the presence of HT29 cells. The real-time PCR results showed that the total highest expression level of ALPi and MUC5AC was the ratio of 9:1 (Caco-2:HT29) and lowest is 1:1 (Caco-2:HT29). So we concluded that 9:1 (Caco-2:HT29) is the optimal Caco-2 to HT29 ratio in the in vitro model co-culture for permeability studies. PMID:26299896

  2. Glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum L. kills HT-29 cells through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kye-Taek

    2005-01-01

    Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) has been used in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity. We previously isolated glycoprotein from SNL and observed that it decreased viable HT-29 cell numbers at a low concentration (60 microg/mL). This study investigated the apoptotic signal pathway triggered by glycoprotein isolated from SNL in HT-29 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with SNL glycoprotein (60 microg/mL) for 4 hours resulted in a cytotoxic effect of more than 60%, compared with the control. To explain the apoptotic effects of SNL glycoprotein, we investigated its effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) alpha activity and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor (NF) kappaB in HT-29 cells, using western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Results from these experiments showed that SNL glycoprotein has remarkable inhibitory effects on the activities of TPA (100 nM)-stimulated PKCalpha and NF-kappaB in HT-29 cells. They also substantiated that PKCalpha is a part of the TPA-activated upstream signal pathway of NF-kappaB, since NF-kappaB activity was inhibited by staurosporine (a PKC inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an NF-kappaB inhibitor) in a western blot analysis. Furthermore, to verify the triggering of apoptosis by the SNL glycoprotein, we performed DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining, and protein expression assays of apoptotic-related proteins. The amount of DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with SNL glycoprotein. Apoptosis-related protein assays demonstrated that SNL glycoprotein-induced apoptosis is associated with the regulation of bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, the results of this study showed that the activation of PKCalpha, NF-kappaB, and Bax expression by SNL glycoprotein is possibly involved in the apoptotic process. Consequently, these results indicate that SNL glycoprotein causes HT-29 cell death through

  3. Dual Anti-Metastatic and Anti-Proliferative Activity Assessment of Two Probiotics on HeLa and HT-29 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Zahra; Karami, Fatemeh; Neyazi, Nadia; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Karimi, Roya; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Taheri, Behrooz; Motevaseli, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lactobacilli are a group of probiotics with beneficial effects on prevention of cancer. However, there is scant data in relation with the impacts of probiotics in late-stage cancer progration, especially metastasis. The present original work was aimed to evaluate the anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative activity of lactobacillus rhamnosus supernatant (LRS) and lactobacillus crispatus supernatant (LCS) on the human cervical and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (HeLa and HT-29, respectively). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the anti-proliferative activities of LRS and LCS were determined through MTT assay. MRC-5 was used as a normal cell line. Expression analysis of CASP3, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 genes was performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), following the cell synchronization. Results Supernatants of these two lactobacilli had cytotoxic effect on HeLa, however LRS treatment was only effective on HT-29 cell line. In addition, LRS had no side-effect on normal cells. It was shown that CASP3 gene expression has been reduced after treatment with supernatants of two studied lactobacilli. According to our study, LRS and LCS are efficacious in the prevention of metastasis potency in HeLa cells with decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and increased expression of their inhibitors. In the case of HT-29 cells, only LRS showed this effect. Conclusion Herein, we have demonstrated two probiotics which have anti-metastatic effects on malignant cells and they can be administrated to postpone late-stage of cancer disease. LRS and LCS are effective on HeLa cell lines while only the effect of LRS is significant on HT-29, through cytotoxic and anti-metastatic mechanisms. Further assessments are required to evaluate our results on the other cancer cell lines, in advance to use these probiotics in other extensive trial studies. PMID:27551673

  4. Simvastatin downregulated C35 expression and inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells Lovo and HT29 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Huang, Yong; Dong, Xuan; Wei, Qingkuan; Li, Jin; Sun, Hui; Li, Chenchen; Qi, Conghu; Yang, Jingyu

    2016-07-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of simvastatin in human colon cancer and the possible underlying mechanism. We found that simvastatin dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells Lovo and HT29 using a MTT assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting assays showed that simvastatin significantly suppressed C35 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Since C35 is known to have a significant oncogenic role in cancer development via promoting cell proliferation and migration, results obtained in the current study imply that downregulation of C35 expression might be involved in the antitumor effect of simvastatin on colon cancer.

  5. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers. PMID:27304964

  6. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-06-13

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  7. White tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibits proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HT-29, activates caspases and protects DNA of normal cells against oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Kanthimathi, M S; Sanusi, Junedah; Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar

    2015-02-15

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.

  8. Variations in patterns of DNA damage induced in human colorectal tumor cells by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine: implications for mechanisms of resistance and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Canman, C E; Tang, H Y; Normolle, D P; Lawrence, T S; Maybaum, J

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of the HT29 human colorectal tumor (HCT) cell line with 100 nM 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd) induces DNA fragments ranging from 50 kilobases to 5 megabases. The studies reported here were conducted to characterize the kinetics, concentration dependence, and pharmacologic specificity of this process and to determine if such fragmentation varies among HCT cell lines. HT29 and SW620 cells yielded similar fragment size distributions upon treatment with either FdUrd or CB3717 [a folate analog inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS)]. With either of these agents the SW620 line required higher drug concentrations or longer incubation times than HT29 cells to achieve a given level of fragmentation or cytotoxicity, even though the two cell lines are equally sensitive to FdUrd-induced TS inhibition. These data indicate that SW620 resistance is not due to a lesion in the events leading up to TS inhibition but it may be due to a difference in the steps following TS inhibition. Aphidicolin, a DNA polymerase inhibitor, did not cause substantial fragmentation or cytotoxicity in these two cell lines, demonstrating that the fragmentation response to the other two drugs is not a general consequence of DNA synthesis inhibition. A third HCT line, HuTu80, gave rise only to a smaller and more discrete population of DNA fragments, ranging from approximately 50 to 200 kilobases, following exposure to FdUrd. Similar patterns were seen in this line upon treatment with CB3717 or aphidicolin, indicating that this fragmentation pattern is not specific to TS inhibition and may be characteristic of a more general response than that seen in the other two cell lines. DNA fragments induced by FdUrd in HuTu80 cells did not degrade into smaller pieces, demonstrating that the process by which they are formed is distinct from apoptosis. We conclude that the responses of HCT cells to FdUrd-induced TS inhibition vary significantly, that these differences may reflect

  9. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gestl, Erin E.; Anne Boettger, S.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated with p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed elevated p53

  10. Atmospheric pressure gas plasma-induced colorectal cancer cell death is mediated by Nox2-ASK1 apoptosis pathways and oxidative stress is mitigated by Srx-Nrf2 anti-oxidant system.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Musarat; Evans, Margaret D M; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure gas plasma (AGP) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce apoptosis in cultured cancer cells. The majority of cancer cells develop a ROS-scavenging anti-oxidant system regulated by Nrf2, which confers resistance to ROS-mediated cancer cell death. Generation of ROS is involved in the AGP-induced cancer cell death of several colorectal cancer cells (Caco2, HCT116 and SW480) by activation of ASK1-mediated apoptosis signaling pathway without affecting control cells (human colonic sub-epithelial myofibroblasts; CO18, human fetal lung fibroblast; MRC5 and fetal human colon; FHC). However, the identity of an oxidase participating in AGP-induced cancer cell death is unknown. Here, we report that AGP up-regulates the expression of Nox2 (NADPH oxidase) to produce ROS. RNA interference designed to target Nox2 effectively inhibits the AGP-induced ROS production and cancer cell death. In some cases both colorectal cancer HT29 and control cells showed resistance to AGP treatment. Compared to AGP-sensitive Caco2 cells, HT29 cells show a higher basal level of the anti-oxidant system transcriptional regulator Nrf2 and its target protein sulfiredoxin (Srx) which are involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Silencing of both Nrf2 and Srx sensitized HT29 cells, leads to ROS overproduction and decreased cell viability. This indicates that in HT29 cells, Nrf2/Srx axis is a protective factor against AGP-induced oxidative stress. The inhibition of Nrf2/Srx signaling should be considered as a central target in drug-resistant colorectal cancer treatments.

  11. Sorafenib and Radiation: A Promising Combination in Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Andrew W.; Galoforo, Sandra; Marples, Brian; McGonagle, Michele; Downing, Laura; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Robertson, John M.; Wilson, George D.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To examine the combination of radiation and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in human colorectal cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: HT29 and SW48 colorectal cancer cells were studied in vitro using MTT assays to establish the optimal timing of radiation and sorafenib. This optimal timing was then investigated in clonogenic survival assays. Xenografts were established, and the effect of a 3-week schedule of daily radiation and sorafenib was studied by growth delay. Results: Sorafenib predominantly had minimal effects on cell growth or radiation response in MTT growth assays, though growth inhibition was significantly enhanced in HT29 cells when sorafenib was administered after radiation. The highest dose of sorafenib altered the {alpha} component of the cell survival curve in clonogenic assays. The combination of radiation and sorafenib was synergistic in SW48 xenografts, with a mean time to threshold tumor size of 11.4 {+-} 1.0 days, 37.0 {+-} 9.5 days, 15.5 {+-} 3.2 days, and 98.0 {+-} 11.7 days in the control, radiation, sorafenib, and combined treatment group, respectively. The effect on HT29 tumors was additive, with mean time to threshold volume of 12.6 {+-} 1.1 days, 61.0 {+-} 4.3 days, 42.6 {+-} 11.7 days, and 100.2 {+-} 12.4 days. Conclusions: Sorafenib had little effect on radiation response in vitro but was highly effective when combined with radiation in vivo, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation and interference with angiogenesis may be the basis for the interaction.

  12. Production of immune response mediators by HT-29 intestinal cell-lines in the presence of Bifidobacterium-treated infant microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, S; Bahrami, B; Macfarlane, S; Gueimonde, M; Macfarlane, G T; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G

    2015-01-01

    The colonisation and establishment of the intestinal microbiota starts immediately at birth and is essential for the development of the intestine and the immune system. This microbial community gradually increases in number and diversity until the age of two or three years when it becomes a stable ecosystem resembling that of adults. This period constitutes a unique window of opportunity to modulate it through probiotic action, with a potential impact in later health. In the present work we have investigated how putative bifidobacterial probiotics modify the metabolic profiles and immune-modulatory properties of faecal microbiotas. An in vitro pH-controlled single-stage continuous-culture system (CCS) inoculated with infant faeces was employed to characterise the effects of two Bifidobacterium species on the intestinal microbiotas in three children, together with the effects of these modified microbiotas on cytokine production by HT-29 cells. Intestinal bacterial communities, production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate were determined by quantitative PCR and gas chromatography, respectively. Cytokines production by HT-29 cells was measured by ELISA. The combination of CCS with infant faeces and human intestinal cells provided a suitable model to evaluate the specific modulation of the intestinal microbiota and immune system by probiotics. In the CCS, infant faecal microbiotas were influenced by the addition of bifidobacteria, resulting in changes in their ability to induce the production of immune mediators by HT-29 cells. The different metabolic and immunological responses induced by the bifidobacterial species tested indicate the need to assess potential probiotics in model systems including complex intestinal microbiotas. Potential probiotic bifidobacteria can modulate the infant microbiota and its ability to induce the production of mediators of the immune response by intestinal cells.

  13. [Transport of PLGA nanoparticles across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells].

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhen; Li, Gang; Lin, Dong-Hai; Wang, Jun-Teng; Qin, Li-Fang; Guo, Gui-Ping

    2013-12-01

    The present study is to establish Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells and investigate the transport capability of PLGA nanoparticles with different surface chemical properties across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells. PLGA-NPs, mPEG-PLGA-NPs and chitosan coated PLGA-NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) as carrier material with surface modified by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and chitosan. The particle size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were measured by dynamic light scattering. Coumarin 6 was used as a fluorescent marker in the transport of nanoparticles investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The transport of furanodiene (FDE) loaded nanoparticles was quantitively determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Colchicine and nocodazole were used in the transport study to explore the involved endocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles. Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 was also analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. The results showed that the nanoparticles dispersed uniformly. The zeta potential of PLGA-NPs was negative, the mPEG-PLGA-NPs was close to neutral and the CS-PLGA-NPs was positive. The entrapment efficiency of FDE in all nanoparticles was higher than 75%. The transport capability of mPEG-PLGA-NPs across Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultured cells was higher than that of PLGA-NPs and CS-PLGA-NPs. Colchicine and nocodazole could significantly decrease the transport amount of nanoparticles. mPEG-PLGA-NPs could obviously reduce the distribution of ZO-1 protein than PLGA-NPs and CS-PLGA-NPs. The transport mechanism of PLGA-NPs and mPEG-PLGA-NPs were indicated to be a combination of endocytosis and paracellular way, while CS-PLGA-NPs mainly relied on the endocytosis way. PEG coating could shield the surface charge and enhance the hydrophilicity of PLGA nanoparticles, which leads mPEG-PLGA-NPs to possess higher anti-adhesion activity. As a result, mPEG-PLGA-NPs could penetrate the mucus

  14. Preclinical evaluation of destruxin B as a novel Wnt signaling target suppressing proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Chi-Tai; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Ye, Min; Wu, Wen-Shi; Chang, Tung-Chen; Wang, Liang-Shun; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Wu, Alexander T.H.; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2012-05-15

    In continuation to our studies toward the identification of direct anti-cancer targets, here we showed that destruxin B (DB) from Metarhizium anisopliae suppressed the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in human colorectal cancer (CRC) HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. Additionally, DB induced apoptosis in HT29 cells by decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while increased pro-apoptotic Bax. On the other hand, DB attenuated Wnt-signaling by downregulation of β-catenin, Tcf4 and β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activity, concomitantly with decreased expression of β-catenin target genes cyclin D1, c-myc and survivin. Furthermore, DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through suppressed MMPs-2 and -9 enzymatic activities. We also found that DB targeted the MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt pathway by reduced expression of Akt, IKK-α, JNK, NF-κB, c-Jun and c-Fos while increased that of IκBα. Finally, we demonstrated that DB inhibited tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice using non-invasive bioluminescence technique. Consistently, tumor samples from DB-treated mice demonstrated suppressed expression of β-catenin, cyclin D1, survivin, and endothelial marker CD31 while increased caspase-3 expression. Collectively, our data supports DB as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway that may be beneficial in the CRC management. Highlights: ► Destruxin B (DB) inhibited colorectal cancer cells growth and induced apoptosis. ► MAPK and/or PI3K/Akt cascade cooperates in DB induced apoptosis. ► DB affected the migratory and invasive ability of HT29 cells through MMP-9. ► DB attenuated Wnt-signaling components β-catenin, Tcf4. ► DB attenuated cyclin D1, c-myc, survivin and tumorigenesis in HT29 xenograft mice.

  15. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside suppresses human colorectal cancer cell metastasis through inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Leung, Wan; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Lee, Chining-Ting; Wu, Chih-Chung

    2016-08-01

    2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), a major component of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (He-Shou-Wu), has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its anti-metastatic effect against colorectal cancer is still unclear. In this study, cell migration, invasion and adhesion abilities as well as metastasis-associated protein and NF-κB pathway signaling factor expression were analyzed after treating HT-29 cells with THSG. According to the results, the migration and invasiveness of HT-29 cells were reduced after treatment with 5 or 10 mM THSG (p<0.05). Additionally, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and phosphorylated VE-cadherin in HT-29 cells were reduced and the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of EA.hy926 endothelial cell monolayers was increased after incubation in THSG for 24 h (p<0.05). Cell adhesion ability and the E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein levels were reduced when EA.hy926 endothelial cells were treated with THSG (p<0.05). In addition, the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of IκB, the nuclear p65 level and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were reduced after treating HT-29 or EA.hy926 cells with 5 or 10 mM THSG (p<0.05). These results suggest that THSG inhibits HT-29 cell metastasis by suppressing cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Furthermore, THSG inhibits metastasis-associated protein expression by suppressing NF-κB pathway activation. PMID:27278328

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on human colorectal cancer liver metastasis in orthotopic nude-mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Liver metastasis is the most frequent cause of death from colon and other cancers. Generally, liver metastasis is recalcitrant to treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on liver metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used in the present study. S. typhimurium A1-R infected HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, inhibiting cancer-cell proliferation in vitro. S. typhimurium A1-R promoted tumor necrosis and inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model of HT-29-RFP. In orthotopic mouse models, S. typhimurium A1-R targeted liver metastases and significantly reduced their growth. The results of this study demonstrate the future clinical potential of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of liver metastasis. PMID:26375054

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on human colorectal cancer liver metastasis in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-10-13

    Liver metastasis is the most frequent cause of death from colon and other cancers. Generally, liver metastasis is recalcitrant to treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on liver metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used in the present study. S. typhimurium A1-R infected HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, inhibiting cancer-cell proliferation in vitro. S. typhimurium A1-R promoted tumor necrosis and inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model of HT-29-RFP. In orthotopic mouse models, S. typhimurium A1-R targeted liver metastases and significantly reduced their growth. The results of this study demonstrate the future clinical potential of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of liver metastasis.

  18. Artificial Neural Networks for Prediction of Response to Chemoradiation in HT29 Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, Manish Seierstad, Therese; Roe, Kathrine; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using neural networks for predicting treatment response by using longitudinal measurements of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Methods and Materials: Mice bearing HT29 xenografts were allocated to six treatment groups receiving different combinations of daily chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for 2 weeks. T{sub 2}-weighted and DWMR images were acquired before treatment, twice during fractionated chemoradiation (at days 4 and 11), and four times after treatment ended (at days 18, 25, 32, and 46). A tumor doubling growth delay (T{sub delay}) value was found for individual xenografts. ADC values and treatment groups (1-6) were used as input to a back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict T{sub delay}. Results: When treatment group and ADC values from days 0, 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 46 were used as inputs to the BPNN, a strong correlation between measured and predicted T{sub delay} values was found (R = 0.731, p < 0.01). When ADC values from days 0, 4, and 11, and the treatment group were used as inputs, the correlation between predicted and measured T{sub delay} was 0.693 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: BPNN was successfully used to predict T{sub delay} from tumor ADC values obtained from HT29 xenografts undergoing fractionated chemoradiation therapy.

  19. Various Acylglycerols from Common Oils Exert Different Antitumor Activities on Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; González-Fernández, María J; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Western countries; therefore, the implementation of healthy dietary habits in order to prevent its occurrence is a desirable action. We show here that both free fatty acids (FFAs) and some acylglycerols induce antitumoral actions in the colorectal cancer cell line HT-29. We tested several C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched oils (e.g., sunflower and Echium) as well as other oils, such as arachidonic acid-enriched (Arasco®) and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched (Marinol® and cod liver oil), in addition to coconut and olive oils. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test indicated inhibitory effects on HT-29 cells viability for FFAs, and monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol (DAG) species, while the lactate dehydrogenase test proved that FFAs were the more effective species to induce membrane injury. Conversely, all species did not exhibit actions on CCD-18 normal human colon cells viability. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of necrosis and apoptosis, while the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibition test demonstrated high activity for 2-monoacylglycerols derived from Arasco and sunflower oils. However, different monoacylglycerols and DAGs have also the potential for MAGL inhibition. Therefore, checking for activity on colon cancer cells of specifically designed acylglycerol-derivative species would be a suitable way to design functional foods destined to avoid colorectal cancer initiation. PMID:27007804

  20. Protective Effect of Carnobacterium spp. against Listeria monocytogenes during Host Cell Invasion Using In vitro HT29 Model.

    PubMed

    Pilchová, Tereza; Pilet, Marie-France; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Pazlarová, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of listeriosis results mainly from the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to attach, invade, replicate and survive within various cell types in mammalian tissues. In this work, the effect of two bacteriocin-producing Carnobacterium (C. divergens V41 and C. maltaromaticum V1) and three non-bacteriocinogenic strains: (C. divergens V41C9, C. divergens 2763, and C. maltaromaticum 2762) was investigated on the reduction of L. monocytogenes Scott A plaque-forming during human infection using the HT-29 in vitro model. All Carnobacteria tested resulted in a reduction in the epithelial cell invasion caused by L. monocytogenes Scott A. To understand better the mechanism underlying the level of L. monocytogenes infection inhibition by Carnobacteria, infection assays from various pretreatments of Carnobacteria were assessed. The results revealed the influence of bacteriocin production combined with a passive mechanism of mammalian cell monolayers protection by Carnobacteria. These initial results showing a reduction in L. monocytogenes virulence on epithelial cells by Carnobacteria would be worthwhile analyzing further as a promising probiotic tool for human health. PMID:27617232

  1. Protective Effect of Carnobacterium spp. against Listeria monocytogenes during Host Cell Invasion Using In vitro HT29 Model

    PubMed Central

    Pilchová, Tereza; Pilet, Marie-France; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Pazlarová, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of listeriosis results mainly from the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to attach, invade, replicate and survive within various cell types in mammalian tissues. In this work, the effect of two bacteriocin-producing Carnobacterium (C. divergens V41 and C. maltaromaticum V1) and three non-bacteriocinogenic strains: (C. divergens V41C9, C. divergens 2763, and C. maltaromaticum 2762) was investigated on the reduction of L. monocytogenes Scott A plaque-forming during human infection using the HT-29 in vitro model. All Carnobacteria tested resulted in a reduction in the epithelial cell invasion caused by L. monocytogenes Scott A. To understand better the mechanism underlying the level of L. monocytogenes infection inhibition by Carnobacteria, infection assays from various pretreatments of Carnobacteria were assessed. The results revealed the influence of bacteriocin production combined with a passive mechanism of mammalian cell monolayers protection by Carnobacteria. These initial results showing a reduction in L. monocytogenes virulence on epithelial cells by Carnobacteria would be worthwhile analyzing further as a promising probiotic tool for human health. PMID:27617232

  2. Protective Effect of Carnobacterium spp. against Listeria monocytogenes during Host Cell Invasion Using In vitro HT29 Model

    PubMed Central

    Pilchová, Tereza; Pilet, Marie-France; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Pazlarová, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of listeriosis results mainly from the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to attach, invade, replicate and survive within various cell types in mammalian tissues. In this work, the effect of two bacteriocin-producing Carnobacterium (C. divergens V41 and C. maltaromaticum V1) and three non-bacteriocinogenic strains: (C. divergens V41C9, C. divergens 2763, and C. maltaromaticum 2762) was investigated on the reduction of L. monocytogenes Scott A plaque-forming during human infection using the HT-29 in vitro model. All Carnobacteria tested resulted in a reduction in the epithelial cell invasion caused by L. monocytogenes Scott A. To understand better the mechanism underlying the level of L. monocytogenes infection inhibition by Carnobacteria, infection assays from various pretreatments of Carnobacteria were assessed. The results revealed the influence of bacteriocin production combined with a passive mechanism of mammalian cell monolayers protection by Carnobacteria. These initial results showing a reduction in L. monocytogenes virulence on epithelial cells by Carnobacteria would be worthwhile analyzing further as a promising probiotic tool for human health.

  3. Investigation of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas.

    PubMed

    Yavuzer, Dilek; Karadayi, Nimet; Salepci, Taflan; Baloglu, Huseyin; Dabak, Resat; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been considered to be an etiological agent for anogenital cancers, such as cervical cancer and possibly a subset of cancers of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of human papillomavirus DNA in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples were used for DNA extraction. One hundred and six colorectal carcinomas and 62 adenomas were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV DNA with a control group of 49 cervical tissues with invasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In the study group, we did not find HPV DNA positivity in any of all the colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. In the control group with cervical lesions, 34 out of 49 (69.4%) samples were positive for the HPV DNA. These results indicated that there was no correlation between HPV infection and colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. PMID:20082157

  4. Gene therapy for human colorectal cancer cell lines with recombinant adenovirus 5 based on loss of the insulin-like growth factor 2 imprinting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huiling; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Deng, Qiwen; Li, Rui; Xu, Yeqiong; Chen, Jie; Gao, Tianyi; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Xian; Wang, Shukui

    2015-04-01

    The recombinant oncolytic adenovirus is a novel anticancer agent to replicate selectively in colon cancer cell lines. Loss of imprinting (LOI) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an epigenetic abnormality phenomenon. We utilized the IGF2 LOI in gene therapy for the malignant tumor cell lines. We investigated the tumoricidal effects of IGF2 LOI on four cell lines by oncolytic adenovirus, and constructed novel adenovirus vectors Ad312-E1A and Ad312-EGFP. The expression of E1A was monitored by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The viability and apoptosis of colorectal cells infected with Ad312-E1A were tested by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. In addition, we established a colorectal cancer model in nude mice. The results showed that HCT-8 and HT-29 with IGF2 LOI were infected with Ad312-EGFP and then produced the EGFP. Nevertheless, SW480 and GES-1, which were IGF2 MOI, did not produce the EGFP. The Ad312-E1A obviously reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in HCT-8 and HT-29 in vitro, and successfully suppressed tumor growth in HT-29 xenografts in nude mice. In summary, the conditionally replicative adenovirus with loss of IGF2 imprinting system has a positive effect on gene therapy.

  5. A novel synthetic C-1 analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin induces apoptosis in p53 positive and negative human colorectal cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria: enhancement of activity by tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dennis; Tremblay, Phillip; Mahngar, Kevinjeet; Akbari-Asl, Pardis; Collins, Jonathan; Hudlicky, Tomas; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2012-06-01

    The natural compound pancratistatin (PST), isolated from the Hymenocallis littoralis plant, specifically induces apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. Unlike many other chemotherapeutics, PST is not genotoxic and has minimal adverse effects on non-cancerous cells. However, its availability for preclinical and clinical work is limited due to its low availability in its natural source and difficulties in its chemical synthesis. Several synthetic analogues of 7-deoxypancratistatin with different modifications at C-1 were synthesized and screened for apoptosis inducing activity in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We found that a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin, JC-TH-acetate-4 (JCTH-4), was effective in inducing apoptosis in both p53 positive (HCT 116) and p53 negative (HT-29) human CRC cell lines, demonstrating similar efficacy to that of natural PST. JCTH-4 was able to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increase levels of reactive oxygen species in isolated mitochondria, cause release of the apoptogenic factor cytochrome c (Cyto c) from isolated mitochondria, and induce autophagy in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. Interestingly, when JCTH-4 was administered with tamoxifen (TAM), there was an enhanced effect in apoptosis induction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Cyto c release by isolated mitochondria, and autophagic induction by CRC cells. Minimal toxicity was exhibited by a normal human fetal fibroblast (NFF) and a normal colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cell line. Hence, JCTH-4 is a novel compound capable of selectively inducing apoptosis and autophagy in CRC cells alone and in combination with TAM and may serve as a safer and more effective alternative to current cancer therapies. PMID:21494837

  6. Microencapsulation of human cells: its effects on growth of normal and tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, S. M.; Hopwood, D.; Newman, E. L.; Cuschieri, A.

    1991-01-01

    The growth kinetics of established human colorectal tumour cell lines (HT29, HT115 and COLO 320DM) and human diploid fibroblasts (Flow 2002) were studied in conventional culture and in microcapsules formed from alginate-poly(L-lysine)-alginate membranes. The tumour lines grew rapidly in microcapsules but, in the case of the substrate-adherent lines HT29 and HT115, only after a prolonged lag phase. This phase was reduced by serial passage in microcapsules. The anchorage-independent line COLO 320DM showed no lengthening in lag phase. Microencapsulated fibroblasts underwent negligible growth but remained viable. Some evidence for functional differentiation (microvilli, cell-cell junctions) of the tumour line HT115 within the microcapsules was observed. We conclude that the use of microcapsules provides an alternative system with some advantages for the study of human cancer and its metastases in vitro. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:2039691

  7. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Athymic Mice Bearing HT-29 Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging technology is a highly sensitive imaging modality and has been widely used in noninvasively studying the status of receptor expression in small animal models, with an appropriate NIRF probe targeting a specific receptor. In this report, Cy5.5-conjugated anti-CAIX monoclonal antibody (Mab-Cy5.5) was evaluated in athymic mice bearing HT-29 tumor xenografts in order to investigate the effect of conjugate on tumor targeting efficacy. In vitro binding studies showed that Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the cells which expressed CAIX. Results from in vivo imaging showed that HT-29 tumor xenografts can be clearly visualized at 48 h after injection of Mab-Cy5.5, and in the blocking experiment, free anti-CAIX antibody effectively blocked the concentration of Mab-Cy5.5 in the tumors. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of HT-29 tumor xenografts verified the expression of CAIX in HT-29 tumors. Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the tumors which expressed CAIX. These results suggested that Mab-Cy5.5 was suitable for CAIX expression imaging in the preclinical research. PMID:27652266

  8. Adrenaline promotes cell proliferation and increases chemoresistance in colon cancer HT29 cells through induction of miR-155

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Jun; Bai, Danna; Yang, Xia; Lu, Xiaozhao; Xu, Lijuan; Lu, Jianguo

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline increases colon cancer cell proliferation and its resistance to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adrenaline activates NF{kappa}B in a dose dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway contributes to cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Recently, catecholamines have been described as being involved in the regulation of cancer genesis and progression. Here, we reported that adrenaline increased the cell proliferation and decreased the cisplatin induced apoptosis in HT29 cells. Further study found that adrenaline increased miR-155 expression in an NF{kappa}B dependent manner. HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 had a higher cell growth rate and more resistance to cisplatin induced apoptosis. In contrast, HT29 cells overexpressing miR-155 inhibitor displayed decreased cell proliferation and sensitivity to cisplatin induced cell death. In summary, our study here revealed that adrenaline-NF{kappa}B-miR-155 pathway at least partially contributes to the psychological stress induced proliferation and chemoresistance in HT29 cells, shedding light on increasing the therapeutic strategies of cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Comparative proteomics analysis of the antitumor effect of CIGB-552 peptide in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Núñez de Villavicencio-Díaz, Teresa; Ramos Gómez, Yassel; Oliva Argüelles, Brizaida; Fernández Masso, Julio R; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; Cruz García, Yiliam; Guirola-Cruz, Osmany; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Javier González, Luis; Tiscornia, Inés; Victoria, Sabina; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Besada Pérez, Vladimir; Guerra Vallespi, Maribel

    2015-08-01

    The second generation peptide CIGB-552 has a pro-apoptotic effect on H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells and displays a potent cytotoxic effect in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells though its action mechanism is ill defined. Here, we present the first proteomic study of peptide effect in HT-29 cells using subcellular fractionation, protein and peptide fractionation by DF-PAGE and LC-MS/MS peptide identification. In particular, we explored the nuclear proteome of HT-29 cells at a 5h treatment identifying a total of 68 differentially modulated proteins, 49 of which localize to the nucleus. The differentially modulated proteins were analyzed following a system biology approach. Results pointed to a modulation of apoptosis, oxidative damage removal, NF-κB activation, inflammatory signaling and of cell adhesion and motility. Further Western blot and flow-cytometry experiments confirmed both pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CIGB-552 peptide in HT-29 cells. PMID:26013411

  10. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Athymic Mice Bearing HT-29 Tumor Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Bao, Baoliang; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging technology is a highly sensitive imaging modality and has been widely used in noninvasively studying the status of receptor expression in small animal models, with an appropriate NIRF probe targeting a specific receptor. In this report, Cy5.5-conjugated anti-CAIX monoclonal antibody (Mab-Cy5.5) was evaluated in athymic mice bearing HT-29 tumor xenografts in order to investigate the effect of conjugate on tumor targeting efficacy. In vitro binding studies showed that Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the cells which expressed CAIX. Results from in vivo imaging showed that HT-29 tumor xenografts can be clearly visualized at 48 h after injection of Mab-Cy5.5, and in the blocking experiment, free anti-CAIX antibody effectively blocked the concentration of Mab-Cy5.5 in the tumors. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of HT-29 tumor xenografts verified the expression of CAIX in HT-29 tumors. Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the tumors which expressed CAIX. These results suggested that Mab-Cy5.5 was suitable for CAIX expression imaging in the preclinical research. PMID:27652266

  11. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Athymic Mice Bearing HT-29 Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging technology is a highly sensitive imaging modality and has been widely used in noninvasively studying the status of receptor expression in small animal models, with an appropriate NIRF probe targeting a specific receptor. In this report, Cy5.5-conjugated anti-CAIX monoclonal antibody (Mab-Cy5.5) was evaluated in athymic mice bearing HT-29 tumor xenografts in order to investigate the effect of conjugate on tumor targeting efficacy. In vitro binding studies showed that Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the cells which expressed CAIX. Results from in vivo imaging showed that HT-29 tumor xenografts can be clearly visualized at 48 h after injection of Mab-Cy5.5, and in the blocking experiment, free anti-CAIX antibody effectively blocked the concentration of Mab-Cy5.5 in the tumors. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of HT-29 tumor xenografts verified the expression of CAIX in HT-29 tumors. Mab-Cy5.5 could specifically bind to the tumors which expressed CAIX. These results suggested that Mab-Cy5.5 was suitable for CAIX expression imaging in the preclinical research.

  12. Characterizing metabolic changes in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael D; Zhang, Xing; Park, Jeong-Jin; Siems, William F; Gang, David R; Resar, Linda M S; Reeves, Raymond; Hill, Herbert H

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, despite the fact that it is a curable disease when diagnosed early. The development of new screening methods to aid in early diagnosis or identify precursor lesions at risk for progressing to CRC will be vital to improving the survival rate of individuals predisposed to CRC. Metabolomics is an advancing area that has recently seen numerous applications to the field of cancer research. Altered metabolism has been studied for many years as a means to understand and characterize cancer. However, further work is required to establish standard procedures and improve our ability to identify distinct metabolomic profiles that can be used to diagnose CRC or predict disease progression. The present study demonstrates the use of direct infusion traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry to distinguish metabolic profiles from CRC samples and matched non-neoplastic epithelium as well as metastatic and primary tumors at different stages of disease (T1-T4). By directly infusing our samples, the analysis time was reduced significantly, thus increasing the speed and efficiency of this method compared to traditional metabolomics platforms. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to visualize differences between the metabolic profiles of sample types and to identify the specific m/z features that led to this differentiation. Identification of the distinct m/z features was made using the human metabolome database. We discovered alterations in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative, glycolytic, and polyamine pathways that distinguish tumors from non-malignant colonic epithelium as well as various stages of CRC. Although further studies are needed, our results indicate that colonic epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming during their evolution to CRC, and the distinct metabolites could serve as diagnostic tools or potential targets in therapy or primary prevention. Graphical Abstract

  13. Characterizing metabolic changes in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael D; Zhang, Xing; Park, Jeong-Jin; Siems, William F; Gang, David R; Resar, Linda M S; Reeves, Raymond; Hill, Herbert H

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, despite the fact that it is a curable disease when diagnosed early. The development of new screening methods to aid in early diagnosis or identify precursor lesions at risk for progressing to CRC will be vital to improving the survival rate of individuals predisposed to CRC. Metabolomics is an advancing area that has recently seen numerous applications to the field of cancer research. Altered metabolism has been studied for many years as a means to understand and characterize cancer. However, further work is required to establish standard procedures and improve our ability to identify distinct metabolomic profiles that can be used to diagnose CRC or predict disease progression. The present study demonstrates the use of direct infusion traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry to distinguish metabolic profiles from CRC samples and matched non-neoplastic epithelium as well as metastatic and primary tumors at different stages of disease (T1-T4). By directly infusing our samples, the analysis time was reduced significantly, thus increasing the speed and efficiency of this method compared to traditional metabolomics platforms. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to visualize differences between the metabolic profiles of sample types and to identify the specific m/z features that led to this differentiation. Identification of the distinct m/z features was made using the human metabolome database. We discovered alterations in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative, glycolytic, and polyamine pathways that distinguish tumors from non-malignant colonic epithelium as well as various stages of CRC. Although further studies are needed, our results indicate that colonic epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming during their evolution to CRC, and the distinct metabolites could serve as diagnostic tools or potential targets in therapy or primary prevention. Graphical Abstract

  14. RhoA-dependent Switch between α2β1 and α3β1 Integrins Is Induced by Laminin-5 during Early Stage of HT-29 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gout, Stéphanie P.; Jacquier-Sarlin, Muriel R.; Rouard-Talbot, Laurence; Rousselle, Patricia; Block, Marc R.

    2001-01-01

    Integrin-mediated interactions between the basement membrane and epithelial cells control the differentiation of epithelia. We characterized the modulation of adhesive behaviors to basement membrane proteins and of integrin function in the human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line, which differentiates into enterocytes after the substitution of galactose for glucose in the medium. We demonstrate an increased capability of these cells to adhere to collagen type IV during the early stage of differentiation. This effect occurs without any changes in integrin cell surface expression but rather results from an α2β1/α3β1 integrin switch, α3β1 integrin becoming the major collagen receptor. The increase in laminin-5 secretion and deposit on the matrix is a key factor in the mechanism regulating cell adhesion, because it is responsible for the activation of α3β1 integrin. Furthermore, down-regulation of RhoA GTPase activity occurs during HT-29 cell differentiation and correlates with the activation of the integrin α3β1. Indeed, C3 transferase, a RhoA GTPase inhibitor, induces a similar α2β1/α3β1 switch in undifferentiated HT-29 cells. These results indicate that the decrease in RhoA activation is the biochemical mechanism underlying this integrin switch observed during cell differentiation. The physiological relevance of such modulation of integrin activity in the functioning of the crypt-villus axis is discussed. PMID:11598208

  15. Catabolism of neurotensin by neural (neuroblastoma clone N1E115) and extraneural (HT29) cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Checler, F.; Amar, S.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.

    1986-11-01

    The mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) was inactivated by differentiated neuroblastoma and HT29 cells were characterized. In both cell lines, the sites of primary cleavages of NT were Pro7-Arg8, Arg8-Arg9 and Pro10-Tyr11 bonds. The cleavage at the Pro7-Arg8 bond was totally inhibited by N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Prolyl-Prolinal and therefore resulted from the action of proline endopeptidase. This peptidase also contributed in a major way to the cleavage at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond. However the latter breakdown was partly due to an NT-degrading neutral metallopeptidase. Finally, we demonstrated the involvement of a recently purified rat brain soluble metalloendopeptidase at the Arg8-Arg9 site by the use of its specific inhibitor N-(1(R,S)-carboxy-2-Phenylethyl)-alanylalanylphenylalanine-p-amino benzoate. The secondary processing of NT degradation products revealed differences between HT29 and N1E115 cells. Angiotensin converting enzyme was shown to degrade NT1-10 and NT1-7 in N1E115 cells but was not detected in HT29 cells. A post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity converted NT9-13 into NT11-13 in HT29 cells but not in N1E115 cells. Finally, bestatin-sensitive aminopeptidases rapidly broke down NT11-13 to Tyr in both cell lines. Models for the inactivation of NT in HT29 and N1E115 cells are proposed and compared to that previously described for purified rat brain synaptic membranes.

