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Sample records for hts bulk magnet

  1. Waveform control pulse magnetization for HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Shigeuchi, Koji; Okuda, Sayo; Watasaki, Masahiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    For the past 10 years, we have studied high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnets for use in electromagnetic rotating machines. If the magnetic field effectively magnetizes the HTS bulk, then the size of the motor and generator can be reduced without a reduction in output. We showed that the melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O HTS bulk effectively traps a high magnetic field using waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM). WCPM makes it possible to generate any pulsed magnetic field waveform by appropriately changing the duty ratio of the pulse width modulation. By chopping so that the pulsed magnetic field has a period of about 1ms, the WCPM technology enables active control of the rise time and suppresses magnetic flux motion that decreases magnetization efficiency. This method is also useful for any HTS bulk magnet, and the high magnetic flux density is trapped in the HTS bulk by a single pulse magnetic field. We developed a magnetizer that has a feedback system from the penetrated magnetic flux density to realize WCPM. In this research, using only a single pulse magnetic field of WCPM method at 77K, an HTS bulk with a 45mm diameter and 19mm thickness trapped a maximum magnetic field of 1.63T, which is more than 90% of the trapped magnetic flux density by FC magnetization. This result suggests that the pulse magnetizing method can replace the conventional field-cooled method and promote the practical use of HTS magnets for electromagnetic power applications.

  2. Magnetizing of permanent magnets using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole which contains the HTS bulk magnet generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnet plate inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the "rewritten" magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated.

  3. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  4. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  5. Superconducting Electric Machine with Permanent Magnets and Bulk HTS Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, A. V.; Vasich, P. S.; Dezhin, D. S.; Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Penkin, V. T.

    Theoretical methods of calculating of two-dimensional magnetic fields, inductive parameters and output characteristics of the new type of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors with a composite rotor are presented. The composite rotor has the structure containing HTS flat elements, permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. The developed calculation model takes into account the concentrations and physical properties of these rotor elements. The simulation results of experimental HTS motor with a composite rotor are presented. The application of new type of HTS motor in different constructions of industrial high dynamic drivers is discussed.

  6. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  7. Magnetic Forces Simulation of Bulk HTS over Permanent Magnetic Railway with Numerical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Zhuang, Shujun

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic levitation forces of bulk high temperature superconductor (HTS) above two types permanent magnet railway (PMR) is simulated using finite element method (FEM). The models are formulated by H-formulation and resolving codes is developed using Finite Element Program Generator (FEPG). The E- J power law is used to describe the electrical field vs. current density nonlinear characteristic of HTS. The applied magnetic fields induced by the PMR are calculated by the standard analysis method with the equivalent surface current model. By the method, the calculation formulation of magnetic fields generated by Halbach PMR and symmetrical PMR is derived respectively. The simulation results show that the finite element dynamic mesh rebuilding problem of HTS magnetic levitation transportation system comprised of bulk HTS and PMR can be easily avoided by the methods.

  8. Application of shielding current in bulk HTS to control magnetic field distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kii, T.

    2016-03-01

    Superconducting shielding current is excited when external field is applied to superconductor. In case for field cooling of bulk superconductor, shielding current is an origin of strong trapped field. When external field is changed to a properly arranged bulk HTS array, various magnetic field distribution can be formed by an excited shielding current in each bulk HTS. This paper presents a simple intuitively method to design magnetic field distribution using supercurrents in bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) array. In this method, an ideal current path for intended field distribution is represented by shielding currents in bulk HTS array. Expected performance can be roughly estimated by using Biot-Savart law. As examples, Maxwell coil pair and helical field generator are designed. This method can be applied to design various magnet devices using bulk HTS array.

  9. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2017-06-01

    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  10. Correlations Between Magnetic Flux and Levitation Force of HTS Bulk Above a Permanent Magnet Guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Haitao; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2017-10-01

    In order to clarify the correlations between magnetic flux and levitation force of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk, we measured the magnetic flux density on bottom and top surfaces of a bulk superconductor while vertically moving above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The levitation force of the bulk superconductor was measured simultaneously. In this study, the HTS bulk was moved down and up for three times between field-cooling position and working position above the PMG, followed by a relaxation measurement of 300 s at the minimum height position. During the whole processes, the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor were recorded and collected by a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform and a self-developed maglev measurement system, respectively. The magnetic flux density on the bottom surface reflected the induced field in the superconductor bulk, while on the top, it reveals the penetrated magnetic flux. The results show that the magnetic flux density and levitation force of the bulk superconductor are in direct correlation from the viewpoint of inner supercurrent. In general, this work is instructive for understanding the connection of the magnetic flux density, the inner current density and the levitation behavior of HTS bulk employed in a maglev system. Meanwhile, this magnetic flux density measurement method has enriched present experimental evaluation methods of maglev system.

  11. Magnetic Separation Using HTS Bulk Magnet for Cs-Bearing Fe precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Ichiju, K.; Sasaki, S.; Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Aoki, S.; Ohnishi, N.

    2017-09-01

    A peculiar magnetic separation technique has been examined in order to remove the Cs-bearing Fe precipitates formed of the waste ash from the withdrawn incinerator furnaces in Fukushima. The separation system was constructed in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets which generates the intensive magnetic field over 2 T, which was activated by the pulsed field magnetization process. The separation experiment has been operated with use of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device, which followed the high-gradient magnetic separation technique. The magnetic stainless steel filters installed in the water channels are magnetized by the applied magnetic fields, and are capable of attracting the precipitates bearing the Fe compound and thin Cs contamination. The experimental results clearly exhibited the positive feasibility of HTS bulk magnets.

  12. Reduction of flux-creep in magnetized bulk HTS by use of permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D.; Weinstein, R.; Davey, K.; Sawh, R.-P.; Carpenter, K.

    2017-01-01

    We report the effect of permanent magnet (PM) collars on the flux-creep rate of magnetized bulk HTS. The creep rates of single-grain, cylindrical samples are measured with attached collars activated to various fields, B PM, in the range 0 ≤ B PM ≤ B PM,max, where B PM,max is the fully saturated field of the PM. As B PM varies, the creep rate of the HTS is found to maintain its well-known form—a constant fractional loss λ, of original residual field, per decade of time. However, the magnitude of λ decreases as B PM increases. The decrease in λ is found to be linearly dependent on increasing B PM. The collar field for which flux-creep extrapolates to zero is found to be comparable to the maximum trappable field of the HTS bulk, B T,max. The properties of the dependence of λ on the HTS peak field, B T,max, the PM field, B PM, and the creep rate λ 0 with B PM = 0 permit the reduced creep rate in these experiments to be predicted by a universal equation.

  13. Numerical study to obtain the improved field homogeneity of HTS bulk magnet with enlarged inner diameter for compact NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, S.; Kim, S. B.; Nakagawa, T.; Nomura, R.; Ueda, H.

    2017-07-01

    The strength and homogeneity of the magnetic field required for NMR relaxometry device are 1.5 T and 150 ppm/cm3 respectively. It is relatively easy to generate the trapped magnetic field over 1.5 T at 77.4 K using the stacked HTS bulks, and 150 ppm/cm3 field homogeneity was obtained using the fabricated field compensation methods on HTS bulks magnet with 20 mm inner diameter. However, it is still hard to obtain 150 ppm/cm3 field homogeneity without field compensation methods. In this paper, in order to improve the trapped magnetic field homogeneity, the HTS bulk magnet with enlarged inner diameter was proposed and studied as the functions of size and shape of HTS bulk. The analytical study based on FEM was carried out to optimize the shape of HTS bulk magnet with enlarged inner diameter.

  14. Position control of active magnetic levitation using sphere-shaped HTS bulk for inertial nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, K.; Riku, K.; Agatsuma, K.; Ueda, H.; Ishiyama, A.

    2008-02-01

    We have developed an active magnetic levitation system that comprises a field-cooled disk-shaped or sphere-shaped HTS bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets. In this system, the levitation height of HTS bulk can be controlled by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. Further, the application of the vertical noncontact levitation system is expected due to its levitation stability without mechanical supports. We assume that this system is applied to inertial nuclear fusion. However, one of the important issues is to achieve position control with high accuracy of the fusion fuel in order to illuminate the target evenly over the entire surface. Therefore, this system is applied to the levitation and position control of a sphere-shaped superconducting capsule containing nuclear fusion fuel. In this study, we designed and constructed a position control system for the sphere-shaped HTS bulk with a diameter of 5 mm by using numerical simulation based on hybrid finite element and boundary element analysis. We then carried out the experiment of levitation height and position control characteristics of the HTS bulk in this system. With regard to position control, accuracies within 59 ?m are obtained.

  15. The decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk superconducting actuator by AC controlled magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Uwani, Y.; Joo, J. H.; Kawamoto, R.; Jo, Y. S.

    2011-11-01

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet, having stable levitation and suspension properties according to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulks to develop a non-contract transportation device which moves freely in space. It is certain for our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in a clean room where silicon wafers, which do not like mechanical contact and dust, are manufactured. The proposed actuator consists of the trapped HTS bulk as a mover and two-dimensionally arranged electromagnets as a stator. Up to now, the electromagnets consisted with iron core and copper coil were used as a stator, and each electromagnet was individually controlled using DC power supplies. In our previous work, the unstable movement characteristics of HTS bulk were observed under the DC operation, and the AC electromagnets driven with AC controlled current was proposed to solve these problems. In general, the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk was decayed by a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, it needs to optimize the shapes of AC electromagnets and operating patterns, the decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in the HTS bulk mover by the AC magnetic field should be cleared. In this paper, the influences of the frequency, the overall operating time, the strength of magnetization field and drive current against the decay of trapped magnetic field were experimentally studied using the fabricated AC electromagnets.

  16. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  17. Uniform Magnetic Field Between Face-to-Face HTS Bulk Magnets Combining Concave and Convex Magnetic Field Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Yaginuma, S.; Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Sato, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakamura, T.

    The authors have been attempting to obtain the uniform magnetic field distribution in the space between the face-to-face HTS bulk magnets. The magnetic poles containing the HTS bulk magnets are usually characterized as non-uniform magnetic field distribution. Since the distributions show the conical or convex shapes, it is difficult to obtain the uniform magnetic field spaces even when the magnetic poles would be placed face-to-face. The authors have modified the shape of the distribution of one-side magnetic pole by attaching an iron plate on the surface, and formed the concave magnetic field distribution on the pole surface. The steep concave or convex distributions at each pole surface change to be flat with increasing distance from the pole surface. After the experimental result recording the best uniformity of 358 ppm by combining the concave and convex field distributions face-to-face, we attempted to simulate the feasible performance in this configuration. In the numerical simulation, the concave field distribution modified by attaching an imaginary spiral coil on the pole surface was coupled with the original convex field. We succeeded in obtaining the best uniformity of 30 ppm at 1.1 T in 4 x 4 mm2x-y plane at 7 mm distant from the pole surface in the gap of 30 mm. This result suggests that the concave and convex magnetic field distributions compensate the field uniformity with each other with keeping the magnetic field strength in the gap, and also suggests the novel compact NMR/MRI devices in the future.

  18. Study on the Rotation Properties and the Design Issue of Non-Contact Rotating System Using HTS Bulks and Permanent Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, R.; Kim, S. B.; Ozaki, Y.; Ueda, H.

    2017-07-01

    In previous study, non-contact rotating system consisting of the ring-shaped high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks, ring-shaped permanent magnets (PMs) and stator coil was proposed. In this system, HTS bulks were magnetized by PMs and PMs were levitated with strong restoring force. In our previous study, we have constructed the rotating system with the ring-shaped HTS bulks with ID 20 mm, OD 60 mm, and 15-mm thickness. However, since these bulks costs too much, we switched to use HTS bulks with ID 20 mm, OD 60 mm, and 5-mm-thickness to miniaturize the system. However, this system have potential to fail the radial stability of rotating shaft. Therefore, we focused on the rotating and the radial restoring force in terms of the stability of the rotating shaft in the rotating system with 5-mm thickness HTS bulks.

  19. Design and simulation of HTS bulk linear synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2002-10-01

    A new type high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk linear synchronous motor (LSM) theory is proposed by authors which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as a synchronizing one in using current-carrying-armature-winding instead of permanent magnets. Electromagnetic force which HTS bulk produces depends on strongly the space distribution of an applied magnetic field under field cooling. LSM thrust force distribution on HTS bulk which is essentially different from that on a permanent magnet. It is generally difficult to design HTS bulk LSM. This paper presents a design of HTS bulk LSM by the finite element method (FEM) and its dynamics simulation of propulsion motion. Dynamics simulation is carried out using an instantaneous-maximum-thrust-force control method proposed here which is based on an analytical formula of LSM thrust force derived from the FEM capable of modeling HTS bulk.

  20. HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Flögel-Delor, Uta; Rothfeld, Rolf; Wippich, Dieter; Riedel, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    Radial HTS magnetic bearings (SMB) up to 200 mm size are developed and tested in prototype fast rotating machines to demonstrate the potential to replace conventional bearings. The individual rotational bearing components HTS and PM, their physical interaction and technology is reviewed. Characterisation experiments are conducted to understand the rotor dynamic behaviour. In terms of unbalance and critical speeds the suspended wheels and rotors compare favourably with conventional bearing devices. The rationale of our present bearing technology lies in the assembling of both low-speed magnetic bearings for centrifugal and wafer processing units up to 20,000 rpm as well as a high-speed optical mirror accelerated to rim speed of more than 500 m/s (174,000 rpm) confirming stable low-drag and low energy operation. Two new-type U shaped semicircle HTS bearings coupled each with a 6 W/80 K cryocooler of the Stirling type allow the contact-free operation of a Si wafer carrier in semiconductor wet processes.

  1. High output power electric motors with bulk HTS elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Kovalev, K. L.; Penkin, V. T.; Poltavets, V. N.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Akimov, I. I.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2003-04-01

    New types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk HTS (YBCO and Bi-Ag) elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed synchronous HTS machines are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. The test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, “trapped field” and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with output power rating 0.1-18 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit of HTS motors is 4-7 times better than for conventional electric machines. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. The test results for liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with hysteresis 500 W HTS motor are discussed. The designs and first test results of HTS motor operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with output power 100 kW and power factor more than 0.8 are given. Future development and applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  2. The attenuation of the levitation force of HTS bulk exposed to AC magnetic field on the above NdFeB guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minxian; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the air gaps between the adjacent permanent magnets make the magnetic fields above the NdFeB guideway non-uniform. So it is required to study the characteristics of levitation force of the HTS bulk affected by the non-uniform applied magnetic fields along the moving direction. In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of the levitation force relaxation by an experiment in which AC magnetic field generated by an electromagnet is used to simulate the time-varying magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the NdFeB guideway. From the experiment results, it is found that the levitation force is attenuated with the application of the AC field, and the attenuation is increased with the amplitude of the AC field, but the attenuation is almost independent of the frequency the AC magnetic field.

  3. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  4. Analysis and experimental validation of an HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with HTS magnetic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianxun; Zheng, Luhai; Guo, Youguang; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Jianguo

    2011-09-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear propulsion system composed of a single-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in its middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been developed. The HTSLSM uses an HTS bulk magnet array on the moving secondary, and the field-trapped characteristics of the HTS bulk using different magnetized methods have been measured and compared to identify their magnetization capability. In order to generate a large levitation force for the system, three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) have been numerically analyzed and experimentally verified to obtain an optimal PMG. Based on comprehensive experimental prototype tests, the results show that the HTS linear propulsion system can run with stable magnetic suspension having a constant air-gap length, and the thrust characteristics versus the exciting current, working frequency and the air-gap length have also been obtained. This work forms the basis for developing a practical HTS linear propulsion system by using HTS bulks both for propulsion and suspension.

  5. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L.

    1996-09-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

  6. Study of superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy storage system that consist of HTS-bulks and superconducting-coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken; Tanaka, Yoshichika; Nakauchi, Masahiko

    2010-06-01

    The Railway Technical Research Institute conducted a study to develop a superconducting magnetic bearing applicable to the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application, and adopted liquid-nitrogen-cooled HTS-bulk as a rotor, and adopted superconducting coil as a stator for the superconducting magnetic bearing. Load capacity of superconducting magnetic bearing was verified up to 10 kN in the static load test. After that, rotation test of that approximately 5 kN thrust load added was performed with maximum rotation of 3000rpm. In the results of bearing rotation test, it was confirmed that position in levitation is able to maintain with stability during the rotation. Heat transfer properties by radiation in vacuum and conductivity by tenuous gas were basically studied by experiment by the reason of confirmation of rotor cooling method. The experimental result demonstrates that the optimal gas pressure is able to obtain without generating windage drag. In the second stage of the development, thrust load capacity of the bearing will be improved aiming at the achievement of the energy capacity of a practical scale. In the static load test of the new superconducting magnetic bearing, stable 20kN-levitation force was obtained.

  7. Propulsion and guidance simulation of HTS bulk linear synchronous motor taking into account /E-J characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2003-10-01

    We have proposed a new linear synchronous motor (LSM) theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing one in using current-carrying-armature-winding instead of permanent magnets. We have carried out basic experiments on two-dimensional electromagnetic forces produced in HTS bulk within DC-magnetic-field. As a result, we found that HTS bulk magnet in a cooling case can be levitated and guided stably according to the flux conditions between bulk and DC magnet. HTS bulk LSM can produce propulsion, levitation and guidance forces from zero speed, and be used in many applications. This paper proposes HTS bulk LSM analyzed and designed taking into account E- J characteristic. The LSM can produce stable guidance force without control. The LSM propulsion and guidance motion can be simulated numerically only by a simple propulsion control, which is not only closed-loop control but also open-loop control.

  8. Development of HTS Magnet for Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaki, Kenji; Koyanagi, Kei; Takayama, S. Shigeki; Ishii, Yusuke; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; iwata, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Koji

    The effectiveness of heavy-ion radiotherapy for cancer treatment has been recognized by medical experts and the public. However, due to the large size of the equipment, this therapy has not been widely adopted. In particular, the rotating gantries used to irradiate patients with the heavy-ion beams from any direction may be as heavy as 600 tons in our estimation. By employing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in these rotating gantries and increasing the magnetic field generated by the deflecting coils, the total weight of the rotating gantry can be reduced to around the weight of those used for proton radiotherapy. A project for developing an HTS deflecting magnet for heavy-ion radiotherapy has been underway since 2013, supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED). The aim of this project is to develop fundamental technologies for designing and fabricating HTS deflecting magnets, such as irregular magnetic field estimating techniques, design technology for HTS magnets, high-precision HTS coil winding technology, AC loss estimating techniques, and thermal runaway estimating techniques and to fabricate a small model of an HTS deflecting magnet and evaluate its performance. In this paper, the project's progress will be described.

  9. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  10. Centrifuge advances using HTS magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Flögel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Riedel, T.

    2001-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings are of increasing technical interest. We performed experiments with centrifugal rotors to analyze gyroscopic forces in terms imbalance, rotor elasticity and damping. Centrifuge rotors need to be operated soft and stable without whirling the sediments. In order to evaluate optimal parameters critical and resonance behaviors are investigated. Eccentricities up 2 mm are safely passed by accelerating test wheels. In a simple model we describe the effect of passing critical rotational speeds. Measurements of bearing properties and wheel performance are presented. We have constructed a first prototype centrifuge designed with a HTS double bearing which operates a titanium rotor safely up to 30 000 rpm. A 15 W Stirling cooler serves cryogenics of the YBCO stators. From the experiments design guidelines for centrifugal applications with HTS bearings are given.

  11. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction.

  12. Optimal design of thrust force in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Eguchi, M.

    2005-10-01

    We proposed the vertical-type linear reluctance motor (LRM) with HTS bulks cooled in zero-field. The double-sided HTS bulk LRM is propelled contactlessly only by electromagnetic repulsive force from both sides of a double-sided armature guideway. This paper presents optimal thrust force design based on the dependence of thrust on the size of HTS bulk attached to the cage in vertical-type HTS bulk LRM. The thrust force is calculated by Finite Element Method (FEM), taking into account the E-J characteristic. Improved HTS bulk LRM which is 1.5 times heavier than the previous cage can be propelled contactlessly in propulsion and guidance simulation.

  13. HTS electrical machines with YBCO bulk and Ag-BSCCO plate-shape HTS elements: recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

    2001-05-01

    Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the multi-domain and single-domain YBCO ceramic samples. The test results of the series of these HTS motors with output power 1-20 kW and current frequency 50 and 400 Hz are given. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is four to five times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  14. Applied Hts Bulks and Wires to Rotating Machines for Marine Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Kimura, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Taguchi, R.; Shiliang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.

    2010-04-01

    High-temperature superconductors allow a compact and efficient way to provide high-torque density to rotating machines with excellent operation. A field pole, providing flux density of more than 1.5 T around the armature, was initially designed for an axial-gap type with the flux parallel to the rotor axis. Melt-growth Gd-123 bulks as well as Bi-2223 wire windings have been successfully assembled on the rotor disk. No iron core was used, though being an auxiliary flux control found in most HTS motors. Both bulk and wire types have realized a practical motor operation within a limited output range. For bulks, a 15 kW, 720 rpm, synchronous motor was designed and tested in the group of TUMSAT, Kitano Seiki and University of Fukui. A bulk field pole was cooled down by liquid nitrogen and was magnetized in the motor. To enhance the output power to more than 30 kW, we developed a thermosyphon system using condensed neon. Another field pole with HTS wire for large-scale marine propulsion is also discussed on a 100 kW, 230 rpm tested machine. A closed-cycle condensed neon associated with thermal insulation is also reported.

  15. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; M-A Koneev, S.; Poltavets, V. N.; Larionoff, A. E.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-05-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos ϕ≥0.7 to 0.8).

  16. Study of bulk current leads for an axial type of HTS propulsion motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Sugyo, D.; Sano, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Taguchi, R.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.

    2010-06-01

    The high-temperature superconductor (HTS) bulk current lead (BCL) is a significant device for a large number of current applications into the propulsion motors with HTS windings. The coexistence of low thermal conductivity and superconductivity enables us to shrink the dimension of the power transmission system. For the effective usage of the BCL, one has to optimize the dimension and the temperature gradient across the BCL length. We have made the BCL with a melt growth bulk crystal of GdBa2Cu2O7-z by ourselves, serving for the introduction of the excitation current to the coreless Bi2223 superconductor winding field-pole magnets applied to the axial-gap type motor. We successfully installed the BCL and obtained a thermal gradient of 40 K across the BCL with 75 mm length under the current flow of 200 A, necessary to operate the superconductor windings at 30 K below Tc. The use of the BCL enabled us to suppress the thermal transfer into the coil vital part down to 6 W from the external power source. The present result shows that BCLs effectively operate while being connected to superconductor coils in propulsion motors.

  17. Nonlinear Behavior of a Shim Coil in an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet With an HTS Insert Comprising Double-Pancake HTS-Tape Coils

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bascuñán, Juan; Yao, Weijun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports results, experimental and analytical, of the nonlinear behavior of a shim coil in the presence of an HTS coil assembled with double-pancake (DP) HTS-tape coils. The experimental results are from: 1) operation of a 700 MHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (LH700) consisting of a 600 MHz LTS NMR magnet (L600) equipped with superconducting shim coils and a 100 MHz DP-assembled HTS insert (H100) and; 2) an experiment with a room-temperature (RT) Z1 shim coil coupled to a 50 MHz DP-as-sembled HTS insert (H50). A field mapping theory with a harmonic analysis is applied to interpret both results. Based on experimental results and analyses, we conclude that the screening-current-induced field (SCF) generated by a DP-assembled HTS insert is primarily responsible for the nonlinear behavior, including strength degradation, of a shim coil. PMID:20383282

  18. Characteristics on electodynamic suspension simulator with HTS levitation magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Bae, D. K.; Sim, K.; Chung, Y. D.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2009-10-01

    High- Tc superconducting (HTSC) electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system basically consists of the HTSC levitation magnet and the ground conductor. The levitation force of EDS system is forms by the interaction between the moving magnetic field produced by the onboard levitation magnet and the induced magnetic field produced by eddy current in the ground conductor. This paper deals with the characteristics of the EDS simulators with high- Tc superconducting (HTS) levitation magnet. Two EDS simulator systems, rotating type EDS simulator and static type EDS simulator, were studied in this paper. The rotating type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet and a 1.5 m diameter rotating ground conductor, a motor, the supporting structure and force measuring devices. In the static type EDS simulator, instead of moving magnetic field, AC current was applied to the fixed HTS levitation magnet to induce the eddy current. The static type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet, a ground conductor, force measuring devices and supporting structure. The double-pancake type HTSC levitation magnet was designed, manufactured and tested in the EDS simulator.

  19. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  20. H-formulation for simulating levitation forces acting on HTS bulks and stacks of 2G coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, F.; Sotelo, G. G.; Junior, R. de Andrade; Sirois, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques to model high temperature superconductors (HTSs) are used throughout the world. At the same time, the use of superconductors in transportation and magnetic bearings promises an increase in energy efficiency. However, the most widespread simulation technique in the literature, the H-formulation, has not yet been used to simulate superconducting levitation. The goal of this work is to present solutions for the challenges concerning the use of the H-formulation to predict the behavior of superconducting levitators built either with YBCO bulks or stacks of 2G wires. It is worth mentioning the originality of replacing bulks with HTS stacks in this application. In our simulation methodology, the movement between the HTS and the permanent magnet was avoided by restricting the simulation domain to the HTS itself, which can be done by applying appropriate boundary conditions and analytical expressions for the source field. Commercial finite element software was used for the sake of ease of implementation. Simulation results were compared with experimental data, showing good agreement. We conclude that the H-formulation is suitable for problems involving moving objects and is a good alternative to other approaches for simulating superconducting magnetic bearings.

  1. Electrical machines with bulk HTS elements.. The achieved results and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Koneev, S. M.-A.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.

    2001-09-01

    Novel types of electric HTS motors with the rotor containing bulk YBCO and Bi-Ag elements are presented. Different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance “trapped field” and composed HTS motors are discussed. Two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in these types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in multi-domain and single-domain HTS ceramic samples. The test results of these HTS motors with output power 1-37 kW and current frequencies 50 and 400 Hz are given. The results show that in liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one weight unit is 4-5 times better then for conventional electric machines. The design of a new high power HTS motor operating in the liquid nitrogen with output power 200 kW (and more) is discussed. Future applications of new types of HTS motors for airspace and on-land industry and transport systems are discussed.

  2. Development of Magnet Technologies for HTS Insert Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Rainer; Uglietti, Davide; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Marinucci, Claudio; Stepanov, Boris; Glowa, Natalia

    An existing Nb3Sn laboratory magnet generating a magnetic field of 12 T is intended to be upgraded to 16 T by means of the use of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert coil. An outline design of the HTS insert coil is presented. In the design, the aspects of the maximum achievable operation current, the required copper cross-section to ensure a hot spot temperature below 200 K and the resulting forces and stresses have been considered. The length of the insert coil has been selected in such a way that the field uniformity will be better than 1% within a sphere of 3 cm diameter. The protection of the whole magnet system (LTS & HTS insert) is briefly described.

  3. Development of portable superconducting bulk magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saho, N.; Nishijima, N.; Tanaka, H.; Sasaki, A.

    2009-10-01

    Recently a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) has been developing to navigate magnetic seeded drugs around diseased parts of the human body. To improve the magnetic drug delivery performance, a portable high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet system with high magnetic fields has been developed. This magnet system mainly consists of small bulk high temperature superconductors and a compact cryocooler. The materials of the high temperature superconductor are rare earth 123 single domain compounds (Gd-Ba-Cu-O). The bulk magnet was activated successfully using field-cooling magnetization under the superconducting solenoid magnet. The magnetic flux densities at the surface of the vacuum chambers that contain bulk magnets reached 5.07 T and 6.76 T using the static magnetic fields of 6 T and 10 T superconducting solenoid magnets, respectively. A cryocooler cooled them to 38.1 K and 39.1 K. It was clarified that the magnetic gradient was approximately 10 T/m at a position located 50 mm from the surface of the vacuum chambers.

  4. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  5. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    DOEpatents

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  6. Design and optimization of a HTS insert for solenoid magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Giordano; de Marzi, Gianluca; Muzzi, Luigi; Celentano, Giuseppe; della Corte, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    With the availability of High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) prototype cables, based on high-performance REBCO Coated Conductor (CC) tapes, new designs can now be made for large bore high-field inserts in superconducting solenoids, thus extending the magnet operating point to higher magnetic fields. In this work, as an alternative approach to the standard trial-and-error design process, an optimization procedure for a HTS grading section design is proposed, including parametric electro-magnetic and structural analyses, using the ANSYS software coupled with a numerically-efficient optimization algorithm. This HTS grading section is designed to be inserted into a 12 T large bore Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) solenoid (diameter about 1 m) to increase the field up to a maximum value of at least 17 T. The optimization variables taken into consideration are the number of turns and layers and the circle-in-square jacket inner diameter in order to minimize the total needed conductor length to achieve a peak field of at least 17 T, while guaranteeing the structural integrity and manufacturing constraints. By means of the optimization, an optimal 360 m total conductor length was found, achieving 17.2 T with an operating current of 22.4 kA and a coil comprised of 18 × 12 turns, shortened of about 20% with respect to the best initial candidate architectural design. The optimal HTS insert has a bore compatible with manufacturing constraints (inner bore radius larger than 30 cm). A scaled HTS insert for validation purposes, with a reduced conductor length, to be tested in an advanced experimental facility currently under construction, is also mentioned.

  7. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  8. TEST RESULTS OF HTS COILS AND AN R AND D MAGNET FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA, R.; ANERELLA, M.; HARRISON, M.; SCHMALZLE, J.; SAMPSON, W.; ZELLER, A.

    2005-05-16

    This paper presents the successful construction and test results of a magnetic mirror model for the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) that is based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition, the performance of thirteen coils (each made with {approx}220 meters of commercially available HTS tape) is also presented. The proposed HTS magnet is a crucial part of the R&D for the Fragment Separator region where the magnets are subjected to several orders of magnitude more radiation and energy deposition than typical beam line and accelerator magnets receive during their entire lifetime. A preliminary design of an HTS dipole magnet for the Fragment Separator region is also presented.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of a Screening Current Induced Magnetic Field in a Double-Pancake HTS Insert of an LTS/HTS NMR Magnet

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Min Cheol; Yagai, Tsuyoshi; Hahn, Seungyong; Ando, Ryuya; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and simulation results of a screening current induced magnetic field (SCF) in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert that constitutes a low-/high-temperature superconductor (LTS/HTS) NMR magnet. In this experiment, the HTS insert, a stack of 50 double-pancake coils, each wound with Bi2223 tape, was operated at 77 K. A screening current was induced in the HTS insert by three magnetic field sources: 1) a self field from the HTS insert; 2) an external field from a 5-T background magnet; and 3) combinations of 1) and 2). For each field excitation, which induced an SCF, its axial field distribution and temporal variations were measured and compared with simulation results based on the critical state model. Agreement on field profile between experiment and simulation is satisfactory but more work is needed to make the simulation useful for designing shim coils that will cancel the SCF. PMID:20401187

  10. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seung-Yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet.

  11. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

  12. Design and Performance Analysis of an Iron Core-based No-Insulation HTS Magnet for HTS DC Induction Heating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongho; Kim, Kwangmin; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Seokho; Sim, Kideok; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    An energy efficiency of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC induction heating machine is improved up to 80∼90%. The core technology in the machine is to ensure its thermal stability during operation. In this paper, we presented design details and performance analysis results of no insulation HTS magnet with an iron core for an HTS DC induction heating machine. The HTS magnet was simulated by a finite element method and an equivalent circuit analysis. In order to confirm physical performances, the magnet was fabricated and experimented with an iron core as well as without an iron core. The simulated and experimented results were analyzed in detail.

  13. Development of a synchronous motor with Gd Ba Cu O bulk superconductors as pole-field magnets for propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Tokura, S.; Hayakawa, H.; Inami, H.; Kitano, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kimura, Y.; Ohtani, I.; Morita, E.; Ogata, H.; Izumi, M.; Sugimoto, H.; Ida, T.

    2006-07-01

    Rotating machines with high-temperature superconductors (HTS) usually consist of pole-field magnets having coils wound with Bi-2223 HTS wire. We have successfully used Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk HTS in pole-field magnets in an axial-gap type rotating machine. These HTS pole-field bulk magnets were assembled in the rotor plate. They are cooled down with a liquid cryogen supplied via a rotary joint and circulated inside the rotor plate. The present design provides a small air gap and a bulk HTS gives a high magnetic field around the armature coils. Successful mechanical design has enabled us to magnetize the pole-field bulk to more than 1 T by using a pulsed current applied to the copper armature coils. These techniques imply the possibility of smaller and lighter rotating motors or generators with a HTS bulk magnet for a sub-megawatt class propulsion system. We report several essential techniques for both mechanical and cryogenic designs, and deduce the characteristic features of the present axial-gap type machine using a HTS bulk magnet.

  14. HTS Magnets for Advanced Magnetoplasma Space Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carte, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R. Squire, J.P.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1999-07-12

    Plasma rockets are being considered for both Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions because their extremely high exhaust velocity and ability to modulate thrust allow very efficient use of propellant mass. In such rockets, a hydrogen or helium plasma is RF-heated and confined by axial magnetic fields produced by coils around the plasma chamber. HTS coils cooled by the propellant are desirable to increase the energy efficiency of the system. We describe a set of prototype high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils that are being considered for the VASIMR ( Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) thruster proposed for testing on the Radiation Technology Demonstration (RTD) satellite. Since this satellite will be launched by the Space Shuttle, for safety reasons liquid helium will be used as propellant and coolant. The coils must be designed to operate in the space environment at field levels of 1 T. This generates a unique set of requirements. Details of the overall winding geometry and current density, as well as the challenging thermal control aspects associated with a compact, minimum weight design will be discussed.

  15. Fundamental study on the magnetic field control method using multiple HTS coils for Magnetic Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, R.; Kim, S. B.; Nakagawa, T.; Tomisaka, Y.; Ueda, H.

    2017-07-01

    The magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a key technology to reduce the side effects in the medical applications, and the magnetic force control is very important issue in MDDS. In this application, the strength of magnetic field and gradient required to MDDS devices are 54 mT and 5.5 T/m, respectively. We proposed the new magnetic force control system that consists of the multiple racetrack HTS magnets. We can control the magnetic field gradient along the longitudinal direction by the arrangement of the multiple racetrack HTS magnets and operating current of each magnet. When the racetrack HTS magnets were used, the critical current was reduced by the self-magnetic field. Therefore, the shape design of HTS magnet to reduce the magnet field into the surface of HTS tapes was required. Therefore, the electromagnetic analysis based on finite element method (FEM) was carried out to design and optimize the shape of multiple racetrack HTS magnet. We were able to suppress the reduction of critical current by placing the magnetic substance at upper and lower side of the HTS magnets. It was confirmed that obtained maximum values of magnetic field strength and field gradient were 33 mT and 0.18 T/m, respectively.

  16. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  17. Pulsed field magnetization strategies and the field poles composition in a bulk-type superconducting motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Ruiz, H. S.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks offer the potential of trapping and maintaining much higher magnetic loading level compared with the conventional permanent magnets used in rotary machines, although the effective magnetization of multiple HTS bulks with different relative orientations over the surface of cylindrical rotors creates new challenges. In this paper, we present the design and numerical validation of the Pulse Field Magnetization (PFM) strategy considered for the magnetization of the four-pole synchronous fully superconducting motor developed at the University of Cambridge. In a first instance, singular columns of up to five HTS bulks aligned over the height of the rotor were subjected to up to three magnetic pulses of 1.5 T peak, and the experimental results have been simulated by considering the electrical and thermal properties of the system in a 2D approach. The entire active surface of the rotor is covered by HTS bulks of approximately the same dimensions, resulting in an uneven distribution of pole areas with at least one of the poles formed by up to 3 columns of magnetized bulks, with relatively the same peaks of trapped magnetic field. Thus, in order to effectively use the entire area of the superconducting rotor, multiple pulsed fields per column have been applied under the same experimental conditions, what results in about three times larger magnetic pole areas but with an average drop on the peaks of trapped magnetic field of about 50%.

  18. Performance Test of a Metal Insulated HTS Magnet with Conduction Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Hwang, C. S.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2017-07-01

    In the fabrication and operation of an HTS magnet, ensuring thermal stability against uneven quench is the most important factor. A sample HTS magnet was designed and fabricated with the metal insulation (MI) method and its fundamental characteristic analysis was conducted under the liquid nitrogen cooling system. On the basis of the electromagnetic analysis results, the thermal and mechanical structural design and detailed experimental analysis of the MI HTS magnet under the conduction cooling condition were performed in this paper. The conduction cooling condition was achieved using the 1st stage GM cryo-cooler. The characteristic resistances and the charging and discharging times of the magnet were measured according to the operating temperature of 32 K of the HTS magnet. The long-term current flowing test was conducted by monitoring the coil temperatures. In addition, the thermal stability of the HTS magnet was analyzed when the over current flowed into the magnet. The test results will be applied to the large size HTS MI magnet.

  19. Development of high sensitive magnetic contaminant detection system using an HTS-rf-SQUID covered with HTS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Kurosawa, R.; Uchida, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-03-01

    For high sensitive detection of magnetic contaminant in electrode of lithium-ion battery, high-temperature superconductor (HTS) radio-frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on a bicrystal SrTiO3 (STO) substrate was designed, and fabricated employing YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films of about 200 nm in thickness. To improve characteristics such as effective area and 1/f noise profile of the SQUID, HTS thin films on normal STO substrates were overlapped on a wide superconducting weak link and/or a slit of the SQUID in flip-chip configuration. The noise profiles of the SQUID covered with the films on the respective positions were well improved compared to that of the bare SQUID. A magnetic contaminant detection system was developed employing the HTS-rf-SQUID covered with the films on both the positions. Using this system, a tungsten ball of 30 μm in diameter was successfully detected with a signal to noise ratio of about 14.

  20. Materials preparation and magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Difan; Miki, Motohiro; Zhang, Yufeng; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    The paper reports on recent achievements in the preparation and magnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The melt-growth of HTS bulks has technically stabilized due to the use of buffer materials with a seed crystal and modified infiltration to supply a rich liquid phase during growth. This modified growth technology was adapted as our standard processing method. This paper describes some new aspects of both field cooling and pulsed field magnetization processes. Pulsed field magnetization uses waveform control that feeds back the transient flux around the top-center of the bulks and traps a field of 1.63 T, which is more than 90% of the field cooling value. This was achieved by applying a single step pulsed field at a liquid nitrogen temperature. For practical applications, the magnetization under a static magnetic field that is tilted from the crystallographic c-axis was investigated at liquid nitrogen temperature. The trapped flux component perpendicular to the bulk surface remains strong up to θ = 30° inclination, compared to the procedure along the axis. Information about HTS bulks is considered to be important for machine applications using bulk HTS as cryo-permanent magnets.

  1. Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.

    The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTS's to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTS's cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTS's are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTS's includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

  2. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet-superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed.

  3. Influence of critical current density on magnetic force of HTSC bulk above PMR with 3D-modeling numerical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Qin, Yujie

    2015-09-01

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk levitating over a permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of the H-method coupling with the classical description of the heat conduction equation. The numerical resolving codes are practiced with the help of the finite element program generation system (FEPG) platform using finite element method (FEM). The E-J power law is used to describe the electric current nonlinear characteristics of HTS bulk. The simulation results show that the heat conduction and the critical current density are tightly relative to the thermal effects of the HTS bulk over the PMG. The heat intensity which responds to the heat loss of the HTS bulk is mainly distributed at the two bottom-corners of the bulk sample.

  4. Fabrication and test of an axial-field HTS rotating machine with integrated magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolisy, B.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.

    2017-03-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) electrical machines have high torque density with a very high efficiency. Torque tubes are usually used to transmit the torque from the cold to the warm environment which results in thermal losses and mechanical problems. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to transmit the torque of the HTS machine through an integrated HTS magnetic coupling. A prototype has been constructed and tested showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The machine and the coupling share the same HTS rotor while the torque produced by the machine is transmitted to the load via a permanent magnets rotor. This solution allows the reduction of the thermal losses and a natural protection against overload during fault. The electromagnetic design is carried out using 3D finite elements (FE). The HTS material electrical behavior is described using a power law so it was possible to determine the operating current of the HTS coils of the device. Many test results such as U(I) curves of the HTS coils, static torque, back-EMF and on-load characteristics are presented and checked by the FE computations.

  5. Design considerations and experimental results for MRI systems using HTS magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems using high temperature superconductors (HTS) magnets have been designed and constructed, with detailed results of their performance now available. Features of REBCO and BSCCO conductors are described as they pertain to use in high homogeneity magnets, with emphasis placed on the practical use of these conductors in magnets. Methods of coil winding are discussed, in particular the differences between pancake and layer winding techniques. Design considerations for HTS magnets are presented in light of the difficulties presented by quench in these magnets, but also in terms of the features of HTS magnets afforded by their high operating temperatures, namely robust cryogen free operation and the potential to use unshielded gradient coils. Drawing on two example MRI systems, namely a 3 T BSCCO brain imaging magnet developed in Japan and a 1.5 T REBCO orthopaedic imaging system developed in New Zealand, the report details real-world stability and homogeneity of HTS-MRI systems, in particular with regards to the screening current effects observed in these systems. It is concluded that, apart from conductor cost, there are currently no technical obstacles to use of HTS-MRI systems.

  6. The Effect of Magnetic Field on HTS Leads What Happens when thePower Fails at RAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-02-14

    The key to being able to operate the MICE superconducting solenoids on small coolers is the use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads between the first stage of the cooler and the magnet, which operates at around 4.2 K. Because MICE magnets are not shielded, all of the MICE magnets have a stray magnetic field in the region where the coolers and the HTS leads are located. The behavior of the HTS leads in a magnetic field depends strongly on the HTS material used for the leads and the temperature of the cooler first stage temperature. The HTS leads can be specified to operate at the maximum current for the magnet. This report shows how the HTS leads can be specified for use the MICE magnets. MICE magnets take from 1.3 hours (the tracker solenoids) to 3.7 hours (the coupling magnet) to charge to the highest projected operating currents. If the power fails, the cooler and the upper ends of the HTS leads warm up. The question is how one can discharge the magnet to protect the HTS leads without quenching the MICE magnets. This report describes a method that one can use to protect the HTS leads in the event of a power failure at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).

  7. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of high-Tc superconducting bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jipeng; Li, Haitao; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Huang, Huan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear vibration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array (Halbach array) field, as a precondition for commercial application to HTS maglev train and HTS bearing, is systematically investigated. This article reports the actual vibration rules of HTS bulks from three aspects. First, we propose a new numerical model to simplify the calculation of levitation force. This model could provide precise simulations, especially the estimation of eigenfrequency. Second, an approximate analytic solution of the vibration of the HTS bulks is obtained by using the method of harmonic balance. Finally, to verify the results mentioned above, we measure the vertical vibration acceleration signals of an HTS maglev model, consisting of eight YBaCuO bulks, oscillating freely above a Halbach array with large displacement excitation. Higher order harmonic components, which indicate the nonlinear vibration phenomenon, are detected in the responses. All the three results are compared and agreed well with each other. This study combines the experimental and theoretical analyses and provides a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon of the nonlinear vibration and is meaningful for the vibration control of the relevant applications.

  8. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2 K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3 T at 20 K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  9. Development of superconducting magnetic bearing using superconducting coil and bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, H.; Nagashima, K.; Arai, Y.

    2008-02-01

    The authors conducted a study on superconducting magnetic bearing, which consists of superconducting rotor and stator to apply the flywheel energy-storage system for railways. In this study, high temperature bulk superconductor (HTS bulk) was combined with superconducting coils to increase the load capacity of the bearing. In the first step of the study, the thrust rolling bearing was selected for application by using liquid nitrogen cooled HTS bulk. 60mm-diameter HTS bulks and superconducting coil which generated a high gradient of magnetic field by cusp field were adopted as a rotor and a stator for superconducting magnetic bearing, respectively. The results of the static load test and the rotation test, creep of the electromagnetic forces caused by static flux penetration and AC loss due to eccentric rotation were decreased to the level without any problems in substantial use by using two HTS bulks. In the result of verification of static load capacity, levitation force (thrust load) of 8900N or more was supportable, and stable static load capacity was obtainable when weight of 460kg was levitated.

  10. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

    2014-09-01

    The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

  11. Design, fabrication and testing of a dipole magnet made with 2G HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, I. V.; Kozub, S. S.; Sytnik, V. V.; Terskiy, I. S.; Tkachenko, L. M.; Trusov, O. V.; Shirshov, L. S.; Smirnov, V. M.; Shuvalov, V. I.; Shcherbakov, P. A.; Molodyk, A. A.; Lee, S. R.; Samoilenkov, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    An HTS dipole magnet with a 1 T (at 77 K) central magnetic field in a 40 × 80 mm2 aperture has been designed, fabricated and tested. The magnet coils were wound with SuperOx 2G HTS wire. The paper describes the magnet design, properties of the magnet materials, and results of calculations and measurements. The central field in the dipole reached 1.12 T at 77 K and 1.66 T at 65 K. In a liquid helium bath the maximum input current of 847 A was limited by the capacity of the power supply, and in that case the central field was 3.03 T. The measurement data were in good agreement with the calculation results.

  12. Magnetic Signals of High-Temperature Superconductor Bulk During the Levitation Force Measurement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Zheng, Botian; Jin, Liwei; Deng, Zigang

    2017-05-01

    In order to study the commonly neglected magnetic field information in the course of levitation force measurement process in a superconducting maglev system, a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire magnetic signals of a bulk high-Tc superconductor on both the top and the bottom surface. Working conditions including field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling were investigated for these vertical down and up motions above a permanent magnet guideway performed on a HTS maglev measurement system. We have discussed the magnetic flux variation process based on the Bean model. A magnetic hysteresis effect similar to the levitation force hysteresis loop of the bulk superconductor was displayed and analyzed in this paper. What is more valuable, there exists some available magnetic flux on the top surface of the bulk superconductor, and the proportion is as high as 62.42% in the FC condition, which provides an experimental hint to design the superconductor bulk and the applied field for practical use in a more efficient way. In particular, this work reveals real-time magnetic flux variation of the bulk superconductor in the levitation application, which is the other important information in contrast to the macroscopic levitation and guidance force investigations in previous studies, and it enriches the existing research methods. The results are significant for understanding the magnetic characteristic of superconductors, and they can contribute to optimize the present HTS maglev system design.

  13. Magnetic Signals of High-Temperature Superconductor Bulk During the Levitation Force Measurement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Zheng, Jun; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Zheng, Botian; Jin, Liwei; Deng, Zigang

    2017-02-01

    In order to study the commonly neglected magnetic field information in the course of levitation force measurement process in a superconducting maglev system, a multipoint magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire magnetic signals of a bulk high-Tc superconductor on both the top and the bottom surface. Working conditions including field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling were investigated for these vertical down and up motions above a permanent magnet guideway performed on a HTS maglev measurement system. We have discussed the magnetic flux variation process based on the Bean model. A magnetic hysteresis effect similar to the levitation force hysteresis loop of the bulk superconductor was displayed and analyzed in this paper. What is more valuable, there exists some available magnetic flux on the top surface of the bulk superconductor, and the proportion is as high as 62.42% in the FC condition, which provides an experimental hint to design the superconductor bulk and the applied field for practical use in a more efficient way. In particular, this work reveals real-time magnetic flux variation of the bulk superconductor in the levitation application, which is the other important information in contrast to the macroscopic levitation and guidance force investigations in previous studies, and it enriches the existing research methods. The results are significant for understanding the magnetic characteristic of superconductors, and they can contribute to optimize the present HTS maglev system design.

  14. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    The original goal of this Phase II Superconductivity Partnership Initiative project was to build and operate a prototype Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system using high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils wound from continuously processed dip-coated BSCCO 2212 tape conductor. Using dip-coated tape, the plan was for MRI magnet coils to be wound to fit an established commercial open geometry, 0.2 Tesla permanent magnet system. New electronics and imaging software for a prototype higher field superconducting system would have added significantly to the cost. However, the use of the 0.2 T platform would allow the technical feasibility and the cost issues for HTS systems to be fully established. Also it would establish the energy efficiency and savings of HTS open MRI compared with resistive and permanent magnet systems. The commercial goal was an open geometry HTS MRI running at 0.5 T and 20 K. This low field open magnet was using resistive normal metal conductor and its heat loss was rather high around 15 kolwatts. It was expected that an HTS magnet would dissipate around 1 watt, significantly reduce power consumption. The SPI team assembled to achieve this goal was led by Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology (OST), who developed the method of producing commercial dip coated tape. Superconductive Components Inc. (SCI), a leading US supplier of HTS powders, supported the conductor optimization through powder optimization, scaling, and cost reduction. Oxford Magnet Technology (OMT), a joint venture between Oxford Instruments and Siemens and the world’s leading supplier of MRI magnet systems, was involved to design and build the HTS MRI magnet and cryogenics. Siemens Magnetic Resonance Division, a leading developer and supplier of complete MRI imaging systems, was expected to integrate the final system and perform imaging trials. The original MRI demonstration project was ended in July 2004 by mutual consent of Oxford Instruments and Siemens. Between

  15. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  16. AC loss evaluation of an HTS insert for high field magnet cooled by cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Kazuhiro; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2016-12-01

    AC losses in a high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert coil for 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet during its initial energization are numerically calculated under the assumption of slab approximation. The HTS insert consisting of 68 single pancakes wound using coated conductors generates a central magnetic field of 11.5 T in addition to the contribution of 14.0 T from a set of low temperature superconducting (LTS) outsert coils. Both the HTS insert and the LTS coils are cooled using cryocoolers, and energized simultaneously up to the central field of 25.5 T with a constant ramp rate for 60 min. The influences of the magnitudes and orientations of locally applied magnetic fields, magnetic interactions between turns and transport currents flowing in the windings are taken into account in the calculations of AC losses. The locally applied fields are separated into axial and radial components, and the individual contributions of these field components to the AC losses are simply summed up to obtain the total losses. The AC losses due to the axial fields become major in the beginning of energization, whereas the total losses monotonically increase with time after the AC losses due to the radial fields become major.

