Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.
The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.
Wang, Ji-Zhong; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhu, Cheng-Zhu; Peng, Shu-Chuan
In the present study, a combination of multiple molecular markers was used to improve the identification of pollution sources in sediment samples collected from Huaihe River, China. No significant spatial variation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal alkanes, n-alkanes) was observed, whereas, relatively high concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ28PAH) and 20 linear alkylbenzenes (Σ20LAB) in urban sediments and low concentrations of Σ28PAH and Σ20LAB in farm areas were determined. Overall, sediment samples collected from urban areas contained high concentration of Σ20LAB with low concentration of Σ28PAH which mostly originated from pyrolysis, while rural sediments had opposite trends, reflecting the significant input of domestic sewage in urban areas. Residual n-alkanes were mostly from natural sources with relatively low proportion of petrogenic input. For PAHs, the concentrations of diagentic perylene and pyrolytic PAHs from farm areas to urban areas tend to decrease and increase, respectively. Likely origins of pyrolytic PAHs were considered combustion of coal and petroleum related. In the village areas, pyrolytic PAHs were mostly contributed from coal and diesel combustion. Poor domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas caused low ratio of I/E. On the other hand, the results of total toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) equivalent reveal the ecological risk by PAHs was negligible in Huaihe River.
Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S
An approximately 59-year (1955-2014) sedimentary record of metal elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, and Fe) in a sediment core, collected from the Huaihe River, Huainan City, Anhui Province, China, was reconstructed by using (210)Pb geochronology. Copper, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn evaluated by enrichment factor (EF) indicated minor contamination due to water pollution accidents of the Huaihe River that occurred in 1990s and 2004. Lead presented the most severe pollution among the metals studied, especially during 1957-1974. The use of leaded petrol and atmospheric deposition of coal combustion flue gases could have contributed to Pb contamination. In spite of the general good quality (mean sediment pollution index (SPI) 35.69) of the sediment core evaluated by SPI based on the principal component analysis, worse sediment qualities in the upper section (<6 cm, 2004) were still observed, suggesting intensive human activities causing the increasing concentrations of metals in recent decades.
Yang, Mangen; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Chad Shouquan
Precipitation extremes play a key role in flooding risks over the Huaihe River Basin, which is important to understand their hydrological impacts. Based on observed daily precipitation and streamflow data from 1958 to 2009, eight precipitation indices and three streamflow indices were calculated for the study of hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the wet condition intensified in the summer wet season and the drought condition was getting worse in the autumn dry season in the later years of the past 50 years. The river basin had experienced higher heavy rainfall-related flooding risks in summer and more severe drought in autumn in the later of the period. The extreme precipitation events or consecutive heavy rain day events led to the substantial increases in streamflow extremes, which are the main causes of frequent floods in the Huaihe River Basin. The large inter-annual variation of precipitation anomalies in the upper and central Huaihe River Basin are the major contributor for the regional frequent floods and droughts.
Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Jingwen; Xie, Xingmei; Lu, Houquan
Drought assessment is important for developing measures to reduce agricultural vulnerability and thereby secure the livelihoods of those who depend on agriculture. This study uses four global ensemble weather prediction systems: the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the UK Met Office (UKMO), and the US National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in the THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) archive from 2006 to 2010. Based on results from the XXT (the first X denotes Xinanjiang, the second X denotes hybrid, and the T denotes TOPMODEL) distributed hydrological model, as well as soil moisture observations and digital elevation model (DEM) data, synthesized drought grades were established in the Huaihe River Basin of China. To filter out the impact of short-term fluctuations on observed soil moisture, a 30-day moving average was calculated. Use of the moving average significantly improves the correlation between observed soil moisture and simulated soil water deficit depth. Finally, a linear regression model describing the relationship between observed soil moisture and simulated soil water deficit depth was constructed. The deterministic regression coefficient was 0.5872, the correlation coefficient was 0.77, and the regression coefficient was -154.23. The trends in drought grades calculated using soil moisture and soil water deficit depth were found to be the same, and the grades agreed to within one level. Our findings highlight the importance of synthesizing drought grading when assessing drought using different soil moisture indicators in order to obtain a more comprehensive forecast of drought conditions.
Guo, Yue-Ting; Xu, Jian-Gang
Based on the statistical data of urbanization and eco-environment of 35 cities in the Huaihe River Basin of China in 2010, an index system of urbanization-eco-environment system was established by using fuzzy matter element theory, and the weight of each indicator was calculated by entropy method. The improved function of the coupling coordination degree of urbanization and eco-environment was constructed to measure this coupling coordination degree in the Huaihe River Basin. In 2010, the development level of urbanization subsystem in the Basin was lower than that of the eco-environment subsystem, and the integrated coordination index of urbanization and eco-environment was 0.186, indicating that there was a gap between the two types of indicators. The average coupling degree of urbanization and eco-environment was 0.475, indicating that the urbanization-eco-environment system was at antagonistic stage. There was a greater difference in the development level of urbanization subsystem, but a smaller difference in the development level of eco-environment subsystem among the cities. The average value of the coordination degree of all the cities was 0.706, indicating that the Huaihe River Basin was at high coordination coupling stage, and the integrated coherence and synergistic effect of urbanization and eco-environment construction in the Huaihe River Basin was higher.
Zong, Peishu; Wang, Huijun
This study evaluates the ability of the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) version 3 Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) in simulating the summer rainfall amount and distribution and large-scale circulation over the Huaihe River basin of China. We conducted the simulation for the period of 1982-2001 and the wet year of 2003 to test the ensemble simulation capacity of RegCM3. First, by comparing the simulated rainfall amount and distribution against the observations, it is found that RegCM3 can reproduce the rainfall pattern and its annual variations. In addition, the simulated spatial patterns of 850-hPa wind and specific humidity fields are close to the observations, although the wind speed and humidity values are larger. Finally, the ensemble simulation of RegCM3 for summer 2003 failed to capture the spatial distribution and underestimated the magnitude of the precipitation anomalies, and the reasons are analyzed.
Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S
A total of 211 water samples were collected from 53 key sampling points from 5-10th July 2013 at four different depths (0m, 2m, 4m, 8m) and at different sites in the Huaihe River, Anhui, China. These points monitored for 18 parameters (water temperature, pH, TN, TP, TOC, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, Mn, B, Fe, Al, Mg, and Ba). The spatial variability, contamination sources and health risk of trace elements as well as the river water quality were investigated. Our results were compared with national (CSEPA) and international (WHO, USEPA) drinking water guidelines, revealing that Zn, Cd and Pb were the dominant pollutants in the water body. Application of different multivariate statistical approaches, including correlation matrix and factor/principal component analysis (FA/PCA), to assess the origins of the elements in the Huaihe River, identified three source types that accounted for 79.31% of the total variance. Anthropogenic activities were considered to contribute much of the Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, and Mn via industrial waste, coal combustion, and vehicle exhaust; Ba, B, Cr and Cu were controlled by mixed anthropogenic and natural sources, and Mg, Fe and Al had natural origins from weathered rocks and crustal materials. Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify the 53 sample points into three groups of water pollution, high pollution, moderate pollution, and low pollution, reflecting influences from tributaries, power plants and vehicle exhaust, and agricultural activities, respectively. The results of the water quality index (WQI) indicate that water in the Huaihe River is heavily polluted by trace elements, so approximately 96% of the water in the Huaihe River is unsuitable for drinking. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient and index (HQ/HI) recommended by the USEPA suggests that Co, Cd and Pb in the river could cause non-carcinogenic harm to human health.
Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.
To investigate the agricultural land-use change on flood regime, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Dapoling station was selected as the case study site. Based on topography, land-use, hydrological and meteorological data in 1990s and 2010s, the improved distributed Xinanjiang model, with potential evapotranspiration being computed by coupling a dual-source evapotranspiration model with a simplified plant growth model, was adopted to simulate the daily and hourly rainfall-runoff processes over 1990s and 2010s, and then the effects of land-use change on flood volume, flood peak, occurring time of flood peak, the percentage of surface runoff component were investigated respectively. The results was interesting and indicated that impacts of land-use change on flood characteristics varied significantly with land-use types. The outputs could provide valuable references for flood risk management and water resources management in the Huaihe River basin.
Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guiqiu
Based on the monitoring data of 78 monitoring stations from 2003 to 2012, five key water quality indexes (biochemical oxygen demand: BOD5, permanganate index: CODMn, dissolved oxygen: DO, ammonium nitrogen: NH3-N, and total phosphorus: TP) were selected to analyze their temporal and spatial characteristics in the highly disturbed Huaihe River Basin via Mann-Kendall trend analysis and boxplot analysis. The temporal and spatial variations of water pollutant concentrations in the Huaihe River Basin were investigated and analyzed to provide a scientific basis for water pollution control, water environment protection, and ecological restoration. The results indicated that the Yinghe River, Quanhe River, Honghe River, Guohe River, and Baohe River were the most seriously polluted rivers, followed by Hongze Lake, Luoma Lake, Yishuhe River, and Nansi Lake. BOD5, CODMn, and NH3-N were the major pollution indexes, for which the monitoring stations reported that more than 40 % of the water quality concentrations exceeded the class IV level. There were 21, 50, 36, and 21 monitoring stations that recorded significantly decreasing trends for BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP, respectively, and 39 monitoring stations showed a significantly increasing trend for DO. Moreover, the water quality concentrations had a certain concentricity and volatility according to boxplot analysis for the 20 monitoring stations. The majority of monitoring stations recorded a large fluctuation for the monitoring indexes in 2003 and 2004, which indicated that the water quality concentrations were unstable. According to the seasonal variations of the water quality concentrations in the mainstream of Huaihe River, the monthly variation trends of the BOD5, CODMn, DO, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were basically consistent among the seven monitoring stations. The BOD5, CODMn, NH3-N, and TP concentrations were affected by the change of the stream discharge; changes in DO and NH3-N concentrations were influenced by
Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.
Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Z Index (ZIND), the Soil Moisture Index (SMI) with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI), the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.
Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin
Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.
Zhang, Lei; Qin, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiaqi; Sun, Chunqing; Mu, Yan; Gao, Jinliang; Guo, Wenfeng; An, Shikai; Lu, Chunhui
The sediments of the Huaibei Plain in semi-humid mid-eastern China represent valuable geological records with respect to eolian-fluvial interactions, depositional environments, and climate change in this region. Provenance and weathering conditions are often reconstructed using sedimentary geochemistry methods. In this study, an 8-m core from Huainan and a set of loess samples from northern and southern China were analyzed for major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs). Results were compared to determine the samples' provenance. The major, trace, rare earth elements contents, and grain size distribution were found to fluctuate widely in the 2-8 m section of the Huainan core and more narrowly closer to the surface (0-2 m). This suggests a provenance shift at a depth of 2 m. The TiO2/Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Th/Nb, La/Nb values and REE patterns in the upper core (0-2 m) are similar to those found in samples from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). These results suggest that the CLP in northern China is likely to be the primary origin of the upper part (0-2 m) of the Huainan core. Compared with CLP samples, the upper part of the Huainan core exhibits lower K2O/Al2O3 values and higher chemical alteration indices. This is indicative of the material's substantial weathering during transportation and re-deposition and implies that these sediments could reasonably be classified as typical recycled loess. The sediments may have been transported from the CLP to Huainan as Yellow River flood events, probably during the last deglaciation (∼13.2 ka) as a result of increased precipitation, along with glacier and snow melt in the upper reaches of the Yellow River catchment during this period. This suggests that the Yellow River may have migrated into the Huaihe River catchment much earlier than the earliest historical records (361 BCE) suggest. The implications of this would be profound with respect to Chinese history.
Luo, Dan; Pu, Yabing; Tian, Haoyuan; Cheng, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Xin; Mei, Surong
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with highly lipophilic properties, long half-lives, and persistence in the environment, are prevalent in the environment even though they have been banned for >30years. We aimed to investigate the current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from healthy pregnant women residing in the Huaihe River Basin, China, and examined the association between OCP levels and dietary habits and lifestyle factors. In this study, we measured the exposure levels of 17 OCPs in the umbilical cord blood from 999 healthy pregnant women; we also administered 1000 self-reported questionnaires regarding the general characteristics and dietary habits of those women. Our results showed that ρ,ρ'-DDE, ρ,ρ'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor, which had higher measured concentrations (2.01±1.89, 4.31±5.68, 7.29±8.74, 5.27±7.65, and 0.98±1.42ng/mL, respectively) and detection frequencies (99.69%, 100.00%, 81.79%, 75.00%, and 74.49%, respectively), were the predominant OCPs in cord blood, and the higher levels of DDTs, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were mainly due to recent use. In addition, most of the HCHs in cord blood were derived not only from historical use of technical HCH, but also from the additional use of lindane. In addition, we found that the education level of the pregnant women and monthly household income were positively correlated with OCP levels, particularly ρ,ρ'-DDE, aldrin, and dieldrin. Furthermore, the consumption of red meat (pork, beef, and lamb), fish, and bean products may be an important contributing factor to the increased concentrations of OCPs in cord blood, while the intake of poultry and pickles was negatively correlated with aldrin level. This study is the first to provide adequate data on current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from pregnant women in the Huaihe River Basin.
Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Giesy, John P; Lu, Yonglong
Twelve perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified in surface sediments from the Huaihe River, China, along which there are intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Concentrations of PFASs ranged from 0.06 to 0.46ng/g dry weight (dw), and concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.48 to 32.65ng/gdw. Compared with other areas in China, concentrations of PFASs were lesser than the national mean value, while concentrations of OCPs were moderate. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) ranged from n.d. (not detected) to 0.03 and n.d. to 0.10ng/gdw, respectively. Among the three groups of OCPs, mean concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 5.62±4.35, 2.43±3.12 and 1.55±4.17ng/gdw, respectively. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs decreased from upstream to downstream along the mainstream of the Huaihe River. When compared to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and HCB would pose adverse biological effects. In general, contamination by PFASs in the upstream of the Huaihe River was more severe than that in the downstream, which was mainly caused by interception from dams, locks and industrial emissions. And OCPs from tributaries, especially the Yinghe River and Wohe River, were higher than those from Huaihe mainstream, and primarily came from historical inputs.
Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin
The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.
Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing
The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied.
Zhou, Liang; Xu, Jian-Gang; Sun, Dong-Qi; Ni, Tian-Hua
Agricultural non-point source pollution is of importance in river deterioration. Thus identifying and concentrated controlling the key source-areas are the most effective approaches for non-point source pollution control. This study adopts inventory method to analysis four kinds of pollution sources and their emissions intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in 173 counties (cities, districts) in Huaihe River Basin. The four pollution sources include livestock breeding, rural life, farmland cultivation, aquacultures. The paper mainly addresses identification of non-point polluted sensitivity areas, key pollution sources and its spatial distribution characteristics through cluster, sensitivity evaluation and spatial analysis. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. The results show that: the COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural non-point sources were 206.74 x 10(4) t, 66.49 x 10(4) t, 8.74 x 10(4) t separately in Huaihe River Basin in 2009; the emission intensity were 7.69, 2.47, 0.32 t.hm-2; the proportions of COD, TN, TP emissions were 73%, 24%, 3%. The paper achieves that: the major pollution source of COD, TN and TP was livestock breeding and rural life; the sensitivity areas and priority pollution control areas among the river basin of non-point source pollution are some sub-basins of the upper branches in Huaihe River, such as Shahe River, Yinghe River, Beiru River, Jialu River and Qingyi River; livestock breeding is the key pollution source in the priority pollution control areas. Finally, the paper concludes that pollution type of rural life has the highest pollution contribution rate, while comprehensive pollution is one type which is hard to control.
Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Xiaoman
Satellite-gauge quantitative precipitation estimate (QPE) products may reduce the errors in near real-time satellite precipitation estimates by combining rain gauge data, which provides great potential to hydrometeorological applications. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate four of the latest satellite-gauge QPEs, including NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V7 product, NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing technique (CMORPH) bias-corrected product (CMORPH CRT), CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product (CMORPH BLD) and CMORPH satellite-gauge merged product developed at the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) (CMORPH CMA). These four satellite-gauge QPEs are statistically evaluated over the Huaihe River basin during 2003-2012 and applied into the distributed Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to assess hydrologic utilities. Compared to the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) newly developed at CMA/NMIC, the four satellite-gauge QPEs generally depict the spatial distribution well, with the underestimation in the southern mountains and overestimation in the northern plain of the Huaihe River basin. Specifically, both TRMM and CMORPH CRT adopt simple gauge adjustment algorithms and exhibit relatively poor performance, with evidently deteriorated quality in winter. In contrast, the probability density function-optimal interpolation (PDF-OI) gauge adjustment procedure has been applied in CMORPH BLD and CMORPH CMA, resulting in higher quality and more stable performance. CMORPH CMA further benefits from a merged dense gauge observation network and outperforms the other QPEs with significant improvements in rainfall amount and spatial/temporal distributions. Due to the insufficient gauge observations in the merging process, CMORPH BLD features the similar error characteristics of CMORPH CRT with a positive bias of light precipitation and a negative
Shao, Yuehong; Wu, Junmei; Li, Min
The quantile estimates and spatiotemporal consistency of extreme precipitation are studied by regional linear frequency analysis for Huaihe River basin in China. Firstly, the study area can be categorized into six homogeneous regions by using cluster analysis, heterogeneity measure, and discordancy measure. In the next step, we determine the optimum distribution for each homogeneous region by using two criteria of Monte Carlo simulations and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the sample L-moments. A diagram of L-moments ratio is used to further judge and validate the optimum distribution. The generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), and generalized logistic (GLO) for 24-h duration are determined to be the more appropriate distribution based on the two criteria, L-moments ratio plot, and the tail thickness of curve in adjacent regions. A summary assessment can provide the more reasonable distribution, which avoids arbitrary results from single test. An important practical element of this study that was missing from previous works is the quantile spatiotemporal consistency analysis, which helps identify non-monotonicity among quantiles at different durations and reduces the gradient of estimates in the adjacent regions. Abnormality and spatial discontinuation can be removed by distributing the surplus of the ratio and twice different interpolation. A complete set of spatiotemporal consistent quantile estimates for various duration (24 h, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days) and return periods (from 2 to 1000 years) can be obtained by using the abovementioned method in the study area, which are in the agreement with the observed precipitation extremes. It will provide important basis for hydrometeorological research, which is of significant scientific and practical merit.