  16. Plasminogen activators in human colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Gelister, J S; Mahmoud, M; Lewin, M R; Gaffney, P J; Boulos, P B

    1986-01-01

    A crucial step in the transition from adenomatous polyp to invasive colorectal cancer is the degradation of the epithelial basement membrane. Plasminogen activators may play a part in regulating the extracellular protease environment necessary for this to occur. Both functional and antigenic activity of the two principal activators of plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase, were measured in 30 colorectal cancers, matched samples of mucosa, and eight adenomatous polyps. Both polyps (p less than 0.01) and carcinomas (p less than 0.001) had raised urokinase activities compared with normal mucosa, the activity being highest in the carcinomas. Activity of tissue plasminogen activator, however, was diminished in both polyps (p less than 0.01) and carcinomas (p less than 0.001) compared with normal mucosa, the values being lowest in carcinomas. Plasmin generation by urokinase--in contrast with tissue plasminogen activator--is fibrin independent and thus less subject to physiological control. Images p730-a PMID:3094628

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene modulates fluoranthene-induced cellular responses in HT-29 colon cells in a dual exposure system

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly L.; Myers, Jeremy N.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is contaminated with a diverse array of chemicals; one of which is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While some PAHs are potent by nature, others undergo interactions such as additivity, synergism, antagonism or potentiation to manifest their toxicity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a PAH compound influences the cytotoxicity and metabolism of fluoranthene (FLA; another PAH compound) using HT-29 cells. Cells cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium were treated with 1, 5, 10, 25 μM BaP and FLA (0.01% dimethylsulfoxide as vehicle) individually and in combination over the course of 0–96 h. At the end of exposure, cells were stained with propidium iodide and the changes in cell cycle were analyzed using FACS analysis. Apoptosis was determined by caspase-3 assay. Post-incubation, samples were extracted and analyzed for FLA metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Cells exposed to BaP + FLA showed a marginal decrease in growth as compared to FLA alone and vehicle controls. Also, a decline in the percentage of cells in the S and G2 phases compared to G1 phase of cell cycle was noted when cells were treated with BaP and FLA together, compared to individual FLA treatment. The rate of FLA metabolism was more when cells were exposed to FLA in combination with BaP, compared to FLA alone. The enhanced biotransformation of FLA as a result of concomitant exposure to BaP may have implications for colon cancer risks arising from human dietary exposure to PAH mixtures through consumption of barbecued meat. PMID:23732482

  18. Integration of genomic and proteomic data to identify candidate genes in HT-29 cells after incubation with Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Gui; Wu, Yaoping; Qiu, Liang; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

    2016-09-01

    As the predominant group inhabiting the human gastrointestinal tract, bifidobacteria play a vital role in human nutrition, therapeutics, and health by shaping and maintaining the gut ecosystem, reducing blood cholesterol, and promoting the supply of nutrients. The interaction between bacterial cells and human intestinal epithelial cell lines has been studied for decades in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of action. These studies, however, have been limited by lack of genomic and proteomic database to aid in achieving comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms at molecular levels. Microarray data (GSE: 74119) coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were performed to detect differentially expressed genes and proteins in HT-29 cells after incubation with Bifidobacterium bifidum. Real-time quantitative PCR, gene ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were further conducted for mRNA validation, functional annotation, and pathway identification, respectively. According to the results of microarray, 1,717 differentially expressed genes, including 1,693 upregulated and 24 downregulated genes, were selected and classified by the gene ontology database. The iTRAQ analysis identified 43 differentially expressed proteins, where 29 proteins were upregulated and 14 proteins were downregulated. Eighty-two candidate genes showing consistent differences with microarray and iTRAQ were further validated in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells by real-time quantitative PCR. Nine of the top genes showing interesting results with high confidence were further investigated in vivo in mice intestine samples. Integration of genomic and proteomic data provides an approach to identify candidate genes that are more likely to function in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, positive regulation of apoptosis, membrane proteins, and transferase catalysis. These findings might contribute to our understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating the

  19. NHERF-1 regulation of EGF and neurotensin signalling in HT-29 epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Wade A.; Monteith, Gregory R.; Poronnik, Philip

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► NHERF-1 expression was abundant throughout HT-29 cells consistent with a cancerous phenotype. ► Knockdown of NHERF-1 lead to a significant reduction in cell proliferation. ► EGF and neurotensin-mediated proliferation was inhibited by knockdown of NHERF-1. ► Neurotensin-mediated Ca{sup 2+} response was abolished by knockdown of NHERF-1. -- Abstract: Neurotensin receptors (NT-R) and the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) are commonly overexpressed in many epithelial origin tumours. In addition to their role as mitogenic mediators through specific cell signalling, recent studies indicate that the activity/expression of scaffold proteins responsible for the assembly and coordination of the signalling complexes may also have central roles in epithelial transformation. In particular, the “epithelial” PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1 (PDZ) scaffold/adapter protein, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger regulatory factor isoform one (NHERF-1), has been identified as a potential regulator of cellular transformation. NHERF-1 is a known regulator of EGF-R function and plays numerous roles in G-protein-coupled receptor signalling. Because of the synergistic signalling between these two potent mitogens, we investigated a potential role for NHERF-1 in the molecular mechanism linking the aberrant proliferative phenotype initiated by some G-Protein-coupled receptor activators in the colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line. Knockdown (80%) of endogenous NHERF-1 leads to significant reduction in proliferation rate; an effect that could not be recovered by exogenous application of either NT or EGF. Inhibition of the EGF-R with AG1487 also inhibited proliferation and this effect could not be recovered with NT. Knockdown of NHERF-1 significantly altered the expression of the EGF-R, and almost completely abolished the NT-mediated increases in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}. Knockdown of NHERF-1 also attenuated UTP-mediated purinergic Ca{sup 2+} signalling. Taken together, these data

  20. Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, the influence of milk and dairy products on carcinogenesis remains controversial. However, lipids of ruminant origin such as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are known to exhibit beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk lipids of different origin and varying quality presenting as free fatty acid (FFA) solutions on cellular fatty acid distribution, cellular viability, and growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Methods FAME of conventional and Alpine milk lipids (MLcon, MLalp) and cells treated with FFA derivatives of milk lipids were analyzed by means of GC-FID and Ag+-HPLC. Cellular viability and growth of the cells were determined by means of CellTiter-Blue®-assay and DAPI-assay (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), respectively. Results Supplementation with milk lipids significantly decreased viability and growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MLalp showed a lower SFA/MUFA ratio, a 8 fold increased CLA content, and different CLA profile compared to MLcon but did not demonstrate additional growth-inhibitory effects. In addition, total concentration and fatty acid distribution of cellular lipids were altered. In particular, treatment of the cells yielded highest amounts of two types of milk specific major fatty acids (μg FA/mg cellular protein) after 8 h of incubation compared to 24 h; 200 μM of MLcon (C16:0, 206 ± 43), 200 μM of MLalp (C18:1 c9, (223 ± 19). Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) contained in milk lipids was converted to c9,t11-CLA in HT-29 cells. Notably, the ratio of t11,c13-CLA/t7,c9-CLA, a criterion for pasture feeding of the cows, was significantly changed after incubation for 8 h with lipids from MLalp (3.6 - 4.8), compared to lipids from MLcon (0.3 - 0.6). Conclusions Natural lipids from conventional and Alpine milk showed similar growth inhibitory effects. However, different changes in cellular lipid composition

  1. Antiproliferative effects of triterpenoidal derivatives, obtained from the marine sponge Siphonochalina sp., on human hepatic and colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateff, Ahmed; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M; Alarif, Walied M; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Hegazy, Mohamed E; Al Mohammadi, Ameen; Abdelghany, Tamer M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Moustafa, Mohamed A A; Banjer, Zainy M; Azhar, Ahmad S

    2016-01-01

    Three triterpenoidal derivatives [Sipholenol A (1), sipholenol L (2) and sipholenone A (3)] were isolated from the Red Sea sponge Siphonochalina sp. The structures were determined based on spectroscopic measurements (NMR, UV, IR and MS). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines; HepG2, Caco-2 and HT-29. Moreover, the effects of these metabolites on cell cycle progression as well as cell cycle regulating proteins were assessed. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed moderate activity against HepG2 cells with IC(50) values of 17.18 ± 1.18, 24.01 ± 0.59 and 35.06 ± 1.10 μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 exerted a considerable antiproliferative effect with IC(50) values of 4.80 ± 0.18 and 26.64 ± 0.30 μM, respectively, against Caco-2 cells. Finally, 1 and 2 exhibited antiproliferative activity against colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) with IC(50) values of 24.65 ± 0.80 and 4.48 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that these compounds induced cell cycle arrest particularly in G0/G1 and S phases. Furthermore, the triterpenoids increased the expression of cyclin-B1, cyclin-D1 and cleaved caspase-3, as determined by immunofluorescence, indicating an important role of apoptosis in cell death induced by these compounds. PMID:26845717

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans. PMID:26506821

  4. In vivo and in vitro antitumor activity of oxaliplatin in combination with cetuximab in human colorectal tumor cell lines expressing different level of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Balin-Gauthier, Diane; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Rochaix, Philippe; Mallard, Valérie; Thomas, Fabienne; Hennebelle, Isabelle; Bugat, Roland; Canal, Pierre; Allal, Cuider

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of cetuximab (C225, Erbitux, a chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody) in combination with oxaliplatin in vitro and in vivo on four colon cancer cell lines (HCT-8; HT-29, SW620, HCT-116) expressing different levels of EGFR. In vitro, cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin significantly decreased the IC50 values of oxaliplatin in HCT-8 (EGF-R moderate) and HT-29 (EGF-R weak) cell lines, while SW620 (EGF-R negative) and HCT-116 (EGFR strong) cell lines remained unresponsive. This combination was synergistic in HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines while cetuximab induced no major modification of the IC50 of oxaliplatin in HCT-116 or SW620 cell lines. We then determined the effect of cetuximab on the EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation and we highlight a correlation between the basal level of phospho-EGFR and the response to the combination. In vivo, the combination of cetuximab plus oxaliplatin significantly inhibited tumor growth of HCT-8 and HT-29 (tumor delay or Td = 21.6+/-2.9 and 18.0+/-2.9 days respectively, synergistic effect) compared to either oxaliplatin (Td=12.6+/-2.3 and 14.4+/-3.2 days respectively) or cetuximab (Td=13.4+/-2.9 and 14.5+/-2.4 days, respectively) alone in xenograft models. The combination had no effect on HCT-116 and SW-620 cell lines. The observed responses are strictly dependent on the cell type, and are not correlated with the level of EGFR expression but related to the basal level of phospho-EGFR. This study provides promising preclinical results for a possible clinical investigation of the combination of oxaliplatin plus cetuximab in chemorefractory colorectal tumors.

  5. Development of drug-loaded chitosan-vanillin nanoparticles and its cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu-Wang; Wang, Guang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Duan, Wei; Peng, Zheng; Kong, Ling-Xue; Wang, Qing-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan as a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin of arthropods like shrimp and crab, attracts much interest due to its inherent properties, especially for application in biomedical materials. Presently, biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan nanoparticles are attractive for drug delivery. However, some physicochemical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticles still need to be further improved in practice. In this work, chitosan nanoparticles were produced by crosslinking chitosan with 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) through a Schiff reaction. Chitosan nanoparticles were 200-250 nm in diameter with smooth surface and were negatively charged with a zeta potential of - 17.4 mV in neutral solution. Efficient drug loading and drug encapsulation were achieved using 5-fluorouracil as a model of hydrophilic drug. Drug release from the nanoparticles was constant and controllable. The in vitro cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and cellular uptake of the chitosan nanoparticles were evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method, confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometer, respectively. The results indicate that the chitosan nanoparticles crosslinked with vanillin are a promising vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs.

  6. Nuclear factor-kappaB sensitizes to benzyl isothiocyanate-induced antiproliferation in p53-deficient colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abe, N; Hou, D-X; Munemasa, S; Murata, Y; Nakamura, Y

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a dietary isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells, most of which overexpress β-catenin as a result of mutations in the genes for adenomatous polyposis coli or mutations in β-catenin itself. Because nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a plausible target of BITC signaling in inflammatory cell models, we hypothesized that it is also involved in BITC-inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the NF-κB p65 subunit significantly decreased the BITC sensitivity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells with mutated p53 tumor suppressor protein. Treating HT-29 cells with BITC induced the phosphorylation of IκB kinase, IκB-α and p65, the degradation of IκB-α, the translocation of p65 to the nucleus and the upregulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity. BITC also decreased β-catenin binding to a positive cis element of the cyclin D1 promoter and thus inhibited β-catenin-dependent cyclin D1 transcription, possibly through a direct interaction between p65 and β-catenin. siRNA-mediated knockdown of p65 confirmed that p65 negatively affects cyclin D1 expression. On the other hand, when human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells with wild-type p53 were treated with BITC, translocation of p65 to the nucleus was inhibited rather than enhanced. p53 knockout increased the BITC sensitivity of HCT-116 cells in a p65-dependent manner, suggesting that p53 negatively regulates p65-dependent effects. Together, these results identify BITC as a novel type of antiproliferative agent that regulates the NF-κB pathway in p53-deficient colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25412312

  7. Nuclear factor-kappaB sensitizes to benzyl isothiocyanate-induced antiproliferation in p53-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abe, N; Hou, D-X; Munemasa, S; Murata, Y; Nakamura, Y

    2014-01-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a dietary isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells, most of which overexpress β-catenin as a result of mutations in the genes for adenomatous polyposis coli or mutations in β-catenin itself. Because nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a plausible target of BITC signaling in inflammatory cell models, we hypothesized that it is also involved in BITC-inhibited proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the NF-κB p65 subunit significantly decreased the BITC sensitivity of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells with mutated p53 tumor suppressor protein. Treating HT-29 cells with BITC induced the phosphorylation of IκB kinase, IκB-α and p65, the degradation of IκB-α, the translocation of p65 to the nucleus and the upregulation of NF-κB transcriptional activity. BITC also decreased β-catenin binding to a positive cis element of the cyclin D1 promoter and thus inhibited β-catenin-dependent cyclin D1 transcription, possibly through a direct interaction between p65 and β-catenin. siRNA-mediated knockdown of p65 confirmed that p65 negatively affects cyclin D1 expression. On the other hand, when human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells with wild-type p53 were treated with BITC, translocation of p65 to the nucleus was inhibited rather than enhanced. p53 knockout increased the BITC sensitivity of HCT-116 cells in a p65-dependent manner, suggesting that p53 negatively regulates p65-dependent effects. Together, these results identify BITC as a novel type of antiproliferative agent that regulates the NF-κB pathway in p53-deficient colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25412312

  8. HMGB1-mediated autophagy modulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to oxaliplatin via MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weijun; Zhang, Zhenyong; Zhang, Yongxue; Chen, Xinju; Guo, Shikui; Lei, Yi; Xu, Yu; Ji, Chao; Bi, Zhigang; Wang, Kunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms of oxaliplatin-induced drug resistance in human colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116. Our results demonstrate a significant autophagy expression in CRC cells after an oxaliplatin treatment. Administration of oxaliplatin to human CRC cells significantly enhanced the expression of HMGB1, which regulated the autophagy response and negatively regulate the cell apoptosis. Moreover, a decreased oxaliplatin -induced autophagy response and an increased apoptosis level were detected in stable CRC cells harboring HMGB1 shRNA. Then we noted that HMGB1 significantly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/Extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that HMGB1-mediated autophagy modulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to oxaliplatin via MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

  9. Multiple MTS Assay as the Alternative Method to Determine Survival Fraction of the Irradiated HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mahdi; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin

    2016-01-01

    A multiple colorimetric assay has been introduced to evaluate the proliferation and determination of survival fraction (SF) of irradiated cells. The estimation of SF based on the cell-growth curve information is the major advantage of this assay. In this study, the utility of multiple-MTS assay for the SF estimation of irradiated HT-29 colon cancer cells, which were plated before irradiation, was evaluated. The SF of HT-29 colon cancer cells under irradiation with 9 MV photon was estimated using multiple-MTS assay and colony assay. Finally, the correlation between two assays was evaluated. Results showed that there are no significant differences between the SF obtained by two assays at different radiation doses (P > 0.05), and the survival curves have quite similar trends. In conclusion, multiple MTS-assay can be a reliable method to determine the SF of irradiated colon cancer cells that plated before irradiation. PMID:27186539

  10. Lack of association between human papillomavirus infection and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taherian, Hanieh; Fard, Zahra Tahmasebi; Abdirad, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with nearly one million new cases identified annually. Different factors might cause colorectal cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers among both men and women. Viral aetiology in cancerous malignancies is a very important issue and so far a number of viral strains have been identified as tumour oncogene viruses. Viral infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), have recently been suggested as a risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unknown. Aim To assessed the association between HPV infection and colorectal cancer. Material and methods In this study, 50 cancer tissue samples and 50 samples without colon cancer were studied in order to identify HPV through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 42 adenocarcinomas, 10 were well differentiated, 30 moderated differentiated, and 2 were poorly differentiated. DNA extraction was verified by beta globin gene amplification; specific PCR was carried out based on HPV L1 consensus primers MY09/MY11. Results HPV DNA was not identified in any of the normal, adenocarcinoma, or adenoma samples. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies, the current research failed to establish a relationship between HPV infection and the incidence of colon cancer. Considering the existing inconsistencies, it is recommended that further studies be conducted with larger sample size. PMID:25396002

  11. The genomic landscapes of human breast and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Parsons, D Williams; Jones, Siân; Lin, Jimmy; Sjöblom, Tobias; Leary, Rebecca J; Shen, Dong; Boca, Simina M; Barber, Thomas; Ptak, Janine; Silliman, Natalie; Szabo, Steve; Dezso, Zoltan; Ustyanksky, Vadim; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri; Karchin, Rachel; Wilson, Paul A; Kaminker, Joshua S; Zhang, Zemin; Croshaw, Randal; Willis, Joseph; Dawson, Dawn; Shipitsin, Michail; Willson, James K V; Sukumar, Saraswati; Polyak, Kornelia; Park, Ben Ho; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Pant, P V Krishna; Ballinger, Dennis G; Sparks, Andrew B; Hartigan, James; Smith, Douglas R; Suh, Erick; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Buckhaults, Phillip; Markowitz, Sanford D; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Velculescu, Victor E; Vogelstein, Bert

    2007-11-16

    Human cancer is caused by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To catalog the genetic changes that occur during tumorigenesis, we isolated DNA from 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumors and determined the sequences of the genes in the Reference Sequence database in these samples. Based on analysis of exons representing 20,857 transcripts from 18,191 genes, we conclude that the genomic landscapes of breast and colorectal cancers are composed of a handful of commonly mutated gene "mountains" and a much larger number of gene "hills" that are mutated at low frequency. We describe statistical and bioinformatic tools that may help identify mutations with a role in tumorigenesis. These results have implications for understanding the nature and heterogeneity of human cancers and for using personal genomics for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  12. CXC receptor-4 mRNA silencing abrogates CXCL12-induced migration of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactions between CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 have been shown to be involved in cancer progression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a comparative CXCL12/CXCR4 expression analysis and assessed the effect of external CXCL12 stimulation on migration of CRC cells without and with CXCR4 inhibition. Methods Expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry in resection specimens of 50 CRC patients as well as in the corresponding normal tissues and in three human CRC cell lines with different metastatic potential (Caco-2, SW480 and HT-29). Migration assays were performed after stimulation with CXCL12 and CXCR4 was inhibited by siRNA and neutralizing antibodies. Results In CRC tissues CXCL12 was significantly down-regulated and CXCR4 was significantly up-regulated compared to the corresponding normal tissues. In cell lines CXCR4 was predominantly expressed in SW480 and less pronounced in HT-29 cells. CXCL12 was only detectable in Caco-2 cells. CXCL12 stimulation had no impact on Caco-2 cells but significantly increased migration of CXCR4 bearing SW480 and HT-29 cells. This effect was significantly abrogated by neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody as well as by CXCR4 siRNAs (P < 0.05). Conclusions CXCR4 expression was up-regulated in CRC and CXCL12 stimulation increased migration in CXCR4 bearing cell lines. Migration was inhibited by both neutralizing CXCR4 antibodies and CXCR4 siRNAs. Thus, the expression and functionality of CXCR4 might be associated with the metastatic potential of CRC cells and CXCL12/CXCR4 interactions might therefore constitute a promising target for specific treatment interventions. PMID:21349176

  13. Fas/Fas Ligand Interaction in Human Colorectal Hepatic Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Yoong, Khong F.; Afford, Simon C.; Randhawa, Satinder; Hubscher, Stefan G.; Adams, David H.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel role for the Fas pathway in the promotion of local tumor growth by inducing apoptotic cell death in normal hepatocytes at the tumor margin in colorectal hepatic metastases. Our results show that >85% of lymphocytes infiltrating colorectal liver cancer express high levels of Fas-ligand (Fas-L) by flow cytometry. Using immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue we showed strong Fas expression in noninvolved hepatocytes, whereas Fas-L expression was restricted to tumor cells and infiltrating lymphocytes at the tumor margin. Apoptosis was observed in 45 ± 13% of the Fashigh hepatocytes at the tumor margin whereas only 7 ± 3% tumor cells were apoptotic (n = 10). In vitro, primary human hepatocytes expressed Fas receptor and crosslinking with anti-Fas antibody induced apoptosis in 44 ± 5% of the cells compared with 4.6 ± 1.0% in untreated controls (P = 0.004). Both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and human metastatic colon cancer cells cells are able to induce Fas-mediated apoptosis of primary human hepatocytes in coculture cytotoxic assays. TIL induced apoptosis in 47 ± 9% hepatocytes compared with control 4.3 ± 1.0% (P = 0.009) and this effect was reduced by anti-human Fas-L mAb (18.7 ± 1.3%, P = 0.009). SW620 cells induced apoptosis in 26 ± 2% hepatocytes compared with control 5.6 ± 1.7% (P = 0.004) and this was reduced to 11.2 ± 1.8% (P = 0.004) in the presence of anti-human Fas-L mAb. These data suggest that the inflammatory response at the margin of colorectal liver metastases induces Fas expression in surrounding hepatocytes, allowing them to be killed by Fas-L-bearing TIL or tumor cells and facilitating the invasion of the tumor into surrounding liver tissue. PMID:10079247

  14. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cianchi, Fabio; Cortesini, Camillo; Fantappiè, Ornella; Messerini, Luca; Schiavone, Nicola; Vannacci, Alfredo; Nistri, Silvia; Sardi, Iacopo; Baroni, Gianna; Marzocca, Cosimo; Perna, Federico; Mazzanti, Roberto; Bechi, Paolo; Masini, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, we correlated the expression and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with the degree of tumor angiogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Tumor samples and adjacent normal mucosa were obtained from 46 surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical expression of iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CD31 was analyzed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. iNOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were assessed by specific biochemical assays. iNOS protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. iNOS and VEGF mRNA levels were evaluated using Northern blot analysis. Both iNOS and VEGF expressions correlated significantly with intratumor microvessel density (rs = 0.31, P = 0.02 and rs = 0.67, P < 0.0001, respectively). A significant correlation was also found between iNOS and VEGF expression (P = 0.001). iNOS activity and cyclic GMP production were significantly higher in the cancer specimens than in the normal mucosa (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), as well as in metastatic tumors than in nonmetastatic ones (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Western and Northern blot analyses confirmed the up-regulation of the iNOS protein and gene in the tumor specimens as compared with normal mucosa. NO seems to play a role in colorectal cancer growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:12598314

  15. Optimization of in vitro inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by Solanum tuberosum L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Holm, D; Byrne, P; Ducreux, L; Taylor, M; Kaiser, M; Stushnoff, C

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites in potato have been reported to possess bioactive properties, including growth inhibition of cancer cells. Because potatoes are widely consumed globally, potential health benefits may have broad application. Thus we investigated growth inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by extracts from 13 diverse genetic breeding clones. Extracts from three pigmented selections (CO97226-2R/R, CO97216-1P/P, CO04058-3RW/RW) inhibited growth of in vitro HT-29 cell cultures more effectively than other clones tested. While inhibition was highest from pigmented selections and pigmented tuber tissue sectors, not all pigmented breeding lines tested had appreciable inhibitory properties. Thus, inhibition was not uniquely linked to pigmentation. Immature tubers had the highest inhibitory properties, and in most cases mature tubers retained very low inhibition properties. Flowers and skins inhibited strongly at lower extract concentrations. An extract consisting of 7.2 mg mL⁻¹ cell culture medium was the lowest effective concentration. While raw tuber extracts inhibited most effectively, a few clones at higher concentrations retained inhibition after cooking. Heated whole tubers retained higher inhibition than heated aqueous extracts. While all aqueous extracts from the two tuber selections (CO97216-1P/P and CO97226-2R/R) inhibited HT-29 cell cultures, inhibition was significantly enhanced in purple pigmented tubers of CO97216-1P/P prepared cryogenically as liquid nitrogen powders compared to extracts from freeze dried samples. Upregulation of caspase-3 protease activity, indicative of apoptosis, was highest among the most inhibitory clone samples. The unique sectorial red pigment expressing selection (CO04058-3RW/RW) provided a model system that isolated expression in pigmented sectors, and thus eliminated developmental, environmental and genetic confounding. PMID:25338312

  16. Optimization of in vitro inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by Solanum tuberosum L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Holm, D; Byrne, P; Ducreux, L; Taylor, M; Kaiser, M; Stushnoff, C

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites in potato have been reported to possess bioactive properties, including growth inhibition of cancer cells. Because potatoes are widely consumed globally, potential health benefits may have broad application. Thus we investigated growth inhibition of HT-29 colon cancer cell cultures by extracts from 13 diverse genetic breeding clones. Extracts from three pigmented selections (CO97226-2R/R, CO97216-1P/P, CO04058-3RW/RW) inhibited growth of in vitro HT-29 cell cultures more effectively than other clones tested. While inhibition was highest from pigmented selections and pigmented tuber tissue sectors, not all pigmented breeding lines tested had appreciable inhibitory properties. Thus, inhibition was not uniquely linked to pigmentation. Immature tubers had the highest inhibitory properties, and in most cases mature tubers retained very low inhibition properties. Flowers and skins inhibited strongly at lower extract concentrations. An extract consisting of 7.2 mg mL⁻¹ cell culture medium was the lowest effective concentration. While raw tuber extracts inhibited most effectively, a few clones at higher concentrations retained inhibition after cooking. Heated whole tubers retained higher inhibition than heated aqueous extracts. While all aqueous extracts from the two tuber selections (CO97216-1P/P and CO97226-2R/R) inhibited HT-29 cell cultures, inhibition was significantly enhanced in purple pigmented tubers of CO97216-1P/P prepared cryogenically as liquid nitrogen powders compared to extracts from freeze dried samples. Upregulation of caspase-3 protease activity, indicative of apoptosis, was highest among the most inhibitory clone samples. The unique sectorial red pigment expressing selection (CO04058-3RW/RW) provided a model system that isolated expression in pigmented sectors, and thus eliminated developmental, environmental and genetic confounding.

  17. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  18. The Chemopotential Effect of Annona muricata Leaves against Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in Rats and the Apoptotic Effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 Cells: A Bioassay-Guided Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  19. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  20. Immunotherapy in human colorectal cancer: Challenges and prospective

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although new chemotherapeutic regimen improves survival rates, therapy with better efficacy and less adverse effects is drastically needed. Immunotherapy has been investigated in human CRC for decades with limited success. However, recent developments of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have achieved promising clinical benefits in many types of cancer and revived the hope for utilizing such therapy in human CRC. In this review, we will discuss important immunological landscape within the CRC microenvironment and introduce immunoscore system to better describe immunophenotyping in CRC. We will also discuss different immunotherapeutic approaches currently utilized in different phases of clinical trials. Some of those completed or ongoing trials are summarized. Finally, we provide a brief prospective on the future human CRC immunotherapy.

  1. Immunotherapy in human colorectal cancer: Challenges and prospective

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although new chemotherapeutic regimen improves survival rates, therapy with better efficacy and less adverse effects is drastically needed. Immunotherapy has been investigated in human CRC for decades with limited success. However, recent developments of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have achieved promising clinical benefits in many types of cancer and revived the hope for utilizing such therapy in human CRC. In this review, we will discuss important immunological landscape within the CRC microenvironment and introduce immunoscore system to better describe immunophenotyping in CRC. We will also discuss different immunotherapeutic approaches currently utilized in different phases of clinical trials. Some of those completed or ongoing trials are summarized. Finally, we provide a brief prospective on the future human CRC immunotherapy. PMID:27605872

  2. Immunotherapy in human colorectal cancer: Challenges and prospective.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian; Yan, Jun

    2016-07-28

    Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although new chemotherapeutic regimen improves survival rates, therapy with better efficacy and less adverse effects is drastically needed. Immunotherapy has been investigated in human CRC for decades with limited success. However, recent developments of immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have achieved promising clinical benefits in many types of cancer and revived the hope for utilizing such therapy in human CRC. In this review, we will discuss important immunological landscape within the CRC microenvironment and introduce immunoscore system to better describe immunophenotyping in CRC. We will also discuss different immunotherapeutic approaches currently utilized in different phases of clinical trials. Some of those completed or ongoing trials are summarized. Finally, we provide a brief prospective on the future human CRC immunotherapy. PMID:27605872

  3. B-Raf inhibitors induce epithelial differentiation in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Herr, Ricarda; Köhler, Martin; Andrlová, Hana; Weinberg, Florian; Möller, Yvonne; Halbach, Sebastian; Lutz, Lisa; Mastroianni, Justin; Klose, Martin; Bittermann, Nicola; Kowar, Silke; Zeiser, Robert; Olayioye, Monilola A; Lassmann, Silke; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    BRAF mutations are associated with aggressive, less-differentiated and therapy-resistant colorectal carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms for these correlations remain unknown. To understand how oncogenic B-Raf contributes to carcinogenesis, in particular to aspects other than cellular proliferation and survival, we generated three isogenic human colorectal carcinoma cell line models in which we can dynamically modulate the expression of the B-Raf(V600E) oncoprotein. Doxycyclin-inducible knockdown of endogenous B-Raf(V600E) decreases cellular motility and invasion in conventional and three-dimensional (3D) culture, whereas it promotes cell-cell contacts and induces various hallmarks of differentiated epithelia. Importantly, all these effects are recapitulated by B-Raf (PLX4720, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib) or MEK inhibitors (trametinib). Surprisingly, loss of B-Raf(V600E) in HT29 xenografts does not only stall tumor growth, but also induces glandular structures with marked expression of CDX2, a tumor-suppressor and master transcription factor of intestinal differentiation. By performing the first transcriptome profiles of PLX4720-treated 3D cultures of HT29 and Colo-205 cells, we identify several upregulated genes linked to epithelial differentiation and effector functions, such as claudin-1, a Cdx-2 target gene encoding a critical tight junction component. Thereby, we provide a mechanism for the clinically observed correlation between mutant BRAF and the loss of Cdx-2 and claudin-1. PLX4720 also suppressed several metastasis-associated transcripts that have not been implicated as targets, effectors or potential biomarkers of oncogenic B-Raf signaling so far. Together, we identify a novel facet of clinically applied B-Raf or MEK inhibitors by showing that they promote cellular adhesion and differentiation of colorectal carcinoma cells. PMID:25381152

  4. End-to-End Thiocyanato-Bridged Helical Chain Polymer and Dichlorido-Bridged Copper(II) Complexes with a Hydrazone Ligand: Synthesis, Characterisation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Variable-Temperature Magnetic Studies, and Inhibitory Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Kuheli; Datta, Amitabha; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Garribba, Eugenio; Hsiao, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Lin

    2012-04-01

    The reactions of the tridentate hydrazone ligand, N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]acetohydrazide (HL), obtained by condensation of 2-acetylpyridine with acetic hyadrazide, with copper nitrate trihydrate in the presence of thiocyanate, or with CuCl2 produce two distinct coordination compounds, namely a one-dimensional helical coordination chain of [CuL(NCS)] n (1) units, and a doubly chlorido-bridged dinuclear complex [Cu2L2Cl2] (2) (where L=CH3C(O)=N-N=CCH3C5H4N). Single-crystal X-ray structural determination studies reveal that in complex 1, a deprotonated hydrazone ligand L(-) coordinates a copper(II) ion that is bridged to two neighbouring metal centres by SCN(-) anions, generating a one-dimensional helical coordination chain. In complex 2, two symmetry-related, adjacent copper(II) coordination entities are doubly chlorido-bridged, producing a dicopper entity with a Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu distance of 3.402 (1) Å. The two coordination compounds have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, spectroscopic techniques including IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance, and variable-temperature magnetic studies. The biological effects of 1 and 2 on the viability of human colorectal carcinoma cells (COLO-205 and HT-29) were evaluated using an MTT assay, and the results indicate that these complexes induce a decrease in cell-population growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells with apoptosis.

  5. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals. An oligomeric mixture of PCs from hops (Humulus lupulus) significantly decreased cell viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hop PCs, at 50 or 100 μg/ml, exhibited apoptosis-inducing properties as shown by the increase in caspase-3 activity. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was accompanied by an augmented accumulation of protein carbonyls. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis in combination with 2-alkenal-specific immunochemical detection identified β-actin and protein disulfide isomerase as major putative targets of acrolein adduction. Incubation of HT-29 cells with hop PCs resulted in morphological changes that indicated disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. PC-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in the cell culture media was also quantified; but, the measured H2O2 levels would not explain the observed changes in the oxidative modifications of actin. These findings suggest new modes of action for proanthocyandins as antitumorgenic agents in human colon cancer cells, namely, promotion of protein oxidative modifications and cytoskeleton derangement. PMID:19271284

  6. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  7. Functional characterization of the nitrogen permease regulator-like-2 candidate tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ai-Yun; Liu, Ming-Na; Pei, Feng-Hua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Dan; Du, Ya-Ju; Liu, Bing-Rong

    2015-09-01

    The nitrogen permease regulator‑like‑2 (NPRL2) gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which has been identified in the 3p21.3 human chromosome region. Decreased expression levels of NPRL2 have been observed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, however, the function of NPRL2 in CRC progression remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the biological characteristics of the HCT116 and HT29 CRC cell lines overexpressing exogenous NPRL2. NPRL2 recombinant lentiviral vectors were also constructed and transfected in the present study. Cell growth was determined using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and a colony formation assay. The cell cycle and rate of apoptosis were assessed using flow cytometric analysis. Transwell assays were used to evaluate cell invasion. The protein expression of phosphorylated (p)‑AKT and caspase 3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein apoptosis‑associated genes, were detected using western blotting. The results revealed that NPRL2 overexpression inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest, promoted apoptosis and inhibited invasion in the two human CRC cell lines. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of p‑AKT and Bcl2 were significantly reduced in the NPRL2‑transfected HCT116 and HT29 cells, compared with the mock‑transfected group and control group, while the protein expression of caspase‑3 was increased. Therefore, NPRL2 acted as a functional tumor suppressor in the CRC cell lines.

  8. TcpC protein from E. coli Nissle improves epithelial barrier function involving PKCζ and ERK1/2 signaling in HT-29/B6 cells.

    PubMed

    Hering, N A; Richter, J F; Fromm, A; Wieser, A; Hartmann, S; Günzel, D; Bücker, R; Fromm, M; Schulzke, J D; Troeger, H

    2014-03-01

    The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is widely used to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis. This is thought to be mediated by various immunomodulatory and barrier-stabilizing effects in the intestine. In this study, the mechanisms of barrier modulation by EcN were studied in the human epithelial HT-29/B6 cell culture model.EcN supernatant increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced permeability to mannitol because of sealing of the paracellular passage pathway as revealed by two-path impedance spectroscopy. This increase in TER was attributed to the TcpC protein of EcN. TcpC induced protein kinase C-ζ (PKCζ) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, which in turn resulted in upregulation of the barrier-forming tight junction protein claudin-14. By specific silencing of protein expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the sealing function of claudin-14 was confirmed. In conclusion, the TcpC protein of EcN affects innate immunity by improving intestinal barrier function through upregulation of claudin-14 via PKCζ and ERK1/2 signaling. PMID:23900194

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Extracts on HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus and Its Alpha-Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, septic shock, pneumonia, and wound infections. Here, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus plantarum extracts inhibited S. aureusinduced cell death of a human epithelial cell line, HT-29. In particular, we have shown that S. aureus-induced cell death was abolished by neutralization of α-toxin, indicating that α-toxin is the major mediator of S. aureus-induced cell death. DNA fragmentation experiment and caspase assay revealed that the S. aureus-induced cell death was apoptosis. L. plantarum extracts inhibited the generation of effector caspase-3 and the initiator caspase-9 in S. aureusor α-toxin-induced cell death. Moreover, expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, was activated in L. plantarum extract-treated cells as compared with the S. aureus- or α-toxintreated only cells. Furthermore, S. aureus-induced apoptosis was efficiently inhibited by lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan of L. plantarum. Together, our results suggest that L. plantarum extracts can inhibit the S. aureus-mediated apoptosis, which is associated with S. aureus spreading, in intestinal epithelial cells, and may provide a new therapeutic reagent to treat bacterial infections.

  10. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future. PMID:27763535

  11. Upregulation of activin A gene by butyrate in human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Pholnukulkit, Pimara; Toyoda, Masahiko; Rutatip, Suriya; Kasai, Takanori

    2003-06-01

    Activin A has been reported to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer. Because dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, may affect the expression of activin A in colon cancer cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the activin A gene was upregulated by sodium butyrate in the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, the activin A gene did not respond to sodium butyrate in the human normal colonic cell line FHC, rat normal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line IEC-6, and the explant of rat colon. Flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA revealed that cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced by sodium butyrate but not exogenous activin A in HT-29 cells, indicating that activin A could not act as an autocrine factor in colon cancer cells. By assuming that activin A promotes colorectal cancer spread as a paracrine factor, our findings suggest that butyrate could act as a tumor promoter in some circumstances.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  13. Polyphenol stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles from Abutilon indicum leaf extract induce apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2016-07-01

    Green synthesized gold nanoparticles have received substantial attention owing to their biomedical applications, particularly in cancer therapy. Although anticancer activities of green synthesized gold nanoparticles have been reported earlier, the underlying mechanism behind their anticancer activity is still to be understood. The present study, describes the green synthesis of Abutilon indicum gold nanoparticles (AIGNPs) from Abutilon indicum leaf extract (AILE) and their cytotoxic mechanism in colon cancer cells. Dimensions of spherical shaped AIGNPs were found to be in the range of 1-20nm as determined by TEM. GC-MS and FTIR analysis indicated the presence of polyphenolic groups in AILE, which might have been involved in the stabilization of AIGNPs. In vitro free radical scavenging analysis revealed the radical quenching activity of AIGNPs. Further, the AIGNPs exhibited cytotoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cells with IC50 values of 210 and 180μg/mL after 24 and 48h. This was mediated through nuclear morphological changes and cell membrane damage as evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and AnnexinV-Cy3 staining methods. Mechanism of the observed cytotoxicity of AIGNPs was explained on the basis of increased levels of reactive oxygen species and simultaneous reduction in cellular antioxidants, which might have caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss, DNA damage and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. Expression of cleaved Caspase-9, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Lamin A/C and PARP, provided the clues for the induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in AIGNPs treated HT-29 cells. The study provides a preliminary guidance towards the development of colon cancer therapy using green synthesized gold nanoparticles. PMID:27038915

  14. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications.

  15. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  16. Prodigiosin, the red pigment of Serratia marcescens, shows cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dalili, D; Fouladdel, Sh; Rastkari, N; Samadi, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Ardavan, A; Azizi, E

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a red pigment of Serratia marcescens PTCC 1111 was purified and identified for antiproliferative activities in HT-29 and T47D cancer cell lines. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and LC/MS analysis confirmed prodigiosin structure. The antiproliferative effects of prodigiosin were determined by employing the MTT assay. The changes in cell cycle pattern were studied with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) reagent using flow cytometry assay, and Annexin V-PI method was used for apoptotic analysis. Results of MTT assay showed that HT-29 cells were more sensitive to prodigiosin than T47D cells. Prodigiosin-treated HT-29 cells showed increase in S phase and decrease in G2/M, but treated T47D cells showed cell cycle pattern relatively similar to Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI). Apoptotic effect of prodigiosin was higher than doxorubicin in HT-29 cells. The data reported here indicate that prodigiosin is a promising antineoplastic agent that triggers apoptosis in different cancer cell lines.

  17. AXL is an oncotarget in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; Liguori, Giuseppina; Vitagliano, Donata; Napolitano, Stefania; Morgillo, Floriana; Rinaldi, Barbara; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Liotti, Federica; Nappi, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Berrino, Liberato; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Ciardiello, Davide; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Ferraiolo, Fiorella; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    AXL is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by GAS6 and regulates cancer cell proliferation migration and angiogenesis. We studied AXL as new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression and activation of AXL and GAS6 were evaluated in a panel of human CRC cell lines. AXL gene silencing or pharmacologic inhibition with foretinib suppressed proliferation, migration and survival in CRC cells. In an orthotopic colon model of human HCT116 CRC cells overexpressing AXL, foretinib treatment caused significant inhibition of tumour growth and peritoneal metastatic spreading. AXL and GAS6 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found in 76,7% and 73.5%, respectively, of 223 human CRC specimens, correlating with less differentiated histological grading. GAS6 overexpression was associated with nodes involvement and tumour stage. AXL gene was found amplified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 8/146 cases (5,4%) of CRC samples. Taken together, AXL inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic approach in CRC. PMID:25966280

  18. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Xia, Zuguang; Bian, Xinyu; Li, Guangchao; Hu, Jing; Cao, Ya; Wang, Qing; Qian, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was also maximally inhibited by combination therapy, in terms of either diameter or number. More importantly, the efficacy of combination therapy was more prominent than either drug alone in established tumor xenografts. These findings supported the potential use of combination therapy of PP242 and cetuximab against wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinomas.