  17. Design and Manufacture of 20 kA HTS Current Leads for a Hybrid Magnet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; March, S.; Vogel, M.; Ehmler, H.; Smeibidl, P.

    A new series connected 25 T hybrid magnet system is being developed by the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB) for neutron scattering experiments. In collaboration with CRPP, high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads have been developed for the powering of the outer superconducting coil. These HTS current leads, with a nominal current rating of 20 kA, have been designed and are being manufactured by CRPP, based on the design of the 18 kA EDIPO leads. Each of the two current leads consists of an HTS module cooled only by heat conduction from the cold end and a copper part actively cooled by helium gas of 44 K inlet temperature. To reach a temperature of 53.7 K at the warm end of the HTS a helium mass flow rate of 1.37 g/s per lead is required at a current of 20 kA. The estimated heat leak at the 4.5 K level caused only by heat conduction is as low as 1.4 W. The evolution of the temperatures in the case of a loss of flow has been calculated. In addition to the design, the main fabrication steps are described.

  18. Transport Jc Measurements of HTS Conductors under High Magnetic Field at LNCMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaud, Xavier; Debray, François; Mossang, Eric; Tixador, Pascal; Rey, Jean-Michel; Lecrevisse, Thibault; Bruzek, Christian-Eric

    The LNCMI, the national French high magnetic field facility, provides high fields generated mainly by resistive magnets. Because of the forecast increasing price of electricity, LNCMI has a strong incentive to participate to the development and characterizations of HTS conductors in view of their use for the generation of strong field. Latest YBCO coated conductors have improved properties showing a great potential with that respect, without excluding Bi2212 and MgB2 for particular cases. We present the existing set-up to measure short straight or VAMAS type coil samples at variable temperature and high field up to 30 T, and some measurements obtained on different HTS conductors, Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductors. We also report on the first results obtained at 18 T with a pancake coil made of commercial YBCO coated conductor tapes on a newly developed solenoid test bench.

  19. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  20. Improvement of sensitivity of multisample biological immunoassay system using HTS SQUID and magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Saitoh, K.; Sugita, N.; Kuma, H.; Sugiura, Y.; Hamaoka, S.; Hamasaki, N.; Enpuku, K.

    2006-10-01

    Recently, we have developed a prototype magnetic immunoassay system using a high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to investigate the performance and usability of the magnetic immunoassay. In this study, we improved the immunoassay system to heighten the sensitivity of the immunoassay measurement. To reduce the SQUID-to-sample distance, we introduced a structure to compensate for thermal shrinkage in the cryostat and reduce the warpage of the window. The shape of pickup coil was also optimized to improve the field sensitivity. After these improvements, the magnetic signal intensity from Fe3O4 nanoparticles became about two times stronger than that achieved by our original system.

  1. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-08-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  2. An active homopolar magnetic bearing with high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils and ferromagnetic cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Dirusso, E.; Provenza, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-feasibility demonstration showed that high temperature superconductor (HTS) coils can be used in a high-load, active magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. A homopolar radial bearing with commercially wound HTS (Bi 2223) bias and control coils produced over 200 lb (890 N) radial load capacity (measured non-rotating) and supported a shaft to 14000 rpm. The goal was to show that HTS coils can operate stably with ferromagnetic cores in a feedback controlled system at a current density similar to that in Cu in liquid nitrogen. Design compromises permitted use of circular coils with rectangular cross section. Conductor improvements will eventually permit coil shape optimization, higher current density and higher bearing load capacity. The bias coil, wound with non-twisted, multifilament HTS conductor, required negligible power to carry its direct current. The control coils were wound with monofilament HTS sheathed in Ag. These dissipated negligible power for direct current (i.e. for steady radial load components). When an alternating current (AC) was added, the AC component dissipated power which increased rapidly with frequency and quadratically with AC amplitude. In fact at frequencies above about 2 hz, the effective resistance of the control coil conductor actually exceeds that of the silver which is in electrical parallel with the oxide superconductor. This is at least qualitatively understandable in the context of a Bean-type model of flux and current penetration into a Type II superconductor. Fortunately the dynamic currents required for bearing stability are of small amplitude. These results show that while twisted multifilament conductor is not needed for stable levitation, twisted multifilaments will be required to reduce control power for sizable dynamic loads, such as those due to unbalance.

  3. Recent developments in processing HTS silver-clad Bi-2223 tapes, coils and test magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Balachandran, U.; Iwasa, Y.; Yunus, M.

    1993-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made in fabricating Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires and tapes with high critical current densities that are attractive for electric power and high-field magnet applications. Powder-in-tube processed silver-clad Bi-2223 short tape samples, small coils and test magnets have been fabricated and measured at liquid nitrogen (77K), pumped liquid nitrogen (64 K), liquid neon (27K) and liquid helium (4.2K) temperatures. Optimization of thermo-mechanical process parameters have yielded J{sub c}`s in the superconducting core > 4.0 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K zero field and > 2.0 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2K, zero field. Long lengths (up to 70 m) of mono-core conductors were fabricated and tested to carry significant amounts of current (23 A, {approximately}15,000 A/cm{sup 2}) at liquid nitrogen temperature. Recent test magnets assembled from pancake wound coils were measured to generate magnetic fields as high as 2.6, 1.8 and 0.36 Tesla at 4.2K, 27K and 77K respectively. These results show promise towards practical utilization of HTS materials.

  4. Study on the Persistent Current Switch in HTS Coils Wound with 2G Wire for Compact NMR Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugo, K.; Kim, S. B.; Nomura, R.; Ueda, H.

    2017-07-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets wound with REBCO wires are used in many applications, and the superconducting magnet which is operated in persistent current mode has many advantages. Therefore, we have been developing compact NMR relaxometry devices using HTS coils operated at liquid nitrogen temperature. The required strength and homogeneity of magnetic field of proposed NMR relaxometry devices are 1.5 T and 150 ppm/cm3 respectively. The proposed HTS magnet for NMR relaxometry device consists with stacked HTS double pancake coils wound with REBCO wires and operated by persistent current mode (PCM) using superconducting joint between REBCO wires. In PCM operation, the ability of persistent current switch (PCS) is very important, so, in this study, the thermal properties of YBCO wire against the various thermal inputs by heater were investigated experimentally to design the PCS for PCM HTS magnets. The thermal behaviors of the YBCO wires were measured as functions of amount of heat input using two types of epoxy resin. The current bypassing properties on the YBCO loop coil with developed PCS were studied experimentally.

  5. Development of a Flat-plate Cryogenic Oscillating Heat Pipe for Improving HTS Magnet Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Mito, T.; Yanagi, N.; Tamura, H.

    A new method of including cryogenic oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in the HTS coil windings as a thermal transport device has been studied. In this work, two type of OHPs are tested in low temperature. Employed working fluids are H2, Ne, N2. We have attained high performance thermal property using a bent-pipe cryogenic OHP as a prototype. Obtained effective conductivities have reached to 46000 W/m K. Then a flat-plate cryogenic OHP has been developed, that is suitable for imbedding in magnet windings. Preliminary experiments have been conducted and the result has been promising.

  6. R&D Progress of HTS Magnet Project for Ultrahigh-field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, Taizo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    An R&D project on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets using rare-earth Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO) wires was started in 2013. The project objective is to investigate the feasibility of adapting REBCO magnets to ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. REBCO wires are promising components for UHF-MRI magnets because of their superior superconducting and mechanical properties, which make them smaller and lighter than conventional ones. Moreover, REBCO magnets can be cooled by the conduction-cooling method, making liquid helium unnecessary. In the past two years, some test coils and model magnets have been fabricated and tested. This year is the final year of the project. The goals of the project are: (1) to generate a 9.4 T magnetic field with a small test coil, (2) to generate a homogeneous magnetic field in a 200 mm diameter spherical volume with a 1.5 T model magnet, and (3) to perform imaging with the 1.5 T model magnet. In this paper, the progress of this R&D is described. The knowledge gained through these R&D results will be reflected in the design of 9.4 T MRI magnets for brain and whole body imaging.

  7. Project Overview of HTS Magnet for Ultra-high-field MRI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, Taizo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    A project to develop an ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system based on HTS magnets using (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO; RE=rear earth) coils is underway. The project is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and aims to establish magnet technologies for a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system. REBCO wires have high critical current density in high magnetic fields and high strength against hoop stresses, and therefore, MRI magnets using REBCO coils are expected to have cryogenic systems that are smaller, lighter, and simpler than the conventional ones. A major problem in using REBCO coils for MRI magnets is the huge irregular magnetic field generated by the screening current in REBCO tapes. Thus, the main purpose of this project is to make the influence of this screening current predictable and controllable. Fundamental technologies, including treatment of the screening currents, were studied via experiments and numerical simulations using small coils. Two types of model magnets are planned to be manufactured, and the knowledge gained in the development of the model magnets will be reflected in the magnet design of a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system.

  8. Radial magnetic field reduction to improve critical current of HTS solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Joonsun; Lee, Joon-Ho; Nah, Wansoo; Kim, Dong-Hun; Park, Il-Han; Joo, Jinho

    2002-08-01

    To enhance the critical current of superconducting coil, the magnetic field experienced by superconductor strand (tape) in a coil should be minimized. This is true for both low Tc and high Tc superconductors, and the difference between the two lies in their isotropic/anisotropic characteristics. In this paper, we propose a shape optimization algorithm to reduce radial magnetic field components in HTS solenoid to enhance critical current of a solenoid. In the algorithm, the finite element method and the continuum shape design sensitivity formula were employed. The objective function is to minimize the maximum radial magnetic fields in a solenoid with a constraint of constant solenoid volume condition. In this paper, the details on algorithm are introduced and the calculated optimized shapes are presented.

  9. Comprehensive comparison of the levitation performance of bulk YBaCuO arrays above two different types of magnetic guideways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zigang; Qian, Nan; Che, Tong; Jin, Liwei; Si, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an important part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev systems. So far, two types of PMG, the normal PMG and Halbach-type PMG, are widely applied in present maglev transportation systems. In this paper, the levitation performance of high temperature superconductor bulks above the two PMGs was synthetically compared. Both static levitation performance and dynamic response characteristics were investigated. Benefiting from the reasonable magnetic field distribution, the Halbach-type PMG is able to gain larger levitation force, greater levitation force decay during the same relaxation time, bigger resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness for the bulk superconductor levitation unit compared with the normal PMG. Another finding is that the Halbach-type PMG is not sensitive to the levitation performance of the bulk levitation unit with different arrays. These results are helpful for the practical application of HTS maglev systems.

  10. 250 kW flywheel with HTS magnetic bearing for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Riedel, T.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Reiner, G.; Wehlau, N.

    2008-02-01

    A 250 kW / 5 kWh engineering prototype Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) was designed, fabricated and component tested by Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ) and L-3 Communications Magnet - Motor GmbH (MM). A heavy - load vertical 0.6 ton rotor is suspended totally magnetically by an HTS radial-passive bearing on the top together with a PM bearing at the bottom. Further features are the flywheel rotor body which is manufactured from carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) in a multi-rim version and combined with an integrated high-power motor/generator. A 35 W/77 K single- stage Gifford McMahon cryo-cooler is cooling the HTS bearing to a temperature of 45 - 60 K. Functionality and efficiency of the magnetic bearing configurations, rotor control concepts and motor / generator power electric system is considered and established. Bearing stiffness parameters, damping performance, and rotational friction are measured. Testing of further components under vacuum conditions confirmed that low bearing drag and wear- free operation can be attained. The motor-generator operates with a power in excess of 250 kW and an efficiency of > 92%, including the losses of the inverters. A redundant mechanical touchdown bearing system can be activated to restore the rotor position. The separately tested flywheel components are now in the assembling status expecting first machine tests in November 2007. After studying and measuring all FESS parameters in -house the dynamical storage device will be tested in a German E.ON power station under industrial conditions.

  11. Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jason Rolando

    Important magnetic properties and behaviors such as coercivity, remanence, susceptibility, energy product, and exchange coupling can be tailored by controlling the grain size, composition, and density of bulk magnetic materials. At nanometric length scales the grain size plays an increasingly important role since magnetic domain behavior and grain boundary concentration determine bulk magnetic behavior. This has spurred a significant amount of work devoted to developing magnetic materials with nanometric features (thickness, grain/crystallite size, inclusions or shells) in 0D (powder), 1D (wires), and 2D (thin films) materials. Large 3D nanocrystalline materials are more suitable for many applications such as permanent magnets, magneto-optical Faraday isolators etc. Yet there are relatively few successful demonstrations of 3D magnetic materials with nanoscale influenced properties available in the literature. Making dense 3D bulk materials with magnetic nanocrystalline microstructures is a challenge because many traditional densification techniques (HIP, pressureless sintering, etc.) move the microstructure out of the "nano" regime during densification. This dissertation shows that the Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) method, also known as spark plasma sintering, can be used to create dense, bulk, magnetic, nanocrystalline solids with varied compositions suited to fit many applications. The results of my research will first show important implications for the use of CAPAD for the production of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets. Decreases in grain size were shown to have a significant role in increasing the magnitude of exchange bias. Second, preferentially ordered bulk magnetic materials were produced with highly anisotropic material properties. The ordered microstructure resulted in changing magnetic property magnitudes (ex. change in coercivity by almost 10x) depending on the relative orientation (0° vs. 90°) of an externally

  12. Current Bypassing Properties by Thermal Switch for PCS Application on NMR/MRI HTS Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Takahashi, M.; Saito, R.; Park, Y. J.; Lee, M. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Ann, H. S.

    We develop the compact NMR/MRI device using high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with the persistent current mode operating. So, the joint techniques between 2G wires are very important issue and many studies have been carried out. Recently, the Kbigdot JOINS, Inc. has developed successfully the high performance superconducting joints between 2G wires by partial melting diffusion and oxygenation annealing process [1]. In this study, the current bypassing properties in a loop-shaped 2G wire are measured experimentally to develop the permanent current switch (PSC). The current bypassing properties of loop-shaped test coil wound with 2G wire (GdBCO) are evaluated by measured the self-magnetic field due to bypassed current by Hall sensors. The strain gauge was used as heater for persistent current switch, and thermal properties against various thermal inputs were investigated experimentally.

  13. Fundamental performance of novel power supply for HTS magnet using solar energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Do; Kim, Dae Wook; Jo, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2011-06-01

    A technical fusion is an important option to establish renewal development in the mutual fields. We have proposed a novel superconducting power supply that is combined with superconducting power supply and solar energy system. An eternal electric energy can be converted by solar energy system, which contains solar panel, photovoltaic (PV) controller and energy-storing battery, can be utilized in the utility power of superconducting power applications. The novel power supply could operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy. We can improve the operating efficiency and install it in remote locations where utility power is not available. In this paper, as a first step of this work, we showed the possibility of technical fusion between a superconducting power supply and a solar energy system.

  14. Influence of current ramp rate on voltage current measurement of a conduction-cooled HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, I.; Korpela, A.; Lehtonen, J.; Mikkonen, R.

    2008-06-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) have notably different voltage current characteristic compared to the low-temperature superconductors (LTS). Due to the anisotropy and slanted electric field - current density characteristics the loss of stability in a Bi-2223/Ag magnet is viewed as a global temperature increase inside the coil rather than a local normal zone. Therefore, the quench current depends strongly on the cooling conditions. In this paper a finite element method based analysis method is presented and example runs are carried out in order to explain in detail the influence of the current ramp rate and cooling on the voltage current characteristics of a conduction-cooled Bi-2223/Ag coil at 20 and 45 K. The results show that in certain operation conditions the coil critical current has a maximum value with respect to the ramp rate used in the measurements.

  15. Magnetic flux invasion in REBCO bulk magnets with varying pre-magnetized flux distributions in multiple-PFM processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Hara, K.; Takeda, A.; Ogawa, J.; Fukui, S.; Sato, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Murakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    The motion of magnetic flux invading into the HTS bulk magnets were experimentally studied in their pulsed field magnetization processes. The authors paid attention to the effects of the shapes of the pre-magnetized trapped flux distributions before the successive field applications by means of varying the M-shaped distribution. We estimated the differences of the magnetic flux motions between the Dy123 and Gd123 systems, which might have different J c properties of each sample. As for the Dy123 system, the increase of remaining flux in the periphery region of the M-shaped distribution resulted in the decrease of flux-trapping according to the promotion of flux invasion. On the other hand, trapped flux density has been raised to 3.4 T owing to the effective suppression of flux invasion for the Gd123 bulk magnet. The experiments showed that the peak heights and the positions of the formerly trapped M-shaped fluxes precisely affect the heat generation and the trapped field performance.

  16. Magnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor-soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, M. P.; Fagnard, J.-F.; Kirsch, S.; Xu, Z.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderheyden, B.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2014-07-01

    Large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the superconductor alone below this saturation level, and especially when the applied field is removed. The results of the study show further that the beneficial effects on the trapped field are enhanced when the ferromagnet covers the entire surface of the superconductor for different ferromagnetic components of various shapes and fixed volume.

  17. High-throughput screening by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HTS by NMR) for the identification of PPIs antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bainan; Barile, Elisa; De, Surya K.; Wei, Jun; Purves, Angela; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the ever so complex field of drug discovery has embraced novel design strategies based on biophysical fragment screening (fragment-based drug design; FBDD) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and/or structure-guided approaches, most often using X-ray crystallography and computer modeling. Experience from recent years unveiled that these methods are more effective and less prone to artifacts compared to biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) of large collection of compounds in designing protein inhibitors. Hence these strategies are increasingly becoming the most utilized in the modern pharmaceutical industry. Nonetheless, there is still an impending need to develop innovative and effective strategies to tackle other more challenging targets such as those involving protein-protein interactions (PPIs). While HTS strategies notoriously fail to identify viable hits against such targets, few successful examples of PPIs antagonists derived by FBDD strategies exist. Recently, we reported on a new strategy that combines some of the basic principles of fragment-based screening with combinatorial chemistry and NMR-based screening. The approach, termed HTS by NMR, combines the advantages of combinatorial chemistry and NMR-based screening to rapidly and unambiguously identify bona fide inhibitors of PPIs. This review will reiterate the critical aspects of the approach with examples of possible applications. PMID:25986689

  18. The Effect of Magnetic Field on the Position of HTS Leads and theCooler in the Services Tower of the MICE Focusing Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Yang, S.Q.; Cobb, J.; Lau, P.; Lau, W.W.; Witte,H.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE focusing solenoids have three 4 K coolers (two forthe superconducting magnet and one for the liquid absorber) and four HTSleads that feed the current to the focusing coils. The focusing solenoidsproduce large radial external fields when they operate with the polarityof the two coils in opposition (the gradient or flip mode). When the MICEfocusing coils operate at the same polarity (the solenoid or non-flipmode), the fields are much smaller and parallel to the axis of thesolenoid. The worst-case magnetic field affects the selection of thecooler and the HTS leads. This magnetic field can also determine theheight of the service towers that house the three coolers and the fourHTS leads. This paper shows the criteria used for Cooler selection, HTSlead selection, and the position of both the cooler and leads withrespect to the solenoid axis of rotation.

  19. Current distribution evaluation of dye-sensitized solar cell using HTS-SQUID-based magnetic measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kenji; Tanaka, Kohei; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukada, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    The current flowing inside a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was measured using a high-temperature superconductor superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID)-based magnetic measurement system. Further, a new evaluation method of the DSSC, which is difficult to measure using the conventional method, was investigated to improve the characteristics of the DSSC. The tangential components of the magnetic field generated from the DSSC were measured using two HTS-SQUIDs, and the intensity and direction related to the electrical current were obtained by the measured magnetic field. The DSSCs prepared with different dyes and catalytic substances showed different current-intensity mapping. The current direction was different for the DSSC with low performance. In addition, the current flowing in the ITO layer of the ITO glass substrate was also measured and the results confirmed that it had uniform distribution. These results show that the current mapping and the direction of the electrical current depend on the internal factors of the DSSC, and the detection of the magnetic field distribution generated from it is expected to lead to its new evaluation method.

  20. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  1. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  2. Dependences of microwave surface resistance of HTS thin films on applied dc magnetic fields parallel and normal to the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Ichikawa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Honma, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Oikawa, S.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the dc magnetic field and temperature dependences of microwave surface resistance (Rs) of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) films. Previously, we reported that the surface resistance RsRs(n) under a dc magnetic field applied normaly to the substrate increased when increasing the applied magnetic field. For NMR application, we have to examine the Rs(p) under the dc magnetic field parallel to the substrate. We measured the Rs(p) of the YBCO and DyBCO thin films with a thickness of 500 nm deposited on a MgO (100) substrate using the dielectric resonator method at 21.8 GHz, and a dc magnetic field of up to 5 T. In a zero magnetic field, the values of Rs(n) and Rs(p) were 0.35 mQ at 20 K. Under the dc magnetic field, the Rs(n) and the Rs(p) also increased with increasing magnetic field, however, the Rs(p) had a lower magnetic field dependence and the value was about 1/10 of that of the Rs(n). The Rs(p) at 16.4 T and at 700 MHz could be estimated by the two-fluid model. The Rs(p) value was about 1/2600 compared with that of copper at 20 K. As a result, we clarified that 500 nm thick YBCO and DyBCO thin films could provide advantages for NMR application.

  3. Significant flux trapping in single grain GdBCO bulk superconductor under off-axis field cooled magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Ida, Tetsuya; Miki, Motohiro; Teshima, Hidekazu; Morita, Mitsuru; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2017-03-01

    A single grain bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) exhibits intensified flux trapping performance upon field cooled magnetization. The world record of trapped flux is 17.6 T achieved by using stacked two-fold GdBCO bulks. However, the majority of magnetization studies focused on the magnetization along the crystallographic c-axis. In the present study, we clarify the flux trapping performance under field cooled magnetization using an off-axis magnetic field with respect to the c-axis. The results show that the trapped flux is almost polarized along the applied field as expected. This tendency remains up to a high off-axis angle θ around 60°. It is worth mentioning that, with θ of 30°, the maximum trapped flux component B // max parallel to the c-axis significantly remains more than 96% of 1.6 T which occurs under on-axis magnetization. Meanwhile, the angular dependence of the c-axis parallel component exhibits that observed flux density is higher than that expected from 1.6 cosθ. In addition, to visualize the flux line upon magnetization at θ of 90°, we successfully demonstrate the continuous flux line trace using steel wires; different trapped flux behaviour appears when applied field penetrates the bulk through the growth sectors centre and along the growth sector boundary, respectively. We interpret these results may come from the microstructure as a result of melt growth. It is highly emphasized that the off-axis magnetization with the finite inclination angle is quite useful for introducing into the design of HTS applications.

  4. Performance and applications of quench melt-growth bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariki, S.; Teshima, H.; Morita, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the progress in quench melt-growth (QMG) bulk magnets, developed by the Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, which consist of single crystalline RE123 phase and finely dispersed RE211 particles. QMG bulks can trap high magnetic fields. The field-trapping ability of QMG bulks is largely increased with an improvement in its J c and size, promising the realization of various applications such as flywheel energy-storage systems, ship motors, NMR/MRI spectrometers, wind-power generators and so on. Intensive research has revealed that the optimal RE element is different depending on application requirements. Gd-QMG bulk is the most promising material for several high-field engineering applications. The trapped magnetic field of Gd-QMG bulk 60 mm in diameter at 77 K is twice as large as that of Y-QMG bulk with a similar size due to its excellent J c properties. The large Gd-based QMG bulks up to 150 mm in diameter are fabricated by incorporating the RE compositional gradient method. Compact NMR/MRI spectrometers are one of the promising applications of bulk superconductors. Eu-QMG bulks are suitable for NMR magnets. NMR applications require extremely homogeneous magnetic fields. In the Eu-system, the small paramagnetic moment of a Eu ion compared to a Gd ion improves the field homogeneity in the bulk. For the application of current leads, Dy-based QMG is available by utilizing a low thermal conductivity.

  5. Magnetic lenses using different MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Choi, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Teranishi, R.; Giunchi, G.; Figini Albisetti, A.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2012-02-01

    A magnetic lens allows the concentration of magnetic fields using the diamagnetism of superconductors. The important features of the magnetic lens are a tapered inner diameter from which the magnetic flux is extruded and a slit to suppress the circumference current that shields the magnetic flux. This concept was experimentally confirmed through the use of GdBaCuO bulks and a stack of NbTi/Nb/Cu sheets. We refer to this arrangement as a magnetic lens. The Mg-reactive liquid infiltration (Mg-RLI) process developed by Edison SpA is suitable for the production of large and high-density MgB2 bulks. Three MgB2 bulk magnetic lenses, each with a different microstructure, were fabricated following the Mg-RLI process. The properties of the MgB2 magnetic lenses were measured in a cryocooler system as well as in liquid helium. The results confirmed that the MgB2 bulk magnetic lenses could concentrate a magnetic field and that their field concentration properties were greatly affected by the temperature and the external field. In addition, the microstructure of the MgB2 bulk also had an influence on the magnetic properties at different external fields. The results indicated that the MgB2 lens might be utilized as a field amplifier in intermediate fields.

  6. A gapless hard wall: magnetic catalysis in bulk and boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Laia, João N.; Tong, David; Wong, Kenny

    2012-07-01

    We study various aspects of fermions and their chiral condensates, both in the bulk of AdS4 spacetime and in the dual boundary theory. For the most part, we focus on a geometry with an infra-red hard wall. We show that, contrary to common lore, there exist boundary conditions in which the hard wall gives rise to a discrete, but gapless, fermionic spectrum. In such a setting, the presence of a magnetic field induces a bulk fermion condensate which spontaneously breaks CP invariance. We develop the holographic dictionary between composite operators and show that this bulk condensate has the interpretation of boundary magnetic catalysis involving a double-trace operator. Finally, we explain how one can replace the hard wall with bulk magnetic monopoles. In such a framework, magnetic catalysis can be viewed as a consequence of the Callan-Rubakov effect.

  7. Modelling and comparison of trapped fields in (RE)BCO bulk superconductors for activation using pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Ujiie, T.; Zou, J.; Dennis, A. R.; Shi, Y.-H.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate a permanent, stable magnetic field unsupported by an electromotive force is fundamental to a variety of engineering applications. Bulk high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials can trap magnetic fields of magnitude over ten times higher than the maximum field produced by conventional magnets, which is limited practically to rather less than 2 T. In this paper, two large c-axis oriented, single-grain YBCO and GdBCO bulk superconductors are magnetized by the pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique at temperatures of 40 and 65 K and the characteristics of the resulting trapped field profile are investigated with a view of magnetizing such samples as trapped field magnets (TFMs) in situ inside a trapped flux-type superconducting electric machine. A comparison is made between the temperatures at which the pulsed magnetic field is applied and the results have strong implications for the optimum operating temperature for TFMs in trapped flux-type superconducting electric machines. The effects of inhomogeneities, which occur during the growth process of single-grain bulk superconductors, on the trapped field and maximum temperature rise in the sample are modelled numerically using a 3D finite-element model based on the H-formulation and implemented in Comsol Multiphysics 4.3a. The results agree qualitatively with the observed experimental results, in that inhomogeneities act to distort the trapped field profile and reduce the magnitude of the trapped field due to localized heating within the sample and preferential movement and pinning of flux lines around the growth section regions (GSRs) and growth sector boundaries (GSBs), respectively. The modelling framework will allow further investigation of various inhomogeneities that arise during the processing of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors, including inhomogeneous Jc distributions and the presence of current-limiting grain boundaries and cracks, and it can be used to assist optimization of

  8. Development of a superconducting bulk magnet for NMR and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tamada, Daiki; Yanagi, Yousuke; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Takahiro; Utumi, Hiroaki; Kose, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    A superconducting bulk magnet composed of six vertically stacked annular single-domain c-axis-oriented Eu-Ba-Cu-O crystals was energized to 4.74 T using a conventional superconducting magnet for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Shim coils, gradient coils, and radio frequency coils for high resolution NMR and MRI were installed in the 23 mm-diameter room-temperature bore of the bulk magnet. A 6.9 ppm peak-to-peak homogeneous region suitable for MRI was achieved in the central cylindrical region (6.2 mm diameter, 9.1 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a single layer shim coil. A 21 Hz spectral resolution that can be used for high resolution NMR spectroscopy was obtained in the central cylindrical region (1.3 mm diameter, 4 mm length) of the bulk magnet by using a multichannel shim coil. A clear 3D MR image dataset of a chemically fixed mouse fetus with (50 μm)3 voxel resolution was obtained in 5.5 h. We therefore concluded that the cryogen-free superconducting bulk magnet developed in this study is useful for high-resolution desktop NMR, MRI and mobile NMR device.

  9. Observation of self-magnetic field relaxations in Bi2223 and Y123 HTS tapes after over-current pulse and DC current operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallouli, M.; Sun, J.; Chikumoto, N.; Otabe, E. S.; Shyshkin, O.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The development of power transmission lines based on long-length HTS tapes requires the production of high quality tapes. Due to fault conditions, technical mistakes and human errors during the operation of a DC power transmission line, an over-current pulse, several times larger than the rated current, could occur. To study the effect of such over-current pulses on the transport current density distribution in the HTS tapes, we simulated two start-up scenarios for one BSCCO and two YBCO tapes. The first start-up scenario is an initial over-current pulse during which the transport current was turned on rapidly, rising to 900 A during the first milliseconds, then reduced to a 100 A DC current. The second start-up scenario is normal operation, and involved increasing the transport current slowly from 0 A to 100 A at a rate of 1 A/s. For both scenarios, we then measured the vertical component of the self-magnetic field by means of a Hall probe above the tape, and afterward, by solving a linear equation of the inverse problem we obtain the current density profiles. We observe a change of the self-magnetic field above the edge of the BSCCO and YBCO tapes during 30 min after the 5 ms of over-current pulse and during the normal operation. The current density profiles are peaked in the centre for over-current pulse, and more peaked around the edge of the HTS tape for normal operation, which means that the limited time over-current pulse changes the current density profiles of the HTS tapes. We observe also a loop of current for YBCO tapes and we show the role of the HTS tape stabilizer.

  10. Intercalation-driven reversible control of magnetism in bulk ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subho; Das, Bijoy; Knapp, Michael; Brand, Richard A; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst

    2014-07-16

    An extension in magnetoelectric effects is proposed to include reversible chemistry-controlled magnetization variations. This ion-intercalation-driven magnetic control can be fully reversible and pertinent to bulk material volumes. The concept is demonstrated for ferromagnetic iron oxide where the intercalated lithium ions cause valence change and partial redistribution of Fe(3+) cations yielding a large and fully reversible change in magnetization at room temperature.

  11. A new ring-shape high-temperature superconducting trapped-field magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Li, Xiaojian; Patel, Jay; Yuan, Weijia

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new trapped-field magnet made of second-generation high-temperature superconducting (2G HTS) rings. This so-called ring-shape 2G HTS magnet has the potential to provide much stronger magnetic fields relative to existing permanent magnets. Compared to existing 2G HTS trapped- field magnets, e.g. 2G HTS bulks and stacks, this new ring-shape 2G HTS magnet is more flexible in size and can be made into magnets with large dimensions for industrial applications. Effective magnetization is the key to being able to use trapped-field magnets. Therefore, this paper focuses on the magnetization mechanism of this new magnet using both experimental and numerical methods. Unique features have been identified and quantified for this new type of HTS magnet in the field cooling and zero field cooling process. The magnetization mechanism can be understood by the interaction between shielding currents and the penetration of external magnetic fields. An accumulation in the trapped field was observed by using multiple pulse field cooling. Three types of demagnetization were studied to measure the trapped-field decay for practical applications. Our results show that this new ring-shape HTS magnet is very promising in the trapping of a high magnetic field. As a super-permanent magnet, it will have a significant impact on large-scale industrial applications, e.g. the development of HTS machines with a very high power density and HTS magnetic resonance imaging devices.

  12. AC losses in a HTS coil carrying DC current in AC external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, J.; Zushi, Y.; Fukushima, M.; Tsukamoto, O.; Suzuki, E.; Hirakawa, M.; Kikukawa, K.

    2003-10-01

    We electrically measured AC losses in a Bi2223/Ag-sheathed pancake coil excited by a DC current in AC external magnetic field. Losses in the coil contain two kinds of loss components that are the magnetization losses and dynamic resistance losses. In the measurement, current leads to supply a current to the coil were specially arranged to suppress electromagnetic coupling between the coil current and the AC external magnetic field. A double pick-up coils method was used to suppress a large inductive voltage component contained in voltage signal for measuring the magnetization losses. It was observed that the magnetization losses were dependent on the coil current and that a peak of a curve of the loss factor vs. amplitude of the AC external magnetic field shifted to lower amplitude of the AC magnetic field as the coil current increased. This result suggests the full penetration magnetic field of the coil tape decreases as the coil current increases. The dynamic resistance losses were measured by measuring a DC voltage appearing between the coil terminals. It was observed that the DC voltage appearing in the coil subject to the AC external magnetic field was much larger than that in the coil subject to DC magnetic field.

  13. Evaluation of Magnetic Cutting and Polishing with Superconducting Bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Otabe, E. S.; Suzuki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Kiuchi, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, magnetic levitation tool with superconducting bulks is introduced as a new hollow machining technology. Magnetic levitation tool is the machine that magnet levitates above superconducting bulks and driving force of rotating magnet shaves the object. This tool is expected to use for a grinding machine and machining device because of hollow machining and micromachining by strong fixing. For using magnetic levitation tool, the attractive force, the repulsive force and rotating torque are important for grinding machine, machining outer surface and both, respectively. These forces are calculated by FEM, and compared with experimental results. The experimental results are agreed well with calculated results. However, the attractive force is one order smaller than that required in chemical mechanical polishing.

  14. Numerical modelling of iron-pnictide bulk superconductor magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, Mark D.; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    2017-10-01

    Iron-based superconductors exhibit a number of properties attractive for applications, including low anisotropy, high upper critical magnetic fields (H c2) in excess of 90 T and intrinsic critical current densities above 1 MA cm‑2 (0 T, 4.2 K). It was shown recently that bulk iron-pnictide superconducting magnets capable of trapping over 1 T (5 K) and 0.5 T (20 K) can be fabricated with fine-grain polycrystalline Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba122). These Ba122 magnets were processed by a scalable, versatile and low-cost method using common industrial ceramic processing techniques. In this paper, a standard numerical modelling technique, based on a 2D axisymmetric finite-element model implementing the H -formulation, is used to investigate the magnetisation properties of such iron-pnictide bulk superconductors. Using the measured J c(B, T) characteristics of a small specimen taken from a bulk Ba122 sample, experimentally measured trapped fields are reproduced well for a single bulk, as well as a stack of bulks. Additionally, the influence of the geometric dimensions (thickness and diameter) on the trapped field is analysed, with a view of fabricating larger samples to increase the magnetic field available from such trapped field magnets. It is shown that, with current state-of-the-art superconducting properties, surface trapped fields >2 T could readily be achieved at 5 K (and >1 T at 20 K) with a sample of diameter 50 mm. Finally, an aspect ratio of between 1 and 1.5 for R/H (radius/thickness) would be an appropriate compromise between the accessible, surface trapped field and volume of superconducting material for bulk Ba122 magnets.

  15. Fabrication of a high performance acoustic emission (AE) sensor to monitor and diagnose disturbances in HTS tapes and magnet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Hyung; Song, Jung-Bin; Jeong, Young Hun; Lee, Young-Jin; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Kim, Woo-Seok; Lee, Haigun

    2010-02-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) technique was introduced as a non-destructive method to monitor sudden deformation caused by local heat concentrations and micro-cracks within superconductors and superconducting magnets. However, the detection of AE signals in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) tape is not easy because of its low signal to noise ratio caused by the noise from boiling liquid cryogen or mechanical vibration from the cryo-cooler. Therefore, high performance piezoelectric ceramics are needed to improve the sensitivity of the AE sensor. The aim of this study was to improve the piezoelectric and dielectric properties to enhance the performance of an AE sensor. This study examined the effects of Nb2O5 addition (0.0 wt.% to 2.0 wt.%) on the properties of high performance piezoelectric ceramics, Pb(Zr0.54 Ti0.46)O3 + 0.2 wt.% Cr2O3, sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h. The performance was examined with respect to the acoustic emission response of AE sensors manufactured using the specimens with various Nb2O5 contents. Superior sensor performance was obtained for the AE sensors fabricated with the specimens containing 1.0 wt.% to 1.5 wt.% Nb2O5. The performance and characteristics of the AE sensors were in accordance with their piezoelectric and dielectric properties.

  16. Magnetic properties and microstructure of bulk Nd-Fe-B magnets solidified in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Hsieh, C. C.; Chang, W. C.; Chang, H. W.; Sun, A. C.

    2011-04-01

    The Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets with a slab shape of 0.9 × 4 × 15 mm3 were prepared by injection casting into a copper mold. The effects of applying a magnetic field during the casting process on the magnetic properties and microstructure of Nd9.5Fe71.5Ti2.5Zr0.5Cr1B14.5C0.5 alloy have been studied. The results show that the sample cast with magnetic field has a stronger (00L) texture of Nd2Fe14B phase with the c-axis perpendicular to the slab plane than the sample cast without magnetic field. The intensity of the texture weakens from surface to inner region of the bulk magnets. Applying a magnetic field during the casting process is helpful to refine the grain size effectively. As a result, the magnetic properties are improved from Br = 5.8 kG, iHc = 6.5 kOe, and (BH)max = 5.9 MGOe for thesample cast without magnetic field to Br = 6.1 kG, iHc = 10.3 kOe, and (BH)max = 7.3 MGOe for the sample cast with a 3.7 kOe magnetic field.

  17. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Bulk Nanocrystalline MnAl

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, A; Yaqub, R; Baker, I

    2014-01-22

    MnAl is a promising rare-earth free permanent magnet for technological use. We have examined the effects of consolidation by back-pressure, assisted equal channel angular extrusion processing on mechanically-milled, gas-atomized Mn-46% at. Al powder. X-ray diffraction showed both that the extruded rod consisted mostly of metastable tau phase, with some of the equilibrium gamma(2) and beta phases, and that it largely retained the as-milled nanostructure. Magnetic measurements show a coercivity of <= 4.4 kOe and a magnetization at 10 kOe of <= 40 emu/g. In addition, extrusions exhibit greater than 95% of the theoretical density. This study opens a new window in the area of bulk MnAl magnets with improved magnetic properties for technological use.

  18. Progress in HTS Trapped Field Magnets: J(sub c), Area, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jian-Xiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) - 10,000 A/sq cm for melt textured grains; J(sub c) - 40,000 A/sq cm for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) - 85,000 A/J(sub c) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment, activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, of area approx. 2 sq cm, carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  19. Progress in HTS trapped field magnets: J(sub c), area, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jianxiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) is approximately 10,000 A/cm(exp 2) for melt textured grains; J(sub c) is approximately 40,000 A/cm2 for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) is approximately 85,000 A/cm(exp 2) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, an area of approximately 2 cm(exp 2), carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  20. Progress in HTS Trapped Field Magnets: J(sub c), Area, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Ren, Yanru; Liu, Jian-Xiong; Sawh, Ravi; Parks, Drew; Foster, Charles; Obot, Victor; Arndt, G. Dickey; Crapo, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Progress in trapped field magnets is reported. Single YBCO grains with diameters of 2 cm are made in production quantities, while 3 cm, 4 1/2 cm and 6 cm diameters are being explored. For single grain tiles: J(sub c) - 10,000 A/sq cm for melt textured grains; J(sub c) - 40,000 A/sq cm for light ion irradiation; and J(sub c) - 85,000 A/J(sub c) for heavy ion irradiation. Using 2 cm diameter tiles bombarded by light ions, we have fabricated a mini-magnet which trapped 2.25 Tesla at 77K, and 5.3 Tesla at 65K. A previous generation of tiles, 1 cm x 1 cm, was used to trap 7.0 Tesla at 55K. Unirradiated 2.0 cm tiles were used to provide 8 magnets for an axial gap generator, in a collaborative experiment with Emerson Electric Co. This generator delivered 100 Watts to a resistive load, at 2265 rpm. In this experiment, activation of the TFMs was accomplished by a current pulse of 15 ms duration. Tiles have also been studied for application as a bumper-tether system for the soft docking of spacecraft. A method for optimizing tether forces, and mechanisms of energy dissipation are discussed. A bus bar was constructed by welding three crystals while melt-texturing, such that their a,b planes were parallel and interleaved. The bus bar, of area approx. 2 sq cm, carried a transport current of 1000 amps, the limit of the testing equipment available.

  1. Observation of Magnetic Signals from Earthquake Faulting Using High-resolution HTS-SQUID Magnetometer: Feasibility of Super-early Warning of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa, H.; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously. Our research group has also employed the magnetometers for seismomagnetic observations since March 2004. Our observation site happened to be situated at an epicentral distance of 26 km from the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake ofM7.2, NE Japan. In this earthquake, we have reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes (Okubo et al., 2011 EPSL). Magnetic fields began to change almost simultaneously with the onset of the earthquake rupture and grew before the first P wave arrival. Such magnetic signals are most probably generated by the changing stress field due to earthquake rupturing, i.e. the piezomagnetic effect. On the other hand, this observation result suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small. The observed change of geomagnetic field might be approximately less than several hundred pico-tesla. Therefore, to obtain more observation data of "co-faulting" magnetic field change, development of a higher-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. Then, our research group tried to develop the HTS-SQUID (high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device) magnetometer systems for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012 we have introduced long-term precise geomagnetic observations using the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.1 (mark I) at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. Additionally, since October 2014, we have also introduced the new HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). The sampling interval of the magnetometers is 0.02 sec (50Hz). The system clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. A high-resolution accelerometer is also installed at observation point. In this study, we show the observation results of geomagnetic field changes associated

  2. Test of an 8.66-T REBCO Insert Coil with Overbanding Radial Build for a 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet.

    PubMed

    Qu, Timing; Michael, Philip C; Bascuñán, Juan; Lécrevisse, Thibault; Guan, Mingzhi; Hahn, Seungyong; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2017-06-01

    A 1.3-GHz/54-mm LTS/HTS NMR magnet, assembled with a 3-coil (Coils 1-3) 800-MHz HTS insert in a 500-MHz LTS NMR magnet, is under construction. The innermost HTS insert Coil 1 has a stack of 26 no-insulation (NI) double pancake (DP) coils wound of 6-mm wide and 75-μm thick REBCO tapes. In order to keep the hoop strains on REBCO tape < 0.6% at an operating current Iop of 250 A and in a field of 30.5 T, we overbanded each pancake in Coil 1 with a 6-mm wide, 76-μm thick 304 stainless steel strip: 7-mm thick radial build for the central 18 pancakes, while 6-mm thick for the outer 2×17 pancakes. In this paper, Coil 1 was successfully tested at 77K and 4.2 K. In the 77-K test, the measured critical current was 35.7 A, determined by an E-field criterion of 0.1 μV/cm. The center field magnet constant decreased from 34.2 mT/A to 29.3 mT/A, when Iop increased from 5 A to 40 A. The field distribution at different Iop along the z-axis was measured. The residual field distributions discharged from 10 A and 20 A were recorded. In the 4.2-K test, Coil 1 successfully generated a central field of 8.78 T at 255 A. The magnet constant is 34.4 mT/A, which is same as our designed value. The field homogeneity at the coil center within a ±15-mm region is around 1700 ppm. This large error field must be reduced before field shimming is applied.

  3. Bulk-hardened magnets based on Y2Co17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2001-07-01

    Bulk magnetic hardening of cast Y2Co17-based alloys was systematically studied for different compositions and heat treatments. Additions of Cu and Zr, Hf, or Ti to the Y-Co were found to be essential for developing coercivity. The performance of Y-Co-Cu-Zr magnets can be significantly improved by partial Pr and Fe substitutions for Y and Co, respectively. Anisotropic (Y0.8Pr0.2)11.5Zr2.75Co56.75Fe14Cu15 powders with intrinsic coercivity of 7.8 kOe and energy product of 14.4 MG Oe were obtained after annealing at 900 °C for 15 min and cooling to 200 °C at the rate of 4 °C/min. We also explored the effects of some other rare earths (La, Nd, Gd) and transition metals (Mn, Ni) on the magnetic properties of the Y-Co-Cu-Zr magnets. The phases present and the microstructure were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, thermomagnetic analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The cellular/lamellar microstructure of the bulk-hardened alloys is similar to that of Sm-Co-Cu-Zr magnets. Among the most noticeable distinctions in the Y-Co-Cu-Zr alloys are a smaller average size of 2:17 cells and a variety of Zr-rich phases, like Zr2Co11 and Zr6Co23. Although the Y2Co17 phase is known to have an "easy-plane" anisotropy, the x-ray diffraction experiments with magnetically oriented powders suggest that in the bulk-hardened Y-Co-Cu-Zr and Y-Co-Cu-Fe-Zr magnets the 2:17 phase has uniaxial anisotropy.

  4. Improvement of persistent magnetic field trapping in bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, In-Gann; Weinstein, Roy

    1993-01-01

    For type-II superconductors, magnetic field can be trapped due to persistent internal supercurrent. Quasi-persistent magnetic fields near 2 T at 60 K (and 1.4 T at 77 K) have been measured in minimagnets made of proton-irradiated melt-textured Y-Ba-Cu-O (MT-Y123) samples. Using the trapping effect, high-field permanent magnets with dipole, quadrupole, or more complicated configurations can be made of existing MT-Y123 material, thus bypassing the need for high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wires. A phenomenological current model has been developed to account for the trapped field intensity and profile in HTS samples. This model is also a guide to select directions of materials development to further improve field trapping properties. General properties such as magnetic field intensities, spatial distributions, stabilities, and temperature dependence of trapped field are discussed.

  5. Improvement of persistent magnetic field trapping in bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, In-Gann; Weinstein, Roy

    1993-01-01

    For type-II superconductors, magnetic field can be trapped due to persistent internal supercurrent. Quasi-persistent magnetic fields near 2 T at 60 K (and 1.4 T at 77 K) have been measured in minimagnets made of proton-irradiated melt-textured Y-Ba-Cu-O (MT-Y123) samples. Using the trapping effect, high-field permanent magnets with dipole, quadrupole, or more complicated configurations can be made of existing MT-Y123 material, thus bypassing the need for high-temperature superconductor (HTS) wires. A phenomenological current model has been developed to account for the trapped field intensity and profile in HTS samples. This model is also a guide to select directions of materials development to further improve field trapping properties. General properties such as magnetic field intensities, spatial distributions, stabilities, and temperature dependence of trapped field are discussed.

  6. Measurements of AC Loss In Second-Generation HTS Tapes in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osofsky, M. S.; Soulen, R. J.; Gubser, D. U.; Datta, T.

    2008-03-01

    The successful application of superconductivity to motors and other power system components depends on the characterization and subsequent minimization of the ac loss in the superconductor used for fabrication of the component. The superconductive component, excited by an ac power source, may be exposed to large dc magnetic fields and/or ac fields. To further complicate the situation, the transport properties of the tapes are strongly dependent on the angle between the applied field and the YBCO c-axis (normal to the tape surface). We report on measurements of the transport ac loss of a YBaCuO tape at 65 K, at several frequencies, in applied dc fields of 1-3 T with the field parallel and perpendicular to the tape normal.

  7. Superior homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in superconducting MgB2 bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, A.; Akasaka, T.; Tomita, M.; Kishio, K.

    2017-03-01

    Homogeneity of trapped magnetic field in radial and circumferential directions of high temperature superconducting bulk magnets, MgB2 (T c ˜38.3 K) and YBa2Cu3O y (T c ˜91.5 K), have been measured. In polycrystalline MgB2 bulks, the circularity of trapped magnetic field in a cylindrical disk is over 97% at 20-32.5 K, while that of YBa2Cu3O y was ˜87% at 77 K. Magnetic field distribution of MgB2 bulk was satisfactorily homogeneous and these measurements suggest MgB2 bulks with highly efficient cryocoolers should be very useful for novel high field permanent magnet applications.

  8. High temperature magnetic properties of SmCo5/α-Fe(Co) bulk nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Chuanbing; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, X. B.; Zhang, Ying; Kramer, M. J.; Ping Liu, J.

    2012-10-01

    To find alternative high temperature magnets containing no heavy rare earths for power applications, SmCo5/Fe bulk nanocomposite magnets with enhanced energy density and high thermal stability have been produced by using a ball-milling plus warm-compaction route. Up to 30% of the Fe soft magnetic phase has been added to the composites with grain size <20 nm distributed homogenously in the matrix of the SmCo5 hard magnetic phase. It was observed that the microstructure does not change with temperature up to 500 °C. It is also observed that the thermal stability of bulk nanocomposite samples is closely related to bulk density. Energy products above 11 MGOe have been obtained at 300 °C in fully dense bulk SmCo5/Fe nanocomposite magnets, which is 65% higher than that of a single-phase counterpart at the same temperature.

  9. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-11-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room.