Luo, Yali; Qian, Weimiao; Gong, Yu; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Da-Lin
The 3D radar reflectivity produced by a mosaic software system, with measurements from 29 operational weather radars in the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basins (YRHRB) during the mei-yu season of 2007, is compared to coincident TRMM PR observations in order to evaluate the value of the ground-based radar reflectivity mosaic in characterizing the 3D structures of mei-yu precipitation. Results show reasonable agreement in the composite radar reflectivity between the two datasets, with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 and a mean bias of -1 dB. The radar mosaic data at constant altitudes are reasonably consistent with the TRMM PR observations in the height range of 2-5 km, revealing essentially the same spatial distribution of radar echo and nearly identical histograms of reflectivity. However, at altitudes above 5 km, the mosaic data overestimate reflectivity and have slower decreasing rates with height compared to the TRMM PR observations. The areas of convective and stratiform precipitation, based on the mosaic reflectivity distribution at 3-km altitude, are highly correlated with the corresponding regions in the TRMM products, with correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.97 and mean relative differences of -7.9% and -2.5%, respectively. Finally, the usefulness of the mosaic reflectivity at 3-km altitude at 6-min intervals is illustrated using a mesoscale convective system that occurred over the YRHRB.
Xuan, Shouli; Zhang, Qingyun; Sun, Shuqing
In this study, the interannual and interdecadal relationship between midsummer Yangtze River-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) rainfall and the position of the East Asia westerly jet (EAWJ) were investigated. The midsummer YHRV rainfall was found to significantly increase after the 1980s. Moreover, the location of the EAWJ was found abnormally south of the climatic mean during 1980-2008 (ID2) compared to 1951-1979 (ID1). During ID2, associated with the southward movement of the EAWJ, an anomalous upper-level convergence occurred over middle-high latitudes (35°-55°N) and divergence occurred over lower latitudes (˜30°N) of East Asia. Correspondingly, anomalous descending and ascending motion was observed in middle-high and lower latitudes along 90°-130°E, respectively, favoring more precipitation over YHRV. On an interannual time scale, the EAWJ and YHRV rainfall exhibited similar relationships during the two periods. When the EAWJ was centered abnormally southward, rainfall over YHRV tended to increase. However, EAWJrelated circulations were significantly different during the two periods. During ID1, the circulation of the southward-moving EAWJ exhibited alternating positive-negative-positive distributions from low to middle-high latitudes along the East Asian coast; the most significant anomaly appeared west of the Okhotsk Sea. However, during ID2 the EAWJ was more closely correlated with the tropical and subtropical circulations. Significant differences between ID1 and ID2 were also recorded sea surface temperatures (SSTs). During ID1, the EAWJ was influenced by the extratropical SST over the northern Pacific; however, the EAWJ was more significantly affected by the SST of the tropical western Pacific during ID2.
Li, Laifang; Li, Wenhong; Tang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Yimin
Warm season heavy rainfall events over the Huaihe River Valley (HRV) of China are amongst the top causes of agriculture and economic loss in this region. Thus, there is a pressing need for accurate seasonal prediction of HRV heavy rainfall events. This study improves the seasonal prediction of HRV heavy rainfall by implementing a novel rainfall framework, which overcomes the limitation of traditional probability models and advances the statistical inference on HRV heavy rainfall events. The framework is built on a three-cluster Normal mixture model, whose distribution parameters are sampled using Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The three rainfall clusters reflect probability behaviors of light, moderate, and heavy rainfall, respectively. Our analysis indicates that heavy rainfall events make the largest contribution to the total amount of seasonal precipitation. Furthermore, the interannual variation of summer precipitation is attributable to the variation of heavy rainfall frequency over the HRV. The heavy rainfall frequency, in turn, is influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the north Indian Ocean, equatorial western Pacific, and the tropical Atlantic. The tropical SSTAs modulate the HRV heavy rainfall events by influencing atmospheric circulation favorable for the onset and maintenance of heavy rainfall events. Occurring 5 months prior to the summer season, these tropical SSTAs provide potential sources of prediction skill for heavy rainfall events over the HRV. Using these preceding SSTA signals, we show that the support vector machine algorithm can predict HRV heavy rainfall satisfactorily. The improved prediction skill has important implication for the nation's disaster early warning system.
Zhang, Yuanchun; Sun, Jianhua; Fu, Shenming
Two types of persistent heavy rainfall events (PHREs) over the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Basin were determined in a recent statistical study: type A, whose precipitation is mainly located to the south of the Yangtze River; and type B, whose precipitation is mainly located to the north of the river. The present study investigated these two PHRE types using a newly derived set of energy equations to show the scale interaction and main energy paths contributing to the persistence of the precipitation. The main results were as follows. The available potential energy (APE) and kinetic energy (KE) associated with both PHRE types generally increased upward in the troposphere, with the energy of the type-A PHREs stronger than that of the type-B PHREs (except for in the middle troposphere). There were two main common and universal energy paths of the two PHRE types: (1) the baroclinic energy conversion from APE to KE was the dominant energy source for the evolution of large-scale background circulations; and (2) the downscaled energy cascade processes of KE and APE were vital for sustaining the eddy flow, which directly caused the PHREs. The significant differences between the two PHRE types mainly appeared in the lower troposphere, where the baroclinic energy conversion associated with the eddy flow in type-A PHREs was from KE to APE, which reduced the intensity of the precipitation-related eddy flow; whereas, the conversion in type-B PHREs was from APE to KE, which enhanced the eddy flow.
Wu, Dan; Jiang, Zhihong; Ma, Tingting
By using observational daily precipitation data over the Yangtze-Huaihe River basin, ERA-40 data, and the data from eight CMIP5 climate models, statistical downscaling models are constructed based on BP-CCA (combination of empirical orthogonal function and canonical correlation analysis) to project future changes of precipitation. The results show that the absolute values of domain-averaged precipitation relative errors of most models are reduced from 8%-46% to 1%-7% after statistical downscaling. The spatial correlations are all improved from less than 0.40 to more than 0.60. As a result of the statistical downscaling multimodel ensemble (SDMME), the relative error is improved from-15.8% to-1.3%, and the spatial correlation increases significantly from 0.46 to 0.88. These results demonstrate that the simulation skill of SDMME is relatively better than that of the multimodel ensemble (MME) and the downscaling of most individual models. The projections of SDMME reveal that under the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 4.5 scenario, the projected domain-averaged precipitation changes for the early (2016-2035), middle (2046-2065), and late (2081-2100) 21st century are-1.8%, 6.1%, and 9.9%, respectively. For the early period, the increasing trends of precipitation in the western region are relatively weak, while the precipitation in the east shows a decreasing trend. Furthermore, the reliability of the projected changes over the area east of 115 ◦ E is higher than that in the west. The stations with significant increasing trends are primarily located over the western region in both the middle and late periods, with larger magnitude for the latter. Stations with high reliability mainly appear in the region north of 28.5 ◦ N for both periods.
Qin, Yujing; Lu, Chuhan; Li, Liping
Based on the recognition framework of the outermost closed contours of cyclones, an automated identification algorithm capable of identifying the multi-scale cyclones that occur during spring in the Changjiang River-Huaihe River valleys (CHV) were developed. We studied the characteristics of the multi-scale cyclone activity that affects CHV and its relationship with rainfall during spring since 1979. The results indicated that the automated identification algorithm for cyclones proposed in this paper could intuitively identify multi-scale cyclones that affect CHV. The algorithm allows for effectively describing the shape and coverage area of the closed contours around the periphery of cyclones. We found that, compared to the meso- and sub-synoptic scale cyclone activities, the synoptic-scale cyclone activity showed more intimate correlation with the overall activity intensity of multi-scale CHV cyclones during spring. However, the frequency of occurrence of sub-synoptic scale cyclones was the highest, and their effect on changes in CHV cyclone activity could not be ignored. Based on the area of impact and the depth of the cyclones, the sub-synoptic scale, synoptic scale and comprehensive cyclone intensity indices were further defined, which showed a positive correlation with rainfall in CHV during spring. Additionally, the comprehensive cyclone intensity index was a good indicator of strong rainfall events.
Zhang, Qian Qian; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Gui
Steroids are excreted from humans and animals and discharged with wastewaters into the environment, resulting in potential adverse effects on organisms. Based on the excretion rates from different groups of humans and animals, the emissions of seven steroids (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), testosterone (T), androsterone (A), progesterone (P), and cortisol (C)) were comprehensively estimated in 58 river basins of whole China, and their multimedia fate was simulated by using a level III fugacity multimedia model. The results showed that higher emission densities for the steroids were found in the river basins of east China than in west China. This distribution was found to be generally similar to the distribution of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) across China. E3, A, and P displayed higher emission densities than the other steroids in most of the river basins. The total excretion of steroids by humans and animals in China was estimated to be 3069 t/yr. The excretion of steroids from animals was two times larger than that from humans. After various treatments, the total emission of steroids was reduced to 2486 t/yr, of which more than 80% was discharged into the water compartment. The predicted concentrations in water were within an order of magnitude of the measured concentrations available in the literature. Owing to wastewater irrigation, more steroid mass loadings in agricultural soil were found in the basins of Haihe River and Huaihe River in comparison with the other river basins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of seven steroids in the river basins of China.
Li, Yiqing; Chen, Yaning; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xia, Yang
Wetlands are particularly important for conserving China's biodiversity but riparian wetlands in the Tarim River basin in western China have been reduced by 46% during the last 3 decades. The world's largest habitat for Populus euphratica, which is in the Tarim River basin, significantly shrank. To protect and restore the deteriorated ecosystems along the Tarim River and its associated wetlands, China's government initiated a multimillion dollar river restoration project to release water from upper dams to the dried-up lower reaches of the Tarim River starting in 2000. We monitored the responses of groundwater and vegetation to water recharge in the lower reaches of the river from 2000 to 2006 by establishing nine 1000-m-long transects perpendicular to the river at intervals of 20-45 km along the 320-km river course below the Daxihaizi Reservoir, the source of water conveyance, to Lake Taitema, the terminus of the Tarim River. Water recharges from the Daxihaizi Reservoir to the lower reaches of the Tarim River significantly increased groundwater levels and vegetation coverage at all monitoring sites along the river. The mean canopy size of the endangered plant species P. euphratica doubled after 6 years of water recharge. Some rare migrating birds returned to rest on the restored wetlands in summer along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The biggest challenge facing decision makers, however, is to balance water allocation and water rights between agricultural and natural ecosystems in a sustainable way. A large number of inhabitants in the Tarim Basin depend on these limited water resources for a living. At the same time, the endangered ecosystems need to be protected. Given the ecological, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical realities in the Tarim Basin, adaptive water policies and strategies are needed for water allocation in these areas of limited water resources.
Yuan, Zhe; Yan, Deng-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Yin, Jun; Yuan, Yong
Drought is a kind of extreme hydrological event. With the penetration of climate change impact, severity, areal extent, and frequency of drought are increasing, especially in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, which plays a key role in China's agriculture production. Analyzing the regional temporal and spatial variability in the context of climate change could provide a basis for the evasion of disasters and risk. The maximum number of consecutive dry days was selected as the indicator to analyze the decadal variability of drought severity, areal extent, and spatial variability of drought frequency in different seasons in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Based on these, temporal and spatial variability of two kinds of special extreme events—consecutive drought and heavy rain after drought—were studied. The results showed that: (1) Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin mainly experienced moderate drought and severe drought. Moderate drought mainly occurs in autumn. High-frequency region of moderate drought is located in the plain of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin, and its area is approximately 22.7 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Severe drought often occurs in spring with high-frequency region in the upstream of the Yellow River. The area of this high-frequency region is about 6 % of Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. (2) During 1961~2011, the areal extent of summer severe drought, autumn severe drought, and extreme drought all showed increasing trend, in which the increasing trend of the autumn severe drought area in the Yellow River has reached the significance level α = 0.05. (3) Consecutive drought of several seasons often took place in Ningxia plain and Hetao plain which lie in the northwest of the Yellow River Basin. In the recent 20 years, consecutive drought from spring to summer and consecutive drought from summer to autumn occurred frequently. Drought-flood abrupt alternation such as heavy rain after drought often occurred in summer temporally and Huaihe River Basin spatially.
Zhang, Junhong; Hou, Xin; Xu, Yiping
At present, China's urban river is widespread with serious pollution, poor water quality, poor water mobility and other issues. In this article, we analyzed the root causes of urban river water environment problems systematically, then puts forward the ways to solve the problems, which including implement the "river length system", strengthen the control of pollution sources, persist in ecological concepts, establish long-term mechanism and strengthen publicity and education.
Qin, Peihua; Xie, Zhenghui
To detect the frequency and intensity of precipitation extremes in China for the middle 21st century, simulations were conducted with the regional climate model RegCM4 forced by the global climate model GFDL_ESM2M under the middle emission scenario (RCP4.5). Compared with observed precipitation extremes for the reference period from 1982 to 2001, RegCM4 generally performed better in most river basins of China relative to GFDL. In the future period 2032-2051, more wet extremes will occur relative to the present period in most study areas, especially in southeast China while significantly less dry extremes will occur in arid and semiarid areas in northwest China. In contrast, areas in northwest China showed an increase in the trend of dry extremes (CDD) and a decrease in the trend of wet extremes (R95p and Rx5day), which might result in more drought in the future. Finally, we discuss in detail the possible reason of these processes, such as zonal wind, vertical wind, and water vapor. In the Huaihe river basin (HU), reduced south winds in summer (June-August) and a decrease of the upward vertical p velocity cause less future precipitation and might lead to changes of extreme events. We also completed correlation analysis between the precipitation extreme indices and the climate factors and found that the precipitation extremes were more sensitive to the annual and seasonal mean precipitation, total water vapor, and upward vertical wind relative to the geopotential height and 2 m temperature over most river basins in China. Perhaps the changes of some wet extremes could be verified partly through changes of annual precipitation due to their high consistence.
Wang, Hai-gang; Jin, Zheng-yao; Xie, Zhi; Fan, An-chuan; Yan, Li-feng; Zhu, Bing-quan; Wang, Ji-huai
The unearthing of a large number of red-yellow colored stones in Yuhui Site, Bengbu city, Anhui province of China, which was the only site of Longshan culture appointed by "Origin of the Chinese Civilization Project" in the Huaihe River basin, has drawn a widespread attention in archaeology. The present research was undertaken to examine elements, mineral composition and thermal history of one red-yellow color stone in different positions, classified according to specialized colors, by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and thermoluminescence (TL). The results show that the main body of the color stone is limonite with a large amount of quartz inclusion. The yellow substances on the surface layer of the color stone were identified as goethite (alpha-FeOOH), and the red ones as red ochre (alpha-Fe2O3+clay+silica). The internal yellow brown substances inside the stone are mainly aphanitic goethite with a number of chromites and manganese dioxide, and also with small quantity of barite and bismuth. And the color stones are without historical firing treatment. These kinds of special polymetallic ores with unique nature and complex geologic history, which were unearthed in the late neolithic site with large numbers, may be closely related to some kind of primitive religious beliefs and special sacrificial practices.
Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit
Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria.
Pan, Z.; Ruan, X.
In the past 50 years, global climate change and increasingly extensive human activities have greatly altered the water cycle, inducing a series of environmental problems in Huaihe basin. The paper aims at examining the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of runoff, forecasting future trends and offering some meaningful and constructive suggestions for rational management and allocation of water resources in Huaihe basin. On the basis of the streamflow observed at 20 hydrological stations of the nine rivers belong to Huaihe basin for the period 1956-2008, the long-term monotonic trend and abrupt changes in climate change and human activities have been investigated. The Mann-Kendall statistic test is a rank-based, non-parametric approach and has been widely used to estimate the significance of long-term trends in the streamflow time series. So, the Mann-Kendall trend test and R/S method were applied to study changes in annual and seasonal streamflow. The linear regression was compared with the results obtained by using the Mann-Kendall trend test. The abrupt changes have been investigated in terms of a 5 year moving averaged annual series, using the moving t-test (MTT) method. Results suggested that the annual runoff showed a significantly decreasing trend, and more prominent at the lower reaches than that at the upper reaches over the past 50 years. The overall picture was that trends of decreased streamflow dominate annual values and the spring and autumn seasons, and trends identified in summer and winter flows were increasing. And then, the decreasing trend of runoff would be more significant in the future. The sharp points of runoff were found to be in the 1970s. The characteristics of annual runoff in the Huaihe basin were predominantly affected by the uncertainty of river volume in the headstream and increasingly extensive human activities at the headstream and mainstream as well as climate change. For the sake of sustainable social and economic
Yu, Qian; Chen, Yongcan; Liu, Zhaowei; Zhu, Dejun; van de Giesen, Nick
Due to the fact that the Dianchi Lake is a hypereutrophic lake, we assume it is a potential source of cyanobacteria seed contributing to harmful algal blooms in the upper reach of the Tanglangchuan River (China). However, cyanobacteria, unlikely to survive in the short-retention-time river, are possibly replaced by other fast-growing algae along the river. To determine longitudinal changes of phytoplankton structures from Dianchi Lake to downstream Tanglangchuan River, samplings were carried out in June and September 2013 at 7 different stations. Among these stations, two of them are located in the mouth of Dianchi Lake (D1~D2) while the remaining five are along the main stream of the Tanglangchuan River (T1~T5). Then phytoplankton species were defined. We found that in June cyanobacteria dominated with more than 95% of the total cells in D1 and D2. The cyanobacteria sustained a long distance from T1 to T4 with a clear dominance of the total cells from 85.6% to 90.4%. However, in the last station (T5) which is located about 100km downstream the mouth of the Dianchi Lake, chlorophytes and bacillariophytes took the place of cyanobacteria and dominated (56.3% of the cells were chlorophytes and 27.1% were bacillariophytes). In autumn, the cyanobacteria dominated from D1 to T5 but the percentage and biomass of the cyanobacteria decreased along the river. The dominance of the cyanobacteria in the upper reach of the river indicates that the Dianchi Lake provides the cyanobacteria seed to the downstream river. Additionally, the transition of the algae dominance in the lower reach suggests that longitudinal changes in phytoplankton composition do exist. In view of the high concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, changes of flow velocity and residence time should be key factors causing spatial succession.
Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding
With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.
Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan
In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers.