  19. Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quoc K; Koponen, Jani M; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Törrönen, A Riitta

    2007-02-21

    Previous studies have shown that anthocyanin-rich berry extracts inhibit the growth of cancer cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of berry extracts containing different phenolic profiles on cell viability and expression of markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Berry extracts were prepared with methanol extraction, and contents of the main phenolic compounds were analyzed using HPLC. Anthocyanins were the predominant phenolic compounds in bilberry, black currant, and lingonberry extracts and ellagitannins in cloudberry extract, whereas both were present in raspberry and strawberry extracts. Cells were exposed to 0-60 mg/mL of extracts, and the cell growth inhibition was determined after 24 h. The degree of cell growth inhibition was as follows: bilberry > black currant > cloudberry > lingonberry > raspberry > strawberry. A 14-fold increase in the expression of p21WAF1, an inhibitor of cell proliferation and a member of the cyclin kinase inhibitors, was seen in cells exposed to cloudberry extract compared to other berry treatments (2.7-7-fold increase). The pro-apoptosis marker, Bax, was increased 1.3-fold only in cloudberry- and bilberry-treated cells, whereas the pro-survival marker, Bcl-2, was detected only in control cells. The results demonstrate that berry extracts inhibit cancer cell proliferation mainly via the p21WAF1 pathway. Cloudberry, despite its very low anthocyanin content, was a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation. Therefore, it is concluded that, in addition to anthocyanins, also other phenolic or nonphenolic phytochemicals are responsible for the antiproliferative activity of berries.

  20. Antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of maslinic and oleanolic acids, two pentacyclic triterpenes from olives, on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Juan, M Emília; Planas, Joana M; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported the anticarcinogenic effects of an olive fruit extract composed of pentacyclic triterpenes, the main components of which are maslinic acid (73.25%) and oleanolic acid (25.75%). Here we examined the effects of the individual components on proliferation, necrosis and apoptosis rates by fluorescence-based techniques in human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Oleanolic acid showed moderate antiproliferative activity, with an ec50 of 160.6 (se 10.6) micromol/l, and moderate cytotoxicity at high concentrations ( > or = 250 micromol/l). On the other hand, maslinic acid inhibited cell growth with an ec50 of 101.2 (se 7.8) micromol/l, without necrotic effects. Oleanolic acid, which lacks a hydroxyl group at the carbon 2 position, failed to activate caspase-3 as a prime apoptosis protease. In contrast, maslinic acid increased caspase-3-like activity at 10, 25 and 50 micromol/l by 3-, 3.5- and 5-fold over control cells, respectively. The detection of ROS in the mitochondria, which serve as pro-apoptotic signal, evidenced the different bioactivity of the two triterpenes. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that maslinic acid generated superoxide anions while oleanolic acid-treated cells did not differ from the control. Completion of apoptosis by maslinic acid was confirmed microscopically by the increase in plasma membrane permeability, and detection of DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the anticancer activity observed for olive fruit extracts seems to originate from maslinic acid but not from oleanolic acid. Maslinic acid therefore is a promising new compound for the chemoprevention of colon cancers.

  1. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  2. Chlorpyrifos promotes colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth through the activation of EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway.

    PubMed

    Suriyo, Tawit; Tachachartvanich, Phum; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-12-01

    Aside from the effects on neuronal cholinergic system, epidemiological studies suggest an association between chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure and cancer risk. This in vitro study examined the effects of CPF and its toxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPF-O), on the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma H508, colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29, normal colon epithelial CCD841, liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and normal liver hepatocyte THLE-3 cells. The results showed that CPF (5-100 μM) concentration-dependently increased viability of H508 and CCD841 cells in serum-free conditions. This increasing trend was not found in HT-29, HepG2 and THLE-3 cells. In contrast, CPF-O (50-100 μM) reduced the viability of all cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed the induction of cells in the S phase, and EdU incorporation assay revealed the induction of DNA synthesis in CPF-treated H508 cells indicating that CPF promotes cell cycle progression. Despite the observation of acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, atropine (a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and N-acetylcysteine (a potent antioxidant) failed to inhibit the growth-promoting effect of CPF. CPF increased the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effector, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), in H508 cells. AG-1478 (a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and U0126 (a specific MEK inhibitor) completely mitigated the growth promoting effect of CPF. Altogether, these results suggest that EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway but not cholinergic pathway involves in CPF-induced colorectal adenocarcinoma H508 cell growth.

  3. Claudin-3 Overexpression Increases the Malignant Potential of Colorectal Cancer Cells: Roles of ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt as Modulators of EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Waldemir F.; Fortunato-Miranda, Natalia; Robbs, Bruno K.; de Araujo, Wallace M.; de-Freitas-Junior, Julio C.; Bastos, Lilian G.; Viola, João P. B.; Morgado-Díaz, José A.

    2013-01-01

    The altered expressions of claudin proteins have been reported during the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these events in this cancer type are poorly understood. Here, we report that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the expression of claudin-3 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. This increase was related to increased cell migration and the formation of anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent colonies. We further showed that the ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt pathways were involved in the regulation of these effects because specific pharmacological inhibition blocked these events. Genetic manipulation of claudin-1 and claudin-3 in HT-29 cells showed that the overexpression of claudin-1 resulted in decreased cell migration; however, migration was not altered in cells that overexpressed claudin-3. Furthermore, the overexpression of claudin-3, but not that of claudin-1, increased the tight junction-related paracellular flux of macromolecules. Additionally, an increased formation of anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent colonies were observed in cells that overexpressed claudin-3, while no such changes were observed when claudin-1 was overexpressed. Finally, claudin-3 silencing alone despite induce increase proliferation, and the formation of anchoragedependent and -independent colonies, it was able to prevent the EGF-induced increased malignant potential. In conclusion, our results show a novel role for claudin-3 overexpression in promoting the malignant potential of colorectal cancer cells, which is potentially regulated by the EGF-activated ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt pathways. PMID:24069372

  4. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A.; Salomon, Matthew P.; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    What happens in the early, still undetectable human malignancy is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a “Big Bang” model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed sub-clones that are not subject to stringent selection, and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors revealed the absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH), and sub-clone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations, and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear born-to-be-bad, with sub-clone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH with significant clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  5. Biphasic activity of chloroquine in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Deokbae; Lee, Youngki

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy is a homeostatic degradation process that is involved in tumor development and normal development. Autophagy is induced in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, and inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced cancer cell death or survival. Chloroquine (CQ), an anti-malarial devrepug, is a lysosomotropic agent and is currently used as a potential anticancer agent as well as an autophagy inhibitor. Here, we evaluate the characteristics of these dual activities of CQ using human colorectal cancer cell line HCT15. The results show that CQ inhibited cell viability in dose-and time-dependent manner in the range between 20 to 80 uM, while CQ did not show any antiproliferative activity at 5 and 10 uM. Cotreatment of CQ with antitumor agent NVP-BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, rescued the cell viability at low concentrations meaning that CQ acted as an autophagy inhibitor, but CQ induced the lethal effect at high concentrations. Acridine orange staining revealed that CQ at high doses induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). High doses of CQ produced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cotreatment of antioxidants, such as NAC and trolox, with high doses of CQ rescued the cell viability. These results suggest that CQ may exert its dual activities, as autophagy inhibitor or LMP inducer, in concentration-dependent manner. PMID:25949192

  6. Biphasic Activity of Chloroquine in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Deokbae; Lee, Youngki

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a homeostatic degradation process that is involved in tumor development and normal development. Autophagy is induced in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, and inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced cancer cell death or survival. Chloroquine (CQ), an anti-malarial devrepug, is a lysosomotropic agent and is currently used as a potential anticancer agent as well as an autophagy inhibitor. Here, we evaluate the characteristics of these dual activities of CQ using human colorectal cancer cell line HCT15. The results show that CQ inhibited cell viability in dose-and time-dependent manner in the range between 20 to 80 uM, while CQ did not show any antiproliferative activity at 5 and 10 uM. Cotreatment of CQ with antitumor agent NVP-BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, rescued the cell viability at low concentrations meaning that CQ acted as an autophagy inhibitor, but CQ induced the lethal effect at high concentrations. Acridine orange staining revealed that CQ at high doses induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). High doses of CQ produced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cotreatment of antioxidants, such as NAC and trolox, with high doses of CQ rescued the cell viability. These results suggest that CQ may exert its dual activities, as autophagy inhibitor or LMP inducer, in concentration-dependent manner. PMID:25949192

  7. A Critical Role for Rac1 in Tumor Progression of Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espina, Carolina; Céspedes, María Virtudes; García-Cabezas, Miguel Angel; del Pulgar, María Teresa Gómez; Boluda, Alicia; Oroz, Lourdes García; Cejas, Paloma; Nistal, Manuel; Mangues, Ramón; Lacal, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma is the second cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Rac1 is a member of the family of Rho GTPases that regulates many intracellular signaling pathways, including those involved in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We have investigated the role of Rac1 in colorectal tumor progression by genetic modification of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line SW620 to either overexpress Rac1 or lack Rac1 expression. Tumor behavior was studied by orthotopic injection of stably modified cell lines into the cecal wall of athymic nude mice, a model that replicates the histopathological appearance and clinical behavior of human colorectal adenocarcinoma in humans. While overexpression of Rac1 resulted in an accelerated tumorigenic process, inducing a faster mortality rate, inhibition of Rac1 completely suppressed tumor formation. These results suggest that Rac1 plays a major role in colorectal adenocarcinoma progression. Finally, interference with Rac1 function may provide an important tool to block the malignant phenotype of colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:18165265

  8. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of thiosemicarbazones and 1,3-Thiazoles in Jurkat and HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Thiago André R; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Silva, Elany Barbosa; Gomes, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes; Espíndola, José Wanderlan Pontes; Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; Pereira, Valéria R A

    2016-08-01

    Cancer remains a high incidence and mortality disease, causing around 8.2 million of deaths in the last year. Current chemotherapy needs to be expanded, making research for new drugs a necessary task. Immune system modulation is an emerging concept in cancer cell proliferation control. In fact, there are a number of mechanisms underlying the role immune system plays in tumor cells. In this work, we describe the structural design, synthesis, antitumor and immunomodulatory potential of 31 new 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds. Cisplatin was used as anticancer drug control. Cytotoxicity against J774A.1 macrophages and antitumor activity against HT-29 and Jurkat cells was determined. These 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds not only exhibited cytotoxicity in cancer cells, but were able to cause irreversible cancer cell damage by inducing necrosis and apoptosis. In addition, these compounds, especially pyridyl-thiazoles compounds, regulated immune factors such as interleukin 10 and tumor necrosis factor, possible by directing immune system in favor of modulating cancer cell proliferation. By examining their pharmacological activity, we were able to identify new potent and selective anticancer compounds.

  9. c-MET inhibition enhances the response of the colorectal cancer cells to irradiation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    JIA, YITAO; DAI, GUANGYAO; WANG, JINXI; GAO, XING; ZHAO, ZHAOLONG; DUAN, ZHIHUI; GU, BIN; YANG, WEIGUANG; WU, JIANHUA; JU, YINGCHAO; WANG, MINGXIA; LI, ZHONGXIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET) inhibition on the viability of colon cancer cells and xenografts exposed to irradiation using short hairpin (sh)RNA or the c-MET inhibitor PHA665752. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. Human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were infected with a lentivirus expressing shRNAs against c-MET and were irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy. The viability of the cells was assessed by alamarBlue® assays. Mice bearing human colon carcinoma SW620 xenografts were randomly selected to receive 2.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 25 mg/kg PHA665752 intraperitoneally once every 2 days for 3 weeks, irradiation at 10 Gy, or 25 mg/kg PHA665752 intraperitoneally once every 2 days for 3 weeks followed 24 h later by irradiation at 10 Gy. The mean tumor volume (MTV) was measured. The apoptotic rate of cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, and double stranded break marker antibody γ-H2AX and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. alamarBlue assays revealed that c-MET downregulation by shRNA markedly accentuated the irradiation-induced reduction in the viability of HT-29 cells compared with HT-29 cells irradiated at the same doses (P<0.05). A combination of irradiation and PHA665752 caused an additional reduction in the MTV (382.8±42.4 mm3; P<0.01 vs. irradiation and PHA665752, 998.0±180.6 and 844.8±190.0 mm3, respectively). TUNEL assays revealed that irradiation and PHA665752 alone caused significant apoptosis of the SW620 cells in the tumor xenografts (P<0.01 vs. DMSO). The apoptotic index in the tumor xenografts of mice treated with a combination of irradiation and PHA665752 was significantly increased compared with mice treated with either agent alone (P<0.01). The combination of irradiation and PHA665752 was also associated with a marked increase in

  10. Sildenafil inhibits the growth of human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Xiao-Long; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Li, Yong; Zhao, Jin-Ming; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Xue, You-Qiu; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Qin, Wu-Ming; Wei, Meng-Ning; Shi, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common human cancer with frequent overexpression of the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). In the present study, we investigated that the anticancer effect of sildenafil on human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of PDE5 for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension in the clinic. Sildenafil significantly induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer with increased intracellular reactive oxidative specie (ROS) levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins and PARP etc. Pretreatment with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine could reverse sildenafil-induced ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. Inhibition of the activity of protein kinase G with KT-5823 could enhance sildenafil-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, sildenafil caused the reduction of xenograft models of human colorectal cancer in nude mice. Overall, these findings suggest that sildenafil has the potential to be used for treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:26807313

  11. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE(2) synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dommels, Yvonne E M; Haring, Merel M G; Keestra, Nynke G M; Alink, Gerrit M; van Bladeren, Peter J; van Ommen, Ben

    2003-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE(2) in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) both inhibited cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells compared with the long chain fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6). Neither incubation with PGE(2) nor reduction in PGE(2) synthesis by EPA compared with AA led to differential effects on cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells. This suggests that n-6 and n-3 PUFA-mediated cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells is not regulated via PGE(2) levels. AA and EPA had no effect on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells with a low COX activity. However, stimulation of COX-2 activity by IL-1 beta resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and an induction of cytotoxicity by AA as well as by EPA. Both inhibition of the COX pathway by indomethacin as well as inhibition of direct lipid peroxidation by antioxidants such as vitamin E and C diminished the anti-proliferative effects of AA as well as EPA. Also, malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and COX-activity was decreased by addition of vitamin E and partially decreased by indomethacin. These data support the hypothesis that growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of PUFAs with methylene-interrupted double bonds such as AA and EPA are due to peroxidation products that are generated during lipid peroxidation and COX activity. PMID:12663496

  12. Prognostic evaluation of metallothionein expression in human colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Ioachim, E E; Goussia, A C; Agnantis, N J; Machera, M; Tsianos, E V; Kappas, A M

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metallothionein in colorectal tumours and the possible relation with other factors associated with tumour progression: expression of cathepsin D (CD), CD44, p53, Rb, bcl-2, c-erbB-2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), proliferation indices (Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)), and conventional clinicopathological variables. METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of metallothionein was investigated in 23 cases of colorectal adenoma and 94 adenocarcinomas. Metallothionein expression was examined by the avidinbiotin peroxidase immunoperoxidase (ABC) using the monoclonal mouse antibody E9, on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. RESULTS: Positive metallothionein expression (> 5% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 30.4% of adenomas and 25.5% of adenocarcinomas, while 8.7% of adenomas and 14.9% carcinomas showed focal metallothionein positivity. In contrast, 60.9% of adenomas and 59.6% of carcinomas almost completely lacked metallothionein expression. In the series of adenocarcinomas, metallothionein expression was inversely correlated with CD44 in neoplastic cells (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference of metallothionein expression, or the other variables examined, between adenocarcinomas and adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: Metallothionein expression does not seem to indicate aggressive biological behaviour in colorectal adenocarcinomas, in comparison with the other types of carcinoma. The inverse correlation with CD44 could suggest that the decreased metallothionein expression may contribute to the metastatic spread of the lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer. Metallothionein expression does not seem to represent an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Images PMID:10711249

  13. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  14. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  15. Type II oestrogen binding sites in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Piantelli, M; Ricci, R; Larocca, L M; Rinelli, A; Capelli, A; Rizzo, S; Scambia, G; Ranelletti, F O

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas were investigated for the presence of oestrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. The tumours specifically bound oestradiol. This binding almost exclusively resulted from the presence of high numbers of type II oestrogen binding sites. Oestrogen receptors were absent or present at very low concentrations. Immunohistochemical investigation of nuclear oestrogen receptors gave negative results. This indicates that antioestrogen receptor antibodies recognise oestrogen receptors but not type II oestrogen binding sites. The presence of specific type II oestrogen binding sites and progesterone binding offers further evidence for a potential role for these steroids and their receptors in colorectal carcinoma. PMID:2266171

  16. Correlation between mitochondrial TRAP-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing-Yan; Song, Bao-Rong; Peng, Jun-Jie; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of mitochondrial tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP-1) on the lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and develop potential LNM-associated biomarkers for CRC using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. METHODS: Differences in mitochondrial TRAP-1 gene expression between primary CRC with LNM (LNM CRC) and without LNM (non-LNM CRC) were assessed in 96 Chinese colorectal carcinoma samples using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, Western blotting, and confirmed with immunohistochemical assay. The relationship between clinicopathological parameters and potential diagnostic biomarkers was also examined. RESULTS: TRAP-1 was significantly upregulated in LNM CRC compared with non-LNM CRC, which was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical assay. The expression of TRAP-1 in two different metastatic potential human colorectal cancer cell lines, LoVo and HT29, was analyzed with Western blotting. The expression level of TRAP-1 was dramatically higher in LoVo than in HT29. Overexpression of TRAP-1 was significantly associated with LNM (90.2% in LNM group vs 22% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001), the advanced tumor node metastasis stage (89.1% in LNM group vs 26.9% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001), the increased 5-year recurrence rate (82.7% in LNM group vs 22.6% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001) and the decreased 5-year overall survival rate (48.4% in LNM vs 83.2% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TRAP-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and survival of CRC patients (Hazard ratio of 2.445 in recurrence, P = 0.017; 2.867 in survival, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Mitochondria TRAP-1 affects the lymph node metastasis in CRC, and may be a potential biomarker for LNM and a prognostic factor in CRC. Over-expression of TRAP-1 is a predictive factor for the poor outcome of colorectal cancer patients

  17. The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Théret, Nathalie; Brenner, Catherine; Jouan, Elodie; Le Moigne-Muller, Gwénaëlle; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propionibacteria induce intrinsic apoptosis of colon cancer cells, via the production and release of SCFA (propionate and acetate) acting on mitochondria. Here, we investigated possible synergistic effect between Propionibacterium freudenreichii and TRAIL. Indeed, we hypothesized that acting on both extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways may exert a synergistic pro-apoptotic effect. Whole transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that propionibacterial supernatant or propionibacterial metabolites (propionate and acetate), in combination with TRAIL, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and decreased anti-apoptotic gene expression (FLIP, XIAP) in HT29 human colon cancer cells. The revealed synergistic pro-apoptotic effect, depending on both death receptors (TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5) and caspases (caspase-8, -9 and -3) activation, was lethal on cancer cells but not on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), and was inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. Finally, milk fermented by P. freudenreichii induced HT29 cells apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL cytotoxic activity, as did P. freudenreichii DMEM culture supernatants or its SCFA metabolites. These results open new perspectives for food grade P. freudenreichii-containing products in order to potentiate TRAIL-based cancer therapy in colorectal cancer. PMID:26771233

  18. The probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a new adjuvant for TRAIL-based therapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Fabien J; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Théret, Nathalie; Brenner, Catherine; Jouan, Elodie; Le Moigne-Muller, Gwénaëlle; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Jan, Gwénaël

    2016-02-01

    TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a well-known apoptosis inducer, which activates the extrinsic death pathway. TRAIL is pro-apoptotic on colon cancer cells, while not cytotoxic towards normal healthy cells. However, its clinical use is limited by cell resistance to cell death which occurs in approximately 50% of cancer cells. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are also known to specifically induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In accordance, we have shown that food grade dairy propionibacteria induce intrinsic apoptosis of colon cancer cells, via the production and release of SCFA (propionate and acetate) acting on mitochondria. Here, we investigated possible synergistic effect between Propionibacterium freudenreichii and TRAIL. Indeed, we hypothesized that acting on both extrinsic and intrinsic death pathways may exert a synergistic pro-apoptotic effect. Whole transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that propionibacterial supernatant or propionibacterial metabolites (propionate and acetate), in combination with TRAIL, increased pro-apoptotic gene expression (TRAIL-R2/DR5) and decreased anti-apoptotic gene expression (FLIP, XIAP) in HT29 human colon cancer cells. The revealed synergistic pro-apoptotic effect, depending on both death receptors (TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5) and caspases (caspase-8, -9 and -3) activation, was lethal on cancer cells but not on normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), and was inhibited by Bcl-2 expression. Finally, milk fermented by P. freudenreichii induced HT29 cells apoptosis and enhanced TRAIL cytotoxic activity, as did P. freudenreichii DMEM culture supernatants or its SCFA metabolites. These results open new perspectives for food grade P. freudenreichii-containing products in order to potentiate TRAIL-based cancer therapy in colorectal cancer.

  19. miR-659-3p is involved in the regulation of the chemotherapy response of colorectal cancer via modulating the expression of SPHK1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuyuan; Fang, Ying; Qin, Hai; Fu, Wenzheng; Zhang, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of most prevalent malignant diseases worldwide. Metastasis and chemo-resistance are the two prominent death-related factors of CRCs. Thus, it is urgent to understand the mechanism responsible for the chemo-resistant properties of CRC and develop new therapeutic methods. Here, we found that the expression of miR-659-3p was significantly reduced in cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant HT29 and LOVO colorectal cancer cells and in CDDP-resistant clinical colorectal cancer samples compared with respective CDDP-sensitive counterparts. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is a direct target of miR-659-3p in colorectal cancer cells, and it is negatively regulated by miR-659-3p. We found that anti-miR-659-3p could increase the IC50 of CDDP in parental HT29 and LOVO colorectal cancer cells; additionally, miR-659-3p mimics decreased the IC50 of CDDP in HT29/CDDP and LOVO/CDDP colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that the miR-659-3p/SPHK1 pathway was involved in the regulation of chemotherapy responses of colorectal cancer cells in vivo. In all, our findings suggest a new mechanism involved in the regulation of the chemotherapy response of CRC and might provide new targets for CRC prevention and treatment. PMID:27725903

  20. In Vitro Effects of Phthalate Mixtures on Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok Dikmen, Begum; Alpay, Merve; Kismali, Gorkem; Filazi, Ayhan; Kuzukiran, Ozgur; Sireli, Ufuk Tansel

    2015-01-01

    Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, phthalates are an important concern because of their wide-spread exposure in humans and environmental contamination. Even though the use of some phthalates has been restricted for toys, some plastics, and food contact materials, exposure to the mixture of these contaminants at very low concentrations in various matrices are still being reported. In the current research, the effects of the mixture of some phthalates were studied. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) were tested on two colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines; DLD-1 and HT29 were studied as described before. Cells were treated with increasing log concentrations (0.33 ppt to 33.33 ppb) of the phthalate mixture; cell viability/proliferation was measured by MTT and staining with neutral red and crystal violet; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured following 24-h exposure. Cell viability/proliferation increased from phthalate treatment at concentrations less than 33.33 ppt. The phthalate mixture induced increases in HT29 proliferation of 10.94% at 33.33 ppt and 60.87% at 3.33 ppt, whereas this proliferation relation at lower concentrations was not found for DLD1 cells. The present study demonstrates preliminary information regarding the low dose induction of proliferation of the cancer cells by phthalate mixtures. Because non-monotonic dose responses are still being debated, further studies are required to re-evaluate the reference doses defined by governments for phthalates. PMID:26081030

  1. Novel self-micellizing anticancer lipid nanoparticles induce cell death of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kyu Yoo, Bong; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we developed a novel drug-like self-micellizing anticancer lipid (SMAL), and investigated its anticancer activity and effects on cell death pathways in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Three self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared, namely, SMAL102 (lauramide derivative), SMAL104 (palmitamide derivative), and SMAL108 (stearamide derivative) by a thin-film hydration technique, and were characterized for physicochemical and biological parameters. SMAL102 were nanosized (160.23 ± 8.11 nm) with uniform spherical shape, while SMAL104 and SMAL108 did not form spherical shape but formed large size nanoparticles and irregular in shape. Importantly, SMAL102 showed a cytotoxic effect towards CRC cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29), and less toxicity to a normal colon fibroblast cell line (CCD-18Co). Conversely, SMAL104 and SMAL108 did not have an anti-proliferative effect on CRC cell lines. SMAL102 nanoparticles were actively taken up by CRC cell lines, localized in the cell membrane, and exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. The normal colon cell line showed significantly less cellular uptake and non-cytotoxicity as compared with the CRC cell lines. SMAL102 nanoparticles induced caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP cleavage in HT-29 cells, indicating the induction of apoptosis; whereas LC3B was activated in HCT116 cells, indicating autophagy-induced cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that SMAL102 induced cell death via activation of apoptosis and autophagy in CRC cell lines. The present study could be a pioneer for further preclinical and clinical development of such compounds. PMID:26342325

  2. In Vitro Effects of Phthalate Mixtures on Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok Dikmen, Begum; Alpay, Merve; Kismali, Gorkem; Filazi, Ayhan; Kuzukiran, Ozgur; Sireli, Ufuk Tansel

    2015-01-01

    Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, phthalates are an important concern because of their wide-spread exposure in humans and environmental contamination. Even though the use of some phthalates has been restricted for toys, some plastics, and food contact materials, exposure to the mixture of these contaminants at very low concentrations in various matrices are still being reported. In the current research, the effects of the mixture of some phthalates were studied. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) were tested on two colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines; DLD-1 and HT29 were studied as described before. Cells were treated with increasing log concentrations (0.33 ppt to 33.33 ppb) of the phthalate mixture; cell viability/proliferation was measured by MTT and staining with neutral red and crystal violet; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured following 24-h exposure. Cell viability/proliferation increased from phthalate treatment at concentrations less than 33.33 ppt. The phthalate mixture induced increases in HT29 proliferation of 10.94% at 33.33 ppt and 60.87% at 3.33 ppt, whereas this proliferation relation at lower concentrations was not found for DLD1 cells. The present study demonstrates preliminary information regarding the low dose induction of proliferation of the cancer cells by phthalate mixtures. Because non-monotonic dose responses are still being debated, further studies are required to re-evaluate the reference doses defined by governments for phthalates.

  3. Soy Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four ...

  4. Metabolomics and detection of colorectal cancer in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haili; Tso, Victor K; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Fedorak, Richard N

    2010-09-01

    Metabolomics represents one of the new omics sciences and capitalizes on the unique presence and concentration of small molecules in tissues and body fluids to construct a 'fingerprint' that can be unique to the individual and, within that individual, unique to environmental influences, including health and disease states. As such, metabolomics has the potential to serve an important role in diagnosis and management of human conditions. Colorectal cancer is a major public health concern. Current population-based screening methods are suboptimal and whether metabolomics could represent a new tool of screening is under investigation. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing literature on metabolomics and colorectal cancer, in terms of diagnostic accuracies and distinguishing metabolites. Eight studies are included. A total of 12 metabolites (taurine, lactate, choline, inositol, glycine, phosphocholine, proline, phenylalanine, alanine, threonine, valine and leucine) were found to be more prevalent in colorectal cancer and glucose was found to be in higher proportion in control specimens using tissue metabolomics. Serum and urine metabolomics identified several other differential metabolites between controls and colorectal cancer patients. This article highlights the novelty of the field of metabolomics in colorectal oncology.

  5. Soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bosland, Maarten C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four cohort and seven case-control studies on soy and colorectal cancer risk that met the inclusion criteria. We extracted the risk estimate (hazard ratio, relative risk, or odds ratio) of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted this analysis using a random-effects model. Our analysis did not find that soy consumption was associated with colorectal cancer risk [combined risk estimate, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-1.03] nor did the separate analyses on colon cancer (combined risk estimate, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.06) and rectal cancer (combined risk estimate, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.67-1.14). However, when separately analyzed on the basis of gender, we found that soy was associated with an approximately 21% reduction in colorectal cancer risk in women (combined risk estimate, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97; P = 0.026), but not in men (combined risk estimate, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.33). Thus, consumption of soy foods may be associated with a reduction in colorectal cancer risk in women, but not in men.

  6. Study on image feature extraction and classification for human colorectal cancer using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Shan-Yi; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Mo; Lu, Chih-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Most of the colorectal cancer has grown from the adenomatous polyp. Adenomatous lesions have a well-documented relationship to colorectal cancer in previous studies. Thus, to detect the morphological changes between polyp and tumor can allow early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and simultaneous removal of lesions. OCT (Optical coherence tomography) has been several advantages including high resolution and non-invasive cross-sectional image in vivo. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the B-scan OCT image features and histology of malignant human colorectal tissues, also en-face OCT image and the endoscopic image pattern. The in-vitro experiments were performed by a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system; the swept source has a center wavelength at 1310 nm and 160nm in wavelength scanning range which produced 6 um axial resolution. In the study, the en-face images were reconstructed by integrating the axial values in 3D OCT images. The reconstructed en-face images show the same roundish or gyrus-like pattern with endoscopy images. The pattern of en-face images relate to the stages of colon cancer. Endoscopic OCT technique would provide three-dimensional imaging and rapidly reconstruct en-face images which can increase the speed of colon cancer diagnosis. Our results indicate a great potential for early detection of colorectal adenomas by using the OCT imaging.

  7. Umbelliprenin is Potentially Toxic Against the HT29, CT26, MCF-7, 4T1, A172, and GL26 Cell Lines, Potentially Harmful Against Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells, and Non-Toxic Against Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohsen; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Moini Zanjani, Taraneh; Khalilnezhad, Ahad; Jamshidi, Hamidreza; Amani, Davar

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing concern, thus natural anticancer agents are drawing the attention of many scientists and clinicians. One natural anticancer agent, umbelliprenin, is a coumarin produced by many species of Ferula. Objectives We aimed to examine the inhibitory effect of umbelliprenin on human and mouse bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and different cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods In this in vitro experimental study, the HT29, CT26, MCF-7, 4T1, A172, and GL26 cancer cells and human and mouse BMDSCs and PBMCs were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), incubated at 37°C for 24 hours in a 5% CO2 atmosphere, and then were treated with different concentrations of umbelliprenin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 37°C. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. Finally, the cell survival rate was assessed by MTT assay. The IC50 values were calculated based on the log values using GraphPad Prism version 5 software for windows (La Jolla CA, USA) and were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results Umbelliprenin inhibited the cancer cells in a concentration-dependent (P < 0.05) but not time-dependent manner (P > 0.05). The most sensitive and resistant cell lines at the 24-hour incubation time were 4T1 (IC50, 30.9 ± 3.1 µg/mL) and A172 (IC50, 51.9 ± 6.7 µg/mL); at the 48-hour incubation time: 4T1 (IC50, 30.6 ± 2.6 µg/mL) and CT26 (IC50, 53.2 ± 3.6 µg/mL); and at the 72-hour incubation time: HT29 (IC50, 37.1 ± 1.4 µg/mL) and 4T1 (IC50, 62.2 ± 4.8 µg/mL). Both human and mouse BMDSCs showed the highest resistance at the 24-hour incubation time (IC50s, 254.7 ± 21 and 204.4 ± 4.5 µg/mL, respectively) and the highest sensitivity at the 72-hour incubation time (IC50s, 120.4 ± 5 and 159.0 ± 7.3 µg/mL, respectively). The PBMCs of both human and mouse origin revealed very

  8. Inhibition of Shigella sonnei adherence to HT-29 cells by lactobacilli from Chinese fermented food and preliminary characterization of S-layer protein involvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Lan-Wei; Tuo, Yan-Feng; Guo, Chun-Feng; Yi, Hua-Xi; Li, Jing-Yan; Han, Xue; Du, Ming

    2010-10-01

    In this study, seven lactobacilli with a high degree of antagonistic activity against three pathogens and good adherence to HT-29 cells were selected. The ability of these seven lactobacilli to inhibit adhesion of Shigella sonnei to intestinal mucosa was studied on cultured HT-29 cells. Lactobacilli were added simultaneously with, before or after S. sonnei to test for their effectiveness in exclusion, competition and displacement assays, respectively. Lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei M5-L, Lactobacillus rhamnosus J10-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L all exhibited significant inhibitory activity. In order to elucidate the inhibitory functions of S-layer proteins, the S-layer proteins were removed with 5 M LiCl from the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains. Under such conditions, inhibition activity was decreased in all three strains, as revealed in exclusion, competition and displacement assays. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of S-layer proteins with dominant bands of approximately 45 kDa. Further analysis of S-layer proteins revealed that the hydrophobic amino acids accounted for 40.5%, 41.5% and 43.8% of the total amino acid for the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains, respectively. These findings suggest that the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains possess the ability to inhibit S. sonnei adherence to HT-29 cells, and S-layer proteins are involved in this adhesion inhibition. PMID:20600857

  9. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota. PMID:26916597

  10. The expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and splice variants of its receptor in human gastroenteropancreatic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Rebeca; Schally, Andrew V.; Varga, Jozsef L.; Garcia-Fernandez, M. Olga; Groot, Kate; Armatis, Patricia; Szepeshazi, Karoly

    2002-01-01

    Splice variants (SVs) of receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been found in primary human prostate cancers and diverse human cancer cell lines. GHRH antagonists inhibit growth of various experimental human cancers, including pancreatic and colorectal, xenografted into nude mice or cultured in vitro, and their antiproliferative action could be mediated in part through SVs of GHRH receptors. In this study we examined the expression of mRNA for GHRH and for SVs of its receptors in tumors of human pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancer cell lines grown in nude mice. mRNA for both GHRH and SV1 isoform of GHRH receptors was expressed in tumors of pancreatic (SW1990, PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, Capan-1, Capan-2, and CFPAC1), colonic (COLO 320DM and HT-29), and gastric (NCI-N87, HS746T, and AGS) cancer cell lines; mRNA for SV2 was also present in Capan-1, Capan-2, CFPAC1, HT-29, and NCI-N87 tumors. In proliferation studies in vitro, the growth of pancreatic, colonic, and gastric cancer cells was stimulated by GHRH(1–29)NH2 and inhibited by GHRH antagonist JV-1–38. The stimulation of some gastroenteropancreatic cancer cells by GHRH was followed by an increase in cAMP production, and GHRH antagonist JV-1–38 competitively inhibited this effect. Our study indicates the presence of an autocrine/paracrine stimulatory loop based on GHRH and SV1 of GHRH receptors in human pancreatic, colorectal, and gastric cancers. The finding of SV1 receptor in human cancers provides an approach to an antitumor therapy based on the blockade of this receptor by specific GHRH antagonists. PMID:12186980

  11. Chromosome 5 allele loss in human colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Solomon, E; Voss, R; Hall, V; Bodmer, W F; Jass, J R; Jeffreys, A J; Lucibello, F C; Patel, I; Rider, S H

    That the sporadic and inherited forms of a particular cancer could both result from mutations in the same gene was first proposed by Knudson. He further proposed that these mutations act recessively at the cellular level, and that both copies of the gene must be lost for the cancer to develop. In sporadic cases both events occur somatically whereas in dominant familial cases susceptibility is inherited through a germline mutation and the cancer develops after a somatic change in the homologous allele. This model has since been substantiated in the case of retinoblastoma, Wilms tumour, acoustic neuroma and several other tumours, in which loss of heterozygosity was shown in tumour material compared to normal tissue from the same patient. The dominantly inherited disorder, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, also called familial polyposis coli), which gives rise to multiple adenomatous polyps in the colon that have a relatively high probability of progressing to a malignant adenocarcinoma, provides a basis for studying recessive genes in the far more common colorectal carcinomas using this approach. Following a clue as to the location of the FAP gene given by a case report of an individual with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 5q, who had FAP and multiple developmental abnormalities, we have examined sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas for loss of alleles on chromosome 5. Using a highly polymorphic 'minisatellite' probe which maps to chromosome 5q we have shown that at least 20% of this highly heterogeneous set of tumours lose one of the alleles present in matched normal tissue. This parallels the assignment of the FAP gene to chromosome 5 (see accompanying paper) and suggests that becoming recessive for this gene may be a critical step in the progression of a relatively high proportion of colorectal cancers. PMID:2886919

  12. Pre-clinical evaluation of a novel CEA-targeting near-infrared fluorescent tracer delineating colorectal and pancreatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Martin C.; Tolner, Berend; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Boogerd, Leonora S.F.; Prevoo, Hendrica A.J.M; Bhavsar, Guarav; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Sier, Cornelis F.M.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Chester, Kerry A.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Surgery is the cornerstone of oncologic therapy with curative intent. However, identification of tumor cells in the resection margins is difficult, resulting in non-radical resections, increased cancer recurrence and subsequent decreased patient survival. Novel imaging techniques that aid in demarcating tumor margins during surgery are needed. Overexpression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is found in the majority of gastro-intestinal carcinomas, including colorectal and pancreas. We developed ssSM3E/800CW, a novel CEA-targeted near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) tracer, based on a disulphide stabilized single-chain antibody fragment (ssScFv), to visualize colorectal and pancreatic tumors in a clinically translatable setting. The applicability of the tracer was tested for cell and tissue binding characteristics and dosing using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, cell-based plate assays and orthotopic colorectal (HT-29, well differentiated) and pancreatic (BXPC-3, poorly differentiated) xenogeneic human-mouse models. NIRF signals were visualized using the clinically compatible FLARE™ imaging system. Calculated clinically relevant doses of ssSM3E/800CW selectively accumulated in colorectal and pancreatic tumors/cells, with highest tumor-to-background ratios of 5.1±0.6 at 72 h post-injection, which proved suitable for intra-operative detection and delineation of tumor boarders and small (residual) tumor-nodules in mice, between 8 h and 96 h post-injection. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging and pathologic examination confirmed tumor-specificity and the distribution of the tracer. Our results indicate that ssSM3E/800CW shows promise as a diagnostic tool to recognize colorectal and pancreatic cancers for fluorescent-guided surgery applications. If successful translated clinically, this tracer could help improve the completeness of surgery and thus survival. PMID:25895046

  13. Sphingosine kinase 1 is upregulated with lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shida, Dai; Inoue, Satoru; Yoshida, Yuki; Kodaka, Atsushi; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Tsuiji, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the expression of SphK1, an oncogenic kinase that produces sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and its correlation with the expression of LPAR2, a major lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor overexpressed in various cancers, in human colorectal cancer. METHODS: Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA expression of SphK1, LPAR2, and the three major S1P receptors in 27 colorectal cancer samples and corresponding normal tissue samples. We also examined the correlation between the expression of SphK1 and LPAR2. RESULTS: Colorectal cancer tissue in 22 of 27 patients had higher levels of SphK1 mRNA than in normal tissue. In two-thirds of the samples, SphK1 mRNA expression was more than two-fold higher than in normal tissue. Consistent with previous reports, LPAR2 mRNA expression in 20 of 27 colorectal cancer tissue samples was higher compared to normal tissue samples. Expression profiles of all three major S1P receptors, S1PR1, S1PR2, and S1PR3, varied without any trend, with no significant difference in expression between cancer and normal tissues. A highly significant positive correlation was found between SphK1 and LPAR2 expression [Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) = 0.784 and P < 0.01]. The mRNA levels of SphK1 and LPAR2 did not correlate with TNM stage. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that S1P and LPA may play important roles in the development of colorectal cancer via the upregulation of SphK1 and LPAR2, both of which could serve as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:26937138

  14. Expression of set is downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WEN, XIAOXIA; CHEN, YAO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism through which rapamycin treatment affects the expression of the set gene in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of rapamycin treatment on set expression was evaluated by assessing the mRNA and protein expression of set in the SW480 and LoVo human colon carcinoma cell lines following treatment with rapamycin by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of set were significantly decreased subsequent to rapamycin treatment in the two cell lines, indicating that set expression may be downregulated by rapamycin in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Our findings suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway may play a role in tumorigenesis through the regulation of the set gene. PMID:24649018