  10. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  11. Repairing and upgrading of the HTS insert in the 18T cryogen-free superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.; Watanabe, K.; Hanai, S.; Ioka, S.; Miyazaki, H.; Daibo, M.; Iijima, Y.; Saito, T.; Itoh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of the 18T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (18T-CSM) at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM), IMR, Tohoku University, it has been routinely utilized for the various high field researches such as the in-field materials processing and so on. After the Great East Japan Disaster, however, the 18T-CSM is under the repairing due to the serious damages of the system. At this time, a part of the middle Nb3Sn section coil and the Bi2223 inner most coil were renewed. The bronze-route Nb3Sn coil with a low ac-loss was adopted instead of the previous internal-Sn Nb3Sn coil for the reduction of the heat-generation during a field ramping. The new Bi2223 coil will generate the central field of 4.5 T under the background field of 15.5 T by the LTS outer coils, although the previous Bi2223 coil generated 2.5 T. Hence the 18T-CSM was successfully upgraded to the 20T-CSM. In addition to the Bi2223 insert, the Gd123 insert coil is being constructed as well. When the Gd123 insert coil is installed instead of the Bi2223 coil, it will be upgraded to the 22T-CSM from the 20T-CSM.

  12. High permeability flexible bulk material for magnetic micro head applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belski, A.; Taptimthong, P.; Wurz, M. C.; Rissing, L.

    2013-01-01

    A magnetic field is generated by feeding electric current to micro coils. The higher the current, the higher the magnetic field is. A main disadvantage of coils in micro systems is the limited thermal resistance and as a result of a restriction concerning the maximum current densities. This work shows the modelling, design, numerical calculation and the initial test of a flexible write head, which not only allows the data storage on the surface but also inside of the components. Furthermore, the write head has to be flexible and able to adapt itself to the roughness of the component surface. The main goal of this paper is to increase the magnetic flux in the micro head core by partly using high permeability flexible bulk material instead of increasing the coil current or the number of the coil turns. For the approval of the data storage process a GMR sensor is used for the readout of the stored magnetization track.

  13. High-entropy bulk metallic glasses as promising magnetic refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Juntao; Huo, Lishan; Li, Jiawei; Men, He; Wang, Xinmin; Inoue, Akihisa; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Jun-Qiang; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the Ho20Er20Co20Al20RE20 (RE = Gd, Dy, and Tm) high-entropy bulk metallic glasses (HE-BMGs) with good magnetocaloric properties are fabricated successfully. The HE-BMGs exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The peak of magnetic entropy change ( ΔSMpk ) and refrigerant capacity (RC) reaches 15.0 J kg-1 K-1 and 627 J kg-1 at 5 T, respectively, which is larger than most rare earth based BMGs. The heterogeneous nature of glasses also contributes to the large ΔSMpk and RC. In addition, the magnetic ordering temperature, ΔSMpk and RC can be widely tuned by alloying different rare earth elements. These results suggest that the HE-BMGs are promising magnetic refrigerant at low temperatures.

  14. Recent advances in magnetic nanoparticles with bulk-like properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) are an excellent example of nanostructured materials and exhibit fascinating properties with applications in high-density recording and biomedicine. Controlling the effects of the nanostructure and surface chemistry and magnetism at the monolayer level have become relevant issues. As the size is reduced below 100 nm, deviations from bulk behavior have been attributed to finite-size effects and changes in the magnetic ordering at the surface, thus giving rise to a significant decrease in the magnetization and increase in the magnetic anisotropy. The existence of a surface spin glass-like state due to magnetic frustration has been widely suggested in ferrimagnetic NP. However, in this talk, we will show that high crystal quality magnetite Fe3-xO4 NP of about a few nanometers in diameter and coated with different organic surfactants display bulk-like structural, magnetic and electronic properties. Magnetic measurements, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism and Monte Carlo simulations, evidenced that none of the usual particle-like behavior is observed in high quality NP of a few nm. Consequently, the magnetic and electronic disorder phenomena typically observed in those single-phase ferrimagnetic NP should not be considered as an intrinsic effect. We also performed a real-space characterization at the sub-nanometer scale, combining scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron magnetic chiral dichroism. For the first time, we found that the surface magnetization is as high as about 70% of that of the core. The comparison to density functional theory suggested the relevance of the strong surface bond between the Fe ions and the organic surfactant. All the foregoing demonstrates the key role of both the crystal quality and surface bond on the physical properties of ferrimagnetic NP and paves the way to the fabrication of the next generation of NP with

  15. Magnetic and levitation characteristics of bulk high-temperature superconducting magnets above a permanent magnet guideway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; He, Dabo; Sun, Ruixue; Deng, Zigang; Xu, Xun; Dou, Shixue

    2016-09-01

    Due to the large levitation force or the large guidance force of bulk high-temperature superconducting magnets (BHTSMs) above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG), it is reasonable to employ pre-magnetized BHTSMs to replace applied-magnetic-field-cooled superconductors in a maglev system. There are two combination modes between the BHTSM and the PMG, distinguished by the different directions of the magnetization. One is the S-S pole mode, and the other is the S-N pole mode combined with a unimodal PMG segment. A multi-point magnetic field measurement platform was employed to acquire the magnetic field signals of the BHTSM surface in real time during the pre-magnetization process and the re-magnetization process. Subsequently, three experimental aspects of levitation, including the vertical movement due to the levitation force, the lateral movement due to the guidance force, and the force relaxation with time, were explored above the PMG segment. Moreover, finite element modeling by COMSOL Multiphysics has been performed to simulate the different induced currents and the potentially different temperature rises with different modes inside the BHTSM. It was found that the S-S pole mode produced higher induced current density and a higher temperature rise inside the BHTSM, which might escalate its lateral instability above the PMG. The S-N pole mode exhibits the opposite characteristics. In general, this work is instructive for understanding and connecting the magnetic flux, the inner current density, the levitation behavior, and the temperature rise of BHTSMs employed in a maglev system.

  16. Magnetism of iron: from the bulk to the monatomic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autès, Gabriel; Barreteau, Cyrille; Spanjaard, Daniel; Desjonquères, Marie-Catherine

    2006-07-01

    The magnetic properties of iron (spin and orbital magnetic moments, magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy) in various geometries and dimensionalities are investigated by using a parametrized tight-binding model in an s, p and d atomic orbital basis set including spin polarization and the effect of spin-orbit coupling. The validity of this model is well established by comparing the results with those obtained by using an ab initio code. This model is applied to the study of iron in bulk bcc and fcc phases, (110) and (001) surfaces and the monatomic wire, at several interatomic distances. New results are derived. In the case of surfaces the variation of the component of the orbital magnetic moment on the spin quantization axis has been studied as a function of depth, revealing a significant enhancement in the first two layers, especially for the (001) surface. It is found that the magnetic anisotropy energy is drastically increased in the wire and can reach several meV. This is also true for the orbital moment, which in addition is highly anisotropic. Furthermore, it is shown that when the spin quantization axis is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the wire the average orbital moment is not aligned with the spin quantization axis. At equilibrium distance the easy magnetization axis is along the wire but switches to the perpendicular direction under compression. The success of this model opens up the possibility of obtaining accurate results on other elements and systems with much more complex geometries.

  17. High output power reluctance electric motors with bulk high-temperature superconductor elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, L. K.; Ilushin, K. V.; Penkin, V. T.; Kovalev, K. L.; Larionoff, A. E.; M-A Koneev, S.; Modestov, K. A.; Larionoff, S. A.; Poltavets, V. N.; Akimov, I. I.; Alexandrov, V. V.; Gawalek, W.; Oswald, B.; Krabbes, G.

    2002-05-01

    We present new types of electric machines with the rotors containing bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) - YBCO and Bi-Ag - elements. We discuss different schematics of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed synchronous HTS machines. The two-dimensional mathematical models describing the processes in such types of HTS machines were developed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamic and hysteresis processes in the single-domain and polycrystal YBCO ceramic samples and plate shape Bi-Ag elements. We give the test results of the series of hysteresis, reluctance, 'trapped field' and composed with permanent magnets HTS motors with an output power rating of 0.1-18 kW and current frequencies 50 Hz and 400 Hz. These results show that in the media of liquid nitrogen the specific output power per one unit weight of the HTS motor is four to seven times better than for conventional electric machines. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental characteristics of the developed HTS motors show that they are in good agreement. We discuss the test results for a liquid nitrogen cryogenic pump system with a hysteresis 500 W HTS motor. We describe several designs of new HTS motors operating in the media of liquid nitrogen with an output power 125 kW (and more) and a power factor of more than 0.8. We discuss future applications of new types of HTS motors for aerospace technology, on-land industry and transport systems.

  18. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  19. A study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for HTS wind power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Minwon; Go, Byeong-Soo; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-05-01

    YBCO or REBCO coated conductor (2G) materials are developed for their superior performance at high magnetic field and temperature. Power system applications based on high temperature superconducting (HTS) 2G wire technology are attracting attention, including large-scale wind power generators. In particular, to solve problems associated with the foundations and mechanical structure of offshore wind turbines, due to the large diameter and heavy weight of the generator, an HTS generator is suggested as one of the key technologies. Many researchers have tried to develop feasible large-scale HTS wind power generator technologies. In this paper, a study on the required performance of a 2G HTS wire for large-scale wind power generators is discussed. A 12 MW class large-scale wind turbine and an HTS generator are designed using 2G HTS wire. The total length of the 2G HTS wire for the 12 MW HTS generator is estimated, and the essential prerequisites of the 2G HTS wire based generator are described. The magnetic field distributions of a pole module are illustrated, and the mechanical stress and strain of the pole module are analysed. Finally, a reasonable price for 2G HTS wire for commercialization of the HTS generator is suggested, reflecting the results of electromagnetic and mechanical analyses of the generator.

  20. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of bulk dysprosium chromite

    SciTech Connect

    McDannald, A.; Kuna, L.; Jain, M.

    2013-09-21

    In this work, a polycrystalline bulk DyCrO{sub 3} sample was prepared by a solution route and the structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The phase purity and ionic valence state of the DyCrO{sub 3} sample were determined by x-ray diffraction/Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The AC and DC magnetization measurements revealed the onset of antiferromagnetic order at 146 K with an effective moment of 8.88 μ{sub B}. Isothermal magnetization measurements of this material are presented for the first time, showing a peak in the coercive field at 80 K that is explained by the competition between the paramagnetic Dy{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} sublattices. DyCrO{sub 3} was found to display a large magnetocaloric effect (8.4 J/kg K) and relative cooling power (217 J/kg) at 4 T applied field, which renders DyCrO{sub 3} useful for magnetic refrigeration between 5 K and 30 K.

  1. Defect induced magnetism in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: bulk magnetization and 19F hyperfine interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, S K; Mishra, S N; Davane, S M; Srivastava, S K

    2012-02-29

    We have made bulk and local investigations on defect induced magnetism in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) irradiated with a 40 MeV carbon beam. The local magnetic response of irradiated HOPG was studied by measuring the hyperfine field of recoil implanted (19)F using γ-ray time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) measurements. While the bulk magnetic properties of the irradiated sample show features characteristic of room temperature ferromagnetism, the hyperfine field data reflect enhanced paramagnetism with no indication of long range magnetic ordering. The experimental studies are further supported by ab initio density functional calculations. We believe that the ferromagnetic response in irradiated HOPG arises mostly from defect induced magnetic moments of carbon atoms in the near surface region, while those deep inside the host matrix remain paramagnetic.

  2. Transport and Magnetism in Bulk and Thin Film Strontium Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambwani, Palak

    SrTiO3 is a wide band-gap perovskite oxide semiconductor that is widely investigated in the bulk form, due to its remarkable electronic properties. These properties arise from its quantum paraelectric nature which enables unique features, such as, a high-mobility low-density metallic state, quantum transport in an unusual limit, and the most dilute superconducting state thus reported. Recent advances in deposition of oxide thin films and heterostructures have further led to some remarkable observations, such as, the strain-enhancement of mobility in doped thin films of SrTiO3, and the presence of 2D electron gases at interfaces and in delta-doped layers. The presence of magnetic moments and their possible ordering, and the simultaneous observation of quantum oscillations and superconductivity, have been reported in these 2D electron gases. While magnetism has been observed in heterostructures of SrTiO3 , there have been limited reports on magnetism in bulk SrTiO3. The first part of this thesis (Chapter 3) discusses how circularly polarized light can induce an extremely long-lived magnetic moment in slightly oxygen-deficient but otherwise nominally pure SrTiO3-delta bulk crystals. These magnetic signals, which are induced at zero applied magnetic field and at low temperatures below ˜ 18 K, can be controlled in both magnitude and sign by means of the circular polarization and wavelength of sub-bandgap illumination (400-500 nm), and point to the existence of optically polarizable VO-related complexes in the forbidden gap of SrTiO 3-delta, rather than collective or long-range magnetic order. The methods used to detect optically induced magnetization are also discussed (Appendix A). The phenomenal progress reported in thin films and heterostructures of SrTiO3 has been possible only by precise control of stoichiometry and defect density in SrTiO3 using techniques such as oxide/LASER MBE or high-temperature PLD. The next part of the thesis (Chapter 4) demonstrates that

  3. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  4. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  5. The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao; Gao, Zhiwen

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.

  6. Bulk magnetization and 1H NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, E M; Bud' ko, S L

    2011-04-28

    Bulk magnetization and ¹H static and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of two magnetically heterogeneous model systems based on laponite (LAP) layered silicate or polystyrene (PS) with low and high proton concentration, respectively, and ferrimagnetic Fe₂O₃ nano- or micro-particles have been studied. In LAP+Fe₂O₃, a major contribution to the NMR signal broadening is due to the dipolar coupling between the magnetic moments of protons and magnetic particles. In PS+Fe₂O₃, due to the higher proton concentration in polystyrene and stronger proton–proton dipolar coupling, an additional broadening is observed, i.e. ¹H MAS NMR spectra of magnetically heterogeneous systems are sensitive to both proton–magnetic particles and proton–proton dipolar couplings. An increase of the volume magnetization by ~1 emu/cm³ affects the ¹H NMR signal width in a way that is similar to an increase of the proton concentration by ~2×10²²/cm³. ¹H MAS NMR spectra, along with bulk magnetization measurements, allow the accurate determination of the hydrogen concentration in magnetically heterogeneous systems.

  7. A method to enhance the curve negotiation performance of HTS Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, T.; Gou, Y. F.; Deng, Z. G.; Zheng, J.; Zheng, B. T.; Chen, P.

    2015-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev has attracted more and more attention due to its special self-stable characteristic, and much work has been done to achieve its actual application, but the research about the curve negotiation is not systematic and comprehensive. In this paper, we focused on the change of the lateral displacements of the Maglev vehicle when going through curves under different velocities, and studied the change of the electromagnetic forces through experimental methods. Experimental results show that setting an appropriate initial eccentric distance (ED), which is the distance between the center of the bulk unit and the center of the permanent magnet guideway (PMG), when cooling the bulks is favorable for the Maglev system’s curve negotiation. This work will provide some available suggestions for improving the curve negotiation performance of the HTS Maglev system.

  8. Effects of fluctuating magnetic fields on a superconducting bulk rotor shielded with superconducting rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, K.; Ogawa, J.; Tsukamoto, O.

    2014-05-01

    We study the effect of a fluctuating magnetic field, which is one of the technical problems for trapped magnetic fields in a bulk superconductor, to realize a practical bulk superconductor rotating machine. Previous research and other's research has shown that fluctuating magnetic fields reduce the strength of trapped magnetic fields in superconducting bulk modules [1, 2]. This deters development of applications of AC rotating machines because superconducting bulk modules are always exposed to a fluctuating magnetic field. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method to control decrease of the trapped magnetic field. We propose a method to use the shielding ring of a superconducting wire to achieve this goal and the effects are confirmed experimentally [3]. We are now building test equipment for examining the performance of a shielding ring in a bulk rotating machine. This paper reports the test result for the shielding ring applied to the bulk superconducting rotor that is a part of the test equipment.

  9. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  10. Reflective HTS switch

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  11. Conceptual design of a novel insertion device using bulk superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kii, T.; Kinjo, R.; Bakr, M. A.; Choi, Y. W.; Yoshida, K.; Ueda, S.; Takasaki, M.; Ishida, K.; Kimura, N.; Sonobe, T.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.

    2011-11-01

    An undulator or a wiggler with a strong magnetic field will play an important role in future synchrotron light sources, free electron lasers, and linear colliders. We proposed the bulk high critical temperature superconductor staggered array undulator (Bulk HTSC SAU) in order to generate a strong periodic field. The Bulk HTSC SAU consists of stacked bulk high-Tc superconductors (HTSs) and a solenoid magnet which is used to magnetize the bulk HTSs. A periodic magnetic field was produced and controlled using a prototype of the Bulk HTSC SAU using 11 pairs of REBaCuO bulk HTSs at 77 K. The expected performance at low temperatures around 20 K is calculated using a loop current model.

  12. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  13. Fabrication of bulk nanostructured permanent magnets with high energy density: challenges and approaches.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, J Ping

    2017-03-17

    Nanostructured permanent magnetic materials, including exchange-coupled nanocomposite permanent magnets, are considered as the next generation of high-strength magnets for future applications in energy-saving and renewable energy technologies. However, fabrication of bulk nanostructured magnets remains very challenging because conventional compaction and sintering techniques cannot be used for nanostructured bulk material processing. In this paper we review recent efforts at producing bulk nanostructured single-phase and composite magnetic materials with emphasis on grain size control, anisotropy generation and interface modification.

  14. Processing of MnBi bulk magnets with enhanced energy product

    DOE PAGES

    Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Wang, Wei; ...

    2016-02-23

    Here, we report magnetic properties and microstructure of high energy-product MnBi bulk magnets fabricated by low-temperature ball-milling and warm compaction technique. A maximum energy product (BH)max of 8.4 MGOe and a coercivity of 6.2 kOe were obtained in the bulk MnBi magnet at room temperature. Magnetic characterization at elevated temperatures showed an increase in coercivity to 16.2 kOe while (BH)max value decreased to 6.8 MGOe at 400 K. Microstructure characterization revealed that the bulk magnets consist of oriented uniform nanoscale grains with average size about 50 nm.

  15. Trapping a magnetic field of 7.9 T using a bulk magnet fabricated from stack of coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamegai, T.; Hirai, T.; Sun, Y.; Pyon, S.

    2016-11-01

    We have fabricated a bulk magnet using double stack, each 130 layers, of short segments of coated conductors (CCs). The bulk magnet is magnetized by field-cooling in a magnetic field of 9 T down to 4.2 K. After reducing the magnetic field down to zero, we have successfully trapped a magnetic field of 7.9 T at the centre of the double stack. The magnetic field profile of the bulk magnet is calculated by fully considering the Jc(B) characteristics of the short segment of the CC. The trapped magnetic field values measured by Hall probes at three locations near the centre of the double stacks agree reasonably well with the calculated magnetic induction.

  16. Generation of strong magnetic field using 60 mm∅ superconducting bulk magnet and its application to magnetron sputtering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hazama, H.; Yokouchi, K.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, Y.; Oka, T.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2005-10-01

    To make a practical application of a superconducting bulk magnet (SBM), it is necessary that the SBM generates a strong and stable magnetic field in a working space and the magnet can be handled without any special care that would be needed because of the use of a superconductor. To satisfy these requirements, we have designed a portable and user-friendly magnet system consisting of a small air-cooled type refrigerator and a bulk superconductor. By using the stress-controlling magnetization technique, we could achieve a magnetic flux density of 8.0 T on the bulk surface and 6.5 T over the vacuum chamber surface of the refrigerator, when a 60 mm∅ Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor reinforced with a 5 mm thick stainless steel ring was magnetized by field cooling in 8.5 T to 27 K. We have confirmed that the bulk magnet system coupled with a battery is quite portable and can be delivered to any location by using a car with an electric power outlet in the cabin. We have constructed a magnetron sputtering device that employs a bulk magnet system delivered from the place of magnetization by this method. This sputtering device exhibits several unique features such as deposition at a very low Ar gas pressure because the magnetic field is 20 times stronger than that obtained by a conventional device in the working space.

  17. Magnetic domain walls in bulk and thin film Fe: first principles noncollinear magnetism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takeda, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Ito, T.; Freeman, A. J.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of domain walls in ferromagnetic Fe bulk and Fe(110) monolayer by using the first-principles FLAPW method(Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert and Freeman, PRB 24, 864(1981)) including noncollinear magnetism with no shape approximation of the magnetization density.(Nakamura, Freeman, Wang, Zhong, and Fernandez-de-Castro, PRB 65, 12402 (2002); 67, 14420 (2003)) In the bulk case, the self-consistent LSDA results demonstrate that the magnetic moments change continuously from one orientation to another as seen in a Bloch wall, and reveal that the formation energy of the domain wall significantly decreases when the domain wall thickness increases, as expected from phenomenological theory. The domain walls in thin film behave very differently: Surprisingly, the magnetic moment directions change rapidly; thus the wall width is only about 8 ÅThis consists and supports the atomically sharp domain wall in Fe/W(110) by the recently proposed SP-STM measurements.(Pratzer, Elmers, Bode, Pietzsch, Kubetzka and Wiesendanger, PRL 87, 127201 (2001))

  18. Vertical Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement on Single Crystal YBaCuO Bulk at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, Sait Baris; Ozturk, Kemal; Ozturk, Ozgur

    Magnetic levitation force measurements of HTS samples are performed with the use of liquid nitrogen. It is both convenient and cheap. However, the temperature of the sample cannot be changed (77 K) and there is problem of frost. So, it is necessary to build another type of system to measure the levitation force high Tc superconductor at different temperatures. In this study, we fabricated YBaCuO superconducting by top-seeding-melting-growth (TSMG) technique and measured vertical forces of them at FC (Field Cooling) and ZFC (Zero Field Cooling) regimes by using our new designed magnetic levitation force measurement system. It was used to investigate the three-dimensional levitation force and lateral force in the levitation system consisting of a cylindrical magnet and a permanent cylindrical superconductor at different temperatures (37, 47, 57, 67 and 77 K).

  19. RADIATION RESISTANT HTS QUADRUPOLES FOR RIA.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; ET AL.

    2004-10-03

    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  20. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  1. Practical adaptation in bulk superconducting magnetic bearing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, C. K.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Lin, M. W.; Chow, L.; Meng, R. L.; Hor, P. H.; Chu, W. K.

    1992-04-01

    Lifting capacities greater than 41 N/sq cm (60 psi) at 77 K have been achieved using a combination of permanent magnets and high quality melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO). The key concept of this hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB) is the use of strong magnetic repulsion and attraction from permanent magnets to support high loads in conjunction with flux pinning in a type II superconductor to counteract instabilities in a system consisting of magnets only. To illustrate this concept, radial and axial forces between magnet/superconductor, magnet/magnet, and magnet/superconductor/magnet, were measured and compared for the thrust and journal bearing configurations on a bearing prototype.

  2. Experimental deformation of synthetic magnetite-bearing calcite sandstones - Effects on remanence, bulk magnetic properties, and magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Mike; Borradaile, Graham; Hudleston, Peter; Banerjee, Subir

    1993-01-01

    The simultaneous effects of deformation on the magnetic remanence, bulk magnetic properties, and magnetic anisotropy of magnetite-bearing calcite sandstones were investigated in a set of synthetic magnetite-bearing samples prepared as described by Borradaile and Alford (1987). Experimental deformations of synthetic sandstone analogs containing 40-micron magnetite were found to produce significant changes in the orientation of anhysteretic remanence, in bulk magnetic properties, and in magnetic anisotropy. These changes proceeded slowly for shortening strains below about 10 percent, but much more rapidly at higher strains.

  3. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  4. Development of a brushless HTS exciter for a 10 kW HTS synchronous generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Min; Jiang, Zhenan; Pantoja, Andres E.; Bernardo, Patrick; Park, Minwon; Buckley, Robert G.

    2016-02-01

    HTS synchronous generators, in which the rotor coils are wound from high-T c superconducting wire, are exciting attention due to their potential to deliver very high torque and power densities. However, injection of the large DC currents required by the HTS rotor coils presents a technical challenge. In this paper we discuss the development of a brushless HTS exciter which operates across the cryostat wall to inject a superconducting DC current into the rotor coil circuit. This approach fundamentally alters the thermal load upon the cryogenic system by removing the need for thermally inefficient normal-conducting current leads. We report results from an experimental laboratory device and show that it operates as a constant voltage source with an effective internal resistance. We then discuss the design of a prototype HTS-PM exciter based on our experimental device, and describe its integration with a demonstration HTS generator. This 200 RPM, 10 kW synchronous generator comprises eight double pancake HTS rotor coils which are operated at 30 K, and are energised to 1.5 T field through the injection of 85 A per pole. We show how this excitation can be achieved using an HTS-PM exciter consisting of 12 stator poles of 12 mm YBCO coated-conductor wire and an external permanent magnet rotor. We demonstrate that such an exciter can excite the rotor windings of this generator without forming a thermal-bridge across the cryostat wall. Finally, we provide estimates of the thermal load imposed by our prototype HTS-PM exciter on the rotor cryostat. We show that duty cycle operation of the device ensures that this heat load can be minimised, and that it is substantially lower than that of equivalently-rated conventional current leads.

  5. Time evolution and spatial distribution of temperature in YBCO bulk superconductor after pulse field magnetizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Oka, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Kazuya; Noto, Koshichi

    2003-07-01

    The time evolutions of temperature rise DeltaT(t) after pulse field magnetizing have been measured on the surface of a cryo-cooled YBaCuO bulk superconductor. The temperature rise DeltaT increases with increasing pulse field strength, and a quite large temperature rise (DeltaTmax ~ 18.8 K) is observed just before the trapped magnetic flux reaches the central region of the bulk. The epoxy resin, impregnated and coated to the bulk crystal for mechanical reinforcement, prevents the heat exhaust towards the cold stage of the refrigerator and it needs much time to recover its initial temperature. The spatial distribution of DeltaT(t) has indicated that the magnetic fluxes tend to enter into the bulk, avoiding the 4-fold growth sector boundaries of the bulk crystal.

  6. Effect of Soft Phase on Magnetic Properties of Bulk Sm-Co/alpha-Fe Nanocomposite Magnets (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    plasma sintering , and warm compaction [4][5]–[9]. In our previous study [10], bulk Sm–Co –Fe nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing of...no. 5, pp. 2974–2976, Jul. 2003. [8] T. Saito and H. Miyoshi, “Magnetic properties of Sm5Fe17/Fe com- posite magnets produces by spark plasma ...Fe and Fe-Co. Bulk composite magnets have been prepared using compaction techniques such as hot pressing/deforma- tion, dynamic shock compaction, spark

  7. A novel HTS SMES application in combination with a permanent magnet synchronous generator type wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kim, A. R.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Won, Y. J.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a DC current driven device and can be utilized to improve power quality particularly in connection with renewable energy sources due to higher efficiency and faster response than other devices. This paper suggests a novel connection topology of SMES which can smoothen the output power flow of the wind power generation system (WPGS). The structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a power converter in comparison with a conventional application of SMES. One more advantage of SMES in the proposed system is to improve the capability of low voltage ride through (LVRT) for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type WPGS. The proposed system including a SMES has been modeled and analyzed by a PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the novel SMES application strategy to not only mitigate the output power of the PMSG but also improve the capability of LVRT for PMSG type WPGS.

  8. Numerical assessment of efficiency and control stability of an HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Wei; Yuan, Weijia; Coombs, T. A.

    2010-06-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed and developed in Cambridge University. It is expected to become cost competitive with the conventional PMSM owing to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque density, etc. The structure and parameters of HTS PMSM are detailed. Both AC losses by transport current and applied filed in stator armature winding of HTS PMSM are also analyzed. Computed and simulated results of the characteristics of the HTS PMSM and conventional PMSM are compared. The improvement on stability of direct torque control (DTC) on the HTS PMSM is estimated, and proved by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

  9. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-09-01

    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  10. Mobile conduction-cooled HTS SMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Chen, L.; Guo, F.; Fang, J.; Wen, J.

    2010-11-01

    An immovable 35 kJ/7 kW high-Tc superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) system had been developed in the Electric Power System Dynamic Simulation Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2005. In order to adapt for on-site experimental conditions, the mechanical configuration of the magnet is reinforced and the SMES system is assembled in a special container to be freighted to the actual power system for the feasibility study on different applications at different sites. The mobile HTS SMES system had withstood various kinds of poor road surfaces and then arrived at the experimental site on August 18, 2009. In this paper, the reconstructed configuration and the shock absorption of the magnet are presented. The field test results show that the mobile SMES system can operate on the power network at different locations and suppress effectively power fluctuation of the generator terminal.

  11. Effect of permanent-magnet irregularities in levitation force measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.

    1999-10-14

    In the measurement of the levitation force between a vertically magnetized permanent magnet (PM) and a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS), PM domains with horizontal components of magnetization are shown to produce a nonnegligible contribution to the levitation force in most systems. Such domains are typically found in all PMs, even in those that exhibit zero net horizontal magnetic moment. Extension of this analysis leads to an HTS analog of Earnshaw's theorem, in which at the field-cooling position the vertical stiffness is equal to the sum of the horizontal stiffnesses, independent of angular distribution of magnetic moments within the PM.

  12. Effect of permanent-magnet irregularities in levitation force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.

    2000-06-01

    In the measurement of the levitation force between a vertically magnetized permanent magnet (PM) and a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS), PM domains with horizontal components of magnetization are shown to produce a non-negligible contribution to the levitation force in most systems. Such domains are typically found in all PMs, even in those that exhibit zero net horizontal magnetic moment. Extension of this analysis leads to an HTS analogue of Earnshaw's theorem, in which the vertical stiffness is equal to the sum of the horizontal stiffness at the field-cooling position, independent of the angular distribution of magnetic moments within the PM.

  13. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Šindler, M; Kadlec, C; Dominec, F; Kužel, P; Elissalde, C; Kassas, A; Lesseur, J; Bernard, D; Mounaix, P; Němec, H

    2016-08-08

    Rigid metamaterials were prepared by embedding TiO2 microspheres into polyethylene. These structures exhibit a series of Mie resonances where the lowest-frequency one is associated with a strong dispersion in the effective magnetic permeability. Using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, we experimentally demonstrated the magnetic nature of the observed resonance. The presented approach shows a way for low-cost massive fabrication of mechanically stable terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microresonators.

  14. Thermal analysis for the HTS stator consisting of HTS armature windings and an iron core for a 2.5 kW HTS generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, P.; Qu, T.-M.; Lai, L.-F.; Wu, M.-S.; Yu, X.-Y.; Han, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Most present demonstrations of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors/generators are partially superconducting, only installing HTS coils on the rotor as excitation windings. The possible applicability of HTS armature windings is an interesting research topic because these windings can certainly increase the power density attributed to a potentially high armature loading capacity. In this study, we analysed the thermal behaviours of a developed 2.5 kW-300 rpm synchronous generator prototype that consists of an HTS stator with Bi-2223-Ag armature windings on an iron core and a permanent magnet (PM) rotor. The entire HTS stator, including the iron core, is cooled with liquid nitrogen through conduction cooling. The rated frequency is set at 10 Hz to reduce AC loss. The properties of the HTS windings and the iron core are characterized, and the temperatures in the HTS stator under different operation conditions are measured. The estimated iron loss is 11.5 W under operation in 10 Hz at liquid nitrogen temperature. Conduction cooling through the silicon iron core is sufficient to cool the iron core and to compensate for the temperature increment caused by iron loss. The stable running capacity is limited to 1.6 kW when the armature current is 12.6 A (effective values) due to the increasing temperature in the slots as a result of the AC loss in the HTS coils. The thermal contact between the HTS coils and the cooling media should be improved in the future to take away the heat generated by AC loss.

  15. A superconducting conveyer system using multiple bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors and permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Koshizuka, N.; Nagashima, K.; Murakami, M.

    Developments of non-contact superconducting devices like superconducting magnetic levitation transfer and superconducting flywheel energy storage system have been performed based on the interactions between bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors and permanent magnets, in that the superconductors can stably be levitated without any active control. The performances of noncontact superconducting devices are dependent on the interaction forces like attractive forces and stiffness. In the present study, we constructed a non-contact conveyer for which the guide rails were prepared by attaching many Fe-Nd-B magnets onto an iron base plate. Along the translational direction, all the magnets were arranged as to face the same pole, and furthermore their inter-distance was made as small as possible. The guide rail has three magnet rows, for which the magnets were glued on the iron plate such that adjacent magnet rows have opposite poles like NSN. At the center row, the magnetic field at zero gap reached 0.61T, while the field strengths of two rows on the side edges were only 0.48T due to magnetic interactions among permanent magnets. We then prepared a cryogenic box made with FRP that can store several bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors 25 mm in diameter cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that the levitation forces and stiffness increased with increasing the number of bulk superconductors installed in the box, although the levitation force per unit bulk were almost the same. We also confirmed that these forces are dependent on the configuration of bulk superconductors.

  16. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z.; Chudy, M.; Ruiz, H. S.; Zhang, X.; Coombs, T.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  17. Correlation between bulk magnetoelectricity and boundary magnetization in Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junlei; Binek, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Boundary magnetization is a roughness insensitive net magnetization. It emerges at the surface or interface of a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet in a single-domain state and has been utilized in voltage controlled spintronic system for potential ultra-low power application based on exchange bias system with Cr2O3. Previous work has lacked to demonstrate the direct relation between the bulk spin structure and the boundary magnetization. In this work, we use magneto-optical Faraday effect to observe boundary magnetization and correlate it with the bulk magnetoelectric response of a Cr2O3 single crystal on an applied electric field, E. Our method discriminates the E- dependent bulk Faraday rotation, θ, from the stationary boundary magnetization. To this end we investigate θ vs. E in two distinct antiferromagnetic single-domain states which are prepared via magnetoelectric annealing. Temperature dependence of the boundary magnetization, mBM ~ Θ(E = 0), as well as the corresponding bulk magnetoelectric susceptibility, α ~ d Θ/d E, is obtained from separate investigations of θ vs. Efor the two single domain states. Our magneto-optical setup uses a near-infrared laser so that transmission loss is admissible for our sample of 500 μm thickness. We utilize lock-in and compensation techniques to maximize measurement precision and to enable absolute Faraday rotation measurement which is gauged with respect to magnetization.

  18. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  19. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  20. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-10-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques.

  1. Magnetic Induction Machines Integrated into Bulk-Micromachined Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    machines were characterized in three stages: (A) electrical measurements of the stators, (B) ferrofluid tests of the stator, and (C) tethered rotor torque...the upper and lower coils for each machine. B. Ferrofluid Tests A ferrofluid , a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles in a liquid (oil) carrier...Kapton film and placed over the stator, as shown in Fig. 10. The tub was filled with a thin layer of ferrofluid (Ferrotec Corporation, Nashua, NH) that

  2. Influence of Artificial Defects on Trapped Field Performance in a Superconducting Bulk Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Eranda, K.; Zhao, Y.; Katsuki, A.; Miura, A.; Oka, T.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we attempt to improve the trapped magnetic field by pulsed-field magnetization using REBCO bulk with small holes processed artificially. In our previous study, a hole was opened in the growth sector region (GSR) in accordance with the idea that the performance of the growth sector boundary (GSB) was not reduced because the critical current density of the GSB was higher than that of the GSR. In the next study, a small hole was processed on the GSB to decrease the magnetic shield toward the magnetic flux that entered through the GSB. The experimental results suggested that placing a hole on the GSB was advantageous to trapped field performance as compared with placing a hole at the GSR. In this paper, three more holes were processed in the bulk with a single hole on the GSB, and trapped field performance was investigated. Although the performance was decreased overall in the bulk with four holes, we confirmed that the peak value of total magnetic flux shifted to the low applied magnetic field, although the maximum value was almost the same as that of the bulk with a single hole.

  3. The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-15

    By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density.

  4. Spin Orbit Torque in TbCo Films with Bulk Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Kohei; Mann, Maxwell; Tan, Aik-Jun; Beach, Geoffrey. S. D.

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT) has generated considerable interest for manipulating magnetization in spintronic devices with ultra-low dissipation. Recent research has demonstrated that highly efficient magnetization control can be driven by current-induced SOT in ferromagnet/heavy metals bilayers with strong spin orbit coupling. However, most work on SOT has focused on ultra-thin magnetic films with interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), whereas future devices will require bulk PMA for sufficient thermal stability. Recently, Zhao et al reported SOT induced magnetization switching in a bulk PMA material; however, the films examined were still rather thin. Here we examine spin orbit torques in TbCo alloy films with bulk PMA, sandwiched between top and bottom Ta layers. By performing conventional harmonic and current-induced switching measurements, we quantified the current-induced effective fields generated by damping-like (DL) and field-like (FL) torques. The DL torque is much larger than FL torque, and corresponds to an effective spin Hall angle consistent with that of Ta. Owing to the relatively small saturation magnetized of these ferrimagnetic materials, the current-induced effective field is comparable to that observed in nm-thick Co films, despite the much larger film thicknesses used here. These results demonstrate ferromagnetic alloys with bulk PMA can be engineered to simultaneously provide thermal stability and efficient SOT switching.

  5. Simultaneous surface and bulk sensitive XAS measurements of magnetic particle clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaraj, S.; Dietrich, P. M.; Unger, W. E. S.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters (mnpc) coated with organic stabilizers were investigated using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). Simultaneous surface and bulk sensitive Fe L3 edge absorption spectra, obtained using a photomultiplier tube and a channeltron, were used to detect subtle changes in the oxidation state in the surface and bulk of Iron Oxide mnpc. The effectiveness of this mode of STXM operation is demonstrated for these nanoparticle clusters.

  6. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  7. Upgrade of SULTAN/EDIPO for HTS Cable Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.; Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Lewandowska, M.

    CRPP hosts two unique conductor test facilities SULTAN (SUpraLeiter TestANlage) and EDIPO (European DIPOle). They allow the test of high current superconductors in high magnetic fields (SULTAN 11 T, EDIPO 12.5 T). In both facilities sample currents up to 100 kA can be supplied by means of a NbTi transformer. Presently the facilities are upgraded for the test of high current high-temperature superconductor (HTS) samples. For HTS conductor testing at temperatures between 20 and 50 K, the heat flux between the HTS sample under test and the NbTi transformer needs to be limited to around 10 W per conductor leg by means of an HTS adapter connecting them. The second required upgrade is the supply of intermediate temperature helium (20-50 K) to the HTS test conductor. It is mandatory that the helium gas coming from the HTS conductor under test can be returned to the cryoplant as cold gas (T < 20 K). To reach this goal a tube-in-tube heat exchanger has been manufactured in which 4.5 K helium coming from the cryoplant is in counter flow with the warm gas leaving the HTS test conductor.

  8. Hard magnetic properties observed in bulk Mn1–xGax

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Daniel R.; Han, Ke; Siegrist, Theo

    2014-02-19

    Here, Mn-Ga binary alloys have shown promising magnetic properties, even though these alloys contain no rare-earth metals. Both theoretical predictions and experimental work showed that nanoscaled Mn-Ga samples, such as thin films could have remarkable magnetic properties. Although the prediction provides a useful guideline and thin films supply us with materials in some application, bulk materials are required for majority of the applications that require a strong magnetic field. We have made bulk Mn1-xGax alloys by mechanically milling and heat treatments. In this paper, we report annealed Mn1-xGax bulk composites that exhibit coercivity up to 18.8 kOe.

  9. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-07

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 {mu}{Omega} cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  10. Soft magnetic composites manufactured by warm co-extrusion of bulk metallic glass and steel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Francis; Raber, Thomas R.; Zabala, Robert J.; Buresh, Steve J.; Tanico, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Soft magnetic composites of Fe-based bulk metallic glass and low-alloy steel have been manufactured by warm co-extrusion of precursor powders at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region of the glass. Composites were manufactured with amorphous volume fractions of 75%, 67%, and 100%. Full consolidation of the constituent powders was observed with the bulk metallic glass remaining substantially amorphous. The composite electrical resistivity was observed to be anisotropic with a resistivity of 79 μΩ cm measured transverse to the extrusion axis in a sample with 75% amorphous volume fraction. A 0-3 connectivity pattern with the low-resistivity steel phase embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected high-resistivity bulk metallic glass phase was observed with scanning electron microscopy. This confirms that the flow characteristics of the bulk metallic glass and the steel powders were comparable during extrusion at these temperatures. The saturation magnetization of 1.3 T was consistent with the volume weighted average of the saturation magnetization of the two phases. A relatively high quasistatic coercivity of 8 Oe was measured and is likely due to slight crystallization of the bulk metallic glass as well as domain wall pinning at prior particle boundaries. Careful control of the thermal environment during the extrusion process is required to minimize glass crystallization and achieve the desired balance of magnetic and electrical properties.

  11. Trapped Magnetic Field Properties of MgB2 Bulks Doped with Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Takafumi; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki

    We have studied the trapped magnetic field properties on doped MgB2 bulk with Ti (nominal content was Mg:Ti =0.9:0.1 and 0.8:0.2). The trapped magnetic field, BT, was enhanced by approximately 1.3 times from 2.6 T of the pristine bulk to 3.5 T of the Ti-doped bulks at 15 K. The extrapolated BT(T) curve reached 5 T below 4.2 K, indicating that 5 T class bulk magnet can be realized using MgB2 with Ti-doping. The critical current density, Jc, under the magnetic field was also enhanced by Ti-doping, therefore, an irreversibility field, Birr, of the Ti-doped bulks exceeded 5 T at 20 K. Ti and TiB2 impurities confirmed by the pow- der X-ray diffraction acted as the pinning centers and resulted in the enhancement of the trapped field and the critical current density.

  12. Development of superconducting magnetic bearing with superconducting coil and bulk superconductor for flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Y.; Seino, H.; Yoshizawa, K.; Nagashima, K.

    2013-11-01

    We have been developing superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel energy storage system to be applied to the railway system. The bearing consists of a superconducting coil as a stator and bulk superconductors as a rotor. A flywheel disk connected to the bulk superconductors is suspended contactless by superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We have manufactured a small scale device equipped with the SMB. The flywheel was rotated contactless over 2000 rpm which was a frequency between its rigid body mode and elastic mode. The feasibility of this SMB structure was demonstrated.

  13. A Bulk Superconducting Magnetic System for the CLAS12 Target at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Statera, Marco; Contalbrigo, Marco; Ciullo, Giuseppe; Lenisa, Paulo; Lowry, Michael M.; Sandorfi, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    A feasibility study of a bulk magnetic system for the target of an experiment to measure the transverse spin effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) at 11 GeV with a transversely polarized target using the CLAS12 detector is presented. An experiment has been approved with the highest priority rating to study spin azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS using 11-GeV polarized electron beams from the upgraded CEBAF facility and the CLAS12 detector equipped with a transversely polarized target. The transverse target in CLAS12 requires the shielding of a volume inside the longitudinal field of the main solenoid. In the shielded region, a transverse target magnet can operate; for the proposed magnetic configuration, the main solenoid maximum magnetic induction is 2 T. A bulk MgB2 cylinder cooled in liquid helium is proposed both to shield the longitudinal field of the main solenoid and to provide a transverse field induction up to 1.2 T for the hydrogen deuteride ice (HD-ice) target. The installation and magnetization procedure will be described. The magnetization procedure has to be compatible with the polarization and installation procedure of the HD-ice target. The design of a test bench to measure the transverse magnetization of a MgB2 bulk cylinder cooled by a coldhead is presented together with the scheduled measurements.

  14. Effect of milling time on magnetic properties and structures of bulk Sm-Co/α-(Fe, Co) nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Huang, M. Q.; Turgut, Z.; Lucas, M. S.; Michel, E.; Horwath, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk Sm-Co/α-(Fe,Co) nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing composite powders prepared by high-energy ball milling of magnetically hard SmCo5 powder and magnetically soft Fe powder. The bulk magnets had a nanocomposite structure consisting of Sm-Co matrix (1:5 H and 1:7 H phases) and α-(Fe,Co) phases. The Fe-Co particles were distributed uniformly in the Sm-Co matrix. The milling time strongly affects the structures and the magnetic properties of the bulk magnets. Increasing milling time led to a decrease of the amount of 1:5 H phase, an increase in the phase fraction of the 1:7 H phase, and a decrease in the amount of soft phase, which resulted in an increase in magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that inter-diffusion took place between the Sm-Co matrix and Fe particles during the processing.

  15. Effect of milling time on magnetic properties and structures of bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe, Co) nanocomposite magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Huang, M. Q.; Turgut, Z.; Lucas, M. S.; Michel, E.; Horwath, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe,Co) nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing composite powders prepared by high-energy ball milling of magnetically hard SmCo{sub 5} powder and magnetically soft Fe powder. The bulk magnets had a nanocomposite structure consisting of Sm-Co matrix (1:5 H and 1:7 H phases) and {alpha}-(Fe,Co) phases. The Fe-Co particles were distributed uniformly in the Sm-Co matrix. The milling time strongly affects the structures and the magnetic properties of the bulk magnets. Increasing milling time led to a decrease of the amount of 1:5 H phase, an increase in the phase fraction of the 1:7 H phase, and a decrease in the amount of soft phase, which resulted in an increase in magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that inter-diffusion took place between the Sm-Co matrix and Fe particles during the processing.

  16. Some features of bulk melt-textured high-temperature superconductors subjected to alternating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbemden, P.; Molenberg, I.; Simeonova, P.; Lovchinov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Monolithic, large grain, (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 high-temperature superconductors (where RE denotes a rare-earth ion) are known to be able to trap fields in excess of several teslas and represent thus an extremely promising competing technology for permanent magnet in several applications, e.g. in motors and generators. In any rotating machine, however, the superconducting permanent magnet is subjected to variable (transient, or alternating) parasitic magnetic fields. These magnetic fields interact with the superconductor, which yields a reduction of the remnant magnetization. In the present work we quantify these effects by analysing selected experimental data on bulk melt-textured superconductors subjected to AC fields. Our results indicate that the non-uniformity of superconducting properties in rather large samples might lead to unusual features and need to be taken into account to analyse the experimental data. We also investigate the evolution of the DC remnant magnetization of the bulk sample when it is subjected to a large number of AC magnetic field cycles, and investigate the experimental errors that result from a misorientation of the sample or a mispositioning of the Hall probe. The time-dependence of the remnant magnetization over 100000 cycles of the AC field is shown to display distinct regimes which all differ strongly from the usual decay due to magnetic relaxation.

  17. Magnetism on the surface of the bulk paramagnetic intermetallic compound YCo2.

    PubMed

    Khmelevskyi, S; Mohn, P; Redinger, J; Weinert, M

    2005-04-15

    Using full-potential electronic structure calculations, we predict that the (111) surface of the cubic Laves phase Pauli paramagnet YCo2 is ferromagnetic. The magnetism of the (111) surface is independent of the termination of the surface, does not extend beyond two Co layers, and is related to the field-induced metamagnetism of the bulk. YCo2 appears to be a prominent candidate to demonstrate the phenomenon of surface-induced itinerant magnetism localized in two dimensions.

  18. Temperature measurements in small holes drilled in superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Naito, T.; Furuta, D.; Kakehata, K.

    2010-11-01

    The time dependence of the temperatures T(z, t) has been measured along the thickness direction z in several drilled holes in a superconducting bulk during pulsed field magnetization (PFM) and the heat generation and heat transfer in the bulk have been discussed. In the previous paper [H. Fujishiro, S. Kawaguchi, K. Kakehata, A. Fujiwara, T. Tateiwa, T. Oka, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) S540], we calculated the T(z, t) profiles in the bulk by solving a three-dimensional heat-diffusion equation to reproduce the measured T(t) on the bulk surface; the heat generation took place adiabatically and the calculated T(z, t) was isothermal along the z direction. In this study, the measured T(z, t) at the top surface was higher than that at the bottom surface just after the pulse field application at t < 0.5 s, and then became isothermal with increasing time. These results suggest that the magnetic flux intrudes inhomogeneously into the bulk from the edge of the top surface and the periphery at the early stage. The inhomogeneous magnetic flux intrusion and the flux trap during PFM change depending on the strength of the pulsed field and the pulse number in the successive pulse field application.

  19. Bulk viscosity of quark-gluon matter in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Agasian, N. O.

    2013-11-15

    On the basis of low-energy QCD theorems, the bulk viscosity {zeta}(T, Micro-Sign , H) is expressed in terms of basic thermodynamic quantities that characterizes quark-gluon matter at finite temperature and a finite baryon density in a magnetic field. Various limiting cases are considered.

  20. Espisodic detachment of Martian crustal magnetic fields leading to bulk atmospheric plasma escape

    SciTech Connect

    Brain, D A; Baker, A H; Briggs, J; Eastwood, J P; Halekas, J S; Phan, T

    2009-06-02

    We present an analysis of magnetic field and suprathermal electron measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft that reveals isolated magnetic structures filled with Martian atmospheric plasma located downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields with respect to the flowing solar wind. The structures are characterized by magnetic field enhancements and rotations characteristic of magnetic flux ropes, and characteristic ionospheric electron energy distributions with angular distributions distinct from surrounding regions. These observations indicate that significant amounts of atmosphere are intermittently being carried away from Mars by a bulk removal process: the top portions of crustal field loops are stretched through interaction with the solar wind and detach via magnetic reconnection. This process occurs frequently and may account for as much as 10% of the total present-day ion escape from Mars.

  1. Magnetic levitation and its application for education devices based on YBCO bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. M.; Chao, X. X.; Guo, F. X.; Li, J. W.; Chen, S. L.

    2013-10-01

    A small superconducting maglev propeller system, a small spacecraft model suspending and moving around a terrestrial globe, several small maglev vehicle models and a magnetic circuit converter have been designed and constructed. The track was paved by NdFeB magnets, the arrangement of the magnets made us easy to get a uniform distribution of magnetic field along the length direction of the track and a high magnetic field gradient in the lateral direction. When the YBCO bulks mounted inside the vehicle models or spacecraft model was field cooled to LN2 temperature at a certain distance away from the track, they could be automatically floating over and moving along the track without any obvious friction. The models can be used as experimental or demonstration devices for the magnetic levitation applications.

  2. Electrically detected and conventional magnetic resonance investigation of surface and bulk states in polyaniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Fernando A.; Graeff, Carlos F. O.