Liu, Ning; Ni, Tianhua; Xia, Jing; Dai, Mingzhong; He, Chunyin; Lu, Genfa
In this study, we investigated the levels of eight metallic elements in source water of 40 tap water treatment plants (TWTPs) located along Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Huaihe River in the section of Jiangsu Province, China during 2007-2009 and assessed the non-carcinogenic risks induced by the metals. Among the metals, Fe had the highest concentration (121.5 μg L( - 1)) and Pb contributed most (32.4%) to the average hazard index (HI) of 40 TWTPs, followed by Cd (24.7%) and Cr (21.6%). The average concentration of each metal was below the permissible limit of China and USA except for Pb. Both hazard quotients of individual metals and HI of total non-carcinogenic risk in each TWTP were lower than 1.0, suggesting that these pollutants posed negligible hazards to public health of local residents. Temporal and spatial comparisons showed that high HIs occurred more frequently in low water seasons, and the three TWTPs located along Huaihe River (Dongtai, Jinhu and Yishuichang) had relatively higher HIs.
Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu
We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10⁴ km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10⁴ km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.
Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu
We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628
To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and lo...
Wang, Lixue; Ye, Xueyan; Du, Xinqiang
The Second Songhua River is the biggest river with the most economic value in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, water resources and water environment problem is getting prominent, including surface water pollution and over exploitation of groundwater resources, etc. By means of bank filtration, the Second Songhua River basin might realize the combined utilization of regional groundwater and surface water, and thus has important significance for the guarantee of water demand for industrial and agricultural production planning in the basin. The following steps were adopted to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration nearby the Scond Songhua River : Firstly, in order to focus on the most possible area, the evaluation area was divided based on the aspects of natural geographical conditions and hydraulic connection extent between river water and groundwater. Second, the main suitability indexes including water quantity, water quality, interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resource, and nine sub-indexes including hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, river runoff, the status of groundwater quality, the status of surface water quality, groundwater hydraulic gradient, possible influence zone width of surface water under the condition of groundwater exploitation, permeability of riverbed layer and groundwater depth were proposed to establish an evaluation index system for the suitability of river bank filtration. Thirdly, Combined with the natural geography, geology and hydrogeology conditions of the Second Songhua River basin, the ArcGIS technology is used to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration in the study area is divided into five grades. The evaluation index system and evaluation method established in this article are applicable to the Second Songhua
Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui
The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.
Zhao, Junhu; Yang, Liu; Gu, Bohui; Yang, Jie; Feng, Guolin
The Eurasian teleconnection pattern (EU) is an important low-frequency pattern with well-known impacts on climate anomalies in Eurasia. The difference of low-level v-winds in several regions in the Eurasian mid-high latitudes is defined as the EU index (EUIV). In this study, the relationship between the winter EUIV and precipitation in the following summer over China is investigated. Results show that there is a significant positive (negative) correlation between the winter EUIV and the following summer precipitation over North China (the Yangtze River-Huaihe River basins). Meanwhile, an interdecadal variability exists in the interannual relationship, and the correlation has become significantly enhanced since the early 1980s. Thus, the proposed EUIV may have implications for the prediction of summer precipitation anomalies over China. In positive winter EUIV years, three cyclonic circulation anomalies are observed—over the Ural Mountains, the Okhotsk Sea, and the subtropical western North Pacific. That is, the Ural blocking and Okhotsk blocking are inactive, zonal circulation prevails in the mid-high latitudes, and the western Pacific subtropical high tends to be weaker and locates to the north of its normal position in the following summer. This leads to above-normal moisture penetrating into the northern part of East China, and significant positive (negative) precipitation anomalies over North China (the Yangtze River-Huaihe River basins), and vice versa. Further examination shows that the SST anomalies over the Northwest Pacific and subtropical central North Pacific may both contribute to the formation of EUIV-related circulation anomalies over the western North Pacific.
Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus
Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water
Kuang, Cuiping; Chen, Wei; Gu, Jie; Su, Tsung-Chow; Song, Hongling; Ma, Yue; Dong, Zhichao
Sea level changes in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) as a result of river discharge are investigated based on the monthly averaged river discharge from 1950 to 2011 at the Datong station. Quantification of the sea level contribution is made by model computed results and the sea level rates reported by the China Sea Level Bulletin (CSLB). The coastal modeling tool, MIKE21, is used to establish a depth-averaged hydrodynamic model covering the YRE and Hangzhou Bay. The model is validated with the measured data. Multi-year monthly river discharges are statistically calculated based on the monthly river discharges at Datong station from 1950 to 2011. The four characteristic discharges (frequency of 75%, 50% and 25%, and multi-year monthly) and month-averaged river discharge from 1950 to 2011 are used to study the seasonal and long-term changes of sea level. The computed sea level at the Dajishan and Lvsi stations are used to study the multi-time scale structure of periodic variation in different time scale of river discharge series. The results reveal that (1) the sea level rises as the river discharge increases, and its amplification decreases from upstream to the offshore. (2) The sea level amplification on the south coast is greater than that on the north coast. When river discharge increases by 20,000 m3/s, the sea level will increase by 0.005-0.010 m in most of Hangzhou Bay. (3) The sea level at the Dajishan station, influenced by river discharge, increased 0.178 mm/y from 1980 to 2011. Correspondingly, the sea level rose at a rate of 2.6-3.0 mm/y during the same period. These values were provided by the CSLB. The increase in sea level (1980-2011) at the Dajishan station caused by river discharge is 6.8-8.9% of the total increase in sea level. (4) The 19-20 year dominant nodal cycle of sea level at the Dajishan and Lvsi stations is in accord with 18.6 year nodal cycle of main tidal constituents on Chinese coasts. It implies that the sea-level change period on the
Disse, M.; Keilholz, P.; Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.
Within the Taklimakan Desert of Northwestern China, an area renowned for its extreme climate and vulnerable ecosystems, lies one of the largest inland rivers in the world, the Tarim River. Because the Tarim River is located in a remote area from the oceans, rainfall is extremely rare (less than 50 mm per year) but potential evaporation is high (3000 mm). Thus, the major source of water discharge comes from snowmelt and glacier-melt in the mountains. Though the water discharge into the Tarim River has experienced an increase over the past ten years, global climate change forecasts predict this water supply to decline within the century. The Tarim River is the major source of water in Northwestern China, and has become the hub of many economic activities related to agriculture and urban life. Over the past 50 years increased activity in the area has led to a severe decline in river flow. Both human and natural ecosystems have been impacted by water diversions. Since rainfall is rare, the majority of vegetation in this area depends solely on groundwater for survival, and plants are experiencing stress caused by decreasing groundwater levels. Recently nearby cities have experienced severe dust storms caused by the shrinking of the vegetative region along the river. SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases) is a bundle project between Germany and China working to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions (ESF) and ecosystem services (ESS). In a transdisciplinary research process, SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. SuMaRiO is developing tools to work with Chinese decision makers to implement sustainable land management strategies. In addition, research is being conducted to estimate climate change impacts, floodplain biodiversity, and water runoff characteristics. The overarching goal of SuMaRiO is to support oasis management along
Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui
Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme.
Zhao, Yan; Wei, Yongping; Li, Shoubo; Wu, Bingfang
Understanding the oasis ecosystem responses to upstream regulation is a challenge for catchment management in the context of ecological restoration. This empirical study aimed to understand how oasis ecosystems, including water, natural vegetation and cultivated land, responded to the implementation of the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP) in the Heihe River in China. The annual Landsat images from 1987 to 2015 were firstly used to characterize the spatial extent, frequency index and fractional coverage (for vegetation only) of these three oasis ecosystems and their relationships with hydrological (river discharge) and climatic variables (regional temperature and precipitation) were explored with linear regression models. The results show that river regulation of the middle reaches identified by the discharge allocation to the downstream basin experiences three stages, namely decreasing inflow (1987-1999), increasing inflow (2000-2007) and relative stable inflow (2008-2015). Both the current and previous years' combined inflow determines the surface area of the terminal lake (R2 = 0.841). Temperature has the most significant role in determining broad vegetation distribution, whereas hydrological variables had a significant effect only in near-river-channel regions. Agricultural development since the execution of the EWDP might have curtailed further vegetation recovery. These findings are important for the catchment managers' decisions about future water allocation plans.
Xie, Yueqing; Cook, Peter; Shanafield, Margaret; Simmons, Craig; Zheng, Chunmiao
Reliable estimation of river-aquifer exchange flux is critical to the conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater, especially in the arid and semiarid regions where potential evapotranspiration is much higher than precipitation. A number of natural tracer methods are available to estimate river-aquifer exchange flux at different spatial scales. However, these methods have primarily been applied to rivers with relatively low flow rates (mostly less than 5 m3 s-1). In this study, several natural tracers including heat, radon-222 and electrical conductivity were used to quantify river-aquifer exchange flux at both point and regional scales in the Heihe River, northwest China with a large flow rate (63 m3 s-1). These tracers were measured both on vertical riverbed profiles and on longitudinal river samples. Results show that the radon-222 profile method can estimate a narrower range of point-scale river-aquifer flux than the temperature profile method. However, three vertical radon-222 profiles failed to estimate the upper bounds of plausible flux ranges. Results also show that when quantifying regional-scale river-aquifer exchange flux, the river chemistry method constrained the flux (5.20 - 10.39 m2 d-1) better than the river temperature method (-100 - 100 m2 d-1). The river chemistry method also identified spatial variation in the flux, whereas the river temperature method did not have sufficient resolution. Overall, for quantifying river-aquifer exchange flux in a large river such as the Heihe River, both the temperature profile method and the radon-222 profile method provide useful complementary information at the point scale to complement each other, whereas the river chemistry method is recommended over the river temperature method at the regional scale.
Liu, C.; Lang, Y.; Tian, L.; Ding, H.; Strauss, H.; Zhao, Z.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Hu, J.
Sulfur is widely distributed in the environment by volcanism, volatile emissions, precipitation, acid mine drainage and anthropogenic activity. Since the industrial revolution, the atmospheric sulfur cycle has been dominated by anthropogenic sources. Combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels release large quantities of sulfur dioxide into Earth's atmosphere annually. The cycling of sulfur, among those of many elements, is seriously disturbed by human activities at the earth's surface. Therefore, it is important to obtain a better understanding of sources and cycling processes of sulfur in river basins. For this purpose, we have measured the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate and its concentration for Changjiang (Yangtze River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Liaohe (Liao River), and Songhuajiang (Songhua River) in China. The sulfate fluxes of the major rivers in southern China are significantly larger as compared with the rivers in northern China. Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34S) of sulfate in the rivers do not show a variation trend from southern to northern China. The sulfate δ34S values are 4.3‰~9.8‰ for Changjiang, 5.0‰~10.0‰ for most of river waters of Huanghe, and 2.0‰~27.0‰ for Songhuajiang. For Zhujiang (Pearl River), three sulfate δ34S values are from 1.0‰~6.9‰. The coal produced in southern China is generally of lower δ34S values as compared with that in northern China. The distributions of the sulfate δ34S values of the river waters of are generally lower in southern China, showing the contribution of atmospheric deposition of sulfur into the river water. Three main sources, atmospheric deposition (mostly anthropogenic), dissolution of sulfate evaporate, oxidation of sulfide minerals and/or sulfur-containing organic matter in soil, have been recognized for the sulfate in the rivers. Relative contributions of the different sulfur sources into the sulfate of the rivers are different, suggesting that sulfur cycling in the different
Shan, Baoqing; Ding, Yuekui; Zhao, Yu
The river ecosystem in the Hai River Basin (HRB), an important economic region in China, is seriously degraded. With the aim of river restoration in the HRB, we developed a method to assess the river's ecological status and conducted a preliminary application of the method. The established method was a predictive model, which used macroinvertebrates as indicator organisms. The river's ecological status was determined by calculating the ratio of observed to expected values (O/E). The method included ecoregionalization according to natural factors, and the selection of reference sites based on combinations of habitat quality and macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate taxa included Insecta, Crustacea, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, with 39 families and 95 genera identified in the HRB. The HRB communities were dominated by pollution tolerant taxa, such as Lymnaeidae, Chironomus, Limnodrilus, Glyptotendipes, and Tubifex. The average Shannon-Wiener index was 1.40±0.5, indicating a low biodiversity. In the river length of 3.31×10(4) km, 55% of the sites were designated poor, with a bad ecological status. Among nine secondary river systems, Luan and Zi-ya had the best and worst river conditions, respectively. Only 17 reference site groups were selected for river management in the 41 ecoregions examined. This study lays the foundation for river restoration and related research in the HRB, and we anticipate further developments of this novel method.
In recent years, the desiccation of the lower Yellow River has raised concerns in the government, public, and scientific community in China. Long-term and widespread desiccation of rivers is a disaster with many adverse environmental implications. It has been found in this study that there exists a high-frequency zone of river desiccation disasters at 34 degrees -42 degrees N in the North China Plain. The hazardous environment is characterized by semiarid climate, widely distributed thick loess in the basin and a "hanging river bed" in the plain as well as unfavorable man-water-land coupling relationships. In this setting, the sharply increased water diversion by man since the late 1950s led to the occurrence of river desiccation disasters in the lower reaches of the river in this area.
Cui, Naxin; Wu, Juan; Zhong, Fei; Yang, Lihua; Xiang, Dongfang; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhou, Qi
The seed banks of three rivers, with different trophic levels in Chaohu Lake Basin, China, were investigated to explore the dynamics of seed bank under the pressure of eutrophication. A total of 60 species from 25 family 43 genera were identified from the seed banks of the three rivers. In the eutrophic Paihe River, the species richness and mean seed density were the highest, followed by the oligotrophic Hangbuhe River and the hypereutrophic Nanfeihe River. Various compositions of three functional group assemblage of hydro-ecotypes were found in different rivers. The dominant and endemic species were aquatic, wetland, and terrestrial species in Hangbuhe River, Paihe River, and Nanfeihe River, respectively. The shift trend of seed bank in three rivers probably presented past vegetation dynamics under the trophic process in the rivers of Chaohu Lake Basin. Seed bank in the river bed might be quickly assessed by its trophic level. Additionally, it might imply that the seed bank with more aquatic species in the oligotrophic river would be a potential seed resource for vegetation restoration of severely degraded river ecosystems.
Shang, Lin-Yuan; Sun, Ran-Hao; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Ji, Yu-He; Chen, Li-Ding
Using Håkanson potential ecological risk index, the paper assesses heavy metal risk levels in northern parts of Haihe River basin based on 39 sampling sites. The results indicate that, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Cr in Haihe River basin are higher than the background values of heavy metals in China mainland, while the concentration of Pb is close to the background value in China mainland. Based on the potential ecological risk index for single heavy metal, the risk of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr belongs to the "slight" level, while Cd has various risk levels at different sampling sites. Generally, the risk order of the heavy metals is Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. According to Håkanson potential ecological risk index, 32 monitoring sites belong to "slight" level, 5 sampling sites belong to "middle" level, and 2 monitoring sites belong to "very strong" level. The most polluted sites are Tang River and Dashi River of Beijing, Juma River in Baoding. Therefore, these rivers should be taken more considerations in the river management.
Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.
Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.
Thomas, R.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Engi, E.
This report presents the preliminary results of an analysis of China`s water resources, part of an effort undertaken by the National Intelligence Council Medea scientists to improve the understanding of future food production and consumption in the People`s Republic of China. A dynamic water model was developed to simulate the hydrological budgetary processes in five river drainage basins located in northeastern, central, and southern China: the Chang Jiang (Yangtse River), Huanghe (Yellow River), Haihe, Huaihe, and Liaohe. The model was designed to assess the effects of changes in urban, industrial, and agricultural water use requirements on the availability of water in each basin and to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in China through the year 2025. The model imposes a sustainable yield constraint, that is, groundwater extraction is not allowed to exceed the sustainable yield; if the available water does not meet the total water use requirements, a deficit results. An agronomic model was also developed to generate projections of the water required to service China`s agricultural sector and compare China`s projected grain production with projected grain consumption requirements to estimate any grain surplus and/or deficit. In future refinements, the agronomic model will interface directly with the water model to provide for the exchange of information on projected water use requirements and available water. The preliminary results indicate that the Chang Jiang basin will have a substantial surplus of water through 2025 and that the Haihe basin is in an ongoing situation. The agricultural water use requirements based on grain production indicate that an agricultural water deficit in the Haihe basin begins before the onset of the modeling period (1980) and steadily worsens through 2025. This assumption is confirmed by reports that groundwater mining is already under way in the most intensely cultivated and populated areas of northern China.
Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille
The use of the marine sedimentary magnetic properties, as tracers for changes in precipitation rate and in oceanic water masses transport and exchanges, implies to identify and to characterize the different sources of the detrital fraction. This is of particular importance in closed and/or marginal seas such as the South China Sea. We report on the magnetic properties of sedimentary samples collected in three main Asian rivers draining into the South China Sea: the Pearl, Red, and Mekong Rivers. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one catchment to another. The entire set of performed magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, ARM acquisition and decay, IRM acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis parameters, FORC diagrams, and low-temperature magnetic measurements) allow us to identify the magnetic mineralogy and the grain-size distribution when magnetite is dominant. Some degree of variability is observed in each basin, illustrating different parent rocks and degree of weathering. On average it appears that the Pearl River is rich in magnetite along the main stream while the Mekong River is rich in hematite. The Red River is a mixture of the two. Compared to clay mineral assemblages and major element contents previously determined on the same samples, these new findings indicate that the magnetic fraction brings complementary information of great interest for environmental reconstructions based on marine sediments from the South China Sea.
Zhao, Tongtiegang; Zhao, Jianshi; Hu, Hongchang; Ni, Guangheng
Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China, but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country. To explain the contradiction, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China's major river basins. The results show that from 1980 to 2010, the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm, 39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation. The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm, 43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation. Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does. Particularly, for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers, oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation. Meanwhile, terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind. For the northwestern rivers, terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation. There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92, among the ten major river basins in China.
Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping
Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.
Johnson, Gary E.; Rainey, William S.