  15. Hierridin B Isolated from a Marine Cyanobacterium Alters VDAC1, Mitochondrial Activity, and Cell Cycle Genes on HT-29 Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Sara; Martins, Rosário; Costa, Margarida; Leão, Pedro N.; Vitorino, Rui; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hierridin B was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium Cyanobium sp. strain and induced cytotoxicity selectively in HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells. The underlying molecular mechanism was not yet elucidated. Methods: HT-29 cells were exposed to the IC50 concentration of hierridin B (100.2 μM) for 48 h. Non-targeted proteomics was performed using 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The mRNA expression of apoptotic and cell cycle genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. Automated quantification of 160 cytoplasm and mitochondrial parameter was done by fluorescence microscopy using CellProfiler software. Results: Proteomics identified 21 significant different proteins, which belonged to protein folding/synthesis and cell structure amongst others. Increase of VDAC1 protein responsible for formation of mitochondrial channels was confirmed by mRNA expression. A 10-fold decrease of cytoskeleton proteins (STMN1, TBCA) provided a link to alterations of the cell cycle. CCNB1 and CCNE mRNA were decreased two-fold, and P21CIP increased 10-fold, indicative of cell cycle arrest. Morphological analysis of mitochondrial parameter confirmed a reduced mitochondrial activity. Conclusion: Hierridin B is a potential anticancer compound that targets mitochondrial activity and function. PMID:27589771

  16. Effect of edible oils on quercetin, kaempferol and galangin transport and conjugation in the intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Jailani, Fadhilah; Williamson, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Solubility and matrix play an important role in the gut lumen in delivering bioactive compounds to the absorptive surface of enterocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of certain commonly consumed lipids, soybean, olive and corn oil, on the transport and conjugation of flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and galangin) using the conjugation-competent co-cultured Caco-2/HT29-MTX intestinal cell monolayer model. To enable identification and quantification of conjugates, each flavonol was enzymatically glucuronidated or sulphated, then analysed by HPLC with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Quantification showed large differences in mass spectrometric peak area response factors between the aglycones and many of the conjugates, with galangin-sulphate for example ionising ∼15-fold better than galangin. Flavonol aglycones and conjugates were transported to the basolateral side of Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures. The total amount of methyl, sulphate and glucuronide conjugates was in the order: galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > myricetin. All oils inhibited the transport and conjugation of galangin, the most hydrophobic flavonol, whereas they increased the sulphation, and to some extent glucuronidation, of quercetin and kaempferol. The results show that the lipid matrix has the potential to modify both transport and conjugation of dietary flavonols, but that the effect depends upon the structure and hydrophobicity. PMID:24525490

  17. Targeting cyclooxygenase-2 with sodium butyrate and NSAIDs on colorectal adenoma/carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Ouyang, Qin; Gan, Hua-Tian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The protective effects of sodium butyrate and NSAIDs (especially the highly selective COX-2 inhibitors) have attracted considerable interest recently. In this study, primary adenoma cells and HT-29 were used to investigate whether the above drugs would be effective for reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, it was investigated whether NSAIDs would strengthen the effects of sodium butyrate and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: In vitro primary cell culture of colorectal adenomas and HT-29 were used for this investigation. PGE2 isolated from HT-29 cell culture supernatants was investigated by ELISA. MTT was employed to detect the anti-proliferative effects on both adenoma and HT-29 culture cells. FCM was used for apoptosis rate and cell cycle analysis. The morphology of apoptotic cells was investigated by means of electromicroscopy. RESULTS: Sodium butyrate could stimulate the secretion of PGE2, while NSAIDs inhibited it to below 30 pg/106 cells. Both butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The effects were time- and dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Aspirin and NS-398 could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate. The effects were stronger while sodium butyrate was used in combination with NS-398 than it was used in combination with Aspirin. CONCLUSION: Butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis respectively. NSAIDs could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate by down-regulating COX-2 expression. Selective COX-2 inhibitor is better than traditional NSAIDs. PMID:15378772

  18. Genetic mapping of a locus predisposing to human colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peltomaeki, P.; Aaltonen, L.A.; Pylkkaenen, L.; Chappelle, A. de la ); Sistonen, P. Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki ); Mecklin, J.P. ); Haervinen, H. ); Green, J.S. ); Jass, J.R. ); Weber, J.L. ); Leach, F.S.; Petersen, G.M.; Hamilton, S.R.; Vogelstein, B. Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD )

    1993-05-07

    Genetic linkage analysis was used to determine whether a specific chromosomal locus could be implicated in families with a history of early onset cancer but with no other unique features. Close linkage of disease to anonymous microsatellite markers on chromosome 2 was demonstrated in two large kindreds. The pairwise lod scores for linkage to marker D2S123 in these kindreds were 6.39 and 1.45 at zero recombination, and multipoint linkage with flanking markers resulted in lod scores of 6.47 and 6.01. These results prove the existence of a genetically determined predisposition to colorectal cancer that has important ramifications for understanding and preventing this disease. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Schoen, Robert E; Whelan, Richard L; Steele, Robert J; Scholefield, John; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shantha Kumara, H M C; Robertson, John F R; Sewell, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls) from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls) and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls) were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19), stage II (n = 40), stage III (n = 34) and stage IV (n = 6) was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively), with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice. PMID:27383396

  20. Human Blood Autoantibodies in the Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ola H.; Hamed, Mohamed R.; Schoen, Robert E.; Whelan, Richard L.; Steele, Robert J.; Scholefield, John; Dilnot, Elizabeth M.; Shantha Kumara, H. M. C.; Robertson, John F. R.; Sewell, Herbert F.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in the western world. Early detection and diagnosis of all cancer types is vital to improved prognosis by enabling early treatment when tumours should be both resectable and curable. Sera from 3 different cohorts; 42 sera (21 CRC and 21 matched controls) from New York, USA, 200 sera from Pittsburgh, USA (100 CRC and 100 controls) and 20 sera from Dundee, UK (10 CRC and 10 controls) were tested against a panel of multiple tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) using an optimised multiplex microarray system. TAA specific IgG responses were interpolated against the internal IgG standard curve for each sample. Individual TAA specific responses were examined in each cohort to determine cutoffs for a robust initial scoring method to establish sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of TAAs provided good discrimination between cancer-positive and normal serum. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the sample sets tested against a panel of 32 TAAs were 61.1% and 80.9% respectively for 6 antigens; p53, AFP, K RAS, Annexin, RAF1 and NY-CO16. Furthermore, the observed sensitivity in Pittsburgh sample set in different clinical stages of CRC; stage I (n = 19), stage II (n = 40), stage III (n = 34) and stage IV (n = 6) was similar (73.6%, 75.0%, 73.5% and 83.3%, respectively), with similar levels of sensitivity for right and left sided CRC. We identified an antigen panel of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection of CRC, based upon serum profiling of autoantibody response using a robust multiplex antigen microarray technology. This opens the possibility of a blood test for screening and detection of early colorectal cancer. However this panel will require further validation studies before they can be proposed for clinical practice. PMID:27383396

  1. Differential expression of a new tumor-associated antigen, TLP, during human colorectal cancer tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Guadagni, F; Graziano, P; Roselli, M; Mariotti, S; Bernard, P; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, P; Rasi, G; Garaci, E

    1999-04-01

    Tumour liberated particles (TLP) have been proposed as a potential new serum tumor marker. In particular, a high percentage of patients with early stages of lung cancer scored positive for serum TLP, suggesting its possible role as a marker for early diagnosis of disease. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of TLP in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence in order to determine whether its expression correlates with the various stages of cancer transformation. TLP distribution was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal, premalignant, and malignant colorectal lesions. Normal colonic mucosa and hyperplastic polyps showed no positive staining, whereas adenomas and adenocarcinomas reacted to anti-TLP serum. The percentage of positive tumor cells increased from adenomas with mild dysplasia to adenomas with severe dysplasia. Moreover, a supranuclear staining pattern was observed mainly in adenomas with mild dysplasia, whereas adenomas with severe dysplasia as well as adenocarcinomas showed a characteristic diffuse staining pattern and a strong staining intensity. Only a few cases of adenocarcinoma were found to be TLP-negative and all were poorly differentiated. Our results suggest that TLP antigen expression may be considered as a marker of epithelial atypia in the colorectal tract and as a potential target for new diagnostic and/or therapeutic approaches to human colorectal cancer.

  2. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship with Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Torabizadeh, Zhila; Nosrati, Anahita; Tahvildari, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some recent studies reported human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) as a marker that can be used in immunological studies of colorectal carcinoma for predicting the prognosis and the treatment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of HER-2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer, and explore the relationship between clinicopathological prognostic factors and its expression based on immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS This study included 50 patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma who received surgery at Imam Khomeini Hospital affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. First, HER-2/neu protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and then the data extracted from recorded files. RESULTS The median age of the patients was 60.2±13.9 years (range: 25-93 years). There was no significant relationship between size of tumor, age, sex, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, differentiation, and stage of the disease with positive expression of HER-2 in this study. CONCLUSION No significant relationship between expression of HER-2 and clinicopathological prognostic factors was found in our study. Further comprehensive and prospective trial with standard method to evaluate the role of HER-2 expression among patients with colorectal cancer is needed. PMID:26933478

  3. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Its Relationship with Clinicopathological Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Zhila; Nosrati, Anahita; Tahvildari, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Some recent studies reported human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2/neu) as a marker that can be used in immunological studies of colorectal carcinoma for predicting the prognosis and the treatment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of HER-2 expression in patients with colorectal cancer, and explore the relationship between clinicopathological prognostic factors and its expression based on immunohistochemical analysis. METHODS This study included 50 patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma who received surgery at Imam Khomeini Hospital affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. First, HER-2/neu protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry and then the data extracted from recorded files. RESULTS The median age of the patients was 60.2±13.9 years (range: 25-93 years). There was no significant relationship between size of tumor, age, sex, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis, differentiation, and stage of the disease with positive expression of HER-2 in this study. CONCLUSION No significant relationship between expression of HER-2 and clinicopathological prognostic factors was found in our study. Further comprehensive and prospective trial with standard method to evaluate the role of HER-2 expression among patients with colorectal cancer is needed. PMID:26933478

  4. Intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin with different pharmaceutical formulations in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Guido, Marilena; Canaparo, Roberto; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Cavalli, Roberta; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Della Pepal, Carlo; Bargoni, Alessandro; Mauro, Alessandro; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Eandi, Mario; Zara, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The structure of both carrier and anticancer drug affects the intracellular fate of a transported drug. The study investigated in vitro intracellular accumulation and cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), doxorubicin in pegylated liposomes (Caelyx) and free doxorubicin. Intracellular doxorubicin levels and cytotoxic activity were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, and by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, respectively. Doxorubicin-loaded SLN inhibited cell growth more strongly than either free or liposomal doxorubicin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma, HT-29, retinoblastoma Y79, and glioblastoma U373 cell lines. The IC50 values for doxorubicin-loaded SLN were significantly lower after 24 h exposure than those for free doxorubicin in all cell lines; after 48 h exposure they were lower than those for liposomal doxorubicin in HT-29 and Y79 cells. The enhanced cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin-loaded SLN was associated with increased drug incorporation in cells: intracellular doxorubicin levels were significantly enhanced after exposure to drug-loaded SLN versus either free or liposomal drug. Rate of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxic activity also differed among different cell lines; in particular, cells of epithelial origin were found to be more sensitive to doxorubicin-loaded SLN. In conclusion, the greater sensitivity of HT-29, Y79, and U373 cells to doxorubicin-loaded SLN than to the other drug formulations may be due to the capability of the delivery system to enhance drug action, through a marked uptake and accumulation of SLN within the cell. PMID:17048519

  5. Response to flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512) of primary and metastatic human colorectal carcinoma xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Damia, G.; Garattini, S.; D'Incalci, M.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumour activity of flavone acetic acid (FAA) was evaluated against two human colorectal carcinoma (HCC) lines, HCC-P2988 and HCC-M1410, transplanted into nude mice. On repeated i.v. injection of 200 mg kg-1 every 4 days FAA was moderately active against the s.c. growing HCC-P2988. HCC-M1410 transplanted s.c. was almost unresponsive in the same experimental conditions. In contrast, FAA (200 mg kg-1 i.v. every 4 days, repeated three times) significantly reduced liver tumour colonies produced by the HCC-M1410 cells injected intrasplenically into nude mice. These findings suggest that FAA has potential activity against human colorectal carcinoma, particularly against liver metastases. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3355765

  6. Human Papillomavirus does not have a causal role in colorectal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzon, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Uggeri, Giordana; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Ferri, Mario; Ziparo, Vincenzo; French, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA along with the integration, the quantification and the expression of the HPV16 in colorectal cancers. METHODS: A prospective series of colorectal tumors were genotyped for HPV DNA. The clinical and pathological variables of the HPV-positive tumors were compared to those of HPV-negative samples. The integration status of HPV16 was evaluated by calculating E2/E6 ng ratios. HPV16-positive tumors were also evaluated for (1) E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 viral gene ng quantification; (2) relative quantification compared to W12 cells; and (3) viral E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 mRNA transcripts by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HPV infection was detected in 16.9% of all tumors examined, and HPV16 was the most frequent type detected (63.6% of positive tissues). Notably, the clinical and pathological features of HPV-positive colorectal cancers were not significantly different than those of HPV-negative cancers (χ2 and t-test for all clinical and pathological features of HPV-positive vs HPV-negative colorectal cancers: p ns). HPV16 DNA was present exclusively in episomal form, and the HPV16 E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 genes were detected in trace nanogram quantities. Furthermore, the HPV16 genes ranged from 10-3 to 10-9 compared to W12 cells at an episomal stage. Although the extractions were validated by housekeeping gene expression, all the HPV16 positive tissues were transcriptionally inactive for the E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 mRNAs. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, HPV is unlikely involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:25574110

  7. Increase in apoptosis by combination of metformin with silibinin in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Chuang, Tang-Wei; Chen, Li-Jen; Niu, Ho-Shan; Chung, Kun-Ming; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lin, Kao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of metformin on silibinin-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer (COLO 205) cells. METHODS: MTT assays were performed to quantify cell viability. Western blot assays were applied to identify the expression of signaling proteins. RESULTS: The combined treatment of COLO 205 cells with metformin and silibinin decreased cell survival at a dose insufficient to influence the non-malignant cells [Human colonic epithelial cells (HCoEpiC)]. Silibinin and metformin increased phosphatase and tensin homolog and 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase expression in COLO 205 cells and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammol/Lalian target of rapamycin. This combined treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of activated caspase 3 and apoptosis inducing factor, indicating apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The combined treatment of human colorectal cancer cells with silibinin and metformin may induce apoptosis at a dose that does not affect HCoEpiC. This finding reveals a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:25892866

  8. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human primary colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lin, Kuei-Li; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Jiang, Yi-Lin; Jen, Hsiu-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Agamaya, Sakae; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2010-09-01

    It is reported that Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has many biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial and antileukemic activities. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human primary colorectal cancer cells are not clear. In this study, whether HCT induced cytotoxicity in primary colorectal cancer cells obtained from three patients was investigated. The results indicated that HCT inhibited growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with HCT (250 μg/ml) for 24 h, cells exhibited chromatin condensation (an apoptotic characteristic). HCT increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) in examined cells. Mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway was shown to be involved as determined by increase in the levels of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and caspase-3 and -9. The decrease in the level of ΔΨ(m) was associated with an increase in the BAX/BCL-2 ratio which led to activation of caspase-9 and -3. Based on our results, HCT induced apoptotic cell death in human primary colorectal cancer cells through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:20944136

  9. Detection of interleukin-8 mRNA and protein in human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; Southern, S A; Flanagan, B F; McDicken, I W; Christmas, S E

    1996-11-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a member of the chemokine family of pro-inflammatory chemotactic cytokines and is secreted by some human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. We have used in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry to determine whether IL-8 mRNA and protein, respectively, are produced by human colorectal carcinoma cells in vivo. IL-8 mRNA was detected within the cytoplasm of tumour cells in all nine samples tested, including that of a tumour which had metastasised to a lymph node. Non-involved colonic mucosa within the same tissue blocks showed much weaker labelling. IL-8 protein was detected in 74% (23/31) of tumour samples and was mainly localised to the tumour cell cytoplasm. In 30% of cases, staining was heterogeneous, with between 1 and 30% of cells being positive. In some tumour cells, IL-8 showed a perinuclear distribution resembling that found by in situ hybridisation. Some infiltrating leucocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells within the tumour sections were also positive for IL-8 mRNA and protein. The possibilities that colorectal tumours produce IL-8 to aid invasion and/or metastasis or as a tumour growth factor are discussed.

  10. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy.

  11. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Xia, Zuguang; Bian, Xinyu; Li, Guangchao; Hu, Jing; Cao, Ya; Wang, Qing; Qian, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was also maximally inhibited by combination therapy, in terms of either diameter or number. More importantly, the efficacy of combination therapy was more prominent than either drug alone in established tumor xenografts. These findings supported the potential use of combination therapy of PP242 and cetuximab against wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinomas. PMID:26586952

  12. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species. PMID:26114728

  13. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species.

  14. Beneficial Regulation of Metabolic Profiles by Black Raspberries in Human Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pan; Skaer, Chad W; Stirdivant, Steven M; Young, Matthew R; Stoner, Gary D; Lechner, John F; Huang, Yi-Wen; Wang, Li-Shu

    2015-08-01

    Dietary intervention of freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) in a group of human colorectal cancer patients has demonstrated beneficial effects, including proapoptosis, antiproliferation, and antiangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate BRB-mediated metabolite changes from this same cohort of patients. Twenty-eight colorectal cancer patients were given 60 g BRB powder daily for 1 to 9 weeks. Urine and plasma specimens were collected before and after BRB intervention. A mass spectrometry-based nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on each specimen. A total of more than 400 metabolites were annotated in each specimen. Of these 34 and 6 metabolites were significantly changed by BRBs in urine and plasma, respectively. Increased levels of 4-methylcatechol sulfate in both post-BRB urine and post-BRB plasma were significantly correlated with a higher level of apoptotic marker (TUNEL) in post-BRB tumors. One tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites, cis-aconitate, was increased in post-BRB urine. Furthermore, BRB-derived polyphenols were absorbed and metabolized to various benzoate species, which were significantly increased in post-BRB specimens. Increased benzoate levels were positively correlated with enhanced levels of amino acid metabolite. These results suggest that BRBs induce significant metabolic changes and affect energy generating pathways.This study supports the hypothesis that BRBs might be beneficial to colorectal cancer patients through the regulation of multiple metabolites.

  15. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3 – Early Markers in Development of Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mothes, Henning; Melle, Christian; Ernst, Günther; Kaufmann, Roland; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Settmacher, Utz

    2008-01-01

    Expression of Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP) 1–3 was recently found to be associated with development of colorectal cancer. Raised defensin-expression in tumours is believed to stem from increased infiltration of neutrophils into tumour environment. To further specify the role of α-defensins in tumourigenesis and progression, HNP1–3 were analyzed in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas of 87 patients and quantified in relation to cancer stage and grading. Using the ProteinChip arrays, HNP1–3 were found upregulated in both colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. By combining the array with Laser capture microscopy we were able to confirm that HNP1–3 are expressed by tumour cells but not by neutrophils or other tumour invading cells. These findings suggest that α-defensins are more likely to contribute to tumour growth than they are to mount an effective host anti-tumour response. However, the amount of HNP-expression was not found to be related to tumour stage, grading, and serological tumour markers. PMID:18957723

  16. Novel non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivatives of naproxen for colorectal cancer chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamad, Suliman S.; Lee, Kevin; Li, Nan; Gary, Bernard D.; Keeton, Adam B.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    A structure-based medicinal chemistry strategy was applied to design new naproxen derivatives that show growth inhibitory activity against human colon tumor cells through a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent mechanism. In vitro testing of the synthesized compounds against the human HT-29 colon tumor cell line revealed enhanced growth inhibitory activity compared to the parent naproxen with 3a showing IC50 of 11.4 μM (two orders of magnitude more potent than naproxen). Selectivity of 3a was investigated against a panel of three tumor and one normal colon cell lines and showed up to six times less toxicity against normal colonocytes. Compound 3a was shown to induce dose-dependent apoptosis of HT116 colon tumor cells as evidenced by measuring the activity of caspases-3 and 7. None of the synthesized compounds showed activity against COX-1 or COX-2 isozymes, confirming a COX-independent mechanism of action. Compound 3k was found to have no ulcerogenic effect in rats as indicated by electron microscope scanning of the stomach after oral administration. A pharmacophore model was developed for elucidating structure–activity relationships and subsequent chemical optimization for this series of compounds as colorectal cancer chemopreventive drugs. PMID:27559271

  17. Modeling colorectal cancer using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated engineering of human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Matano, Mami; Date, Shoichi; Shimokawa, Mariko; Takano, Ai; Fujii, Masayuki; Ohta, Yuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    Human colorectal tumors bear recurrent mutations in genes encoding proteins operative in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways. Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to introduce multiple such mutations into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelium. By modulating the culture conditions to mimic that of the intestinal niche, we selected isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, and in the oncogenes KRAS and/or PIK3CA. Organoids engineered to express all five mutations grew independently of niche factors in vitro, and they formed tumors after implantation under the kidney subcapsule in mice. Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. In contrast, engineered organoids derived from chromosome-instable human adenomas formed macrometastatic colonies. These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior.

  18. Calvatia lilacina protein-extract induces apoptosis through glutathione depletion in human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Chung, King-Thom; Yeh, Chung-Hung; Chen, Wan-Ling; Chen, Chi-Hung; Lin, Martin Hsiu-Chu; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2009-02-25

    This paper reports that a novel protein extract isolated from Calvatia lilacina (CL) can induce cell death against four types of human colorectal cancer cells. Importantly, CL was shown to be free of apoptotic effects against normal rat liver cells. We have also identified that CL-induced glutathione (GSH) depletion is the major contributor responsible for the apoptotic cell death induction of SW 480 cells, as evidenced by the observation that exogenously added N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or GSH, but not vitamin C, could offer a near complete protection of CL-treated cells against apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) evoked a drop in the transmembrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) in the CL-induced apoptotic cell death. This observation can only be deemed as a minor pathway due to the fact that cyclosporine A (CyA) could only partially rescue the CL-treated cells from apoptotic cell death. Likewise, despite the fact that CL could induce the upregulation of Bax, its knockdown via siRNA (48 h) failed to completely mitigate apoptotic cell death, indicating that its role in this apoptotic process was insignificant. To further explore the possible underlying mechanism associated with CL-induced GSH depletion, we proceeded to determine the effect of CL on the cellular gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme responsible for GSH biosynthesis, and demonstrated that indeed gamma-GCS could be repressed by CL. Taken together, we report here for the first time that the anticancer effect of CL on human colorectal cancer cells is mediated through GSH depletion mechanism rather than a ROS-mediated killing process. This functional attribute of CL can thus provide the basis for the strategic design of a treatment of colorectal cancer.

  19. Transcriptional modulator ZBED6 affects cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar Ali, Muhammad; Younis, Shady; Wallerman, Ola; Gupta, Rajesh; Andersson, Leif; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2015-06-23

    The transcription factor ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation, and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate in RKO cells but reduced growth in HCT116 cells. This striking difference was reflected in the transcriptome analyses, which revealed enrichment of cell-cycle-related processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines, but the direction of change often differed between the cell lines. ChIP sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes up-regulated in ZBED6-knockout clones, consistent with the view that ZBED6 modulates gene expression primarily by repressing transcription. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets, and their down-regulation by ZBED6 was validated experimentally. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-β, EGF receptor, or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. The results of this study show that the effect of ZBED6 on tumor development depends on the genetic background and the transcriptional state of its target genes.

  20. Independent and Coordinate Effects of ADP-Ribosyltransferase and GTPase-Activating Activities of Exoenzyme S on HT-29 Epithelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fraylick, Jennifer E.; La Rocque, Jeannine R.; Vincent, Timothy S.; Olson, Joan C.

    2001-01-01

    Type III-mediated translocation of exoenzyme S (ExoS) into HT-29 epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes complex alterations in cell function, including inhibition of DNA synthesis, altered cytoskeletal structure, loss of readherence, microvillus effacement, and interruption of signal transduction. ExoS is a bifunctional protein having both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) functional domains. Comparisons of alterations in HT-29 cell function caused by P. aeruginosa strains that translocate ExoS having GAP or ADPRT mutations allowed the independent and coordinate functions of the two activities to be assessed. An E381A ADPRT mutation revealed that ExoS ADPRT activity was required for effects of ExoS on DNA synthesis and long-term cell rounding. Conversely, the R146A GAP mutation appeared to have little impact on the cellular effects of ExoS. While transient cell rounding was detected following exposure to the E381A mutant, this rounding was eliminated by an E379A-E381A ADPRT double mutation, implying that residual ADPRT activity, rather than GAP activity, was effecting transient cell rounding by the E381A mutant. To explore this possibility, E381A and R146A-E381A mutants were examined for their ability to ADP-ribosylate Ras in vitro or in vivo. While no ADP-ribosylation of Ras was detected by either mutant in vitro, both mutants were able to modify Ras when translocated by the bacteria, with the R146A-E381A mutant causing more efficient modification than the E381A mutant, in association with increased inhibition of DNA synthesis. Comparisons of Ras ADP-ribosylation by wild-type and E381A mutant ExoS by two-dimensional electrophoresis found the former to ADP-ribosylate Ras at two sites, while the latter modified Ras only once. These studies draw attention to the key role of ExoS ADPRT activity in causing the effects of bacterially translocated ExoS on DNA synthesis and cell rounding. In addition, the studies provide insight into

  1. mTOR inhibition sensitizes ONC201-induced anti-colorectal cancer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Fang, Di-Long; Jin, Yong-Jun

    2016-09-30

    We here tested the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity by a first-in-class small molecule TRAIL inducer ONC201. The potential effect of mTOR on ONC201's actions was also examined. ONC201 induced moderate cytotoxicity against CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116 and DLD-1) and primary human CRC cells. Significantly, AZD-8055, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, sensitized ONC201-induced cytotoxicity in CRC cells. Meanwhile, ONC201-induced TRAIL/death receptor-5 (DR-5) expression, caspase-8 activation and CRC cell apoptosis were also potentiated with AZD-8055 co-treatment. Reversely, TRAIL sequestering antibody RIK-2 or the caspase-8 specific inhibitor z-IETD-fmk attenuated AZD-8055 plus ONC201-induced CRC cell death. Further, mTOR kinase-dead mutation (Asp-2338-Ala) or shRNA knockdown significantly sensitized ONC201's activity in CRC cells, leading to profound cell death and apoptosis. On the other hand, expression of a constitutively-active S6K1 (T389E) attenuated ONC201-induced CRC cell apoptosis. For the mechanism study, we showed that ONC201 blocked Akt, but only slightly inhibited mTOR in CRC cells. Co-treatment with AZD-8055 also concurrently blocked mTOR activation. These results suggest that mTOR could be a primary resistance factor of ONC201 in CRC cells. PMID:27565731

  2. Preclinical validation of the small molecule drug quininib as a novel therapeutic for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Adrian G.; Casey, Rory; Maguire, Aoife; Tosetto, Miriam; Butler, Clare T.; Conroy, Emer; Reynolds, Alison L.; Sheahan, Kieran; O’Donoghue, Diarmuid; Gallagher, William M.; Fennelly, David; Kennedy, Breandán N.; O’Sullivan, Jacintha

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Molecularly targeted therapies (e.g. bevacizumab) have improved survival rates but drug resistance ultimately develops and newer therapies are required. We identified quininib as a small molecule drug with anti-angiogenic activity using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo screening models. Quininib (2-[(E)-2-(Quinolin-2-yl) vinyl] phenol), is a small molecule drug (molecular weight 283.75 g/mol), which significantly inhibited blood vessel development in zebrafish embryos (p < 0.001). In vitro, quininib reduced endothelial tubule formation (p < 0.001), cell migration was unaffected by quininib and cell survival was reduced by quininib (p < 0.001). Using ex vivo human CRC explants, quininib significantly reduced the secretions of IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, ENA-78, GRO-α, TNF, IL-1β and MCP-1 ex vivo (all values p < 0.01). Quininib is well tolerated in mice when administered at 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally every 3 days and significantly reduced tumour growth of HT-29-luc2 CRC tumour xenografts compared to vehicle control. In addition, quininib reduced the signal from a αvβ3 integrin fluorescence probe in tumours 10 days after treatment initiation, indicative of angiogenic inhibition. Furthermore, quininib reduced the expression of angiogenic genes in xenografted tumours. Collectively, these findings support further development of quininib as a novel therapeutic agent for CRC. PMID:27739445

  3. Oleanolic acid modulates multiple intracellular targets to inhibit colorectal cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wei, Lihui; Shen, Aling; Chu, Jianfeng; Lin, Jiumao; Peng, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Due to drug resistance and unacceptable cytotoxicity of most currently-used cancer chemotherapies, naturally occurring products have gained attention in the field of anticancer treatment. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoic acid and a principal active compound in many medicinal herbs that have long been used to clinically treat various types of human malignancies. Using a colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse xenograft model and the cell line HT-29, we evaluated the effect of OA on tumor growth in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the present study. We found that OA significantly inhibited tumor growth in volume and weight in CRC xenograft mice. In addition, OA treatment led to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. OA significantly reduced the expression of Bcl-2, Cyclin D1 and CKD4, whereas Bax and p21 expression was profoundly increased after OA treatment. Furthermore, OA significantly suppressed the activation of Akt, p70S6K and MAPK signalings, but promoted p53 pathway activation. Collectively, findings from this study suggest that OA possesses a broad range of anticancer effects via modulation of multiple intracellular targets. PMID:26459864

  4. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo . E-mail: miyazawa@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with {delta}-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol.

  5. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling by Silymarin in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been reported to show an anti-cancer activity. In previous study, we reported that silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through NF-κB-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation. However, mechanism for the inhibition of Wnt signaling by silymarin still remains unanswered. Thus, we investigated whether silymarin affects Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the additional anti-cancer mechanism of silymarin. Transient transfection with a TOP and FOP FLASH luciferase construct indicated that silymarin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Silymarin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin protein but not mRNA. The inhibition of proteasome by MG132 and GSK3β inhibition by SB216763 blocked silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of β-catenin and a point mutation of S33Y attenuated silymarin-mediated β-catenin downregulation. In addition, silymarin decreased TCF4 and increased Axin expression in both protein and mRNA level. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin and TCF4 may result in the inhibition of Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27068260

  6. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling by Silymarin in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-07-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been reported to show an anti-cancer activity. In previous study, we reported that silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through NF-κB-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation. However, mechanism for the inhibition of Wnt signaling by silymarin still remains unanswered. Thus, we investigated whether silymarin affects Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the additional anti-cancer mechanism of silymarin. Transient transfection with a TOP and FOP FLASH luciferase construct indicated that silymarin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Silymarin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin protein but not mRNA. The inhibition of proteasome by MG132 and GSK3β inhibition by SB216763 blocked silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of β-catenin and a point mutation of S33Y attenuated silymarin-mediated β-catenin downregulation. In addition, silymarin decreased TCF4 and increased Axin expression in both protein and mRNA level. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin and TCF4 may result in the inhibition of Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27068260

  7. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling by Silymarin in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-07-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been reported to show an anti-cancer activity. In previous study, we reported that silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through NF-κB-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation. However, mechanism for the inhibition of Wnt signaling by silymarin still remains unanswered. Thus, we investigated whether silymarin affects Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells to elucidate the additional anti-cancer mechanism of silymarin. Transient transfection with a TOP and FOP FLASH luciferase construct indicated that silymarin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Silymarin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin protein but not mRNA. The inhibition of proteasome by MG132 and GSK3β inhibition by SB216763 blocked silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of β-catenin and a point mutation of S33Y attenuated silymarin-mediated β-catenin downregulation. In addition, silymarin decreased TCF4 and increased Axin expression in both protein and mRNA level. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated downregulation of β-catenin and TCF4 may result in the inhibition of Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells.

  8. CTHRC1 promotes human colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness by activating Wnt/PCP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Mei; You, Hai-Yan; Li, Qing; Ma, Hong; Wang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhu, Lei; Nie, Hui-Zhen; Qin, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeats containing 1 (CTHRC1) participates in vascular remodeling, bone formation, and developmental morphogenesis. Recently, CTHRC1 has been found up-regulated in many solid tumors and contributes to tumorigenesis, but its role in the progression of human colorectal cancer (CRC), remains unclear. In this study, CTHRC1 expression in human CRC cell lines was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. The role of CTHRC1 in CRC cell proliferation and extracellular matrix invasion in vitro was analyzed by gene over-expression and recombinant protein. Reporter luciferase assay was used to reveal key relevant signaling pathways involved in CRC cells. The results show that CTHRC1 is secreted both by colorectal epithelia cells and stromal fibroblasts. Recombinant CTHRC1 promotes CRC cell migration and invasion dose-dependently. CTHRC1 overexpression promotes CRC cell migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro. Wnt/PCP signaling but not Wnt/catenin signaling was activates by CTHRC1 in CRC cells. Together, CTHRC1 promotes CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, which is possibly mediated by activating Wnt/PCP pathway. PMID:26722469

  9. Capsaicin represses transcriptional activity of β-catenin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Ho; Richardson, Raphael L; Dashwood, Roderick H; Baek, Seung Joon

    2012-06-01

    Capsaicin is a pungent ingredient in chili red peppers and has been linked to suppression of growth in various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which capsaicin induces growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether capsaicin alters β-catenin-dependent signaling in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of SW480, LoVo and HCT-116 cells to capsaicin suppressed cell proliferation. Transient transfection with a β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive reporter indicated that capsaicin suppressed the transcriptional activity of β-catenin/TCF. Capsaicin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular β-catenin levels and a reduction of transcripts from the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1). These results were confirmed by a reduced luciferase reporter activity driven by promoter-reporter construct containing the promoter region of the Catnb gene. In addition, capsaicin destabilized β-catenin through enhancement of proteosomal-dependent degradation. Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that capsaicin treatment suppressed TCF-4 expression and disrupted the interaction of TCF-4 and β-catenin. This study identifies a role for the β-catenin/TCF-dependent pathway that potentially contributes to the anticancer activity of capsaicin in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:21764279

  10. Combination of Vandetanib, Radiotherapy, and Irinotecan in the LoVo Human Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsberger, Phyllis; Burd, Randy; Ryan, Anderson; Daskalakis, Constantine; Dicker, Adam P.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: The tumor growth kinetics of the human LoVo colorectal xenograft model was assessed in response to vandetanib, an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, radiotherapy (RT), or irinotecan (CPT-11), as single therapies and in combination. Methods and Materials: LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the right hind limb (5x10{sup 6} cells in 100muL phosphate-buffered saline) of athymic NCR NUM mice and tumors were grown to a volume of 200-300 mm{sup 3} before treatment. Vandetanib was administered at 50 mg/kg daily orally for 14 days starting on Day 1. RT was given as three fractions (3x3 Gy) on Days 1, 2, and 3. CPT-11 was given at 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally on Days 1 and 3. Tumor volumes were measured on a daily basis and calculated by measuring tumor diameters with digital calipers in two orthogonal dimensions. Results: All three single treatments (vandetanib, CPT-11, and radiation) significantly slowed LoVo colorectal tumor growth. Vandetanib significantly increased the antitumor effects of CPT-11 and radiation when given in combination with either of these treatments. These treatment combinations resulted in a slow tumor growth rate during the 2 weeks of vandetanib administration. The triple combination of vandetanib, CPT-11, and radiation produced the most marked improvement in response as observed by measurable shrinkage of tumors during the first week of treatment. Conclusions: The tumor growth delay kinetics observed in this study of the LoVo colorectal model suggest concurrent and sustained post-sequencing of vandetanib with cytotoxic therapy may be beneficial in tumors of this type.

  11. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in human colorectal cancer: correlation with tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cianchi, Fabio; Cortesini, Camillo; Fantappiè, Ornella; Messerini, Luca; Schiavone, Nicola; Vannacci, Alfredo; Nistri, Silvia; Sardi, Iacopo; Baroni, Gianna; Marzocca, Cosimo; Perna, Federico; Mazzanti, Roberto; Bechi, Paolo; Masini, Emanuela

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the potential involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis, we correlated the expression and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with the degree of tumor angiogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Tumor samples and adjacent normal mucosa were obtained from 46 surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical expression of iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CD31 was analyzed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. iNOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were assessed by specific biochemical assays. iNOS protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. iNOS and VEGF mRNA levels were evaluated using Northern blot analysis. Both iNOS and VEGF expressions correlated significantly with intratumor microvessel density (r(s) = 0.31, P = 0.02 and r(s) = 0.67, P < 0.0001, respectively). A significant correlation was also found between iNOS and VEGF expression (P = 0.001). iNOS activity and cyclic GMP production were significantly higher in the cancer specimens than in the normal mucosa (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively), as well as in metastatic tumors than in nonmetastatic ones (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04, respectively). Western and Northern blot analyses confirmed the up-regulation of the iNOS protein and gene in the tumor specimens as compared with normal mucosa. NO seems to play a role in colorectal cancer growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:12598314

  12. Foodomics study on the effects of extracellular production of hydrogen peroxide by rosemary polyphenols on the anti-proliferative activity of rosemary polyphenols against HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Koçak, Engin; Simó, Carolina; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated a strong association between the antioxidant properties of rosemary polyphenols and their chemoprotective activity. However, the prooxidant effects of rosemary polyphenols have been rarely reported. In this work, a foodomics study is performed to investigate the in vitro autooxidation of carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (CS) and a polyphenol-enriched rosemary extract (SC-RE) in cell culture conditions. The results revealed that rosemary polyphenols autooxidation in culture medium generated H2 O2 at different rates. Generated H2 O2 levels by SC-RE and CA, but not CS, were correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HT-29 cells, and were partially involved in their anti-proliferative effect in this cell line. These compounds also induced different effects on glutathione metabolism. Results also indicated that high extracellular H2 O2 concentrations, resulting of using high (45 μg/mL) SC-RE concentration in culture media, exerted some artifactual effects related with cell cycle, but they did not influence the expression of relevant molecular biomarkers of stress. PMID:26842614

  13. Foodomics study on the effects of extracellular production of hydrogen peroxide by rosemary polyphenols on the anti-proliferative activity of rosemary polyphenols against HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Alberto; García-Cañas, Virginia; Koçak, Engin; Simó, Carolina; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated a strong association between the antioxidant properties of rosemary polyphenols and their chemoprotective activity. However, the prooxidant effects of rosemary polyphenols have been rarely reported. In this work, a foodomics study is performed to investigate the in vitro autooxidation of carnosic acid (CA), carnosol (CS) and a polyphenol-enriched rosemary extract (SC-RE) in cell culture conditions. The results revealed that rosemary polyphenols autooxidation in culture medium generated H2 O2 at different rates. Generated H2 O2 levels by SC-RE and CA, but not CS, were correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HT-29 cells, and were partially involved in their anti-proliferative effect in this cell line. These compounds also induced different effects on glutathione metabolism. Results also indicated that high extracellular H2 O2 concentrations, resulting of using high (45 μg/mL) SC-RE concentration in culture media, exerted some artifactual effects related with cell cycle, but they did not influence the expression of relevant molecular biomarkers of stress.

  14. Suppression of MAPKs/NF-κB Activation Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Action of Ginsenoside Rf in HT-29 and RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungeun; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Aceituno, Veronica Castro; Simu, Shakina Yesmin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of ginsenoside Rf in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the intestinal tract. It is associated with elevated levels of various inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ginsenosides, the main active constituents of ginseng, have been reported to exert potent therapeutic effects against diverse diseases. However, ginsenoside Rf treatment for inflammation has not yet been examined. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rf on the inflammatory mediators downstream of p38/NF-kB activation on TNF-α-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7). Our results showed that ginsenoside Rf significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, and ROS, which are most highly activated in IBD. In addition, ginsenoside Rf significantly suppressed TNF-α/LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rf contains a compound that has potent intestinal anti-inflammatory effects that could be used to treat diseases such as IBD.