    2007-04-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used to investigate emeraldine base polyaniline films. The magnetic susceptibility presented a Curie (localized spins)—Pauli (delocalized spins) transition at 240 K, when we also observed a transition in the dependence of the g factor with temperature (T). Peak-to-peak linewidth decreases with increasing temperature, reflecting that motional narrowing limits the hyperfine and dipolar broadening in this polymer. EDMR spectra could only be observed above 250 K in accordance to EPR results. Surface and bulk transport could be separated and their analysis reflected the effect of magnetic interaction with oxygen.

  3. Intergrain magnetic properties and critical currents of T1-1223 bulk and tape superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalecki, R.; Kolodziejczyk, A.; Chmist, J.; König, W.; Gritzner, G.

    2000-11-01

    The magnetic field and the temperature dependencies of the dispersive and the absorption components of the low frequency ac magnetic susceptibility for Pb and Bi single doped bulk superconductors as well as for Pb and Bi co-doped Ag-sheathed superconducting T1-1223 tapes have been measured and analyzed. The studies were accompanied by optical and electron microscopic observations of the microstructure. The ac susceptibility measured at various ac magnetic field amplitudes showed both intergrain and intragrain features. The temperature dependencies of the intergrain critical current densities were extracted from the absorption susceptibility via a modified Bean model. They were at relevant temperatures one order of magnitude larger for the tape than for the bulk specimens.

  4. Improved performance of SrFe12O19 bulk magnets through bottom-up nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saura-Múzquiz, Matilde; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia; Stingaciu, Marian; Bøjesen, Espen Drath; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Eikeland, Espen; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The influence of synthesis and compaction parameters is investigated with regards to formation of high performance SrFe12O19 bulk magnets. The produced magnets consist of highly aligned, single-magnetic domain nanoplatelets of SrFe12O19. The relationship between the magnetic performance of the samples and their structural features is established through systematic characterization by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data (PXRD). The analysis is supported by complementary techniques including Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray pole figure measurements. SrFe12O19 hexagonal nanoplatelets with various sizes are synthesized by a supercritical hydrothermal flow method. The crystallite sizes are tuned by varying the Fe/Sr ratio in the precursor solution. Compaction of SrFe12O19 nanoplatelets into bulk magnets is performed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Rietveld refinement of the pressed pellets and texture analysis of pole figure measurements reveal that SPS pressing produces a high degree of alignment of the nanoplatelets, achieved without applying any magnetic field prior or during compaction. The highly aligned nanocrystallites combined with crystal growth during SPS give rise to an enormous enhancement of the magnetic properties compared to the as-synthesized powders, leading to high performance bulk magnets with energy products of 26 kJ m-3.The influence of synthesis and compaction parameters is investigated with regards to formation of high performance SrFe12O19 bulk magnets. The produced magnets consist of highly aligned, single-magnetic domain nanoplatelets of SrFe12O19. The relationship between the magnetic performance of the samples and their structural features is established through systematic characterization by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data (PXRD). The analysis is supported by complementary

  5. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  6. Coexistence of bulk and surface polaritons in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice influenced by a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Fesenko, Volodymyr I.; Fedorin, Illia V.; Sun, Hong-Bo; Han, Wei

    2017-03-01

    It is demonstrated that the effect of coexistence of bulk and surface polaritons within the same frequency band and the wavevector space can be achieved in a magnetic-semiconductor superlattice, providing a conscious choice of characteristic resonant frequencies and material fractions of the structure's underlying components as well as geometry of the external static magnetic field. The study is based on the effective medium theory, which is involved to calculate dispersion characteristics of the long-wavelength electromagnetic modes of ordinary and extraordinary bulk polaritons, and hybrid surface polaritons with dominant longitudinal component of either magnetic (HE) or electric (EH) field derived via averaged expressions with respect to the effective constitutive parameters of the superlattice.

  7. A portable magnetic field of >3 T generated by the flux jump assisted, pulsed field magnetization of bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Difan; Ainslie, Mark D.; Shi, Yunhua; Dennis, Anthony R.; Huang, Kaiyuan; Hull, John R.; Cardwell, David A.; Durrell, John H.

    2017-02-01

    A trapped magnetic field of greater than 3 T has been achieved in a single grain GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBaCuO) bulk superconductor of diameter 30 mm by employing pulsed field magnetization. The magnet system is portable and operates at temperatures between 50 K and 60 K. Flux jump behaviour was observed consistently during magnetization when the applied pulsed field, Ba, exceeded a critical value (e.g., 3.78 T at 60 K). A sharp dBa/dt is essential to this phenomenon. This flux jump behaviour enables the magnetic flux to penetrate fully to the centre of the bulk superconductor, resulting in full magnetization of the sample without requiring an applied field as large as that predicted by the Bean model. We show that this flux jump behaviour can occur over a wide range of fields and temperatures, and that it can be exploited in a practical quasi-permanent magnet system.

  8. Mechanism of thickness dependence of critical current density in HTS YBCO film and its elimination using nano-engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang

    The most promising characteristic of a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is its ability to carry larger electrical current at liquid nitrogen boiling temperature and strong applied magnetic field with minimal dissipation. Numerous large scale applications such as HTS transmission cables, HTS magnets and HTS motors have been developed using HTS materials. The major limitation that prevents its wide commercialization is its high cost-to-performance ratio. However, the effort to further improve HTS current carrying capability is jeopardized by a mysterious thickness dependence of the critical current density (Jc) --- Jc monotonically decreases with increasing thickness (t) at 77 K and self-field (SF). This poses a great challenge for both HTS applications and the understanding of vortex dynamics. What further complicates this issue is the complex defect structure in HTS films as well as the creep nature of magnetic vortices at a finite temperature. After a systematic study of the temperature and magnetic field effects on Jc--t, we conclude that Jc--t is most likely the result of a collective pinning effect dictated by a random pinning potential. Besides that, thermal fluctuations also alter Jc--t in a predictable way. Therefore, by either modifying the vortex structure or pinning structure, J c--t can be eliminated. Indeed, a thin film J c has been restored in a HTS/insulator/HTS trilayer while the magnetic coupling is weakened. Moreover, Jc--t has been removed when the random distributed point pins are overpowered by strong linear defects.

  9. Flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks during pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Naito, T.; Ainslie, M. D.; Giunchi, G.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed field magnetization (PFM) of a high-J c MgB2 bulk disk has been investigated at 20 K, in which flux jumps frequently occur for high pulsed fields. Using a numerical simulation of the PFM procedure, we estimated the time dependence of the local magnetic field and temperature during PFM. We analyzed the electromagnetic and thermal instability of the high-J c MgB2 bulk to avoid flux jumps using the time dependence of the critical thickness, d c(t), which shows the upper safety thickness to stabilize the superconductor magnetically, and the minimum propagation zone length, l m(t), to obtain dynamical stability. The values of d c(t) and l m(t) change along the thermally-stabilized direction with increasing temperature below the critical temperature, T c. However, the flux jump can be qualitatively understood by the local temperature, T(t), which exceeds T c in the bulk. Finally, possible solutions to avoid flux jumps in high-J c MgB2 bulks are discussed.

  10. Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2011-03-28

    This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.

  11. Absence of an elastic vortex glass in disordered HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miu, L.

    2008-09-01

    Analyses of standard current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of disordered high-temperature superconductors (HTS) indicate that the vortex phase at high magnetic fields H should be an elastic vortex glass, where the vortex pinning barriers diverge at low current densities, whereas dc magnetization relaxation measurements reveal the presence of nondiverging (plastic) pinning barriers in a wide H- T domain. We show that the different conclusions concerning the nature of the vortex phase at high H in disordered HTS seem to be due to the ordering effect of the driving force existing in various experiments.

  12. Effect of temperature and magnetic field on magnetomechanical damping of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrens-Serra, J.; Solivelles, F.; Corró, M. L.; Stoica, M.; Kustov, S.

    2016-12-01

    Temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetomechanical damping (MMD) of two ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with different Curie temperatures, T C, have been studied over a broad temperature interval from the para-ferromagnetic transition down to 15 K. The damping has been scanned under periodic magnetic field at certain preselected temperatures in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. The selection of bulk metallic glasses for investigations allowed us to eliminate all dislocation-related anelastic effects and facilitated separation of the MMD components. Under zero field, the non-linear MMD emerges at T C and first increases linearly with (T C  -  T), then levels off until a maximum is formed at around 36 K. At lower temperatures, the magnetic domain wall related non-linear MMD component is partially or completely supressed, depending on the alloy composition. Qualitatively similar anomaly is found in the temperature dependence of the linear macroeddy current damping. These anomalies in the temperature spectra are concomitant with the emergence of a notable hysteresis in MMD versus periodic field dependences and of a maximum of non-linear MMD close to the position of the macroeddy damping peak. The uncovered phenomena are attributed to abrupt change of magnetic properties of ferromagnetic bulk metallic glasses at low temperatures, presumably due to the re-entrant spin glass transition.

  13. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  14. Fe-Zr-Nd-Y-B permanent magnet derived from crystallization of bulk amorphous alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiaohua; Xu, Hui; Bai, Qin; Dong, Yuanda

    2007-12-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B/(Fe3B,α-Fe) nanocomposite magnet derived form crystallization of bulk amorphous Fe68Zr2Y4B21Nd5 alloy, which was prepared by copper mold casting, have been investigated. The obtaining maximum values of Ms, Mr, Hci, and (BH)max annealed at 963K for Fe68Zr2Nd5Y4B21 alloy are 86Am2/kg, 49Am2/kg, 380kA/m, and 43kJ/m3, respectively. δM plot, high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, and three-dimensional atom probe technique clarified that the hard magnetic behavior is due to the exchange coupling between soft and hard magnetic nanophases.

  15. Influence of Critical Current Density on Magnetic Force of Htsc Bulk above Pmr with 3D-MODELING Numerical Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiyun; Lu, Bingjuan; Ge, Yunwang; Chen, Wenqing

    Numerical electromagnetic field simulations of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) bulk were carried out to calculate the magnetic force between the HTSC bulk and the permanent magnet railway (PMR). A 3D-modeling numerical calculation method is proposed using the finite element method. The model is formulated with the magnetic field vector (H-method). The resulting code was written with FORTRAN language. The electric field intensity E and the current density J constitutive relation of HTSC were described with E-J power law. The Kim macro-model is used to describe critical current density Jc of HTSC bulk. Two virtual HTSC bulks were used to solve the critical current density Jc anisotropic properties of HTSC materials. A superconducting levitation system composed of one HTSC bulk and PMR is successfully investigated using the proposed method. By this method, the influence of critical current density on magnetic levitation force of the superconducting levitation system is mathematically studied.

  16. Bulk interface engineering for enhanced magnetization in multiferroic BiFeO3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Shreeja; Bhuwal, Deepika; Banerjee, Alok; Shelke, Vilas

    2013-02-01

    We investigated composites of two antiferromagnetic perovskite oxides BiFeO3 and LaMnO3 to study change in bulk magnetic behavior. Composites with nominal compositions (1-x)BiFeO3-xLaMnO3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 20 wt. %) were synthesized by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis performed using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicated presence of phase separated compounds. Significant enhancement in magnetic moment is observed in composite samples, which was attributed to the uncompensated spins at the interface of two distinct antiferromagnetic phases.

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering correlation functions of bulk magnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    Mettus, Denis; Michels, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum theory of micromagnetics, the correlation function of the spin-misalignment small-angle neutron scattering cross section of bulk ferromagnets (e.g. elemental polycrystalline ferromagnets, soft and hard magnetic nanocomposites, nanoporous ferromagnets, or magnetic steels) is computed. For such materials, the spin disorder which is related to spatial variations in the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy field results in strong spin-misalignment scattering dΣM/dΩ along the forward direction. When the applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the incoming neutron beam, the characteristics of dΣM/dΩ (e.g. the angular anisotropy on a two-dimensional detector or the asymptotic power-law exponent) are determined by the ratio of magnetic anisotropy field strength H p to the jump ΔM in the saturation magnetization at internal interfaces. Here, the corresponding one- and two-dimensional real-space correlations are analyzed as a function of applied magnetic field, the ratio H p/ΔM, the single-particle form factor and the particle volume fraction. Finally, the theoretical results for the correlation function are compared with experimental data on nanocrystalline cobalt and nickel. PMID:26500464

  18. Magnetic resonance study of bulk and thin film EuTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Kamba, S.; Maryško, M.; Andrzejewski, B.; Kachlík, M.; Maca, K.; Lee, J. H.; Schlom, D. G.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance spectra of EuTiO3 in both bulk and thin film form were taken at temperatures from 3–350 K and microwave frequencies from 9.2–9.8 and 34 GHz. In the paramagnetic phase, magnetic resonance spectra are determined by magnetic dipole and exchange interactions between Eu2+ spins. In the film, a large contribution arises from the demagnetization field. From detailed analysis of the linewidth and its temperature dependence, the parameters of spin–spin interactions were determined: the exchange frequency is 10.5 GHz and the estimated critical exponent of the spin correlation length is  ≈0.4. In the bulk samples, the spectra exhibited a distinct minimum in the linewidth at the Néel temperature, T N  ≈  5.5 K, while the resonance field practically does not change even on cooling below T N. This is indicative of a small magnetic anisotropy ~320 G in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the film, the magnetic resonance spectrum is split below T N into several components due to excitation of the magnetostatic modes, corresponding to a non-uniform precession of magnetization. Moreover, the film was observed to degrade over two years. This was manifested by an increase of defects and a change in the domain structure. The saturated magnetization in the film, estimated from the magnetic resonance spectrum, was about 900 emu cm‑3 or 5.5 µ B/unit cell at T  =  3.5 K.

  19. Magnetic levitation using high temperature superconducting pancake coils as composite bulk cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Hopkins, S. C.; Baskys, A.; Kalitka, V.; Molodyk, A.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    Stacks of superconducting tape can be used as composite bulk superconductors for both trapped field magnets and for magnetic levitation. Little previous work has been done on quantifying the levitation force behavior between stacks of tape and permanent magnets. This paper reports the axial levitation force properties of superconducting tape wound into pancake coils to act as a composite bulk cylinder, showing that similar stable forces to those expected from a uniform bulk cylinder are possible. Force creep was also measured and simulated for the system. The geometry tested is a possible candidate for a rotary superconducting bearing. Detailed finite element modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics was also performed including a full critical state model for induced currents, with temperature and field dependent properties and 3D levitation force models. This work represents one of the most complete levitation force modeling frameworks yet reported using the H-formulation and helps explain why the coil-like stacks of tape are able to sustain levitation forces. The flexibility of geometry and consistency of superconducting properties offered by stacks of tapes, make them attractive for superconducting levitation applications.

  20. Parametric Study of HTS Coil Quench Protection Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Joseph; Zarnstorff, Michael; Zhai, Yuhu

    2016-10-01

    Next generation fusion devices require high magnetic fields to adequately contain burning plasmas. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to generate these magnetic fields would lower energy cost of operation as well as increase stability of the superconducting state compared to low temperature superconducting coils. However, use of HTS coils requires developing quench protection strategies to prevent damage to the coils. One technique involves the utilization of copper discs and other conductors mutually coupled to the HTS coil to quickly extract the current from the coil. Another technique allows conduction between HTS turns to reduce the current in the coil during quench. This project describes a parametric study of the HTS coil and resistive-conductor setup in order to determine limiting cases of the geometry in an attempt to optimize current extraction and coil protection during quench scenarios. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program.

  1. 3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications.

  2. The size effect on the magnetic levitation force of MgB2 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaskan, B.; Koparan, E. T.; Güner, S. B.; Celik, S.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the size effect on the magnetic levitation performance of disk-shaped MgB2 bulk superconductors and permanent magnets was investigated. MgB2 samples with varying diameters of 13 mm, 15 mm and 18 mm, each of which were 2 g in mass, were prepared by two-step solid state reaction method. Vertical levitation force measurements under both zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes were carried out at different temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K. It was determined that the levitation force of the MgB2 strongly depends on both the diameters of the sample and the permanent magnet. In ZFC regime, the maximum levitation force value for the permanent magnet and the sample 18 mm in diameters reached to the 8.41 N at 20 K. In addition, in FC regime, attractive and repulsive force increased with increasing diameters of the sample and the permanent magnet. In that, the sample with 18 mm in diameter showed the highest attractive force value -3.46 N at 20 K and FC regime. The results obtained in this study are very useful in magnetic levitation devices as there is no detailed study on the size of superconductors and permanent magnets.

  3. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  4. Enhanced trapped field performance of bulk high-temperature superconductors using split coil, pulsed field magnetization with an iron yoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Takahashi, K.; Shi, Y.-H.; Namburi, D. K.; Zou, J.; Zhou, D.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    Investigating and predicting the magnetization of bulk superconducting materials and developing practical magnetizing techniques is crucial to using them as trapped field magnets in engineering applications. The pulsed field magnetization (PFM) technique is considered to be a compact, mobile and relative inexpensive way to magnetize bulk samples, requiring shorter magnetization times (on the order of milliseconds) and a smaller and less complicated magnetization fixture; however, the trapped field produced by PFM is generally much smaller than that of slower zero field cooling or field cooling techniques, particularly at lower operating temperatures. In this paper, the PFM of two, standard Ag-containing Gd-Ba-Cu-O samples is carried out using two types of magnetizing coils: (1) a solenoid coil, and (2) a split coil, both of which make use of an iron yoke to enhance the trapped magnetic field. It is shown that a significantly higher trapped field can be achieved using a split coil with an iron yoke, and in order to explain these how this arrangement works in detail, numerical simulations using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H -formulation are carried to qualitatively reproduce and analyze the magnetization process from both electromagnetic and thermal points of view. It is observed that after the pulse peak significantly less flux exits the bulk when the iron core is present, resulting in a higher peak trapped field, as well as more overall trapped flux, after the magnetization process is complete. The results have important implications for practical applications of bulk superconductors as such a split coil arrangement with an iron yoke could be incorporated into the design of a portable, high magnetic field source/magnet to enhance the available magnetic field or in an axial gap-type bulk superconducting electric machine, where iron can be incorporated into the stator windings to (1) improve the trapped field from the magnetization process

  5. Determination of Bulk Magnetic Volume Properties by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünzweig, Christian; Siebert, René; Betz, Benedikt; Rauscher, Peter; Schäfer, Rudolf; Lehmann, Eberhard

    For the production of high-class electrical steel grades a deeper understanding of the magnetic domain interaction with induced mechanical stresses is strongly required. This holds for non-oriented (NO) as well as grain-oriented (GO) steels. In the case of non-oriented steels the magnetic property degeneration after punching or laser cutting is essential for selecting correct obstructing material grades and designing efficient electrical machines. Until now these effects stay undiscovered due to the lack of adequate investigation methods that reveal local bulk information on processed laminations. Here we show how the use of a non-destructive testing method based on a neutron grating interferometry providing the dark-field image contrast delivers spatially-resolved transmission information about the local bulk domain arrangement and domain wall density. With the help of this technique it is possible to visualize magnetization processes within the NO laminations. Different representative manufacturing techniques are compared in terms of magnetic flux density deterioration such as punching, mechanically cutting by guillotine as well as laser fusion cutting using industrial high power laser beam sources. For GO steel laminations the method is applicable on the one hand to visualize the internal domain structure without being hindered by the coating layer. On the other hand, we can show the influence of the coating layer onto the underlying domain structure.

  6. Structure and magnetism of bulk Fe and Cr: from plane waves to LCAO methods.

    PubMed

    Soulairol, R; Fu, Chu-Chun; Barreteau, C

    2010-07-28

    Magnetic, structural and energetic properties of bulk Fe and Cr were studied using first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT). We aimed to identify the dependence of these properties on key approximations of DFT, namely the exchange-correlation functional, the pseudopotential and the basis set. We found a smaller effect of pseudopotentials (PPs) on Fe than on Cr. For instance, the local magnetism of Cr was shown to be particularly sensitive to the potentials representing the core electrons, i.e. projector augmented wave and Vanderbilt ultrasoft PPs predict similar results, whereas standard norm-conserving PPs tend to overestimate the local magnetic moments of Cr in bcc Cr and in dilute bcc FeCr alloys. This drawback is suggested to be closely correlated to the overestimation of Cr solution energy in the latter system. On the other hand, we point out that DFT methods with very reduced localized basis sets (LCAO: linear combination of atomic orbitals) give satisfactory results compared with more robust plane-wave approaches. A minimal-basis representation of '3d' electrons comes to be sufficient to describe non-trivial magnetic phases including spin spirals in both fcc Fe and bcc Cr, as well as the experimental magnetic ground state of bcc Cr showing a spin density wave (SDW) state. In addition, a magnetic 'spd' tight binding model within the Stoner formalism was proposed and validated for Fe and Cr. The respective Stoner parameters were obtained by fitting to DFT data. This efficient semiempirical approach was shown to be accurate enough for studying various collinear and non-collinear phases of bulk Fe and Cr. It also enabled a detailed investigation of different polarization states of SDW in bcc Cr, where the longitudinal state was suggested to be the ground state, consistent with existing experimental data.

  7. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of PrMnO{sub 3} Bulk and Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K. P.; Halim, S. A.; Chen, S. K.; Ng, S. W.; Wong, J. K.; Gan, H. M. Albert; Woon, H. S.

    2011-03-30

    Perovskite PrMnO{sub 3}(PMO) had been prepared in bulk by solid state reaction and thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. SEM micrographs show that grains with size 2{approx}3 {mu}m is observed in bulk PMO while thin films PMO show strongly connected grain structure with particle size that not larger than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all samples are in single phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Bulk PMO sample had lattice strain of 0.134% which is the lowest value among others. However, larger lattice strain was observed in thin film samples due to lattice mismatch between film-substrate and caused the MnO{sub 6} to deform. All samples shown paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior, enhancement in magnetization value occurred for all PMO grew as film. We believe that larger lattice strain favor the grain growth of PMO towards more order phase. In summary, formation of structure and microstructure of thin film PMO depends on type of substrate used and it affect the magnetic property.

  8. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    PubMed

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  9. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, R.; Philippe, M.; Wera, L.; Fagnard, J. F.; Vanderheyden, B.; Dennis, A.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  10. Study of thermal effects in bulk RE-BCO superconductors submitted to a variable magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Ph; Fagnard, J.-F.; Mathieu, J.-P.; Meslin, S.; Noudem, J. G.; Cloots, R.; Ausloos, M.; Vanderbemden, Ph

    2006-06-01

    When bulk RE-BCO superconductors are used as permanent magnets in engineering applications, they are likely to experience transient variations of the applied magnetic field. The resulting vortex motion may cause a significant temperature increase. As a consequence the initial trapped flux is reduced. In the present work, we first focus on the cause of a temperature increase. The temperature distribution within a superconducting finite cylinder subjected to an alternating magnetic field is theoretically predicted. Results are compared to experimental data obtained by two temperature sensors attached to a bulk YBCO pellet. Second, we consider curative methods for reducing the effect of heat flux on the temperature increase. Hall-probe mappings on YBCO samples maintained out of the thermal equilibrium are performed for two different morphologies : a plain single domain and a single domain with a regularly spaced hole array. The drilled single-domain displays a trapped induction which is weakly affected by the local heating while displaying a high trapped field.

  11. Frequency-Induced Bulk Magnetic Domain-Wall Freezing Visualized by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Schäfer, R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-08-01

    We use neutron dark-field imaging to visualize and interpret the response of bulk magnetic domain walls to static and dynamic magnetic excitations in (110)-Goss textured iron silicon high-permeability steel alloy. We investigate the domain-wall motion under the influence of an external alternating sinusoidal magnetic field. In particular, we perform scans combining varying levels of dcoffset (0 - 30 A /m ) , oscillation amplitude Aac (0 - 1500 A /m ) , and frequency fac ((0 - 200 Hz ) . By increasing amplitude Aac while maintaining constant values of dcoffset and fac , we record the transition from a frozen domain-wall structure to a mobile one. Vice versa, increasing fac while keeping Aac and dcoffset constant led to the reverse transition from a mobile domain-wall structure into a frozen one. We show that varying both Aac and fac shifts the position of the transition region. Furthermore, we demonstrate that higher frequencies require higher oscillation amplitudes to overcome the freezing phenomena. The fundamental determination and understanding of the frequency-induced freezing process in high-permeability steel alloys is of high interest to the further development of descriptive models for bulk macromagnetic phenomena. Likewise, the efficiency of transformers can be improved based on our results, since these alloys are used as transformer core material.

  12. Magnetic property of a staggered-array undulator using a bulk high-temperature superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinjo, Ryota; Mishima, Kenta; Choi, Yong-Woon; Omer, Mohamed; Yoshida, Kyohei; Negm, Hani; Torgasin, Konstantin; Shibata, Marie; Shimahashi, Kyohei; Imon, Hidekazu; Okumura, Kensuke; Inukai, Motoharu; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Masuda, Kai; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2014-02-01

    The magnetic field of a staggered-array undulator using a bulk high-temperature superconductor is calculated by analytical and numerical methods. Analytical formulas for the undulator field and the solenoid field required to generate the undulator field are derived from a simple two-dimensional model. The analytical calculation shows the degree of dependence of these fields on the undulator parameters, the generation of a high undulator field proportional to the critical current density of the bulk superconductor, and the good tunability of the undulator field over a wide range of values. The numerical calculation is performed in a three-dimensional geometry by two methods: the center field and energy minimization methods. The latter treats the current distribution inside the bulk, whereas the former neglects it as a natural extension of the analytical model. The calculation also reveals the dependence of the fields on the undulator parameters arising from the current distribution. From the comparison with experimental results, we find that the latter method reproduces the experimental results well, which indicates the importance of the current distribution inside the bulk. Therefore, we derive a semiempirical formula for the required solenoid field by modifying the analytical formula using the numerical results so as to include the effect of the current distribution. The semiempirical formula reproduces the numerical result with an error of 3%. Finally, we estimate the magnetic performance of the undulator as an example of using the formulas and values presented in this paper. The estimation shows that an undulator field twice as large as that of the present in-vacuum undulator but with an equal period and gap can be obtained at a temperature of approximately 20-40 K, and that deflection parameters (K values) of 1 and 2 can be achieved with periods of 5 and 10 mm at approximately 4-20 K.

  13. Magnetic superelevation design of Halbach permanent magnet guideway for high-temperature superconducting maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wuyang; Qian, Nan; Zheng, Jun; Huang, Huan; Zhang, Ya; Deng, Zigang

    2017-07-01

    To improve the curve negotiating ability of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev system, a special structure of magnetic superelevation for double-pole Halbach permanent magnet guideway (PMG) was designed. The most significant feature of this design is the asymmetrical PMG that forms a slanting magnetic field without affecting the smoothness of the PMG surface. When HTS maglev vehicle runs through curves with magnetic superelevation, the vehicle will slant due to asymmetry in magnetic field and the flux-pinning effect of onboard HTS bulks. At the same time, one component of the levitation force provides a part of the centripetal force that reduces lateral acceleration of the vehicle and thus enhances its curve negotiating ability. Furthermore, the slant angle of magnetic superelevation can be adjusted by changing the materials and the thickness of the added permanent magnets. This magnetic superelevation method, together with orographic uplift, can be applied to different requirements of PMG designs. Besides, the applicability of this method would benefit future development of high-speed HTS maglev system.

  14. Magnetic modification at sub-surface of FeRh bulk by energetic ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, T.; Iwase, A.; Uno, H.; Sakane, H.; Sakamaki, M.; Amemiya, K.; Matsui, T.

    2015-05-07

    Ferromagnetic layered structure has been made at sub-surface of the antiferromagnetic FeRh bulk samples by high energy He ion beam irradiation. In accordance with the Transport of Ions in Matter simulation, such ion beam can effectively deposit the elastic collision energy in several μm regions in the depth from the surface. Measurement with a superconducting quantum interference device reveals the irradiated samples to be ferromagnetic. Assuming that only the part the energy deposited can be modified to be ferromagnetic, the corresponding irradiation induced magnetization is consistent with the data that we previously reported. On the other hand, the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra for the irradiated samples are totally unchanged as those for the unirradiated samples. Since XMCD signal in total emission yield method is considered to be surface sensitive with a typical probing depth of several nm, the surface magnetic state is maintained to be antiferromagnetic. By utilizing these phenomena, three-dimensional magnetic patterning of FeRh can be realized, which may potentially be used for future magnetic exchange device application such as nano-scale sensors and memories.

  15. Application of 60 mm/φ superconducting bulk magnet to magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, T.; Kashimoto, S.; Imai, A.; Yanagi, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.; Sakurai, K.; Hazama, H.

    2003-10-01

    We constructed the planar magnetron sputtering apparatus using a c-axis oriented single-domain Sm123 bulk superconductor with 60 mm in diameter as a very powerful magnet in place of an ordinary Nd-Fe-B magnet. A high magnetic field of 4.2 T at the surface of the superconductor coupled with a high target voltage of maximum 6 kV enabled us to discharge even at pressure of 1 × 10 -3 Pa. A target-to-substrate distance of 300 mm was successfully employed under low pressures of 10 -2-10 -3 Pa to make the deposition of almost contamination-free films feasible. The simulation software (JMAG) was used to optimize the magnetic circuit configurations. The simulations could reproduce well the distribution of the magnetic field above the target measured by a three-axial Hall sensor. The discharging characteristics of Cu, Ni and Fe targets in the pressure range over 10 -1-10 -3 Pa were studied under different target voltages. The deposition rates of 0.063 nm/s (or 38 Å/min) and 0.013 nm/s (or 8 Å/min) were achieved for Cu and Fe targets with 3 mm in thickness, respectively, under the Ar pressure of 6.6 × 10 -2 Pa (or 4.9 × 10 -4 Torr).

  16. Magnetic modification at sub-surface of FeRh bulk by energetic ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, T.; Uno, H.; Sakane, H.; Sakamaki, M.; Amemiya, K.; Iwase, A.; Matsui, T.

    2015-05-01

    Ferromagnetic layered structure has been made at sub-surface of the antiferromagnetic FeRh bulk samples by high energy He ion beam irradiation. In accordance with the Transport of Ions in Matter simulation, such ion beam can effectively deposit the elastic collision energy in several μm regions in the depth from the surface. Measurement with a superconducting quantum interference device reveals the irradiated samples to be ferromagnetic. Assuming that only the part the energy deposited can be modified to be ferromagnetic, the corresponding irradiation induced magnetization is consistent with the data that we previously reported. On the other hand, the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra for the irradiated samples are totally unchanged as those for the unirradiated samples. Since XMCD signal in total emission yield method is considered to be surface sensitive with a typical probing depth of several nm, the surface magnetic state is maintained to be antiferromagnetic. By utilizing these phenomena, three-dimensional magnetic patterning of FeRh can be realized, which may potentially be used for future magnetic exchange device application such as nano-scale sensors and memories.

  17. Bulk magnetization properties of the Fra Mauro and Reiner Gamma Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    In the reported investigation, bulk magnetization properties within two lunar surface geologic units have been inferred using low-altitude, high-resolution Apollo 16 subsatellite magnetometer data. On the basis of correlations of mapped anomalies with relatively surficial units on the central near side, a surface plate model with thickness much less than the subsatellite altitude was adopted and was used to represent the sources of largest anomalies. The results strongly suggest that directional coherence of the surface density of magnetization can occur over horizontal scales up to 100 km. Tentative evidence for a lack of directional coherence on scales greater than 100 km was found in the case of the Fra Mauro Formation.

  18. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  19. Comparison of Magnetic Behavior in Nanostructured and Bulk-Crystalline MnxTaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Paul; Beving, Lucas; Fleming, Matthew; Burken, Payton; Kidd, Tim; Strauss, Laura; Chen, Chih-Wei; Morosan, Emilia

    The magnetic behavior of nanostructured MnxTaS2 for several different Mn concentrations x have been studied and a magnetic phase diagram obtained. For x values between 0.15 (the lowest measured) and 0.19, the nanostructured system shows cluster-glass behavior as evidenced by spin relaxation well described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law as well as aging effects in the dc magnetization and ac susceptibility. For x values between 0.19 and 0.24, nanostructured MnxTaS2 displays re-entrant cluster-glass characteristics, with transitions from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism at higher temperature and ferromagnetism to cluster glass at lower temperature. The tricritical point where all three phases converge seems to be close to x = 0.19. Results for single-crystal MnxTaS2 from the literature show single transitions: paramagnetism to ferromagnetism for x = 0.25 and paramagnetism to cluster glass for x values in the range 0.02-0.1. For comparable x values, Curie temperatures seem to be slightly higher and cluster-glass transition temperatures slightly lower in the nanostructures. Bulk crystalline samples with Mn concentrations in the range 0.1-0.25 are currently being studied to more comprehensively compare the magnetic phase diagrams. Supported by NSF Grant DMR 1206530.

  20. Bulk SmCo5/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets fabricated by mould-free Joule-heating compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Chuanbing; Zhang, Ying; Poudyal, Narayan; Wang, Dapeng; Kramer, M. J.; Liu, J. Ping

    2011-04-01

    Bulk SmCo5/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets have been prepared using a Joule-heating compaction technique. Nearly fully dense bulk magnets are obtained by compacting the milled powders under a pressure of 2 GPa at temperatures above 400 °C. Structural analysis shows that the grain size of both the SmCo5 and the α-Fe phases is in the range of 10 to 15 nm when the compaction temperature is lower than 500 °C, which ensures effective interphase exchange coupling. A further increase in compaction temperature leads to significant grain growth and deterioration of magnetic properties. A maximum energy product of about 18.5 MGOe was obtained in the bulk SmCo5/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets, which is 90% higher than that of the single-phase counterpart prepared under the same conditions.

  1. In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Schäfer, R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2016-01-04

    The performance and degree of efficiency of industrial transformers are directly influenced by the magnetic properties of high-permeability steel laminations (HPSLs). Industrial transformer cores are built of stacks of single HPSLs. While the insulating coating on each HPSL reduces eddy-current losses in the transformer core, the coating also induces favorable inter-granular tensile stresses that significantly influence the underlying magnetic domain structure. Here, we show that the neutron dark-field image can be used to analyze the influence of the coating on the volume and supplementary surface magnetic domain structures. To visualize the stress effect of the coating on the bulk domain formation, we used an uncoated HPSL and stepwise increased the applied external tensile stress up to 20 MPa. We imaged the domain configuration of the intermediate stress states and were able to reproduce the original domain structure of the coated state. Furthermore, we were able to visualize how the applied stresses lead to a refinement of the volume domain structure and the suppression and reoccurrence of supplementary domains.

  2. Bulk synthesis of monodisperse magnetic FeNi3 nanopowders by flow levitation method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanjun; Chen, Yan; Kang, Xiaoli; Li, Song; Tian, Yonghong; Wu, Weidong; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel bulk synthesis method for monodisperse FeNi3 nanoparticles was developed by flow levitation method (FL). The Fe and Ni vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet was condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. X-ray diffraction was used to identify and characterize the crystal phase of prepared powders exhibiting a FeNi3 phase. The morphology and size of nanopowders were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chemical composition of the nanoparticles was determined with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results indicated that the FeNi3 permalloy powders are nearly spherical-shaped with diameter about 50-200 nm. Measurement of the magnetic property of nanopowders by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, Quantum Design MPMS-7) showed a symmetric hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic behavior with coercivity of 220 Oe and saturation magnetization of 107.17 emu/g, at 293 K. At 5 K, the obtained saturation magnetization of the sample was 102.16 emu/g. The production rate of FeNi3 nanoparticles was estimated to be about 6 g/h. This method has great potential in mass production of FeNi3 nannoparticles.

  3. In-situ visualization of stress-dependent bulk magnetic domain formation by neutron grating interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Schäfer, R.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-01-01

    The performance and degree of efficiency of industrial transformers are directly influenced by the magnetic properties of high-permeability steel laminations (HPSLs). Industrial transformer cores are built of stacks of single HPSLs. While the insulating coating on each HPSL reduces eddy-current losses in the transformer core, the coating also induces favorable inter-granular tensile stresses that significantly influence the underlying magnetic domain structure. Here, we show that the neutron dark-field image can be used to analyze the influence of the coating on the volume and supplementary surface magnetic domain structures. To visualize the stress effect of the coating on the bulk domain formation, we used an uncoated HPSL and stepwise increased the applied external tensile stress up to 20 MPa. We imaged the domain configuration of the intermediate stress states and were able to reproduce the original domain structure of the coated state. Furthermore, we were able to visualize how the applied stresses lead to a refinement of the volume domain structure and the suppression and reoccurrence of supplementary domains.

  4. Theory of AC Loss in Cables with 2G HTS Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, J.R.; Malozemoff, A.P.

    2009-09-13

    While considerable work has been done to understand AC losses in power cables made of first generation (1G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires, use of second generation (2G) HTS wires brings in some new considerations. The high critical current density of the HTS layer 2G wire reduces the surface superconductor hysteretic losses. Instead, gap and polygonal losses, flux transfer losses in imbalanced two layer cables and ferromagnetic losses for wires with NiW substrates constitute the principal contributions. Current imbalance and losses associated with the magnetic substrate can be minimized by orienting the substrates of the inner winding inward and the outer winding outward.

  5. Ambient-Pressure Bulk Superconductivity Deep in the Magnetic State of CeRhIn5

    SciTech Connect

    Paglione,J.; Ho, P.; Maple, M.; Tanatar, M.; Taillefer, L.; Lee, Y.; Petrovic, C.

    2008-01-01

    Specific heat, magnetic susceptibility and electrical transport measurements were performed at ambient pressure on high-quality single crystal specimens of CeRhIn5 down to ultra-low temperatures. We report signatures of an anomaly observed in all measured quantities consistent with a bulk phase transition to a superconducting state at T{sub c}=110 mK. Occurring far below the onset of antiferromagnetism at T{sub N}=3.8 K, this transition appears to involve a significant portion of the available low-temperature density of electronic states, exhibiting an entropy change in line with that found in other members of the 115 family of superconductors tuned away from quantum criticality.

  6. Reduction of the low-temperature bulk gap in samarium hexaboride under high magnetic fields

    DOE PAGES

    Wolgast, S.; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor Fedorovich; ...

    2017-06-13

    SmB6 exhibits a small (15–20 meV) band gap at low temperatures due to hybridized d and f electrons, a tiny (3 meV) transport activation energy EA above 4 K, and surface states accessible to transport below 2 K. We study its magnetoresistance in 60-T pulsed fields between 1.5 and 4 K. The response of the nearly T independent surface states (which show no Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations) is distinct from that of the activated bulk. EA shrinks by 50% under fields up to 60 T. Data up to 93 T suggest that this trend continues beyond 100 T, in contrast tomore » previous explanations. It rules out emerging theories to explain observed exotic magnetic quantum oscillations.« less

  7. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  8. Effects of magnetic nanoparticles and external magnetostatic field on the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  9. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  10. Threefold Increase of the Bulk Electron Temperature of Plasma Discharges in a Magnetic Mirror Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagryansky, P. A.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Lizunov, A. A.; Maximov, V. V.; Prikhodko, V. V.; Soldatkina, E. I.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Yakovlev, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    This Letter describes plasma discharges with a high temperature of bulk electrons in the axially symmetric high-mirror-ratio (R =35 ) open magnetic system gas dynamic trap (GDT) in the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk). According to Thomson scattering measurements, the on-axis electron temperature averaged over a number of sequential shots is 660 ±50 eV with the plasma density being 0.7 ×1 019 m-3 ; in few shots, electron temperature exceeds 900 eV. This corresponds to at least a threefold increase with respect to previous experiments both at GDT and at other comparable machines, thus, demonstrating the highest quasistationary (about 1 ms) electron temperature achieved in open traps. The breakthrough is made possible by application of a new 0.7 MW /54.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating system in addition to standard 5 MW heating by neutral beams, and application of a radial electric field to mitigate the flute instability.

  11. Reduction of the low-temperature bulk gap in samarium hexaboride under high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgast, S.; Eo, Y. S.; Sun, K.; Kurdak, ć.; Balakirev, F. F.; Jaime, M.; Kim, D.-J.; Fisk, Z.

    2017-06-01

    SmB6 exhibits a small (15-20 meV) band gap at low temperatures due to hybridized d and f electrons, a tiny (3 meV) transport activation energy EA above 4 K, and surface states accessible to transport below 2 K. We study its magnetoresistance in 60-T pulsed fields between 1.5 and 4 K. The response of the nearly T independent surface states (which show no Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations) is distinct from that of the activated bulk. EA shrinks by 50% under fields up to 60 T. Data up to 93 T suggest that this trend continues beyond 100 T, in contrast to previous explanations. It rules out emerging theories to explain observed exotic magnetic quantum oscillations.

  12. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency. PMID:25783755

  13. Metallic magnetism and change of conductivity in the nano to bulk transition of cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, A.; Vanidha, D.; Oudayakumar, K.; Rajagopan, S.; Kannan, R.

    2013-11-01

    Variations in conductivity with particle size have been observed in cobalt ferrite, when synthesized by solgel auto-combustion method. Impedance analysis reveals metallic and semiconducting behavior at room temperature for a particle size of 6 nm and 52 nm, respectively. Upon thermal activation, metallic to semiconducting phase transition has been observed as a function of particle size and vice-versa. Grainboundary Resistance (Rgb), increased drastically with particle size (19 MΩ for 6 nm and 259 MΩ for 52 nm) at room temperature. AC conductivity and dielectric constants exhibit similar metallic to semiconducting phase transition at 6 nm and semiconducting behavior at 52 nm with temperature in the selected frequencies. Enhanced magnetic moment with an increase in the grain size along with decreased coercivity (1444 G to 1146 G) reveals transition from single domain to multi-domain. Increased inter-particle interaction is responsible for metallicity at the nano level and on the contrary semiconductivity is attributed to bulk.

  14. Non-destructive observation of electrically detected magnetic resonance in bulk material using AC bias.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki

    2005-07-01

    DC bias is normally found in conventional measurements of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). Usually, electrodes are formed on the sample surface to make ohmic contacts for detecting changes in the electrical characteristics of the sample material. Thus, destructive procedures are required to detect the EDMR signal of bulk material with such methods. An AC bias detection technique was developed to allow the non-destructive EDMR measurement of bulk materials. An AC bridge circuit was constructed to detect the change in impedance of the sample, which when changed by ESR, an unbalanced AC voltage can be detected. By detecting this AC bias, it is possible to cancel the effects, such as Shottky barriers, that disturb the ohmic contact between the electrodes and a sample material. Further, the AC bias current penetrates the thin surface layer of a sample such as silicon oxide, which normally obstructs a DC current. This method was utilized using conductive rubber contacts for non-destructive EDMR measurements of part of a silicon wafer. EDMR spectra observed were the same as those obtained by the conventional method of using DC bias detection.

  15. Non-destructive observation of electrically detected magnetic resonance in bulk material using AC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki

    2005-07-01

    DC bias is normally found in conventional measurements of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). Usually, electrodes are formed on the sample surface to make ohmic contacts for detecting changes in the electrical characteristics of the sample material. Thus, destructive procedures are required to detect the EDMR signal of bulk material with such methods. An AC bias detection technique was developed to allow the non-destructive EDMR measurement of bulk materials. An AC bridge circuit was constructed to detect the change in impedance of the sample, which when changed by ESR, an unbalanced AC voltage can be detected. By detecting this AC bias, it is possible to cancel the effects, such as Shottky barriers, that disturb the ohmic contact between the electrodes and a sample material. Further, the AC bias current penetrates the thin surface layer of a sample such as silicon oxide, which normally obstructs a DC current. This method was utilized using conductive rubber contacts for non-destructive EDMR measurements of part of a silicon wafer. EDMR spectra observed were the same as those obtained by the conventional method of using DC bias detection.

  16. Skyrmions in quasi-2D chiral magnets with broken bulk and surface inversion symmetry (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit; Banerjee, Sumilan; Rowland, James

    2015-09-01

    Most theoretical studies of chiral magnetism, and the resulting spin textures, have focused on 3D systems with broken bulk inversion symmetry, where skyrmions are stabilized by easy-axis anisotropy. In this talk I will describe our results on 2D and quasi-2D systems with broken surface inversion, where we find [1] that skyrmion crystals are much more stable than in 3D, especially for the case of easy-plane anisotropy. These results are of particular interest for thin films, surfaces, and oxide interfaces [2], where broken surface-inversion symmetry and Rashba spin-orbit coupling naturally lead to both the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and to easy-plane compass anisotropy. I will then turn to systems that break both bulk and surface inversion, resulting in two distinct DM terms arising from Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. I will describe [3] the evolution of the skyrmion structure and of the phase diagram as a function of the ratio of Dresselhaus and Rashba terms, which can be tuned by varying film thickness and strain. [1] S. Banerjee, J. Rowland, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, PRX 4, 031045 (2014). [2] S. Banerjee, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, Nature Phys. 9, 626 (2013). [3] J. Rowland, S. Banerjee and M. Randeria, (unpublished).

  17. Skyrmions in quasi-2D chiral magnets with broken bulk and surface inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, James; Banerjee, Sumilan; Randeria, Mohit

    2015-03-01

    Most theoretical studies of skyrmions have focused on chiral magnets with broken bulk inversion symmetry, stabilized by easy-axis anisotropy. Recently, we considered 2D systems with broken surface inversion and showed that skyrmion crystals are more stable than in 3D, pointing out the importance of easy-plane anisotropy. In the present work we investigate quasi-2D systems which break both bulk and surface inversion symmetry. The Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional thus contains two Dzyloshinskii-Moriya terms of strength DD and DR arising from Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling respectively. We trace the evolution of the phase diagram as DD /DR is varied, and find that skyrmions are increasingly destabilized with respect to the cone phase as DD increases relative to DR. We find an evolution from vortex-like skyrmions in the pure Dresselhaus limit to hedgehog-like skyrmions in the pure Rashba limit. We discuss the relevance of these results to existing experiments and the prospects of tuning the ratio of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling via film thickness and strain. Supported by NSF DMR-1410364 (J.R. and M.R.) and DOE-BES DE-SC0005035 (S.B.)

  18. On the adsorption properties of magnetic fluids: Impact of bulk structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubovcikova, Martina; Gapon, Igor V.; Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Soltwedel, Olaf; Almasy, László; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Adsorption of nanoparticles from magnetic fluids (MFs) on solid surface (crystalline silicon) was studied by neutron reflectometry (NR) and related to the bulk structural organization of MFs concluded from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The initial aqueous MF with nanomagnetite (co-precipitation reaction) stabilized by sodium oleate and MF modified by a biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), were considered. Regarding the bulk structure it was confirmed in the SANS experiment that comparatively small and compact (size 30 nm) aggregates of nanoparticle in the initial sample transfer to large and developed (size>130 nm, fractal dimension 2.7) associates in the PEG modified MF. This reorganization in the aggregates correlates with the changes in the neutron reflectivity that showed that a single adsorption layer of individual nanoparticles on the oxidized silicon surface for the initial MF disappears after the PEG modification. It is concluded that all particles in the modified fluid are in the aggregates that are not adsorbed by silicon.

  19. Hard magnetic properties observed in bulk Mn1–xGax

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel R.; Han, Ke; Siegrist, Theo

    2014-02-19

    Here, Mn-Ga binary alloys have shown promising magnetic properties, even though these alloys contain no rare-earth metals. Both theoretical predictions and experimental work showed that nanoscaled Mn-Ga samples, such as thin films could have remarkable magnetic properties. Although the prediction provides a useful guideline and thin films supply us with materials in some application, bulk materials are required for majority of the applications that require a strong magnetic field. We have made bulk Mn1-xGax alloys by mechanically milling and heat treatments. In this paper, we report annealed Mn1-xGax bulk composites that exhibit coercivity up to 18.8 kOe.

  20. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterial based on TiO2 microresonators(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Christelle; Sindler, Michal; Dominec, Filip; Němec, Hynek; Elissalde, Catherine; Mounaix, Patrick; Kuzel, Petr

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric spheres with high permittivity represent a Mie resonance-based metamaterial. Owing to its high far-infrared permittivity and low dielectric losses, TiO2 is a suitable material for the realization of magnetic metamaterials based on micro-resonators for the terahertz (THz) range. In a previous work, we experimentally demonstrated the magnetic effective response of TiO 2 microspheres dispersed in air, forming nearly a single-layer sample enclosed between two sapphire wafers [1]. Here we embedded the polycrystalline TiO2 microparticles into a polyethylene matrix, which enabled us to prepare a rigid bulk metamaterial with a controllable concentration of micro- resonators. TiO2 microspheres with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers were prepared by a bottom up approach. A liquid suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was first spray-dried producing fragile TiO2 microspheres. These were subsequently sintered in a furnace at 1200° C for two hours, in order to consolidate individually each sphere. The particles show polycrystalline rutile structure with a porosity of 15%. The microspheres were finally sieved and sorted along their diameters in order to obtain a narrow size distribution. They were mixed with polyethylene powder and a pressure of 14 MPa was used to prepare rigid pellets with random spatial distribution of the TiO2 microspheres. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigated how the filling fraction and the ratio between the permittivities of the microspheres and the host matrix affect the position and the strength of the magnetic response associated with the lowest Mie mode. We found that a range of negative effective magnetic permeability can be achieved for sufficiently high filling factors and contrasts between the permittivities of the resonators and the embedding medium. Using time-domain THz spectroscopy we experimentally characterized the response of the realized structures and confirmed the magnetic character of their

  1. Enhanced trapped field achieved in a superconducting bulk using high thermal conductivity structures following simulated pulsed field magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid heat generation is one of the biggest problems faced in carrying out pulsed field magnetization of (RE)BCO superconducting bulks compared to other methods of magnetization. The effects of various thermal conductivities in the ab-plane (kab) and along the c-axis (kc) of a bulk on its trapped field performance following pulsed field magnetization were modelled. The E-J power law was used, coupled with the heat generation, to simulate the effect of anisotropic thermal conductivity combinations on the peak trapped field and total trapped flux. A thermally isolated bulk is not affected so strongly by thermal conductivity, but on cooling the bulk conductively from its base using a cold head, increasing kc significantly enhances both the trapped field and the flux. Embedding highly thermally conducting copper structures in the bulk material was investigated as a practical way to locally increase kab and kc. The structures investigated increased the trapped field and flux by a maximum of around 30% without increasing the size of the bulk. Different structures can be used depending on whether an application requires the highest trapped field or highest total flux.