This paper provides a scientific approach to eco-design of river fishways to allow upstream movement of fish past new and existing dams in China. This eco-design approach integrates principles of fish ecology/behavior and engineering, a scientific field also known as bio-engineering or eco-hydraulics. We define a fishway as a structure or mechanism to convey fish upstream past a dam. Man-made or natural stream beds can be part of the fishway mechanism. Fish include bony and non-bony fishes, and upstream passage is the concern here, not downstream passage. The problem is dams block access to upstream habitat used for spawning, rearing, and refuge, i.e., dams decrease habitat connectivity. A solution to alleviate this problem is to design fishways, preferably while the dam is being designed, but if necessary, as retrofits afterward to provide a route that fish can and will use to pass safely upstream without undue delay. Our eco-design approach for fishways involves eight steps: 1) identify the primary species of importance; 2) understand basic ecology and behavior of these fish; 3) characterize the environmental conditions where passage is or will be blocked; 4 identify fishway alternatives and select a preferred alternative; 5) establish eco-design criteria for the fishway, either from management agencies or, if necessary, developed specifically for the given site; 6) where needed, identify and perform research required to resolve critical uncertainties and finalize the eco-design criteria; 7) apply the eco-design criteria and site-specific considerations to design the fishway, involving peer-review by local stakeholders in the process; 8) build the fishway, monitor its effectiveness, and apply the lessons learned. Example fishways are described showing a range of eco-designs depending on the dam site and fish species of concern. We apply the eco-design principles to recommend an approach and next steps for a fishway to pass fish upstream at Hanfeng Dam, an
Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian
The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.
Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi
The Haihe River Basin is a semiarid water resources area of China. River ecosystem was degraded for high population density and intensive water resources development activities. To assist in the improvement of the ecological integrity of this river ecosystem, an environmental flow assessment model was developed that consider both spatial structure and dominant eco-function parameters. River ecosystem was divided into three sub-ecosystems which including river reach, wetland and estuary based on the spatial structure of river ecosystem. River reach was divided into three types which including habitat restoration type (HR), water quality restoration type (WQR) and vegetation restoration substitute water quantity restoration type (VRSWQR) according to their dominant eco-function. The spatio-temporal distribution of environmental flow (EF) for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin was assessed based on the model. The results indicate that the EF for the river reach, wetland, and estuary are 2.267, 1.532, and 0.972 billion m(3), respectively. The EF for HR type of river reach, the WQR type of river reach and VRSWQR type of river reach are 1.140, 1.138, and 0.154 billion m(3), which are equal to 4.320, 4.312, and 0.584 % of the average annual flow of 26.39 billion m(3), respectively. EF for river ecosystem in wet period (June-September), normal period (October-January) and dry period (February-May) are 2.999, 0.951, and 0.821 billion m(3), respectively. Annual EF for river ecosystem of the Basin are 4.771 billion m(3), which accounts for 18 % of the average annual flows of 26.39 billion m(3).
Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.
The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of
Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong
A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region.
Huang, Qiuxin; Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Chunwei; Peng, Xianzhi
Enantiomeric compositions and fractions (EFs) of three chiral imidazole (econazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole) and one chiral triazole (tebuconazole) antifungals were investigated in wastewater, river water, and bed sediment of the Pearl River Delta, South China. The imidazole pharmaceuticals in the untreated wastewater were racemic to weakly nonracemic (EFs of 0.450-0.530) and showed weak enantioselectivity during treatment in the sewage treatment plant. The EFs of the dissolved azole antifungals were usually different from those of the sorbed azoles in the suspended particulate matter, suggesting different behaviors for the enantiomers of the chiral azole antifungals in the dissolved and particulate phases of the wastewater. The azole antifungals were widely present in the rivers. The bed sediment was a sink for the imidazole antifungals. The imidazoles were prevalently racemic, whereas tebuconazole was widely nonracemic in the rivers. Seasonal effects were observed on distribution and chirality of the azole antifungals. Concentrations of the azole antifungals in the river water were relatively higher in winter than in spring and summer while the EF of miconazole in the river water was higher in summer. The mechanism of enantiomeric behavior of the chiral azole antifungals in the environment warrants further research.
Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R
The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.
Zhao, Junhu; Yang, Liu; Feng, Guolin
In this study, the simultaneous atmospheric circulation system configuration characteristics of the four rainfall patterns (FRP) over the East China during the period 1951-2015 are analyzed in order to investigate their formation mechanisms. The results confirm that the FRP possess obvious differences in the upper-level, middle-level, and lower-level troposphere. In northern China rainfall pattern (NCP) years, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream (EAJS) shows a northward trend, with a higher intensity than normal; the blocking high (BH) in the mid-high latitudes is inactive; and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) tends to be stronger, with a location to the north of its normal position. The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is stronger, which promotes vapor transport to northern China, and this leads to increased rainfall. In intermediate rainfall pattern (IRP) years, the EAJS position is close to that in normal years; the BH is inactive; the WPSH tends to be weaker, with a location to the east of its normal position; and the EASM is stronger, which is conducive to increased rainfall over the Huaihe River Basin. In Yangtze River rainfall pattern (YRP) years, the circulations are found to be almost opposite in their features to those in NCP years. In South China rainfall pattern (SCP) years, the circulations are found to be almost opposite in their features to those in IRP years. This leads to increased rainfall over South China. Therefore, the different circulation system configuration characteristics lead to the different rainfall patterns.
Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.
Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.
Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai
River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.
Che, Yue; Li, Wen; Shang, Zhaoyi; Liu, Chen; Yang, Kai
River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.
Yu, Yilei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Zheng, Fandong; Liu, Licai
Reclaimed water is efficient for replenishing the dry rivers in northern China, but regional groundwater may be at risk from pollution. Therefore, samples of reclaimed water, river water, and groundwater were collected at the Huai River in the Chaobai River basin in 2010. The water chemistry and isotopic compositions of the samples were analyzed in the laboratory. The reclaimed water had stable compositions of water chemistry and isotopes, and the Na·Ca-HCO3·Cl water type. The water chemistry of the river water was consistent with that of the reclaimed water. A June peak of total nitrogen was the prominent characteristic in the shallow groundwater, which also had the Na·Ca-HCO3·Cl water type. However, the water chemistry and isotopes in most of the deep groundwater remained stable, and the water type was Ca·Mg-HCO3. The amount of reclaimed water recharging the groundwater was about 2.5 × 107 m3/yr. All of the shallow groundwater was impacted by the reclaimed water, with the mixing proportion of reclaimed water ranging from 42% to 80 % in the dry season and from 20% to 86% in the wet season. Only one deep well, with proportions of 67% (dry season) and 28% (wet season), was impacted. TDS, EC, and major ions (Na, K, Cl, NH4-N, NO2-N, and NO3-N) were increased in the impacted wells.
Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb), is a problematic and difficult to manage invasive weed. The recent invasion in the upper Xiaoqing River, northern China extends its range northwards through almost five degrees latitude and 500 km from the northern limit and main invasion a...
Carbonaceous aerosol is one of the important constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Southern China, including the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and Hong Kong (HK). During the study period (October and December of 2002, and March and June of 2003), the monthly average...
Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin
Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the future from an optimistic perspective. We present two optimistic scenarios for 2050 (OPT-1 and OPT-2) for China. Maximized recycling of manure on land in OPT-1 and OPT-2, and strict sewage control in OPT-2 (e.g., all sewage is collected and treated efficiently) are essential nutrient strategies in these scenarios. We also analyzed the effect of the current policy plans aiming at "Zero Growth in Synthetic Fertilizers after 2020" (the CP scenario). We used the MARINA (a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs) model to quantify dissolved N and P export by Chinese rivers to the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea and the associated coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The Global Orchestration (GO) scenario of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was used as a basis. GO projects increases in river export of dissolved N and P (up to 90%) between 2000 and 2050 and thus a high potential for coastal eutrophication (ICEP>0). In contrast, the potential for coastal eutrophication is low in optimistic scenarios (ICEP<0). This is because in 2050 loads of most dissolved N and P in Chinese seas are around their levels of 1970. Maximizing manure recycling can reduce nutrient pollution of Chinese seas considerably. Sewage control is effective in reducing P export by rivers from urbanized areas. The CP scenario, on the other hand, shows that current policy plans may not be sufficient to avoid coastal eutrophication in the future. Our study may help policy makers in formulating strategies to ensure clean coastal waters in China in the future.
Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.
The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.
Wang, Wei; Bai, Junhong; Xi, Min; Zhao, Qingqing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wen, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong
Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247.21, 232.91, and 114.92 μg/kg, respectively, and the predominant OCPs were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Source diagnostics illustrated that there might be recent input of HCHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfan in some sampling sites. Based on the soil quality thresholds of China, both HCHs and DDTs fell within the range of class II criteria except for some sediment samples in urban rivers with lower levels (below class I criteria). According to sediment quality guidelines, 92.86 % of samples were predicted to be toxic. The health risk assessment showed that OCPs would not pose a threat to people via dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation, and the followed order of incremental lifetime cancer risks for OCPs in sediment samples was reclamation-affected river > urban river > rural river.
Zhang, Shurong; Lu, X X; Sun, Huiguo; Han, Jingtai; Higgitt, David Laurence
Major ion chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon system (DIC, mainly HCO3(-) and gaseous CO2) in the Luodingjiang River, a mountainous tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl River), China, were examined based on a seasonal and spatial sampling scheme in 2005. The diverse distribution of lithology and anthropogenic impacts in the river basin provided the basic idea to assess the effects of lithology vs. human activities on water chemistry and carbon biogeochemistry in river systems. Major ions showed great spatial variations, with higher concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and DIC in the regions with carbonate rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks, while lower in the regions with metamorphic sandstones and schists as well as granites. pCO2 at all sampling sites was oversaturated in June, ranging with a factor from 1.6 to 18.8 of the atmospheric concentration, reflecting the enhanced contribution from baseflow and interflow influx as well as in situ oxidation of organic matter. However, in April and December, undersaturated pCO2 was found in some shallow, clean rivers in the upstream regions. delta13C of DIC has a narrow range from -9.07 to -13.59 per thousand, which was more depleted in the regions with metamorphic rocks and granites than in the carbonate regions. Seasonally, it was slightly more depleted in the dry season (December) than in the wet season (June). The results suggested that lithological variability had a dominant control on spatial variations of water chemistry and carbon geochemistry in river systems. Besides, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural and urban activities and in-stream damming, as well as river physical properties, such as water depth and transparency, also indicated their impacts. The seasonal variations likely reflected the changes of hydrological regime, as well as metabolic processes in the river.
Zhao, Gaofeng; Zhou, Huaidong; Liu, Xiaoru; Li, Kun; Zhang, Panwei; Wen, Wu; Yu, Yang
This study was undertaken to investigate the current contamination status of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) in sediments from 14 principal rivers of the Hai River basin. The concentrations of 22 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) congeners, 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in sediments were measured using GC-MS/MS technique. The highest PBB levels were detected in sediments from River Daqing: PBB3, 10, 4, 15, 26, 31, and 49 were observed in the sediments. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were in River Tuhe (G.M.=2.10 ng g(-1) dw), and PBDE15 was the most predominant congener in the sediments from all of the rivers of this study, except for River Tuhe, which accounted for >13.5% of the total PBDEs in sediments. PBDE209 was detected in sediments from the Beijingpaiwu, Nanyun, Majia and Tuhe rivers, with observed values ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 ng g(-1) dw. PCBs had the highest concentrations in sediment samples collected from River Luan and River Daqing, with levels of 18.13 and 25.62 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The most predominant PCB congener in these samples was PCB138, which accounted for about 24% of the sum of the seven indicator PCB congeners (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) measured in the two rivers. The measured levels of PHAHs were compared with recent results, reported in the literature, and the respective sediment quality guidelines recommended by USEPA. The levels of PHAHs in the present study were generally lower than respective threshold-effect levels, or were comparable to those reported in relatively uncontaminated freshwaters from other regions. This suggests that, in these rivers, toxic biological effects on aquatic biota-due to PHAH contamination of sediments-can be expected to be negligible. Thus, in terms of PHAHs, the sediments can be regarded as relatively uncontaminated.
Wang, Xuchen; Xu, Caili; Druffel, Ellen M.; Xue, Yuejun; Qi, Yuanzhi
Major rivers play important roles in transporting large amounts of terrestrial organic matter from land to the ocean each year, and the organic matter carried by rivers contains a significant fraction of black carbon (BC). A recent study estimated that 0.027 Gt of BC is transported in the dissolved phase by rivers each year, which accounts for 10% of the global flux of dissolved organic carbon. The relative sources of this large amount of riverine dissolved black carbon (DBC) from biomass burning (young, modern 14C) and fossil fuel (old, 14C free) combustion are not known. We present radiocarbon measurements of BC in both dissolved and particulate phases transported by the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers, the two largest rivers in China, during 2015. We show that two, distinct BC pools (young and old) were carried by the rivers. The DBC pool was much younger than the particulate BC (PBC) pool. Mass balance calculations indicate that most (78-85%) of the DBC in the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers was derived from biomass burning, and only 15-22% was from fossil fuel combustion. In contrast, PBC from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion were approximately equal in these two rivers. Export of PBC and DBC by the rivers are decoupled, and fluxes of PBC were 4.1 and 6.7 times higher than DBC in the Changjiang and Huanghe Rivers, respectively. The 14C age differences of the two BC pools suggest that BC derived from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion are mobilized in different phases and on different time scales in these rivers.
Ge, Can; Zhang, Weiguo; Dong, Chenyin; Dong, Yan; Bai, Xuexin; Liu, Jinyan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Feng, Huan; Yu, Lizhong
The inner shelf of the East China Sea is a river-dominated margin characterized by fine-grained mud deposits and a rapid sedimentation rate. Three short sediment cores (~2.7 m in length) were examined to characterize spatial variations in magnetic mineral diagenesis. The sediment cores were analyzed for sedimentation rates, magnetic properties, particle size distribution, organic carbon, and total sulfur content. The two more proximal cores with higher sedimentation rates (~2.2 cm/yr and ~0.96 cm/yr) do not exhibit obvious effects of reductive dissolution of magnetite with increasing depth, which is consistent with their lower total sulfur content. The offshore core, A12-4, which has a lower sedimentation rate, contains clear evidence of magnetite dissolution and increasing total sulfur content with depth. The three cores have a similar sediment source and organic matter input; therefore, we suggest that a higher sedimentation rate will lead to less reductive diagenesis of magnetite, assuming that other factors are constant. The iron- to sulfate-reduction boundary, i.e., revealed by the onset of a rapid decline of magnetic susceptibility, is located 1.0 m below seafloor in core A12-4. This is much deeper than is reported in many other coastal marine environments and can be explained by the higher sedimentation rate, the presence of refractory terrestrial organic matter, and an abundant input of detrital iron oxides. This study demonstrates that analyses of the magnetic mineral zonation provide a straightforward approach to assess diagenetic organic carbon decomposition pathways in marine environments.
Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo
This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (∑ PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5 ng·L(-1) with an average of 7.58 ng·L(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ∑ PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ∑ PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8 log units lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs.
Sun, Jianqiang; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Anping; Liu, Weiping; Cheng, Wenwei
Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of emerging organic contaminants, have become a serious issue arousing much attention for their ubiquitous presence and hazardous impact on the environment. This study provides the first data on distribution of PAEs in the sediments in the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province, China, and the inference with urbanization and river flow regime. PAEs were detected in all 23 sediment samples analyzed, and the total concentrations of their 16 congeners in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 6.74μg/g dry weight (dw), with the geometric mean value of 2.03μg/g dw. Of the 16 PAE congeners, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were present in all sediment samples. The PAEs concentrations in urban regions were higher than those in rural regions because of higher discharge of PAEs from plastic materials in urbanized areas. Concentrations of PAEs were positively correlated with sediment organic matter (fOM) and negatively correlated with logistic value of annual average flow volume at sample sites. River flow regime modified by man-made dams significantly affected the distribution of PAEs. Analysis of congener composition of PAEs indicated that the DEHP was predominant congener in the Qiantang River. The normalized concentration of DEHP exceeded recommended environmental risk limit (ERL).
Liu, Jia; Qi, Shihua; Yao, Jun; Yang, Dan; Xing, Xinli; Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Chengkai
Hanjiang River, the second largest river in Guangdong Province, Southern China, is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Chaozhou and Shantou. Our previous studies indicated that soils from an upstream catchment area of the Hanjiang River are moderately contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which can easily enter the river system via soil runoff. Therefore, OCPs, especially downstream drinking water sources, may pose harmful health and environmental risks. On the basis of this hypothesis, we measured the OCP concentrations in dissolved phase (DP), suspended particle matter (SPM), and surface sediment (SS) samples collected along the Hanjiang River Basin in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. OCP residue levels were quantified through electron capture detector gas chromatography to identify the OCP sources and deposits. The concentration ranges of OCPs in DP, SPM, and SS, respectively, were 2.11-12.04 (ng/L), 6.60-64.77 (ng/g), and 0.60-4.71 (ng/g) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and 2.49-4.77 (ng/L), 6.75-80.19 (ng/g), and 0.89-252.27 (ng/g) for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs). Results revealed that DDTs represent an ecotoxicological risk to the Hanjiang River Basin, as indicated by international sediment guidelines. This study serves as a basis for the future management of OCP concentrations in the Hanjiang River Basin, and exemplifies a pattern of OCP movement (like OCP partition among multimedia) from upstream to downstream. This pattern may be observed in similar rivers in China.
Chapman, Duane C.
Chapter 1 -- Notes on the Translation and Use of "A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China" By Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang Chapter 2 -- A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China By Bolu Yi, Zhishen Liang, Zhitang Yu, Randuan Lin, and Mingjue HeTranslated by Duane C. Chapman and Ning Wang The document A Study of the Early Development of Grass Carp, Black Carp, Silver Carp, and Bighead Carp in the Yangtze River, China (Chapter 2 of this volume) was translated from the Chinese with the approval and assistance of the living authors of that study. It contains the most detailed description available, and approximately 200 drawings, of the early development of the subject fishes. Chapter 1 provides important instructions on the use of the translation, including a description of the Chinese morphometric conventions, which differ from those used by North American scientists. Chapter 1 also provides the historical context in which Chapter 2 was developed, and information on how the larvae of the subject fishes, which have invaded the Mississippi River basin, may be distinguished from other fishes present in the basin.
The carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of dissolved and particulate inorganic carbon (DIC; PIC) was used to compare and analyze the origin, dynamics and evolution of inorganic carbon in two headwater tributaries of the Xi River, Southwest China. Carbonate dissolution and soil CO2 were regarded as the primary sources of DIC on the basis of δ13CDIC values which varied along the Nanpan and Beipan Rivers, from −13.9‰ to 8.1‰. Spatial trends in DIC differed between the two rivers (i.e., the tributaries), in part because factors controlling pCO2, which strongly affected carbonate dissolution, differed between the two river basins. Transport of soil CO2 and organic carbon through hydrologic conduits predominately controlled the levels of pCO2 in the Nanpan River. However, pCO2 along the upper reaches of the Nanpan River also was controlled by the extent of urbanization and industrialization relative to agriculture. DIC concentrations in the highly urbanized upper reaches of the Nanpan River were typical higher than in other carbonate-dominated areas of the upper Xi River. Within the Beipan River, the oxidation of organic carbon is the primary process that maintains pCO2 levels. The pCO2 within the Beipan River was more affected by sulfuric acid from coal industries, inputs from a scenic spot, and groundwater than along the Nanpan River. With regards to PIC, the contents and δ13C values in the Nanpan River were generally lower than those in the Beipan River, indicating that chemical and physical weathering contributes more marine carbonate detritus to the PIC along the Beipan River. The CO2 evasion flux from the Nanpan River was higher than that in the Beipan River, and generally higher than along the middle and lower reaches of the Xi River, demonstrating that the Nanpan River is an important net source of atmospheric CO2 in Southwest China. PMID:27513939
Yu, B.; Xu, L.
Hydropower development can be considered as a kind of trade-offs of ecosystem services generated by human activity for their economic and energy demand, because it can increase some river ecosystem services but decrease others. In this context, an ecosystem service trade-off framework in hydropower development was proposed in this paper. It aims to identify the ecological cost of river ecosystem and serve for the ecological compensation during hydropower development, for the hydropower services cannot completely replace the regulating services of river ecosystem. The valuing trade-offs framework was integrated by the influenced ecosystem services identification and ecosystem services valuation, through ecological monitoring and ecological economic methods, respectively. With a case study of Pondo hydropower project in Tibet, China, the valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development was illustrated. The typical ecological factors including water, sediment and soil were analyzed in this study to identify the altered river ecosystem services by Pondo hydropower project. Through the field monitoring and valuation, the results showed that the Lhasa River ecosystem services value could be changed annually by Pondo hydropower project with the increment of 5.7E+8CNY, and decrement of 5.1E+7CNY. The ecological compensation for river ecosystem should be focus on water and soil conservation, reservoir dredging and tributaries habitat protection.
Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Tong, Yindong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Wei
Heavy metals are highly persistent in water and have a particular significance in ecotoxicology. Heavy metals loading from the Pearl River are likely to cause significant impacts on the environment in the South China Sea and the West Pacific. In this study, using monthly monitoring data from a water quality monitoring campaign during 2006-2012, the temporal variation and spatial transfer of six heavy metals (lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the Pearl River were analyzed, and the heavy metal fluxes into the sea were calculated. During this period, the annual heavy metal loads discharged from the Pearl River into the South China Sea were 5.8 (Hg), 471.7 (Pb), 1524.6 (Cu), 3819.6 (Zn), 43.9 (Cd), and 621.9 (As) tons, respectively. The metal fluxes showed a seasonal variation with the maximum fluxes occurring from June to July. There is a close association between metal fluxes and runoff. The analysis of the heavy metal transfer from the upstream to the downstream revealed that the transfer from the upstream accounted for a major portion of the heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, earlier industry relocation efforts in the Pearl River watershed may have limited effect on the water quality improvement in surrounding areas. It is suggested that watershed-based pollution control measures focusing on wastewater discharge in both upstream and downstream areas should be developed and implemented in the future.
Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Song, Wei-Wei; Shen, Ji-Min; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Grabuski, Josey; Li, Yi-Fan
The Songhua River is the third largest river in China and the primary source of drinking and irrigation water for northeastern China. The distribution of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water [dissolved water (DW) and suspended particulate matter (SPM)], sediment, and soil in the river basin was investigated, and the associated risk of cancer from these PAHs was also assessed. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 13.9 to 161 ng L(-1) in DW, 9.21 to 83.1 ng L(-1) in SPM, 20.5 to 632 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight) in sediment, and from 30.1 to 870 ng g(-1) dw in soil. The compositional pattern of PAHs indicated that three-ring PAHs were predominant in DW and SPM samples, while four-ring PAHs dominated in sediment and soil samples. The spatial distribution of PAHs revealed some site-specific sources along the river, with principal component analysis indicating that these were from pyrogenic sources (such as coal and biomass combustion, and vehicle emissions) and coke oven emission distinguished as the main source of PAHs in the Songhua River Basin. Based on the ingestion of PAH-contaminated drinking water from the Songhua River, cancer risk was quantitatively estimated by combining the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk assessment model and BaP-equivalent concentration for five age groups of people (adults, teenagers, children, toddlers, and infants). Overall, the results suggest that the estimated integrated lifetime cancer risk for all groups was in acceptable levels. This study is the first attempt to provide information on the cancer risk of PAHs in drinking water from the Songhua River.
Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yaning; Bai, Ling; Xu, Yiwen
Fluctuant and complicated hydrological processes can result in the uncertainty of runoff forecasting. Thus, it is necessary to apply the multi-method integrated modeling approaches to simulate runoff. Integrating the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and the nonlinear regression equation, we put forward a hybrid model to simulate the annual runoff (AR) of the Kaidu River in northwest China. We also validate the simulated effects by using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) based on the observed data from 1960 to 2012 at the Dashankou hydrological station. The average absolute and relative errors show the high simulation accuracy of the hybrid model. R2 and AIC both illustrate that the hybrid model has a much better performance than the single BPANN. The hybrid model and integrated approach elicited by this study can be applied to simulate the annual runoff of similar rivers in northwest China.
DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang
Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water
Kong, Dongxian; Miao, Chiyuan; Wu, Jingwen; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoming
The Yellow River is the most hyperconcentrated sediment-laden river in the world. Throughout recorded history, the Lower Yellow River (LYR) experienced many catastrophic flood and drought events. To regulate the LYR, a reservoir was constructed at Xiaolangdi that became operational in the early 2000s. An annual water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) was then implemented, aimed at flood control, sediment reduction, regulated water supply, and power generation. This study examines the eco-environmental and socioenvironmental impacts of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. In retrospect, it is found that the reservoir construction phase incurred huge financial cost and required large-scale human resettlement. Subsequent reservoir operations affected the local geological environment, downstream riverbed erosion, evolution of the Yellow River delta, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity. Lessons from the impact assessment of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir are summarized as follows: (1) The construction of large reservoirs is not merely an engineering challenge but must also be viewed in terms of resource exploitation, environmental protection, and social development; (2) long-term systems for monitoring large reservoirs should be established, and decision makers involved at national policy and planning levels must be prepared to react quickly to the changing impact of large reservoirs; and (3) the key to solving sedimentation in the LYR is not Xiaolangdi Reservoir but instead soil conservation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin. Proper assessment of the impacts of large reservoirs will help promote development strategies that enhance the long-term sustainability of dam projects.
Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey
Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine system, South China Sea. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - sea transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - sea transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the sea floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - sea geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and
Chen, Chung-Chi; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kemp, W. Michael
Planktonic communities tend to flourish on the western margins of the East China Sea (ECS) fueled by substrates delivered largely from the Changjiang River, the fifth largest river in the world. To study the effects of the Changjiang River discharge on planktonic community respiration (CR), physical-chemical variables and key processes were measured in three consecutive summers in the ECS. Results showed that concentrations of nitrate and Chl a, protozoan biomass, bacterial production, as well as CR in the surface water were all negatively correlated with sea surface salinity, reflecting the strong influence of river discharge on the ECS shelf ecosystem. Moreover, mean values of nitrate, Chl a concentrations, and CR rates were proportionally related to the area of Changjiang diluted water (CDW; salinity ≤31.0 practical salinity units (psu)), an index of river discharge rate. Presumably, higher river flow delivers higher nutrient concentrations which stimulate phytoplankton growth, which in turn fuels CR. CR exhibited significant monthly and interannual variability, and rates appear to be dominated by bacteria and phytoplankton. Although the plankton community was relatively productive (mean = 0.8 mg C m-2 d-1) in the CDW, the mean ratio of production to respiration was low (0.42). This suggests that the heterotrophic processes regulating CR were supported by riverine organic carbon input in addition to in situ autotrophic production.
Zhou, Haidong; Ying, Tianqi; Wang, Xuelian; Liu, Jianbo
Twelve selected pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics and lipid regulators were analysed and detected in water samples collected from 18 sampling sections along the three main urban rivers in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China during four sampling campaigns. Besides, algal growth inhibition test was conducted to preliminarily assess the eco-toxicology induced by the target pharmaceuticals in the rivers. Mean levels for most of target compounds were generally below 100 ng/L at sampling sections, with the exception of caffeine and paracetamol presenting considerably high concentration. The detected pharmaceuticals in the urban rivers ranged from
Zhou, Haidong; Ying, Tianqi; Wang, Xuelian; Liu, Jianbo
Twelve selected pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptics and lipid regulators were analysed and detected in water samples collected from 18 sampling sections along the three main urban rivers in Yangpu District of Shanghai, China during four sampling campaigns. Besides, algal growth inhibition test was conducted to preliminarily assess the eco-toxicology induced by the target pharmaceuticals in the rivers. Mean levels for most of target compounds were generally below 100 ng/L at sampling sections, with the exception of caffeine and paracetamol presenting considerably high concentration. The detected pharmaceuticals in the urban rivers ranged from
Lu, Binyu; Feng, Yujie; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Zhaohan; Lin, Nan
Contamination levels and spatial and temporal distributions of six typical synthetic musks (SMs) in water and sediment of the Songhua River in Northeastern China were investigated. Experimental data for 72 water and 52 sediment samples collected at 29 sampling sites over 12 months spanning 2011-2012 showed that the Songhua River had been contaminated to different degrees at various sites separately from the river's source. The polycyclic musks 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB) (Galaxolide) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) (Tonalide) were found most frequently and at the highest levels. Concentrations of HHCB were <2-37 ng/L in water and <0.5-17.5 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. AHTN was <1-8 ng/L in water and <0.5-5.7 ng/g dw in sediment. Statistical relationships between SM concentrations and four environmental variables (temperature, illumination, runoff, and population density) in the Songhua River Basin were formulated. Concentration levels varied proportionately with the size of the city along the river, while the distribution patterns showed clear seasonal variations. HHCB/AHTN ratios mirrored the transfer and transmitting process of SMs. Concentrations of target compounds were correlated with each other, suggesting similar exposure sources. Environmental risk assessment of SMs presented seasonal variations and provided baseline information on SM exposure in the Songhua River Basin.
Wang, H.; Bi, N.; Saito, Y.; Wu, X.; Wang, A.
Construction and operation of large dams in river basins have trapped large volumes of freshwater and sediment, which not only alters the natural seasonal rhythm of river hydrological cycles, but also creates a disconnection between rivers and their deltas. As a result, the water and sediment discharged to the coastal ocean have been greatly reduced, which triggers profound responses in coastal region including delta destruction, accelerated rise of relative sea level and changes in coastal primary production. The Yellow River has been a well documented system with significant impacts of dam regulation. Recent sediment load and freshwater (2002-2012) delivered to the sea have been reduced to 0.16 billion tones per year and 17.9 km3/yr, approximately 13% and 34% of those in 1950s-1960s, a period without significant dam impacts. Dam interception and dam-facilitated water regulation play a dominated role in reducing the flux of water and sediment to the sea, as well as in changing the grain-size composition of sediment. Consequently, the process of estuarine sediment dynamics has changed and the delta has recently been converted into a destructive phase with strong coastal erosion due to insufficient rive sediment supply although the accretion of the active delta lobe was evident because of rapid local deposition of coarsening river sediment around the river mouth. The delta coast erosion has thus become a major source for sediment transport in the Bohai Sea and even to those in the Yellow Sea given the critical role of monsoonal climate on coastal resuspension and coastal currents. Delta erosion and subsidence have therefore accelerated the rate of relative sea-level rise, considerably higher than the global mean, which has put the mega-delta to be at risk. In addition, recent works have identified two peaks of chlorophyll-a within annual cycle in the delta coastal region, one of which is closely associated with the river delivery of nutrients transferred with
Chen, K; Zhou, J L
This study aims to determine the occurrence and behavior of five classes of 20 antibiotics in both water and sedimentary phases in the Huangpu River, which supplies drinking water to Shanghai City, China. Of the 20 antibiotics, sulfonamides showed the highest concentrations in water samples (34-859 ng L(-1)) while tetracyclines (average concentration at 18 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and macrolides (12 μg kg(-1) dry weight) dominated in sediment samples. The spatial distribution of antibiotics showed that the main polluting sources into the river were animal farming sites and the tributaries downstream of the Yuanxie River. In addition, linear relationships between logKoc and logKow, and between logKoc and log molecular weight, were demonstrated, suggesting the importance of contaminant properties in inter-phase behavior. The environmental risk assessment revealed that some antibiotics, in particular sulfamethoxazole could cause medium damage to daphnid in the aquatic ecosystem.
Sun, Rui; Mao, Guannan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Yingying
In order to understand the composition and dynamics of planktonic viruses and their relationship with environmental parameters in natural freshwater, flow cytometry was optimized with filtration/fixation/staining/dilution and then applied to the analysis of samples collected from 9 stations (covering urban, rural, and estuarial areas) along the Haihe River, China, over a one-year period of study. The total viral abundance exhibited an apparent peak in the spring. Spatially, the highest viral abundance was recorded in estuarial areas. The correlation analysis indicated that the bacteria in the Haihe River significantly influenced viral abundance. The relationship between abiotic variables and viral abundance remained the same as with bacterial abundance, indicating that environmental parameters could possibly influence viral abundance in virtue of their bacterial host cells. The influence of environmental factors on viral abundance differed in the three sampling areas, suggesting different drivers of viral abundance in different stretches of the river associated with their utilization and surroundings. PMID:23844363
Chen, Hao; Zhu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhe; Chen, An; Zhang, Quan
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), which are some of the most extensively used pesticides, have drawn much attention in recent years owing to their ubiquity as well as the potential ecological and health risks they pose to aquatic organisms and even to humans. In this study, we investigated the residue of five OPs in 49 river cross sections in Shangyu, Zhejiang province, China, a rainy region with relatively developed agriculture. Correlations analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were conducted. The results showed that dichlorvos exhibited the highest concentrations (0.01 to 5.63 μg/L) among the OPs in most monitoring sites. Weak positive correlations were found between methyl parathion and dichlorvos as well as malathion and dimethoate. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis indicated a correlation among these river cross sections. We then calculated the hazard index (HI) to estimate the potential adverse health effects. The mean HI presented no risk to adults but showed potential health risks to children, with values of 0.285, 0.228, and 0.166 for dichlorvos, methyl parathion, and dimethoate, respectively. Our study will help elucidate the potential risks of OPs and their residues in the rivers of Shangyu in the Zhejiang province in China and will be beneficial for managing water quality and will provide valuable suggestions to local policy makers. Graphical abstract Comparison of the ∑5OPs concentrations among 49 river cross sections.
Tan, Xiang; Sheldon, Fran; Bunn, Stuart E; Zhang, Quanfa
Diatoms have been regularly used as bioindicators to assess water quality of surface waters. However, diatom-based indices developed for a specific geographic region may not be appropriate elsewhere. We sampled benthic diatom assemblages in the upper Han River, a subtropical river in China, to evaluate applicability of 14 diatom-based indices used worldwide for water quality assessment. A total of 194 taxa from 31 genera were identified in the dry season and 139 taxa from 23 genera in the wet season. During the dry season, significant relationships were found for all but one of the diatom-based indices (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie) with one or more physical and chemical variables including nutrients and ion concentrations in river waters. The Biological Diatom Index (IBD) and diatom-based eutrophication/pollution index (EPI-D) were strongly related to trophic status and ionic content, while Watanabe's Index was related to organic pollution and conductivity. Yet, the diatom indices showed weak relationships with physical and chemical variables during the wet season. It suggests that diatom-based indices developed in Europe can be applied with confidence as bioindicators of water quality in subtropical rivers of China, at least during base-flow conditions.
Hao, Xuewen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Lai; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo
Concern is increasing regarding the environmental impact of the high usage rate and intensive release of antibiotics used for human and animal therapy in major urban areas of China. In the present study, regional environmental distribution simulations and risk assessments for 3 commonly used fluoroquinolones in the Wenyu River catchment were conducted using a typical catchment model widely used in Europe. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics investigated (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin) are consumed at high levels for personal health care in China. These antibiotics were simulated in the aquatic environment of the Wenyu River catchment across the Beijing City area for annual average concentrations, with regional predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of approximately 711 ng/L, 55.3 ng/L, and 22.2 ng/L and local PECs up to 1.8 µg/L, 116 ng/L, and 43 ng/L, respectively. Apart from hydrological conditions, the concentrations of fluoroquinolones were associated closely with the sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their serving population, as well as hospital distributions. The presence of these fluoroquinolones in the catchment area of the present study showed significant characteristics of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in an urban river, with typical "down-the-drain" chemicals. Significantly high concentrations of specific antibiotics indicated non-negligible risks caused by the intensive use in the local aquatic environment in a metropolitan area, particularly ofloxacin in upstream Shahe Reservoir, middle stream and downstream Qing River, and Liangma River to the Ba River segment. Specific treatment measures for these pharmaceuticals and personal care products in STPs are required for such metropolitan areas.
Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie
The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness (P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River (P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be
Gao, Hongshan; Li, Zongmeng; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Fenliang; Liu, Xiaopeng
As a drainage system located in arid western China, the Shiyang River, combined with considerable fluvial strata and landform information, provides an environmental context within which to investigate fluvial responses to late Quaternary climate change. Sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enabled us to reconstruct the processes and fluvial styles of three sedimentary sequences of the Shagou and Hongshui rivers in the Shiyang drainage system. Our results present a variety of river behaviors during the late Quaternary in these areas. In the upstream Shiyang River, Zhangjiadazhuang (ZJDZ) profile of the Shagou was dominated by aggradation and a meandering channel pattern at 10.6-4.2 ka, while a noticeable channel incision occurred at ~ 4.2 ka followed by lateral channel migration. In the downstream Shiyang River, Datugou (DTG) profile of the Hongshui was an aggrading meandering river from 39.7 to 7.2 ka while channel incision occurred at 7.2 ka. Another downstream profile, Wudunwan (WDW) of the Hongshui was also characterized by aggradation from 22.4 to 4.8 ka; however, its channel pattern shifted from braided to meandering at ~ 13 ka. A discernable downcutting event occurred at ~ 4.8 ka, followed by three channel aggradation and incision episodes prior to 1.8 ka. The last 1.8 ka has been characterized by modern channel and floodplain development. The fluvial processes and styles investigated have a close correlation with late Quaternary climate change in the Shiyang River drainage. During cold phases, the WDW reach was dominated by aggradation with a braided channel pattern. During warm phases, the rivers that we investigated were also characterized by aggradation but with meandering channel patterns. Channel incision events and changes of fluvial style occurred mainly during climate transitions.