  15. Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Pei-Jun; Li, Bao-Long; Shan, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Na; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yu, Min; Zhang, Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 was previously isolated from a Chinese traditional fermented cheese with anticancer activities and probiotic potential. Herein, the integral peptidoglycan (X12-PG) was extracted by a modified trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method. X12-PG contained the four representative amino acids Asp, Glu, Ala and Lys, and displayed the similar lysozyme sensitivity, UV-visible scanning spectrum and molecular weight as the peptidoglycan standard. X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevated. Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER. The present results may enlighten the prospect of probiotics in the prevention of colon cancer. PMID:26305246

  16. Extraction of Peptidoglycan from L. paracasei subp. Paracasei X12 and Its Preliminary Mechanisms of Inducing Immunogenic Cell Death in HT-29 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Pei-Jun; Li, Bao-Long; Shan, Yu-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Na; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yu, Min; Zhang, Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 was previously isolated from a Chinese traditional fermented cheese with anticancer activities and probiotic potential. Herein, the integral peptidoglycan (X12-PG) was extracted by a modified trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method. X12-PG contained the four representative amino acids Asp, Glu, Ala and Lys, and displayed the similar lysozyme sensitivity, UV-visible scanning spectrum and molecular weight as the peptidoglycan standard. X12-PG could induce the production of apoptotic bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X12-PG could significantly induced the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) and the release of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), the two notable hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), with the endoplastic reticulum (ER) damaged and subsequently intracellular [Ca2+] elevated. Our findings implied that X12-PG could induce the ICD of HT-29 cells through targeting at the ER. The present results may enlighten the prospect of probiotics in the prevention of colon cancer. PMID:26305246

  17. Increases in c-Yes expression level and activity promote motility but not proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Jane; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Hogg, Alison; Dive, Caroline; Welman, Arkadiusz

    2007-09-01

    Increases in the levels and/or activity of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Yes are often associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The physiological consequences of increased c-Yes activity during the early and late stages of tumorigenesis, in addition to the degree of redundancy between c-Yes and c-Src in colorectal cancer cells, remain elusive. To study the consequences of increases in c-Yes levels and activity in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, we developed human colorectal cancer cell lines in which c-Yes levels and activity can be inducibly increased by a tightly controlled expression of wild-type c-Yes or by constitutively active mutants of c-Yes, c-YesY537F, and c-Yes Delta t6aa. c-Yes induction resulted in increased cell motility but did not promote proliferation either in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, elevations in c-Yes levels/activity may promote cancer spread and metastasis rather than tumor growth.

  18. Synergistic anticancer activity of capsaicin and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ruth; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A promising area of cancer research is focused on chemoprevention by nutritional compounds. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong negative correlation between fruit, vegetable, and spice intake and rates of cancer. Although individual active compounds have demonstrated significant anticancer activity, an emerging area of research is focusing on the combination of multiple dietary compounds that act synergistically on cancer to exert greater effects. The current study evaluated the potential synergistic effects of capsaicin, an active compound from red chili peppers, in combination with 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), from cruciferous vegetables. A synergistic induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in human colorectal cancer cells treated with the combination of capsaicin and DIM. It was also observed that these two compounds activated transcriptional activity of NF-κB and p53 synergistically. Combination treatment stabilized nuclear p53 and up- or down-regulated expression of several target genes that are downstream of NF-κB and p53. The present study suggests capsaicin and DIM work synergistically to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer through modulating transcriptional activity of NF-κB, p53, and target genes associated with apoptosis. PMID:25876645

  19. Synergistic anticancer activity of capsaicin and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ruth; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A promising area of cancer research is focused on chemoprevention by nutritional compounds. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong negative correlation between fruit, vegetable, and spice intake and rates of cancer. Although individual active compounds have demonstrated significant anticancer activity, an emerging area of research is focusing on the combination of multiple dietary compounds that act synergistically on cancer to exert greater effects. The current study evaluated the potential synergistic effects of capsaicin, an active compound from red chili peppers, in combination with 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), from cruciferous vegetables. A synergistic induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation was observed in human colorectal cancer cells treated with the combination of capsaicin and DIM. It was also observed that these two compounds activated transcriptional activity of NF-κB and p53 synergistically. Combination treatment stabilized nuclear p53 and up- or down-regulated expression of several target genes that are downstream of NF-κB and p53. The present study suggests capsaicin and DIM work synergistically to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer through modulating transcriptional activity of NF-κB, p53, and target genes associated with apoptosis.

  20. Applications of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant cytokines for the treatment of human colorectal and other carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, J.W.; Smalley, R.V.; Borden, E.C.; Martin, E.W.; Guadagni, F.; Roselli, M.; Schlom, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which recognize a human tumor antigen, termed tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72), have successfully been used to localize primary as well as metastatic colorectal tumor lesions in patients. The localization of the anti-TAG-72 MAbs has also been exploited intraoperatively using a hand-held gamma probe. That procedure, termed radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), has identified occult tumors which were not detected using standard external imaging techniques. In another clinical trial, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was administered intraperitoneally to patients diagnosed with either gastrointestinal or ovarian carcinoma with secondary ascites. Analysis of the tumor cells isolated from the malignant ascites revealed a substantial increase in TAG-72 expression on the surface of tumor cells isolated from seven of eight patients. The results provide evidence that the combination of an anti-carcinoma MAb with the administration of a cytokine, such as IFN-gamma, may be an effective approach for the detection and subsequent treatment, of colorectal carcinoma. 15 references.

  1. Registered report: Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Repass, John; Maherali, Nimet; Owen, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma' by Castellarin and colleagues published in Genome Research in 2012 (Castellarin et al., 2012). The experiment to be replicated is reported in Figure 2. Here, Castellarin and colleagues performed a metagenomic analysis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to identify potential associations between inflammatory microorganisms and gastrointestinal cancers. They conducted quantitative real-time PCR on genomic DNA isolated from tumor and matched normal biopsies from a patient cohort and found that the overall abundance of Fusobacterium was 415 times greater in CRC versus adjacent normal tissue. These results confirmed earlier studies and provide evidence for a link between tissue-associated bacteria and tumorigenesis. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

  2. Dichloroacetate affects proliferation but not survival of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Delaney, L M; Ho, N; Morrison, J; Farias, N R; Mosser, D D; Coomber, B L

    2015-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a metabolic reprogramming agent that reverses the Warburg effect, causing cancer cells to couple glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. This has been shown to induce apoptosis and reduce the growth of various types of cancer but not normal cells. Colorectal cancer cells HCT116, HCT116 p53(-/-), and HCT116 Bax(-/-), were treated with DCA in vitro. Response to treatment was determined by measuring PDH phosphorylation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle. Molecular changes associated with these responses were determined using western immunoblotting and quantitative PCR. Treatment with 20 mM DCA did not increase apoptosis, despite decreasing levels of anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 after 6 h, in any of the cell lines observed. Mcl-1 expression was stabilized with MG-132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation. A decrease in Mcl-1 correlated with a decrease in proliferation, both of which showed dose-dependence in DCA treated cells. Cells showed nuclear localization of Mcl-1, however cell cycle was unaffected by DCA treatment. These data suggest that a reduction in the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 due to increased proteasomal degradation is correlated with the ability of DCA to reduce proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells without causing apoptosis.

  3. Identification of thiostrepton as a novel therapeutic agent that targets human colon cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, S-Y; Huang, C-Y F; Huang, W-C; Su, Y

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that colorectal cancer stem cells (CRSCs) are largely responsible for the metastasis and relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC) after therapy. Hence, identifying new agents that specifically target CRSCs would help improve the effectiveness of current CRC therapies. To accelerate identification of agents targeting CRSCs, the Connectivity Map (CMap) approach was used. Among the top-ranked candidates, thiostrepton, a thiazole antibiotic, was selected for further investigation because of its known tumoricidal activity. Thiostrepton could selectively induce apoptosis in CRSC subpopulations in both parental HCT-15 and HT-29 human CRC lines as well as in EMT and chemoresistant clones derived from them. Further, we investigated its inhibitory effects on the sphere- and colony-forming capabilities of the aforementioned CRC lines. The in vitro inhibition of sphere and colony formation was associated with downregulation of various modulators of the stem cell phenotype. The combination of thiostrepton and oxaliplatin eradicated both CD44(+) HCT-15 and HT-29 cells more efficiently than either drug alone. FoxM1, an oncogenic transcription factor, was identified as a critical positive modulator of stemness and as the main target of thiostrepton in the CRC lines. This is the first report showing the selective killing of CRSCs by thiostrepton, which has been proposed to be a promising anti-neoplastic agent. On the basis of its synergism with oxaliplatin in killing CRSCs in vitro, if this activity is confirmed in vivo, thiostrepton may be a promising agent to be used clinically in combination with current chemotherapies to improve the efficacy of these regimens. PMID:26136074

  4. Pancratistatin selectively targets cancer cell mitochondria and reduces growth of human colon tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Carly; Karnik, Aditya; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2011-01-01

    The naturally occurring Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin exhibits potent apoptotic activity against a large panel of cancer cells lines and has an insignificant effect on noncancerous cell lines, although with an elusive cellular target. Many current chemotherapeutics induce apoptosis via genotoxic mechanisms and thus have low selectivity. The observed selectivity of pancratistatin for cancer cells promoted us to consider the hypothesis that this alkaloid targets cancer cell mitochondria rather than DNA or its replicative machinery. In this study, we report that pancratistatin decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptotic nuclear morphology in p53-mutant (HT-29) and wild-type p53 (HCT116) colorectal carcinoma cell lines, but not in noncancerous colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Interestingly, pancratistatin was found to be ineffective against mtDNA-depleted (ρ(0)) cancer cells. Moreover, pancratistatin induced cell death in a manner independent of Bax and caspase activation, and did not alter β-tubulin polymerization rate nor cause double-stranded DNA breaks. For the first time we report the efficacy of pancratistatin in vivo against human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts. Intratumor administration of pancratistatin (3 mg/kg) caused significant reduction in the growth of subcutaneous HT-29 tumors in Nu/Nu mice (n = 6), with no apparent toxicity to the liver or kidneys as indicated by histopathologic analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Altogether, this work suggests that pancratistatin may be a novel mitochondria-targeting compound that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells and significantly reduces tumor growth. PMID:21220492

  5. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Phlorofucofuroeckol A via Upregulation of Activating Transcription Factor 3 against Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Su-Jin; Park, Nyun-Ho; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-01-01

    Phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A), one of the phlorotannins found in brown algae, has been reported to exert anti-cancer property. However, the molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of PFF-A has not been known. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to be associated with apoptosis in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which PFF-A stimulates ATF3 expression and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A decreased cell viability through apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells. PFF-A increased ATF3 expression through regulating transcriptional activity. The responsible cis-element for ATF3 transcriptional activation by PFF-A was cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), located between positions −147 and −85 of the ATF3 promoter. Inhibition of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, and IκB kinase (IKK)-α blocked PFF-A-mediated ATF3 expression. ATF3 knockdown by ATF3 siRNA attenuated the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by PFF-A, while ATF3 overexpression increased PFF-A-mediated cleaved PARP. These results suggest that PFF-A may exert anti-cancer property through inducing apoptosis via the ATF3-mediated pathway in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27043582

  6. PIAS3 may represent a potential biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutic of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Heping; Gao, Hua; Bijukchhe, Sunil Man; Wang, Yunhai; Li, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a challenging problem both for the developed and underdeveloped countries. Despite numerous improvements in early diagnosis and treatment, the incidence and mortality is still keeping in a high level. Molecule targeted therapy has drawn much attention as next generation anticancer agents for diagnosis and therapeutic of CRC. Protein Inhibitor of Activated Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription 3 (PIAS3) as a novel biomarker has been focused to have a role in the development of malignancy, which was expressed at a higher level in most common malignancies compared with corresponding normal tissues. Furthermore, evidences suggest that the expression of PIAS3 can affect the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting the JAK/STAT and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways or regulating its SUMO (small-ubiquitin like modifiers) ligase activity in some malignancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIAS3 may be a potential biomarker target for early cancer detection and therapeutic of human CRC.

  7. Molecular size fractions of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) exhibit differentiated regulation of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Burnard, Sharon; Forsyth, Santina; Head, Richard; King, Kerryn; Patten, Glen; Watkins, Peter; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Lockett, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies using solvent or aqueous extracts of raw dietary plant material have demonstrated modulation of colon cancer cell growth and apoptosis and effects on immune and nonimmune pathways of inflammation. We have developed a generic, 3-staged food-compatible process involving heating for conversion of dietary plants into food ingredients and report results on potential colon cancer-regulating properties of processed forms of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis). In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of cancer cell growth by processed Bay leaf products in HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by variable levels of elevated apoptosis. Bay leaf also exerted moderate inhibition of cycloxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase enzymatic activity. In addition, these extracts significantly downregulated interferon-γ production in T helper Type 1-stimulated whole blood from healthy donors. Furthermore, size fractionation of the extracts revealed that antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities were associated with low mass (primarily polyphenolics and essential oils) and high mass (primarily proteins including polyphenol oxidase) chemical classes, respectively. Bay leaf exerted in vitro bioactivity that might be relevant to protecting against early events in sporadic colorectal cancer, with potential for further optimization of bioactivity by size-based fractionation. PMID:23859043

  8. Upregulation of CYP2S1 by oxaliplatin is associated with p53 status in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Zhou, Qian; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Sun, Jiayi; Qing, Yin; Sun, Liya; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Jie; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin displays a wide spectrum of antitumor activities and is widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, tumor responses to this agent are variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, oxaliplatin was found to strongly inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells harboring wild-type p53 but to only weakly inhibit SW480 cells, HT29 cells or p53-/- HCT116 cells, which all lack p53 expression. Administration of oxaliplatin significantly induced p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of CYP2S1 in HCT116 cells with wild-type p53. CYP2S1 knockdown conferred a cell survival advantage after oxaliplatin treatment to cells harboring wild-type p53 in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, enzyme immunoassays, TOPFlash/FOPFlash reporter activity assays and western blotting analysis demonstrated oxaliplatin-mediated downregulation of PGE2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in a manner dependent on p53. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment of mice with subcutaneous tumor xenografts drastically reduced the volume of wild-type p53 HCT116 tumors but had no effect on isogenic p53-/- HCT116 tumors. These results suggest that oxaliplatin exerts its inhibitory effects in human CRC cells via upregulation of CYP2S1 expression in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27609465

  9. Molecular size fractions of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) exhibit differentiated regulation of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Burnard, Sharon; Forsyth, Santina; Head, Richard; King, Kerryn; Patten, Glen; Watkins, Peter; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Lockett, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies using solvent or aqueous extracts of raw dietary plant material have demonstrated modulation of colon cancer cell growth and apoptosis and effects on immune and nonimmune pathways of inflammation. We have developed a generic, 3-staged food-compatible process involving heating for conversion of dietary plants into food ingredients and report results on potential colon cancer-regulating properties of processed forms of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis). In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of cancer cell growth by processed Bay leaf products in HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by variable levels of elevated apoptosis. Bay leaf also exerted moderate inhibition of cycloxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase enzymatic activity. In addition, these extracts significantly downregulated interferon-γ production in T helper Type 1-stimulated whole blood from healthy donors. Furthermore, size fractionation of the extracts revealed that antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities were associated with low mass (primarily polyphenolics and essential oils) and high mass (primarily proteins including polyphenol oxidase) chemical classes, respectively. Bay leaf exerted in vitro bioactivity that might be relevant to protecting against early events in sporadic colorectal cancer, with potential for further optimization of bioactivity by size-based fractionation.

  10. Upregulation of CYP2S1 by oxaliplatin is associated with p53 status in colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Zhou, Qian; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Sun, Jiayi; Qing, Yin; Sun, Liya; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Jie; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin displays a wide spectrum of antitumor activities and is widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, tumor responses to this agent are variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, oxaliplatin was found to strongly inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells harboring wild-type p53 but to only weakly inhibit SW480 cells, HT29 cells or p53−/− HCT116 cells, which all lack p53 expression. Administration of oxaliplatin significantly induced p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of CYP2S1 in HCT116 cells with wild-type p53. CYP2S1 knockdown conferred a cell survival advantage after oxaliplatin treatment to cells harboring wild-type p53 in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, enzyme immunoassays, TOPFlash/FOPFlash reporter activity assays and western blotting analysis demonstrated oxaliplatin-mediated downregulation of PGE2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in a manner dependent on p53. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment of mice with subcutaneous tumor xenografts drastically reduced the volume of wild-type p53 HCT116 tumors but had no effect on isogenic p53−/− HCT116 tumors. These results suggest that oxaliplatin exerts its inhibitory effects in human CRC cells via upregulation of CYP2S1 expression in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27609465

  11. Interactions of interferon-alpha 2a with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine in colorectal cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tevaearai, H T; Laurent, P L; Suardet, L; Eliason, J F; Givel, J C; Odartchenko, N

    1992-01-01

    The biological activity of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd) depends upon intracellular enzymatic cleavage by pyrimidine phosphorylase to form 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Interferon-alpha 2a (IFN-alpha) effect was analysed alone and combined with 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd, on proliferation inhibition of eight human colorectal cancer cell lines. The toxicity of 5-FU was enhanced by IFN-alpha in only one line (SW-480). In contrast, interactive enhancement of IFN-alpha was observed with 5'-dFUrd in five lines (WiDr, HT-29, 513, SW-480 and Co-115). In each of the lines showing potentiation by IFN/5'dFUrd but not by IFN/5-FU, cytoplasmic pyrimidine phosphorylase activity was increased after 5 days' incubation with IFN-alpha in a dose-dependent manner. Two lines (LISP-1 and SW-620) showed no potentiation of either 5-FU or 5'-dFUrd toxicity by IFN-alpha, and no change in pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. Potentiation of 5'-dFUrd effect by IFN-alpha may thus be explained by an enhancement of its conversion to 5-FU through stimulation of pyrimidine phosphorylase activity. PMID:1534247

  12. Biotransformation of xenobiotics in the human colon and rectum and its association with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Beyerle, Jolantha; Frei, Eva; Stiborova, Marie; Habermann, Nina; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-05-01

    In humans, the liver is generally considered to be the major organ contributing to drug metabolism, but studies during the last years have suggested an important role of the extra-hepatic drug metabolism. The gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) is the major path of entry for a wide variety of compounds including food, and orally administered drugs, but also compounds - with neither nutrient nor other functional value - such as carcinogens. These compounds are metabolized by a large number of enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP), the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family, the uridine 5'-diphospho- glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase - UGT) superfamily, alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, sulfotransferases, etc. These enzymes can either inactivate carcinogens or, in some cases, generate reactive species with higher reactivity compared to the original compound. Most data in this field of research originate from animal or in vitro studies, wherein human studies are limited. Here, we review the human studies, in particular the studies on the phenotypic expression of these enzymes in the colon and rectum to get an impression of the actual enzyme levels in this primary organ of exposure. The aim of this review is to give a summary of currently available data on the relation between the CYP, the GST and the UGT biotransformation system and colorectal cancer obtained from clinical and epidemiological studies in humans. PMID:25686853

  13. Polyamines reverse non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced toxicity in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alun; Smith, Nicholas I; Wallace, Heather M

    2003-01-01

    Naproxen, sulindac and salicylate, three NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), were cytotoxic to human colorectal cancer cells in culture. Toxicity was accompanied by significant depletion of intracellular polyamine content. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (the first enzyme of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway), induction of polyamine oxidase and spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (the enzymes responsible for polyamine catabolism) and induction of polyamine export all contributed to the decreased intracellular polyamine content. Morphological examination of the cells showed typical signs of apoptosis, and this was confirmed by DNA fragmentation and measurement of caspase-3-like activity. Re-addition of spermidine to the cells partially prevented apoptosis and recovered the cell number. Thus polyamines appear to be an integral part of the signalling pathway mediating NSAID toxicity in human colorectal cancer cells, and may therefore also be important in cancer chemoprevention in humans. PMID:12793857

  14. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Wong, Jack H; Ng, Tzi B

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been consumed in China as a medicine for promoting health and longevity for thousands of years. Due to its paramount and multiple pharmaceutical effects, G. lucidum has received considerable attention from researchers and its chemical constituents as well as their respective functions were gradually unveiled by using modern research methods. Herein, we reported the isolation of a protein (Ganoderma lucidum ribonuclease, GLR) with anti-colorectal cancer activities from G. lucidum. This protein is a 17.4-kDa RNA degrading enzyme (ribonuclease) and was purified by using liquid chromatography procedures. GLR manifested potent anti-proliferative and anti-colony formation activities on HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase through the regulation of cyclin D1 and P53 expression. GLR was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells by activating unfolded protein response and caspase-9 regulated pathways. Besides, the ability to undergo autophagy which is a stress adaption mechanism to cope with metabolic crisis was significantly suppressed by GLR treatment in HCT116 cells. The activation of apoptosis in GLR-treated HT29 cells was, however, independent of caspase-9 and the suppression of autophagy was also relatively minor. Thus the apoptosis of HT29 cells triggered by GLR was much milder than that in HCT116 cells. Our findings show that the RNase from G. lucidum may be one of the bioactive components that contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer activity of G. lucidum. PMID:27504094

  15. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Wong, Jack H.; Ng, Tzi B.

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been consumed in China as a medicine for promoting health and longevity for thousands of years. Due to its paramount and multiple pharmaceutical effects, G. lucidum has received considerable attention from researchers and its chemical constituents as well as their respective functions were gradually unveiled by using modern research methods. Herein, we reported the isolation of a protein (Ganoderma lucidum ribonuclease, GLR) with anti-colorectal cancer activities from G. lucidum. This protein is a 17.4-kDa RNA degrading enzyme (ribonuclease) and was purified by using liquid chromatography procedures. GLR manifested potent anti-proliferative and anti-colony formation activities on HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase through the regulation of cyclin D1 and P53 expression. GLR was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells by activating unfolded protein response and caspase-9 regulated pathways. Besides, the ability to undergo autophagy which is a stress adaption mechanism to cope with metabolic crisis was significantly suppressed by GLR treatment in HCT116 cells. The activation of apoptosis in GLR-treated HT29 cells was, however, independent of caspase-9 and the suppression of autophagy was also relatively minor. Thus the apoptosis of HT29 cells triggered by GLR was much milder than that in HCT116 cells. Our findings show that the RNase from G. lucidum may be one of the bioactive components that contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer activity of G. lucidum. PMID:27504094

  16. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Wong, Jack H; Ng, Tzi B

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been consumed in China as a medicine for promoting health and longevity for thousands of years. Due to its paramount and multiple pharmaceutical effects, G. lucidum has received considerable attention from researchers and its chemical constituents as well as their respective functions were gradually unveiled by using modern research methods. Herein, we reported the isolation of a protein (Ganoderma lucidum ribonuclease, GLR) with anti-colorectal cancer activities from G. lucidum. This protein is a 17.4-kDa RNA degrading enzyme (ribonuclease) and was purified by using liquid chromatography procedures. GLR manifested potent anti-proliferative and anti-colony formation activities on HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase through the regulation of cyclin D1 and P53 expression. GLR was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells by activating unfolded protein response and caspase-9 regulated pathways. Besides, the ability to undergo autophagy which is a stress adaption mechanism to cope with metabolic crisis was significantly suppressed by GLR treatment in HCT116 cells. The activation of apoptosis in GLR-treated HT29 cells was, however, independent of caspase-9 and the suppression of autophagy was also relatively minor. Thus the apoptosis of HT29 cells triggered by GLR was much milder than that in HCT116 cells. Our findings show that the RNase from G. lucidum may be one of the bioactive components that contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer activity of G. lucidum.

  17. Multiple microRNAs induced by Cdx1 suppress Cdx2 in human colorectal tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Takanobu; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Iba, Hideo

    2012-11-01

    The mammalian transcriptional factors, Cdx1 and Cdx2 (Cdx is caudal-type homeobox) are paralogues and critical for the cellular differentiation of intestinal or colorectal epithelia. It has been reported previously that in Cdx1 transgenic or knockout mice, endogenous Cdx2 levels are inversely correlated with Cdx1 levels. Recently, we found that exogenous Cdx1 expression can suppress Cdx2 in a human colorectal tumour cell line, SW480, although the underlying molecular mechanisms were unclear. In the present study, we show that several microRNAs induced by exogenous Cdx1 expression directly bind to the CDX2 mRNA 3'UTR (untranslated region) to destabilize these transcripts, finally leading to their degradation. Using microarray analysis, we found that several miRNAs that were computationally predicted to target CDX2 mRNAs are up-regulated by exogenous Cdx1 expression in SW480 cells. Among these molecules, we identified miR-9, miR-16 and miR-22 as having the potential to suppress Cdx2 through the binding of the 3'UTR to its transcript. Importantly, simultaneous mutations of both the miR-9- and miR-16-binding sites in the CDX2 3'UTR were shown to be sufficient to block Cdx2 suppression. The results of the present study suggest a unique feature of miRNAs in which they contribute to homoeostasis by limiting the levels of transcription factors belonging to the same gene family.

  18. Expression of prokineticin-receptor2(PK-R2) is a new prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goi, Takanori; Kurebayashi, Hidetaka; Ueda, Yuki; Naruse, Takayuki; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Koneri, Kenji; Hirono, Yasuo; Katayama, Kanji; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-10-13

    The increased invasiveness of colorectal cancer cells is important for progression and metastasis to the surrounding organs. According to recent molecular biological studies, signaling through transmembrane Prokineticin-Receptor2(PK-R2) is likely involved in the ability of tumor cell to invade. However, no studies have evaluated the relationship between PK-R2 expression, ability of cancer to invade/metastasize, and patient prognosis in cases of resected colorectal cancer. Accordingly, we have examined these factors in the present study.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect PK-R2 in the primary lesion and adjacent normal large intestine mucosa of 324 colorectal cancer patients who underwent resection surgery at our department. Additionally, we conducted clinicopathologic examinations and analyzed patient prognoses with the Kaplan-Meier method. Further, multivariate analysis was conducted using a cox-proportional hazard model.PK-R2 expression was observed on the cellular membrane of the primary lesion in 147 of 324 cases (45.3%) of human colorectal cancer. PK-R2 expression was associated with a higher incidence of vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and hematogenous metastasis. Further, prevalence of PK-R2 expression increased as tumor stage increased. In stage III curative resection cases, where recurrence is the most serious problem, cases that expressed PK-R2 had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate (82.1% versus 66.8%) and higher recurrence compared to those cases with no PK-R2 expression. In the multivariate analysis for prognosis, PK-R2 expression was found to be an independent factor(ratio2.621).PK-R2 expression could be one of the new prognostic factors in human colorectal cancer.

  19. Animal models of human colorectal cancer: Current status, uses and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay K; Bhullar, Jasneet Singh; Jayant, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To make orthotopic colon cancer murine models a more clearly understood subject. The orthotopic tumor models have been found to be more relevant in replicating the human disease process as compared to heterotopic models, many techniques for making orthotopic colorectal murine models have been reported. METHODS: We evaluated the current literature for various reported orthotopic colon cancer models to understand their techniques, advantages and limitations. An extensive literature review was performed by searching the National Library of Medicine Database (PubMed) using MeSH terms animal model; colon cancer; orthotopic model; murine model. Twenty studies related to colon cancer orthotopic xenograft model were evaluated in detail and discussed here. RESULTS: The detailed analysis of all relevant reports on orthotopic model showed tumor take rate between 42%-100%. While models using the enema technique and minimally invasive technique have reported development of tumor from mucosa with tumor take rate between 87%-100% with metastasis in 76%-90%. CONCLUSION: Over the years, the increased understanding of the murine models of human colon cancer has resulted in the development of various models. Each reported model has some limitations. These latest models have opened up new doors for continuing cancer research for not only understanding the colon cancer pathogenesis but also aid in the development of newer chemotherapeutic drugs as they mimic the human disease closely. PMID:26557009

  20. Web-based data warehouse on gene expression in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sagynaliev, Emil; Steinert, Ralf; Nestler, Gerd; Lippert, Hans; Knoch, Manfred; Reymond, Marc-André

    2005-08-01

    Based on biomedical literature databases, we tried a first step for constructing a gene expression "data warehouse" specific to human colorectal cancer (CRC). Results of genome-wide transcriptomic research were available from 12 studies, using various technologies, namely, SAGE, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays, and adaptor-tagged amplification. Three studies analyzed CRC cell lines and nine studies of human samples. The total number of patients was 144. Out of 982 up- or down-regulated genes, 863 (88%) were found to be differentially expressed in a single study, 88 in two studies, 22 in three studies, 7 in four studies, and only 2 genes in six studies. Eight large-scale proteomics studies were published in CRC, using 2-D-, SDS- or free-flow electrophoresis, involving only 11 patients. Out of 408 differentially expressed proteins, 339 (83%) were found to be differentially expressed only in a single study, 16 in three studies, 10 in four studies, 3 in five, and 1 in eight studies. Confirmation at proteome level of results obtained with large-scale transcriptomics studies was possible in 25%. This proportion was higher (67%) for reproducing proteome results using transcriptomics technologies. Obviously, reproducibility and overlapping between published gene expression results at proteome and transcriptome level are low in human CRC. Thus, the development of standardized processes for collecting samples, storing, retrieving, and querying gene expression data obtained with different technologies is of central importance in translational research.

  1. Apple Polyphenol Phloretin Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth via Inhibition of the Type 2 Glucose Transporter and Activation of p53-Mediated Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Tsai; Tu, Shih-Hsin; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Sung-Po; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Lai, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Yao; Chen, Li-Ching

    2016-09-14

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets for cancer therapy. An RT-PCR analysis was performed to investigate the mRNA levels of 14 subtypes of GLUTs in human colorectal cancer (COLO 205 and HT-29) and normal (FHC) cells. RT-PCR (n = 27) was used to assess the differences in paired tissue samples (tumor vs normal) isolated from colorectal cancer patients. GLUT2 was detected in all tested cells. The average GLUT2 mRNA level in 12 of 27 (44.4%) cases was 2.4-fold higher in tumor compared to normal tissues (*, p = 0.027). Higher GLUT2 mRNA expression was preferentially detected in advanced-stage tumors (stage 0 vs 3 = 16.38-fold, 95% CI = 9.22-26.54-fold; *, p = 0.029). The apple polyphenol phloretin (Ph) and siRNA methods were used to inhibit GLUT2 protein expression. Ph (0-100 μM, for 24 h) induced COLO 205 cell growth cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner, which was confirmed by pretreatment of the cells with a p53-specific dominant negative expression vector. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6), which was previously reported to be a transcription factor that activates GLUT2 and p53, was also induced by Ph (0-100 μM, for 24 h). The antitumor effect of Ph (25 mg/kg or DMSO twice a week for 6 weeks) was demonstrated in vivo using BALB/c nude mice bearing COLO 205 tumor xenografts. In conclusion, targeting GLUT2 could potentially suppress colorectal tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:27538679

  2. Thymus vulgaris (thyme) inhibits proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Menhali, Afnan; Al-Rumaihi, Aisha; Al-Mohammed, Hana; Al-Mazrooey, Hana; Al-Shamlan, Maryam; AlJassim, Meaad; Al-Korbi, Noof; Eid, Ali Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Its prognosis remains poor for patients with several grades of this disease. This underscores the need for alternative modalities, such as herbal medicines, to treat this disease. A commonly used plant that appears to be of high medicinal value is Thymus vulgaris L. However, the effects of this plant on the malignant behavior of human CRC cells remains poorly investigated. This study was undertaken to determine the anticancer efficacy of T. vulgaris extract (TVE) in CRC cells. Our results show that TVE inhibits proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. This decreased proliferation was concomitant with increased apoptotic cell death as evidenced by increased caspase3/7 activity. Moreover, TVE also decreased adhesion to fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner. The migratory and invasive capacities of HCT116 cells were significantly inhibited by TVE. Taken together, these data suggest that the TVE inhibits malignant phenotype of colon cancer cells. Therefore, T. vulgaris could have an anticancer effect and that some of its bioactive compounds may prove to be effective treatment modalities for human CRC.

  3. The expression of non-mast histamine in tumor associated microvessels in human colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Xu, Gang; Liu, Jinzhong; Pang, Zhigang; Florholmen, Jon; Cui, Guanglin

    2013-04-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, expansion and metastasis of human colorectal cancers (CRCs). Histamine produced by mast cells is a potent proangiogenic factor. However, the significance of non-mast cell expressing histamine in the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the histamine positive microvessels with the specific marker for biosynthesis of histamine L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the CRC tumor microenvironment. The relationship between HDC positive microvessel density (HDC-MVD) and clinical pathological parameters was assessed. The results revealed that HDC-MVD in the tumor microenvironment of CRCs was significantly increased as compared with the controls. CRC patients with lymph node invasion had a particularly higher density of HDC-MVD than those without. The density of HDC-MVD accounted for ~79 % of CD34 positive MVD in CRCs and double IHC analysis demonstrated that these HDC positive microvessels were mostly CD34 positive microvessels and with a high proliferative activity. Our results suggest that histamine expressed in microvessels could be an additional cellular source and involved in the cancer invasion through promoting angiogenesis in human CRCs.

  4. Chemokine-Targeted Mouse Models of Human Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Sun, Jian; Huang, Zhiliang; Hou, Harry; Arcilla, Myra; Rakhilin, Nikolai; Joe, Daniel J.; Choi, Jiahn; Gadamsetty, Poornima; Milsom, Jeff; Nandakumar, Govind; Longman, Randy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Edwards, Robert; Chen, Jonlin; Chen, Kai Yuan; Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Yitian; Munroe, Robert; Abratte, Christian; Miller, Andrew D.; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Shuler, Michael; Nishimura, Nozomi; Edelmann, Winfried; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Current orthotopic xenograft models of human colorectal cancer (CRC) require surgery and do not robustly form metastases in the liver, the most common site clinically. CCR9 traffics lymphocytes to intestine and colorectum. We engineered use of the chemokine receptor CCR9 in CRC cell lines and patient-derived cells to create primary gastrointestinal (GI) tumors in immunodeficient mice by tail-vein injection rather than surgery. The tumors metastasize inducibly and robustly to the liver. Metastases have higher DKK4 and NOTCH signaling levels and are more chemoresistant than paired sub-cutaneous xenografts. Using this approach, we generated 17 chemokine-targeted mouse models (CTMMs) that recapitulate the majority of common human somatic CRC mutations. We also show that primary tumors can be modeled in immunocompetent mice by microinjecting CCR9-expressing cancer cell lines into early-stage mouse blastocysts, which induces central immune tolerance. We expect that CTMMs will facilitate investigation of the biology of CRC metastasis and drug screening. PMID:26006007

  5. Many private mutations originate from the first few divisions of a human colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haeyoun; Salomon, Matthew P; Sottoriva, Andrea; Zhao, Junsong; Toy, Morgan; Press, Michael F; Curtis, Christina; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Shibata, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    Intratumoural mutational heterogeneity (ITH) or the presence of different private mutations in different parts of the same tumour is commonly observed in human tumours. The mechanisms generating such ITH are uncertain. Here we find that ITH can be remarkably well structured by measuring point mutations, chromosome copy numbers, and DNA passenger methylation from opposite sides and individual glands of a 6 cm human colorectal adenoma. ITH was present between tumour sides and individual glands, but the private mutations were side-specific and subdivided the adenoma into two major subclones. Furthermore, ITH disappeared within individual glands because the glands were clonal populations composed of cells with identical mutant genotypes. Despite mutation clonality, the glands were relatively old, diverse populations when their individual cells were compared for passenger methylation and by FISH. These observations can be organized into an expanding star-like ancestral tree with co-clonal expansion, where many private mutations and multiple related clones arise during the first few divisions. As a consequence, most detectable mutational ITH in the final tumour originates from the first few divisions. Much of the early history of a tumour, especially the first few divisions, may be embedded within the detectable ITH of tumour genomes. PMID:26119426

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 inhibits the proliferation and growth of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNYUAN; CHEN, XIAN; QIAO, MIN; ZHANG, BING-QIANG; WANG, NING; ZHANG, ZHONGLIN; LIAO, ZHAN; ZENG, LIYI; DENG, YOULIN; DENG, FANG; ZHANG, JUNHUI; YIN, LIANGJUN; LIU, WEI; ZHANG, QIAN; YAN, ZHENGJIAN; YE, JIXING; WANG, ZHONGLIANG; ZHOU, LAN; LUU, HUE H.; HAYDON, REX C.; HE, TONG-CHUAN; ZHANG, HONGYU

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide. Significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of CRC, which has led to successful early diagnosis, surgical intervention and combination chemotherapy. However, limited therapeutic options are available for metastatic and/or drug-resistant CRC. While the aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a critical initiating role in CRC development, disruption of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway causes juvenile polyposis syndrome, suggesting that BMP signaling may play a role in CRC development. However, conflicting results have been reported concerning the possible roles of BMP signaling in sporadic colon cancer. Here, we investigated the effect of BMP2 on the proliferation, migration, invasiveness and tumor growth capability of human CRC cells. Using an adenovirus vector that overexpresses BMP2 and the piggyBac transposon-mediated stable BMP2 overexpression CRC line, we found that exogenous BMP2 effectively inhibited HCT116 cell proliferation and colony formation. BMP2 was shown to suppress colon cancer cell migration and invasiveness. Under a low serum culture condition, forced expression of BMP2 induced a significantly increased level of apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Using a xenograft tumor model, we found that forced expression of BMP2 in HCT116 cells suppressed tumor growth, accompanied by decreased cell proliferation activity. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that BMP2 plays an important inhibitory role in governing the proliferation and aggressive features of human CRC cells. PMID:24993644

  7. Decreasing lncRNA HOTAIR expression inhibits human colorectal cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Jun; Ni, Yaoyao; He, Xiangfeng; Wu, Di; Li, Miao; Wu, Songyan; Zhang, Rong; Guo, Mei; Zhao, Fengsu

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aberrant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and cancer stem cell (CSC) biology in cancer patients has been recently gaining attention. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the decreasing lncRNA HOTAIR expression would inhibit human colorectal cancer (CRC) stem cells. CD133+CSCs were isolated from human CRC LoVo cell line by using a magnetic-activated cell sorting system, and were transfected with the expression vector-based small hairpin RNA targeting HOTAIR (shHOTAIR). The ability of cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, colony-forming, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated molecule expression as well as the tumorigenicity of CD133+-shHOTAIR were evaluated by the MTT, wound-healing, cellular invasion, colony formation and Western blot assays, respectively. This study found that, when compared with control cells in vitro, CD133+-shHOTAIR exhibited the decreased HOTAIR expression, suppressed cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, colony-forming, and inhibited the Vimentin expression with increased E-cadherin expression. In particular, the down-regulation of the HOTAIR expression in CD133+CSCs markedly attenuated the tumor growth and lung metastasis in xenograft nude mice. Taken together, this study found that down-regulating the HOTAIR expression in CD133+CSCs could serve as a potential anti-cancer regimen to inhibit the invasiveness and metastasis of CRC CSCs. PMID:27069543

  8. Protocatechualdehyde possesses anti-cancer activity through downregulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA enhanced transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA suppressed HDAC2 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that anti-cancer activity of PCA may be mediated by reducing HDAC2-derived cyclin D1 expression. -- Abstract: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves. Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and define potential mechanisms by which PCA mediates growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Exposure of PCA to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW480 cells) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. PCA decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level and suppressed luciferase activity of cyclin D1 promoter, indicating transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene by PCA. We also observed that PCA treatment attenuated enzyme activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and reduced expression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1. These findings suggest that cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by PCA may be a result of HDAC2-mediated cyclin D1 suppression.