  2. Magneto transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields in compensated bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syngayivska, G. I.; Korotyeyev, V. V.; Kochelap, V. A.; Varani, L.

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature high-field electron transport is studied for compensated bulk GaN subjected to crossed electric and magnetic fields. The electron kinetics, distribution function, and field dependencies of the magneto transport characteristics are analyzed by using the Monte-Carlo method. At zero magnetic field, for an ionized impurity concentration of 1016 cm-3 and an electron concentration of 1015 cm-3, it is shown that dissipative streaming transport with a strong anisotropic electron distribution in the momentum space is realized at electric fields in the range 3 -10 kV/cm and for a lattice temperature of 30 K. The magnetic field destroys the dissipative streaming transport. Indeed, for a magnetic field greater than 4 T, the electrons are predominantly confined in a region of the momentum space where their energy is smaller than the optical phonon energy and the strong inelastic scattering by optical phonons is practically eliminated. A quasi-ballistic electron transport occurs in the form of a vortex-like motion in the momentum space. The axis of rotation of this vortex coincides with the average electron momentum. A general analysis of the distribution function suitable for any configuration of the Hall circuit is presented. The main magneto transport characteristics (dissipative current, Hall current, and Hall electric field) are studied for the short and open Hall circuits. We show that the magneto transport measurements can provide valuable information on the main features of the electron distribution function and electron dynamics in GaN. Finally, we suggest that the strong dependency of the dissipative current on the parameters of the Hall circuit can be used for current modulation and current switching.

  3. Bulk combinatorial synthesis and high throughput characterization for rapid assessment of magnetic materials: Application of laser engineered net shaping (LENS)

    DOE PAGES

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; ...

    2016-04-15

    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. Furthermore, the Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  4. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  5. Microstructure and magnetic viscosity of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X. H.; Xu, H.; Man, H.; Tang, Y. J.; Yang, L. P.; Bai, Q.

    2011-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetic viscosity of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5,prepared by suction casting the molten alloy into a copper mold under an argon atmosphere, have been investigated. The results show that clusters with size 3-5 nm are found to be embedded in the amorphous matrix of as-cast bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy. The Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy shows hard magnetic behavior at room temperature, with an intrinsic coercivity of 360 kA/m and a remanence of 69.39 mT. The magnetic viscosity of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 has been investigated on the major hysteresis loop, and simple logarithmic time dependence is observed. A value for the fluctuation field of 8.24 kA/m is obtained. Analysis based on a Henkel plot is used to confirm the existence of magnetic interaction among clusters. The coercivity mechanism responsible for the hard magnetic behavior of bulk amorphous Nd60Fe20Al5Co10B5 alloy is also discussed.

  6. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Pradhan, S. K.; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B. R.; Behera, Debdhyan; Rout, P. P.; Das, S. K.; Sahu, D. R.; Roul, B. K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO3 (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO3. Room temperature dielectric constant (ɛr) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO3 at room temperature as multifunctional materials.

  7. Quantum Hall effect in a bulk antiferromagnet EuMnBi2 with magnetically confined two-dimensional Dirac fermions.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm(2)/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials.

  8. Quantum Hall effect in a bulk antiferromagnet EuMnBi2 with magnetically confined two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm2/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials. PMID:27152326

  9. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  10. Application of HTS technology to cardiac dysrhythmia detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, A.L.; Avrin, W.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design considerations and challenges for development of a contactless, mobile, single channel biomagnetic sensor system based on High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and employing the Three-SQUID Gradiometer (TSG) concept. Operating in magnetically unshielded environments, as are encountered in many medical scenarios, this instrument class would monitor cardiac electrical activity with minimal patient preparation and intrusiveness, and would notionally be coupled with a clinically adaptive human-system interface (HSI).

  11. Structure and magnetic properties of bulk anisotropic SmCo5/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets with different α-Fe content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Zuo, J. H.; Yue, M.; Cui, Z. Z.; Zhang, D. T.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhang, P. Y.; Ge, H. L.; Guo, Z. H.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Chemical coating, hot compaction, and hot deformation techniques have been applied to prepare bulk anisotropic SmCo5/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets. The effects of α-Fe content on the structure and magnetic properties of the magnets were studied. With the increase of the α-Fe content, both the saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanence (Mr) of the magnets rise first, peak at 10 vol. % α-Fe content and then fall while the coercivity (Hci) of the magnets drops simultaneously. Crystal structure analysis shows that the magnets exhibit a strong c-axis crystal texture of the SmCo5 phase, which, however, weakens gradually as the α-Fe content increases. Microstructure observation also shows that there are many SmCo5 equiaxial grains even after hot deformation in the magnets with 15 vol. % α-Fe.

  12. Electron transport behaviour and soft magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Fe72Si4B20Nb4 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, A. K.; Ghosh Chowdhury, S.; Mitra, A.; Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.

    2006-08-01

    The crystallization behaviour, electrical resistivity, magnetic and mechanical properties of as-quenched bulk amorphous Fe72Si4B20Nb4 alloy was investigated. The alloy, prepared in the form of rods by a copper mould casting technique, revealed an amorphous structure as observed from x-ray diffractometry. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermal variation of electrical resistivity measurements showed distinct glass transition temperature, Tg occurring 50-60 K below the crystallization onset (TX). Such a wide supercooled range was also attributed to the highly reduced glass transition temperature, Trg which was in the range of 0.56-0.58 found to be prevalent in good glass forming alloys. The alloy also showed a non-linear decrease in stability time at different temperatures between Tg and TX. The bulk amorphous alloy exhibited a drastic decrease in electrical resistivity around the glass transition temperature which was attributed to high electron propagation due to enhanced stress relaxation as result of a decrease in viscosity. The material exhibited superior soft magnetic properties with a coercivity value of 212 mOe, which is fairly low with respect to reported bulk amorphous alloys. The amorphous alloy also showed saturation induction of 12 kG and a moderate Curie temperature of 595 K. The as-quenched bulk amorphous alloy exhibited a high mechanical hardness of 1250 HV (Vickers). The superior soft magnetic properties coupled with high mechanical hardness opens up the scope for bulk amorphous Fe-Si-B systems with Nb incorporation.

  13. Low resistance splices for HTS devices and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalitha, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the preparation methodology and performance evaluation of low resistance splices made of the second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS). These splices are required in a broad spectrum of HTS devices including a large aperture, high-field solenoid built in the laboratory to demonstrate a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. Several pancake coils are assembled in the form of a nested solenoid, and each coil requires a hundred meters or more of 2G (RE)BCO tape. However, commercial availability of this superconductor with a very uniform physical properties is currently limited to shorter piece lengths. This necessitates us having splices to inter-connect the tape pieces within a pancake coil, between adjacent pancake coils, and to attach HTS current leads to the magnet assembly. As a part of the optimization and qualification of splicing process, a systematic study was undertaken to analyze the electrical performance of splices in two different configurations suitable for this magnet assembly: lap joint and spiral joint. The electrical performance is quantified in terms of the resistance of splices estimated from the current-voltage characteristics. It has been demonstrated that a careful application of this splicing technique can generate lap joints with resistance less than 1 nΩ at 77 K.

  14. Spin Hall switching of the magnetization in Ta/TbFeCo structures with bulk perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; Smith, Angeline K.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-03-30

    Spin-orbit torques are studied in Ta/TbFeCo/MgO patterned structures, where the ferrimagnetic material TbFeCo provides a strong bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (bulk-PMA) independent of the interfaces. The current-induced magnetization switching in TbFeCo is investigated in the presence of a perpendicular, longitudinal, or transverse field. An unexpected partial-switching phenomenon is observed in the presence of a transverse field unique to our bulk-PMA material. It is found that the anti-damping torque related with spin Hall effect is very strong, and a spin Hall angle is determined to be 0.12. The field-like torque related with Rashba effect is unobservable, suggesting that the interface play a significant role in Rashba-like torque.

  15. Recent progress of HTS cable project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2008-09-01

    A lot of developments of HTS wires and their applications have been conducted since the discovery of HTS materials in the world. It has been recently reported that critical current of BSCCO wires improved to more than 200 A at 77 K and a large amount of wire was provided with high quality as industrial products. This improvement can be expected to accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications such as an HTS cable, HTS motor and so on. As the proofs of such trends, Sumitomo Electric constructed two HTS cable systems and started their operations in the USA and Korea last year. One of them is the HTS cable in Albany, NY, which has a capacity of 34.5 kV and 800 A and 350 m in length. It has been operated in a real grid without any trouble for 9 months. The other is the HTS cable in Korea, which has a capacity of 22.9 kV and 1250 A and 100 m in length. Its operation also started in the KEPCO testing yard last year. These results demonstrate reliance and stability of its operation. Recently, a new national project of an HTS cable has just started in Japan to demonstrate the operation in a real grid and study the system operations including a monitoring method, an alarm system, a maintenance method, etc. This paper reports the results of Albany and Korea projects and an outline of the new project.

  16. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  17. Design of an HTS Levitated Double-Sided HTSLSM for Maglev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Luhai; Jin, Jianxun; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    A hybrid high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear synchronous propulsion system composed of a double-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in the middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been proposed for a middle-low-speed maglev. Three carriages has been made up for the proposed maglev, and each carriage consists of four HTSLSM modules. The HTSLSM has been designed to reach a speed of 69 km/h and a maximum thrust of 48.9 kN for each motor. The finite element analysis has been used for the theoretical verification. The results obtained show that the HTS linear propulsion system satisfies the principal requirements for the maglev.

  18. Deficiency of the bulk spin Hall effect model for spin-orbit torques in magnetic-insulator/heavy-metal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junxue; Yu, Guoqiang; Tang, Chi; Liu, Yizhou; Shi, Zhong; Liu, Yawen; Navabi, Aryan; Aldosary, Mohammed; Shao, Qiming; Wang, Kang L.; Lake, Roger; Shi, Jing

    2017-06-01

    Electrical currents in a magnetic-insulator/heavy-metal heterostructure can induce two simultaneous effects, namely, spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) on the heavy-metal side and spin-orbit torques (SOTs) on the magnetic-insulator side. Within the framework of a pure spin current model based on the bulk spin Hall effect (SHE), the ratio of the spin Hall-induced anomalous Hall effect (SH-AHE) to SMR should be equal to the ratio of the fieldlike torque (FLT) to the dampinglike torque (DLT). We perform a quantitative study of SMR, SH-AHE, and SOTs in a series of thulium iron garnet/platinum or T m3F e5O12/Pt heterostructures with different T m3F e5O12 thicknesses, where T m3F e5O12 is a ferrimagnetic insulator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We find the ratio between the measured effective fields of FLT and DLT is at least two times larger than the ratio of the SH-AHE to SMR. In addition, the bulk SHE model grossly underestimates the spin-torque efficiency of FLT. Our results reveal deficiencies of the bulk SHE model and also address the importance of interfacial effects such as the Rashba and magnetic proximity effects in magnetic-insulator/heavy-metal heterostructures.

  19. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; ...

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated withmore » MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.« less

  20. Metallic magnetism and change of conductivity in the nano to bulk transition of cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Arunkumar, A.; Vanidha, D.; Kannan, R.; Oudayakumar, K.; Rajagopan, S.

    2013-11-14

    Variations in conductivity with particle size have been observed in cobalt ferrite, when synthesized by solgel auto-combustion method. Impedance analysis reveals metallic and semiconducting behavior at room temperature for a particle size of 6 nm and 52 nm, respectively. Upon thermal activation, metallic to semiconducting phase transition has been observed as a function of particle size and vice-versa. Grainboundary Resistance (R{sub gb}), increased drastically with particle size (19 MΩ for 6 nm and 259 MΩ for 52 nm) at room temperature. AC conductivity and dielectric constants exhibit similar metallic to semiconducting phase transition at 6 nm and semiconducting behavior at 52 nm with temperature in the selected frequencies. Enhanced magnetic moment with an increase in the grain size along with decreased coercivity (1444 G to 1146 G) reveals transition from single domain to multi-domain. Increased inter-particle interaction is responsible for metallicity at the nano level and on the contrary semiconductivity is attributed to bulk.

  1. Anomalous results observed in magnetization of bulk high temperature superconductors—A windfall for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Carpenter, Keith; Davey, Kent

    2016-04-01

    Recent experiments on pulsed-zero field cool magnetization of bulk high Jc YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-δ) have shown unexpected results. For example, reproducible, non-destructive, rapid, giant field leaps (GFLs) to higher penetrated field are observed. The observations are inconsistent with the critical state model (CSM), in several aspects. Additional experiments have been pursued in an attempt to clarify the physics involved in the observed anomalies. Here, we present experimental results for the Jc dependence of the anomalous features. It is found that the sudden field increase in the GFL is a monotonically increasing function of Jc. The ratio of required pulsed field amplitude, BA,max, to obtain maximum trappable field, BT,max, which CSM predicts to be ≥2.0, gradually approaches 1.0 at high Jc. Tests using values of pulsed, applied field BA,max just below the GFL exhibit two additional anomalies: (i) At high Jc, the highest trapped field is up to ˜6 times lower than predicted by CSM, and (ii) the measured Lorentz force as a function of Jc deviates sharply from CSM predictions. The data rule out heating effects and pinning center geometry as possible physical causes of these anomalies. A speculative cause is considered.

  2. Effect of addition of soft magnetic alloy particles on the flux trapping in Gd123 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.

    2010-06-01

    Pinning stability and the introduction of magnetic flux pinning is an essential problem in applications of high-Tc superconductors. Study on the role of addition of a variety of metal oxides into GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (Gd123) bulk superconductors was carried out. We found that the addition of 0.05 wt. % of soft magnetic alloy particles Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-Cr-B (Fe-B) into the Gd123 contributes to the enhancement of the critical current density (Jc) under a wide range of applied magnetic fields up to 3 T. The Fe-B particles refined less than 10 μm by ball milling indicate no remarkable contribution on the Jc under the magnetic field. The reduction of the Ba content resulted in the appearance of a peak of Jc which has been observed in the Gd/Ba solid solution with rich Ba content. These results let us discriminate the effect of the magnetic particles from other conventional flux pinning mechanism. The peak of Jc under magnetic field was not only observed in the part along the c-axis under the seed of the sample but also in the growth sector around the periphery of the Gd123 bulk with Fe-B addition. It indicates that the magnetic particles inclusions play an important role on the homogeneous enhancement of Jc and the high flux pinning performance.

  3. Behavior of bulk high-temperature superconductors of finite thickness subjected to crossed magnetic fields: Experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbemden, Ph.; Hong, Z.; Coombs, T. A.; Denis, S.; Ausloos, M.; Schwartz, J.; Rutel, I. B.; Hari Babu, N.; Cardwell, D. A.; Campbell, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Crossed-magnetic-field effects on bulk high-temperature superconductors have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The sample geometry investigated involves finite-size effects along both (crossed-)magnetic-field directions. The experiments were carried out on bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O single domains that had been premagnetized with the applied field parallel to their shortest direction (i.e., the c axis) and then subjected to several cycles of the application of a transverse magnetic field parallel to the sample ab plane. The magnetic properties were measured using orthogonal pickup coils, a Hall probe placed against the sample surface, and magneto-optical imaging. We show that all principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law and in which the current density flows perpendicularly to the plane within which the two components of magnetic field are varied. The results of this study suggest that the suppression of the magnetic moment under the action of a transverse field can be predicted successfully by ignoring the existence of flux-free configurations or flux-cutting effects. These investigations show that the observed decay in magnetization results from the intricate modification of current distribution within the sample cross section. The current amplitude is altered significantly only if a field-dependent critical current density Jc(B) is assumed. Our model is shown to be quite appropriate to describe the cross-flow effects in bulk superconductors. It is also shown that this model does not predict any saturation of the magnetic induction, even after a large number (˜100) of transverse field cycles. These features are shown to be consistent with the experimental data.

  4. Improvement of azimuthal homogeneity in permanent-magnet bearing rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Rossing, T. D.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Uherka, K. L.

    1992-10-01

    Permanent magnets that are levitated and rotating over a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) form the basis of many superconducting bearing designs. Experiments have shown that the rotational-loss 'coefficient of friction' for thrust bearings of this type can be as low as 8 x 10(exp -6). While the loss mechanisms of such bearings are not well understood, the azimuthal homogeneity of the rotating permanent magnet is believed to play an important role in determining the loss. One possible loss mechanism is magnetic hysteresis in the HTS, where the energy loss E per cycle is derived from the critical state model and given by E = K (Delta B)(sup 3)/J(sub c) where K is a geometric coefficient, Delta B is the variation in magnetic field at the surface of the HTS experienced during a rotation of the levitated magnet, and J(sub c) is the critical current density of the HTS. It is clear that a small decrease in Delta B (i.e., decreasing the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the rotating magnetic field) could have profound effects on decreasing E and the rotational coefficient of friction. The role of Delta B is also expected to be significant in reducing losses from eddy currents and other mechanisms. Low rotational losses in HTS bearings have been demonstrated only for levitated masses of several grams. For practical bearings, it is important to obtain these low losses with larger levitated masses. There are two main routes toward decreasing Delta B. The first is to improve the alignment of the magnetic particles during fabrication and to maintain close tolerances on grinding angles during manufacture of the permanent magnet. The second, the subject of this paper, is to provide correctional procedures after the magnet is fabricated.

  5. Improvement of azimuthal homogeneity in permanent-magnet bearing rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Rossing, T.D.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-10-23

    Permanent magnets that are levitated and rotating over a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) form the basis of many superconducting bearing designs. Experiments have shown that the rotational-loss coefficient of friction'' for thrust bearings of this type can be as low as 8 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]. While the loss mechanisms of such bearings are not well understood, the azimuthal homogeneity of the rotating permanent magnet is believed to play an important role in determining the loss. One possible loss mechanism is magnetic hysteresis in the HTS, where the energy loss E per cycle is derived from the critical state model and given by E = K ([Delta]B[sup 3]/J[sub c]) where K is a geometric coefficient, [Delta]B is the variation in magnetic field at the surface of the HTS experienced during a rotation of the levitated magnet, and J[sub c] is the critical current density of the HTS. It is clear that a small decrease in [Delta]B (i.e., decreasing the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the rotating magnetic field) could have profound effects on decreasing E and the rotational coefficient of friction. The role of [Delta]B is also expected to be significant in reducing losses from eddy currents and other mechanisms. Low rotational losses in HTS bearings have been demonstrated only for levitated masses of several grams. For practical bearings, it is important to obtain these low losses with larger levitated masses. There are two main routes toward decreasing [Delta]B. The first is to improve the alignment of the magnetic particles during fabrication and to maintain close tolerances on grinding angles during manufacture of the permanent magnet. The second, the subject of this paper, is to provide correctional procedures after the magnet is fabricated.

  6. Improvement of azimuthal homogeneity in permanent-magnet bearing rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Rossing, T.D.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Uherka, K.L.

    1992-10-23

    Permanent magnets that are levitated and rotating over a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) form the basis of many superconducting bearing designs. Experiments have shown that the rotational-loss``coefficient of friction`` for thrust bearings of this type can be as low as 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. While the loss mechanisms of such bearings are not well understood, the azimuthal homogeneity of the rotating permanent magnet is believed to play an important role in determining the loss. One possible loss mechanism is magnetic hysteresis in the HTS, where the energy loss E per cycle is derived from the critical state model and given by E = K ({Delta}B{sup 3}/J{sub c}) where K is a geometric coefficient, {Delta}B is the variation in magnetic field at the surface of the HTS experienced during a rotation of the levitated magnet, and J{sub c} is the critical current density of the HTS. It is clear that a small decrease in {Delta}B (i.e., decreasing the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the rotating magnetic field) could have profound effects on decreasing E and the rotational coefficient of friction. The role of {Delta}B is also expected to be significant in reducing losses from eddy currents and other mechanisms. Low rotational losses in HTS bearings have been demonstrated only for levitated masses of several grams. For practical bearings, it is important to obtain these low losses with larger levitated masses. There are two main routes toward decreasing {Delta}B. The first is to improve the alignment of the magnetic particles during fabrication and to maintain close tolerances on grinding angles during manufacture of the permanent magnet. The second, the subject of this paper, is to provide correctional procedures after the magnet is fabricated.

  7. Large Scale Applications of HTS in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimbush, Stuart C.

    New Zealand has one of the longest-running and most consistently funded (relative to GDP) programmes in high temperature superconductor (HTS) development and application worldwide. As a consequence, it has a sustained breadth of involvement in HTS technology development stretching from the materials discovery right through to burgeoning commercial exploitation. This review paper outlines the present large scale projects of the research team at the newly-established Robinson Research Institute of Victoria University of Wellington. These include the construction and grid-based testing of a three-phase 1 MVA 2G HTS distribution transformer utilizing Roebel cable for its high-current secondary windings and the development of a cryogen-free conduction-cooled 1.5 T YBCO-based human extremity magnetic resonance imaging system. Ongoing activities supporting applications development such as low-temperature full-current characterization of commercial superconducting wires and the implementation of inductive flux-pump technologies for efficient brushless coil excitation in superconducting magnets and rotating machines are also described.

  8. Non-Magnetic, Tough, Corrosion- and Wear-Resistant Knives From Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Douglas C.; Potter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Quality knives are typically fabricated from high-strength steel alloys. Depending on the application, there are different requirements for mechanical and physical properties that cause problems for steel alloys. For example, diver's knives are generally used in salt water, which causes rust in steel knives. Titanium diver's knives are a popular alternative due to their salt water corrosion resistance, but are too soft to maintain a sharp cutting edge. Steel knives are also magnetic, which is undesirable for military applications where the knives are used as a tactical tool for diffusing magnetic mines. Steel is also significantly denser than titanium (8 g/cu cm vs. 4.5 g/cu cm), which results in heavier knives for the same size. Steel is hard and wear-resistant, compared with titanium, and can keep a sharp edge during service. A major drawback of both steel and titanium knives is that they must be ground or machined into the final knife shape from a billet. Since most knives have a mirrored surface and a complex shape, manufacturing them is complex. It would be more desirable if the knife could be cast into a net or near-net shape in a single step. The solution to the deficiencies of titanium, steel, and ceramic knives is to fabricate them using bulk metallic glasses (or composites). These alloys can be cast into net or near-net shaped knives with a combination of properties that exceed both titanium and steel. A commercially viable BMG (bulk metallic glass) or composite knife is one that exhibits one or all of the following properties: It is based on titanium, has a self-sharpening edge, can retain an edge during service, is hard, is non-magnetic, is corrosion-resistant against a variety of corrosive environments, is tough (to allow for prying), can be cast into a net-shape with a mirror finish and a complex shape, has excellent wear resistance, and is low-density. These properties can be achieved in BMG and composites through alloy chemistry and processing. For

  9. Test and Analysis of Spliced DI-BSCCO HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, S. S.; Sotnikov, D. V.; Radchenko, I. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Osabe, G.; Kinoshita, K.; Fujikami, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    For some applications, short unit lengths of HTS wires should be spliced if longer lengths are necessary and short unit lengths of HTS wires should be utilize by applying the splice technology to reduce the total wire cost in the application. The splice technology has been developed for DI-BSCCO Type HT-CA tapes by Sumitomo Electric and spliced tapes were tested in Russian Cable Institute. The test program included: measurements of splice's resistance, critical current anisotropy, thermo cycling tolerance, mechanical properties, overload tests and magnetization measurements. In the paper the results of tests are presented and discussed. The test results demonstrated that splices can be used for cable production if twisting and bending limitations are taken into account.

  10. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  11. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  12. Design of conduction cooling system for a high current HTS DC reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van Quan; Kim, Taekue; Le Tat, Thang; Sung, Haejin; Choi, Jongho; Kim, Kwangmin; Hwang, Chul-Sang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2017-07-01

    A DC reactor using a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet reduces the reactor’s size, weight, flux leakage, and electrical losses. An HTS magnet needs cryogenic cooling to achieve and maintain its superconducting state. There are two methods for doing this: one is pool boiling and the other is conduction cooling. The conduction cooling method is more effective than the pool boiling method in terms of smaller size and lighter weight. This paper discusses a design of conduction cooling system for a high current, high temperature superconducting DC reactor. Dimensions of the conduction cooling system parts including HTS magnets, bobbin structures, current leads, support bars, and thermal exchangers were calculated and drawn using a 3D CAD program. A finite element method model was built for determining the optimal design parameters and analyzing the thermo-mechanical characteristics. The operating current and inductance of the reactor magnet were 1,500 A, 400 mH, respectively. The thermal load of the HTS DC reactor was analyzed for determining the cooling capacity of the cryo-cooler. The study results can be effectively utilized for the design and fabrication of a commercial HTS DC reactor.

  13. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  14. Dielectrically Loaded HTS Spiral Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, J.; Hanna, D.; Vlasov, Y. A.; Larkins, G. L.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work is to fabricate, test, and study a dielectrically loaded high temperature superconductor (HTS) spiral antenna that would operate in the frequency band of 10 MHz to 200 MHz. The antenna is formed by depositing and patterning a YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) thin film on top of 4-inch-diameter sapphire and Yittria Stabilized ZrO2 substrates. The presence of the HTS material guarantees low conductor loss in the antenna. A thick epitaxial layer of strontium titanate (STO) is then deposited on top of the YBCO for high dielectric constant loading. This set-up can be simulated using the Fidelity software routine, a Finite Difference Time Domain based program from Zeland, Inc. We have simulated the performance of this antenna structure, first in free space and then after loading with the dielectric slabs. Important parameters such as feed point impedance and antenna gain are studied for different simulation conditions. The dielectric ensures reduced feed point impedance as well as improvement of the low frequency response of the antenna.

  15. Magnetism tuned by the charge states of defects in bulk C-doped SnO2 materials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z C; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-10-21

    To analyze the controversial conclusions on the magnetism of C-doped SnO2 (SnO2:C) bulk materials between theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we propose the critical role of the charge states of defects in the geometric structures and magnetism, and carry out a series of first principle calculations. By changing the charge states, we can influence Bader charge distributions and atomic orbital occupancies in bulk SnO2:C systems, which consequently conduct magnetism. In all charged SnO2:C supercells, C-2px/py/pz electron occupancies are significantly changed by the charge self-regulation, and thus they make the C-2p orbitals spin polarized, which contribute to the dominant magnetic moment of the system. When the concentration of C dopant in the SnO2 supercell increases, the charge redistribution assigns extra electrons averagely to each dopant, and thus effectively modulates the magnetism. These findings provide an experimentally viable way for controlling the magnetism in these systems.

  16. Comparative study of magnetic ordering in bulk and nanoparticles of Sm{sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3}: Magnetization and electron magnetic resonance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goveas, Lora Rita; Anuradha, K. N.; Bhagyashree, K. S.; Bhat, S. V.

    2015-05-07

    To explore the effect of size reduction to nanoscale on the hole doped Sm{sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} compound, dc magnetic measurements and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) were done on bulk and nanoparticle samples in the temperature range 10 ≤ T ≤ 300 K. Magnetization measurement showed that the bulk sample undergoes a charge ordering transition at 240 K and shows a mixed magnetic phase at low temperature. However, the nanosample underwent a ferromagnetic transition at 75 K, and the charge ordered state was destabilized on size reduction down to nanoscale. The low-temperature ferromagnetic component is found to be enhanced in nanoparticles as compared to their bulk counterpart. Interestingly around room temperature, bulk particles show higher magnetization where as at low temperature nanoparticles show higher magnetization. Ferromagnetism in the bulk is due to super exchange where as ferromagnetism in nanoparticles is due to uncompensated spins of the surface layer. Temperature variation of EMR parameters correlates well with the results of magnetic measurements. The magnetic behaviour of the nanoparticles is understood in terms of the core shell scenario.

  17. Load test of Superconducting Magnetic Bearing for MW-class Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, S.; Nakao, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Nagashima, K.; Ogata, M.; Yamashita, T.; Miyazaki, K.; Shimizu, H.; Sawamura, H.

    2017-07-01

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) stores electrical power as kinetic energy of a rotating flywheel rotor. Since the storage energy of the FESS is proportional to the weight of the rotor and the square of the rotating speed, the heavy weight and high speed rotor leads a FESS to a high power and a high capacity. However a conventional FESS limits in both the rotor weight and the rotating speed because of using mechanical bearings. A superconducting FESS (SFESS) utilizes a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) to levitate and rotate the flywheel rotor that has ton class weight and high speed rotation without mechanical contact. As the SFESS with 300 kW demonstrated at Mt. Komekura in Yamanashi prefecture, the SMB in the SFESS levitated the 4-ton rotor. The SMB consisted of a high temperature superconducting magnet (HTS magnet) and a HTS bulk, and utilized a repulsive force between the HTS magnet and the HTS bulk. The demonstration of the SFESS has been carried out successfully at Mt. Komekura. Now the next step development was started to aim a MW-class SFESS. The MW-class SFESS needs the SMB levitated and withstood a 10 ton-class load. This paper describes a design of the 10 ton-class SMB and the result of the load test of the developed SMB

  18. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  19. High coercivity microcrystalline Nd-rich Nd-Fe-Co-Al-B bulk magnets prepared by direct copper mold casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Hong, Y.; Fang, X. G.; Qiu, Z. G.; Zhong, X. C.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, Z. W.

    2016-06-01

    High coercivity Nd25Fe40Co20Al15-xBx (x=7-15) hard magnets were prepared by a simple process of injection casting. Different from many previous investigations on nanocomposite compositions, the magnets in this work contain hard magnetic Nd2(FeCoAl)14B, Nd-rich, and Nd1+ε(FeCo)4B4 phases. The magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of the as-cast and annealed magnets were investigated. As the boron content increased from 7 to 11 at%, the intrinsic coercivity Hcj of the as-cast magnet increased from 816 to 1140 kA/m. The magnets annealed at 750 °C have shown more regular and smaller grains than the as-cast alloys, especially for the x=11 alloy. The high intrinsic coercivities for the annealed alloys with x=8~11 result from the presence of small-sized grains in the microstructure. The highest Hcj of 1427 kA/m was obtained for the heat treated alloy with x=10. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich bulk hard magnets with relatively good properties.

  20. Comparison study of the magnetic permeability and dc conductivity of Co-Ni-Li ferrite nanoparticles and their bulk counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assar, S. T.; Abosheiasha, H. F.; El Nimr, M. K.

    2014-03-01

    The temperature dependence of relative permeability and dc electrical conductivity of nanosamples and their bulk counterparts of Co0.5Ni0.5-2xLixFe2+xO4 (from x=0.00 to 0.25 in step of 0.05) was investigated. The values of the relative permeability of the nano-samples are lower than their bulk counterparts as a result of porous and nano-grained structure besides the effect of the larger volume of grain boundaries in the nanosamples. Moreover, the dc conductivity of the nanosamples is higher than their bulk counterparts. This is probable explained according to the shorter metal-oxygen bonding length and higher lattice vibrations of the nanosamples. Also, the values of the relative permeability of both nano and bulk samples exhibit stability over a considerable range of temperatures. This may make them useful in practical applications that require stability. All the nanosamples show high rising Curie temperature values with increasing the Li content up to the sample of x=0.15 thereafter a decrease of the Curie temperature occurs while the inverse behavior was observed in their bulk counterparts. The interpretation of these findings is explained in the discussion. Moreover, in general doping Co-Ni ferrites with Li ions improves their electrical and magnetic properties and this is clearly observed in the nanosample of x=0.15 which can be regarded as the most promising sample for microwave applications.

  1. Superconductor-Mediated Modification of Gravity? AC Motor Experiments with Bulk YBCO Disks in Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Koczor, Ronald J.; Roberson, Rick

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported results using a high precision gravimeter to probe local gravity changes in the neighborhood of large bulk-processed high-temperature superconductors. Podkietnov, et al (Podkietnov, E. and Nieminen, R. (1992) A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2 Cu3 O7-x Superconductor, Physica C, C203:441-444.) have indicated that rotating AC fields play an essential role in their observed distortion of combined gravity and barometric pressure readings. We report experiments on large (15 cm diameter) bulk YBCO ceramic superconductors placed in the core of a three-phase, AC motor stator. The applied rotating field produces up to a 12,000 revolutions per minute magnetic field. The field intensity decays rapidly from the maximum at the outer diameter of the superconducting disk (less than 60 Gauss) to the center (less than 10 Gauss). This configuration was applied with and without a permanent DC magnetic field levitating the superconducting disk, with corresponding gravity readings indicating an apparent increase in observed gravity of less than 1 x 10(exp -6)/sq cm, measured above the superconductor. No effect of the rotating magnetic field or thermal environment on the gravimeter readings or on rotating the superconducting disk was noted within the high precision of the observation. Implications for propulsion initiatives and power storage flywheel technologies for high temperature superconductors will be discussed for various spacecraft and satellite applications.

  2. Superconductor-Mediated Modification of Gravity? AC Motor Experiments with Bulk YBCO Disks in Rotating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Koczor, Ronald J.; Roberson, Rick

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported results using a high precision gravimeter to probe local gravity changes in the neighborhood of large bulk-processed high-temperature superconductors. Podkietnov, et al (Podkietnov, E. and Nieminen, R. (1992) A Possibility of Gravitational Force Shielding by Bulk YBa2 Cu3 O7-x Superconductor, Physica C, C203:441-444.) have indicated that rotating AC fields play an essential role in their observed distortion of combined gravity and barometric pressure readings. We report experiments on large (15 cm diameter) bulk YBCO ceramic superconductors placed in the core of a three-phase, AC motor stator. The applied rotating field produces up to a 12,000 revolutions per minute magnetic field. The field intensity decays rapidly from the maximum at the outer diameter of the superconducting disk (less than 60 Gauss) to the center (less than 10 Gauss). This configuration was applied with and without a permanent DC magnetic field levitating the superconducting disk, with corresponding gravity readings indicating an apparent increase in observed gravity of less than 1 x 10(exp -6)/sq cm, measured above the superconductor. No effect of the rotating magnetic field or thermal environment on the gravimeter readings or on rotating the superconducting disk was noted within the high precision of the observation. Implications for propulsion initiatives and power storage flywheel technologies for high temperature superconductors will be discussed for various spacecraft and satellite applications.

  3. ToxCast HTS Assay Development and Retrofitting: Strategies ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods Slide presentation to EC JRC partners on new ToxCast HTS assay methods and strategies to address current limitations to HTS methods.

  4. Numerical analysis and finite element modelling of an HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Jiang, Y.; Xian, W.; Hong, Z.; Yuan, W.; Pei, R.; Flack, T. J.; Coombs, T. A.

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors with a particular focus on the AC loss in coils made from YBCO superconductors. The numerical analysis and finite element modelling of the YBCO superconductors used in Cambridge's superconducting permanent magnet synchronous motor currently in development is described. The stack of tapes in the superconducting coils is modelled using the direct H formulation, a B-dependent critical current density and a bulk approximation. Magnetic boundary conditions for this model are derived from a 2D finite element method (FEM) motor model. The combination of these models allows the total AC loss (combined transport and magnetisation losses) in the HTS coils used in an all-superconducting machine design to be estimated. The raw AC loss figures are compared to the output power of the motor for two test cases, and it is found that the AC loss contributes significantly to the total loss and therefore efficiency. An experimental rig is also described, which has been built in order to test the electromagnetic properties and performance of the motor. It is explained how this rig will be used to investigate the magnetisation of the rotor and carry out AC loss measurements on the stator coils.

  5. Preliminary Results: Magnetic Bulk Properties and Anisotropy of the Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic) Loess-Paleosol Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Antoine, P.; Hatte, C.; Rousseau, D.; Gauthier, C.; Moine, O.; Fuchs, M.; Svoboda, J.; Lisa, L.

    2010-12-01

    The present study stems from past and ongoing (ANR ACTES project) multi-disciplinary collaborative research project aimed at studying abrupt climate changes in terrestrial European eolian records for which the objectives are motivated by the following overarching questions: What can we learn from eolian records about the dynamics and the length scale of patterns of atmospheric circulation? Are there any mechanisms linking the sedimentation of dust over Greenland and in Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum? Previous investigationsof west European loess sequence revealed two main periods of increased loess deposition since the last interglacial (MIS 5) centered around 60 ± 5 kyr and 23 ± 8 kyr BP, and separated by a period with strongly reduced sedimentation rate between 55 and 38 kyr BP. During these periods of high loess accumulation, sedimentological grain size fluctuations co-vary along numerous west European loess sequences and mimic dust concentration oscillations observed in Greenland ice cores. Other observations chronological coeval with DO (interstadial) events and supporting greater moisture (precipitation) are increased mollusk population (counted individuals), development of tundra gley soils, occurrence of only C3 plants and more negative δ13C. Despite these observations a mechanism linking the sedimentation of the dust at the summit of Greenland and in Western Europe has yet to be proposed and provides the motivation to expand our investigation of loess sequence eastwards in Europe within the 45°N to 48°N latitudinal band. In July of 2009, the well documented Dolni Vestonice brickyard loess sequence (48°53’11.5’’N 16°39’15.8’’E) was resampled over 15 meters for a multi-proxy study, including bulk grain size, micromorphological, mollusk isotope, carbon isotope, luminescence age determinations and rock magnetic analyses. The top of the sequence is capped by a topsoil which appears to be genetically unrelated to the underlying loess

  6. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginley, D. S.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Baughman, R. J.; Bourcier, R. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B.; Halloran, J. W.; Neal, N. J.; Capone, D. W.

    1990-04-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. Two promising processing technologies that were utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors are reported. First, melt spun YBa2Cu3O7 fibers rapid thermal processed for 1 to 8 sec at 950 to 1075 C have (Tc)'s to 92 K, J(sub c)'s to 1100 A/sq cm and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa2Cu3O7. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting compositions give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi(1.7)Pb(0.3)Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 were made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100 K and improved magnetic hysteresis above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneals near 850 C appears to significantly improve these materials.

  7. Spin-orbit torques in Ta/TbxCo100-x ferrimagnetic alloy films with bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Kohei; Mann, Maxwell; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik-Jun; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2016-12-01

    We quantified the bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in bilayer Ta/TbxCo100-x ferrimagnetic alloy films with varying Tb concentration. The coercivity increases dramatically with increasing TbxCo100-x thickness and is enhanced by the presence of a Ta underlayer. The Ta underlayer simultaneously serves as a source of SOT due to the spin Hall effect, which we show provides an efficient means to manipulate the magnetization in bulk PMA materials. It is further shown that the sign of the anomalous Hall voltage is different for rare-earth (RE) and transition-metal (TM) dominated alloy compositions, whereas the sign of the SOT effective field remains the same, suggesting that the former is related to the TM sublattice magnetization whereas the latter is related to the net magnetization. Our results suggest that Ta/TbxCo100-x is a potential candidate for spin-orbitronic device applications and give insight into spin transport and SOTs in rare-earth/transition-metal alloys.

  8. Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwang-Rae; Lee, Kyujoon; Cho, Jaehun; Choi, Young-Ha; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Bonell, Frédéric; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2014-01-01

    Spin-orbit torques, including the Rashba and spin Hall effects, have been widely observed and investigated in various systems. Since interesting spin-orbit torque (SOT) arises at the interface between heavy nonmagnetic metals and ferromagnetic metals, most studies have focused on the ultra-thin ferromagnetic layer with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Here, we measured the effective longitudinal and transverse fields of bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd (1.54 to 2.43 nm)/MgO systems using harmonic methods with careful correction procedures. We found that in our range of thicknesses, the effective longitudinal and transverse fields are five to ten times larger than those reported in interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy systems. The observed magnitude and thickness dependence of the effective fields suggest that the SOT do not have a purely interfacial origin in our samples. PMID:25293693

  9. Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwang-Rae; Lee, Kyujoon; Cho, Jaehun; Choi, Young-Ha; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Bonell, Frédéric; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2014-10-08

    Spin-orbit torques, including the Rashba and spin Hall effects, have been widely observed and investigated in various systems. Since interesting spin-orbit torque (SOT) arises at the interface between heavy nonmagnetic metals and ferromagnetic metals, most studies have focused on the ultra-thin ferromagnetic layer with interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Here, we measured the effective longitudinal and transverse fields of bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd (1.54 to 2.43 nm)/MgO systems using harmonic methods with careful correction procedures. We found that in our range of thicknesses, the effective longitudinal and transverse fields are five to ten times larger than those reported in interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy systems. The observed magnitude and thickness dependence of the effective fields suggest that the SOT do not have a purely interfacial origin in our samples.

  10. Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

    2014-05-01

    The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

  11. Structure and magnetic properties of bulk nanocrystalline Tm{sub 2}(Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 17} permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. T.; Yang, J. J.; Yue, M.; Cao, S.; Liu, W. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Yi, X. F.; Qiang, Y.

    2010-05-15

    Structure and magnetic properties were studied for Tm{sub 2}(Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}){sub 17} bulk nanocrystalline magnet synthesized by spark plasma sintering technique. X-ray diffraction results indicate both ingot and sintered magnet of Tm{sub 2}(Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}){sub 17} alloy exhibit hexagonal Th{sub 2}Ni{sub 17} type structure. The microstructure of the magnet is composed of Th{sub 2}Ni{sub 17} type nanograins with an average size of 35 nm detected by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction patterns. Magnetic measurement shows that the remanence of the magnet is higher at 573 K than at 300 K, indicating there is a positive remanence temperature coefficient in the magnet. The anisotropy field of Tm{sub 2}(Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}){sub 17} alloy is 3.8 T, which is much higher than the H{sub A} of 2.3 T for the pure Tm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} alloy. The coercivity of the sintered magnet increases from 0.25 to 0.354 T after optimal annealing.

  12. Nanocomposite Nd-Y-Fe-B-Mo bulk magnets prepared by injection casting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shan; Ahmad, Zubair; Zhang, Pengyue; Yan, Mi; Zheng, Xiaomei

    2017-09-01

    The phase composition, magnetic and microstructural properties of Nd2Fe14B/(α-Fe, Fe3B) nanocomposite magnets produced by injection casting technique have been studied. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the Nd7Y6Fe61B22Mo4 permanent magnet demonstrates the coercivity as high as 1289 kA/m. Electron microscopy elucidates a microstructure composed of magnetically soft α-Fe, Fe3B and hard Nd2Fe14B/Y2Fe14B nanograins (20-50 nm) separated by ultra-thin grain boundary layer. The Henkel plot curve of the Nd7Y6Fe61B22Mo4 magnet yields the existence of exchange coupling interactions between soft and hard phases. Macroscopically large size sheet magnet is obtained due to high glass forming ability of the Nd7Y6Fe61B22Mo4 alloy derived from large atomic radius mismatch and negative enthalpy of alloy constituent elements. The high coercivity of the magnet is attributed to the magnetically hard phase increment, nucleation of reverse domains and the presence of thin grain boundary phase. Good magnetic properties such as remanence of 0.51 T, coercivity of 1289 kA/m and maximum energy product of 46.2 kJ/m3 are obtained in directly casted Nd7Y6Fe61B22Mo4 sheet magnets.

  13. Simulation studies on the magnetization of (RE)BCO bulk superconductors using various split-coil arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Lewin, Richard; Campbell, Archie M.; Cardwell, David A.; Jones, Harry

    2012-02-01

    Simulation studies were conducted on the magnetization of (RE)BCO (RE-Ba-Cu-O, where RE represents a rare earth element) bulk superconductors using various split-coil arrangements by solving the critical state equation using the commercial software FlexPDE. A pair of coaxial coils of identical size is identified as an optimum arrangement for practical magnetization at 77 K by the ‘zero-field cooling’ technique. In general, the magnetization process is likely to be most effective when the outer radius of the coils lies between 100% and 50% of the sample radius. A relatively large coil pair is necessary for samples with either a smaller aspect ratio or larger values of Jc0. Two different regimes of flux penetration are found to be involved in the magnetization process. For a sufficiently small sample, the penetration field is determined by flux propagation from beneath the coil to the centre of the sample; for a sufficiently large sample, the definitive propagation route is from beneath the coil to the periphery of the sample. Effective split-coil magnetization occurs only in the former regime, and both penetration regimes are completely different from that involved in the solenoidal-coil magnetization process.

  14. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  15. The coexistence of surface magnetoplasmons (SMPs) and bulk magnetoplasmons (BMPs) in SIS waveguide with the Voigt configuration magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiong-gan; Wang, Zhi-guo

    2016-05-01

    The coexistence behavior of surface magnetoplasmons (SMPs) and bulk magnetoplasmons (BMPs) is discussed on a platform constructed by the Semicondutor-Insulator-Semiconductor (SIS) waveguide with the Voigt configuration magnetization. It is found that the coexistence of SMPs and BMPs stems from the nonzero off-diagonal terms of permittivity tensors of the top and the bottom semiconductor materials (SM) claddings which are induced by the external magnetic field. In this case, the impendence of SM for SMPs contains two contributions associated with both the transversal and the longitudinal wave vectors of SMPs. When the impendence matching condition of SMPs exciting in SIS waveguide is satisfied in the propagating band of BMPs, the coexistence of these two modes thus appears. The results show that the forward-propagating SMPs only coexists with the lower BMPs mode, however, the backward-propagating SMPs coexists with the higher BMPs mode when the top and the bottom SM claddings are magnetized by equal amplitude magnetic field but with opposite direction. In addition, the influences of external-magnetic-field intensity, insulator permittivity and waveguide width on the coexisting frequency widths are also presented.

  16. The influence of winding direction of two-layer HTS DC cable on the critical current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyatkin, V. S.; Kashiwagi, K.; Ivanov, Y. V.; Otabe, E. S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2017-09-01

    The design of twist pitch and direction of winding in multilayer HTS coaxial cable is important. For HTS AC transmitting cables, the main condition of twist pitch is the balance of inductances of each layer for providing the current balance between layers. In this work, the finite element method analysis for the coaxial cables with both same and opposite directions winding is used to calculate magnetic field distribution, and critical current of the cable is estimated. It was found that the critical current of the cable with same direction winding is about 10 percent higher than that in the case of the cable with the opposite direction winding.

  17. Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Williams, P.M.; Boenig, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    We are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS-high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.

  18. Parameter identification of the complete-moving-hysteresis model for HTS steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, G.R.; Della Torre, E.; Vajda, F. . Inst. for Magnetics Research)

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses an extension to soft magnetic materials of the identification method of the CMH model which was originally introduced for medium hard magnetic materials. The proposed Preisach function for HTS steel, a soft magnetic material, is normal in the interaction field and is assumed to be lognormal in the critical field. Although the Preisach function is not symmetrical, the logarithm of the operative Preisach function is. However, the moving parameter, [alpha], can not be obtained by finding the value that removes this asymmetry because of the presence of apparent reversible magnetization and the lognormal nature of the Preisach function. All the Preisach parameters can be obtained using the major curve and the virgin curve only. For HTS steel, the squareness is 0.004, indicating a small irreversible magnetization component. The coercivity is 8.6 Oe; whereas the remanence coercivity is an order of magnitude larger, namely 123.5 Oe.

  19. An introduction to the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G HTS motor for the ship propulsion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Heejong; Kim, Yeong-Chun; Park, Heui-Joo; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Minwon

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the design and fabrication progress of a megawatt class 2G high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor for the ship propulsion application at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction. The purpose of this 2G HTS propulsion motor is to launch the business area for marine applications such as surface ship, submarine, merchant ship etc. The principles and interpretation of the magnetic field for 2G HTS motor and permanent magnet type motors are similar on the basis of 3D design and production. The most important component of an HTS motor is the rotor, which is composed of HTS coil, non-ferrous metal, torque disk, damper, and hollow shaft. A HTS rotor using hastelloy-based 2G HTS coils was designed and built. Open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics of the superconducting motor were investigated and compared with the analysis results at reduced excitation to verify the design. Preliminary testing of a 2G HTS motor has been conducted at a few hundred kilowatts as per the design. Through these results, we anticipate that most of the design criteria can be satisfied. However, we have faced several issues during the testing of the motor and these issues need to be resolved in order to take the design further.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films with low Gilbert damping and bulk-like magnetization

    SciTech Connect

    Onbasli, M. C. Kim, D. H.; Ross, C. A.; Kehlberger, A.; Jakob, G.; Kläui, M.; Chumak, A. V.; Hillebrands, B.

    2014-10-01

    Yttrium iron garnet (YIG, Y {sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) films have been epitaxially grown on Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG, Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) substrates with (100) orientation using pulsed laser deposition. The films were single-phase, epitaxial with the GGG substrate, and the root-mean-square surface roughness varied between 0.14 nm and 0.2 nm. Films with thicknesses ranging from 17 to 200 nm exhibited low coercivity (<2 Oe), near-bulk room temperature saturation moments (∼135 emu cm{sup −3}), in-plane easy axis, and damping parameters as low as 2.2 × 10{sup −4}. These high quality YIG thin films are useful in the investigation of the origins of novel magnetic phenomena and magnetization dynamics.

  1. Test equipment for a flywheel energy storage system using a magnetic bearing composed of superconducting coils and superconducting bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, M.; Matsue, H.; Yamashita, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Nagashima, K.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Mukoyama, S.; Shimizu, H.; Horiuchi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems are necessary for renewable energy sources such as solar power in order to stabilize their output power, which fluctuates widely depending on the weather. Since ‘flywheel energy storage systems’ (FWSSs) do not use chemical reactions, they do not deteriorate due to charge or discharge. This is an advantage of FWSSs in applications for renewable energy plants. A conventional FWSS has capacity limitation because of the mechanical bearings used to support the flywheel. Therefore, we have designed a superconducting magnetic bearing composed of a superconducting coil stator and a superconducting bulk rotor in order to solve this problem, and have experimentally manufactured a large scale FWSS with a capacity of 100 kWh and an output power of 300 kW. The superconducting magnetic bearing can levitate 4 tons and enables the flywheel to rotate smoothly. A performance confirmation test will be started soon. An overview of the superconducting FWSS is presented in this paper.