Gao, Xuejie; Shi, Ying; Han, Zhenyu; Wang, Meili; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying; Giorgi, Filippo
A long-term simulation for the period 1990-2010 is conducted with the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), driven by ERA-Interim boundary conditions at a grid spacing of 25 km. The Community Land Model (CLM) is used to describe land surface processes, with updates in the surface parameters, including the land cover and surface emissivity. The simulation is compared against observations to evaluate the model performance in reproducing the present day climatology and interannual variability over the 10 main river basins in China, with focus on surface air temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are also considered in the model assessment. Results show that the model reproduces the present day climatology over China and its main river basins, with better performances in June-July-August compared to December-January-February (DJF). In DJF, we find a warm bias at high latitudes, underestimated precipitation in the south, and overestimated precipitation in the north. The model in general captures the observed interannual variability, with greater skill for temperature. We also find an underestimation of heavy precipitation events in eastern China, and an underestimation of consecutive dry days in northern China and the Tibetan Plateau. Similar biases for both mean climatology and extremes are found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, indicating the difficulties for climate models in simulating extreme monsoon climate events over East Asia.
Lu, Huayu; Sun, Xuefeng; Wang, Shejiang; Cosgrove, Richard; Zhang, Hongyan; Yi, Shuangwen; Ma, Xiaolin; Wei, Ming; Yang, Zhenyu
A newly discovered Paleolithic site in loess deposits in the Lushi Basin, South Luo River, central China, is dated using pedostratigraphic analysis, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and magnetostratigraphic analysis. This region is regarded as an important place for hominin occupation and settlement during the early to middle Pleistocene. Results indicate that the archaeological site dates from 600ka to 620ka, reinforcing the view that Homo erectus had occupied a large area of eastern Asia by 620ka. The lithic assemblages of Lushi Basin is a flake and core technology, typical for this time period in north-central China. It may be compared with that at the Zhoukoudian locality 1 in north China and some sites in the Luonan Basin, and provides important data for understanding the behavior and stone tool technology of early Chinese hominins.
Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhaoyu; Wu, Tairan
Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.
Zhang, Zhao-yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-qing
This paper focuses on the sources, pollution status and potential ecology risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in the surface water, top sediment of river bed and soil along banks of Bortala River, which locates in the oasis region of Xinjiang, northwest China. Results showed that: (1) As a whole, contents of 7 tested heavy metals of Bortala River were low, while the maximum values of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr in the river water were significantly higher than those of Secondary Category of the Surface Water Quality Standards of People's Republic of China (GB 3838-2002) and Drinking Water Guideline from WHO. Analysis showed that the heavy metals contents of top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks were significantly higher than those of the river water. (Correlation analysis and enrichment factor (EF) calculation showed that in the river water, top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr mainly originated from industrial emissions, urban and rural anthropogenic activities, transportation and agricultural production activities; While Cu, Zn, and As mainly originated from natural geological background and soil parent materials. (3) Pollution assessment showed that in three matrices, the single factor pollution index(Pi) and the integrated pollution index (Pz) of 7 heavy metals were all lower than 1, and they all belonged to safe and clean levels. (4) Potential ecology risk evaluation showed that as a whole the single factor potential ecological risk (Eir) and the integrated potential ecology risks (RI) of 7 heavy metals were relatively low, and would not cause threats to the health of water and soil environment of river basin, while the potential ecology risks of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr were significantly higher than those of other heavy metals.
Zhao, T. B.; Fu, C. B.
Summer precipitation products from the 45-Year European Centre for Weather Forecast (ECTMWF) Reanalysis (ERA-40), and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (ATMIP-II) Reanalysis (NCEP-2), and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 2.1 dataset are compared with the corresponding observations over China in order to understand the quality, and utility of the reanalysis datasets for the period 1979-2001. The results reveal that although the magnitude and location of the rainfall belts differ among the reanalysis, CRU, and station data over South and West China, the spatial distributions show good agreement over most areas of China. In comparison with the observations in most areas of China, CRU best matches the observed summer precipitation, while ERA-40 reports less precipitation and NCEP-2 reports more precipitation than the observations. With regard to the amplitude of the interannual variations, CRU is better than either of the reanalyses in representing the corresponding observations. The amplitude in NCEP-2 is stronger but that of ERA-40 is weaker than the observations in most study domains. NCEP-2 has a more obvious interannual variability than ERA-40 or CRU in most areas of East China. Through an Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the main features of the rainfall belts produced by CRU aggree better with the observations than with those produced by the reanalyses in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley. In East of China, particularly in the Yangtze-Huaihe River valley, CRU can reveal the quasi-biennial oscillation of summer precipitation represented by the observations, but the signal of ERA-40 is comparatively weak and not very obvious, whereas that of NCEP-2 is also weak before 1990 but very strong after 1990. The results also suggest that the magnitude of the precipitation difference between ERA-40 and the observations is smaller than that between NCEP-2 and the observations, but the variations represented by NCEP-2 are
Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Guanshan; Timko, Michael P; Li, Jiana; Wang, Wenjing; Ma, Haoran
Water quality is under increasing threat from industrial and natural sources of pollutants. Here, we present our findings about a pollution incident involving the tap water of Chongqing City in China. In recent years, Solanaceae plants grown in greenhouses in this city have displayed symptoms of cupped, strappy leaves. These symptoms resembled those caused by chlorinated auxinic herbicides. We have determined that these symptoms were caused by the tap water used for irrigation. Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, we isolated a substance with corresponding auxinic activity from the tap water. The substance was named "solanicide" because of its strong bioactivity against Solanaceae plants. Further investigation revealed that the solanicide in the water system of Chongqing City is derived from the Jialing River, a major tributary of the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is also present in the Yangtze River downstream of Chongqing after the inflow of the Jialing River. Biological analyses indicated that solanicide is functionally similar to, but distinct from, other known chlorinated auxinic herbicides. Chemical assays further showed that solanicide structurally differs from those compounds. This study has highlighted a water pollution threat to the Yangtze River and its floodplain ecosystem.
Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang
The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB.
Wang, Ce; Cyterski, Mike; Feng, Yujie; Gao, Peng; Sun, Qingfang
To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and loadings of organic contaminants along an industrialized section have made it the focal point of a national pollution reduction plan. In addition to water quality issues, management of the Songhua River basin must also address local economic development, aquatic ecosystem sustainability and political relationships with Russia. In three periods spanning 2006 to 2010, eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight phenols were measured in surface waters at ten monitoring sites along the river. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to characterize water quality at different sites and time periods. Chemical concentrations of the organic compounds showed significant sinusoidal seasonal patterns and the concentrations declined significantly from 2006 to 2010, possibly due to management practices designed to control water pollution. A critical body residue analysis showed that water concentrations measured during the winter of 2007 across all monitoring sites, but especially at S1-Shaokou and S2-Songhuajiangcun, presented a high risk for fish species. The spatiotemporal characteristics of water quality and estimated ecological risks shown here add to the body of knowledge to develop policies on industrial output and pollution management strategies for the Songhua River basin.
Tang, Wenzhong; Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wenqiang
The Hai River Basin (HRB) is one of the most polluted river basins in China. The basin suffers from various types of pollutants including heavy metals and nutrients due to a high population density and rapid economic development in this area. We assessed the relationship between heavy metal accumulation by periphyton playing an important role in fluvial food webs and eutrophication in the HRB. The concentrations of the unicellular diatoms (type A), filamentous algae with diatoms (type B), and filamentous algae (type C) varied along the river, with type A dominating upstream, and types B then C increasing in concentration further downstream, and this was consistent with changes in the trophic status of the river. The mean heavy metal concentrations in the type A, B and C organisms were Cr: 18, 18 and 24 mg/kg, respectively, Ni: 9.2, 10 and 12 mg/kg, respectively, Cu: 8.4, 19 and 29 mg/kg, respectively, and Pb: 11, 9.8 and 7.1 mg/kg respectively. The bioconcentration factors showed that the abilities of the organisms to accumulate Cr, Ni and Pb decreased in the order type A, type B, then type C, but their abilities to accumulate Cu increased in that order. The Ni concentration was a good predictor of Cr, Cu and Pb accumulation by all three periphyton types. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation by periphyton is associated with eutrophication in the rivers in the HRB. PMID:24482681
Mai, Bi-Xian; Fu, Jia-Mo; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Kang, Yue-Hui; Lin, Zheng; Zhang, Gan; Min, Yu-Shuan; Zeng, Eddy Y
Spatial distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons [chlorinated pesticides (CPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in riverine and estuarine sediment samples from Pearl River Delta, China, collected in 1997. Concentrations of CPs of the riverine sediment samples range from 12 to 158 ng/g, dry weight, while those of PCBs range from 11 to 486 ng/g. The CPs concentrations of the estuarine sediment samples are in the range 6-1658 ng/g, while concentrations of PCBs are in the range 10-339 ng/g. Total PAH concentration ranges from 1168 to 21,329 ng/g in the riverine sediment samples, whereas the PAH concentration ranges from 323 to 14,812 ng/g in the sediment samples of the Estuary. Sediment samples of the Zhujiang River and Macao harbor around the Estuary show the highest concentrations of CPs, PCBs, and PAHs. Possible factors affecting the distribution patterns are also discussed based on the usage history of the chemicals, hydrologic condition, and land erosion due to urbanization processes. The composition of PAHs is investigated and used to assess petrogenic, combustion and naturally derived PAHs of the sediment samples of the Pearl River Delta. In addition, the concentrations of a number of organic compounds of the Pearl River Delta samples indicate that sediments of the Zhujiang river and Macao harbor are most likely to pose biological impairment.
Sun, Daolin; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min; Chen, Guoguang; Zhang, Shujun
There are regular problems of musty odor in the Huangpu River, a major source of drinking water for Shanghai, China. In this study, the musty odor and its main causative compounds in the Huangpu River source water were confirmed through a yearly investigation using flavor profile analysis combined with HSPME-GC-MS analysis. The investigation showed that 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) with a concentration level between 28.6 and 71.0 ng/L was responsible for the musty odor in summer from July to September. Microscopic observation confirmed with the cloning results showed that Phormidium spp., which accounted for 80%-95% of the algal cell density, was the microorganisms responsible for the production of 2-MIB and the estimated 2-MIB yield was 0.022 pg/cell. Results from a wide-area sampling campaign in the Huangpu River watershed showed that, other than the large tributaries receiving water from Tai Lake, several small creeks close to the intake may have contributed most of the 2-MIB and the Phormidium spp. to the Huangpu River source water. This study provides methodology for the investigation of odor causing compounds and microorganisms in river-type source water, and the result will be useful for water quality control in both source water and drinking water.
Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing
Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is a critical dissolved oxygen (DO) sink in many rivers. Understanding the relative contributions of the biological and chemical components of SOD would improve our knowledge of the potential environmental harm SOD could cause and allow appropriate management systems to be developed. A various inhibitors addition technique was conducted to measure the total, chemical, and biological SOD of sediment samples from 13 sites in the Ziya River watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. The results showed that the major component of SOD was chemical SOD due to iron predominate. The ferrous SOD accounted for 21.6-78.9 % of the total SOD and 33.26-96.79 % of the chemical SOD. Biological SOD represented 41.13 % of the overall SOD averagely. Sulfide SOD accounted for 1.78-45.71 % of the total SOD and it was the secondary predominate of the chemical SOD. Manganous SOD accounted for 1.2-16.6 % of the total SOD and it was insignificant at many sites. Only four kinds of benthos were collected in the Ziya River watershed, resulting from the low DO concentration in the sediment surface due to SOD. This study would be helpful for understanding and preventing the potential sediment oxygen depletion during river restoration.
Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y
The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.
Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706
Tong, Yindong; Zhao, Yue; Zhen, Gengchong; Chi, Jie; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Wang, Xuejun; Yao, Ruihua; Chen, Junyue; Zhang, Wei
Based on monthly monitoring data of unfiltered water, the nutrient discharges of the eight main rivers flowing into the coastal waters of China were calculated from 2006 to 2012. In 2012, the total load of NH3-N (calculated in nitrogen), total nitrogen (TN, calculated in nitrogen) and total phosphorus (TP, calculated in phosphorus) was 5.1 × 105, 3.1 × 106 and 2.8 × 105 tons, respectively, while in 2006, the nutrient load was 7.4 × 105, 2.2 × 106 and 1.6 × 105 tons, respectively. The nutrient loading from the eight major rivers into the coastal waters peaked in summer and autumn, probably due to the large water discharge in the wet season. The Yangtze River was the largest riverine nutrient source for the coastal waters, contributing 48% of the NH3-N discharges, 66% of the TN discharges and 84% of the TP discharges of the eight major rivers in 2012. The East China Sea received the majority of the nutrient discharges, i.e. 50% of NH3-N (2.7 × 105 tons), 70% of TN (2.2 × 106 tons) and 87% of TP (2.5 × 105 tons) in 2012. The riverine discharge of TN into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was lower than that from the direct atmospheric deposition, while for the East China Sea, the riverine TN input was larger. PMID:26582206
Tong, Yindong; Zhao, Yue; Zhen, Gengchong; Chi, Jie; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Wang, Xuejun; Yao, Ruihua; Chen, Junyue; Zhang, Wei
Based on monthly monitoring data of unfiltered water, the nutrient discharges of the eight main rivers flowing into the coastal waters of China were calculated from 2006 to 2012. In 2012, the total load of NH3-N (calculated in nitrogen), total nitrogen (TN, calculated in nitrogen) and total phosphorus (TP, calculated in phosphorus) was 5.1 × 105, 3.1 × 106 and 2.8 × 105 tons, respectively, while in 2006, the nutrient load was 7.4 × 105, 2.2 × 106 and 1.6 × 105 tons, respectively. The nutrient loading from the eight major rivers into the coastal waters peaked in summer and autumn, probably due to the large water discharge in the wet season. The Yangtze River was the largest riverine nutrient source for the coastal waters, contributing 48% of the NH3-N discharges, 66% of the TN discharges and 84% of the TP discharges of the eight major rivers in 2012. The East China Sea received the majority of the nutrient discharges, i.e. 50% of NH3-N (2.7 × 105 tons), 70% of TN (2.2 × 106 tons) and 87% of TP (2.5 × 105 tons) in 2012. The riverine discharge of TN into the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea was lower than that from the direct atmospheric deposition, while for the East China Sea, the riverine TN input was larger.
Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Chen, Feng; Yang, Ji-Feng; Wang, Li
We investigated two commonly used antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in the Pearl River system in China (i.e., Liuxi, Zhujiang and Shijing Rivers) and four sewage effluents during dry and wet seasons. The median values for TCS and TCC were the highest in the surface water and sediments of the Shijing River, followed by the Zhujiang River and Liuxi River. Screening level risk assessment using the risk quotient (RQ) method showed that TCS and TCC in surface water posed median risks in the Zhujiang and Liuxi Rivers (RQs: 0.28-0.62 for TCS, and 0.15-0.80 for TCC) and high risks in the Shijing River (RQs: 5.15-9.55 for TCS, and 3.32-5.83 for TCC). Higher risks (RQs: 3.63-28.47 for TCS, and 3.13-24.54 for TCC) were found in the sediments than in surface water of the Pearl River system. The four sewage effluents and Shijing River as well as other urban streams in Guangzhou metropolitan area were identified as the sources of the two compounds in the main river Zhujiang River. The mass inventories of TCS and TCC in the Pearl River system indicate that the sediments are not only an important sink but also a potential source for the two compounds in surface water.
Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui
Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.
Zhang, Gao-sheng; Wang, Ren-qing; Song, Bai-min
Data were collected in different successional stages using a simultaneous sampling method and analyzed through quantitative classification method. Three large groups and 12 classes were made to represent the community patterns of three succession stages and 12 succession communities. The succession series of plant community in the study area was as follows: saline bare land→community Suaeda salsa→community Tamarix chinensis→grassland. Succession degree and succession process of 12 succession communities were calculated. Most of these communities were in the lower succession stage, however, community Phragmites communis+Glycine soja and community Imperata cylindrica+G. soja were close to the succession stage of grassland climax. Five species diversity indices were used to study the changes in species richness, species evenness and diversity during succession of community. Heterogeneity index and richness index increased gradually during the community succession process, but species evenness tended to decrease with succession development. The relation between succession and environment was studied by ordination technique, and the results showed that the soil salt content was an important factor to halarch succession of the modern Yellow River Delta. It affected community structure, species composition and succession process. PMID:17657854
Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping
Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.
Tseng, C.; Gong, G.; Liu, K. K.; Shen, P.; Cai, W.
Human activities have greatly altered the export of terrestrial materials. However, a clear link between river discharge and coastal ocean carbon cycle has not been established, nor do we know how human engineering of water resources impacts ocean CO2 uptake. Here we report strong correlations between Changjiang river discharge, river plume area in summer, and CO2 uptake in the East China Sea (ECS), which enables the assessment that a 17% reduction in CO2 uptake has resulted from the 10% reduction in discharge since the beginning of water impoundment in the Three-Gorges Dam. This constitutes strong evidence that human activity has changed the carbon cycle in one of the largest marginal seas in the world. The CO2 uptake capacity of the ECS will continue to decrease as the result of a predicted shrink of the plume area during flood season due to increased reservoir evaporation and flood regulation, increased agriculture and industrial water use, and future transport of water to the semiarid northern China.
Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Wan, Hongfu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tropical and sub-tropical areas and the associated risks have attracted great concern. A total of 69 samples representing five distinct land types were collected to assess PCB concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, including spatial distributions in soils of the area, the probable anthropogenic sources, and related potential risks. PCBs concentrations in soils of the PRD ranged from 0.3 to 202 ng g(-1). More severe PCBs contamination was presented in the western part than in the eastern part of the PRD region. The PCBs were dominated by low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, the proportion of higher-chlorinated biphenyls was elevated with the influence of industrial activities. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs contamination in soils of the PRD region was mainly associated with 1#PCBs, while 2#PCB and e-waste emission in South China also accounted for it partly, especially to the industrial activity severely impacted areas. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the dioxin-like PCBs in the soils indicated that higher risk of PCB contamination was presented in the Dongjiang River Valley (55 ng TEQ kg(-1), on average) than in the Xijiang River Valley, and were mostly contributed by the congener of PCB126.
Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing
The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.
Chen, X.; Zhao, J.; Chen, L.; Tao, X.; Zhao, Z.
Understanding heat fluxes through hyporheic zones (HZ) becomes increasingly important as anthropogenic influences and changing climate alter river thermal regimes. The HZ directly interacts with river thermal regimes by storing and releasing heat over a range of timescales. Alteration of HZ can lead to shifts in aquatic species composition and changes in biogeochemical processes. In this study we examine a reach of the Xinanjiang, China downstream of the Xinanjiang Dam. The Xinanjiang Dam introduces a low temperature water (LTW) region to the downstream of a length of 23 km and an area of 9.9 km2, which greatly changes the downstream thermal regime. However, how and to what extent the LTW in stream affect the HZ temperature distribution and, ulteriorly, the full range of the river ecosystem are still not completely understood. We quantify hyporheic exchange and heat transport induced by LTW by field experiments and numerical simulations for coupled groundwater flow and heat transport. Both surface and subsurface water temperature are measured in a study region for model validation. The hydraulic head and water temperature along the water-aquifer interface are considered as the input boundaries for groundwater models. The upwelling water with short streamline paths shows the same temperature pattern as surface water but the temperature of water that comes out from the deep subsurface zones rises much higher and shows a relatively lower variation. However, with the continuing exchange of surface LTW and groundwater, the low temperature spreads over the entire domain. Detailed field characterization and groundwater modeling indicate residence times of hyporheic flux can vary from hours to months. A significant implication is that the LTW released from upstream reservoir contributes to the downstream temperature field and potential degradation of habitats in hyporheic zones.
Wang, Huiliang; Li, Xuyong; Xie, Ying
In the context of rapid economic growth in China, hydrochemical characteristics of stream water quality are being influenced by a variety of natural and anthropogenic inputs. We determined 10 hydrochemical parameters of the surface water at 29 monitoring sites in the Luan River basin of northern China during 2007-2009. Water quality hydrochemistry was evaluated using fuzzy comprehensive analysis based on the National Surface Water Environmental Quality Standards of China. Our results showed that 14 sites were classified as 'meeting standard (MS)' while the other 15 sites were classified 'non-meeting standard (NS)'. According to principal component analysis, four potential pollution sources were identified that explained 80.6% of the total variance among these MS sites, and three potential pollution sources that explained 78.3% of the total variance among these NS sites. Furthermore, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources. Most water pollution variables were influenced primarily by municipal sewage and non-point pollution in MS sites. In NS sites, chemical industry wastewater pollution dominated. Pollution in the main stream was more serious than that in the small tributaries. Our findings provide useful information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Luan River.
Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Dai, Ying; Chen, Xi
The recent heterogeneous warming and the associated summer precipitation over eastern China are investigated in this study. In 1990-1999, there exist warming over northwestern Pacific and cooling over eastern equatorial Pacific, which can be quantified by temperature gradient index (TGI). Positive and negative cases are chosen based on TGI. In positive cases, a "southern flood and northern drought" summer rainfall pattern dominates over eastern China. The atmospheric circulations show that associated with the southward receding of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), ascending motion accompanied with more water vapor exists over southern China. Furthermore, cold-warm air activity affected by weakened East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) and strengthened East Asia polar front jet (EAPJ) may also be responsible for this rainfall anomaly pattern. In negative cases, significant positive Meiyu-like rainfall anomaly concentrated over Yangtze Huaihe River Basin (YHRB). Associated with the northward shift of WPSH, more water vapor is transported to YHRB. Additionally, the enhanced ascending motion over YHRB may be related with the northward shift of the EAPJ and westward shift of the EASJ. The results reinforce the notion that the configuration of EASJ and EAPJ in both intensity and position has large impacts on the precipitation variations over eastern China.
Yang, Qiaofeng; Xu, Suning; Wang, Ruijiu; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhiyi; Mei, Junjun; Ding, Zhilei; Yang, Peijie; Yu, Liangju; Lv, Tieying; Bai, Gang; Kang, Wei
In the study of seawater intrusion, seawater is usually taken as an end-member that mixes with other source(s). However, compared to standard seawater, the coastal seawater particularly that near the estuary, can be strongly influenced by the rivers into the sea and by coastal human activities. Their composition can be thus continuously changed and redistributed with space and time. Therefore, before investigating seawater intrusion in a certain area, it is essentially important to determine the features of the estuarine seawater (e.g. the mixture percentage between standard seawater and river water). In this study, we aimed to gain a clear situation of the seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, Southern Bohai, China. The issue aforementioned was investigated by comparing the stable isotopic and hydrochemical composition of the marine and river water collected in this area. Samples investigated include 5 surface water samples collected at the downstream of the Bailanghe and 7 seawater samples near the estuary of Laizhou Bay. Inert tracers (δD, δ18O, Cl, Br) and reaction tracers (Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Ca, NO3) are particularly analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1) All the river water samples fall below the Global Meteoric Water Line in the δD - δ18O diagram, reflecting evaporation of the upstream reservoir water. The seawater samples fall on the mixing line of standard seawater and the river water in the stable isotopic diagram. 2) The Cl-δ18O diagram indicates widespread dissolution of evaporate into the river, while high concentration of Ca and HCO3-, as well as the SO42- - Cl relation of the river water samples reflect the dissolution of CO2 , carbonate and sulfate in the atmosphere and on the ground. 3) The Br/Cl ratios of seawater samples are closed to the marine ratios. This together with the plots of major ions vs. Cl suggest that the seawater samples are originated from the mixture of standard seawater and river water. Therefore, when referring to the
Chi Yukun; Xu Shice )
The Pearl River Mouth basin is a large Cenozoic continental margin basin that is rich in hydrocarbon potential. Fluvial-lake sequences were deposited before Oligocene, but all were covered by Miocene marine clastic and carbonate rocks. Both paleo-Pearl River delta system and reef/bank carbonate system were widely developed. At the early stage of the evolution, two subsidence belts and one uplift between them distributed in NE regional direction; grabens occurred in the north belt and depressions in the south belt. Tectonic movement was stronger in the east than the west. The main production zones have been drilled both in Miocene sandstone and carbonate rocks. As the exploration activities are developing, the basin will be one of the most significant China offshore oil production areas.
Feng, Qingqing; Han, Lu; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Yali; Meng, Tianyi; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie
The Chishui River is the last undammed tributary of the upper Yangtze River, extends cross Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, and it is the significant water source of Maotai liquor, Southwest of China. We investigated microbial community of the Chishui River in the Maotai town section, because of deep relationship between the water and the most famous Chinese liquor, Maotai liquor. In this study, diversities of bacteria and archaea of four seasons were analyzed in two different sampling sites using a barcoded 16S rRNA gene-pyrosequencing approach. The results show that the predominant community among all bacteria is Proteobacteria (70.16-94.29 %), of which Gamma-proteobacteria made up the largest portion. Bacterial community structure in spring and autumn tended to group together, and the operational taxonomic units of bacteria peaked in summer. The quantitative PCR (q-PCR) results revealed significantly higher number of gene copies in the downstream than that in the upstream, and were slightly higher in summer and spring than other seasons. Archaeal community structures had no obvious regular pattern, and species richness was higher in downstream in all seasons. Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota were the dominant groups in archaeal populations, and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea was detected. The study significantly improved our understanding of microbial community in Maotai section of the Chishui River, where the unique and world-famous Maotai liquor is produced.
Niu, Jun; Chen, Ji; Sun, Liqun
The knowledge of drought evolution characteristics may aid the decision making process in mitigating drought impacts. This study uses a macro-scale hydrological model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate terrestrial hydrological processes over the Xijiang (West River) basin in South China. Three drought indices, namely standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and soil moisture anomaly index (SMAI), are employed to examine the spatio-temporal and evolution features of drought events. SPI, SRI and SMAI represent meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, respectively. The results reveal that the drought severity depicted by SPI and SRI is similar with increasing timescales; SRI is close to that of SPI in the wet season for the Liu River basin as the high-frequency precipitation is conserved more by runoff; the time lags appear between SPI and SRI due to the delay response of runoff to precipitation variability for the You River basin. The case study in 2010 spring drought further shows that the spatio-temporal evolutions are modulated by the basin-scale topography. There is more consistency between meteorological and hydrological droughts for the fan-like basin with a converged river network. For the west area of the Xijiang basin with the high elevation, the hydrological drought severity is less than meteorological drought during the developing stage. The recovery of hydrological and agricultural droughts is slower than that of meteorological drought for basins with a longer mainstream.
Song, Chunlin; Wang, Genxu; Sun, Xiangyang; Chang, Ruiying; Mao, Tianxu
Under the context of dramatic human disturbances on river system, the processes that control the transport of water, sediment, and carbon from river basins to coastal seas are not completely understood. Here we performed a quantitative synthesis for 121 sites across China to find control factors of annual river exports (Rc: runoff coefficient; TSSC: total suspended sediment concentration; TSSL: total suspended sediment loads; TOCL: total organic carbon loads) at different spatial scales. The results indicated that human activities such as dam construction and vegetation restoration might have a greater influence than climate on the transport of river sediment and carbon, although climate was a major driver of Rc. Multiple spatial scale analyses indicated that Rc increased from the small to medium scale by 20% and then decreased at the sizable scale by 20%. TSSC decreased from the small to sizeable scale but increase from the sizeable to large scales; however, TSSL significantly decreased from small (768 g·m−2·a−1) to medium spatial scale basins (258 g·m−2·a−1), and TOCL decreased from the medium to large scale. Our results will improve the understanding of water, sediment and carbon transport processes and contribute better water and land resources management strategies from different spatial scales. PMID:27166177
Sun, Zhuyu; Zhang, Chaojie; Yan, Hong; Han, Changlai; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiangzhou; Zhou, Qi
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been found to be ubiquitously disseminated in the environment due to their widespread use in recent decades. In this study, the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of PFAAs in the surface water of Huangpu River, Shanghai, China were investigated from 2012 to 2014. The total concentration of 14 PFAAs (ΣPFAAs) ranged from 39.8 to 596.2 ng L(-1), with a mean value of 226.3 ng L(-1). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant, with their mean concentrations of 139.6 and 46.5 ng L(-1), respectively. The concentration of ΣPFAAs increased greatly downstream especially in the lower reach of an industrial and urbanized area. Samples collected in different seasons were used to analyze the seasonal variation. The results showed that higher concentration of ΣPFAAs occurred in the wet season, especially downstream. Therefore, industrial discharges, municipal wastewater and surface runoff were identified as major potential sources. The annual discharge load of ΣPFAAs from Huangpu River to Yangtze River was estimated to be 2263.4 kg yr(-1). The hazard assessment suggested that the contamination of PFAAs in Huangpu River could pose risks to the aquatic environment and drinking water safety, which should draw more attention.
Song, Chunlin; Wang, Genxu; Sun, Xiangyang; Chang, Ruiying; Mao, Tianxu
Under the context of dramatic human disturbances on river system, the processes that control the transport of water, sediment, and carbon from river basins to coastal seas are not completely understood. Here we performed a quantitative synthesis for 121 sites across China to find control factors of annual river exports (Rc: runoff coefficient; TSSC: total suspended sediment concentration; TSSL: total suspended sediment loads; TOCL: total organic carbon loads) at different spatial scales. The results indicated that human activities such as dam construction and vegetation restoration might have a greater influence than climate on the transport of river sediment and carbon, although climate was a major driver of Rc. Multiple spatial scale analyses indicated that Rc increased from the small to medium scale by 20% and then decreased at the sizable scale by 20%. TSSC decreased from the small to sizeable scale but increase from the sizeable to large scales; however, TSSL significantly decreased from small (768 g·m‑2·a‑1) to medium spatial scale basins (258 g·m‑2·a‑1), and TOCL decreased from the medium to large scale. Our results will improve the understanding of water, sediment and carbon transport processes and contribute better water and land resources management strategies from different spatial scales.
Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Guo-An; Brierley, Gary John; Wang, Zhaoyin; Jia, Yanhong
A meandering channel has developed in the middle Tarim River, the longest inland river flowing through a hyperarid environment in northwestern China. Although the drainage basin of the Tarim River extends over 1 million km2, flow in downstream reaches is largely restricted to summer months, and irrigation pressures have made the flood season increasingly short. The planform morphology, lateral migration rate, and cutoffs of 105 meanders were analysed using multiperiod remote sensing images and field survey analyses of channel bed and bank properties and of riparian vegetation cover. Results show that planform attributes of the meandering Tarim River are similar to those found in other environments. The ratio of the channel centreline length to the neck channel width of meanders ranges between 1.2 and 8.1, the bend curvature (ratio of bend radius to channel width) ranges between 0.30 and 2.8, and the average deflection angle of the bend apexes is 79.9°. Meander migration rates range from 1.4 to 96.7 m y- 1. From 2000 to 2013, 45 cutoffs occurred along the 400-km-long reach. As the riparian vegetation cover is sparse because of limited precipitation and because banks are comprised of dense roots, fine sand and silt materials, but lack clay, bank strength is limited and presents limited constraints upon bend movement.
Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Sun, Peng; Chen, Xiaohong; Kong, Dongdong
The flood magnitude, frequency and timing were analyzed using daily flow data for a period of 1950-2007 from 8 stations in the Tarim River basin, a typical arid inland river basin in China. The causes for flood occurrences were investigated using daily meteorological data. Results indicated that precipitation and temperature were increasing persistently since the 1980s and significant increases in precipitation and temperature were observed after the 1990s. As a result, floods amplified at annual and seasonal time scales in most tributary basins after the 1980s. The floods in the basin are mainly attributed to rainstorms and melting of glaciers and snowpack, and rainstorm-induced floods and temperature-induced floods were dominant in the basin. Extreme floods, such as the three largest recorded floods and floods with return periods > 10 years occurred mainly after the 1990s, with significant increase in flood-induced crop and livestock losses. It was found that heavy floods in many tributary basins often occurred about the same time. The Tarim River basin is a typical arid inland river basin in a high altitude zone and amplifying floods in recent decades, particularly after 1990s, is arousing considerable concern for mitigation of flood hazards. Results of this study shed light on hydrological response of arid regions to warming climate at higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere.
DU, Y.; Chen, J.; Wang, K.; Shi, H.
This study uses the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to simulate the hydrological processes over the Pearl River basin in South China. The observed streamflow data in the Pearl River Basin for the period 1951-2000 are used to evaluate the model simulation results. Further, in this study, the 55 datasets of climate projection from 18 General Circulation Models (GCMs) for the IPCC AR4 (SRES A2/A1B/B1) and AR5 (RCP 2.6/4.5/6.0/8.5) are used to drive the VIC model at 0.5°× 0.5°spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. Then, the monthly Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and standardized runoff index (SRI) are generated to detect the drought occurrence. This study validates the GCMs projection through comparing the observed precipitation for the period of 2000-2013. Then, spatial variation of the frequency change of moderate drought, severe drought and extreme drought are analyzed for the 21st century. The study reveals that the frequencies of severe drought and extreme drought occurrences over the Pearl River Basin increase along with time. Specifically, for the scenario of AR5 RCP 8.5, the east and west parts of the Pearl River Basin most likely suffer from severe drought and extreme drought with an increased frequency throughout the 21st century.
Su, Jiao; Lu, Yingzhuan; Liu, Zhiyang; Gao, Shutao; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jia-mo
Forty surface sediment samples from the Hunhe River in Northeast China were evaluated for contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). The results showed that decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was the predominant congener, accounting for >98 % of PBDEs in all sediment. The concentrations of BDE-209 and HBCD ranged from 3.96 to 327 ng/g dry weight and 0.05 to 25.8 ng/g dry weight, respectively, suggesting that BDE-209 was more widely applied in the study area. The mean concentrations of BDE-209 and HBCD in the downstream portion of the Hunhe River (BDE-209 148 ng/g dry weight and HBCD 3.74 ng/g dry weight) were found to be relatively higher than those in the upstream portion of the Hunhe River and the Dahuofang Reservoir, revealing an association with municipal sewage and industrial effluent received from the cities of Fushun and Shenyang. γ-HBCD was the most abundant diastereoisomer of all three analyzed HBCD isomers; however, marked elevations of α-HBCD were also found in most sediment samples. Surprisingly, the relative abundance (mean 38%) of α-HBCD in sediment from the upstream portion of the Hunhe River was significantly higher (p < 0.006, t test) than those in Dahuofang Reservoir (mean 24%). Moreover, the severe heavy metal contamination associated with the frequent mining activities in this region was tentatively suggested as being responsible for the increased levels of α-HBCD.
Niu, Yong; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Yu, Hui
Lake Taihu, the third-largest freshwater body in China, has many functions, including drinking water supply, flood control, cultivation, navigation, and tourism. In this study, sediment samples were collected at 31 sites from 11 inflow rivers in 2012, to investigate the distribution and concentration of heavy metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr), and to assess their potential ecological risk. The highest mean concentration was found for Zn, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, and Ni. Generally, heavy metal pollution was more serious in Wu Jingang River and Caoqiao River, probably because they receive large amounts of wastewater from various local industrial enterprises. The potential ecological risk values of the heavy metals were larger than 120 in more than 25.8% of the sediment samples, indicating a very high risk. The largest ecological risk was due to copper. Furthermore, the results of a principal component analysis and subsequent analysis of variance showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediment of inflow rivers were higher than those of the lake, which created a large hazard for the aquatic ecosystems of Lake Taihu.
Higgins, Stephanie; Overeem, Irina; Tanaka, Akiko; Syvitski, James P. M.
Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar is applied to the coast of the Yellow River delta (YRD) in China. Like many deltas, the coastline of the YRD is dominated by aquaculture. Advanced Land Observation Satellite Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Envisat Advanced SAR data acquired between 2007 and 2011 show that subsidence rates are as high as 250 mm/y at aquaculture facilities, likely due to groundwater pumping. These rates exceed local and global average sea level rise by nearly 2 orders of magnitude and suggest that subsidence and associated relative sea level rise may present a significant hazard for Asian megadeltas.