  9. The novel carboxamide analog ITR-284 induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Ren; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Lai, Kuang-Chi; Yang, Jai-Sing; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Wen, Yen-Fang; Fushiya, Shinji; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-05-01

    We have previously reported that ITR-284, a potent carboxamide-derived anticancer agent, induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. However, there are no reports showing that ITR-284 inhibits human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic induction of ITR-284 on various types of human hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The growth inhibition effect of ITR-284 on cancer cells was evaluated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell morphology was examined under a phase-contrast microscope. The activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were determined by caspase colorimetric assay. ITR-284 reduced the cell viability in human hepatocellular cancer cells (Hep G2, Hep 3B, SK-HEP-1 and J5) and colorectal cancer cells (HT 29, COLO 205, HCT 116 and SW 620). ITR-284 had highly selective effects on Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. ITR-284 stimulated morphological changes of Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. The activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 contributed to ITR-284-induced apoptosis. ITR-284-triggered growth inhibition was significantly attenuated by the inhibitors of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells. ITR-284 induced apoptosis in Hep 3B and COLO 205 cells through the caspase cascade-dependent signaling pathway.

  10. T-cell factor-4 frameshift mutations occur frequently in human microsatellite instability-high colorectal carcinomas but do not contribute to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Stefan; Hiendlmeyer, Elke; Brueckl, Wolfgang M; Oswald, Ursula; Beyser, Kurt; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Haynl, Angela; Koch, Claudia; Rüschoff, Josef; Brabletz, Thomas; Kirchner, Thomas; Jung, Andreas

    2002-06-01

    Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability accumulate errors in short repetitive DNA repeats, especially mono and dinucleotide repeats. One such error-prone A(9) monorepeat is found in exon 17 of the TCF-4 gene. TCF-4 and beta-catenin form a transcription complex, which is important for both maintenance of normal epithelium and development of colorectal tumors. To elucidate the relevance of frameshift mutations in the TCF-4 in colorectal carcinogenesis, a variety of investigations in human tumors and cell lines was performed. It was found that mutations in the TCF-4 A(9) repeat do not contribute to tumorigenesis and seem to be passenger mutations.

  11. Bio-Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Models Using Near Infrared Labeled Epidermal Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Lecht, Shimon; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Ettinger, Keren; Amsalem, Orit; Oron-Herman, Mor; Yavin, Eylon; Prus, Diana; Benita, Simon; Nissan, Aviram; Lazarovici, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have led to the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies, which treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) but only subgroups of patients with increased wild type KRAS and EGFR gene copy, respond to these agents. Furthermore, resistance to EGFR blockade inevitably occurred, making future therapy difficult. Novel bio-imaging (BOI) methods may assist in quantization of EGFR in mCRC tissue thus complementing the immunohistochemistry methodology, in guiding the future treatment of these patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of near infrared-labeled EGF (EGF-NIR) for bio-imaging of CRC using in vitro and in vivo orthotopic tumor CRC models and ex vivo human CRC tissues. We describe the preparation and characterization of EGF-NIR and investigate binding, using BOI of a panel of CRC cell culture models resembling heterogeneity of human CRC tissues. EGF-NIR was specifically and selectively bound by EGFR expressing CRC cells, the intensity of EGF-NIR signal to background ratio (SBR) reflected EGFR levels, dose-response and time course imaging experiments provided optimal conditions for quantization of EGFR levels by BOI. EGF-NIR imaging of mice with HT-29 orthotopic CRC tumor indicated that EGF-NIR is more slowly cleared from the tumor and the highest SBR between tumor and normal adjacent tissue was achieved two days post-injection. Furthermore, images of dissected tissues demonstrated accumulation of EGF-NIR in the tumor and liver. EGF-NIR specifically and strongly labeled EGFR positive human CRC tissues while adjacent CRC tissue and EGFR negative tissues expressed weak NIR signals. This study emphasizes the use of EGF-NIR for preclinical studies. Combined with other methods, EGF-NIR could provide an additional bio-imaging specific tool in the standardization of measurements of EGFR expression in CRC tissues. PMID:23144978

  12. Purified Brominated Indole Derivatives from Dicathais orbita Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeelian, Babak; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Johnston, Martin R.; Abbott, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a large Australian marine gastropod known to produce bioactive compounds with anticancer properties. In this research, we used bioassay guided fractionation from the egg mass extract of D. orbita using flash column chromatography and identified fractions containing tyrindoleninone and 6-bromoisatin as the most active against colon cancer cells HT29 and Caco-2. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS) and 1H NMR were used to characterize the purity and chemical composition of the isolated compounds. An MTT assay was used to determine effects on cell viability. Necrosis and apoptosis induction using caspase/LDH assay and flow cytometry (PI/Annexin-V) and cell cycle analysis were also investigated. Our results show that semi-purified 6-bromoisatin had the highest anti-cancer activity by inhibiting cell viability (IC50 = ~100 µM) and increasing caspase 3/7 activity in both of the cell lines at low concentration. The fraction containing 6-bromoisatin induced 77.6% apoptosis and arrested 25.7% of the cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle in HT29 cells. Tyrindoleninone was less potent but significantly decreased the viability of HT29 cells at IC50 = 390 µM and induced apoptosis at 195 µM by increasing caspase 3/7 activity in these cells. This research will facilitate the development of these molluscan natural products as novel complementary medicines for colorectal cancer. PMID:24152558

  13. Gambogic acid inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and overcomes drug resistance in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WEN, CHUANGYU; HUANG, LANLAN; CHEN, JUNXIONG; LIN, MENGMENG; LI, WEN; LU, BIYAN; RUTNAM, ZINA JEYAPALAN; IWAMOTO, AIKICHI; WANG, ZHONGYANG; YANG, XIANGLING; LIU, HUANLIANG

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of chemoresistance is a major limitation of colorectal cancer (CRC) therapies and novel biologically based therapies are urgently needed. Natural products represent a novel potential anticancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), a small molecule derived from Garcinia hanburyi Hook. f., has been demonstrated to be highly cytotoxic to several types of cancer cells and have low toxicity to the hematopoietic system. However, the potential role of GA in colorectal cancer and its ability to overcome the chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC cells have not been well studied. In the present study, we showed that GA directly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitive and 5-FU resistant colorectal cancer cells; induced apoptosis via activating JNK signaling pathway. The data, therefore, suggested an alternative strategy to overcome 5-FU resistance in CRC and that GA could be a promising medicinal compound for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:26397804

  14. Expression Profiles of miRNA Subsets Distinguish Human Colorectal Carcinoma and Normal Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K; Mullany, Lila E; Herrick, Jennifer S; Samowitz, Wade; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that are commonly dysregulated in colorectal tumors. The objective of this study was to identify smaller subsets of highly predictive miRNAs. METHODS: Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Tissue samples were available for 1,953 individuals, of which 1,894 had carcinoma tissue and 1,599 had normal mucosa available for statistical analysis. Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V.19.0 was used to generate miRNA expression profiles; validation of expression levels was carried out using quantitative PCR. We used random forest analysis and verified findings with logistic modeling in separate data sets. Important microRNAs are identified and bioinformatics tools are used to identify target genes and related biological pathways. RESULTS: We identified 16 miRNAs for colon and 17 miRNAs for rectal carcinoma that appear to differentiate between carcinoma and normal mucosa; of these, 12 were important for both colon and rectal cancer, hsa-miR-663b, hsa-miR-4539, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-4506, hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-3651, hsa-miR-378a-3p, and hsa-miR-378i. Estimated misclassification rates were low at 4.83% and 2.5% among colon and rectal observations, respectively. Among independent observations, logistic modeling reinforced the importance of these miRNAs, finding the primary principal components of their variation statistically significant (P<0.001 among both colon and rectal observations) and again producing low misclassification rates. Repeating our analysis without those miRNAs initially identified as important identified other important miRNAs; however, misclassification rates increased and distinctions between remaining miRNAs in terms of classification importance were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that while many miRNAs are

  15. Inhibition of host immune response in colorectal cancer: Human leukocyte antigen-G and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Marica; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diffuse cancers worldwide and is still a clinical burden. Increasing evidences associate CRC clinical outcome to immune contexture represented by adaptive immune cells. Their type, density and location are summarized in the Immune Score that has been shown to improve prognostic prediction of CRC patients. The non-classical MHC class I human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), is a crucial tumor-driven immune escape molecule involved in immune tolerance. HLA-G and soluble counterparts are able to exert inhibitory functions by direct interactions with inhibitory receptors present on both innate cells such as natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells as cytotoxic T and B lymphocytes. HLA-G may play a prominent role in CRC strategies to avoid host immunosurveillance. This review highlights the current knowledge on HLA-G contribution in CRC, in related inflammatory diseases and in other type of cancers and disorders. HLA-G genetic setting (specific haplotypes, genotypes and alleles frequencies) and association with circulating/soluble profiles was highlighted. HLA G prognostic and predictive value in CRC was investigated in order to define a novel prognostic immune biomarker in CRC. PMID:24744572

  16. Tissue Metabonomic Phenotyping for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Xu, Tangpeng; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Limin; Xu, Shan; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and prognosis based on the conventional histological grading method for CRC remains poor. To better the situation, we analyzed the metabonomic signatures of 50 human CRC tissues and their adjacent non-involved tissues (ANIT) using high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy together with the fatty acid compositions of these tissues using GC-FID/MS. We showed that tissue metabolic phenotypes not only discriminated CRC tissues from ANIT, but also distinguished low-grade tumor tissues (stages I-II) from the high-grade ones (stages III-IV) with high sensitivity and specificity in both cases. Metabonomic phenotypes of CRC tissues differed significantly from that of ANIT in energy metabolism, membrane biosynthesis and degradations, osmotic regulations together with the metabolism of proteins and nucleotides. Amongst all CRC tissues, the stage I tumors exhibited largest differentiations from ANIT. The combination of the differentiating metabolites showed outstanding collective power for differentiating cancer from ANIT and for distinguishing CRC tissues at different stages. These findings revealed details in the typical metabonomic phenotypes associated with CRC tissues nondestructively and demonstrated tissue metabonomic phenotyping as an important molecular pathology tool for diagnosis and prognosis of cancerous solid tumors. PMID:26876567

  17. Identification of SOCS2 and SOCS6 as biomarkers in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Letellier, E; Schmitz, M; Baig, K; Beaume, N; Schwartz, C; Frasquilho, S; Antunes, L; Marcon, N; Nazarov, P V; Vallar, L; Even, J; Haan, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past years, some members of the family of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins have emerged as potential tumour suppressors. This study aimed at investigating the clinical significance of SOCS proteins in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: We integrated publicly available microarray expression data on CRC in humans, analysed the expression pattern of SOCSs and assessed the predictive power of SOCS2 and SOCS6 for diagnostic purposes by generating receiver operating characteristic curves. Using laser microdissected patient material we assessed SOCS expression on RNA and protein levels as well as their methylation status in an independent CRC patient cohort. Finally, we investigated the prognostic value of SOCS2 and SOCS6. Results: The meta-analysis as well as the independent patient cohort analysis reveal a stage-independent downregulation of SOCS2 and SOCS6 and identify both molecules as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. We demonstrate a different methylation pattern within the SOCS2 promoter between tumour tissue and normal control tissue in 25% of CRC patients. Furthermore, early CRC stage patients with low expression of SOCS2 display significantly shorter disease-free survival. Conclusions: Our data offers evidence that SOCS2 and SOCS6 levels are reduced in CRC and may serve as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC patients. PMID:25025962

  18. Functional differences between two morphologically distinct cell subpopulations within a human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Solimene, A C; Carneiro, C R; Melati, I; Lopes, J D

    2001-05-01

    The LISP-I human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line was isolated from a hepatic metastasis at the Ludwig Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to isolate morphologically different subpopulations within the LISP-I cell line, and characterize some of their behavioral aspects such as adhesion to and migration towards extracellular matrix components, expression of intercellular adhesion molecules and tumorigenicity in vitro. Once isolated, the subpopulations were submitted to adhesion and migration assays on laminin and fibronectin (crucial proteins to invasion and metastasis), as well as to anchorage-independent growth. Two morphologically different subpopulations were isolated: LISP-A10 and LISP-E11. LISP-A10 presents a differentiated epithelial pattern, and LISP-E11 is fibroblastoid, suggesting a poorly differentiated pattern. LISP-A10 expressed the two intercellular adhesion molecules tested, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and desmoglein, while LISP-E11 expressed only low amounts of CEA. On the other hand, adhesion to laminin and fibronectin as well as migration towards these extracellular matrix proteins were higher in LISP-E11, as expected from its poorly differentiated phenotype. Both subpopulations showed anchorage-independent growth on a semi-solid substrate. These results raise the possibility that the heterogeneity found in the LISP-I cell line, which might have contributed to its ability to metastasize, was due to at least two different subpopulations herein identified. PMID:11323753

  19. Anti-tumor activity of the novel hexahydrocannabinol analog LYR-8 in Human colorectal tumor xenograft is mediated through the inhibition of Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Kang, Youra; Park, Pil-Hoon; Noh, Seok Kyun; Lee, Yong Rok; Han, Sung Soo; Ku, Sae Kwang; Jung, Yunjin; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds have been shown to exert anti-tumor effects by affecting angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In the present study, we examined the action mechanism by which LYR-8, a novel hexahydrocannabinol analog, exerts anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity in human cancer xenografts. In the xenografted tumor tissues, LYR-8 significantly reduced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), a transcription factor responsible for induction of angiogenesis-promoting factors, and its target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In HT-29 human colon cancer cells treated with a hypoxia-inducing agent (CoCl(2)), LYR-8 dose-dependently suppressed the induction of HIF-1α and subsequently its targets, VEGF and COX-2. In addition, highly elevated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) concentrations in CoCl(2)-treated HT-29 cells were also significantly suppressed by LYR-8. However, LYR-8 alone in the absence of CoCl(2) did not alter the basal expression of VEGF and COX-2, or PGE(2) production. Furthermore, LYR-8 effectively suppressed Akt signaling, which corresponded to the suppression of CoCl(2)-induced HIF-1α accumulation. Taken together, LYR-8 exerts anti-tumor effects through the inhibition of Akt and HIF-1α activation, and subsequently suppressing factors regulating tumor microenvironment, such as VEGF and COX-2. These results indicate a novel function of cannabinoid-like compound LYR-8 as an anti-tumor agent with a HIF-1α inhibitory activity.

  20. Estradiol agonists inhibit human LoVo colorectal-cancer cell proliferation and migration through p53

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ju, Da-Tong; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Tsai, Ying-Lan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol via estrogen receptors (ER) or direct administration of ER agonists on human colorectal cancer. METHODS: LoVo cells were established from the Bioresource Collection and Research Center and cultured in phenol red-free DMEM (Sigma, United States). To investigate the effects of E2 and/or ER selective agonists on cellular proliferation, LoVo colorectal cells were treated with E2 or ER-selective agonists for 24 h and 48 h and subjected to the MTT (Sigma) assay to find the concentration. And investigate the effects of E2 and/or ER selective agonists on cell used western immunoblotting to find out the diversification of signaling pathways. In order to observe motility and migration the wound healing assay and a transwell chamber (Neuro Probe) plate were tased. For a quantitative measure, we counted the number of migrating cells to the wound area post-wounding for 24 h. We further examined the cellular migration-regulating factors urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in human LoVo cells so gelatin zymography that we used and gelatinolytic activity was visualized by Coomassie blue staining. And these results are presented as means ± SE, and statistical comparisons were made using Student’s t-test. RESULTS: The structure was first compared with E2 and ER agonists. We then treated the LoVo cells with E2 and ER agonists (10-8 mol/L) for 24 h and 48 h and subsequently measured the cell viability using MTT assay. Our results showed that treatment with 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists in human LoVo colorectal cancer cells activated p53 and then up-regulated p21 and p27 protein levels, subsequently inhibiting the downstream target gene, cyclin D1, which regulates cell proliferation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the anti-tumorigenesis effects of 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists and suggest that these compounds may prove to be a

  1. STAT3-dependent TXNDC17 expression mediates Taxol resistance through inducing autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongde; Wang, Aihua; Li, Hui; Zhi, Hui; Lu, Feng

    2016-06-10

    in Taxol resistance via enhancing autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells. TXNDC17 may become a potential target of colorectal cancer therapeutics. PMID:26976343

  2. STAT3-dependent TXNDC17 expression mediates Taxol resistance through inducing autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongde; Wang, Aihua; Li, Hui; Zhi, Hui; Lu, Feng

    2016-06-10

    in Taxol resistance via enhancing autophagy in human colorectal cancer cells. TXNDC17 may become a potential target of colorectal cancer therapeutics.

  3. Inhibitory effects of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. on colorectal cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUODONG; WEI, LIHUI; FENG, JIANYU; LIN, JIUMAO; PENG, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to be closely correlated with the development and progression of tumors, as well as with chemo- and radioresistance. Targeting CSCs may therefore be a promising potential strategy for the treatment of cancer. Currently, natural products have received great interest due to their therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects compared with modern chemotherapeutics. As a significant component of a number of traditional Chinese medicine formulas, the medicinal herb Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HDW) has long been utilized in China to clinically treat a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, the authors of the present study reported that HDW suppressed CRC growth through multiple mechanisms, including promoting apoptosis, and inhibiting cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. To additionally investigate its mode of action, the present study isolated a stem-like side population (SP) from colorectal cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of HDW on CSCs. It was observed that HDW was able to markedly downregulate the expression of CSC marker leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 and also significantly decrease the proportion of SP in HT-29 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HDW treatment significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the viability and sphere formation, and induced cell morphological changes of isolated HT-29 SP cells. In addition, HDW greatly suppressed the messenger RNA expression of several critical genes that mediate CSC features, including ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1, β-catenin, c-Myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and survivin. In conclusion, the present study indicates that HDW may exert inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells. PMID:27313710

  4. BVES regulates EMT in human corneal and colon cancer cells and is silenced via promoter methylation in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher S.; Zhang, Baolin; Smith, J. Joshua; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Pino, Christopher; Russ, Patricia; Presley, Sai H.; Peng, DunFa; Rosenblatt, Daniel O.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Yang, Jin-Long; Washington, M. Kay; Chen, Xi; Eschrich, Steven; Yeatman, Timothy J.; El-Rifai, Wael; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype is a critical step in the metastatic progression of epithelial carcinomas. Adherens junctions (AJs) are required for suppressing this epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but less is known about the role of tight junctions (TJs) in this process. Here, we investigated the functions of blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES, also known as POPDC1 and POP1), an integral membrane protein that regulates TJ formation. BVES was found to be underexpressed in all stages of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and in adenomatous polyps, indicating its suppression occurs early in transformation. Similarly, the majority of CRC cell lines tested exhibited decreased BVES expression and promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent restored BVES expression in CRC cell lines, indicating that methylation represses BVES expression. Reexpression of BVES in CRC cell lines promoted an epithelial phenotype, featuring decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth; impaired growth of an orthotopic xenograft; and blocked metastasis. Conversely, interfering with BVES function by expressing a dominant-negative mutant in human corneal epithelial cells induced mesenchymal features. These biological outcomes were associated with changes in AJ and TJ composition and related signaling. Therefore, BVES prevents EMT, and its epigenetic silencing may be an important step in promoting EMT programs during colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21911938

  5. Multifaceted enrichment analysis of RNA–RNA crosstalk reveals cooperating micro-societies in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Tommaso; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Fusilli, Caterina; Capocefalo, Daniele; Panza, Anna; Biagini, Tommaso; Castellana, Stefano; Gentile, Annamaria; De Cata, Angelo; Palumbo, Orazio; Stallone, Raffaella; Rubino, Rosa; Carella, Massimo; Piepoli, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the balance of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles contribute to the onset and development of colorectal cancer. The regulatory functions of individual miRNA-gene pairs are widely acknowledged, but group effects are largely unexplored. We performed an integrative analysis of mRNA–miRNA and miRNA–miRNA interactions using high-throughput mRNA and miRNA expression profiles obtained from matched specimens of human colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent non-tumorous mucosa. This investigation resulted in a hypernetwork-based model, whose functional backbone was fulfilled by tight micro-societies of miRNAs. These proved to modulate several genes that are known to control a set of significantly enriched cancer-enhancer and cancer-protection biological processes, and that an array of upstream regulatory analyses demonstrated to be dependent on miR-145, a cell cycle and MAPK signaling cascade master regulator. In conclusion, we reveal miRNA-gene clusters and gene families with close functional relationships and highlight the role of miR-145 as potent upstream regulator of a complex RNA–RNA crosstalk, which mechanistically modulates several signaling pathways and regulatory circuits that when deranged are relevant to the changes occurring in colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:27067546

  6. Induction of autophagy by dimethyl cardamonin is associated with proliferative arrest in human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Amor, Evangeline C; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Han-Cheon; Kim, Hee Ju; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2011-09-01

    Dimethyl cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone; DMC) is a naturally occurring chalcone, and it is the major compound isolated from the leaves of Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMC on cell proliferation, cell-cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in cultures of human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cells. Results showed that DMC inhibited HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation and induced G(2) /M cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the conversion of microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I-LC3-II, an autophagosome marker, and the incorporation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC), a marker for the acidic compartment of autolysosomes or acidic vesicular organelles. The treatment of HCT116 and LOVO cells using a combination of DMC with an autophagy inhibitor, such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA), beclin 1 siRNA, or atg5 siRNA, suppressed the effect of DMC-mediated anti-proliferation. These results imply that DMC can suppress colorectal carcinoma HCT116 and LOVO cell proliferation through a G(2) /M phase cell-cycle delay, and can induce autophagy, the hallmark of Type II programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together, our results suggest that DMC may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for HCT116 and LOVO colorectal carcinoma cells.

  7. 5-Fluorouracil + cisplatin + mitomycin C is a relatively most effective combination against xenograft lines of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, K; Nio, Y; Imamura, M

    1997-09-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been an accepted effective against colorectal cancer, but combination regimens resulted in a lesser effect than 5-FU alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of various combination chemotherapies, including 5-FU, on human colorectal cancer xenograft lines (CC-KK and RC-TK), which had been passed by transplantation in nude mice. Eight anticancer agents [5-FU, mitomycin C (MMC), adriamycin (ADR), 4'-epirubicin (EPIR), carboquone (CQ), cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide (VP-16)] and their combinations were evaluated at 2-4 times the clinical dose. When the agents were administered singly, 5-FU, EPIR and CQ were effective against CC-KK, and 5-FU, MMC, EPIR, ADR, CQ and carboplatin were effective against RC-TK. Of the two-agent combinations including 5-FU, cisplatin + 5-FU was the most effective against both CC-KK and RC-TK. However, of the three-agent combinations, only cisplatin + 5-FU + MMC was more effective against both lines than cisplatin + 5-FU. These results suggest that cisplatin + 5-FU + MMC may be the most useful regimen against colorectal cancers in clinical application.

  8. The cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamic aldehyde activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in human epithelial colon cells.

    PubMed

    Wondrak, Georg Thomas; Villeneuve, Nicole F; Lamore, Sarah D; Bause, Alexandra S; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D

    2010-05-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis.

  9. The Cinnamon-derived Dietary Factor Cinnamic Aldehyde Activates the Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response in Human Epithelial Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wondrak, Georg T.; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Lamore, Sarah D.; Bause, Alexandra S.; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Donna D.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent research suggests that pharmacological intervention using dietary factors that activate the redox sensitive Nrf2/Keap1-ARE signaling pathway may represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of human cancer including CRC. In our search for dietary Nrf2 activators with potential chemopreventive activity targeting CRC, we have focused our studies on trans-cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamaldeyde, CA), the key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil. Here we demonstrate that CA and an ethanolic extract (CE) prepared from Cinnamomum cassia bark, standardized for CA content by GC-MS analysis, display equipotent activity as inducers of Nrf2 transcriptional activity. In human colon cancer cells (HCT116, HT29) and non-immortalized primary fetal colon cells (FHC), CA- and CE-treatment upregulated cellular protein levels of Nrf2 and established Nrf2 targets involved in the antioxidant response including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, catalytic subunit). CA- and CE-pretreatment strongly upregulated cellular glutathione levels and protected HCT116 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity and arsenic-induced oxidative insult. Taken together our data demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived food factor CA is a potent activator of the Nrf2-orchestrated antioxidant response in cultured human epithelial colon cells. CA may therefore represent an underappreciated chemopreventive dietary factor targeting colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:20657484

  10. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  11. Epigenetic silencing of monoallelically methylated miRNA loci in precancerous colorectal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Menigatti, M; Staiano, T; Manser, C N; Bauerfeind, P; Komljenovic, A; Robinson, M; Jiricny, J; Buffoli, F; Marra, G

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of protein-encoding genes is common in early-stage colorectal tumorigenesis. Less is known about the methylation-mediated silencing of genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs), which are also important epigenetic modulators of gene expression. Using quantitative PCR, we identified 56 miRNAs that were expressed in normal colorectal mucosa and in HT29 colorectal cancer cells treated with demethylating agents but not in untreated HT29 cells, suggesting that they probably undergo methylation-induced silencing during colorectal tumorigenesis. One of these, miR-195, had recently been reported to be underexpressed in colorectal cancers and to exert tumor-suppressor effects in colorectal cancer cells. We identified the transcription start site (TSS) for primary miRNA (pri-miR)-497/195, the primary precursor that yields miR-195 and another candidate on our list, miR-497, and a single CpG island upstream to the TSS, which controls expression of both miRNAs. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite genomic sequencing studies revealed monoallelic methylation of this island in normal colorectal mucosa (50/50 samples) and full methylation in most colorectal adenomas (38/50; 76%). The hypermethylated precancerous lesions displayed significantly downregulated expression of both miRNAs. Similar methylation patterns were observed at two known imprinted genes, MEG3 and GNAS-AS1, which encode several of the 56 miRNAs on our list. Imprinting at these loci was lost in over half the adenomas (62% at MEG3 and 52% at GNAS-AS1). Copy-number alterations at MEG3, GNAS-AS1 and pri-miR-497/195, which are frequent in colorectal cancers, were less common in adenomas and confined to tumors displaying differential methylation at the involved locus. Our data show that somatically acquired, epigenetic changes at monoallelically methylated regions encoding miRNAs are relatively frequent in sporadic colorectal adenomas and might contribute to the onset and progression of

  12. Epigenetic silencing of monoallelically methylated miRNA loci in precancerous colorectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Menigatti, M; Staiano, T; Manser, C N; Bauerfeind, P; Komljenovic, A; Robinson, M; Jiricny, J; Buffoli, F; Marra, G

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of protein-encoding genes is common in early-stage colorectal tumorigenesis. Less is known about the methylation-mediated silencing of genes encoding microRNAs (miRNAs), which are also important epigenetic modulators of gene expression. Using quantitative PCR, we identified 56 miRNAs that were expressed in normal colorectal mucosa and in HT29 colorectal cancer cells treated with demethylating agents but not in untreated HT29 cells, suggesting that they probably undergo methylation-induced silencing during colorectal tumorigenesis. One of these, miR-195, had recently been reported to be underexpressed in colorectal cancers and to exert tumor-suppressor effects in colorectal cancer cells. We identified the transcription start site (TSS) for primary miRNA (pri-miR)-497/195, the primary precursor that yields miR-195 and another candidate on our list, miR-497, and a single CpG island upstream to the TSS, which controls expression of both miRNAs. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite genomic sequencing studies revealed monoallelic methylation of this island in normal colorectal mucosa (50/50 samples) and full methylation in most colorectal adenomas (38/50; 76%). The hypermethylated precancerous lesions displayed significantly downregulated expression of both miRNAs. Similar methylation patterns were observed at two known imprinted genes, MEG3 and GNAS-AS1, which encode several of the 56 miRNAs on our list. Imprinting at these loci was lost in over half the adenomas (62% at MEG3 and 52% at GNAS-AS1). Copy-number alterations at MEG3, GNAS-AS1 and pri-miR-497/195, which are frequent in colorectal cancers, were less common in adenomas and confined to tumors displaying differential methylation at the involved locus. Our data show that somatically acquired, epigenetic changes at monoallelically methylated regions encoding miRNAs are relatively frequent in sporadic colorectal adenomas and might contribute to the onset and progression of

  13. T Lymphocyte Density and Distribution in Human Colorectal Mucosa, and Inefficiency of Current Cell Isolation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Preza, Gloria Cuevas; Yang, Otto O.; Elliott, Julie; Anton, Peter A.; Ochoa, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal tissues are critical immune effector sites containing complex populations of leukocytes in a tissue microenvironment that remains incompletely understood. We identify and quantify in human distal colorectal tissue absolute mucosal CD3+ lymphocytes, including CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, by direct visualization using immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and an automated counting protocol (r2=0.90). Sigmoid and rectal mucosal tissues are both densely packed with T lymphocytes in the mucosal compartment. Both compartments had similar densities of CD3+ T lymphocytes with 37,400 ± 2,801 cells/mm3 and 33,700 ± 4,324 cell/mm3, respectively. Sigmoid mucosa contained 57% CD3+CD4+ and 40% CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes which calculates to 21,300 ± 1,476/mm3 and 15,000 ± 275/mm3 T lymphocytes, respectively. Rectal mucosa had 57% CD3+CD4+ and 42% CD3+CD8+ or 21,577 ± 332, and 17,090 ± 1,206 cells/mm3, respectively. By comparison, sigmoid mucosal biopsies subjected to conventional collagenase digestion, mononuclear cell (MMC) isolation and staining for flow cytometry yielded 4,549 ± 381/mm3 and 2,708 ± 245/mm3 CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. These data suggest only ~20.7% recovery compared to IHC results for these markers. Further studies will determine if this reflects a selective bias in only CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells or can be generalized to all flow-analyzed cells from mucosal tissues for phenotyping and functional testing. PMID:25856343

  14. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:23093841

  15. The Role of MicroRNA-200 in Progression of Human Colorectal and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bojmar, Linda; Karlsson, Elin; Ellegård, Sander; Olsson, Hans; Björnsson, Bergthor; Hallböök, Olof; Larsson, Marie; Stål, Olle; Sandström, Per

    2013-01-01

    The role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer has been studied extensively in vitro, but involvement of the EMT in tumorigenesis in vivo is largely unknown. We investigated the potential of microRNAs as clinical markers and analyzed participation of the EMT-associated microRNA-200–ZEB–E-cadherin pathway in cancer progression. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen and microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary colorectal tumors, normal colon mucosa, and matched liver metastases. MicroRNA expression was validated by in situ hybridization and after in vitro culture of the malignant cells. To assess EMT as a predictive marker, factors considered relevant in colorectal cancer were investigated in 98 primary breast tumors from a treatment-randomized study. Associations between the studied EMT-markers were found in primary breast tumors and in colorectal liver metastases. MicroRNA-200 expression in epithelial cells was lower in malignant mucosa than in normal mucosa, and was also decreased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Low microRNA-200 expression in colorectal liver metastases was associated with bad prognosis. In breast cancer, low levels of microRNA-200 were related to reduced survival and high expression of microRNA-200 was predictive of benefit from radiotheraphy. MicroRNA-200 was associated with ER positive status, and inversely correlated to HER2 and overactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, that was associated with high ZEB1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that the stability of microRNAs makes them suitable as clinical markers and that the EMT-related microRNA-200 – ZEB – E-cadherin signaling pathway is connected to established clinical characteristics and can give useful prognostic and treatment-predictive information in progressive breast and colorectal cancers. PMID:24376848

  16. Short-chain ceramides depress integrin cell surface expression and function in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Morad, Samy A F; Bridges, Lance C; Almeida Larrea, Alex D; Mayen, Anthony L; MacDougall, Matthew R; Davis, Traci S; Kester, Mark; Cabot, Myles C

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly metastatic, significantly so to liver, a characteristic that embodies one of the most challenging aspects of treatment. The integrin family of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors plays a central role in migration and invasion, functions that underlie metastatic potential. In the present work we sought to determine the impact of ceramide, which plays a key modulatory role in cancer suppression, on integrin cell surface expression and function in CRC cells in order to reveal possible ceramide-centric effects on tumor cell motility. Human CRC cells LoVo, HT-29, and HCT-116 were employed, which represent lines established from primary and metastatic sites. A cell-permeable, short-chain analog, C6-ceramide, was used as ceramide mimic. Exposure of cells to C6-ceramide (24 h) promoted a dose-dependent (2.5-10 µM) decrease in the expression of cell surface β1 and β4 integrin subunits in all cell lines; at 10 µM C6-ceramide, the decreases ranged from 30 to 50% of the control. Expression of cell surface αVβ6 integrin, which is associated with advanced invasion in CRC, was also suppressed by C6-ceramide. Decreases in integrin expression translated to diminished cellular adhesion, 50% of the control at 5 µM C6-ceramide, and markedly reduced cellular migration, approximately 30-40% of the control in all cell lines. Physicochemical examination revealed potent efficacy of nano-formulated C6-ceramide, but inferior activity of dihydro-C6-ceramide and L-C6-ceramide, compared to the unsaturated counterpart and the natural d-enantiomer, respectively. These studies demonstrate novel actions of ceramides that may have application in suppression of tumor metastasis, in addition to their known tumor suppressor effects. PMID:27045476

  17. Preclinical evaluation of novel imidazoacridinone derivatives with potent activity against experimental colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, A. M.; Double, J. A.; Konopa, J.; Bibby, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Novel imidazoacridinone derivatives, C1310 and C1311, have been evaluated for their potential to inhibit tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo. A cell line panel, including seven human and murine colon carcinoma cell lines and three in vivo models, was used. The compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of tumour cell growth with IC50 values ranging between 10 nM and 2 microM in human colon cancer cell lines. Statistically significant tumour growth delay (P < 0.01) was observed after a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of C1311 (100 mg kg-1 body weight) in MAC15A, MAC29 murine and HT29 human adenocarcinomas of the colon. Rapid accumulation of fluorescence of both C1310 and C1311 was seen in the nuclei of HT29 human colon tumour cells in culture. C1311 was also found to bind into calf thymus DNA as shown by spectrophotometric titration and thermal denaturation and to cause early inhibition of thymidine incorporation in HT29 cells in vitro. The results of this study suggest that C1311 should be considered as a candidate for clinical development. Images Figure 3 PMID:8912531

  18. The human gut microbiome as a screening tool for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zackular, Joseph P; Rogers, Mary A M; Ruffin, Mack T; Schloss, Patrick D

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the gut microbiome may be an important factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Abnormalities in the gut microbiome have been reported in patients with colorectal cancer; however, this microbial community has not been explored as a potential screen for early-stage disease. We characterized the gut microbiome in patients from three clinical groups representing the stages of colorectal cancer development: healthy, adenoma, and carcinoma. Analysis of the gut microbiome from stool samples revealed both an enrichment and depletion of several bacterial populations associated with adenomas and carcinomas. Combined with known clinical risk factors of colorectal cancer (e.g., BMI, age, race), data from the gut microbiome significantly improved the ability to differentiate between healthy, adenoma, and carcinoma clinical groups relative to risk factors alone. Using Bayesian methods, we determined that using gut microbiome data as a screening tool improved the pretest to posttest probability of adenoma more than 50-fold. For example, the pretest probability in a 65-year-old was 0.17% and, after using the microbiome data, this increased to 10.67% (1 in 9 chance of having an adenoma). Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate the feasibility of using the composition of the gut microbiome to detect the presence of precancerous and cancerous lesions. Furthermore, these results support the need for more cross-sectional studies with diverse populations and linkage to other stool markers, dietary data, and personal health information.

  19. Loss of heterozygosity and mutational analyses of the ACTRII gene locus in human colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Andreea; Mori, Yuriko; Yin, Jing; Wang, Suna; Kimos, Martha C; Perry, Kellie; Xu, Yan; Sato, Fumiaki; Selaru, Florin M; Deacu, Elena; Sterian, Anca; Shibata, David; Abraham, John M; Meltzer, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    The activin type II receptorgene (ACTRII) is mutated in 58.1% of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) colorectal cancers and is a close relative of the TGFbeta-1 type II receptor, which is known to be involved in both MSI-H and non-MSI-H colorectal carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine whether ACTRII was involved in non-MSI-H colorectal cancers. We evaluated ACTRII inactivation by allelic deletion, loss of mRNA expression, or somatic mutation in 51 non-MSI-H colon cancers. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ACTRII locus (2q23.1) was found in 9 (17.6%) of 51 primary tumors. Loss of ACTRII mRNA expression was seen in one (14.3%) of the seven LOH-positive primary tumors from which total RNA was available. We also performed DNA sequencing analysis of tumors showing LOH. One LOH-positive primary tumor exhibited a novel germline missense sequence alteration (amino acid substitution, 117 Ile to Phe) that was not found in 23 additional normal individuals, implying that this alteration is not a frequent polymorphism. We conclude that ACTRII is probably involved in both non-MSI-H and MSI-H colorectal carcinogenesis, but more frequently in the latter subgroup.

  20. In vitro anti-cancer activities of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn.) extracts on human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Sainakham, Mathukorn; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2016-03-01

    The whole seed (W), endosperm (E) and hull (H) of five cultivars of Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. var. ma-yuen Stapf) including Thai Black Phayao, Thai Black Loei, Laos Black Loei, Laos White Loei and Laos Black Luang Phra Bang were processed before solvent extraction by non-cooking, roasting, boiling and steaming Each part of the Job's tears was extracted by the cold and hot process by refluxing with methanol and hexane. The total of 330 extracts included 150 methanol extracts and 180 hexane extracts were investigated for anti-proliferative activity on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The extracts which gave high anti-proliferative activity were tested for apoptotic activity by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double staining and anti-oxidative activities including free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The extract from the hull of Thai Black Loei roasted before extracting by hot methanol (M-HTBL-R2) showed the highest anti-proliferative activity on HT-29 with the IC50 values of 11.61 ± 0.95 μg/ml, while the extract from the non-cooked hull of Thai Black Loei by cold methanol extraction (M-HTBL-N1) gave the highest apoptosis (8.17 ± 1.18%) with no necrosis. In addition, M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 indicated free radical scavenging activity at the SC50 values of 0.48 ± 0.12 and 2.47 ± 1.15 mg/ml, respectively. This study has demonstrated the anti-colorectal cancer potential of the M-HTBL-R2 and M-HTBL-N1 extracts. PMID:26981007

  1. Comparison of human colorectal normal tissue with cancerous tissue autofluorescence image by optical sectioning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng; Chia, Teck-Chee; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Diong, Cheong Hoong; Tang, Choong Leong; Choen, Francis S.; Krishnan, Shankar M.

    2003-10-01

    We investigated normal and cancerous human colorectal tissues (fresh thick biopsy specimens) using Olympus Confocal laser scanning biological microscope (FV300). The different layers of autofluorescence images of the specimen were captured by 488 nm laser scanning and sectioning. Optical sectioning can be performed in the vertical plane. Laser scanning can be performed in the horizontal plane. By comparing the autofluorescence image of the normal colorectal tissue with cancerous tissue, the structures of the optical sectioning image layer were found to be significantly different. We have also obtained fibrous autofluorescence image inside tissue specimen. Our investigation may help provide some useful insight to other autofluorescence research studies like laser induced autofluorescence spectra of human colorectal tissue study as a diagnosis technique for clinical application.

  2. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:25479723

  3. A new human tumor-associated antigen (TLP) is naturally expressed in rat DHD-K12 colorectal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Rasi, G; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, P; Serafino, A; Bernard, P; Pierimarchi, P; Guarino, E; Faticanti-Scucchi, L; Graziano, P; Guadagni, F; Garci, E

    2000-02-15

    Renewed interest in cancer immunotherapy has been raised by the availability of a variety of tumor-associated antigens and animal models. We have recently described the presence of a new antigen, TLP, in sera and cancer tissue from lung and colorectal cancer patients. In order to develop an experimental model suitable for preclinical studies on cancer vaccines, we investigated the presence of TLP antigen in vitro, in the DHD-K12 cell line and in vivo, in metastases induced in syngeneic BDIX rats by DHD-K12 cell injection. TLP was not detected in any tissue of healthy rats nor in normal tissues of tumor-bearing rats. This is in agreement with our previous studies, in which we had demonstrated that TLP is expressed in human colorectal cancer and adenomas but not in normal colonic mucosa. Our results indicate TLP as a possible human tumor-specific antigen naturally expressed in DHD-K12 tumor syngeneic to immunocompetent BDIX rats.