  2. Integration of HTS Cables in the Future Grid of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Aanhaanen, G.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

    Due to increasing power demand, the electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. The future transmission grid will obtain electrical power generated by decentralized renewable sources, together with large scale generation units located at the coastal region. In this way electrical power has to be distributed and transmitted over longer distances from generation to end user. Potential grid issues like: amount of distributed power, grid stability and electrical loss dissipation merit particular attention. High temperature superconductors (HTS) can play an important role in solving these grid problems. Advantages to integrate HTS components at transmission voltages are numerous: more transmittable power together with less emissions, intrinsic fault current limiting capability, lower ac loss, better control of power flow, reduced footprint, less magnetic field emissions, etc. The main obstacle at present is the relatively high price of HTS conductor. However as the price goes down, initial market penetration of several HTS components (e.g.: cables, fault current limiters) is expected by year 2015. In the full paper we present selected ways to integrate EHV AC HTS cables depending on a particular future grid scenario in the Netherlands.

  3. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  4. R&D on Resistive Heat Exchangers for HTS High Rated Current Leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    The HTS current leads of superconducting magnets for large scale fusion devices and high energy particle colliders can reduce the power consumption for cooling by 2/3 compared with conventional leads. The resistive sections of high-rated current leads are usually made of a heat exchanger cooled by gas flow. The supply of the cooling mass flow incurs more than 90% of the cooling cost for the HTS leads. The mass flow rate requirement depends not only on the length and material of the resistive heat exchanger, but also on the heat transfer coefficient and HEX surface, the joint resistance at the cold end and its cooling approach. The design and operation of a sheet-stack HEX with a larger specific surface and a much smaller hydraulic diameter are presented in the paper. The test results of an HTS lead optimized for 8 kA show that a 98.4% efficiency can be achieved.

  5. An HTS flux pump operated by directly driving a superconductor into flux flow region in the E- J curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTS) flux pumps are capable of compensating the persistent current decay in HTS magnets without electrical contact. In this paper, following work on a low-T c superconducting self-switching flux pump, we propose a new HTS flux pump by directly driving a high-T c superconductor into the flux flow region in the E- J curve. The flux pump consists of a transformer which has a superconducting secondary winding shorted by an YBCO-coated conductor bridge. A high alternating current with a much higher positive peak value than the negative peak value is induced in the secondary winding. The current always drives the bridge superconductor into the flux flow region only at around its positive peak value, thus resulting in flux pumping. The proposed flux pump is much simpler than existing HTS flux pumps.

  6. Bulk Nanocomposite LaCo5/LaCo13 Magnets (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    La2Co7 weight fraction of 25–30% (La content of 34–34.5 wt. %) when hot pressed at 760 C. The ratio of the remanence magnetization (Mr) to the...magnetization at 1.5 T, Mr/M (1.5 T), is roughly 0.9. The ratio Hk/Hc (where Hk is the reversal field when the moment 4pM drops down to 90% of the remanent 4pMr

  7. Symmetry and Bulk-Edge Correspondence in the Dimerized Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Ladder with External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The dimerized spin-1/2 Heisenberg ladder is topologically characterized from the viewpoints of symmetry protection and bulk-edge correspondence. Our focus is on the plateau phase at the half of the saturation induced by dimerization and magnetic field. The Berry phase associated with the twisted boundary condition is employed as a topological order parameter. The magnetic field reduces the symmetry of the system, but there is a topological phase protected by a spatial inversion symmetry that is characterized by a Berry phase quantized to 0/ π. For a Berry phase quantization, usage of a symmetry-preserving boundary, which leaves at least one inversion center after the system is cut at the boundary, is essential. As a comparison, a symmetry-breaking boundary is also analyzed. Naively, such a boundary is inadequate to make the Berry phase quantized and topological. However, for a specific type of boundary, we found a unique quantization of the Berry phase into +/- π / 2 , instead of 0/ π [1]. Further, for the case of +/- π / 2 -quantization, there appears an edge state distinct from the one for the 0/ π-quantization, which reveals new aspects of the bulk-edge correspondence for symmetry-breaking boundary.

  8. Unexpectedly wide reversible vortex region in β -pyrochlore RbOs2O6 : Bulk magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Pierre; Fasano, Yanina; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Fischer, Øystein; Bukowski, Zbigniew; Katrych, Sergiy; Karpinski, Janusz

    2008-10-01

    We study the extent of the reversible region in the vortex phase diagram of recently available RbOs2O6 single crystals [Rogacki , Phys. Rev. B 77, 134514 (2008)] by means of bulk magnetization measurements. We found that the irreversible magnetic response sets in at a field Hirr(T)˜0.3Hc2(T) for 0.5≲T/Tc≲0.8 yielding a reversible vortex region that is wide in comparison with other low- Tc materials. The relevance of thermal fluctuations is limited since we estimate a Ginzburg number Gi=5×10-7 . However, the relevance of quenched disorder is low since the critical-current density ratio at low fields and temperatures is of the order of that found in high Tc ’s. We therefore conclude that an intrinsically low bulk pinning magnitude favors the existence of an unexpectedly wide reversible vortex region in RbOs2O6 .

  9. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet, Part 1: Concept and Design. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications, such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Very fast charging and discharging of HTS tubes, as short as 100 microseconds, has been demonstrated. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSSCO 2212 with a

  10. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet, Part 1: Concept and Design. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications, such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Very fast charging and discharging of HTS tubes, as short as 100 microseconds, has been demonstrated. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSSCO 2212 with a

  11. Optimization study on the magnetic field of superconducting Halbach Array magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Boyang; Geng, Jianzhao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xiuchang; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Jun; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the optimization on the strength and homogeneity of magnetic field from superconducting Halbach Array magnet. Conventional Halbach Array uses a special arrangement of permanent magnets which can generate homogeneous magnetic field. Superconducting Halbach Array utilizes High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) to construct an electromagnet to work below its critical temperature, which performs equivalently to the permanent magnet based Halbach Array. The simulations of superconducting Halbach Array were carried out using H-formulation based on B-dependent critical current density and bulk approximation, with the FEM platform COMSOL Multiphysics. The optimization focused on the coils' location, as well as the geometry and numbers of coils on the premise of maintaining the total amount of superconductor. Results show Halbach Array configuration based superconducting magnet is able to generate the magnetic field with intensity over 1 Tesla and improved homogeneity using proper optimization methods. Mathematical relation of these optimization parameters with the intensity and homogeneity of magnetic field was developed.

  12. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Scott T.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  13. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  14. Bulk permittivity, low frequency relaxation and the magnetic properties of Pb(Fe½Nb½)O3 ceramics.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Choudhary, R N P; Banerjee, A

    2010-01-20

    A Pb(Fe(½)Nb(½))O(3) ceramic sample was prepared through a high temperature solid-state reaction technique. The formation of a single-phase perovskite compound was confirmed by an x-ray diffraction technique. Dielectric and impedance parameters were measured as a function of frequency (10(2)-10(6) Hz) at different temperatures (28-200 °C). The results were described using an equivalent circuit model and by extending the universal capacitor concept introduced by Jonscher. Bulk permittivity of the material and the power law exponent (extracted from impedance data) exhibits an anomaly at a particular temperature related to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition. A slow relaxation process has been observed in the vicinity of the transition temperature. Temperature dependent magnetization (2-300 K) was measured at different magnetic fields in both zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) modes. An antiferromagnetic transition was observed at 158 K but an unusual increase in magnetization below this transition indicates the onset of weak ferromagnetism at low temperature in this system. Nonlinear M-H and a finite opening in the hysteresis loop at 2 K substantiate the presence of ferromagnetic interactions. Significantly, a thermomagnetic history-dependent feature is observed below 9 K. The ZFC magnetization shows a sharp fall and it bifurcates from the monotonically increasing FC counterpart on decreasing temperature. This temperature, where ZFC magnetization shows a sharp peak, decreases with the increase in measurement field and it indicates the presence of a metastable magnetic state at low temperature.

  15. R&D ERL: HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative feature of the ERL project is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The HTS solenoid design offers many advantages because of several unique design features. Typically the solenoid is placed outside the cryostat which means that the beam gets significantly defused before a focusing element starts. In the current design, the solenoid is placed inside the cryostat which provides an early focusing structure and thus a significant reduction in the emittance of the electron beam. In addition, taking full advantage of the high critical temperature of HTS, the solenoid has been designed to reach the required field at {approx}77 K, which can be obtained with liquid nitrogen. This significantly reduces the cost of testing and allows a variety of critical pre-tests which would have been prohibitively expensive at 4 K in liquid helium because of the additional requirements of cryostat and associated facilities.

  16. Using thermal boundary conditions to engineer the quantum state of a bulk magnet.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M A; Silevitch, D M; Aeppli, G; Rosenbaum, T F

    2014-03-11

    The degree of contact between a system and the external environment can alter dramatically its proclivity to quantum mechanical modes of relaxation. We show that controlling the thermal coupling of cubic-centimeter-sized crystals of the Ising magnet LiHo(x)Y(1-x)F4 to a heat bath can be used to tune the system between a glassy state dominated by thermal excitations over energy barriers and a state with the hallmarks of a quantum spin liquid. Application of a magnetic field transverse to the Ising axis introduces both random magnetic fields and quantum fluctuations, which can retard and speed the annealing process, respectively, thereby providing a mechanism for continuous tuning between the destination states. The nonlinear response of the system explicitly demonstrates quantum interference between internal and external relaxation pathways.

  17. Using thermal boundary conditions to engineer the quantum state of a bulk magnet

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, M. A.; Silevitch, D. M.; Aeppli, G.; Rosenbaum, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    The degree of contact between a system and the external environment can alter dramatically its proclivity to quantum mechanical modes of relaxation. We show that controlling the thermal coupling of cubic-centimeter–sized crystals of the Ising magnet LiHoxY1-xF4 to a heat bath can be used to tune the system between a glassy state dominated by thermal excitations over energy barriers and a state with the hallmarks of a quantum spin liquid. Application of a magnetic field transverse to the Ising axis introduces both random magnetic fields and quantum fluctuations, which can retard and speed the annealing process, respectively, thereby providing a mechanism for continuous tuning between the destination states. The nonlinear response of the system explicitly demonstrates quantum interference between internal and external relaxation pathways. PMID:24567389

  18. US effort on HTS power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be

  19. Molar volume, thermal expansion, and bulk modulus in liquid Fe-Ni alloys at 1 bar: Evidence for magnetic anomalies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasch, P. M.; Manghnani, M. H.

    New experimental data on the molar volume Ω, thermal expansion coefficient α, and ultrasonic sound velocity vp in liquid Fe-Ni systems at temperatures between melting and 1975 K are reported. The molar volume and thermal expansion data were acquired using a penetrating γ radiation method; the sound velocity data were obtained by ultrasonic interferometry. In the temperature range of this study, the molar volume Ω increases and the sound velocity vp decreases, both linearly with temperature. The adiabatic bulk modulus KS ∝ v2p/Ωp of liquid Fe-Ni alloys is nearly independent of composition at Fe content greater than 65 wt%. The temperature derivative ∂K/∂T of both adiabatic and isothermal bulk modulus of pure liquid Fe decreases by approximately 50% upon being alloyed with 15 wt% Ni. The mixing behavior of thermodynamic and cohesive properties of liquid Fe-Ni is interpreted as resulting from the existence of disordered and localized magnetic states and correlations in the liquid state, i.e., well above the Curie temperature and extending from pure Fe into the Fe-Ni stability field. These magnetic contributions have strong mechanical effects on the structure in modifying the volume and elastic modulus by as much as 13% and 31%, respectively, in the case of pure liquid Fe. It is believed that the magnetic contribution, which is likely to be absent at core temperatures, should be removed from the measured 1-bar values of density and elastic moduli if these latter were to be used as precise anchoring points in high pressure-temperature EOS.

  20. Concepts for using trapped-flux HTS in motors and generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, John R.; Strasik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examine the expected performance of a brushless motor/generator that uses trapped-flux (TF) bulk high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to provide magnetomotive force, where the stator windings are used to create the TF. A key feature is the use of dysprosium (Dy) for the stator and rotor cores. We also examine methods to energize TF in HTS for generators used in pulsed-power applications.

  1. Irreversibility Line Measurement and Vortex Dynamics in High Magnetic Fields in Ni- and Co-Doped Iron Pnictide Bulk Superconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Nikolo, Martin; Singleton, John; Zapf, Vivien S.; ...

    2016-07-20

    The de-pinning or irreversibility lines were determined by ac susceptibility, magnetization, radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator (PDO), and resistivity methods in Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 ( Tc = 23.2 K), Ba(Fe0.95Ni0.05)2As2 ( Tc = 20.4 K), and Ba(Fe0.94Ni0.06)2As2 ( Tc = 18.5 K) bulk superconductors in ac, dc, and pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. A new method of extracting the irreversibility fields from the radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator induction technique is described. Wide temperature broadening of the irreversibility lines, for any given combination of ac and dc fields, is dependent on the time frame of measurement. Increasing the magnetic field sweep ratemore » (dH/dt) shifts the irreversibility lines to higher temperatures up to about dH/d t = 40,000 Oe/s; for higher dH/dt, there is little impact on the irreversibility line. There is an excellent data match between the irreversibility fields obtained from magnetization hysteresis loops, PDO, and ac susceptibility measurements, but not from resistivity measurements in these materials. Lower critical field vs. temperature phase diagrams are measured. Their very low values near 0 T indicate that these materials are in mixed state in nonzero magnetic fields, and yet the strength of the vortex pinning enables very high irreversibility fields, as high as 51 T at 1.5 K for the Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 polycrystalline sample, showing a promise for liquid helium temperature applications.« less

  2. Improved Characteristics of Integrated HTS rf SQUID on Bicrystal SrTiO3 Substrate Resonator Covered with HTS Thin Films in Flip-Chip Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Takemoto, Makoto; Kurosawa, Ryuichi; Uchida, Yousuke; Tanaka, Saburo

    Integrated high-temperature superconductor (HTS) radio-frequency (rf) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) based on a bicrystal SrTiO3 substrate was investigated for application to magnetic contaminant detection. By covering a wide superconducting weak link and/or a slit of the YBa2Cu3O7-x SQUID with HTS thin films in flip-chip geometry, characteristics such as effective area and 1/f noise profile of the SQUID were successfully improved. By installing the covered SQUID in a magnetic contaminant detection system, it was demonstrated that the system can detect a tungsten ball of 15μm in diameter with a signal to noise ratio of about 2.

  3. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  4. Study on effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneendra, Konduru Asokan, K. Kanjilal, D.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sastry, S. Sreehari

    2014-04-24

    Effect of annealing conditions on structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of Magnesium Diboride (MgB{sub 2}) bulk superconductor samples prepared by solid state route method are compared. The samples are made by taking Magnesium and Boron powders in stoichiometric ratio, grounded well and pelletized at pressure of about 10Tonnes. These pellets are annealed in both Argon and vacuum environment separately up to 800°c for two hours. Both the samples show clear superconducting transition at Tc ∼ 38 k. This is further conformed by AC/DC magnetization (M-T), Resistivity [ρ (T, H)] measurements under magnetic field up to 14 Tesla as well. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction of both samples conformed the MgB{sub 2} phase formation with P6/mmm space group symmetry. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of the surface revile more agglomeration of grains in case of Argon annealed samples. This result in more critical current density (J{sub c}) of Argon annealed samples than vacuum annealed one calculated from Bean's critical state model. This high Jc is explained in terms of more inter grain connectivity for Argon annealed sample than vacuum annealed sample.

  5. Confinement in the Bulk, Deconfinement on the Wall: Infrared Equivalence between Compactified QCD and Quantum Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Shao, Hui; Sandvik, Anders W.; Ünsal, Mithat

    2017-09-01

    In a spontaneously dimerized quantum antiferromagnet, spin-1 /2 excitations (spinons) are confined in pairs by strings akin to those confining quarks in non-Abelian gauge theories. The system has multiple degenerate ground states (vacua) and domain walls between regions of different vacua. For two vacua, we demonstrate that spinons on a domain wall are liberated, in a mechanism strikingly similar to domain-wall deconfinement of quarks in variants of quantum chromodynamics. This observation not only establishes a novel phenomenon in quantum magnetism, but also provides a new direct link between particle physics and condensed-matter physics. The analogy opens doors to improving our understanding of particle confinement and deconfinement by computational and experimental studies in quantum magnetism.

  6. Confinement in the Bulk, Deconfinement on the Wall: Infrared Equivalence between Compactified QCD and Quantum Magnets.

    PubMed

    Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Shao, Hui; Sandvik, Anders W; Ünsal, Mithat

    2017-09-01

    In a spontaneously dimerized quantum antiferromagnet, spin-1/2 excitations (spinons) are confined in pairs by strings akin to those confining quarks in non-Abelian gauge theories. The system has multiple degenerate ground states (vacua) and domain walls between regions of different vacua. For two vacua, we demonstrate that spinons on a domain wall are liberated, in a mechanism strikingly similar to domain-wall deconfinement of quarks in variants of quantum chromodynamics. This observation not only establishes a novel phenomenon in quantum magnetism, but also provides a new direct link between particle physics and condensed-matter physics. The analogy opens doors to improving our understanding of particle confinement and deconfinement by computational and experimental studies in quantum magnetism.

  7. Magnetization Response of the Bulk and Supplementary Magnetic Domain Structure in High-Permeability Steel Laminations Visualized In Situ by Neutron Dark-Field Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, B.; Rauscher, P.; Harti, R. P.; Schäfer, R.; Irastorza-Landa, A.; Van Swygenhoven, H.; Kaestner, A.; Hovind, J.; Pomjakushina, E.; Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial transformer cores are composed of stacked high-permeability steel laminations (HPSLs). The performance and degree of efficiency of transformers are directly determined by the magnetic properties of each HPSL. In this article, we show how the neutron dark-field image (DFI) allows for the in situ visualization of the locally resolved response of the bulk and supplementary magnetic domain structures in HPSLs under the influence of externally applied magnetic fields. In particular, we investigate the domain formation and growth along the initial magnetization curve up to the saturated state. For decreasing field, we visualize the recurrence of the hysteretic domain structure down to the remanent state. Additionally, the DFI allows us to derive a correlation between the grain orientation and the corresponding volume and supplementary domain structure. Furthermore, we visualize the influence of the insulation coating, introducing desired tensile stresses on the domain structures. To compare our DFI findings to traditional methods, we perform complementary surface-sensitive magneto-optical Kerr-microscopy investigations.

  8. Properties of II-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnetic Systems. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 161

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-21

    quantum well (MQW) structures, which can confine electrons and holes in a two-dimensional well , fabricated by MBE [2] and MOCVD [3]. Despite the...N Pie MA’ FERIA -LS - RESEAR(--’H -)CIFFY VOLUME 161 Properties of 11-VI Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures...Semiconductors: Bulk Crystals, Epitaxial Films, Quantum Well Structures, and Dilute Magnet;-- Systems :1ity CodeS JLECTE0 Nov 15 1990 SDISTRI:7UTICN SAT EM~

  9. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator Using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSCCO 2212 with a magnetostrictive element will be discussed.

  10. Simulation studies of mechanical stresses in REBaCuO superconducting ring bulks with infinite and finite height reinforced by metal ring during field-cooled magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Ainslie, M. D.; Takahashi, K.; Naito, T.; Yanagi, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2017-08-01

    We have performed the numerical simulation of mechanical stresses (hoop stress, σ θ and radial stress, σ r) in REBaCuO ring bulks with an infinite and finite height reinforced by metal (aluminum alloy or stainless steel) ring during field-cooled magnetization (FCM) using a solenoid coil with an infinite and finite height. The superconducting characteristics of the bulk material were assumed to follow Bean’s critical state model. The electromagnetic hoop stress, {{σ }θ }{{F}{{C}}{{M}}}, of the finite height ring bulk during FCM using the infinite coil was larger than that for the infinite ring bulk, and the time step dependence of {{σ }θ }{{F}{{C}}{{M}}} was clearly different in each case. The {{σ }θ }{{F}{{C}}{{M}}} value was reduced by the reinforcement by the metal ring, and the stainless steel ring was more effective than the aluminum alloy ring. The {{σ }θ }{{F}{{C}}{{M}}} value of the finite ring bulk magnetized using the finite coil was slightly reduced, compared to magnetization using the infinite coil. The thermal hoop stress, {{σ }θ }{{cool}}, which occurs in the ring bulk when cooling down to operating temperature due to the difference of thermal contraction coefficient between ring bulk and metal ring, was also estimated. The compressive, {{σ }θ }{{cool}}, was reduced comparatively at the uppermost surface of the ring bulk because of the larger thermal contraction of the metal ring along the axial direction. The actual total hoop stress, {σ }θ (= {{σ }θ }{{F}{{C}}{{M}}}+{{σ }θ }{{cool}}) was analyzed for the finite ring bulk reinforced by the metal ring during FCM and the possibility of mechanical fracture due to this hoop stress is also discussed.

  11. Theory of the magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in RNiO3 bulk and layered structures.

    PubMed

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J

    2013-03-22

    A slave rotor--Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within a unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare-earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and unstrained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram.

  12. Theory of the Magnetic and Metal-Insulator Transitions in RNiO3 Bulk and Layered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    A slave rotor—Hartree-Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within a unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare-earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and unstrained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram.

  13. Theory of the magnetic and metal-insulator transitions in RNiO3 bulk and layered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Bayo; Millis, Andrew J.

    2013-03-01

    A slave rotor-Hartree Fock formalism is presented for studying the properties of the p-d model describing perovskite transition metal oxides, and a flexible and efficient numerical formalism is developed for its solution. The methodology is shown to yield, within an unified formulation, the significant aspects of the rare earth nickelate phase diagram, including the paramagnetic metal state observed for the LaNiO3 and the correct ground-state magnetic order of insulating compounds. It is then used to elucidate ground state changes occurring as morphology is varied from bulk to strained and un-strained thin-film form. For ultrathin films, epitaxial strain and charge-transfer to the apical out-of-plane oxygen sites are shown to have significant impact on the phase diagram. This effort is supported by US National Science Foundation under grant NSF-DMR-1006282

  14. Bipolar electrical coil based on YBCO bulks: initial tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, A.; Suárez, P.; Ceballos, J. M.; Pérez, B.; Werfel, F.; Floegel-Delor, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the field of the application of HTS in electrical motors, most prototypes are made using superconducting coils based on tape and located in the position where copper coils work in a similar conventional motor. Other prototypes use superconducting bulks (usually disk-shaped) in those positions where normal magnets should work in similar conventional motors. But it is very unusual to find designs using electrical coils based on bulks. This is a challenge whose main problem is the difficulty in machining the superconductor bulks to get the proper shape because of the impossibility of bending the material to wind coils. The design of a bipolar single-turn coil made from a superconducting YBCO disk was proposed by the group of Electrical Application of Superconductors, at the University of Extremadura, several years ago to be an element for the design of a modular two-phase inductor for an air core axial-flux motor. The shape of each coil looks like an 'S'. When a current flows through the circuit, two opposite magnetic fields appear in the upper and lower halves of the piece. Until now, attempts to get a good superconducting circuit by cutting a YBCO disk into the required shape have failed because of cracks appearing in the crystal during the process. Last year, our group at the University of Extremadura began to work with ATZ GmbH who have improved the machining process and made the coils. In this paper we present the coil and the first tests carried out.

  15. Practical design and operating characteristic analysis of a 10 kW HTS DC induction heating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Seokho; Sim, Kideok; Kim, Hae-jong

    2014-09-01

    Conventional induction heaters have been in operation in metal and related industries with poor energy efficiencies of only 50-60%. Also, the efficiency of atmosphere furnace, one of the various heating facilities for metal billets, is about 20%. Hence, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC induction heating machine to heat a rotating metal billet under uniform magnetic field generated by the 2G HTS magnet with about 80-90% of the system energy efficiency has been researched in this paper. We presented practical design specification, operational characteristics, and temperature distribution on a 10 kW class HTS DC induction heating machine which had been built and tested. The saturated temperature of an HTS no-insulated(NI) coil in the cryostat fabricated with 100 A of the operating current reached 45.9 K and the magnetic field at the centre point between two iron cores measured 0.2 T. The rotating machine for 4.1 kg of the aluminum billet was tested on 1760 rpm of the rated rotating speed. The final temperature of the aluminum billet has risen up to 500 °C for 480 s. The research outcomes are expected to be useful for the design of a large scale HTS DC induction heating machine in industries.

  16. Defect Detection of Pipes using Guided Wave and HTS-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutani, N.; Teranishi, S.; Masamoto, K.; Kanenaga, S.; Hatsukade, Y.; Adachi, S.; Tanabe, K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated ultrasonic guided wave measurements on aluminium pipes with defects using high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID gradiometer and magnetostrictive sensors (MsS), which utilized pre-magnetized nickel thin plates. One of the pipes was provided with an axial defect, and the other was provided with a circumferential defect. The MsSs were used by adhering them on circumferences of the pipes to generate ultrasonic guided waves and to receive the waves by converting them into the magnetic signals, which were measured by the HTS-SQUID gradiometer. Guided wave measurements using the MsSs and the gradiometer demonstrated that magnetic signals of about 3.3 mΦ0 due to reflected waves from both the defects were successfully detected. Reflected wave signals of about 1.4 mΦ0 from thin nickel plates of the MsS on the pipes were also detected.

  17. Effect of Interface Shape and Magnetic Field on the Microstructure of Bulk Ge:Ga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal and compositional gradients induced during the growth process contribute significantly to the development of defects in the solidified boule. Thermal gradients and the solid-liquid interface shape can be greatly effected by ampoule material. Compositional gradients are strongly influenced by interface curvature and convective flow in the liquid. Results of this investigation illustrate the combined influences of interface shape and convective fluid flow. An applied magnetic field was used to reduce the effects of convective fluid flow in the electrically conductive melt during directional solidification. Several 8 mm diameter boules of Ga-doped Ge were grown at different field strengths, up to 5 Tesla, in four different ampoule materials. Compositional profiles indicate mass transfer conditions ranged from completely mixed to diffusion controlled. The influence of convection in the melt on the developing crystal microstructure and defect density was investigated as a function of field strength and ampoule material. Chemical etching and electron backscattered electron diffraction were used to map the crystal structure of each boule along the center plane. Dislocation etch pit densities were measured for each boule. Results show the influence of magnetic field strength and ampoule material on overall crystal quality.

  18. Searching for high magnetization density in bulk Fe: the new metastable Fe6 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, Koichiro; Himmetoglu, Burak; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Cococcioni, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new allotrope of iron by first principles calculations. This phase has Pmn21 symmetry, a six-atom unit cell (hence the name Fe6), and the highest magnetization density (Ms) among all the known crystalline phases of iron. Obtained from the structural optimizations of the Fe3C-cementite crystal upon carbon removal, Pmn21 Fe6 is shown to result from the stabilization of a ferromagnetic FCC phase, further strained along the Bain path. Although metastable from 0 to 50 GPa, the new phase is more stable at low pressures than the other well-known HCP and FCC allotropes and smoothly transforms into the FCC phase under compression. If stabilized to room temperature, for example, by interstitial impurities, Fe6 could become the basis material for high Ms rare-earth-free permament magnets and high-impact applications such as light-weight electric engine rotors or high-density recording media. The new phase could also be key to explaining the enigmatic high Ms of Fe16N2, which is currently attracting intense research activity.

  19. Searching for high magnetization density in bulk Fe: the new metastable Fe-6 phase

    SciTech Connect

    Umemoto, K; Himmetoglu, B; Wang, JP; Wentzcovitch, RM; Cococcioni, M

    2014-11-26

    We report the discovery of a new allotrope of iron by first principles calculations. This phase has Pmn2(1) symmetry, a six-atom unit cell (hence the name Fe-6), and the highest magnetization density (M-s) among all the known crystalline phases of iron. Obtained from the structural optimizations of the Fe3C-cementite crystal upon carbon removal, Pmn2(1) Fe-6 is shown to result from the stabilization of a ferromagnetic FCC phase, further strained along the Bain path. Although metastable from 0 to 50 GPa, the new phase is more stable at low pressures than the other well-known HCP and FCC allotropes and smoothly transforms into the FCC phase under compression. If stabilized to room temperature, for example, by interstitial impurities, Fe-6 could become the basis material for high M-s rare-earth-free permament magnets and high-impact applications such as light-weight electric engine rotors or high-density recording media. The new phase could also be key to explaining the enigmatic high M-s of Fe16N2, which is currently attracting intense research activity.

  20. Analytical Study of Stress State in HTS Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Terzini, E.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    A main challenge for high field solenoids made of in High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) is the large stress developed in the conductor. This is especially constraining for BSCCO, a brittle and strain sensitive ceramic material. To find parametric correlations useful in magnet design, analytical models can be used. A simple model is herein proposed to obtain the radial, azimuthal and axial stresses in a solenoid as a function of size, i.e. self-field, and of the engineering current density for a number of different constraint hypotheses. The analytical model was verified against finite element modeling (FEM) using the same hypotheses of infinite rigidity of the constraints and room temperature properties. FEM was used to separately evaluate the effect of thermal contractions at 4.2 K for BSCCO and YBCO coils. Even though the analytical model allows for a finite stiffness of the constraints, it was run using infinite stiffness. For this reason, FEM was again used to determine how much stresses change when considering an outer stainless steel skin with finite rigidity for both BSCCO and YBCO coils. For a better understanding of the actual loads that high field solenoids made of HTS will be subject to, we have started some analytical studies of stress state in solenoids for a number of constraint hypotheses. This will hopefully show what can be achieved with the present conductor in terms of self-field. The magnetic field (B) exerts a force F = B x J per unit volume. In superconducting magnets, where the field and current density (J) are both high, this force can be very large, and it is therefore important to calculate the stresses in the coil.

  1. Theory of Magnetic Response and Hall Effect in Bulk Rashba System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Tsuneya; Suzuura, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility and transport quantities are calculated in a three-dimensional system with a giant Rashba spin-orbit interaction for scatterers with short-range potential in a self-consistent Born approximation. The susceptibility exhibits a sharp peak toward the diamagnetic direction at the band crossing, being broadened depending on disorder. No special feature appears in the diagonal conductivity in both in-plane and vertical directions. The orbital Hall conductivity due to cyclotron motion is considerably reduced from -(nec)-1 in the low-energy region and exhibits a small step-like jump at the band crossing, becoming almost the same as -(nec)-1, where n is the carrier concentration. The Hall conductivity due to the spin-Zeeman energy has a sharp peak at the band crossing, but is significantly reduced due to inter-band scattering.

  2. Using Bulk Magnetic Susceptibility to Resolve Internal and External Signals in the NMR Spectra of Plant Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachar-Hill, Yair; Befroy, Douglas E.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Ratcliffe, R. George

    1997-07-01

    Internal and external NMR signals from a variety of plant cells and plant tissues can be resolved by changing the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) of the perfusing medium with [Gd (EDTA)]-or Dy(DTPA-BMA). This separation is observed in samples consisting of cylindrical cells oriented along theB0field, and is consistent with established theoretical predictions about BMS effects. Evidence is presented that the shifted signals represent material outside the tissue as well as some contribution from intercellular spaces and cell walls, while intracellular signals are unshifted. The paramagnetic complexes used to separate the signals are shown to be nontoxic and to have no effect on a number of transport processes. The method has been applied to roots, shoots, and giant algal cells, facilitating the interpretation of thein vivospectra from a range of biologically important magnetic isotopes. The potential of the method for studies of transport is illustrated with experiments showing: (i)14N/15N isotopic exchange of nitrate in roots; (ii) the influx of HDO into root and shoot segments; and (iii) the use of saturation transfer to follow water movement into and out of plant cells.

  3. Combined effects of magnetic interaction and domain wall pinning on the coercivity in a bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 ferromagnet

    PubMed Central

    Tan, X. H.; Chan, S. F.; Han, K.; Xu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the coercivity mechanism has a substantial impact on developing novel permanent materials. However, the current coercivity mechanisms used widely in permanent alloys cannot explain well the amorphous phase produced hard magnetic behavior of Nd-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs). Here, we propose that the coercivity in as-cast Nd60Fe30Al10 alloy is from the combination of magnetic interaction and strong pinning of domain walls. Moreover, the role of domain wall pinning is less affected after crystallization, while the magnetic interaction is dependent on the annealing temperature. Our findings give further insight into the coercivity mechanism of Nd-based bulk ferromagnets and provide a new idea to design prospective permanent alloys with coercivity from the combination of magnetic interaction and pinning of domain walls. PMID:25348232

  4. Combined effects of magnetic interaction and domain wall pinning on the coercivity in a bulk Nd60Fe30Al10 ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X. H.; Chan, S. F.; Han, K.; Xu, H.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the coercivity mechanism has a substantial impact on developing novel permanent materials. However, the current coercivity mechanisms used widely in permanent alloys cannot explain well the amorphous phase produced hard magnetic behavior of Nd-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs). Here, we propose that the coercivity in as-cast Nd60Fe30Al10 alloy is from the combination of magnetic interaction and strong pinning of domain walls. Moreover, the role of domain wall pinning is less affected after crystallization, while the magnetic interaction is dependent on the annealing temperature. Our findings give further insight into the coercivity mechanism of Nd-based bulk ferromagnets and provide a new idea to design prospective permanent alloys with coercivity from the combination of magnetic interaction and pinning of domain walls.

  5. Structural modeling of HTS tapes and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, N. C.; Chiesa, L.; Takayasu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural finite element analysis (FEA) has been used as an insightful tool to investigate the electromechanical behavior of HTS REBCO tapes and twisted stacked-tape cables under tension, torsion, bending and combined loads. A novel technique was developed for modeling the layered composite structure of the 2G tapes with structural solid-shell elements in ANSYS®. The FEA models produced detailed strain information for the REBCO superconducting layer which was then paired with an analytical model to predict the critical current performance of the 2G HTS tapes under various loads. Two commercially available HTS tapes (SuperPower and SuNAM) under tension, torsion and combined tension-torsion were first analyzed with FEA and compared with available experimental results at 77 K. A sharp critical current degradation was experienced at the yield strength of the tapes under tension and below a 100 mm twist-pitch under torsion. Combined tension-torsion loads had a more gradual degradation of critical current for twist-pitches of 115 mm or shorter but had a negligible difference compared to pure tension for longer twist-pitches. Using the structural solid-shell technique for modeling 2G tapes in ANSYS®, an FEA methodology for simulating full scale three-dimensional HTS stacked-tape cables under pure bending was created. A model of a Twisted-Stacked Tape Cable (TSTC), a configuration first proposed at MIT, was initially developed and then adapted to the slotted-core HTS Cable-In-Conduit Conductor produced by the ENEA laboratory in Italy. The numerical axial strain of the HTS REBCO tapes within the cables as calculated by FEA were found to agree with an analytical model for two cases: perfect-slip (frictionless) and no-slip (bonded). The ENEA CICC model was also compared with recent experimental critical current data at 77 K and was found to match best using a low friction coefficient of 0.02 indicating that the tapes within the cable freely slide with respect to each other

  6. Irreversibility Line Measurement and Vortex Dynamics in High Magnetic Fields in Ni- and Co-Doped Iron Pnictide Bulk Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolo, Martin; Singleton, John; Zapf, Vivien S.; Jiang, Jianyi; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    2016-07-20

    The de-pinning or irreversibility lines were determined by ac susceptibility, magnetization, radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator (PDO), and resistivity methods in Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 ( Tc = 23.2 K), Ba(Fe0.95Ni0.05)2As2 ( Tc = 20.4 K), and Ba(Fe0.94Ni0.06)2As2 ( Tc = 18.5 K) bulk superconductors in ac, dc, and pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. A new method of extracting the irreversibility fields from the radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator induction technique is described. Wide temperature broadening of the irreversibility lines, for any given combination of ac and dc fields, is dependent on the time frame of measurement. Increasing the magnetic field sweep rate (dH/dt) shifts the irreversibility lines to higher temperatures up to about dH/d t = 40,000 Oe/s; for higher dH/dt, there is little impact on the irreversibility line. There is an excellent data match between the irreversibility fields obtained from magnetization hysteresis loops, PDO, and ac susceptibility measurements, but not from resistivity measurements in these materials. Lower critical field vs. temperature phase diagrams are measured. Their very low values near 0 T indicate that these materials are in mixed state in nonzero magnetic fields, and yet the strength of the vortex pinning enables very high irreversibility fields, as high as 51 T at 1.5 K for the Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 polycrystalline sample, showing a promise for liquid helium temperature applications.

  7. Irreversibility Line Measurement and Vortex Dynamics in High Magnetic Fields in Ni- and Co-Doped Iron Pnictide Bulk Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolo, Martin; Singleton, John; Zapf, Vivien S.; Jiang, Jianyi; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.

    2016-07-20

    The de-pinning or irreversibility lines were determined by ac susceptibility, magnetization, radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator (PDO), and resistivity methods in Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 ( Tc = 23.2 K), Ba(Fe0.95Ni0.05)2As2 ( Tc = 20.4 K), and Ba(Fe0.94Ni0.06)2As2 ( Tc = 18.5 K) bulk superconductors in ac, dc, and pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. A new method of extracting the irreversibility fields from the radio-frequency proximity detector oscillator induction technique is described. Wide temperature broadening of the irreversibility lines, for any given combination of ac and dc fields, is dependent on the time frame of measurement. Increasing the magnetic field sweep rate (dH/dt) shifts the irreversibility lines to higher temperatures up to about dH/d t = 40,000 Oe/s; for higher dH/dt, there is little impact on the irreversibility line. There is an excellent data match between the irreversibility fields obtained from magnetization hysteresis loops, PDO, and ac susceptibility measurements, but not from resistivity measurements in these materials. Lower critical field vs. temperature phase diagrams are measured. Their very low values near 0 T indicate that these materials are in mixed state in nonzero magnetic fields, and yet the strength of the vortex pinning enables very high irreversibility fields, as high as 51 T at 1.5 K for the Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 polycrystalline sample, showing a promise for liquid helium temperature applications.

  8. X-ray and bulk magnetic properties of aluminium substituted ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakatkar, S. V.; Kakatkar, S. S.; Patil, R. S.; Maskar, P. K.; Sankapal, A. M.; Suryawanshi, S. S.; Chaudhari, N. D.; Sawant, S. R.

    1996-07-01

    The compositions having the general formula Ni 0.55Zn 0.45Al tFe 2- tO 4 and Ni 0.65Zn 0.35Al tFe 2- tO 4 with t = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 have been prepared by the standard ceramic technique and sintered at 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1240°C to attain different microstructures. The lattice parameter a, magnetization Ms are seen to decrease with increasing Al 3+ content whereas the coercive force Hc shows an increasing trend with Al 3+ content. Ms is found to be invariant with the changes in sintering temperature. The coercivity Hc and the remanent ratio R = MR/ Ms are seen to depend on the sintering temperature and hence on the grain size D. The anisotropy field HKA increases with increase of aluminium content. Ms and HKA enable calculation of the anisotropy field constant K1 which decreases with increase of Al 3+. The compositional, thermal and microstructural variations of hysteresis parameters like Ms, Hc and R reveal that grains in the compositions investigated are of multidomain (M-D) type. This result is supported by ac susceptibility data.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the bulk and surface (001) of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-zyadi, Jabbar M. Khalaf; Gao, G. Y.; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study the electronic structures, magnetic properties, and half-metallicity of the bulk and (001) surface of Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa. Our first-principles calculations exhibit that, within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of the electronic exchange-correlation functional, the quaternary Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa is a half-metallic ferromagnet at the equilibrium lattice constant of 5.795 Ǻ with a total spin magnetic moment of 5 μB per formula unit. The calculated total atomic magnetic moment follows the Slater-Pauling rule. At the same equilibrium lattice constant, the half-metallicity confirmed in the bulk NiCoMnGa, is destroyed at both MnGa- and NiCo-terminated (001) surfaces and subsurfaces. Based on the magnetic property calculations, the magnetic moments of Co, Mn, and Ga atoms at the NiCo- and MnGa-terminated surfaces increase with respect to the corresponding bulk values while the atomic magnetic moment of Ni at the NiCo-terminated surface decreases.

  10. A comparative study of magnetic field induced meta-magnetic transition in nanocrystalline and bulk Pr0.65(Ca0.7Sr0.3)0.35MnO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suvayan; Das, Kalipada; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Das, I.

    2017-06-01

    In our present study we highlight the observations of external magnetic field induced sharp meta-magnetic transition in polycrystalline bulk as well as nanocrystalline form of Pr0.65(Ca0.7Sr0.7)0.35MnO3 compound. Interestingly, such behavior persists in the nanoparticles regardless of the disorder broadened transition. However, higher magnetic field is required for nanoparticles having average particle size ∼40 nm for such meta-magnetic transition, which differs from the general trends of the pure charge ordered nano materials. The interfacial strain between the different magnetic domains plays the important role in magnetic isothermal properties of nanoparticles, when the samples are cooled down in different cooling field. Additionally, both the bulk and nanoparticle compounds exhibit spontaneous phase separation and significantly large magnetoresistance at the low temperature region due to the melting of charge ordered fraction.

  11. Performance evolution of 60 kA HTS cable prototypes in the EDIPO test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovsky, N.; Uglietti, D.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2016-08-01

    During the first test campaign of the 60 kA HTS cable prototypes in the EDIPO test facility, the feasibility of a novel HTS fusion cable concept proposed at the EPFL Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) was successfully demonstrated. While the measured DC performance of the prototypes at magnetic fields from 8 T to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA to 70 kA was close to the expected one, an initial electromagnetic cycling test (1000 cycles) revealed progressive degradation of the performance in both the SuperPower and SuperOx conductors. Aiming to understand the reasons for the degradation, additional cycling (1000 cycles) and warm up-cool down tests were performed during the second test campaign. I c performance degradation of the SuperOx conductor reached ∼20% after about 2000 cycles, which was reason to continue with a visual inspection of the conductor and further tests at 77 K. AC tests were carried out at 0 and 2 T background fields without transport current and at 10 T/50 kA operating conditions. Results obtained in DC and AC tests of the second test campaign are presented and compared with appropriate data published recently. Concluding the first iteration of the HTS cable development program at SPC, a summary and recommendations for the next activity within the HTS fusion cable project are also reported.

  12. Electrical parameter evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor via analysis and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

    2009-06-01

    A 1 MW class HTS (high-temperature superconducting) synchronous motor has been developed. Design concerns of the developed motor are focused on smaller machine size and higher efficiency than conventional motors or generators with the same rating simultaneously reducing expensive Bi-2223 HTS wire which is used for superconducting field coil carrying the operating current around 30 K (-243 °C). Influence of an important parameter, synchronous reactance, has been analyzed on the machine performances such as voltage variation and output power during motor and generator operation. The developed motor was also analyzed by three-dimensional electromagnetic FEM (finite element method) to get magnetic field distribution, inductance, electromagnetic stress and so forth. This motor is aimed to be utilized for industrial application such as large motors operating in large plants. The HTS field coil of the developed motor is cooled by way of Neon thermosiphon mechanism and the stator (armature) coil is cooled by water through hollow copper conductor. This paper also describes evaluation of some electrical parameters from performance test results which were obtained at steady state in generator and motor mode of our HTS machine.

  13. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-05-22

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping.

  14. Flux pinning properties of GdBCO bulk through the infiltration and growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. F.; Wang, J. J.; Zhang, X. J.; Pan, C. Y.; Zhou, W. L.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Izumi, M.

    2017-06-01

    REBa2Cu3O7-δ(RE123 or REBCO, RE=rare earth elements, Gd, Y, Nd, etc.) bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) have been used in lots of aspects, such as in magnetic levitation, et al., owing to the performance of high magnetic flux trapping. GdBCO superconductor bulk with 25 mm diameter has been successfully fabricated by top-seeded infiltration and growth (TSIG) method. We chose YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) particles as the liquid source, which provide enough liquid sources during the growth and encourage the growth along a-b plane of GdBCO bulk. Then the existence of Y123 liquid source partly decreases the effect of the sub-grain boundaries in a-growth sectors and improves the properties of GdBCO bulk. The shape of the trapped field is close to circle. The critical current density of C2 and B2 (JC ) enhances. The superconducting transition temperature (TC ) is around 94.5K in the different position and keeps the superconducting properties. It is the important experimental data for the engineering applications of the superconductor bulk.

  15. Advanced HTS S-N-S Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-30

    Randy W. Simon and Kookrin Char AE-O t 93 G)5) 7. pPtJORXM~NG aotal.AnmL~fO 16AME() A#40 ADOORSS(IS) L. PWO"MRU4G ORGAALZAnOU Conductus ...proposal will detail a series of circuits that would be developed in that program. Conductus is continuing to extend the capabilities of HTS-based

  16. Design and testing of the HTS bearing for a 10 kWh flywheel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, A. C.; Strasik, M.; McCrary, K. E.; Johnson, P. E.; Gabrys, J. W.; Schindler, J. R.; Hawkins, R. A.; Carlson, D. L.; Higgins, M. D.; Hull, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    Flywheels are of interest for a wide range of energy storage applications, from support of renewable resources to distributed power applications and uninterruptible power systems (UPS) (Day et al 2000 Proc. EESAT 2000 (Orlando, FL, Sept. 2000)). The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearings for such systems has significant advantages for applications requiring large amounts of energy to be stored with low parasitic losses and with minimal system maintenance. As flywheel systems increase in size, it becomes a significant challenge to provide adequate stiffness in these bearings without exceeding the strength limits of rotating magnet assemblies. The Boeing Company is designing and building a prototype flywheel of 10 kWh total stored energy and has focused much effort on the HTS bearing system. This paper will describe the general structure of the bearing and the steps taken to optimize its magnetic and structural performance and show recent test results.

  17. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  18. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF THE NTP-HTS DATA IN CHEMICAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have been released via PubChem. This abstract explores herein the utility of the HTS data for predicting animal and human toxicity. To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of environmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To date, HTS results for a set of 1,408 compounds tested in 6 cell viability assays have been released via PubChem. This abstract explores herein the utility of the HTS data for predicting animal and human toxicity.

  20. Reliable commercial HTS wire for power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellers, Jürgen; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2002-08-01

    The production of HTS wire for power applications is increasingly maturing into industrial dimensions. The most widely considered manufacturing method for this conductor is the BSCCO-2223-OPIT route, used internationally by many organizations, including American Superconductor. Significant advances in HTS wire technology have been made in the past years, with currently a guaranteed minimum critical current performance of 115 A at 77 K over commercial long length. For the HTS wire itself this is equivalent to an engineering current density of 13.5 kA/cm 2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity in its Westborough operations from 250 to 500 km/year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstration purposes. While this level of quality and quantity is sufficient to demonstrate technical feasibility and reliability of prototype power applications, it cannot satisfy fully commercial requirements for economic viability. To address broader markets with a commercially viable product, a price level of $50/(kA m) is possible with BSCCO-2223-OPIT when manufactured in much larger quantities. Therefore, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated solely to the manufacturing of BSCCO-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km/year. Key initial applications for this wire are power transmission cables, industrial motors and electrical generators. This paper will report on the performance and reliability testing of BSCCO-2223 wires. We will discuss the electrical, bending, tensile, and fatigue testing results of wires manufactured for applications such as American Superconductor's 5000 hp ultra-compact motor. Due to their compactness, these motors will be less expensive to manufacture compared with conventional motors and will be more energy efficient. We will also review the stringent electrical, mechanical, and environmental testing developed jointly by American Superconductor and

  1. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Akiya, T. Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Liu, J.; Hono, K.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  2. Two applications of HTS technology on an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes two applications for HTS technology on an airborne platform. The first application is a RF front-end for an 8 to 40 GHz microwave/ millimeter-wave ESM system. The second application is a 2 to 4 GHz HTS Spiral Antenna Array System. The HTS microwave front-end unit consists of an HTS diplexer, and two low noise preamplifiers. The design demonstrates the benefits of HTS technology while providing a near-term insertion on a military airborne platform. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System utilizes a 4 element conical spiral array (conventional technology) and a beamforming network consisting of a HTS power combiner, a HTS bandpass filter, HTS coupler, and a conventional technology low noise preamplifier. Both applications utilize low insertion loss HTS devices coupled with the cryogenic cooling of conventional low noise preamplifiers to lower the overall noise figure of the systems. The HTS Spiral Antenna Array System provides a 3 dB improvement in SNR over the best available conventional technology system. A 3 dB improvement in SNR can be compared to the doubling of the antenna aperture which provides a 3 dB gain increase, but at the expense of a decreased field of view. A 3 dB increase in SNR can also be viewed as a 41% increase in usable target range. The HTS antenna system maintains a wide field of view with a performance that approaches a steerable beam antenna. This is a cost effective approach for improving the collection capability of a system without the expense of developing a steerable beam antenna and the associated beam control hardware (tracker) and software.

  3. HTS-SQUID NDE Technique for Pipes based on Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Y.; Masutani, N.; Teranishi, S.; Masamoto, K.; Kanenaga, S.; Adachi, S.; Tanabe, K.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes research on the novel high-temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for metallic pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves. We constructed HTS-SQUID NDE system for pipes based on ultrasonic guided waves, which were generated and received by means of the magnetostrictive effects. Using the system, we measured magnetic signals due to T (0, 1) mode ultrasonic guided waves that transmitted on aluminium pipe, and investigated influences of measurement parameters to the magnetic signals, such as direction of a HTS-SQUID gradiometer, lift-off distance, and intensity and frequency of input current fed to a magnetostrictive transmitter. With the gradiometer oriented parallel to the pipe axis, more than 10 times larger signals were measured compared with that oriented perpendicular to the pipe axis. Magnetic signals measured by the gradiometer were inverse proportional to the power of the list- off distance, and proportional to the intensity of the input current up to 1 App. Relation between the frequency of the input current and the measured signal was shown and discussed.