  4. Genome-wide analysis in human colorectal cancer cells reveals ischemia-mediated expression of motility genes via DNA hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Karolina; Skowronki, Karolina; Andrews, Joseph; Rodenhiser, David I; Coomber, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    DNA hypomethylation is an important epigenetic modification found to occur in many different cancer types, leading to the upregulation of previously silenced genes and loss of genomic stability. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia (ischemia), two common micro-environmental changes in solid tumours, decrease DNA methylation through the downregulation of DNMTs in human colorectal cancer cells. Here, we utilized a genome-wide cross-platform approach to identify genes hypomethylated and upregulated by ischemia. Following exposure to hypoxia or hypoglycaemia, methylated DNA from human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) was immunoprecipitated and analysed with an Affymetrix promoter array. Additionally, RNA was isolated and analysed in parallel with an Affymetrix expression array. Ingenuity pathway analysis software revealed that a significant proportion of the genes hypomethylated and upregulated were involved in cellular movement, including PLAUR and CYR61. A Matrigel invasion assay revealed that indeed HCT116 cells grown in hypoxic or hypoglycaemic conditions have increased mobility capabilities. Confirmation of upregulated expression of cellular movement genes was performed with qPCR. The correlation between ischemia and metastasis is well established in cancer progression, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this common observation have not been clearly identified. Our novel data suggests that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia may be driving changes in DNA methylation through downregulation of DNMTs. This is the first report to our knowledge that provides an explanation for the increased metastatic potential seen in ischemic cells; i.e. that ischemia could be driving DNA hypomethylation and increasing expression of cellular movement genes.

  5. Silymarin induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation via its phosphorylation of threonine-286 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Song, Hun Min; Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2015-01-01

    Silymarin from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant has been reported to show anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. For anti-cancer activity, silymarin is known to regulate cell cycle progression through cyclin D1 downregulation. However, the mechanism of silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation still remains unanswered. The current study was performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cyclin D1 downregulation by silymarin in human colorectal cancer cells. The treatment of silymarin suppressed the cell proliferation in HCT116 and SW480 cells and decreased cellular accumulation of exogenously-induced cyclin D1 protein. However, silymarin did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with silymarin. In addition, silymarin increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of NF-κB by a selective inhibitor, BAY 11-7082 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by silymarin. From these results, we suggest that silymarin-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via NF-κB activation. The current study provides new mechanistic link between silymarin, cyclin D1 downregulation and cell growth in human colorectal cancer cells.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Liggett, Jason L; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Baek, Seung Joon

    2006-01-01

    Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:16328068

  7. Piceatannol promotes apoptosis via up-regulation of microRNA-129 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haogang; Jia, Ruichun; Wang, Chunjing; Hu, Tianming; Wang, Fujing

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Piceatannol induces apoptosis in cultured CRC cells. • Piceatannol promotes expression of miR-129. • miR-129 mediates proapoptotic effects of piceatannol. - Abstract: Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, has been confirmed as an antitumor agent by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and metastasis in diverse cancer. However, the effect and mechanisms of piceatannol on colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been well understood. This study aimed to test whether piceatannol could inhibit growth of CRC cells and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to measure apoptosis of CRC cells. Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 levels were analyzed by Western blot and miR-129 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Our study showed that piceatannol inhibited HCT116 and HT29 cells growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Piceatannol induced apoptosis by promoting expression of miR-129, and then inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, an known target for miR-129. Moreover, knock down of miR-129 could reverse the reduction of cell viability induced by piceatannol in HCT116 and HT29 cells. Taken together, our study unraveled the ability of piceatannol to suppress colorectal cancer growth and elucidated the participation of miR-129 in the anti-cancer action of piceatannol. Our findings suggest that piceatannol can be considered to be a promising anticancer agent for CRC.

  8. Modulation of mucin mRNA (MUC5AC and MUC5B) expression and protein production and secretion in Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-cultures following exposure to individual and combined Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lam-Yim Murphy; Allen, Kevin J; Turner, Paul C; El-Nezami, Hani

    2014-05-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are a critical component of the innate local immune response. In order to reduce the risk of pathogen infection or xenobiotic intoxication, different host defense mechanisms have been evolved. Evidence has shown that upon ingestion of food or feed contaminated with toxins (e.g., mycotoxins), IECs respond by regulating mucin secretions, which act as a physical barrier inhibiting bacterial attachment and subsequent infection-related processes. However, the effect of Fusarium mycotoxins on mucin production remains unclear. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate individual and interactive effects of four common Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisins B1 on mRNA expression and secretion of mucins, MUC5AC, and MUC5B, as well as total mucin-like glycoprotein secretion, using Caco-2 (absorptive-type) and HT29-MTX (secretive-type) cells and their co-cultures (initial seeding ratios Caco-2/HT29-MTX: 90/10 and 70/30). Our results showed that individual and mixtures of mycotoxins significantly modulated MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNA and protein, and total mucin-like glycoprotein secretion as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and enzyme-linked lectin assay, respectively. Additive effects were not always observed for mixtures. Also, the present study showed that in co-cultures, lower MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNA, protein and total mucin production occurred following exposure, which might suggest higher intestinal permeability and susceptibility to toxin exposure. This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate cell model for the in vitro investigation of Fusarium mycotoxin effects either alone or in combinations on the immunological defense mechanisms of IECs, and will contribute to improved toxin risk assessments.

  9. FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Li, Mingyang; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Fan; Chen, Weihao; Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Zhang, Dong; Linghu, Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.

  10. FBI-1 Enhances ETS-1 Signaling Activity and Promotes Proliferation of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weihao; Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Zhang, Dong; Linghu, Enqiang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma. PMID:24857950

  11. Gene expression analysis of potential genes and pathways involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of parvovirus B19 in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WEI-PING; YANG, HUA; CHEN, HONG; ZHU, HAI-RONG; LEI, QUAN; SONG, YUN-HONG; DAI, ZHONG-MING; SUN, JING-SHAN; JIANG, LI-LI; NIE, ZHAN-GUO

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of parvovirus B19 in human colorectal cancer, plasmids containing the VP1 or VP2 viral capsid proteins or the NS1 non-structural proteins of parvovirus B19 were constructed and transfected into primary human colorectal epithelial cells and LoVo cells. Differential gene expression was detected using a human genome expression array. Functional gene annotation analyses were performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery v6.7 software. Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that VP1-related functions included the immune response, immune system process, defense response and the response to stimulus, while NS1-associated functions were found to include organelle fission, nuclear division, mitosis, the M-phase of the mitotic cell cycle, the mitotic cell cycle, M-phase, cell cycle phase, cell cycle process and cell division. Pathway expression analysis revealed that VP1-associated pathways included cell adhesion molecules, antigen processing and presentation, cytokines and the inflammatory response. Moreover, NS1-associated pathways included the cell cycle, pathways in cancer, colorectal cancer, the wnt signaling pathway and focal adhesion. Among the differential genes detected in the present study, 12 genes were found to participate in general cancer pathways and six genes were observed to participate in colorectal cancer pathways. NS1 is a key molecule in the pathogenic mechanism of parvovirus B19 in colorectal cancer. Several GO categories, pathways and genes were selected and may be the key targets through which parvovirus B19 participates in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25013465

  12. Colorectal Cancer and the Human Gut Microbiome: Reproducibility with Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Xing; Zeller, Georg; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Voigt, Anita Y.; Hercog, Rajna; Goedert, James J.; Shi, Jianxin; Bork, Peer; Sinha, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota affects colorectal cancer development, but previous studies have varied in population, technical methods, and associations with cancer. Understanding these variations is needed for comparisons and for potential pooling across studies. Therefore, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing on fecal samples from 52 pre-treatment colorectal cancer cases and 52 matched controls from Washington, DC. We compared findings from a previously published 16S rRNA study to the metagenomics-derived taxonomy within the same population. In addition, metagenome-predicted genes, modules, and pathways in the Washington, DC cases and controls were compared to cases and controls recruited in France whose specimens were processed using the same platform. Associations between the presence of fecal Fusobacteria, Fusobacterium, and Porphyromonas with colorectal cancer detected by 16S rRNA were reproduced by metagenomics, whereas higher relative abundance of Clostridia in cancer cases based on 16S rRNA was merely borderline based on metagenomics. This demonstrated that within the same sample set, most, but not all taxonomic associations were seen with both methods. Considering significant cancer associations with the relative abundance of genes, modules, and pathways in a recently published French metagenomics dataset, statistically significant associations in the Washington, DC population were detected for four out of 10 genes, three out of nine modules, and seven out of 17 pathways. In total, colorectal cancer status in the Washington, DC study was associated with 39% of the metagenome-predicted genes, modules, and pathways identified in the French study. More within and between population comparisons are needed to identify sources of variation and disease associations that can be reproduced despite these variations. Future studies should have larger sample sizes or pool data across studies to have sufficient power to detect

  13. Comprehensive models of human primary and metastatic colorectal tumors in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice by chemokine targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Sun, Jian; Huang, Zhiliang; Hou, Harry; Arcilla, Myra; Rakhilin, Nikolai; Joe, Daniel J; Choi, Jiahn; Gadamsetty, Poornima; Milsom, Jeff; Nandakumar, Govind; Longman, Randy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Edwards, Robert; Chen, Jonlin; Chen, Kai Yuan; Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Xu, Yitian; Munroe, Robert; Abratte, Christian; Miller, Andrew D; Gümüş, Zeynep H; Shuler, Michael; Nishimura, Nozomi; Edelmann, Winfried; Shen, Xiling; Lipkin, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Current orthotopic xenograft models of human colorectal cancer (CRC) require surgery and do not robustly form metastases in the liver, the most common site clinically. CCR9 traffics lymphocytes to intestine and colorectum. We engineered use of the chemokine receptor CCR9 in CRC cell lines and patient-derived cells to create primary gastrointestinal (GI) tumors in immunodeficient mice by tail-vein injection rather than surgery. The tumors metastasize inducibly and robustly to the liver. Metastases have higher DKK4 and NOTCH signaling levels and are more chemoresistant than paired subcutaneous xenografts. Using this approach, we generated 17 chemokine-targeted mouse models (CTMMs) that recapitulate the majority of common human somatic CRC mutations. We also show that primary tumors can be modeled in immunocompetent mice by microinjecting CCR9-expressing cancer cell lines into early-stage mouse blastocysts, which induces central immune tolerance. We expect that CTMMs will facilitate investigation of the biology of CRC metastasis and drug screening.

  14. Investigating the Responses of Human Epithelial Cells to Predatory Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Monnappa, Ajay K.; Bari, Wasimul; Choi, Seong Yeol; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    One beguiling alternative to antibiotics for treating multi-drug resistant infections are Bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms (BALOs), predatory bacteria known to attack human pathogens. Consequently, in this study, the responses from four cell lines (three human and one mouse) were characterized during an exposure to different predatory bacteria, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, Bacteriovorus BY1 and Bacteriovorax stolpii EB1. TNF-α levels were induced in Raw 264.7 mouse macrophage cultures with each predator, but paled in comparison to those obtained with E. coli. This was true even though the latter strain was added at an 11.1-fold lower concentration (p < 0.01). Likewise, E. coli led to a significant (54%) loss in the Raw 264.7 murine macrophage viability while the predatory strains had no impact. Tests with various epithelial cells, including NuLi-1 airway, Caco2, HT29 and T84 colorectal cells, gave similar results, with E. coli inducing IL-8 production. The viabilities of the NuLi-1 and Caco-2 cells were slightly reduced (8%) when exposed to the predators, while T84 viability remained steady. In no cases did the predatory bacteria induce actin rearrangement. These results clearly demonstrate the gentle natures of predatory bacteria and their impacts on human cells. PMID:27629536

  15. Investigating the Responses of Human Epithelial Cells to Predatory Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Monnappa, Ajay K; Bari, Wasimul; Choi, Seong Yeol; Mitchell, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    One beguiling alternative to antibiotics for treating multi-drug resistant infections are Bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms (BALOs), predatory bacteria known to attack human pathogens. Consequently, in this study, the responses from four cell lines (three human and one mouse) were characterized during an exposure to different predatory bacteria, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, Bacteriovorus BY1 and Bacteriovorax stolpii EB1. TNF-α levels were induced in Raw 264.7 mouse macrophage cultures with each predator, but paled in comparison to those obtained with E. coli. This was true even though the latter strain was added at an 11.1-fold lower concentration (p < 0.01). Likewise, E. coli led to a significant (54%) loss in the Raw 264.7 murine macrophage viability while the predatory strains had no impact. Tests with various epithelial cells, including NuLi-1 airway, Caco2, HT29 and T84 colorectal cells, gave similar results, with E. coli inducing IL-8 production. The viabilities of the NuLi-1 and Caco-2 cells were slightly reduced (8%) when exposed to the predators, while T84 viability remained steady. In no cases did the predatory bacteria induce actin rearrangement. These results clearly demonstrate the gentle natures of predatory bacteria and their impacts on human cells. PMID:27629536

  16. Dual-Blocking of PI3K and mTOR Improves Chemotherapeutic Effects on SW620 Human Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells by Inducing Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Buyun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have tumor initiation, self-renewal, metastasis and chemo-resistance properties in various tumors including colorectal cancer. Targeting of CSCs may be essential to prevent relapse of tumors after chemotherapy. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signals are central regulators of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. These pathways are related to colorectal tumorigenesis. This study focused on PI3K and mTOR pathways by inhibition which initiate differentiation of SW620 derived CSCs and investigated its effect on tumor progression. By using rapamycin, LY294002, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively, PI3K and mTOR signals were blocked independently or dually in colorectal CSCs. Colorectal CSCs gained their differentiation property and lost their stemness properties most significantly in dual-blocked CSCs. After treated with anti-cancer drug (paclitaxel) on the differentiated CSCs cell viability, self-renewal ability and differentiation status were analyzed. As a result dual-blocking group has most enhanced sensitivity for anti-cancer drug. Xenograft tumorigenesis assay by using immunodeficiency mice also shows that dual-inhibited group more effectively increased drug sensitivity and suppressed tumor growth compared to single-inhibited groups. Therefore it could have potent anti-cancer effects that dual-blocking of PI3K and mTOR induces differentiation and improves chemotherapeutic effects on SW620 human colorectal CSCs. PMID:26955235

  17. The classification of secondary colorectal liver cancer in human biopsy samples using angular dispersive x-ray diffraction and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    The motivation behind this study is to assess whether angular dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) data, processed using multivariate analysis techniques, can be used for classifying secondary colorectal liver cancer tissue and normal surrounding liver tissue in human liver biopsy samples. The ADXRD profiles from a total of 60 samples of normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases were measured using a synchrotron radiation source. The data were analysed for 56 samples using nonlinear peak-fitting software. Four peaks were fitted to all of the ADXRD profiles, and the amplitude, area, amplitude and area ratios for three of the four peaks were calculated and used for the statistical and multivariate analysis. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between all the peak-fitting parameters and ratios between the normal and the diseased tissue groups. The technique of soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to classify normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases resulting in 67% of the normal tissue samples and 60% of the secondary colorectal liver tissue samples being classified correctly. This study has shown that the ADXRD data of normal and secondary colorectal liver cancer are statistically different and x-ray diffraction data analysed using multivariate analysis have the potential to be used as a method of tissue classification.

  18. Thymosin β4 induces invasion and migration of human colorectal cancer cells through the ILK/AKT/β-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Zhengri; Hong, Chang-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ran; Choi, Chan; Park, Young-Kyu

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Tβ4 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer cells. • The overexpression of Tβ4 is correlated with stage of colorectal cancer. • Tβ4 stimulates cell adhesion, invasion, migration and EMT. • Tβ4 activates the ILK/AKT/β-catenin signaling pathway. - Abstract: Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a 43-amino-acid peptide involved in many biological processes. However, the precise molecular signaling mechanism(s) of Tβ4 in cell invasion and migration remain unclear. In this study, we show that Tβ4 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and high levels of Tβ4 were correlated with stage of colorectal cancer, and that Tβ4 expression was associated with morphogenesis and EMT. Tβ4-upregulated cancer cells showed increased adhesion, invasion and migration activity, whereas Tβ4-downregulated cells showed decreased activities. We also demonstrated that Tβ4 interacts with ILK, which promoted the phosphorylation and activation of AKT, the phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3β, the expression and nuclear localization of β-catenin, and integrin receptor activation. These results suggest that Tβ4 is an important regulator of the ILK/AKT/β-catenin/Integrin signaling cascade to induce cell invasion and migration in colorectal cancer cells, and is a potential target for cancer treatment.

  19. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  20. Anticarcinogenic Properties of Medium Chain Fatty Acids on Human Colorectal, Skin and Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Ananda Baskaran, Sangeetha; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. RT-qPCR data indicated that these natural molecules produced anticancer effects by down-regulating cell cycle regulatory genes and up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis. Future research will validate the anticancer effect of these fatty acids in an appropriate in vivo model. PMID:25749477

  1. Expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in human tumors: relationship to breast, colorectal, and prostate tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Han, Zeqiu; Slack, Rebecca S; Li, Wenping; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2003-01-01

    High levels of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), the alternative-binding site for diazepam, are part of the aggressive human breast cancer cell phenotype in vitro. We examined PBR levels and distribution in normal tissue and tumors from multiple cancer types by immunohistochemistry. Among normal breast tissues, fibroadenomas, primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas, there is a progressive increase in PBR levels parallel to the invasive and metastatic ability of the tumor (p < 0.0001). In colorectal and prostate carcinomas, PBR levels were also higher in tumor than in the corresponding non-tumoral tissues and benign lesions (p < 0.0001). In contrast, PBR was highly concentrated in normal adrenal cortical cells and hepatocytes, whereas in adrenocortical tumors and hepatomas PBR levels were decreased. Moreover, malignant skin tumors showed decreased PBR expression compared with normal skin. These results indicate that elevated PBR expression is not a common feature of aggressive tumors, but rather may be limited to certain cancers, such as those of breast, colon-rectum and prostate tissues, where elevated PBR expression is associated with tumor progression. Thus, we propose that PBR overexpression could serve as a novel prognostic indicator of an aggressive phenotype in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers.

  2. Small molecule RL71 targets SERCA2 at a novel site in the treatment of human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian; Li, Jiahuang; Fan, Lu; Xiang, Gang; Wang, Xingqi; Wang, Xiaoning; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Wu, Xudong; Liang, Guang; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    While targeted agents are an important part of the treatment arsenal for colorectal cancer, there is still a lack of efficient small-molecule targeted agents based on the understanding of pathogenic molecular mechanisms. In this study, curcumin analog RL71 displayed potent cytotoxicity towards human colon cancer cells with an IC50 of 0.8 μM in SW480 cells and inhibited xenotransplanted tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. Using affinity chromatography, we identified sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA) 2 as the binding target of RL71. Most notably, RL71 demonstrated special binding to SERCA2 at a novel site with the lowest estimated free energy −8.89 kcal mol−1, and the SERCA2 residues critical for RL71 binding were identified. RL71 suppressed the Ca2+-ATPase activity of SERCA2 both in vitro and in vivo, accompanied by the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to apoptosis and G2/M cycle arrest in SW480 cells. In addition, RL71 showed synergistic cytotoxicity with the pan-SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. These results suggest that RL71 could be a selective small-molecule inhibitor of SERCA2, and that it may serve as a lead compound for the study of targeted colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:26608678

  3. Effect of evodiamine and berberine on miR-429 as an oncogene in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Huang, Chao; Wu, Liyun; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Loss of epithelial organization and deregulated microRNAs are hallmarks of malignant carcinomas, but the relationship between them has been poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the changes in the expression of E-cadherin, Par3, and miR-429 during the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC). E-cadherin and Par3 levels were quantitatively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. An in vitro culture of colorectal tissue was established to analyze the effect of berberine (BER) and evodiamine (EVO) on the level of miR-429. Our results suggested that E-cadherin and Par3 were remarkably decreased in tumor tissues compared with those in normal tissues, and miR-429 was upregulated in tumor tissues. After treatment of BER and EVO, the level of miR-429 was lower in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. This study investigated the potential relationship between miR-429, E-cadherin, and Par3 in CRC. The data suggested that BER and EVO can be potential therapeutic agents for CRC, as they downregulated the expression level of miR-429. PMID:27462166

  4. A quantitative study of silver-stained NORs in different segments of the normal human colorectal crypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, M; Dockery, P; White, F H

    1996-01-01

    Quantification of silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) in paraffin sections may provide clues about the proliferation and differentiation in normal and neoplastic tissues. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether AgNOR quantification could provide useful data about proliferation in the different segments of the normal human colorectal crypt. Samples of histologically 'normal' large intestine (n = 8) were obtained from colorectal cancer resections at a distance of > 5 cm from the tumour margins and were routinely processed for paraffin embedding using strictly standardised procedures. Sections were cut and stained with a one-stage silver colloid impregnation technique. The longitudinally sectioned crypts were divided into proliferative (P), intermediate (I) and surface (S) segments using strict criteria. Clearly defined AgNORs, which appeared as black dots within the nuclear profile, were quantified from each segment for volume density (Vv) and number per unit area (NA) estimates using traditional point-counting techniques. A 1-way analysis of variance followed by Scheffe's test indicated significant progressive reductions of AgNOR Vv and NA from P to S segments. Our data suggest that both volume and frequency of AgNORs may be related to cellular proliferation since both parameters are highest in the P segment. The further exploitation of stereological tools in conjunction with AgNOR staining may be valuable in assessing normal differentiation and proliferation patterns and in predicting the biological behaviour of neoplastic tissues in which increased proliferation is a feature. Images Fig PMID:8763469

  5. Differential expression proteomics of human colorectal cancer based on a syngeneic cellular model for the progression of adenoma to carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roth, Udo; Razawi, Hanieh; Hommer, Julia; Engelmann, Katja; Schwientek, Tilo; Müller, Stefan; Baldus, Stephan E; Patsos, Georgios; Corfield, Anthony P; Paraskeva, Christos; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2010-01-01

    This is the first differential expression proteomics study on a human syngeneic cellular in vitro progression model of the colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the anchorage-dependent non-tumorigenic adenoma derived cell line AA/C1 and the derived anchorage-independent and tumorigenic carcinoma cell line AA/C1/SB10C. The study is based on quantitative 2-DE and is complemented by Western blot validation. Excluding redundancies due to proteolysis and post-translational modified isoforms of over 2000 protein spots, 13 proteins were revealed as regulated with statistical variance being within the 95th confidence level and were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting in MALDI MS. Progression-associated proteins belong to the functional complexes of anaerobic glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, steroid biosynthesis, prostaglandin biosynthesis, the regulation and maintenance of the cytoskeleton, protein biosynthesis and degradation, the regulation of apoptosis or other functions. Partial but significant overlap was revealed with previous proteomics and transcriptomics studies in colorectal carcinoma. Among upregulated proteins we identified 3-HMG-CoA synthase, protein phosphatase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, villin 1, annexin A1, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoserine aminotransferase 1, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1), while glucose-regulated protein 78, cathepsin D, lamin A/C and quinolate phosphoribosyltransferase were downregulated.

  6. Effect of evodiamine and berberine on miR-429 as an oncogene in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Huang, Chao; Wu, Liyun; Wen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Loss of epithelial organization and deregulated microRNAs are hallmarks of malignant carcinomas, but the relationship between them has been poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the changes in the expression of E-cadherin, Par3, and miR-429 during the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC). E-cadherin and Par3 levels were quantitatively detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. An in vitro culture of colorectal tissue was established to analyze the effect of berberine (BER) and evodiamine (EVO) on the level of miR-429. Our results suggested that E-cadherin and Par3 were remarkably decreased in tumor tissues compared with those in normal tissues, and miR-429 was upregulated in tumor tissues. After treatment of BER and EVO, the level of miR-429 was lower in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. This study investigated the potential relationship between miR-429, E-cadherin, and Par3 in CRC. The data suggested that BER and EVO can be potential therapeutic agents for CRC, as they downregulated the expression level of miR-429. PMID:27462166

  7. Spica prunellae promotes cancer cell apoptosis, inhibits cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis in a mouse model of colorectal cancer via suppression of stat3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of STAT3 is one of the major oncogenic pathways involved in the development of various types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC); and thus becomes a promising therapeutic target. Spica Prunellae has long been used as an important component in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas to clinically treat CRC. Previously, we found that Spica Prunellae inhibits CRC cell growth through mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated its anti-angiogenic activities in vivo and in vitro. To further elucidate the precise mechanism of the potential tumoricidal activity of Spica Prunellae, using a CRC mouse xenograft model, in this study we evaluated its therapeutic efficacy against CRC and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods CRC mouse xenograft model was generated by subcutaneous injection of human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells into nude mice. Animals were given intra-gastric administration with 6 g/kg of the ethanol extract of Spica Prunellae (EESP) daily, 5 days a week for 16 days. Body weight and tumor growth were measured every two days. Tumor growth in vivo was determined by measuring the tumor volume and weight. HT-29 cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and proliferation in tumors from CRC xenograft mice was evaluated via immunohistochemical staining (IHS) for TUNEL and PCNA, and the intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) was examined by using IHS for the endothelial cell-specific marker CD31. The activation of STAT3 was evaluated by determining its phosphorylation level using IHS. The mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Cyclin D1, VEGF-A and VEGFR2 was measured by RT-PCR and IHS, respectively. Results EESP treatment reduced tumor volume and tumor weight but had no effect on body weight change in CRC mice; decreased HT-29 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that EESP displays therapeutic efficacy against colon cancer growth in vivo and

  8. Deficiency of interferon-gamma or its receptor promotes colorectal cancer development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Zhiyu; Chu, Jiahui; Qu, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    Genetic variations in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and its receptor (IFNγR) subunits are closely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and survival after diagnosis. However, the role of loss of IFN-γ or IFNγR function in the pathogenesis of CRC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous IFN-γ deficiency in adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc)-mediated intestinal tumor by developing a variant of Apc(Min/+) mice. The Apc(Min/+)IFN-γ(+/-) mice presented with increased number and size of adenomas, and 41.7% of these mice developed adenocarcinoma. Molecular analyses of the adenomas suggested that heterozygous deletion of IFN-γ promoted EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In vitro, IFN-γ administration inhibited Apc-mutated HT-29 colon cancer cell proliferation and had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116 colon cancer cells that express wild-type Apc. Besides, we challenged HT-29 cells with small interfering RNA targeting one of its receptor subunits IFNγR1. We found that knockdown of IFNγR1 in HT-29 cells stimulated cell proliferation and colony formation, which was also related to the regulation of EGFR/Erk1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, our results strongly support the notion that IFN-γ and IFNγR1 act as a rate-limiting factor in the development of CRC, uncovering a novel role for them in cancer biology.

  9. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Sorbitol induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer cells via p38 MAPK signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xue; Li, Chun; Wang, Yong-Kun; Jiang, Kun; Gai, Xiao-Dong

    2014-06-01

    Sorbitol has been reported to have anticancer effects in several tumor models, however its effects on colorectal cancer remain elusive. In the present study, the effects of sorbitol on growth inhibition and apoptosis in the colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line were evaluated and its mechanism of action was examined. An MTT assay was utilized to determine the effect of sorbitol on HCT116 cell proliferation at different time points and variable doses. Western blot analysis was used to examine the effect of sorbitol on apoptosis-related protein expression and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results revealed that sorbitol may inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Following treatment with sorbitol for 3 h, western blotting demonstrated cleavage of the caspase-3 zymogen protein and a cleavage product of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a known substrate of caspase-3, was also evident. During sorbitol-induced apoptosis, the mitochondrial pathway was activated by a dose-dependent increase in Bax expression and cytochrome c release, while the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The investigation for the downstream signal pathway revealed that sorbitol-induced apoptosis was mediated by an increase in phosphorylated p38 MAPK expression. Overall, the observations from the present study imply that sorbitol causes increased levels of Bax in response to p38 MAPK signaling, which results in the initiation of the mitochondrial death cascade. Therefore, sorbitol is a promising candidate as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.

  11. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  12. Biodistribution of charged 17.1A photoimmunoconjugates in a murine model of hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, M R; Governatore, M Del; Rizvi, I; Hasan, T

    2000-01-01

    Optimizing photodynamic therapy involves attempting to increase both the absolute tumour content of photosensitizer and the selectivity between tumour and surrounding normal tissue. One reason why photodynamic therapy has not been considered suitable for treatment of metastatic tumours in the liver, is the poor selectivity of conventional photosensitizers for tumour compared to normal liver. This report details an alternative approach to increasing this selectivity by the use of antibody-targeted photosensitizers (or photoimmunoconjugates) to target intrahepatic tumours caused by human colorectal cancer cells in the nude mouse, and explores the role of molecular charge on the tumour-targeting efficiency of macromolecules. The murine monoclonal antibody 17.1A (which recognizes an antigen expressed on HT 29 cells) was used to prepare site-specific photoimmunoconjugates with the photosensitizer chlorine6. The conjugates had either a predominant cationic or anionic charge and were injected i.v. into tumour-bearing mice. Biodistribution 3 or 24 h later was measured by extraction of tissue samples and quantitation of chlorine6 content by fluorescence spectroscopy. The photoimmunoconjugates were compared to the polylysine conjugates in an attempt to define the effect of molecular charge as well as antibody targeting. The anionic 17.1A conjugate delivered more than twice as much photosensitizer to the tumour at 3 h than other species (5 times more than the cationic 17.1A conjugate) and had a tumour:normal liver ratio of 2.5. Tumour-to-liver ratios were greater than one for most compounds at 3 h but declined at 24 h. Tumour-to-skin ratios were high (> 38) for all conjugates but not for free chlorine6. Cationic species had a high uptake in the lungs compared to anionic species. The photoimmunoconjugates show an advantage over literature reports of other photosensitizers, which can result in tumour:normal liver ratios of less than 1. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http

  13. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Heng; Verovski, Valeri N.; Leonard, Wim; Law, Ka Lun; Vermeersch, Marieke; Storme, Guy; Van den Berge, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; De Ridder, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes.

  14. Celastrol Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis-Related Colorectal Cancer in Mice via Suppressing Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lianjie; Sun, Yan; Wang, Dongxu; Zheng, Shihang; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Celastrol, also named as tripterine, is a pharmacologically active ingredient extracted from the root of traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of celastrol on ulcerative colitis-related colorectal cancer (UC-CRC) as well as CRC in vivo and in vitro and explored its underlying mechanisms. UC-CRC model was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colonic tumor xenograft models were developed in BALB/c-nu mice by subcutaneous injection with HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Intragastric administration of celastrol (2 mg/kg/d) for 14 weeks significantly increased the survival ratio and reduced the multiplicity of colonic neoplasms compared with AOM/DSS model mice. Mechanically, celastrol treatment significantly prevented AOM/DSS-induced up-regulation of expression levels of oncologic markers including mutated p53 and phospho-p53, β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, treatment with celastrol inhibited inflammatory responses, as indicated by the decrease of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inactivation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Moreover, celastrol obviously suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulating E-cadherin and down-regulating N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail. Additionally, we also demonstrated that celastrol inhibited human CRC cell proliferation and attenuated colonic xenograft tumor growth via reversing EMT. Taken together, celastrol could effectively ameliorate UC-CRC by suppressing inflammatory responses and EMT, suggesting a potential drug candidate for UC-CRC therapy. PMID:26793111

  15. Differential Regulation of TLR Signaling on the Induction of Antiviral Interferons in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Ji, Lianfu; Yuan, Xinhui; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells. Importantly, TRIF was degraded by viral 3Cpro in RD cells, but resisted cleavage, and IRF3 was activated and translocated into the nucleus in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IFNs were induced differentially in human HT-29 cells through an intact TLR/TRIF signaling, which differs from other cell types and may be implicated in viral pathogenesis in EV71 infection.

  16. Differential Regulation of TLR Signaling on the Induction of Antiviral Interferons in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Ji, Lianfu; Yuan, Xinhui; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells. Importantly, TRIF was degraded by viral 3Cpro in RD cells, but resisted cleavage, and IRF3 was activated and translocated into the nucleus in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IFNs were induced differentially in human HT-29 cells through an intact TLR/TRIF signaling, which differs from other cell types and may be implicated in viral pathogenesis in EV71 infection. PMID:27007979

  17. Differential Regulation of TLR Signaling on the Induction of Antiviral Interferons in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Infected with Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyang; Ji, Lianfu; Yuan, Xinhui; Jin, Yu; Cardona, Carol J.; Xing, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells. Importantly, TRIF was degraded by viral 3Cpro in RD cells, but resisted cleavage, and IRF3 was activated and translocated into the nucleus in HT-29 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IFNs were induced differentially in human HT-29 cells through an intact TLR/TRIF signaling, which differs from other cell types and may be implicated in viral pathogenesis in EV71 infection. PMID:27007979

  18. Aberrant Apoptotic Response of Colorectal Cancer Cells to Novel Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Harmse, Leonie; Dahan-Farkas, Nurit; Panayides, Jenny-Lee; van Otterlo, Willem; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased understanding of colorectal cancer and the introduction of targeted drug therapy, the metastatic phase of the disease remains refractory to treatment. Since the deregulation of normal apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, novel nucleoside analogues were synthesized here and evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis and cause cell death in two colorectal adeno-carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2 and HT-29. Three novel nucleoside analogues assessed here showed cytotoxic activity, as measured by the MTT assay against both cell lines: the IC50 values ranged between 3 and 37 μM, with Caco-2 cells being more sensitive than HT-29 cells. Compared to camptothecin, the positive control, the nucleoside analogues were significantly less toxic to normal unstimulated leukocytes (p>0.05). Moreover, the nucleosides were able to induce apoptosis as measured by an increase in caspase 8 and caspase 3 activity above that of the control. This was additionally supported by data derived from Annexin V-FITC assays. Despite marginal changes to the mitochondrial membrane potential, all three nucleosides caused a significant increase in cytosolic cytochrome c (p>0.05), with a corresponding decrease in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Morphological analysis of both cell lines showed the rapid appearance of vacuoles following exposure to two of the nucleosides, while a third caused cellular detachment, delayed cytoplasmic vacuolisation and nuclear abnormalities. Preliminary investigations, using the autophagic indicator monodansylcadaverine and chloroquine as positive control, showed that two of the nucleosides induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In summary, the novel nucleoside analogues showed selective cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines and are effective initiators of an unusual apoptotic response, demonstrating their potential to serve as structural scaffolds for more potent analogues. PMID:26390405

  19. Radiosensitisation of human colorectal cancer cells by ruthenium(II) arene anticancer complexes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R; Westhorpe, A; Romero, MJ; Habtemariam, A; Gallevo, CR; Bark, Y; Menezes, N; Sadler, PJ; Sharma, RA

    2016-01-01

    Some of the largest improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with solid cancers observed over the past 3 decades have been from concurrent treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). The lethal effects of RT on cancer cells arise primarily from damage to DNA. Ruthenium (Ru) is a transition metal of the platinum group, with potentially less toxicity than platinum drugs. We postulated that ruthenium-arene complexes are radiosensitisers when used in combination with RT. We screened 14 ruthenium-arene complexes and identified AH54 and AH63 as supra-additive radiosensitisers by clonogenic survival assays and isobologram analyses. Both complexes displayed facial chirality. At clinically relevant doses of RT, radiosensitisation of cancer cells by AH54 and AH63 was p53-dependent. Radiation enhancement ratios for 5–10 micromolar drug concentrations ranged from 1.19 to 1.82. In p53-wildtype cells, both drugs induced significant G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Colorectal cancer cells deficient in DNA damage repair proteins, EME1 and MUS81, were significantly more sensitive to both agents. Both drugs were active in cancer cell lines displaying acquired resistance to oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Our findings broaden the potential scope for these drugs for use in cancer therapy, including combination with radiotherapy to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:26867983

  20. A logistic model for the detection of circulating tumour cells in human metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbazán, Jorge; Vieito, María; Abalo, Alicia; Alonso-Alconada, Lorena; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Alonso-Nocelo, Marta; León, Luís; Candamio, Sonia; Gallardo, Elena; Anido, Urbano; Doll, Andreas; los Ángeles Casares, María; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Abal, Miguel; López-López, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) represents one of the challenges in the clinical management of patients. The detection of circulating tumour cells (CTC) is becoming a promising alternative to current detection techniques, as it focuses on one of the players of the metastatic disease and it should provide with more specific and sensitive detection rates. Here, we describe an improved method of detection of CTC from mCRC patients by combining immune-enrichment, optimal purification of RNA from very low cell numbers, and the selection of accurate PCR probes. As a result, we obtained a logistic model that combines GAPDH and VIL1 normalized to CD45 rendering powerful results in the detection of CTC from mCRC patients (AUROC value 0.8599). We further demonstrated the utility of this model at the clinical setting, as a reliable prognosis tool to determine progression-free survival in mCRC patients. Overall, we developed a strategy that ameliorates the specificity and sensitivity in the detection of CTC, resulting in a robust and promising logistic model for the clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22304365

  1. Preserved genetic diversity in organoids cultured from biopsies of human colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Weeber, Fleur; van de Wetering, Marc; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Dijkstra, Krijn K.; Krijgsman, Oscar; Kuilman, Thomas; Gadellaa-van Hooijdonk, Christa G. M.; van der Velden, Daphne L.; Peeper, Daniel S.; Cuppen, Edwin P. J. G.; Vries, Robert G.; Clevers, Hans; Voest, Emile E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor organoids are 3D cultures of cancer cells. They can be derived from the tumor of each individual patient, thereby providing an attractive ex vivo assay to tailor treatment. Using patient-derived tumor organoids for this purpose requires that organoids derived from biopsies maintain the genetic diversity of the in vivo tumor. In this study tumor biopsies were obtained from 14 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (i) to test the feasibility of organoid culture from metastatic biopsy specimens and (ii) to compare the genetic diversity of patient-derived tumor organoids and the original tumor biopsy. Genetic analysis was performed using SOLiD sequencing for 1,977 cancer-relevant genes. Copy number profiles were generated from sequencing data using CopywriteR. Here we demonstrate that organoid cultures can be established from tumor biopsies of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with a success rate of 71%. Genetic analysis showed that organoids reflect the metastasis from which they were derived. Ninety percent of somatic mutations were shared between organoids and biopsies from the same patient, and the DNA copy number profiles of organoids and the corresponding original tumor show a correlation of 0.89. Most importantly, none of the mutations that were found exclusively in either the tumor or organoid culture are in driver genes or genes amenable for drug targeting. These findings support further exploration of patient-derived organoids as an ex vivo platform to personalize anticancer treatment. PMID:26460009

  2. Construction of interference vector targeting Ep-CAM gene and its effects on colorectal cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanmei; Zhou, Fengqiang; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Lei; Xu, Hong; Guo, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior study indicates that abnormal protein expression and functional changes in the development and progression of colorectal cancer is related to gene expression. The aim of this study was to construct an interference plasmid targeting the Ep-CAM gene and to investigate its effects on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Methods In this study, HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell lines were selected as cell models. The double-stranded micro (mi)RNA oligo was inserted into the pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR vector, which is an expression of miRNA. Lipofectamine™ 2000 was used to transfer plasmid into the empty plasmid group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-neg) and the interference group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-Ep-CAM-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the nontransferred HT-29 and HCT-116 acts as the blank control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the transfection efficiency. Western blot was used to detect Ep-CAM protein expression. The cell proliferation in each group was detected by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results The results indicated that the Ep-CAM messenger (m)RNA expression in the interference group was lower significantly compared with that of the empty plasmid group and control group (P<0.01). Western blot analysis results showed that Ep-CAM protein expression was significantly lower in interference group compared with that of the empty plasmid group and the control group (P<0.01). MTT assay results demonstrated that the proliferation ability of cells in the interference group was significantly inhibited compared with the two other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Silencing of Ep-CAM can significantly inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. PMID:26028961

  3. The DNA Repair Inhibitor DT01 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Chemosensitization of Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Herath, Nirmitha I; Devun, Flavien; Lienafa, Marie-Christine; Herbette, Aurélie; Denys, Alban; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic liver disease from colorectal cancer is a significant clinical problem. This is mainly attributed to nonresectable metastases that frequently display low sensitivities to available chemotherapies and develop drug resistance partly via hyperactivation of some DNA repair functions. Combined therapies have shown some disease control; however, there is still a need for more efficient chemotherapies to achieve eradication of colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We investigated the tolerance and efficacy of a novel class of DNA repair inhibitors, Dbait, in association with conventional chemotherapy. Dbait mimics double-strand breaks and activates damage signaling, consequently inhibiting single- and double-stranded DNA repair enzyme recruitment. In vitro, Dbait treatment increases sensitivity of HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines. In vivo, the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and the efficacy of the cholesterol-conjugated clinical form of Dbait, DT01, were assessed. The chemosensitizing abilities of DT01 were evaluated in association with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in intrahepatic HT29 xenografted mice used as a model for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. The high uptake of DT01 indicates that the liver is a specific target. We demonstrate significant antitumor efficacy in a liver metastasis model with DT01 treatment in combination with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (mean: 501 vs. 872 mm(2), P = 0.02) compared to chemotherapy alone. The decrease in tumor volume is further associated with significant histologic changes in necrosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Repeated cycles of DT01 do not increase chemotherapy toxicity. Combining DT01 with conventional chemotherapy may prove to be a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  4. Inhibition of Fried Meat-Induced Colorectal DNA Damage and Altered Systemic Genotoxicity in Humans by Crucifera, Chlorophyllin, and Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Gangarosa, Lisa M.; Schliebe, Barbara; Umbach, David M.; Xu, Zongli; MacIntosh, Beth; Knize, Mark G.; Matthews, Peggy P.; Swank, Adam E.; Sandler, Robert S.; DeMarini, David M.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat cooked at either low (100°C) or high temperature (250°C), each for 2 weeks in a crossover design. The other 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing the high-temperature meat diet alone or in combination with 3 putative mutagen inhibitors: cruciferous vegetables, yogurt, and chlorophyllin tablets, also in a crossover design. Subjects were nonsmokers, at least 18 years old, and not currently taking prescription drugs or antibiotics. We used the Salmonella assay to analyze the meat, urine, and feces for mutagenicity, and the comet assay to analyze rectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes for DNA damage. Low-temperature meat had undetectable levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and was not mutagenic, whereas high-temperature meat had high HCA levels and was highly mutagenic. The high-temperature meat diet increased the mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine and feces compared to the low-temperature meat diet. The mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine was increased nearly twofold by the inhibitor diet, indicating that the inhibitors enhanced conjugation. Inhibitors decreased significantly the mutagenicity of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed feces. The diets did not alter the levels of DNA damage in non-target white blood cells, but the inhibitor diet decreased nearly twofold the DNA damage in target colorectal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary factors can reduce DNA damage in the target tissue of fried-meat associated carcinogenesis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00340743. PMID:21541030

  5. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Kim, Ji-Sang; Park, Eunju

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of onion peel (OPE) in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to determine the amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OPE. In addition, the influence of OPE on antioxidant- and inflammation-associated gene expression was also determined in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. HPLC analysis showed that OPE contained well-known antioxidant compounds, including p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, and morin. After incubation with OPE, HT-29 cells showed either a loss of normal nuclear architecture or detachability from each other. The cytotoxic effects of OPE on HT-29 cells were confirmed by MTT and LDH release assays. LPS-induced oxidative conditions effectively downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression in OPE pretreated HT-29 cells compared with cells only stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) detoxification genes (i.e., GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) was upregulated after treatment with LPS at sublethal concentrations. However, the LPS-induced mRNA expression of HO-1 and GSTs was significantly attenuated by treatment with OPE. Therefore, onion peel extract is a promising component of future nutraceuticals and value-added products.

  6. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Kim, Ji-Sang; Park, Eunju

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of onion peel (OPE) in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to determine the amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OPE. In addition, the influence of OPE on antioxidant- and inflammation-associated gene expression was also determined in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. HPLC analysis showed that OPE contained well-known antioxidant compounds, including p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, and morin. After incubation with OPE, HT-29 cells showed either a loss of normal nuclear architecture or detachability from each other. The cytotoxic effects of OPE on HT-29 cells were confirmed by MTT and LDH release assays. LPS-induced oxidative conditions effectively downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression in OPE pretreated HT-29 cells compared with cells only stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) detoxification genes (i.e., GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) was upregulated after treatment with LPS at sublethal concentrations. However, the LPS-induced mRNA expression of HO-1 and GSTs was significantly attenuated by treatment with OPE. Therefore, onion peel extract is a promising component of future nutraceuticals and value-added products. PMID:24001438

  7. MicroRNAs: promising biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic targets in human colorectal cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Keun

    2015-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Distant metastasis is a major cause of mortality in CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression. Many miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer and influence tumor progression. Accumulating studies suggest that multiple miRNAs are actively involved in the CRC metastasis process. Thus, we aim to introduce the role of miRNAs in multi-steps of CRC metastasis, including cancer cell invasion, intravasation, circulation, extravasation, colonization, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we suggest the potential application of miRNAs as biomarkers for CRC patients with metastasis.

  8. Application of laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection in human colorectal cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng; Chia, Teck-Chee; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Diong, Cheong Hoong; Tang, Choong Leong; Choen, Francis S.; Krishnan, S. M.

    2003-10-01

    We investigated 48 normal patients and 25 diseased patients using our laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection system during their regular colonoscopy. The colon and rectum mucosa autofluorescence were excited by 405 nm continue wavelength laser. We observed that cancer or diseased colorectal mucosa, their autofluorescence spectra are significantly different from normal area. The autofluorescence spectra intensity at about 500 nm was been used for our intensity ratio characteristics intensity for our diagnostic algorithm. The intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 were performed to identify the detection area. From experimental result we concluded that both intensity ratios of RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 as guidelines can detect cancerous and polyps disease completely. Our investigation provided some useful insight for laser induced autofluorescence spectra as a diagnosis technique for clinical application.

  9. Hypoxia in human colorectal adenocarcinoma: Comparison between extrinsic and potential intrinsic hypoxia markers

    SciTech Connect

    Goethals, Laurence; Debucquoy, Annelies; Perneel, Christiaan; Geboes, Karel; Ectors, Nadine; De Schutter, Harlinde; Penninckx, Freddy; McBride, William H.; Begg, Adrian C.; Haustermans, Karin M. . E-mail: karin.haustermans@uzleuven.be

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To detect and quantify hypoxia in colorectal adenocarcinomas by use of pimonidazole and iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) as extrinsic markers and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), microvessel density (MVD), epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as intrinsic markers of hypoxia. Methods and Material: Twenty patients with an adenocarcinoma of the left colon and rectum treated by primary surgery were injected with pimonidazole and IdUrd. Serial sections of tumor biopsies were single stained for VEGF, EGFR, Ki67, and double stained for blood vessels in combination with either pimonidazole, IdUrd, or CA IX. Percentage of expression was scored as well as colocalization of pimonidazole with CA IX. Results: The median percentage of hypoxia, as judged by pimonidazole staining, was 16.7% (range, 0-52.4%). The expression of pimonidazole correlated inversely with the total MVD and endothelial cord MVD (R = -0.55, p = 0.01; R = -0.47, p = 0.04). Good colocalization was found between pimonidazole and CA IX in only 30% of tumors, with no correlation overall between pimonidazole and CA IX, VEGF, or EGFR or between the different intrinsic markers. Cells around some vessels (0.08-11%) were negative for IdUrd but positive for Ki 67, which indicated their lack of perfusion at the time of injection. Conclusion: Chronic and acute hypoxic regions are present in colorectal tumors, as shown by pimonidazole and IdUrd staining. Only in a minority of tumors did an association exist between the areas stained by pimonidazole and those positive for CA IX. Pimonidazole also did not correlate with expression of other putative intrinsic hypoxia markers (VEGF, EGFR)

  10. Lobaplatin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in the human colorectal carcinoma cell Line LOVO in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-yu; Liu, Lin; Qin, Shu-kui; He, Xiang-ming; Li, Su-yi

    2011-06-01

    Lobaplatin, as the third-generation platinum antineoplastic agent, showed promising antineoplastic effects in variety of preclinical test tumor models. We investigated the inhibition effect of lobaplatin on the colorectal carcinoma cell line LOVO in vitro, and explored its mechanism of action. The MTT assay was used to determine the inhibitory effect and inhibition ratio of lobaplatin on LOVO at various lobaplatin concentrations (500 μM, 1000 μM, 2000 μM). Apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nickend labelling (TUNEL). The cell cycle and apoptotic rate were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and the expression of caspase-3,8,9 in cells was detected by chromometry. The results of MTT assay showed that proliferation of LOVO cells was inhibited by lobaplatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Apoptosis was detected in LOVO cells by TUNEL. The FCM assay indicated that lobaplatin altered the cell cycle and induced apoptosis of the LOVO cells when treated for 24h, the percentages of cells in the S phase transition were increased, whereas the percentages of cells in the G(2) transition were decreased. The expressions of caspase-389 is higher than the control group after LOVO cells were treated by lobaplatin. Lobaplatin can inhibit the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cell line LOVO by inducing apoptosis in vitro. The mechanism may be related to the "S" cycle arrest in cell cycle distribution and the up-regulated expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9 which up-regulated the expression of caspase-3.

  11. Antisense treatment directed against mutated Ki-ras in human colorectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andreyev, H; Ross, P; Cunningham, D; Clarke, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Kirsten ras (Ki-ras) mutations are common in gastrointestinal cancer and one codon 12 mutation, glycine to valine, is particularly aggressive in colorectal cancer.
AIMS—To investigate if this valine point mutation could be targeted with antisense oligonucleotides and to determine the efficacy of any antisense/mRNA interaction.
METHODS—Twenty nine antisense oligonucleotides were screened against target and control Ki-ras RNA in a cell free system and against target and control cell lines in culture.
RESULTS—The activity and specificity of the oligonucleotides varied. Results for the individual oligonucleotides were consistent in a cell free model and in cell culture using two different uptake promoters. Only one oligonucleotide was specific in its cleavage of target Ki-ras mRNA in the cell free system and appeared specific in cell culture, although changes in Ki-ras mRNA and protein expression following a single treatment could not be detected. Experiments in the cell free system showed that the point mutation is relatively inaccessible to oligonucleotides. Other sites on the Ki-ras RNA molecule, away from the point mutation, can be targeted more effectively.
CONCLUSIONS—Successful targeting of the clinically relevant Ki-ras point mutation with antisense oligonucleotides is difficult because of RNA structure at the mutated site and is inefficient compared with other sites on the Ki-ras mRNA.


Keywords: Ki-ras mutation; antisense treatment; colorectal carcinoma PMID:11156646

  12. EGCG inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Masahito; Deguchi, Atsuko; Hara, Yukihiko; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Weinstein, I. Bernard . E-mail: ibw1@columbia.edu

    2005-09-02

    The IGF/IGF-1R system, which includes the IGF, IGF-1R, and IGFBPs proteins, plays an important role in the development and growth of colorectal cancer. We previously reported that in the HT29 human colon cancer cell line EGCG, the major biologically active component of green tea, inhibits activation of the RTKs EGFR, HER2, and HER3, and that this is associated with inhibition of multiple downstream signaling pathways. Since IGF-1R is also a RTK, in this study we examined the effects of EGCG on the activity of IGF/IGF-1R system in human colon cancer cells. We found that the colon cancer cell lines Caco2, HT29, SW837, and SW480 express high levels of the IGF-1R receptor, and that both SW837 and SW480 cells display constitutive activation of this receptor. Treatment of SW837 cells with 20 {mu}g/ml of EGCG (the IC{sub 50} concentration for growth inhibition) caused within 6 h a decrease in the phosphorylated (i.e., activated) form of the IGF-1R protein. At 12 h, there was a decrease in the levels of both IGF-1 protein and mRNA and within 3-6 h there was an increase in the levels of both IGFBP-3 protein and mRNA. The increased expression of the latter protein was sustained for at least 48 h. When SW837 cells were treated with EGCG for a longer time, i.e., 96 h, a very low concentration (1.0 {mu}g/ml) of EGCG also caused inhibition of activation of IGF-1R, a decrease in the IGF-1 protein, and an increase in the IGFBP-3 protein. EGCG also caused a decrease in the levels of mRNAs that encode MMPs-7 and -9, proteins that proteolyze IGFBP-3. In addition, treatment with EGCG caused a transient increase in the expression of TGF-{beta}2, an inducer of IGFBP-3 expression. These findings expand the roles of EGCG as an inhibitor of critical RTKs involved in cell proliferation, providing further evidence that EGCG and related compounds may be useful in the chemoprevention or treatment of colorectal cancer.

  13. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate. PMID:27014725

  14. Ribosomal protein genes are overexpressed in colorectal cancer: isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the human S3 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Pogue-Geile, K; Geiser, J R; Shu, M; Miller, C; Wool, I G; Meisler, A I; Pipas, J M

    1991-08-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding the human S3 ribosomal protein from a normal human colon cDNA library. The clone was identified as one of many that detected genes whose level of expression was increased in adenocarcinoma of the colon relative to normal colonic mucosa. Increased levels of the S3 transcript were present in the tumors of all eight patients examined. Moreover, the S3 mRNA was also more abundant in 7 of 10 adenomatous polyps, the presumed precursor of carcinoma. Additional studies demonstrated that increased levels of mRNAs encoding several other ribosomal proteins, including S6, S8, S12, L5, and P0, were present in colorectal tumors and polyps. These results suggest that there is increased synthesis of ribosomes in colorectal tumors and that this increase is an early event in colon neoplasia.

  15. Nicotine enhances invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer cells through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor downstream p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Fei, Rushan; Wang, Zhe; Shen, Zhonglei; Qian, Jing; Chen, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine as a cigarette component is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. The downstream signaling pathways of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) are believed to be responsible for the cellular effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and novel mechanisms for nicotine on the capacity for colorectal cancer cell invasion and metastasis. LOVO and SW620 colorectal cancer cells were stimulated with nicotine in vitro. A Transwell chamber model was applied to detect the capacity for tumor cell invasion. Assays for gelatin zymography and western blotting were applied to detect the activity and expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), respectively. Signal transduction was assessed by immunoblotting for the phosphorylation of relevant signal molecules and the application of pharmaceutical inhibitors. We showed that nicotine increased LOVO and SW620 colorectal cancer cell invasion along with enhanced activity and expression of MMP-1, -2 and -9. Nicotine increased phosphorylation of p38, ERK, Akt and PI3K p85 but had no effect on phosphorylation of JNK, or NF-κB. Of the pharmaceutical inhibitors of U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), LY294002 (Akt activation inhibitor), SB239063 (p38 MAPK activation inhibitor) and hexamethonium (Hex) (nAchRs inhibitor), the cellular and molecular effects were reduced by the applications of SB239063 and Hex. We concluded that nicotine stimulates the invasion and metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro via activation of the nAchRs and the p38 MAPK downstream signaling pathway. Therefore, p38 MAPK may have potential as a therapeutic target for smoking-related human colorectal cancer metastasis.

  16. TIMP-1 expression in human colorectal cancer is associated with TGF-B1, LOXL2, INHBA1, TNF-AIP6 and TIMP-2 transcript profiles.

    PubMed

    Offenberg, Hanne; Brünner, Nils; Mansilla, Francisco; Orntoft Torben, F; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin

    2008-10-01

    The balance of activity between the endogenous enzyme inhibitors known as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and their targets, the matrix metalloproteinases, in the extracellular matrix is thought to play an important role in tumour cell invasion. Supporting this notion, we have shown that colorectal cancer patients have increased plasma levels of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and that high plasma TIMP-1 levels are associated with short colorectal cancer patient survival. However, although TIMP-1 has been extensively studied in cancer, very little is known about how it is regulated. To further elucidate potential mechanisms of regulation of this protein, we did a number of experiments to look at associations between the transcript profile of TIMP-1 with known matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as with expression profiles of other genes differentially regulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and the other TIMPs 2-4, which have also been associated with the progression of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide expression profiling of 172 CRC and normal mucosa samples was used to identify transcript changes for the genes under investigation. We found that TIMP-1 was up-regulated in CRC samples compared with normal tissue, while TIMP-2 was down-regulated. Eight MMPs were up-regulated in CRC compared with normal tissue. Correlating up-regulated genes with the TIMP-1 transcript, we identified 13 that were also up-regulated in cancerous tissue. Among these were genes associated with the synthesis of extracellullar matrix, genes involved in the TGF-beta signalling pathway, and genes that are likely transcribed by the tumour cells. These insights add to the complex picture emerging about the regulation of TIMPs in colorectal cancer.

  17. LIN28 cooperates with WNT signaling to drive invasive intestinal and colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ho-Chou; Schwitalla, Sarah; Qian, Zhirong; LaPier, Grace S.; Yermalovich, Alena; Ku, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Shann-Ching; Viswanathan, Srinivas R.; Zhu, Hao; Nishihara, Reiko; Inamura, Kentaro; Kim, Sun A.; Morikawa, Teppei; Mima, Kosuke; Sukawa, Yasutaka; Yang, Juhong; Meredith, Gavin; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major contributor to cancer-related mortality. LIN28A and LIN28B are highly related RNA-binding protein paralogs that regulate biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs and influence development, metabolism, tissue regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of either LIN28 paralog cooperates with the Wnt pathway to promote invasive intestinal adenocarcinoma in murine models. When LIN28 alone is induced genetically, half of the resulting tumors harbor Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) mutation. When overexpressed in ApcMin/+ mice, LIN28 accelerates tumor formation and enhances proliferation and invasiveness. In conditional genetic models, enforced expression of a LIN28-resistant form of the let-7 microRNA reduces LIN28-induced tumor burden, while silencing of LIN28 expression reduces tumor volume and increases tumor differentiation, indicating that LIN28 contributes to tumor maintenance. We detected aberrant expression of LIN28A and/or LIN28B in 38% of a large series of human CRC samples (n = 595), where LIN28 expression levels were associated with invasive tumor growth. Our late-stage CRC murine models and analysis of primary human tumors demonstrate prominent roles for both LIN28 paralogs in promoting CRC growth and progression and implicate the LIN28/let-7 pathway as a therapeutic target. PMID:25956904

  18. Inhibitory effect and mechanisms of an anthocyanins- and anthocyanidins-rich extract from purple-shoot tea on colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Ping; Shih, Yi-Ting; Lin, Bor-Ru; Chiu, Chui-Feng; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2012-04-11

    One newly bred variety of tea cultivar, purple-shoot tea, was selected to evaluate its antiproliferative effects on colorectal carcinoma cells, as well as normal colon cells. The phytochemicals and identified catechins of purple-shoot tea extract (PTE) were significantly higher than that of ordinary tea, especially the anthocyanins (surpassed by 135-fold) and anthocyanidins (surpassed by 3.5-fold). PTE inhibited the proliferation of COLO 320DM (IC(50) = 64.9 μg/mL) and HT-29 (IC(50) = 55.2 μg/mL) by blocking cell cycle progression during the G(0)/G(1) phase and inducing apoptotic death. Western blotting indicated that PTE induced cell cycle arrest by reducing the expression of cyclin E and cyclin D1 in COLO 320DM and the upregulation of p21 and p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in HT-29. Two cells treated with PTE also indicated the cleavage of PARP, activation of caspase 3, and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results showed that PTE is a potential novel dietary agent for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Studies on the cytotoxicity of diamond nanoparticles against human cancer cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Adach, Kinga; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Gajek, Gabriela; Skolimowski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Blaszczyk, Alina

    2016-07-25

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DND) are a widely studied group of carbon nanomaterials. They have the ability to adsorb a variety of biomolecules and drugs onto their surfaces, and additionally their surfaces may be subjected to chemical functionalization by covalent bonds. We present a procedure for the purification and surface oxidation of diamond nanoparticles, which were then tested by spectroscopic analysis such as ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. We also examined the zeta potential of the tested material. Analysis of the cytotoxic effect of nanodiamonds against normal lymphocytes derived from human peripheral blood, the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) was performed using MTT colorimetric assay. Evaluation of cell viability was performed after 1-h and 24-h treatment with the tested nanoparticles applied at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. We found that the survival of the examined cells was strongly associated with the presence of serum proteins in the growth medium. The incubation of cells with nanodiamonds in the presence of serum did not exert a significant effect on cell survival, while the cell treatment in a serum-free medium resulted in a decrease in cell survival compared to the negative control. The role of purification and functionalization of nanodiamonds on their cytotoxicity was also demonstrated.

  20. Studies on the cytotoxicity of diamond nanoparticles against human cancer cells and lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Adach, Kinga; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Gajek, Gabriela; Skolimowski, Janusz; Kontek, Renata; Blaszczyk, Alina

    2016-07-25

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DND) are a widely studied group of carbon nanomaterials. They have the ability to adsorb a variety of biomolecules and drugs onto their surfaces, and additionally their surfaces may be subjected to chemical functionalization by covalent bonds. We present a procedure for the purification and surface oxidation of diamond nanoparticles, which were then tested by spectroscopic analysis such as ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. We also examined the zeta potential of the tested material. Analysis of the cytotoxic effect of nanodiamonds against normal lymphocytes derived from human peripheral blood, the non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549) and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) was performed using MTT colorimetric assay. Evaluation of cell viability was performed after 1-h and 24-h treatment with the tested nanoparticles applied at concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. We found that the survival of the examined cells was strongly associated with the presence of serum proteins in the growth medium. The incubation of cells with nanodiamonds in the presence of serum did not exert a significant effect on cell survival, while the cell treatment in a serum-free medium resulted in a decrease in cell survival compared to the negative control. The role of purification and functionalization of nanodiamonds on their cytotoxicity was also demonstrated. PMID:27270448

  1. The Prophylactic Effect of Probiotic Enterococcus lactis IW5 against Different Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus lactis IW5 was obtained from human gut and the potential probiotic characteristics of this organism were then evaluated. Results showed that this strain was highly resistant to low pH and high bile salt and adhered strongly to Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal cell lines. The supernatant of E. lactis IW5 strongly inhibited the growth of several pathogenic bacteria and decreased the viability of different cancer cells, such as HeLa, MCF-7, AGS, HT-29, and Caco-2. Conversely, E. lactis IW5 did not inhibit the viability of normal FHs-74 cells. This strain did not generate toxic enzymes, including β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and was highly susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, penicillin, vancomycin, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazol, and chloramphenicol but resistant to erythromycin and tetracyclin. This study provided evidence for the effect of E. lactis IW5 on cancer cells. Therefore, E. lactis IW5, as a bioactive therapeutics, should be subjected to other relevant tests to verify the therapeutic suitability of this strain for clinical applications. PMID:26635778

  2. Human Serum Albumin Conjugates of 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sepehri, Nima; Rouhani, Hasti; Gharghabi, Mehdi; Tavassolian, Faranak; Amini, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2014-01-01

    SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-comptothecin) is a potent metabolite of irinotecan, which has been approved for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Considering the notable potency of SN38, it has been introduced as an anticancer candidate. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) conjugates of SN38 were formulated to overcome the solubility problem beside improving the active form stability and tumor tissue targeting. In this target, two different molar ratios of conjugates (SN38 : HSA 15 : 1 and 60 : 1) were prepared by derivatization of 20-hydroxyl group of SN38 with glycine, followed by addition of succinyl group to glycine through which HSA was covalently attached. The conjugates with particle size of about 100 nm revealed enhanced water solubility and were relatively stable in neutral and acidic solutions. For SN38-HSA-15 and SN38-HSA-60 IC50 values were compared with irinotecan in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, biodistribution studies of SN38-HSA conjugate resulted in proper blood concentration level within 4 h. Moreover, blood cytotoxicity assay revealed no toxicity effect on liver and spleen. Collectively, our present investigation offers a water-soluble form of SN38 attached to HSA and suggests using favorable properties as a promising anticancer agent for further preclinical and clinical investigations. PMID:24895635

  3. Integrated analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaohua; Liu, Binjian; Yang, Rui; Guo, Yong; Li, Feng; Wang, Lin; Hu, Hanyang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumors. However, the genome-wide expression and roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. Here, we systematically examined the global gene expressions in primary and synchronous liver metastases CRC tissue, in which thousands of aberrantly expressed lncRNAs were characterized. Co-expression analysis revealed that some lncRNAs correlated to their neighboring mRNAs in expression levels, whereas others formed networks with protein-coding genes in trans. We observed H3K4me3 was enriched at expressed lncRNA transcription start sites (TSSs) and correlated to dysregulated lncRNAs. Furthermore, we identified primary and metastasis tumor linked lncRNA signatures positively correlated with poor-prognosis gene set. Finally, functional experiments demonstrated two candidate lncRNAs were required for proliferation and migration of CRC cells. In summary, we provided a new framework for lncRNA associated clinical prognosis evaluation and target selection of gene therapy in CRC. PMID:27004403

  4. HDAC1 controls CIP2A transcription in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Balliu, Manjola; Cellai, Cristina; Lulli, Matteo; Laurenzana, Anna; Torre, Eugenio; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Paoletti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the effectiveness of HDAC-inhibitor (S)-2 towards colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 cells in vitro by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and in vivo by contrasting tumour growth in mice xenografts. Among the multifaceted drug-induced events described herein, an interesting link has emerged between the oncoprotein histone deacetylase HDAC1 and the oncogenic Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) which is overexpressed in several cancers including CRCs. HDAC1 inhibition by (S)-2 or specific siRNAs downregulates CIP2A transcription in three different CRC cell lines, thus restoring the oncosuppressor phosphatase PP2A activity that is reduced in most cancers. Once re-activated, PP2A dephosphorylates pGSK-3β(ser9) which phosphorylates β-catenin that remains within the cytosol where it undergoes degradation. The decreased amount/activity of β-catenin transcription factor prompts cell growth arrest by diminishing c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression and abrogating the prosurvival Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These results are the first evidence that the inhibition of HDAC1 by (S)-2 downregulates CIP2A transcription and unleashes PP2A activity, thus inducing growth arrest and apoptosis in CRC cells. PMID:27029072

  5. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa‑associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5‑fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC.

  6. The MYC 3' Wnt-Responsive Element Drives Oncogenic MYC Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rennoll, Sherri A; Eshelman, Melanie A; Raup-Konsavage, Wesley M; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Yochum, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drive colorectal cancer (CRC) by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC). The critical regulatory DNA enhancer elements that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. In previous reports, we correlated T-cell factor (TCF) and β-catenin binding to the MYC 3' Wnt responsive DNA element (MYC 3' WRE) with MYC expression in HCT116 cells. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to determine whether this element is a critical driver of MYC. We isolated a clonal population of cells that contained a deletion of a single TCF binding element (TBE) within the MYC 3' WRE. This deletion reduced TCF/β-catenin binding to this regulatory element and decreased MYC expression. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found altered expression of genes that regulate metabolic processes, many of which are known MYC target genes. We found that 3' WRE-Mut cells displayed a reduced proliferative capacity, diminished clonogenic growth, and a decreased potential to form tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that the MYC 3' WRE is a critical driver of oncogenic MYC expression and suggest that this element may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27223305

  7. Chemokine/chemokine receptor pair CCL20/CCR6 in human colorectal malignancy: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Vilma Oliveira; Rubie, Claudia; Keilholz, Ulrich; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines belong to a superfamily of small, cytokine-like proteins, which induce multiple physiological functions, particularly cytoskeletal rearrangement and compartment-specific migration through their interaction with G-protein-coupled receptors. Chemokines and their receptors have been widely acknowledged as essential and selective mediators in leukocyte migration in inflammatory response. It is now established that the chemokine/chemokine receptor system is also used by cancer cells to direct lymphatic and haematogenous spreading and additionally has an impact on the site of metastatic growth of different tumours. In recent years an increasing number of studies have drawn attention to CC-chemokine cysteine motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and its physiological sole receptor CCR6 to play a role in the onset, development and metastatic spread of various gastrointestinal cancer entities. Among various cancer types CCR6 was also demonstrated to be significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and stimulation by its physiological ligand CCL20 has been reported to promote CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Further, the CCL20/CCR6 system apparently plays a role in the organ-selective liver metastasis of CRC. Here we review the literature on expression patterns of CCL20 and CCR6 and their physiological interactions as well as the currently presumed role of CCL20 and CCR6 in the formation of CRC and the development of liver metastasis, providing a potential basis for novel treatment strategies. PMID:26811629

  8. Tyrosine Phosphorylation Modulates the Vascular Responses of Mesenteric Arteries from Human Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Eduardo; Mauricio, María Dolores; Granado, Miriam; García-Villar, Oscar; Aldasoro, Martín; Vila, José María; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ferrero, Jorge Luis; Fernández, Nuria; García-Villalón, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether tyrosine phosphorylation in tumoral arteries may modulate their vascular response. To do this, mesenteric arteries supplying blood flow to colorectal tumors or to normal intestine were obtained during surgery and prepared for isometric tension recording in an organ bath. Increasing tyrosine phosphorylation with the phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate produced arterial contraction which was lower in tumoral than in control arteries, whereas it reduced the contraction to noradrenaline in tumoral but not in control arteries and reduced the relaxation to bradykinin in control but not in tumoral arteries. Protein expression of VEGF-A and of the VEGF receptor FLT1 was similar in control and tumoral arteries, but expression of the VEGF receptor KDR was increased in tumoral compared with control arteries. This suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation may produce inhibition of the contraction in tumoral mesenteric arteries, which may increase blood flow to the tumor when tyrosine phosphorylation is increased by stimulation of VEGF receptors. PMID:24324963

  9. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  10. Toxicity, immunogenicity, and tumor radioimmunodetecting ability of two human monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Steis, R.G.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; McCabe, R.; Bookman, M.A.; Reynolds, J.C.; Larson, S.M.; Smith, J.W. 2d.; Clark, J.W.; Dailey, V.; Del Vecchio, S. )

    1990-03-01

    Two human immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), 16.88 and 28A32, which react with cytoplasmic (28A32 and 16.88) or cell surface (28A32) determinants on human colon carcinoma cells, were administered intravenously to 26 patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma to determine if they could localize to sites of metastatic disease, if they had any antitumor or toxic effects, and to determine whether they would elicit an antihuman MoAb response. Serial scans showed tumor uptake of radioisotope in 12 of 16 patients receiving 131I-labeled 28A32 and in nine of 12 patients receiving 131I-labeled 16.88. No antitumor effects were seen with either antibody. No antibody-related toxic effects were observed following administration of 16.88, but two patients developed localized urticarial reactions following injection with antibody 28A32. No patient developed an antibody response to 16.88. Anti-28A32 reactivity was found in five of 12 (42%) normal sera and in seven of 23 (30%) patients before receiving any antibody. Following administration of 28A32, a low titer (1:10 dilution) of anti-28A32 developed in four patients with no preexisting antibody, a decrease in the preexisting titer was seen in three other patients, the titer remained constant in one patient, and no anti-28A32 was ever detected in six patients. In most cases, anti-28A32 activity was lost at dilutions greater than 1:10 and did not appear to affect antibody half-life in the serum or whole body retention of the antibody. We conclude that these human IgM MoAbs are capable of localizing at sites of disease in vivo, are nontoxic, and are poorly immunogenic in humans. Further studies to determine the specificity of targeting and to improve the delivery of antibody to sites of tumor are indicated.

  11. [ABILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS OF VARIOUS STRAINS TO CREATE BIOFILMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON HUMAN BODY CELLS].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, M A; Kopyltsov, V N; Shevlyagina, N V; Didenko, L V; Lyubasovskaya, L A; Priputnevich, T V; Ilina, E N

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the staphylococcus research is due to its ability to cause severe infections: softtissue infections, endocarditis, sepsis, toxic shock syndrome, and food poisoning. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is the main infection agent of intrahospital infections. This agent has many factors of pathogenicity, which are well known. Among the coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) strains, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis are clinically important, because they cause infections in patients with weak immune system. The mechanisms of the CNS pathogenicity are insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to evaluate the potential pathogenicity of clinical strains of CNS from their capacity to create biofilms and the character of their interaction with human body cells by the example of the HT-29 cell culture. The research was carried out in laboratory strain S. aureus ATCC 29213 and clinical strains S. haemolyticus SH39, S. epidermidis SE36-1 isolated from the neonatal autopsy materials. The visual tests of biofilm formation by each strain and testing of the impact of the strains on the cell culture HT-29 was carried out in this work. The two species of CNS form biofilms at a higher rate than S. aureus. Upon incubation for 2 h of HT-29 cells with staphylococcus strains tested in this work, adhesion of bacteria on cell surface was observed. The adhesion was most pronounced in case of S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. haemolyticus SH39. Upon 3 h of incubation with S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. haemolyticus SH39, destruction of cell HT-29 monolayer was observed. The incubation for 24 h with the 3 strains tested in this work caused complete destruction of cell HT-29 monolayer. The maximal toxic effect on HT-29 cells was inherent in the strain S. haemolyticus SH39. The aggregate of the results obtained in this work indicates the presence of the pathogenicity factors in the strains S. haemolyticus SH39, which require additional research.

  12. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA PRNCR1 in colorectal cancer promotes cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Youtao; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Yanyan; Li, Ming; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed to play a critical regulatory role in various biological processes including carcinogenesis, which indicates that lncRNAs are valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The novel lncRNA prostate cancer non-coding RNA 1 (PRNCR1) is located in the susceptible genomic area of CRC, however the functional role of PRNCR1 remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of PRNCR1 in CRC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profile of PRNCR1 in CRC tissues and cell lines. An antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) was designed to knock down PRNCR1. In a cohort of 63 patients, PRNCR1 was significantly overexpressed in CRC tissues compared with the expression in adjacent tissues, with an average fold increase of 10.55 (P=0.006). Additionally, a high level of PRNCR1 was associated with large tumor volume (P<0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), we found that the area under the curve (AUC) of PRNCR1 was 0.799 while the AUC of conventional biomarker CEA-CA199 was 0.651, indicating that PRNCR1 could be a sensitive diagnostic biomarker of CRC. Compared with the normal human colorectal epithelial cell line (FHC), PRNCR1 was upregulated in most CRC cell lines (HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29). After knockdown of PRNCR1 by ASO, CRC cell proliferation ability was significantly inhibited. We further found that PRNCR1 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in the S phases. In contrast, PRNCR1 knockdown did not affect cell apoptosis or invasive ability. Hence, these data indicate that PRNCR1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells and is a potential oncogene of CRC.

  13. Garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via the JNK and p38 pathways in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YAN; LI, HONG-YAN; ZHANG, ZHI-HUA; BIAN, HONG-LEI; LIN, GUI

    2014-01-01

    S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is an active compound that is derived from garlic and has been demonstrated to possess antitumor properties in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SAMC and determine the underlying mechanism of this effect on human colorectal carcinoma cells. The SW620 cells were cultured with various concentrations of SAMC and cell viability was detected using an MTT assay. Analysis of apoptosis was performed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) signaling pathways were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. SAMC was observed to reduce cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, partially through the induction of apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells. At the molecular level, SAMC induces apoptosis through JNK and p38 signaling pathways, increasing tumor protein p53 (p53) and Bax activation in the SW620 cells. The most effective concentration of SAMC for the induction of SW620 cell apoptosis was found to be 400 μM, which was confirmed through cell viability assays and apoptosis analysis. The current study indicated that SAMC inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of SW620 cells via the JNK and p38 pathways. The results from the current study demonstrated that SAMC must be further investigated as a novel preventive or therapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma, and potentially for use in other tumor types. PMID:25364433

  14. Wnt9A Induction Linked to Suppression of Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Irshad; Medegan, Bani; Braun, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of Wnt signaling in malignant tissues have focused on the canonical Wnt pathway (CWP) due to its role in stimulating cellular proliferation. The role of the non-canonical Wnt pathway (NCWP) in tissues with dysregulated Wnt signaling is not fully understood. Understanding NCWP’s role is important since these opposing pathways act in concert to maintain homeostasis in healthy tissues. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that LiCl inhibited proliferation of primary cells derived from colorectal cancer (CRC). Since LiCl stimulates cell proliferation in normal tissues and NCWP suppresses it, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of NCWP components in LiCl-mediated effects. LiCl-mediated inhibition of CRC cell proliferation (p < 0.001) and increased apoptosis (p < 0.01) coincided with 23-fold increase (p < 0.025) in the expression of the NCWP ligand, Wnt9A. LiCl also suppressed β-catenin mRNA (p < 0.03), total β-catenin protein (p < 0.025) and the active form of β-catenin. LiCl-mediated inhibition of CRC cell proliferation was partially reversed by IWP-2, and Wnt9A antibody. Recombinant Wnt9A protein emulated LiCl effects by suppressing β-catenin protein (p < 0.001), inhibiting proliferation (p < 0.001) and increasing apoptosis (p < 0.03). This is the first study to demonstrate induction of a NCWP ligand, Wnt9A as part of a mechanism for LiCl-mediated suppression of CRC cell proliferation. PMID:27049382

  15. Mutator/Hypermutable Fetal/Juvenile Metakaryotic Stem Cells and Human Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Lohith G.; Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo; Kamath, Tushar; Sanghvi, Jayodita; Gutierrez, Efren; Hensle, David; Kogel, John; Kusko, Rebecca; Rexer, Karl; Kurzweil, Ray; Refinetti, Paulo; Morgenthaler, Stephan; Koledova, Vera V.; Gostjeva, Elena V.; Thilly, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Adult age-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates increase exponentially from maturity, reach a maximum, then decline in extreme old age. Armitage and Doll (1) postulated that the exponential increase resulted from “n” mutations occurring throughout adult life in normal “cells at risk” that initiated the growth of a preneoplastic colony in which subsequent “m” mutations promoted one of the preneoplastic “cells at risk” to form a lethal neoplasia. We have reported cytologic evidence that these “cells at risk” are fetal/juvenile organogenic, then preneoplastic metakaryotic stem cells. Metakaryotic cells display stem-like behaviors of both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear divisions and peculiarities such as bell shaped nuclei and amitotic nuclear fission that distinguish them from embryonic, eukaryotic stem cells. Analyses of mutant colony sizes and numbers in adult lung epithelia supported the inferences that the metakaryotic organogenic stem cells are constitutively mutator/hypermutable and that their contributions to cancer initiation are limited to the fetal/juvenile period. We have amended the two-stage model of Armitage and Doll and incorporated these several inferences in a computer program CancerFit v.5.0. We compared the expectations of the amended model to adult (15–104 years) age-specific colon cancer rates for European-American males born 1890–99 and observed remarkable concordance. When estimates of normal colonic fetal/juvenile APC and OAT gene mutation rates (∼2–5 × 10−5 per stem cell doubling) and preneoplastic colonic gene loss rates (∼8 × 10−3) were applied, the model was in accordance only for the values of n = 2 and m = 4 or 5. PMID:24195059

  16. Mutator/Hypermutable fetal/juvenile metakaryotic stem cells and human colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kini, Lohith G; Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo; Kamath, Tushar; Sanghvi, Jayodita; Gutierrez, Efren; Hensle, David; Kogel, John; Kusko, Rebecca; Rexer, Karl; Kurzweil, Ray; Refinetti, Paulo; Morgenthaler, Stephan; Koledova, Vera V; Gostjeva, Elena V; Thilly, William G

    2013-10-29

    Adult age-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates increase exponentially from maturity, reach a maximum, then decline in extreme old age. Armitage and Doll (1) postulated that the exponential increase resulted from "n" mutations occurring throughout adult life in normal "cells at risk" that initiated the growth of a preneoplastic colony in which subsequent "m" mutations promoted one of the preneoplastic "cells at risk" to form a lethal neoplasia. We have reported cytologic evidence that these "cells at risk" are fetal/juvenile organogenic, then preneoplastic metakaryotic stem cells. Metakaryotic cells display stem-like behaviors of both symmetric and asymmetric nuclear divisions and peculiarities such as bell shaped nuclei and amitotic nuclear fission that distinguish them from embryonic, eukaryotic stem cells. Analyses of mutant colony sizes and numbers in adult lung epithelia supported the inferences that the metakaryotic organogenic stem cells are constitutively mutator/hypermutable and that their contributions to cancer initiation are limited to the fetal/juvenile period. We have amended the two-stage model of Armitage and Doll and incorporated these several inferences in a computer program CancerFit v.5.0. We compared the expectations of the amended model to adult (15-104 years) age-specific colon cancer rates for European-American males born 1890-99 and observed remarkable concordance. When estimates of normal colonic fetal/juvenile APC and OAT gene mutation rates (∼2-5 × 10(-5) per stem cell doubling) and preneoplastic colonic gene loss rates (∼8 × 10(-3)) were applied, the model was in accordance only for the values of n = 2 and m = 4 or 5.

  17. Dependence of Human Colorectal Cells Lacking the FBW7 Tumor Suppressor on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ba