  4. Development of a field pole of 1 MW-class HTS motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Kimura, Y.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ida, T.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.

    2010-06-01

    We report a field-pole high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet designed for 1 MW-class motor for propulsion. The field pole is assembled to the rotor of the radial-type motor. Each field pole is composed of HTS-Bi2223 tape wound into coils which have been piled up as a double pancake coils. In the design concept of the motor, we employ field poles without iron core. We prepared the test field-pole coil, whose dimension is smaller than the designed one for 1 MW, and tested its performances after cooling under self-field and external magnetic field. We verified the operation with the minimum bend radius of the coils required in the motor design, while keeping an optimal current which is lower than the critical current of the field-pole coil. The test HTS field poles were successfully cooled down and operated under a magnetic field ranging up to 5 T. We report the results of the test field-pole coil and the manufacture of a practical racetrack coil with Bi2223 and discuss the adaptability to 1 MW-class motors.

  5. Multi-channel Data Acquisition System for a 500 m DC HTS Power Cable in Ishikari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    Reduction of heat penetrating into the cryogenic region is the important method of optimization of superconducting devices. In the cases of short-range power transmission lines and compact HTS devices like magnets, the heat leakage through current leads is relatively large. In order to decrease this contribution, current leads equipped with Peltier elements can be used. The mentioned technology is being actively developed in the Chubu University. Commercial samples of Peltier current leads are installed at the terminals of 500-meter DC HTS cable in Ishikari (Hokkaido). This cable is designed for 5 kA. The inner conducting layer consists of 37 DI-BSCCO HTS tapes from Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. with a critical current of 180 A; and the outer one consists of 35 tapes of the same type. Each end of the cable's tape is connected to the individual Peltier current lead. Accordingly, each of the two terminals is equipped with 72 Peltier current leads, 144 pieces in total. In order to examine behavior of the current leads in detail, each piece is supplied with two thermocouples; there are also voltage taps on feedthrough and on HTS tape end. In addition, current through Peltier current lead can be measured by means of individual current transformer. The hardware part of the data acquisition system includes four Keithley 3706A multimeters equipped with 60-channel model 3724 FET multiplexer cards. Therefore, 144 data blocks are formed. Furthermore, there are 72 measurements of a voltage drop across HTS tape. Sampling period is set to be 3 s. The program part of the data acquisition system was written using LabVIEW software solution (National Instruments Corp.).

  6. Magneto-thermo-gravimetric technique to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Fe-B-Nb-Y Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangmin; Masood, Ansar; Tamaki, Takahiko; Valter, Strom; Rao, K. V.; Makino, Akihiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    Magneto-thermo-gravimetric (MTG) technique is highly informative about the changes in the magnetic state, as well as structural changes in a system, which cannot be often noticed in calorimetric measurements. We demonstrate the versatility of this technique in determining the magnetic transition temperature, and the subsequent crystallization process in a (Fe0.72B0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG). MTG and DSC analyses were carried out at the heating rate of 0.67 K/s from RT ~ 1170 K. As a result of the repeated MTG measurements, a magnetic 2nd amorphous phase was observed in the BMG sample, which could be the first measurement for the Magnetic Short Range Ordering (MSRO). Consequently, the MTG measurement is proved as the most convenient method for determining the various structural and magnetic transitions in a glassy material.

  7. Development of Non-destructive Evaluation System Using an HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, J.; Kawauchi, S.; Ishikawa, F.; Tanabe, K.

    We are developing a new eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system using a high-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with the aim of applying it to power plants. Electric power facilities such as ducts and vessels are generally untransportable because of their size, and thus it is difficult to apply a conventional SQUID NDE system. The new NDE system employs an external Cu pickup coil which is supposed to be driven flexibly by a robot arm at room temperature and an HTS-SQUID chip which is placed in a magnetically shielded vessel. In the present research, we investigated the performance of an HTS-SQUID sensor connected with external pickup coils before mounting them to a robot arm. By varying the Cu coil conditions such as their sizes, the number of turns, and the diameter of wire, we qualitatively evaluated the frequency dependence of the effective area and the cutoff frequency.

  8. In-plane/out-of-plane disorder influence on the magnetic anisotropy of Fe1-yMnyPt-L10 bulk alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrado, R.; Liu, Kai; Klemmer, Timothy J.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    The random substitution of a non-magnetic species instead of Fe atoms in FePt-L10 bulk alloy will permit to tune the magnetic anisotropy energy of this material. We have performed by means of first principles calculations a study of Fe1-yMnyPt-L10 (y = 0.0, 0.08, 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, and 0.25) bulk alloy for a fixed Pt concentration when the Mn species have ferro-/antiferromagnetic (FM,AFM) alignment at the same(different) atomic plane(s). This substitution will promote several in-plane lattice values for a fixed amount of Mn. Charge hybridization will change compared to the FePt-L10 bulk due to this lattice variation leading to a site resolved magnetic moment modification. We demonstrate that this translates into a total magnetic anisotropy reduction for the AFM phase and an enhancement for the FM alignment. Several geometric configurations were taken into account for a fixed Mn concentration because of different possible Mn positions in the simulation cell.

  9. Design of Conduction-cooled HTS Coils for a Rotating Gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Shigeki; Koyanagi, Kei; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ishii, Yusuke; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Ogitsu, Toru; Noda, Koji

    Carbon ion cancer therapy is becoming more widespread due to its high curative effects and low burden on patients. Carbon ions are delivered to patients through electromagnets on a rotating gantry.A rotating gantry is attractive because it allows carbon ions to irradiate a tumor from any direction without changing the posture of the patient. On the other hand, because of the high magnetic rigidity of carbon ions, the weight of a rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy is about three times higher than one for proton cancer therapy, according to our estimation. The use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets has been considered for reducing the size of the rotating gantry for carbon cancer therapy. The target weight is 200 t or less,which is equivalent to the weight of a typical rotating gantry for proton cancer therapy.In this study, the magnet layout of the rotating gantry and the superconducting magnets were designed from the viewpoint of beam optics.When applying high-temperature superconductors to accelerator magnets, there are some issues that should be considered, for example, the influence of tape magnetization and manufacturing accuracy on the field quality, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils under an alternating magnetic field, and methods to protect the coils from thermal runaway caused by an anomalous thermal input such as that due to beam loss. First, the thermal stability of the conduction-cooled HTS coils was simulated numerically, and the thermal runaway current was calculated in a static situation.

  10. Development of HTS-SQUID Gradiometer with an External HTS Multiturn Thin Film Pickup Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, M.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Takai, H.; Tanabe, K.

    Highly-sensitive HTS-SQUIDs are applied to various systems such as eddy-current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and compact magnetometer systems. To avoid unstable operation of the SQUID due to an excitation field, a flux transformer made of normal Cu wire is used to separate the pickup coil and SQUID. However, the resistance of the flux transformer generates thermal noise and reduces the signal bandwidth at low frequencies. In this study, we investigate use of a superconducting flux transformer with resistive connections (SFTR). The SFTR consists of pickup and input coils made of HTS thin films. The two coils are connected by using an HTS coated conductor. The input coil is stacked on an HTS thin film gradiometer. From the measured results of resistances of the connections between each coil and the coated conductor, it was found that the resistance of bonding wire was a dominant component. The estimated resistance of the SFTR was 7.2 mΩ, corresponding to a lower cut-off frequency of 11.7 Hz.

  11. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  12. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiufang; Nie, Xinyi; Liang, Yilang; Lu, Falong; Yan, Zhongming; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  13. Dissipative random quantum spin chain with boundary-driving and bulk-dephasing: magnetization and current statistics in the non-equilibrium-steady-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    The Lindblad dynamics with dephasing in the bulk and magnetization-driving at the two boundaries is studied for the quantum spin chain with random fields h j and couplings J j (that can be either uniform or random). In the regime of strong disorder in the random fields, or in the regime of strong bulk-dephasing, the effective dynamics can be mapped onto a classical simple symmetric exclusion process with quenched disorder in the diffusion coefficient associated to each bond. The properties of the corresponding non-equilibrium-steady-state in each disordered sample between the two reservoirs are studied in detail by extending the methods that have been previously developed for the symmetric exclusion process without disorder. Explicit results are given for the magnetization profile, for the two-point correlations, for the mean current and for the current fluctuations, in terms of the random fields and couplings defining the disordered sample.

  14. Spark-plasma-sintering magnetic field assisted compaction of Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires for anisotropic ferromagnetic bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ouar, Nassima; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Farhat, Samir; Jouini, Noureddine; Villeroy, Benjamin; Leridon, Brigitte

    2013-10-28

    We developed a two-step process showing the way for sintering anisotropic nanostructured bulk ferromagnetic materials. A new reactor has been optimized allowing the synthesis of several grams per batch of nanopowders via a polyol soft chemistry route. The feasibility of the scale-up has been successfully demonstrated for Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires and a massic yield of ∼97% was obtained. The thus obtained nanowires show an average diameter of ∼6 nm and a length of ∼270 nm. A new bottom-up strategy allowed us to compact the powder into a bulk nanostructured system. We used a spark-plasma-sintering technique under uniaxial compression and low temperature assisted by a permanent magnetic field of 1 T. A macroscopic pellet of partially aligned nanowire arrays has been easily obtained. This showed optimized coercive properties along the direction of the magnetic field applied during compaction (i.e., the nanowires' direction)

  15. THE USE OF NTP-HTS DATA FOR PREDICTIVE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of envoronmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project. To explore efficient approaches to assessing the toxicity of envoronmental chemicals, the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) recently initiated a High Throughput Screening (HTS) Project.

  16. Effects of Mo additions on the glass-forming ability and magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Fe-C-Si-B-P-Mo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Zengbao; Li, Hongxiang; Wu, Yuan; Gao, Jingen; Wang, Shanlin; Yi, Seonghoon; Lu, Zhaoping

    2010-03-01

    Glass formation, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Fe76- x C7.0Si3.3B5.0P8.7Mo x ( x=0, 1 at.%, 3 at.% and 5 at.%) alloys prepared using an industrial Fe-P master alloy have been studied. With the substitution of Mo for Fe, glass-forming ability (GFA) was significantly enhanced and fully amorphous rods with a diameter of up to 5 mm were produced in the alloy with 3% Mo. The Mo-containing amorphous alloys also exhibited high fracture strength of 3635-3881 MPa and excellent magnetic properties including a high saturation magnetization of 1.10-1.41 T, a high Curie temperature and a low coercive force. The unique combination of high GFA, high fracture strength and excellent magnetic properties make the newly developed bulk metallic glasses viable for practical engineering applications.

  17. Charge pumping by magnetization dynamics in magnetic and semimagnetic tunnel junctions with interfacial Rashba or bulk extrinsic spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Fabian, Jaroslav; Nagaosa, Naoto; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a time-dependent nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) approach to the problem of spin pumping by precessing magnetization in one of the ferromagnetic layers within F|I|F magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) or F|I|N semi-MTJs in the presence of intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) at the F|I interface or the extrinsic SOC in the bulk of F layers of finite thickness (F, ferromagnet; N, normal metal; I, insulating barrier). To express the time-averaged pumped charge current, or the corresponding dc voltage signal in an open circuit, we construct a novel solution to double-time-Fourier-transformed NEGF equations. The two energy arguments of NEGFs in this representation are connected by the Floquet theorem describing multiphoton emission and absorption processes. Within this fully quantum-mechanical treatment of the conduction electrons, we find that (i) only in the presence of the interfacial Rashba SOC, the nonzero dc pumping voltage Vpump in F|I|N junctions can emerge at the adiabatic level (i.e., proportional to the microwave frequency), which could explain recent experiments on microwave-driven semi-MTJs [T. Moriyama , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.067602 100, 067602 (2008)]; (ii) a unique signature of this charge pumping phenomenon, where the Rashba SOC within the precessing F layer participates in the pumping process, is a Vpump that changes sign as the function of the precession cone angle; (iii) unlike conventional spin pumping in MTJs in the absence of any SOC, where one emitted or absorbed microwave photon is sufficient to match the exact solution in the frame rotating with the magnetization, the presence of the Rashba SOC requires taking into account up to 10 photons in order to reach the asymptotic value of pumped charge current; (iv) the disorder within F|I|F MTJs can enhance Vpump in the quasiballistic transport regime; and (v) the extrinsic SOC in F|I|F MTJs causes spin relaxation and eventually the decay of Vpump

  18. The status and prospects for flywheels and SMES that incorporate HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolsky, A. M.

    2002-08-01

    With one firm offering to provide SMES with HTS current leads and several other entities developing flywheels with bearings that incorporate bulk ReBaCuO, the progress made toward meeting their technical goals appears promising. Another question needs attention from the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) community: “Will technical success yield equipment that will sell?” Here, we recall what is being done and review issues touching on the specifications for equipment that customers might want. These specifications pose technical challenges that have received little attention from the community.

  19. Distinguishing Between Activated and Non-Activated Eosinophils Using a Microelectrode: Theoretical Investigations of Bulk and Surface Polaritons in Magnetic Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Fred

    In Part I of this dissertation, a whole cell biosensor which can detect the activation state of eosinophils (one of several types of white blood cells) will be developed and tested. This biosensor, which consists of a small gold electrode (50 μm x 50 μm) and a large gold electrode (1.5 cm x 0.5 cm) on a glass substrate, has been fabricated by photolithographic techniques. The eosinophils are known to exhibit different physical properties when they change from the activated state to the non-activated state. Based on some of these property changes, there should be a corresponding change in the measured electrical impedance. In this research, this biosensor will measure the electrical impedance of the eosinophils. This will show that the biosensor can detect the different states of the eosinophils (through the electrical impedance technique). And from these measurements, the different parameters associated with the electrical impedance can be determined. In Part II of this dissertation, a theoretical calculation will be performed in which bulk and surface magnetic polaritons in magnetic materials will be found. A polariton is the coupling of electromagnetic radiation and the elementary excitation of the given material (in our case, a magnetic material). The structure that we will be considering is a periodic semi-infinite material consisting of alternating antiferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers. An antiferromagnetic material is a material in which individual atoms exhibit magnetic moments, but the overall magnetization of the material is zero because the moments of every other atom are antiparallel. We will use a method known as the transfer matrix technique to find an expression for the dispersion relation of the bulk and surface waves in these materials. Then we will create plots of omega(k) as we vary the geometric configurations of the layers which make-up the magnetic multilayer. We also will calculate the effect of an external magnetic field on these

  20. Evaluation of High-resolution Geomagnetic Field Observation System Using HTS-SQUID Magnetometer and its Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Y.; Okubo, K.; Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Tanabe, K.; Onishi, N.; Furukawa; Isogami, S.; Takeuchi, N.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic field changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated previously (1964 Stacey, 1994 Johnston et al.). Our research group also reported successful observation of "co-faulting" Earth's magnetic field changes due to piezomagnetic effects caused by earthquake rupturing in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake of M7.2 (2011 Okubo et al.) using optoelectronic observation system with flux-gate magnetometers. This is an important finding; the electromagnetic fields originating from such sources satisfy the Maxwell equations and hence they propagate from the sources to the observation site at a speed of light in the crustal materials. Further efforts could lead us to a new system for super-early warning of destructive earthquakes with the magnetic measurements. On the other hand, the observed result in 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake was suggested that the geomagnetic variation signal accompanying fault movement, whose sources are the piezomagnetic effects, is very small; therefore development of a high-sensitive magnetometer system is very important. To solve this problem, we introduce long-term precise geomagnetic observations using high-temperature-superconductor based superconducting-quantum-interference-device (HTS-SQUID) magnetometer system. That is, our research group developed the HTS-SQUID magnetometer system for high-resolution observation of Earth's magnetic field. Since March 2012, we have observed the geomagnetic field using a HTS-SQUID magnetometer at Iwaki observation site (IWK) in Fukushima, Japan. The sampling interval of the magnetometer is 0.04 sec. The observation clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. An accelerometer is also installed at observation point. Additionally, in the next stage, we develop the HTS- SQUID magnetometer system Unit No.2 (mark II). In the present study, we show the results observed by our HTS-SQUID magnetometer system and make an evaluation of our geomagnetic field observation system.

  1. Transition metal and rare earth-doped ZnO: a comparison of optical, magnetic, and structural behavior of bulk and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenwick, W. E.; Kane, M. H.; Varatharajan, R.; Zaidi, T.; Fang, Z.; Nemeth, B.; Keeble, D. J.; El-Mkami, H.; Smith, G. M.; Nause, J.; Summers, C. J.; Ferguson, I. T.

    2007-02-01

    Recent theoretical predictions of ferromagnetic behavior in transition metal (TM)-doped ZnO have focused significant attention on these materials for use as spintronic materials. Moreover, rare earth (RE) elements in wide bandgap semiconductors would be useful not only in spintronics but also in optoelectronic applications. This work presents results obtained from an investigation into the optical, magnetic, and structural properties of transition-metal (TM)- doped ZnO and rare earth (RE) doped ZnO (TM = Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe; RE = Gd, Eu, and Tb) bulk crystals and thin films. Properties of TM- and RE-doped ZnO bulk crystals and thin films were studied and compared in order to better understand the nature of these dopant centers and their effects on the properties of the host crystal. Optical properties confirm the incorporation of substitutional transition metal ions on cation sites. While most thin film samples show ferromagnetic behavior, the magnetic response of the bulk crystals varies. This suggests that the magnetic behavior of TM-doped ZnO is highly dependent on growth conditions, and growth conditions which favor the formation of grain boundaries and interfaces may be more likely to result in ferromagnetic behavior. Origins of this ferromagnetic behavior are still under investigation. Defect luminescence observed in the RE-doped samples suggests that these materials may prove useful in optoelectonic applications as well.

  2. International Workshop on Cooling-system for HTS Applications 2015 (IWC-HTS 2015) 14-16 October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Yasuharu

    2016-12-01

    International Workshop on Cooling-system for HTS Applications 2015 (IWC-HTS 2015) was held on 14-16 October 2015 at Kunibiki Messe (Shimane Prefectural Convention Center), Matsue, Shimane, Japan. The workshop was organized by the local committee on behalf of Cryogenics and Superconductivity Society of Japan (CSSJ).

  3. Low temperature magnetic ground state in bulk Co0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 spinel ferrite system: Neutron diffraction, magnetization and ac-susceptibility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Harshida; Acharya, Prashant; Upadhyay, R. V.; Siruguri, V.; Rayaprol, Sudhindra

    2013-01-01

    The system under study is a bulk Co0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 ferrite, synthesized by wet chemical route technique and having magnetic in-homogeneity at the microscopic scale, due to the concentration of magnetic ion at a tetrahedral site below the site percolation threshold for the ferrimagnetic ordering. To unravel the magnetic ground state of this system, low temperature neutron diffraction, magnetization and ac-susceptibility measurements were carried out. In the temperature-dependent neutron diffraction analysis, a diffused scattering signal appears at the low Q region below (1 1 1) magnetic Bragg peak at all temperature, indicating the presence of a finite magnetic cluster with infinite magnetic network. The diffused scattering signal intensity decreases with increases in magnetic field at T=10 K. The ac-susceptibility measurement exhibits three peak behavior in χ' and χ″ indicating the presence of finite magnetic clusters and cluster-cluster interaction in the system. The absence of magnetic (2 0 0) peak in neutron diffraction at 2 K and bifurcation of zero field and field cooled magnetization indicate the phase transition from uniaxial random ferromagnetic (URF) phase to semi spin glass or canted random ferromagnetic (CRF) phase in the system with temperature.

  4. Effect of intense terahertz laser and magnetic fields on the binding energy and the transition energy of shallow impurity in a bulk semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiyang; Xu, Lei; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Sha; Wei, Xiangfei

    2017-09-01

    The influences of intense terahertz laser and magnetic fields on shallow-donor states in GaAs bulk semiconductors in the Faraday geometry are studied theoretically in the framework of the effective-mass approximation. The interaction between the laser field and the semiconductor is treated nonperturbatively by solving analytically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in which the two external fields are included exactly. In the nonresonant region, we have found that the binding and transition energies decrease with increasing laser-field intensity or decreasing laser-field frequency, and the binding energy increases with magnetic field. For relatively low radiation levels, the transition energy first slowly decreases with increasing magnetic field, but after a critical value, it rapidly increases with increasing magnetic field. However, it slowly decreases with magnetic field when the laser-field intensity is strong enough. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the resonant regime, the oscillatory behaviours of the binding and transition energies with laser-field frequency and magnetic field are observed. These results obtained indicate the possibility of manipulating the shallow impurity states in semiconductor by changing the intense laser-field frequency and intensity and the magnetic field, which gives a new degree of freedom in semiconductor device application.

  5. Magnetic properties of bulk, and rapidly solidified nanostructured (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14-yCoyB ribbons

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Khan, M.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; ...

    2015-11-06

    Magnetic properties of Ce and Co co-doped (Nd1-xCex)2Fe14-yCoyB compounds have been investigated both in bulk polycrystalline and rapidly solidified nanostructured ribbon forms. For certain Ce concentrations the materials exhibit spin re-orientation transitions below 140 K. The Curie temperatures, saturation magnetizations, and other magnetic properties relevant for applications as permanent magnets are controlled by Ce and Co substitutions for Nd and Fe, respectively. Most importantly, the results show that Ce, Co co-doped compounds are excellent replacements for several Dy-based high performance permanent magnets (dysprosium is one of the critical elements and is, therefore, in short supply). As a result, the highmore » temperature (>375 K) magnetic properties for Nd–Ce–Fe–Co–B based alloys show promise not only as a replacement for Dy-doped Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets, but the new alloys also require significantly lower amounts of Nd, which too is the critical element that can be replaced by a more abundant Ce.« less

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of the Gd-based bulk metallic glasses GdFe2, GdCo2, and GdNi2 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizárraga, Raquel

    2016-11-01

    A structural and magnetic characterization of Gd-based bulk metallic glasses, GdFe2, GdCo2, and GdNi2, was performed. Models for the amorphous structures for two magnetic configurations, ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic, were obtained by means of a first-principles-based method, the stochastic quenching. In all three cases, the ferrimagnetic configuration was energetically more stable than the ferromagnetic one, in perfect agreement with experiments. In the structural analysis, radial and angle distribution functions as well as calculations of bond lengths and average coordination numbers were included. Structural properties are in good agreement with experiments and do not depend on the magnetic configuration. The distribution of magnetic moments shows that amorphous GdFe2 and GdCo2 are both ferrimagnets, with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments of the two magnetic sublattices, whereas Ni nearly loses its magnetic moment in amorphous GdNi2, similar to the situation in its crystalline counterpart.

  7. Reproducibility of HTS-SQUID magnetocardiography in an unshielded clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Leder, U; Schrey, F; Haueisen, J; Dörrer, L; Schreiber, J; Liehr, M; Schwarz, G; Solbrig, O; Figulla, H R; Seidel, P

    2001-07-01

    A new technology has been developed which measures the magnetic field of the human heart (magnetocardiogram, MCG) by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) sensors. These sensors can be operated at the temperature of liquid nitrogen without electromagnetic shielding. We tested the reproducibility of HTS-MCG measurements in healthy volunteers. Unshielded HTS-MCG measurements were performed in 18 healthy volunteers in left precordial position in two separate sessions in a clinical environment. The heart cycles of 10 min were averaged, smoothed, the baselines were adjusted, and the data were standardized to the respective areas under the curves (AUC) of the absolute values of the QRST amplitudes. The QRS complexes and the ST-T intervals were used to assess the reproducibility of the two measurements. Ratios (R(QRS), R(STT)) were calculated by dividing the AUC of the first measurement by the ones of the second measurement. The linear correlation coefficients (CORR(QRS), CORR(STT)) of the time intervals of the two measurements were calculated, too. The HTS-MCG signal was completely concealed by the high noise level in the raw data. The averaging and smoothing algorithms unmasked the QRS complex and the ST segment. A high reproducibility was found for the QRS complex (R(QRS)=1.2+/-0.3, CORR(QRS)=0.96+/-0.06). Similarly to the shape of the ECG it was characterized by three bends, the Q, R, and S waves. In the ST-T interval, the reproducibility was considerably lower (R(STT)=0.9+/-0.2, CORR(STT)=0.66+/-0.28). In contrast to the shape of the ECG, a baseline deflection after the T wave which may belong to U wave activity was found in a number of volunteers. HTS-MCG devices can be operated in a clinical environment without shielding. Whereas the reproducibility was found to be high for the depolarization interval, it was considerably lower for the ST segment and for the T wave. Therefore, before clinically applying HTS-MCG systems to the detection of repolarization

  8. New Magnetic Materials and Phenomena for Radar and Microwave Signal Processing Devices - Bulk and Thin Film Ferrites and Metallic Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-15

    deposited and liquid phase epitaxy films of low loss cubic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and lithium ferrite , uniaxial barium hexaferrite, and planar zinc ...barium hexaferrite with losses which are as good as the best bulk single crystals, and (9) the successful PLD growth of low loss zinc lithium ferrite ...Signal Processing Devices - Bulk and Thin Film Ferrites and Metallic Films ONR N00014-07-1-0597, 02 February 2007 - 30 September 2008 Carl E

  9. Study - Radiation Shielding Effectiveness of the Prototyped High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) 'Artificial' Magnetosphere for Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The high temperature superconductor (HTS) is being used to develop the magnets for the Variable Specific Impulse Magneto-plasma Rocket (VASIMR ) propulsion system and may provide lightweight magnetic radiation shielding to protect spacecraft crews from radiation caused by GCR and SPEs on missions to Mars. A study is being planned to assess the radiation shielding effectiveness of the artificial magnetosphere produced by the HTS magnet. VASIMR is an advanced technology propulsion engine which is being touted as enabling one way transit to Mars in 90 days or less. This is extremely important to NASA. This technology would enable a significant reduction in the number of days in transit to and from Mars and significantly reduce the astronauts exposure to a major threat - high energy particles from solar storms and GCR during long term deep space missions. This paper summarizes the plans for the study and the subsequent testing of the VASIMR technology onboard the ISS slated for 2013.

  10. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  11. HTS-FCL EMTDC model considering nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae-Young; Lee, Seung-Ryul

    2010-06-01

    One of the most serious problems of the KEPCO system is a higher fault current than the CB(Circuit breaker's SCC (Short Circuit Capacity). There are so many alternatives to reduce the higher fault current, such as the isolation of bus ties, enhancement of the CB's SCC, and the application of HVDC-BTB (Back to Back) or FCL (fault current limiter). However, these alternatives have drawbacks from the viewpoint of system stability and cost. As superconductivity technology has been developed, the resistive type (R-type) HTS-FCL (High Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiter) offers one of the important alternatives in terms of power loss and cost reduction in solving the fault current problem. To evaluate the accurate transient performance of R-type HTS-FCL, it is necessary for the dynamic simulation model to consider transient characteristics during the quenching and the recovery state. Against this background, this paper presents the new HTS-FCL EMTDC (Electro-Magnetic Transients including Direct Current) model considering the nonlinear characteristics on fault current and temperature.

  12. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  13. Determination of the easy axes of small ferromagnetic precipitates in a bulk material by combined magnetic force microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Batista, L; Rabe, U; Hirsekorn, S

    2014-11-01

    A method to determine the magnetic easy axes of micro- and nanoscopic ferromagnetic precipitates embedded in a bulk material is proposed and applied to globular cementite (Fe₃C) embedded in a ferrite matrix. The method combines magnetic force microscopy (MFM) with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Magnetic domain structures in globular and in lamellar cementite precipitates in unalloyed pearlitic steels were imaged using MFM. The domain structure of the precipitates was analyzed in dependency of their size, shape and crystallographic orientation. It was found that the magnetic moments of the cementite precipitates are highly geared to their crystalline axes. The combined MFM and EBSD studies allow the conclusion that the cementite easy direction of magnetization is the long [010] axis. For fine lamellae cementite the determination of their crystallographic orientations using electron diffraction techniques is very difficult. With the previous knowledge of the behavior of the domain structure in globular cementite, the crystalline orientations of the fine lamellae cementite can be estimated by simply observing the magnetic microstructures and the topographic profiles.

  14. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Dominguez, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A system for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source.

  15. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    DOEpatents

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  16. Protecting Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0101 PROTECTING SUPERCONDUCTING HTS-ANTENNAS BY META-MATERIAL CLOAKS Horst Rogalla REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO THE...Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks Contract/Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0413 Reporting Period: 1 Aug 2010 to 31 Jan 2014 Protecting...Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks Frank Trang1, Horst Rogalla1, 2, and Zoya Popović1 1Dept.of ECEE, University of Colorado, Boulder

  17. The physical mechanism of magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance in bulk PrGa compound

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X. Q.; Wu, H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, B.; Li, Y. Q.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Huang, Q. Z.; Shen, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The PrGa compound shows excellent performance on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and magnetoresistance (MR). The physical mechanism of MCE and MR in PrGa compound was investigated and elaborated in detail on the basis of magnetic measurement, heat capacity measurement and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) experiment. New types of magnetic structure and magnetic transition are found. The results of the NPD along with the saturation magnetic moment (MS) and magnetic entropy (SM) indicate that the magnetic moments are randomly distributed within the equivalent conical surface in the ferromagnetic (FM) temperature range. PrGa compound undergoes an FM to FM transition and an FM to paramagnetic (PM) transition as temperature increases. The magnetizing process was discussed in detail and the physical mechanism of the magnetic field controlled magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and the magnetoresistance (MR) was studied. The formation of the plateau on MCE curve was explained and MR was calculated in detail on the basis of the magnetic structure and the analysis of the magnetizing process. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the calculations. Finally, the expression of MR = β(T)X2 and its application conditions were discussed, where X is M(H)/Meff, and Meff is the paramagnetic effective moment. PMID:26455711

  18. Fe 65B 22Nd 9Mo 4 bulk nanocomposite permanent magnets produced by crystallizing amorphous precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shan; Ahmad, Zubair; Ma, Tianyu; Jian, Hong; Jiang, Yinzhu; Yan, Mi

    2012-04-01

    The Fe65B22Nd9Mo4 nanocomposite permanent magnets in the form of a rectangular cross sectioned rod have been prepared by annealing the amorphous precursors. The thermal behavior, structure and magnetic properties of the magnets have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy and magnetometry techniques. The as-cast Fe65B22Nd9Mo4 alloy showed soft magnetic properties, which changed into magnetically hard after annealing. Results provoke that the magnetic properties of the alloy are sensitive to thermal processing conditions. The optimum hard magnetic properties with a remanence (Br) of 0.56 T, coercivity (iHc) of 920.7 kA/m and maximum energy product (BH)max of 50.15 kJ/m3 were achieved after annealing the alloy at 983 K for 10 min. The good magnetic properties of Fe65B22Nd9Mo4 magnets are ascribed to the exchange coupling between the nano-scaled soft α-Fe, Fe3B and hard Nd2Fe14B magnetic grains.

  19. Surface resistance measurement of modified QMG superconducting bulks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, A.; Sekiya, N.; Teshima, H.; Obara, H.; Noguchi, Y.; Hirano, H.; Hirano, S.; Ohshima, S.

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the microwave properties of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks for high-power microwave applications. The HTS bulk samples of Dy-Ba-Cu-O and Gd-Ba-Cu-O, were prepared using the modified quench and melt growth (QMG) process. The relationship among the bulk surface mirror polishing process, oxygen annealing process, and surface resistance (Rs) was also investigated. The Rs of the HTS bulks was measured using the dielectric resonator method at 21.8 GHz for the TE011 mode. The measurement temperature was varied from 20 to 95 K. We found that the annealing after surface mirror polishing was more effective to obtain low Rs than polishing after annealing. Although the Rs value of the optimized Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk sample at 20 K was twofold larger than that of the high-quality YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film fabricated by THEVA GmbH, the Rs value was even low enough to be used for microwave devices. These results indicate that Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors are feasible for applications to high-power transmit filters for mobile communication systems.

  20. 2G HTS wires made on 30 μm thick Hastelloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, A.; Zhang, Y.; Knoll, A. R.; Abraimov, D.; Brownsey, P.; Kasahara, M.; Carota, G. M.; Nakasaki, R.; Cameron, J. B.; Schwab, G.; Hope, L. V.; Schmidt, R. M.; Kuraseko, H.; Fukushima, T.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    REBCO (RE = rare earth) based high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are now being utilized for the development of electric and electromagnetic devices for various industrial, scientific and medical applications. In the last several years, the increasing efforts in using the so-called second generation (2G) HTS wires for some of the applications require a further increase in their engineering current density (J e). The applications are those typically related to high magnetic fields where the higher J e of a REBCO wire, in addition to its higher irreversibility fields and higher mechanical strength, is already a major advantage over other superconducting wires. An effective way to increase the J e is to decrease the total thickness of a wire, for which using a thinner substrate becomes an obvious and attractive approach. By using our IBAD-MOCVD (ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition) technology we have successfully made 2G HTS wires using a Hastelloy® C276 substrate that is only 30 μm in thickness. By using this thinner substrate instead of the typical 50 μm thick substrate and with a same critical current (I c), the J e of a wire can be increased by 30% to 45% depending on the copper stabilizer thickness. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of the 2G HTS wires made on the 30 μm thick Hastelloy® C276 substrate. It was shown that with the optimization in the processing protocol, the surface of the thinner Hastelloy® C276 substrate can be readily electropolished to the quality needed for the deposition of the buffer stack. Same in the architecture as that on the standard 50 μm thick substrate, the buffer stack made on the 30 μm thick substrate showed an in-plane texture with a Δϕ of around 6.7° in the LaMnO3 cap layer. Low-temperature in-field transport measurement results suggest that the wires on the thinner substrate had achieved equivalent superconducting performance, most importantly the I

  1. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  2. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  3. WITHDRAWN: Complex Study of Transport AC Loss in Various 2G HTS Racetrack Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim

    2013-06-01

    HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  4. Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiran; Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim

    2013-04-01

    HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  5. A new method of reconstructing current paths in HTS tapes with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlivaev, Alexey; Rudnev, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new method for calculating current paths in high-temperature superconductive (HTS) tapes with various defects including cracks, non-superconducting inclusions, and superconducting inclusions with lower local critical current density. The calculation method is based on a model of critical state which takes into account the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field. The method allows us to calculate the spatial distribution of currents flowing through the defective HTS tape for both currents induced by the external magnetic field and transport currents from an external source. For both cases, we performed simulations of the current distributions in these tapes with different types of defects and have shown that the combination of the action of the magnetic field and transport current leads to a more detailed identification of the boundaries and shape of the defects. The proposed method is adapted for calculating modern superconductors in real superconducting devices and may be more useful as compared to the conventional magnetometric diagnostic studies, when the tape is affected by the magnetic field only.

  6. Impact of flux gap upon dynamic resistance of a rotating HTS flux pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Bumby, Chris W.; Badcock, Rodney A.; Sung, Hae-Jin; Long, Nicholas J.; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2015-11-01

    HTS flux pumps enable superconducting currents to be directly injected into a magnet coil without the requirement for thermally inefficient current leads. Here, we present results from an experimental mechanically rotating HTS flux pump employing a coated-conductor stator and operated at 77 K. We show the effect of varying the size of the flux gap between the rotor magnets and coated conductor stator from 1 to 7.5 mm. This leads to a corresponding change in the peak applied perpendicular magnetic field at the stator from approximately 350 to 50 mT. We observe that our experimental device ceases to maintain a measurable output at flux gaps above 7.5 mm, which we attribute to the presence of screening currents in the stator wire. We show that our mechanically rotating flux pump is well described by a simple circuit model which enables the output performance to be described using two simple parameters, the open-circuit voltage V oc and the internal resistance, R d. Both of these parameters are found to be directly proportional to magnet-crossing frequency and decrease with increasing flux gap. We show that the trend in R d can be understood by considering the dynamic resistance experienced at the stator due to the oscillating amplitude of the applied rotor field. We adopt a literature model for the dynamic resistance within our coated-conductor stator and show that this gives good agreement with the experimentally measured internal resistance of our flux pump.

  7. Experimental Manufacture and Performance Evaluation of Linear Switched Reluctance Motor with HTS Excitation Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Oto, Satoshi; Higashijima, Atsushi; Kawabata, Shuma

    This paper presents an experimental manufacture and performance evaluation of prototype linear switched reluctance motor with HTS excitation windings (HTS-LSRM). The Ag-alloy sheathed Bi-2223 tapes are used for HTS coils. We first present a structure of the prototype HTS-LSRM. Next, current-carrying properties of the HTS coils are measured. Furthermore, current and voltage waveforms are measured and we evaluation a control performance of the current and voltage.

  8. In situ measurement of alternating current magnetic susceptibility of Pd-hydrogen system for determination of hydrogen concentration in bulk.

    PubMed

    Akamaru, Satoshi; Hara, Masanori; Matsuyama, Masao

    2012-07-01

    An alternating current magnetic susceptometer for use as a hydrogen gauge for hydrogen-storage materials was designed and developed. The experimental system can simultaneously measure the hydrogen equilibrium pressure and the magnetic susceptibility of metal hydrides. The background voltage of the susceptometer was stabilized for a long period of time, without any adjustments, by attaching an efficient compensation circuit. The performance of the susceptometer at a static hydrogen concentration was demonstrated by measuring the magnetic susceptibility of a Pd-hydrogen system under equilibrium conditions. The in situ measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of Pd during hydrogen absorption was carried out using the susceptometer. Since the in situ magnetic susceptibility obtained at a lower initial hydrogen pressure agreed with the magnetic susceptibility measured at a static hydrogen concentration, the susceptometer could be used to determine the hydrogen concentration in Pd in situ. At a higher initial hydrogen pressure, enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility was observed at the beginning of hydrogen absorption because the magnetic moments induced by the large temporary strain generated in the Pd affected the magnetic susceptibility.

  9. Pulsed field magnetization of 0°-0° and 45°-45° bridge-seeded Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainslie, M. D.; Zou, J.; Mochizuki, H.; Fujishiro, H.; Shi, Y.-H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large, single-grain (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) bulk superconductors with complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as rotating machines, magnetic bearings and magnetic separation. As a consequence, the top multi-seeded melt growth process has been studied over many years in an attempt to deliver large, single grains for practical applications. Among these techniques, the so-called bridge-seeding produces the best alignment of two seeds during melt processing of multi-seed samples. In this paper, the trapped field performance and magnetic flux dynamics of two bridge-seeded, multi-seed samples magnetized by pulsed field magnetization are analyzed: one with a 45°-45° and another with a 0°-0° bridge seed. Based on an analysis of the flux penetration across the seeds and in-between the seeds of the 45°-45° multi-seed sample, an estimated J c distribution over the ab-plane is determined, which provides the basis for further analysis via numerical simulation. A three-dimensional finite-element model, developed to qualitatively reproduce and interpret the experimental results, was employed to investigate the influence of the length of the bridge seed for such multi-seed samples. The simulation results agree well with the observed experimental results, in that the multi-seed sample’s particular inhomogeneous J c distribution acts to distort the trapped field profile from a traditional conical Bean’s profile, which is determined by the length and direction of the bridge seed on the bulk surface.

  10. Integrating biophysics with HTS-driven drug discovery projects.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Rutger H A

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade biophysics has become an established discipline in HTS hit triaging, owing to its high fidelity in detecting protein-ligand interactions. Many pharma companies are using biophysical techniques to filter HTS output for false positives, as will be discussed in this review. Moreover, I will demonstrate how the earlier application of biophysics, already at the HTS assay development stage, is potentially even more impactful. Two key areas here are early mode-of-action studies and ensuring that the HTS assay and subsequent cascade are fit for purpose. Top-level results from 20 in-house projects are shown to underpin the impact of these studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a single-phase 330kVA HTS transformer using GdBCO tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Daoyu; Li, Zhuyong; Hong, Zhiyong; Jin, Zhijian

    2017-08-01

    With the mature of manufacture process and technology of high temperature superconductors, the critical current and stability are gradually increased. High temperature superconductors could be used in transformer, current limiter, generator, magnet and etc. This paper focuses on development and characteristic tests of a single-phase high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transformer with capacity of 330 kVA by using GdBCO tapes, which is 1/3 model of a 1 MVA / 10 kV / 0.4 kV HTS transformer. The specifications of iron core, HTS windings and cryostat are described in detail. The iron core is made of silicon steel plate. The arrangement of HTS windings are based on experimental and simulated results. The cryostat with a room temperature bore is manufactured using nonmetallic materials. Several characteristic tests and insulation tests are performed in liquid nitrogen of 77 K. The efficiency and AC loss at rated load is 99.90% and 243.7 W, respectively. In addition, an overload test was also performed.

  12. A Study on Critical Current of Twisted Soldered-Stacked-Square (3S) HTS Wire with 1mm Width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Xie, Z. L.; Xi, D. M.; Zhou, Y. K.; Li, Z. Y.; Hong, Z. Y.; Jin, Z. J.; Yin, Z.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. L.

    2017-07-01

    In high temperature superconducting (HTS) applications, the external magnetic field affects the performance of the critical current and the AC loss. To improve the performance, a novel soldered-stacked-square (3S) HTS wire is developed through narrowing, stacking and soldering processes using 2G narrow wires with 1 mm width. In this paper, the narrowing process of the wire with 4 mm width was showed and the stacking and soldering processes were also presented. The 3S wire was made of three narrow HTS tapes and four brass strips. For the 3S HTS samples, the typical electrical and mechanical properties have been tested. Based on that, single 3S wire and double 3S wires were twisted. Then the critical currents of the samples were tested at different twist pitches. The test results showed that the measured critical currents of 3S wire samples were between 120 A and 150 A. The critical current of the single 3S wire at average twist pitch of 50∼70 mm was about 8% lower than that of the original wire. And the critical current of double 3S wires was about 10% lower than the original critical current at a twist pitch of 65 mm.

  13. Enhanced quench propagation in 2G-HTS coils co-wound with stainless steel or anodised aluminium tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez-Chico, A. B.; Martínez, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Navarro, R.

    2016-08-01

    Early quench detection and thermal stability of superconducting coils are of great relevance for practical applications. Magnets made with second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes present low quench propagation velocities and therefore slow voltage development and high local temperature rises, which may cause irreversible damage. Since quench propagation depends on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity, this may be used to achieve an improvement of the thermal stability and robustness of 2G-HTS coils. On pancake type coils, the thermal conductivity along the tapes (coil’s azimuthal direction) is mostly fixed by the 2G-HTS tape characteristics, so that the reduction of anisotropy relies on the improvement of the radial thermal conductivity, which depends on the used materials between superconducting tapes, as well as on the winding and impregnation processes. In this contribution, we have explored two possibilities for such anisotropy reduction: by using anodised aluminium or stainless steel tapes co-wound with the 2G-HTS tapes. For all the analysed coils, critical current distribution, minimum quench energy values and both tangential and radial quench propagation velocities at different temperatures and currents are reported and compared with the results of similar coils co-wound with polyimide (Kapton®) tapes.

  14. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  15. Method for Determining Local Current Density in 2G HTS Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludova, A. I.

    Practically important problem is to determine the density and direction of 2G HTS induced currents at each point on the tape in order to examine its local deviations. This problem is resolved indirectly by spatial measurement of generated magnetic field with a scanning Hall sensor at a given height above the tape surface. Current density is subsequently determined by the Biot-Savart law inversion in Fourier domain. Tikhonov regularization is used in order to increase precision. Method is verified with the model current density reconstruction. Optimal calculation parameters and resulting precision are described.

  16. Measurement of AC Loss in Individual Turns of an HTS Solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staines, Mike; Jiang, Zhenan

    While the total AC loss of an HTS winding determines its efficiency, the local loss ultimately sets its stability limit. Electrical measurements typically give the power delivered to sections of a winding, not the power dissipated there. We describe measurements on individual turns of 15 turn solenoids wound with 2G wire and copper tape. Using symmetric and anti-symmetric non-contact pick-ups we measure magnetization and transport components of the local AC loss, correcting for cross-talk between pick-ups with coefficients estimated by finite element modelling. At low current amplitude measured loss in the end turns accounts for more than half the total loss

  17. Two methods for a first order hardware gradiometer using two HTS SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-12-31

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. Analog gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  18. Two Methods for a First Order Hardware Gradiometer Using Two HTS SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Espy, M.A.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Matlachov, A.

    1998-09-15

    Two different systems for noise cancellation (first order gradiometers) have been developed using two similar high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUIDs. ''Analog'' gradiometry is accomplished in hardware by either (1) subtracting the signals from the sensor and background SQUIDs at a summing amplifier (parallel technique) or (2) converting the inverted background SQUID signal to a magnetic field at the sensor SQUID (series technique). Balance levels achieved are 2000 and 1000 at 20 Hz for the parallel and series methods respectively. The balance level as a function of frequency is also presented. The effect which time delays in the two sets of SQUID electronics have on this balance level is presented and discussed.

  19. Investigation on readout coil design for fluxed locked loop control of HTS rf-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyato, Y.; Itozaki, H.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the readout coil, electro-magnetically coupled with a HTS rf-SQUID for the flux-locked loop control. The design and size of the readout coil affected the SQUID performances. Among the tested combinations of different readout coils with the rf-SQUID, the rectangular coil, which just surrounded the slit in the rf-SQUID, was advantageous for the better performance. We also demonstrated the rf-SQUID operation with the rectangular coils made of the thin flexible print circuit board, which could be put on the rf-SQUID stably.

  20. The low magnetic field properties of superconducting bulk yttrium barium copper oxide - Sintered versus partially melted material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, R. A.; Hojaji, H.; Barkatt, A.; Shafii, H.; Michael, K. A.; Thorpe, A. N.; Ware, M. F.; Alterescu, S.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the low magnetic field properties of sintered (990 C) and partially melted samples (1050 C) has been performed. Changes in the microstructure produced by recrystallization from the melt result in a significant increase in flux pinning at 77 K. Low-frequency (10-100 Hz), low-ac magnetic-field (0.01-9.0 Oe) ac susceptibility data show that gross changes in the loss component accompany the observed changes in microstructure. The effects of applied dc magnetic fields (10-220 Oe) on the ac responses of these microstructures have also been probed.

  1. The low magnetic field properties of superconducting bulk yttrium barium copper oxide - Sintered versus partially melted material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, R. A.; Hojaji, H.; Barkatt, A.; Shafii, H.; Michael, K. A.; Thorpe, A. N.; Ware, M. F.; Alterescu, S.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the low magnetic field properties of sintered (990 C) and partially melted samples (1050 C) has been performed. Changes in the microstructure produced by recrystallization from the melt result in a significant increase in flux pinning at 77 K. Low-frequency (10-100 Hz), low-ac magnetic-field (0.01-9.0 Oe) ac susceptibility data show that gross changes in the loss component accompany the observed changes in microstructure. The effects of applied dc magnetic fields (10-220 Oe) on the ac responses of these microstructures have also been probed.

  2. High temperature superconductors for magnetic suspension applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Cooley, R. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.; Chu, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) hold the promise for applications in magnetic levitation bearings, vibration damping, and torque coupling. Traditional magnetic suspension systems require active feedback and vibration controls in which power consumption and low frequency vibration are among the major engineering concerns. HTS materials have been demonstrated to be an enabling approach towards such problems due to their flux trapping properties. In our laboratory at TCSUH, we have been conducting a series of experiments to explore various mechanical applications using HTS. We have constructed a 30 lb. model flywheel levitated by a hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB). We are also developing a levitated and vibration-dampled platform for high precision instrumentation. These applications would be ideal for space usages where ambient temperature is adequate for HTS to operate properly under greatly reduced cryogenic requirements. We will give a general overview of these potential applications and discuss the operating principles of the HTS devices we have developed.

  3. Synthesis of bulk FeHfBO soft magnetic materials and its loss characterization at megahertz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Kou, Xiaoming; Mu, Mingkai; Warsi Muhammad, Asif; Lin, Shuo; Harris, Brendan S.; Parsons, Paul E.; Zhu, Hao; Lee, Fred C.; Xiao, John Q.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic core materials with low loss, high saturation magnetization, large permeability, and operating frequency above 1 MHz are in high demands for the next generation of miniaturized power electronics. Amorphous FeHfB ribbons with thickness around 20 μm have been fabricated through melt-spinning. Different heat treatments were performed on the FeHfB ribbons, and the relations among heat treatments, microstructure, and magnetic properties have been explored. Properties such as coercivity (Hc) of 2.0 Oe and saturation magnetic flux density (BS) of 1.2 T have been achieved in samples with exchange coupling. The losses can be minimized by balancing the hysteretic and eddy current losses and can be further reduced with additional magnetic field annealing. At 5 MHz with peak magnetic flux density of 20 mT, the materials show core losses comparable to the best ferrites, but with higher permeability value of about 200 and superior saturation induction of more than 1 T.

  4. Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As: A bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor with Co and Mn co-doping at Zn sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Zhao, Jianfa; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-11-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of bulk forms of diluted magnetic semiconductors Li(Zn1-x-yCoxMny)As with a crystal structure close to that of III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. No ferromagnetic order occurs with single (Zn,Co) or (Zn, Mn) substitution in the parent compound LiZnAs. Only with co-doped Co and Mn ferromagnetic ordering can occur at the Curie temperature ˜40 K. The maximum saturation moment of the this system reached to 2.17 μB /Mn , which is comparable to that of Li (Zn,Mn)As. It is the first time that a diluted magnetic semiconductor with co-doping Co and Mn into Zn sites is achieved in "111" LiZnAs system, which could be utilized to investigate the basic science of ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. In addition, ferromagnetic Li(Zn,Co,Mn)As, antiferromagnetic LiMnAs, and superconducting LiFeAs share square lattice at As layers, which may enable the development of novel heterojunction devices in the future.

  5. Experimental analysis of the magnetic field shielding and trapping properties of bulk melt-processed YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. H.; Astill, D. M.; Lo, W.; Cardwell, D. A.; Coombs, T. A.; Campbell, A. M.; Larsen, J. G.

    1995-02-01

    A scanning Hall probe has been used to map the distributions of magnetic field in melt-processed YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) discs prepared by seeded and controlled molten-zone techniques. Both shielded and trapped fields were studied as a function of applied magnetic field for each speciment. A clear four-fold symmetry has been observed in the field distribution of the seeded melt-processed sample, suggesting that there are two planes in the disc which exhibit a weak response to an applied field. Similar magnetic properties were observed for the molten-zone processed sample and attributed to the presence of cracks in the specimen. It was found that the applied field required to saturate each sample was much higher than the maximum observed trapped field, in contradiction to the Bean model for a slab geometry. This effect, which is probably due to the plate geometry of the specimens and the variation of critical current density with magnetic field, has implications for practical applications of bulk melt-processed YBCO.

  6. Magnetic field effect on the self-focusing of an intense laser pulse interacting with a bulk medium of graphite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri Javan, N.; Rouhi Erdi, F.; Najafi, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    The motivation of the present work is the study of self-focusing of an intense laser beam propagating through a magnetized bulk medium consisting of metallic nanoparticles. Using a perturbative method, the wave equation describing the nonlinear interaction of the intense laser beam with metallic magnetized nanoparticles is derived. Evolution of the laser spot size for the circular polarization with the Gaussian profile is considered. A graphite nanoparticle medium is introduced as a good candidate for self-focusing of electromagnetic waves with the wavelength in the micrometer range where plasmon resonance occurs. In such a frequency area, using a few hundred Tesla external magnetic field can substantially improve the focusing property of the medium. The threshold power for self-focusing at least two orders of magnitude is less than that for the identical case of the plasma medium. In addition, a typical external magnetic field for improving the focusing property of the medium is much lower than other conventional nonlinear media like plasma.

  7. Cooperative coupling of static magnetism and bulk superconductivity in the stripe phase of La2 -xBaxCuO4 : Pressure- and doping-dependent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Shengelaya, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Amato, A.; Morenzoni, E.; Keller, H.

    2016-12-01

    Static spin-stripe order and superconductivity were systematically studied in La2 -xBaxCuO4 (0.11 ≤x ≤0.17 ) at ambient pressure by means of magnetization and μ SR experiments. We find that all the investigated La2 -xBaxCuO4 samples exhibit static spin-stripe order and that the quasi-two-dimensional superconducting (SC) transition temperature Tc 1 and the static spin-stripe order temperature Tso have very similar values throughout the phase diagram. Moreover, the magnetic and the SC properties of the x =0.155 (LBCO-0.155) and x =0.17 (LBCO-0.17) samples were studied under hydrostatic pressure. As a remarkable result, in these bulk cuprate superconductors, the three-dimensional SC transition temperature Tc and Tso nearly coincide [Tc(p ) ≃Tso(p ) ] at all pressure investigated (0 ≤p ≤2.3 GPa). We also observed a pressure induced transition from long-range spin stripe order to a disordered magnetic state at p≃1.6 GPa in LBCO-0.155, coexisting with a SC state with substantial superfluid density. In LBCO-0.17, a disordered magnetic state is present at all p . The present results indicate that static magnetic order and SC pairing correlations develop in a cooperative fashion in La2 -xBaxCuO4 , and provide a new route of understanding the complex interplay between static magnetism and superconductivity in the stripe phase of cuprates.

  8. Tailoring of magnetic orderings in Fe substituted GdMnO3 bulk samples towards room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A.; Dhana Sekhar, C.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of various magnetic ordering has been studied for the orthorhombic perovskite GdMn1‑x Fe x O3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.7) system to obtain its comprehensive magnetic phase diagram. We observed that the substitution of Fe in GdMnO3 increases the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (T N) from 40 K to above 400 K and importantly induces a spin-reorientation transition (T SR) for x  ⩾  0.4. These transitions are close to room temperature at x  =  0.5 and then gradually separated at a higher x value. The static orbital ordering induced by the Jahn–Teller distortion seems to play an important role in changing the T N. The variations of spin-reorientation ordering along with the competition between the magnetic orderings as a function of the composition were discussed with respect to antisymmetric exchange interactions and Mn3+ single-ion anisotropy in detail. In addition, the correlation between structural and magnetic properties suggests that the subtle structural change at composition x  =  0.4 may affect the magnetic ordering. The observed tunable T SR and T N in GdMn1‑x Fe x O3 could add a practical value for these compositions in fields like spintronics and sensors.

  9. Improving the properties of GdBCO magnetic lenses by adopting a new design and resin impregnation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Teranishi, R.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2013-04-01

    High field concentration and magnetothermal stability are critical considerations when designing and fabricating magnetic lenses made from a stack of bulk high-temperature superconducting (HTS) material. In a previous study, we investigated a GdBCO magnetic lens for use as a compact high-field superconducting magnet, but it cracked due to a high flux jump. In the present study, we investigate the magnetic performance of an improved GdBCO lens. This new lens had almost the same dimensions as the previous one, but it was impregnated with epoxy resin to prevent it breaking. The impregnated lens exhibited superior stability and magnetic properties, making it promising for use in a compact magnet system. A maximum field of 13 T was obtained at 20 K with no flux jump.

  10. 2D-MPI System using second harmonic with HTS-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Sanada, Y.; Ariyoshi, S.; Tanaka, S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is an imaging technique, with high sensitivity and high speed imaging, utilizing non-linear magnetization response for the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP). MPI measures the magnetization change in the MNP under the AC magnetic field. Since the signal of the magnetization change is much smaller than the signal generated by the AC magnetic field, the signal response at the fundamental frequency cannot be used. Accordingly, it is the third harmonic of the response that is generally measured. However this method has disadvantages that the power of the AC magnetic field is large and as a result the system increased in size. In this study, we investigated the 2D imaging using a second harmonic, which can be theoretically obtained with a greater signal than in the case of the third harmonic. Moreover, an HTS-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometer was employed in the study to enhance the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR). A 2D-MPI system, which enables an imaging by scanning a DC magnetic field under a gradient magnetic field, was constructed. As a result, PSNR was increased by 1.5 times using SQUID with a Flux Transformer.

  11. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  12. Heat Transfer Experiments and Analysis of a Simulated HTS

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Duckworth, Robert C; Gouge, Michael J; Knoll, David

    2010-01-01

    Long-length high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable projects, over 1 km, are being designed that are cooled by flowing liquid nitrogen. The compact counter-flow cooling arrangement which has the supply and return stream in a single cryostat offers several advantages including smallest space requirement, least heat load, and reduced cost since a return cryostat is not required. One issue in long length HTS cable systems is the magnitude of the heat transfer radially through the cable. It is extremely difficult to instrument an HTS cable in service on the grid with the needed thermometry because of the issues associated with installing thermometers on high voltage components. A 5-meter long test system has been built that simulates a counter-flow cooled, HTS cable using a heated tube to simulate the cable. Measurements of the temperatures in the flow stream and on the tube wall are presented and compared to analysis. These data can be used to benchmark different HTS cable heat transfer and fluid flow analysis approaches.

  13. Role of HTS devices in greenhouse gas emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Teemu; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

    2003-08-01

    By applying high temperature superconductors (HTS) in generators, transformers and synchronous motors it is possible to improve their efficiency. Higher efficiency saves electrical energy and thus reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well. The reduction of GHG emissions is becoming a topical issue due to the Kyoto Protocol which requires the European Union (EU) to reduce its emissions by 8% from the 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. This environmental viewpoint can accelerate the commercialization of HTS applications if certain efficiency and sufficiently large power range are reached. In this paper, a detailed study about the replacement of existing devices by HTS ones is made in order to find the efficiency level and the power range where HTS becomes competitive. Finland is taken, as an example of an EU country, to present accurate figures of saved electricity. The structure of energy production and consumption was investigated and the emission data from different types of power plants were screened. The potential savings were allocated to the reduced usage of coal. Finally, an expanded view towards the possible emissions reduction gained by superconducting technology in the whole EU is presented. A market penetration model was introduced to investigate the time-scale in which conventional devices can be replaced with HTS devices.

  14. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Grain Size Effect on Electrical Conductivity and Giant Magnetoresistance of Bulk Magnetic Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhu, Lin-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

    2009-11-01

    By solving the Boltzmann transport equation and considering the spin-dependent grain boundary scattering, the distribution of electrons in grains and the electrical transport properties in the applied magnetic field are studied. With regard to the dominant influence of grain boundary scattering which is taken as a boundary condition for the electrical transport, the grain size-dependent electrical conductivity is investigated. In addition, the reorientation of the relative magnetization between grains brings the change of the electron spin when the magnetonanocrystalline material is subjected to the magnetic field, resulting in the remarkable giant magnetoresistance effect.

  15. Magnetron sputtering of Fe-oxides on the top of HTS YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, T.; Blagoev, B.; Buchkov, K.; Mateev, E.; Gajda, G.; Nedkov, I.; Kovacheva, D.; Slavov, L.; Starbova, I.; Starbov, N.; Nankovski, M.

    2017-05-01

    The possibilities for preparation of bilayers containing magnetic Fe-oxide (Fe-O) and high temperature superconducting (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) thin films were investigated. For this purpose, Fe-O films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering at comparatively low temperatures T≤250 °C onto dielectric (for example, LaAlO3 (LAO)) substrates, covered with a HTS YBCO film. The sputtering of the Fe-O layer at such conditions did not lead to a crucial damage of the critical temperature TC of the YBCO film, but could affect the width of the superconducting transition. A decrease of the critical temperature of the (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO bilayer kept at ambient conditions was observed, possibly due to the negative effects of the water vapour on the sample characteristics. The double peak structure of the imaginary component of the response signal to the AC harmonic magnetic field, observed in such a (Fe-O)/YBCO/LAO sample, was ascribed from two possible views: as a consequence of morphology determined inter- and intra-granular contributions and/or as transitions from dominant irreversible processes as Bean-Livingston barrier to vortex state chains formation.

  16. Development of HTS-SQUID magnetometer system with high slew rate for exploration of mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hato, T.; Tsukamoto, A.; Adachi, S.; Oshikubo, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Sugisaki, M.; Arai, E.; Tanabe, K.

    2013-11-01

    For the transient electromagnetic (TEM) method using a high-temperature superconducting interference device (HTS-SQUID), we have developed a magnetometer system with a wide dynamic range, a high slew rate, and superior transportability. To achieve high tolerance to a higher excitation magnetic field, we utilized a SQUID magnetometer containing ramp-edge junctions with La0.1Er0.95Ba1.95Cu3Oy and SmBa2Cu3Oy electrode layers, which was fabricated by using an HTS multi-layer fabrication technique. To operate the magnetometer stably in a rapidly changing magnetic field, we chose the proper materials for the RF shield of liquid nitrogen (LN2) glass Dewar and cables. The white noise level and the slew rate of the system were measured to be 30 fT Hz-1/2 and 10.5 mT s-1, respectively. The resultant signal-to-noise ratio was higher than that of the previous system and improved the exploration depth, which was successfully demonstrated in field tests. The weight of the Dewar, which retains the LN2 for 17 h, is 2.5 kg. The total weight of our system including the LN2 Dewar, a probe with a flux-locked loop (FLL) circuit, a battery, a receiver, and a 30 m-long cable between the FLL and the receiver is as low as 25.6 kg.

  17. Comparative Study of Magnetic Ordering and Electrical Transport in Bulk and Nano-Grained Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3 Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, B.; Suneesh, M. V.; Vasundhara, M.

    2016-11-01

    We have prepared bulk and nano-sized Nd0.67Sr0.33MnO3 manganites by solid state and low-temperature mild solgel methods respectively. Both the compounds crystallized into an orthorhombic structure with Pbnm space group confirmed from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Nano-grained compound shows an average particle size of 22 nm with broad grain size distribution revealed from the Transmission electron micrographs. It appeared that the long range ferromagnetic order becomes unstable upon the reduction of the samples dimension down to nano meter scale. DC magnetization and AC susceptibility results showed frustration of spins in nano-grained compound and thereby it could lead to a cluster glass-like behaviour. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity under different magnetic fields shows the broad maxima at higher temperatures and a low temperature upturn in both the compounds, however, the latter is more prominent in the nano grained compound. Combination of Kondo effect with electron and phonon interactions govern the low temperature resistivity and a small polaron hopping mechanism dominates at high temperatures for both the compounds. The magnetoresistance is understood by the effect of spin polarized tunneling through the grain boundary. The experimental results revealed that the reduction in particle size influences severely on the magnetic, electrical and magneto transport properties.

  18. Vortex flux dynamics and harmonic ac magnetic response of Ba(Fe0.94Ni0.06)2As2 bulk superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Nikolo, Martin; Zapf, Vivien S.; Singleton, John; ...

    2016-07-22

    Vortex dynamics and nonlinear ac response are studied in a Ba(Fe0.94Ni0.06)2As2(Tc= 18.5 K) bulk superconductor in magnetic fields up to 12 T via ac susceptibility measurements of the first ten harmonics. A comprehensive study of the ac magnetic susceptibility and its first ten harmonics finds shifts to higher temperatures with increasing ac measurement frequencies (10 to 10,000 Hz) for a wide range of ac (1, 5, and 10 Oe) and dc fields (0 to 12 T). The characteristic measurement time constant t1 is extracted from the exponential fit of the data and linked to vortex relaxation. The Anderson-Kim Arrhenius lawmore » is applied to determine flux activation energy Ea/k as a function dc magnetic field. The de-pinning, or irreversibility lines, were determined by a variety of methods and extensively mapped. The ac response shows surprisingly weak higher harmonic components, suggesting weak nonlinear behavior. Lastly, our data does not support the Fisher model; we do not see an abrupt vortex glass to vortex liquid transition and the resistivity does not drop to zero, although it appears to approach zero exponentially.« less

  19. Effect of minor Fe substitution for Ni on the magnetic properties of a Gd55Al20Ni25 bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ding; Li, Zheng; Wang, Zheng Wen; Wu, Cheng; Zhang, Yi Qing

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of micro-alloying on the glass-forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties of Gd55Al20Ni25 bulk metallic glass (BMG). By minor Fe substitution for Ni, we obtained Gd55Al20Ni23Fe2 BMG with enhanced magneto-caloric effect (MCE) and GFA similar to Gd55Al20Ni25 BMG. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSmpeak) and the magnetic refrigerant capacity (Rc) of Gd55Al20Ni23Fe2 BMG within the field range of 5 T are about 9.05 J kg-1 K-1 and 850J ṡkg-1, respectively, both of which are larger than the values of Gd55Ni25Al20 BMG. The mechanism for the improved MCE of the Gd55Al20Ni23Fe2 BMG was investigated and the magneto-caloric behaviors were studied by constructing the field dependence of - ΔSmpeak of Gd55Al20Ni23Fe2 BMG.

  20. Calibration of a HTS Based LOX 400 mm Level Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, Abhay S.; Pankaj, S.; Gowthaman, M.; Sudharshan, H.

    The measurement of the cryogen level in a cryostage of space crafts is crucial. At the same time the weight of the sensor should be small as it affects the payload fraction of the space craft. An attempt to develop a HTS based level sensor of 400 mm for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) measurement was made. In the initial phase of testing, loss of superconductivity of HTS wire in LOX inside a cryostat was noticed. Thus, a new four wall cryostat was designed to have a stable LOX level to provide thermal stability to the HTS based LOX sensor. The calibration of the developed sensor was carried out against capacitance level sensor which was pre calibrated using diode array to verify its linearity and performance for different current excitation levels. The calibrations were carried out without heater wires. The automatic data logging was accomplished using a program developed in LabVIEW 11.0.

  1. Loss analysis of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Kim, H. M.; Lee, J. D.; Kim, Y. C.; Park, H. J.; Kwon, W. S.; Park, G. S.

    2009-03-01

    The HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) synchronous motor has advantages over the conventional synchronous motor such as smaller size and higher efficiency. Higher efficiency is due to smaller loss than the conventional motor, so it is important to do loss analysis in order to develop a machine with higher efficiency. This paper deals with machine losses those are dissipated in each part of a HTS synchronous motor. These losses are analyzed theoretically and compared with loss data obtained from experimental results of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor. Each machine loss is measured based on IEEE 115 standard and the results are analyzed and considered based on the manufacturing of the test machine.

  2. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.M.; Kobayashi, J.H.; Guillory, E.B.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Burch, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates >1000 HTS rf SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150[degrees] in resonant structures, and 20[degrees] in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Detection of Local Temperature Change on HTS Cables via Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Ji, Gyeong Hwan; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2017-07-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are drawing attention as transmission and distribution cables in future grid, and related researches on HTS cables have been conducted actively. As HTS cables have come to the demonstration stage, failures of cooling systems inducing quench phenomenon of the HTS cables have become significant. Several diagnosis of the HTS cables have been developed but there are still some limitations of the experimental setup. In this paper, a non-destructive diagnostic technique for the detection of the local temperature change point is proposed. Also, a simulation model of HTS cables with a local temperature change point is suggested to verify the proposed diagnosis. The performance of the diagnosis is checked by comparative analysis between the proposed simulation results and experiment results of a real-world HTS cable. It is expected that the suggested simulation model and diagnosis will contribute to the commercialization of HTS cables in the power grid.

  4. Long length HTS cable with integrated FCL property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi

    2010-06-01

    The past years have shown the growth of bottlenecks in electric power grids, among other reasons caused by the increasing demand of energy in the form of electricity and by the large-scaled integration of renewable sources. As solving of these challenges by means of traditional solutions appears to be more and more problematic, the need for new technology solutions has become apparent. The HTS cable technology demonstrates a great potential in solving of grid congestion issues. In addition to their large power transport capacity and low losses, modern-generation HTS cables also have an integrated fault-current limiting (FCL) property. Applications of such cables in power grids will help to solve fault-current issues when connecting new generators, and dispersed and large-scale renewable sources. As HTS cables, used in current projects, are limited to hundreds of meters in length, they have still not been used for energy transport over long distances. The Dutch DSO Alliander, together with Ultera, is working on the development of a 6 km FCL HTS cable for installation in the Alliander's HV grid. In order to get the low-loss benefits of the HTS technology, a cooling system with a high efficiency is needed. The FCL HTS cable will be cooled by one cooling station at each end of the cable, using a liquid nitrogen coolant. Alliander and Ultera have established and work to achieve technical performance targets believed to be required to realise a 6 km long, 50 kV retrofit system with a power rating of 250 MVA with cooling stations only at the two ends of the cable system. These targets aim to reduce the superconductor's AC loss at a nominal current, reduce the heat leak of the thermally insulating envelope, increase the voltage rating and reduce the friction coefficient of the coolant flow.

  5. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Sarowar Hossain, M. D.; Mølhave, K.

    2017-07-01

    A simple route to prepare Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles by ultrasonication of their bulk powder materials is presented in this article. For comparison, Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles are also prepared by ball milling. The prepared samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD Rietveld analysis is carried out extensively for the determination of crystallographic parameters and the amount of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50-100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit a paramagnetic to spin-glass transition. However, nanoparticles synthesized by 8 h and 12 h ball milling do not reveal any phase transition, rather show an upturn of magnetization at low temperature. The degradation of the magnetic properties in ball milled nanoparticles may be associated with amorphization of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique.

  6. Modeling AC ripple currents in HTS coated conductors by integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Francesco; Xu, Zhihan

    2016-12-01

    In several HTS applications, the superconducting tapes experience the simultaneous presence of DC and AC excitations. For example in high-current DC cables, where the transport current is not perfectly constant, but it exhibits some ripples at different frequencies introduced by the rectification process (AC-DC conversion). These ripples give rise to dissipation, whose magnitude and possible influence on the device's cooling requirements need to be evaluated. Here we report a study of the AC losses in a HTS coated conductor subjected to DC currents and AC ripples simultaneously. The modeling approach is based on an integral equation method for thin superconductors: the superconducting tape is modeled as a 1-D object with a non-linear resistivity, which includes the dependence of the critical current density Jc on the magnetic field. The model, implemented in a commercial finite-element program, runs very fast (the simulation of one AC cycle typically takes a few seconds on standard desktop workstation): this allows simulating a large number of cycles and estimating when the AC ripple losses stabilize to a constant value. The model is used to study the influence of the flux creep power index n on the stabilization speed and on the AC loss values, as well as the effect of using a field-dependent Jc instead of a constant one. The simulations confirm that the dissipation level should not be a practical concern in HTS DC cables. At the same time, however, they reveal a strong dependence of the results upon the power index n and the form of Jc , which spurs the question whether the power-law is the most suitable description of the superconductor's electrical behavior for this kind of analysis.

  7. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  8. A silver-bearing, High-Temperature, Superconducting (HTS) paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, William A.

    1990-02-01

    A substantial set of device applications awaits development of a workable, durable, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) paint. Such a paint should be truly superconducting with its critical temperature T sub c greater than 77K. For most of these applications, a high critical current (J sub c) is not required, although probably desirable. A process is described which can be used to produce silver-bearing HTS paint coatings on many engineering materials. Preliminary tests have shown good adherence to several ceramics and the ability to meet the superconducting criteria. Moreover, the coatings withstand multiple thermal cycling and stability under laboratory ambient storage conditions for periods of at least several months.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF HTS CONDUCTORS FOR ELECTRIC POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Rupich, M.

    2012-10-23

    Second generation (2G) technologies to fabricate high-performance superconducting wires developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were transferred to American Superconductor via this CRADA. In addition, co-development of technologies for over a decade was done to enable fabrication of commercial high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires with high performance. The massive success of this CRADA has allowed American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) to become a global leader in the fabrication of HTS wire and the technology is fully based on the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) technology invented and developed at ORNL.

  10. Numerical simulations of electromagnetic behavior and AC loss in rectangular bulk superconductor with an elliptical flaw under AC magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jing; Zhou, Youhe

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a finite element model based on the H-formulation to solve the electromagnetic behavior and AC loss in rectangular bulk superconductor with an elliptical flaw in AC external field condition. Both the interior flaw and the edge flaw are considered. A modified E-J power law which is valid for an arbitrary current density range is adopted in order to predict the strong local enhancement of the current density in the vicinity of the flaw tip. The results for the usual E-J power law are calculated for comparison as well. The simulation results show that the existence of the flaw significantly blocks the flow of the induced current and forces the current to redistribute around it. Meanwhile, the strong local enhancement of the current density is observed in the vicinity of the flaw tip. Furthermore, the influences of the size and position of the flaw on the local enhancement of the current density in the vicinity of the flaw tip are investigated. In addition, it is found that the influence of the flaw on the AC loss of the sample is slight for both cases of the interior flaw and the edge flaw.

  11. Refinement of atomic and magnetic structures using neutron diffraction for synthesized bulk and nano-nickel zinc gallate ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata-Allah, S. S.; Balagurov, A. M.; Hashhash, A.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Hamdy, Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The parent NiFe2O4 and Zn/Ga substituted spinel ferrite powders have been prepared by solid state reaction technique. As a typical example, the Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe1.5Ga0.5O4 sample has been prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method with the nano-scale crystallites size. X-ray and Mössbauer studies were carried out for the prepared samples. Structure and microstructure properties were investigated using the time-of-flight HRFD instrument at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor, at a temperatures range 15-473 K. The Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction data revealed that all samples possess cubic symmetry corresponding to the space group Fd3m. Cations distribution show that Ni2+ is a complete inverse spinel ion, while Ga3+ equally distributed between the two A and B-sublattices. The level of microstrains in bulk samples was estimated as very small while the size of coherently scattered domains is quite large. For nano-structured sample the domain size is around 120 Å.

  12. Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ˜200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-Φ) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  13. Real-time monitoring of fatigue damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers for aeronautical applications using HTS SQUID magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, M.; Bonavolontà, C.; Peluso, G.; Pepe, G. P.

    2006-06-01

    The main advantage of using SQUIDs in NDE is its unrivalled magnetic sensitivity down to very low frequencies, which allows the detection of weak magnetic fields due to defects also in very low electrical conductive materials like CFRP, commonly used in aerospace structures. In this work the fatigue damage evaluation on CFRP laminates, cross-ply or quasi-isotropic, in real-time during quasi-static loading is monitored. The material responses are detected by using an Eddy Current technique with HTS dc SQUID magnetometer.

  14. K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2}: A hexagonal structured bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor with large magnetoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Pan; Jiang, Hao; Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Qian; Feng, Chunmu; Tao, Qian; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu-An; Li, Yuke; Cao, Chao; Dai, Jianhui

    2013-12-14

    A bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor was found in the K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Different from recently reported tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-structured II-II-V based (Ba,K)(Zn,Mn){sub 2}As{sub 2}, the Ba{sub 1−y}K{sub y}Cd{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}As{sub 2} system has a hexagonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure with the Cd{sub 2}As{sub 2} layer forming a honeycomb-like network. The Mn concentration reaches up to x ∼ 0.4. Magnetization measurements show that the samples undergo ferromagnetic transitions with Curie temperature up to 16 K. With low coercive field of less than 10 Oe and large magnetoresistance of about −70%, the hexagonal structured Ba{sub 1−y}K{sub y}Cd{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}As{sub 2} can be served as a promising candidate for spin manipulations.

  15. Effect of Ni-substitution on glass forming ability, mechanical, and magnetic properties of FeBNbY bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ansar; Ström, V.; Belova, L.; Rao, K. V.; Ågren, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to identify bulk glass forming ability by partial substitution of Fe by Ni in FeBNbY based amorphous alloy ribbons and as a consequence obtain enhanced mechanical and soft magnetic properties of bulk glassy rods of diameter as large as 4.5 mm. A detailed investigation of thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of (Fe0.72-x NixB0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloys (with x ˜ 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.1) was carried out. The supercooled regime (ΔTx) and other glass forming parameters, e.g., reduced glass transition temperature (Trg), the gamma (γ) parameter, etc., were found to be enhanced due to the Ni substitution resulting in improvement of glass forming ability (GFA). The maximum values of such parameters (ΔTx ˜ 94 K, Trg ˜ 0.644, and γ ˜ 0.435) were obtained for the alloy with x ˜ 0.06, making it possible to cast cylindrical rods with 4.5 mm diameter for this composition. Nanoindentation studies on glassy rods also point out that (Fe0.66Ni0.06B0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloy exhibit the maximum value of hardness (H ˜ 12 GPa) as well as elastic modulus (E ˜ 193 GPa) among all of these samples. In addition to these, that particular sample shows the lowest room temperature coercivity (Hc ˜ 210 mOe). By annealing at 823 K, Hc can be further reduced to 60 mOe due to its structural relaxation. We attribute the improved soft magnetic and mechanical properties of as-quenched (Fe0.66Ni0.06B0.24Nb0.04)95.5Y4.5 alloy to higher packing density attained due to its large glass forming ability.

  16. Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Hassenzahl, William V

    2011-01-01

    Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

  17. Design study of a HTS cable in Yokohama project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Yumura, H.; Ohya, M.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kito, Y.

    2009-10-01

    A new high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has started in Japan. Target of this project is to demonstrate the reliable and stable operate of a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in the grid. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) provides the real grid and studies the impact of connecting the HTS cable to the existing conventional facilities in Yokohama. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) manufactures the HTS cable, terminations and joint. Mayekawa Corporation provides a cooling system. One of the technical targets in the project is to reduce the AC loss of superconducting cable. For this purpose, a new type DI-BSCCO, which is a production name of BSCCO wires made by SEI, with twisted superconducting filaments is planed to be applied in the cable. A short cable core using the new wires shows less AC loss than 1 W/m/ph at 2 kA rms. Another important point is to design a cable system to withstand a large over current at a short circuit failure. At a preliminary test with a short cable, it was recognized that the cable had no degradation of conductor I c after applying the fault current of 31.5 kA for 2 s, which are required for 66 kV line. This report shows details of these experiment results and design of the cable.

  18. HTS DC Transmission Line for Megalopolis Grid Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Sytnikov, V.; Bemert, S.; Ivanov, Yu; Krivetskiy, I.; Romashov, M.; Shakaryan, Yu; Keilin, V.; Shikov, A.; Patrikeev, V.; Lobyntsev, V.; Shcherbakov, V.

    2014-05-01

    Using of HTS AC and DC cables in electric power grids allows increasing of the transferred power, losses diminishing, decreasing of exclusion zone areas, the enhancement of the environmental conditions and fire/explosion safety of electric power systems. However, the use of DC superconducting cable lines together with converters brings additional advantages as reduction of losses in cables and suitable lowering of refrigerating plant capacity, as well as the realization of the function of short-circuit currents limitation by means of the appropriate setting of converter equipment. Russian Federal Grid Company and its R&D Center started the construction of the DC HTS power transmission line which includes the cable itself, cryogenic equipment, AC/DC converters, terminals and cable coupling boxes. This line will connect two substations in Saint-Petersburg - 330 kV "Centralnaya" and 220 kV "RP-9". The length of this HTS transmission line will be about 2500 meters. Nowadays are developed all the elements of the line and technologies of the cable manufacturing. Two HTS cable samples, each 30 m length, have been made. This paper describes the results of cables tests.

  19. Investigation of AC losses in horizontally parallel HTS tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Boyang; Li, Jing; Geng, Jianzhao; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Xiuchang; Zhang, Heng; Li, Chao; Grilli, Francesco; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an AC loss study of horizontally parallel HTS tapes. We proposed to use three parallel HTS tapes as an example. The AC losses of the middle and end tape of three parallel tapes have been measured using the electrical method and compared to those of an individual tape. The effect of the interaction between tapes on AC losses has been analysed, and compared with finite-element method (FEM) simulations using the 2D H -formulation implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. By using FEM simulations, the cases of increasing number of parallel tapes have been considered, and the normalised ratio between the total average AC losses per tape and the AC losses of an individual single tape has been calculated for different gap distances. We proposed a new parameter, Ns , a turning point for number of tapes, to divide Stage 1 and Stage 2 for the AC loss study of horizontally parallel tapes. For Stage 1, N < Ns , the total average losses per tape increased with the increasing number of tapes. For Stage 2, N > Ns , the total average losses per tape decrease with the increasing number of tapes. The analysis demonstrates that horizontally parallel HTS tapes could be potentially used in superconducting devices like HTS transformers, which could retain or even reduce the total average AC losses per tape with large number of parallel tapes.

  20. First-principles modeling of metal (ii) ferrocyanide: electronic property, magnetism, bulk moduli, and the role of C  ≡  N- defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Hung M.; Pham, Tan-Tien; Duy Dat, Vo; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The ferrocyanide structures of transition metals (M) Ti2+, Cr2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ are investigated using a first-principles modeling approach. The crystal structure of cobalt ferrocyanide is found to resemble previous experimental data with good accuracy (~1% error). The considered porous structures possess magnetic moments of 8.00 µ B/cell, 8.00 µ B/cell, 4.00 µ B/cell, and 4.00 µ B/cell given by the [TiFe(CN)6]2-, [CrFe(CN)6]2-, [MnFe(CN)6]2-, and [CoFe(CN)6]2- frameworks, respectively. There is only one spin-state occupation at the Fermi level, which leads to the conclusion of semi-metallicity of the four structures. To verify the reliability of the electronic and magnetic properties, linear-response DFT  +  U calculations are performed and establish excellent agreement with the conventional DFT calculations. Then, the mechanical strength is evaluated by estimating the bulk moduli of the four structures, which fall in the range of 114 GPa-133 GPa. Upon the consideration of one C  ≡  N- linker defect, the magnetic moments of cobalt ferrocyanide and manganese ferrocyanide rise dramatically to 8 µ B/cell, while that of the titanium structure drops to 6 µ B/cell. In light of the electronic structure evidence, we believe that the low-spin Fe cation nearby the C  ≡  N- defect has an indirect effect on spin polarization of the four Co cations in the unit cell.

  1. Static Measurements on HTS Coils of Fully Superconducting AC Electric Machines for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Hunker, Keith R.; Hartwig, Jason; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing the high efficiency and high-power density superconducting (SC) electric machines in full support of electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems for a future electric aircraft. A SC coil test rig has been designed and built to perform static and AC measurements on BSCCO, (RE)BCO, and YBCO high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire and coils at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. In this paper, DC measurements on five SC coil configurations of various geometry in zero external magnetic field are measured to develop good measurement technique and to determine the critical current (Ic) and the sharpness (n value) of the super-to-normal transition. Also, standard procedures for coil design, fabrication, coil mounting, micro-volt measurement, cryogenic testing, current control, and data acquisition technique were established. Experimentally measured critical currents are compared with theoretical predicted values based on an electric-field criterion (Ec). Data here are essential to quantify the SC electric machine operation limits where the SC begins to exhibit non-zero resistance. All test data will be utilized to assess the feasibility of using HTS coils for the fully superconducting AC electric machine development for an aircraft electric propulsion system.

  2. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  3. Investigation and comparison of AC losses on stabilizer-free and copper stabilizer HTS tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Boyang; Li, Jing; Geng, Jianzhao; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Xiuchang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Qihuan; Ma, Jun; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the measurement and simulation of Alternating Current (AC) losses on the Stabilizer-free and Copper Stabilizer High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Tapes: SuperPower SF12100 and SCS12050. The AC loss measurement utilised electrical method to obtain overall losses with AC transport currents. The 2D H-formulation by COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to simulate the real geometry and multi-layer HTS tapes. Ferromagnetic AC losses of substrate have been assumed to be ignored as the substrates of SF12100 and SCS12050 are non-magnetic. Hysteresis AC losses in the superconducting layer, and eddy-current AC losses in copper stabilizer, silver overlayer and substrate were concerned in this investigation. The measured AC losses were compared to the AC losses from simulation, with 3 cases of different AC frequency 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. The eddy-current AC losses of copper stabilizer at frequency 1000 Hz were determined from both experiment and simulation. The estimation of AC losses with frequency at 10,000 Hz was also carried out using simulation method. Finally, the frequency dependence of AC losses from Stabilizer-free Tape and Copper Stabilizer Tape were compared and analysed.

  4. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  5. Spatial normalization, bulk motion correction and coregistration for functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human cervical spinal cord and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Stroman, Patrick W; Figley, Chase R; Cahill, Catherine M

    2008-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the cortex is a powerful tool for neuroscience research, and its use has been extended into the brainstem and spinal cord as well. However, there are significant technical challenges with extrapolating the developments that have been achieved in the cortex to their use in the brainstem and spinal cord. Here, we develop a normalized coordinate system for the cervical spinal cord and brainstem, demonstrating a semiautomated method for spatially normalizing and coregistering fMRI data from these regions. fMRI data from 24 experiments in eight volunteers are normalized and combined to create the first anatomical reference volume, and based on this volume, we define a standardized region-of-interest (ROI) mask, as well as a map of 52 anatomical regions, which can be applied automatically to fMRI results. The normalization is demonstrated to have an accuracy of less than 2 mm in 93% of anatomical test points. The reverse of the normalization procedure is also demonstrated for automatic alignment of the standardized ROI mask and region-label map with fMRI data in its original (unnormalized) format. A reliable method for spatially normalizing fMRI data is essential for analyses of group data and for assessing the effects of spinal cord injury or disease on an individual basis by comparing with results from healthy subjects.

  6. Study of field-pole Bi2223 windings of air core type for a HTS propulsion motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugyo, D.; Kimura, Y.; Sano, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Izumi, M.; Miki, M.; Ohmatu, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Fujimoto, H.

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we designed a field pole of Bi2223 superconductor winding without iron core applied to high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor of an axial gap type. As the preliminary step to form a field pole winding, we designed a double-pancake-coil (DPC) and qualified relationship between the terminal voltage and the excitation current. We adopted the structure of HTS winding field pole composed of stacked two layered DPC because of effective conduction cooling and electromagnetic effect. We manufactured 16 poles DPC and verified the critical current vs. terminal voltage at 77 K with liquid nitrogen. To form a rotor, 8 field-pole HTS windings were manufactured by integrating of two DPCs as a split coil. We measured the coil Ic and voltage drop of the terminal at 30 K cooled with gas-liquid mixing helium and qualified the heat generation from the coils with DC current excitation. The cooling and excitation test of the constructed field pole coils were performed in the testing motor. The results exhibit that presently developed coils possesses sufficient performance on the heat generation and the magnetic flux density in the axial-type machine under construction.

  7. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, Christopher M; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Ellis, Alvin R; Gouge, Michael J; James, David Randy; Tuncer, Enis

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  8. Bulk undercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattamis, T. Z.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk undercooling methods and procedures will first be reviewed. Measurement of various parameters which are necessary to understand the solidification mechanism during and after recalescence will be discussed. During recalescence of levitated, glass-encased large droplets (5 to 8 mm diam) high speed temperature sensing devices coupled with a rapid response oscilloscope are now being used at MIT to measure local thermal behavior in hypoeutectic and eutectic binary Ni-Sn alloys. Dendrite tip velocities were measured by various investigators using thermal sensors or high speed cinematography. The confirmation of the validity of solidification models of bulk-undercooled melts is made difficult by the fineness of the final microstructure, the ultra-rapid evolution of the solidifying system which makes measurements very awkward, and the continuous modification of the microstructure which formed during recalescence because of precipitation, remelting and rapid coarsening.

  9. First-principles study on magnetism and half-metallicity in bulk and various (001) surfaces of Heusler alloy Zr2VSn with Hg2CuTi-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zun-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2016-07-01

    Structural, electronic and magnetic properties in the bulk and five different (001) surfaces (ZrV-, ZrSn-, VV-, ZrZr- and SnSn-terminations) of Zr2 VSn Heusler alloy with Hg2 CuTi -type structure are studied by using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory. The bulk Zr2 VSn Heusler alloy is ferrimagnetic half-metallicity with equilibrium lattice constant 6.815 Å and total magnetic moment -1.000 μB / f.u . , following the Slater-Pauling rule μt =Zt - 18 . The atoms on different surface layers exhibit different displacements, electronic and magnetic properties. All five (001) surfaces lose the half-metallicity and are not usable in spintronics devices.

  10. The Effects of a High Magnetic Field on the Annealing of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb₄ Bulk Metallic Glass.

    PubMed

    Jia, Peng; Wang, En-Gang; Han, Ke

    2016-11-04

    In contrast with amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials show improved thermal stability and higher soft magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline soft magnetic composites are usually fabricated by partially crystallizing from parent amorphous alloys. This paper reports our experimental observation on the sequence of crystallization in metallic glass under a high magnetic field (HMF). An application of a HMF to bulk metallic glass (BMG) of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb₄ prioritizes the precipitation of α-(Fe,Co) phase separated from the subsequent precipitation of borides, (Fe,Co)23B₆, upon isothermal annealing at a glass transition temperature. Furthermore, it was observed that, through the annealing treatment under a HMF, a soft magnetic nanocomposite, in which only α-(Fe,Co) phase uniformly distributes in amorphous matrix, was achieved for boron-bearing BMG. The promotion of the α-Fe or (Fe,Co) phase and the prevention of the boride phases during the isothermal annealing process help to produce high-quality soft magnetic nanocomposite materials. The mechanism by which a HMF influences the crystallization sequence was interpreted via certain changes in Gibbs free energies for two ferromagnetic phases. This finding evidences that the annealing treatment under a HMF is suitable for enhancing the soft magnetic properties of high B content (Fe,Co)-based bulk amorphous and nanocrystalline materials.

  11. The Effects of a High Magnetic Field on the Annealing of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb4 Bulk Metallic Glass

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Peng; Wang, En-gang; Han, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials show improved thermal stability and higher soft magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline soft magnetic composites are usually fabricated by partially crystallizing from parent amorphous alloys. This paper reports our experimental observation on the sequence of crystallization in metallic glass under a high magnetic field (HMF). An application of a HMF to bulk metallic glass (BMG) of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb4 prioritizes the precipitation of α-(Fe,Co) phase separated from the subsequent precipitation of borides, (Fe,Co)23B6, upon isothermal annealing at a glass transition temperature. Furthermore, it was observed that, through the annealing treatment under a HMF, a soft magnetic nanocomposite, in which only α-(Fe,Co) phase uniformly distributes in amorphous matrix, was achieved for boron-bearing BMG. The promotion of the α-Fe or (Fe,Co) phase and the prevention of the boride phases during the isothermal annealing process help to produce high-quality soft magnetic nanocomposite materials. The mechanism by which a HMF influences the crystallization sequence was interpreted via certain changes in Gibbs free energies for two ferromagnetic phases. This finding evidences that the annealing treatment under a HMF is suitable for enhancing the soft magnetic properties of high B content (Fe,Co)-based bulk amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. PMID:28774018

  12. DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Kasuya, Syohei; Mawardi Saari, Mohd; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Akira; Adachi, Seiji; Tanabe, Keiichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    Solar panels are expected to play a major role as a source of sustainable energy. In order to evaluate solar panels, non-destructive tests, such as defect inspections and response property evaluations, are necessary. We developed a DC current distribution mapping system of the solar panels using a High Critical Temperature Superconductor Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (HTS-SQUID) gradiometer with ramp edge type Josephson junctions. Two independent components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the panel surface (∂Bz/∂x, ∂Bz/∂y) were detected. The direct current of the solar panel is visualized by calculating the composition of the two signal components, the phase angle, and mapping the DC current vector. The developed system can evaluate the uniformity of DC current distributions precisely and may be applicable for defect detection of solar panels.

  13. Design and preliminary tests of a twin coil HTS SMES for pulse power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badel, Arnaud; Tixador, Pascal; Berger, Kevin; Deleglise, Marc

    2011-05-01

    The design of a twin coil 2 × 200 kJ-1 MW pulse power high temperature superconductor (HTS) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) demonstrator is presented. Its aim is to test at small scale various possibilities of electromagnetic launcher powering. The foreseen operation modes include high voltage discharge in power capacitors, sequential discharges of identical energies from two coupled coils, and XRAM current multiplication. Special attention was paid to the arrangement of the coils for the energies discharged to be equal. The coils are cooled by conduction from three cryocoolers; the thermal design was optimized in order to maintain the coils around 15 K in spite of the high number of current leads required for XRAM operation (eight). Preliminary tests of the demonstrator are also presented, showing that the thermal and electrical characteristics are in very good agreement with the design objectives.

  14. Continuous critical current measurement of high-temperature superconductor tapes with magnetic substrates using magnetic-circuit method.

    PubMed

    Zou, S N; Gu, C; Qu, T M; Han, Z

    2013-10-01

    The critical current (I(c)) of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes has to be examined not only for short samples, but also for the entire tape, because local weak points can possibly lead to the quenching of the whole HTS device. Some methods were reported for continuous I(c) measurement along the length of a HTS tape, but few of them were applicable to tapes with magnetic substrates represented by YBa2Cu3O(7-δ)(YBCO)-coated conductors based on Ni5W alloy substrate by rolling assisted bi-axially textured substrate process. We previously presented a contact-free method using magnetic circuits to measure I(c) continuously of long HTS tapes, namely the magnetic-circuit (MC) method. This method has been previously applied with high speed and resolution to measure I(c) of HTS tapes with non-magnetic substrates, due to its resistance to noise aroused by mechanical vibration. In this work, its ability to measure HTS tapes with magnetic substrates is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. A 100 m long commercial YBCO tape based on Ni5W alloy substrate was measured and regular I(c) fluctuations were discovered. The MC method can be a powerful tool for quality control of HTS tapes, especially for tapes with magnetic substrates.

  15. Experimental study on the double-evaporator thermosiphon for cooling HTS (high temperature superconductor) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghyun; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Youngkwon; Jeong, Sangkwon; Sung, Taehyun; Han, Younghee; Lee, Jeong-Phil; Jung, Seyong

    2009-08-01

    A cryogenic thermosiphons is an efficient heat transfer device between a cryocooler and a thermal load that is to be cooled. This paper presents an idea of thermosiphon which contains two vertically-separated evaporators. This unique configuration of the thermosiphon is suitable for the purpose of cooling simultaneously two superconducting bearings of the HTS (high temperature superconducting) flywheel system at the same temperature. A so-called double-evaporator thermosiphon was designed, fabricated and tested using nitrogen as the working fluid under sub-atmospheric pressure condition. The interior thermal condition of the double-evaporator thermosiphon was examined in detail during its cool-down process according to the internal thermal states. The double-evaporator thermosiphon has operated successfully at steady-state operation under sub-atmospheric pressure. At the heat flow of 10.6 W, the total temperature difference of the thermosiphon was only 1.59 K and the temperature difference between the evaporators was 0.64 K. The temperature difference of two evaporators is attributed to the conductive thermal resistance of the adiabatic section between the evaporators. The method to reduce this temperature difference has been investigated and presented in this paper. The proper area selection of condenser, evaporator 1, and evaporator 2 was studied by using thermal resistance model to optimize the performance of a thermosiphon. The superior heat transfer characteristic of the double-evaporator thermosiphon without involving any cryogenic pump can be a great potential advantage for cooling HTS bulk modules that are separated vertically.

  16. Trapped field of 1.1 T without flux jumps in an MgB2 bulk during pulsed field magnetization using a split coil with a soft iron yoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, H.; Mochizuki, H.; Ainslie, M. D.; Naito, T.

    2016-08-01

    MgB2 superconducting bulks have promising potential as trapped field magnets. We have achieved a trapped field of B z = 1.1 T on a high-J c MgB2 bulk at 13 K without flux jumps by pulsed field magnetization (PFM) using a split-type coil with a soft iron yoke, which is a record-high trapped field by PFM for bulk MgB2 to date. The flux jumps, which frequently took place using a solenoid-type coil during PFM, were avoided by using the split-type coil, and the B z value was enhanced by the insertion of soft iron yoke. The flux dynamics and heat generation/propagation were analyzed during PFM using a numerical simulation, in which the magnetic flux intruded and attenuated slowly in the bulk and tended to align along the axial direction due to the presence of soft iron yoke. The advantages of the split-type coil and the simultaneous use of a soft iron yoke are discussed.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of AC losses in variable asymmetrical magnetic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranecky, S. T.; Watanabe, H.; Ogawa, J.; Oka, T.; Gölden, D.; Alff, L.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2017-08-01

    Measurements of AC losses in a HTS-tape placed in between two bulk magnetic shields of high permeability were performed by applying calorimetric techniques for various asymmetrical shielding arrangements. The experiment was supported by analytical calculations and finite-element simulations of the field and current distributions, based on the Bean model of the critical state. The simulated current and field profiles perfectly reproduce the analytic solutions known for certain shielding geometries. The evaluation of the consequent AC losses exhibits good agreement with measurements for the central position of the tape between the magnets but have increasing discrepancy when the tape is approaching the shields. This can be explained by the increasing contribution of the eddy currents and magnetic hysteresis losses in the conducting shields.

  18. Differences between two definitions of the critical current of HTS coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitel, Jozef

    2013-12-01

    Definition of the critical current of a coil made of anisotropic high temperature superconducting conductor is rather complicated and ambiguous, since the magnetic field generated across the winding can differ considerably in relation to both its magnitude and orientation. Two definitions of the critical current of such coils are discussed. The first definition, very often used in calculations to analyze the current carrying capacity, electric field and power dissipation of individual turns, represents an operating current at which an electric field of 1 μV cm-1 appears on one turn. The second definition represents an integral approach, and is used in experiments. This definition introduces the critical current of the coil as an operating current at which an average electric field Es, usually 0.1 μV cm-1, appears on coil terminals. As an example, the distribution of the critical current and electric field of individual turns in the winding of a BSCCO model coil was analyzed. Critical currents of the coil as a function of an external magnetic field parallel with the coil axis were calculated according to both definitions. The results show that the first definition, which characterizes the winding at the local level, is suitable for HTS coils either operating in self-field or in a low external field, because the differences between the critical currents and n-indices of individual turns are considerable. The second criterion is suitable for the HTS coils operating in high fields, i.e. like high field insert coils. The self-field of a high field insert coil is negligible if the external field is high. As a result, the critical currents of all turns are almost identical, and the anisotropy in Ic(B) characteristic plays practically no role. Rather unexpected behavior of the voltage-current characteristic of the model coil is predicted if an external field is applied.

  19. New Hits as Antagonists of GPR103 Identified by HTS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical data indicate that GPR103 receptor and its endogenous neuropeptides QRFP26 and QRFP43 are involved in appetite regulation. A high throughput screening (HTS) for small molecule GPR103 antagonists was performed with the clinical goal to target weight management by modulation of appetite. A high hit rate from the HTS and initial low confirmation with respect to functional versus affinity data challenged us to revise the established screening cascade. To secure high quality data while increasing throughput, the binding assay was optimized on quality to run at single concentration. This strategy enabled evaluation of a larger fraction of chemical clusters and singletons delivering 17 new compound classes for GPR103 antagonism. Representative compounds from three clusters are presented. One of the identified clusters was further investigated, and an initial structure–activity relationship study is reported. The most potent compound identified had a pIC50 of 7.9 with an improved ligand lipophilic efficiency. PMID:24900874

  20. HTS step-edge Josephson junction terahertz harmonic mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jia; Weily, Andrew R.; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Ting; Foley, Cathy P.; Guo, Yingjie Jay

    2017-02-01

    A high-temperature superconducting (HTS) terahertz (THz) frequency down-converter or mixer based on a thin-film ring-slot antenna coupled YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO)/MgO step-edge Josephson junction is reported. The frequency down-conversion was achieved using higher order harmonics of an applied lower frequency (19-40 GHz) local oscillator signal in the Josephson junction mixing with a THz signal of over 600 GHz, producing a 1-3 GHz intermediate frequency signal. Up to 31st order of harmonic mixing was obtained and the mixer operated stably at temperatures up to 77 K. The design details of the antenna, HTS Josephson junction mixer, the matching and isolation circuits, and the DC and RF performance evaluation are described in this paper.