The three-rivers headwater region (THRHR) of Qinghai province, China plays a key role as source of fresh water and ecosystem services for central and eastern China. Global warming and human activities in the THRHR have threatened the ecosystem since the 1980s. Therefore, the Chinese government has included managing of the THRHR in the national strategy since 2003. The State Integrated Test and Demonstration Region of the THRHR highlights the connection with social engineering (focus on improving people's livelihood and well-being) in managing nature reserves. Based on this program, this perspective attempts a holistic analysis of the strategic role of the THRHR, requirements for change, indices of change, and approaches to change. Long-term success of managing nature reserves requires effective combination of ecological conservation, economic development, and social progress. Thus, the philosophy of social engineering should be employed as a strategy to manage the THRHR.
Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yongzhan; Trottier, Corwin; Ge, Chendong; Yin, Yong
The mineralogy and geochemistry of sands were investigated in the Nandu and Wanquan rivers, Hainan Island, China, to determine the history of avulsion in the lower reaches of the Nandu River. The study also provided the opportunity to assess the utility of geochemical analysis of sands as a provenance tool. Much of the heavy mineral fraction in the rivers consists of subangular Fe-Ti oxide and Fe-(hydr)oxide minerals, and less stable minerals such as amphibole, epidote, and andalusite, whereas rounded resistant ilmenite, rutile, tourmaline and zircon predominate on the deltaic coast. Mineral assemblage and chemical composition of individual samples are related to specific source areas and river tributaries. The results demonstrate northwestwards flow of the Nandu River during the mid-Holocene and earlier avulsion of the river to the northeast coast, probably during a Late Pleistocene marine highstand. Minor basement tilting, producing little relief, was sufficient to divert the lower reaches of rivers, and this effect was enhanced where basalt flows dammed former river courses. Bulk sample REE geochemistry is largely controlled by the relative abundance of monazite, allanite, titanite, zircon and epidote, derived principally from granites. Detrital geochemistry alone shows too much variability to interpret provenance. However, a smaller number of heavy mineral analyses provide an understanding of the mineralogical origins of geochemical variation, thus enabling interpretations of provenance.
Water scarcity and population increase have been a major limiting factor in oasis development along the Tarim River in Xinjiang, Northwest China which has very continental and dry climate, and all the agriculture and livelihoods depend on glacier melt water from Tarim River. Due to vast land reclamation along the Tarim River to grow cotton, native plant species are facing a severe competition for water, which is essential for their survival. Decreasing river runoff and inefficient water use practices by agriculture and industry has exacerbated already serious situation even worse. In addition, a large influx of migrant famers from Eastern China is being settled in this region to cultivate new agricultural lands that consumed even more water. Under those conditions, the natural riparian vegetation and the irrigation agriculture, especially along the lower reaches, suffers water shortage leading the degradation and economic losses, respectively. Along with the enlargement of irrigation area and periods of water shortage, soil salinization has become a major concern for farmers in the area. Alternative cash crops are much needed to reduce water use, so both native vegetation and human demand for water would be fulfilled. We hypothesized Apocynum Pictum, perennial herb species with multiple uses as potential substitute. Multidisciplinary approach is being used in this study to investigate three related issues to offer a basis for Apocynum's role in sustainable agriculture, such as Biomass production of Apocynum; Water budget of Apocynum; and Economic utilization of Apocynum. A.Pictum is perennial plant distributed in Central Asia and China, which its roots are perennial, while the stems die every year. Thus, A.pictum grow under the arid climate of Central Asia and provide utilization options without irrigation. We initially estimate water requirement for this plant is much less than cotton. In order to validate our hypothesis, we have measured water consumption of the
Kissel, C.; Liu, Z.; Wandres, C.
In order to use the magnetic properties of marine sediments as a tracer for past changes in the precipitation rate on land and in oceanic water masses transport and exchanges in the South China Sea, we identify and characterize the different sources of the detrital fraction among which the magnetic particles. This work is presently conducted in the framework of the Franco-Chinese LIA-MONOCL Thanks to the Westpac project, we had access to sediments collected in the deltas of the main rivers feeding the South China Sea from about 25°N to the equator. This is represented on the Asian continent by the Pearl river, the Red River, the Mekong river, by Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo regions with minor rivers but also contributing to the South China Sea, and finally by Luzon and Taiwan. The geological formations contributing to the river sediment discharges are different from one catchment basin to another as well as the present climatic conditions. The magnetic analyses consist in the analysis of low-field magnetic susceptibility, ARM acquisition and decay, IRM acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of 3-axes IRM, hysteresis parameters, and FORC diagrams. The obtained parameters all together allow us to define the nature of the magnetic grains and their grain size distribution when magnetite is dominant. Some degree of variability is observed at the river mouths, illustrating different geological sources at the local/regional scale. As an average, it appears that the Southern basin of the South China Sea is surrounded by regions richer in high coercivity magnetic minerals than the northern basin. This mineral is identified as hematite while magnetites (and sulfides) are more abundant in the north. These results are complementary to the clay mineral assemblages previously determined on the same samples. The first steps of a similar study conducted on marine core-tops well distributed in the South China Sea will also be illustrated.
[Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. IV. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for maize based on crop water deficit index].
Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song
Based on the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 249 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as the agricultural drought index, this paper calculated the drought frequency and drought stations ratio in this region, and analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of drought for spring maize and summer maize during their growth periods. As for the spatial pattern of drought frequency, the drought for spring maize was more severe in the north of Huaihe River, northern Yunnan, and southern South China, but was lighter in the other regions. Except that the drought for summer maize at its late developmental stage was more severe in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River, northern South China, and eastern Southwest China, the drought for summer maize at its other developmental stages within southern China was lighter. As for the variation trend of drought intensity and drought area, the drought intensity of spring maize from its seven-leaf stage to jointing stage in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River increased obviously, while the drought intensity and drought area of the spring maize from its late spinning stage to milky maturity stage presented a decreasing trend. The drought of summer maize from its late jointing stage to tasseling stage and from late spinning stage to milky maturity stage all showed a decreasing trend. In Southwest China, the drought intensity and drought area for spring maize and summer maize had no clear trend. From the viewpoint of the inter-annual and decadal variability of drought intensity and drought area, there was a larger variation for the summer maize in the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River, but less difference in Southwest China.
The Tarim River is the principle water source of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, NW China and the country's largest endorheic river, terminating in the Taklamakan desert. The vast majority of discharge is generated in the glaciated mountain ranges to the north (Tian Shan), south (Kunlun Shan/Tibetan Plateau) and west (Pamir Mountains) of the Taklamakan desert. The main water user is the intensive irrigation agriculture for mostly cotton and fruit production in linear river oases of the middle and lower reaches as well as a population of 10 Mil. people. Over the past 40 years, an increase in river discharge was reported, assumed to be caused by enhanced glacier melt due to a warming climate. Rapid population growth and economic development have led to a significant expansion of area under irrigation, resulting in water shortages for downstream users and the floodplain vegetation. Water resource planning and management of the Tarim require integrated assessment tools to examine changes under future climate change, land use and irrigation scenarios. The development of such tools, however, is challenged by sparse climate and discharge data as well as available data on water abstractions and diversions. The semi-distributed, process-based hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) was implemented for the headwater and middle reaches that generate over 90% of discharge, including the Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant rivers. It includes the representation of snow and glacier melt as well as irrigation abstractions. Once calibrated and validated to river discharge, the model is used to analyse future climate scenarios provided by one physically-based and one statistical regional climate model (RCM). Preliminary results of the model calibration and validation indicate that SWIM is able simulate river discharge adequately, despite poor data conditions. Snow and glacier melt account for the largest share in river discharge. The modelling results will devise
Hu, Nan; Zheng, Ji-Fang; Ding, De-Xin; Liu, Jun; Yang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Jie; Li, Guang-Yue; Wang, Yong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Long
The Huayuan River in Hunan Province in China is subject to ongoing mining activity with Mn extraction. In this study, the level and environmental significance of metals (including Mn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) concentrations in the surface water and river sediments have been investigated along a 187 km reach of the Huayuan River. Using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, we analyzed the characterization of metals in manganese sulphate waste residue (MSWR) deposited along the bank of Huayuan River. The speciation of metals in both sediment and MSWR was established using the BCR-three step sequential extraction procedure. In the water samples, the average concentrations of Mn, Cd and Pb exceeded the acceptable concentrations for drinking water in the WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality, Vol. 1, Recommendations, Geneva (2004) and Chinese (GB 5749-2006) guidelines, respectively. The average concentrations of Mn, Cd, Pb and Zn in the river sediments were found to be considerably higher than the corresponding world average shale values. The percentages of Cd (31.4%), Mn (31.1%), Zn (12.8%) and Pb (8.1%) associated with exchangeable and weak acid fraction in the sediments were higher than other metals. Mn (5.81%), Zn (0.208%), Pb (0.0292%) and Cd (0.0113%) were identified in MSWR by XRF analysis. The percentages of Mn, Cd, Zn and Pb associated with the exchangeable and weak acid soluble fraction in MSWR were 41.9%, 31.1%, 23.8% and 9.8%, respectively. The peak solute and sediment-bound metal concentrations were found at the sites of MSWR deposited along the bank of Huayuan River. The results suggested that MSWR deposited along the bank may have a closely relation with the metal pollution of Huayuan River. The results obtained may be useful to assess both short and long-term environmental impact of the MSWR deposited activities and support decisions for a future remediation of this river.
Pan, Baotian; Pang, Hongli; Gao, Hongshan; Garzanti, Eduardo; Zou, Yu; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Fuqiang; Jia, Yunxia
In its upper-middle reaches the Yellow River has high sand contents after traversing through large areas of desert and the China Loess Plateau. Understanding riverbed sediment composition in the channel is critical for the interpretation of the potential provenance, aeolian sand transport and the linkage between the Loess Plateau and the Yellow River. To address these issues, we collected 52 samples from the modern riverbed, proximal deserts, and major tributaries and used analyses of grain size, grain morphology, and heavy-mineral compositions, to establish the spatial distribution and characteristics of source regions and riverbed sediments. The heavy-mineral assemblages demonstrate significant variations for the different sections of the Yellow River. The riverbed samples from the upper reach are dominated by opaque minerals (limonite and magnetite), amphibole and epidote, with minor zircon, tourmaline and rutile. Riverbed sediments from the middle reach are garnet-rich, reflecting the widespread distribution of Mesozoic sandstones. This variability closely reflects the source regions. Our data show that seasonal tributaries (the "Ten Great Gullies") carrying detritus from the Ordos Plateau may account for the localized high garnet concentrations in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper reach. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of quartz grains show that the river sediments are characterized by composite microtextures acquired in both fluvial and eolian environments of the Hedong, Ulan Buh and Kubuq Deserts. The mineralogical composition in the upper reach (Lanzhou-Yinchuan) is similar to that of sediments in the Loess Plateau and Northeast Tibet Plateau (Western Lanzhou). However, the composition differs markedly from that in the Inner Mongolia section of the upper and middle reaches. This variation indicates that in the upper reach the Northeast Tibet Plateau contributes significant volumes of sediment to the Yellow River and Loess Plateau, but
Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji
Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.
Wang, Bin; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Tai; Hu, Hongying
The Haihe River is the most seriously polluted river among the seven largest rivers in China. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and PCBs (noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls) in the Haihe River, Tianjin were determined using a gas chromatograph--electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were determined using Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) bioassay. HCH and DDT levels were, respectively, 0.06-6.07 microg/L and ND (not detected) to 1.21 microg/L; PCB levels ranged from 0.12 to 5.29 microg/L; and the total DLCs in sediment were 4.78-343 pg TEQ (toxic equivalency)/g. Aquatic ecological risk assessment was performed using the joint probability curve method and the Monte Carlo-based HQ (hazard quotient) distribution method. The combined risks of similar chemicals and the total risk of dissimilar categories of chemicals were assessed based on the principles of joint toxicity. Due to the adjacent industrial activities, the risk levels of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were relatively high. The risk order was as follows: PCBs > DDTs approximately HCHs > DLCs. The risk of HCHs approximated that of DDTs, which is different from the fact that risk of HCHs is usually much lower in the other Chinese rivers. The total risk caused by these pollutants was very high. Due to their high persistence and potential source from land, the high risks of such pollutants are likely to last for a long period of time.
Shi, Guohua; Peng, Changhui; Wang, Meng; Shi, Shengwei; Yang, Yanzheng; Chu, Junyao; Zhang, Junjun; Lin, Guanghui; Shen, Yan; Zhu, Qiuan
The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Neglecting the lateral flow of dissolved organic carbon can lead to an underestimation of the organic carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems. It is thus necessary to integrate DOC concentrations and flux into carbon cycle models, particularly with regard to the development of models that are intended to directly link terrestrial and ocean carbon cycles. However, to achieve this goal, more accurate information is needed to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. In this study, we compiled an inclusive database of available data collected from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River in China. The database is collected based on online literature survey and analysed by statistic method. Overall, our results revealed a positive correlation between DOC flux and discharge in all three rivers, whereas the DOC concentration was more strongly correlated with the regional net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated the total DOC flux exported by the three rivers into the China Sea to be approximately 2.73 Tg yr-1. Specifically, the annual flux of DOC from the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Pearl River was estimated to be 1.85 Tg yr-1, 0.06 Tg yr-1 and 0.82 Tg yr-1, respectively, and the average annual DOC concentrations were estimated to be 2.24 ± 0.53 mg L-1, 2.70 ± 0.38 mg L-1 and 1.51 ± 0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Seasonal variations in DOC concentrations are greatly influenced by the interaction between temperature and precipitation. NPP is significantly and positively related to the DOC concentration in the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. In addition, differences in climate and the productivity of the vegetation may influence both the flux and concentrations of DOC transported by the rivers and thus potentially affect estuarine geochemistry. PMID:27755581
Sun, Jing; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian
Pharmaceuticals in drinking water sources (DWSs) have raised significant concerns for their persistent input and potential human health risks. Currently, little is known about the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in DWSs in China. In this study, a survey for multi-class pharmaceuticals in DWSs of five major river watersheds in China was conducted from 2012 to 2013. Samples were collected from 25 sampling sites in rivers and reservoirs. 135 pharmaceuticals were analyzed using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that a total of 70 pharmaceuticals were present in the samples, and the most frequently detected ones included sulfonamides, macrolides, antiepileptic drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and β-blockers, etc. Amongst these, maximum concentrations of lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen and paraxanthine were between 44 ng/L and 134 ng/L, and those of metoprolol, diphenhydramine, venlafaxine, nalidixic acid and androstenedione were less than 1 ng/L. Concentrations of the two that were most persistent, DEET and carbamazepine, were 0.8-10.2 ng/L and 0.01-3.5 ng/L, respectively. Higher concentrations of cotinine were observed in warm season than in cold season, while concentrations of lincomycin were the opposite. In a causality analysis, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in DWSs depends mainly on the detection limits of the methods, their usage and the persistence in the aquatic environment.
Xian, Xu-Dong; Feng, Yi-Long; Willison, J H Martin; Ai, Li-Jiao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhi-Neng
Two examples of the creation of naturalized areas in the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the urban core of Chongqing City, China, are described. The areas were created for the purpose of restoring ecological functions and services. Plants were selected based on surveys of natural wetland vegetation in the region, and experiments were conducted to discover the capacity of species of interest to survive the sometimes extreme hydrological regimes at the sites. Novel methods were developed to stabilize the plants against the rigors of extreme summer floods and constant swash, notably zigzag berms of rocks wrapped in iron mesh. The areas include native reeds, grasses, shrubs, and trees. Plant communities in the areas are zoned according to flooding stress, and their structure is less stable at lower elevations that are subjected to greater stress. The tall grass Saccharum spontaneum (widespread in Southern Asia) and the tree Pterocarya stenoptera (native to Southwest China) are notable for their utility at these sites in the center of a large city. Communities of tall reeds and grasses have become so dense and stable that they now provide the ecosystem services of capturing river sediments and resisting erosion of the river banks. It is recommended that extensive greening of the riparian zones in urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir be conducted for the purpose of providing ecosystem services, based in part on the experiences described here.
Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Mei-Lin
The Pearl River is located in the northern part of South China Sea. The environment of the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is significantly impacted by nutrients from anthropogenic activities. Along the anthropogenic pollution gradient from the PRE to South China Sea, the phylogenetic diversity and biomass of phytoplankton was examined in relation to physic-chemical variables. The richness of rbcL gene was higher in the open sea than the estuary, while the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in the estuary than in the open sea. The cluster analysis of the sequences data resulted in seven phytoplankton community types and the dominant species of phytoplankton changed from Cryptophytes and Diatoms to Prymnesiophytes and Diatoms along the gradient. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by nutrients and salinity. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus, nitrite and ammonium (P < 0.01) but negatively by salinity (P < 0.05); the phytoplankton diversity was highly positively affected by salinity (P < 0.05) but negatively by silicate and nitrate (P < 0.01; P < 0.05, respectively). Anthropogenic activities played a critical role in the phytoplankton distribution and biomass of the study area. Further research is necessary to reveal the influence mechanism of environmental factors on the phytoplankton.
Wu, Weili; Wang, Jinglin; Liu, Licheng; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Yan; Hu, Tao; Chen, Weijun
In February 2006, a large amount of unknown floating microorganisms appeared in the Hailang River (HR) in the City of Hailin, Heilongjiang Province, China. The microorganisms caused the river water fouling and threatened the clean water supply of the city. To identify the unknown floating organisms, morphological and histological inspection, PCR, cloning and sequence analysis were conducted. The results revealed that the unknown floating organisms in the river were a novel species that likely belonged to oomycetes in Saprolegniales. The organisms were named Saprolegnia sp. HL0602.
Jiang, Hongyou; Zhang, Dandan; Xiao, Shichang; Geng, Chunnv; Zhang, Xian
In this study, the occurrence and sources of five cataloged antibiotics and metabolites were studied in Jiulongjiang River basin, south China. Nineteen antibiotics and 13 metabolites were detected in water samples from 16 river sampling sites, wastewater from 5 swine-raising facilities, and effluent from 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The results showed that 12 antibiotics and 6 metabolites were detected in river water samples. Sulfonamides (SAs) and their metabolites were detected at high concentrations (8.59-158.94 ng/L). Tetracyclines (TCs) and their metabolites were frequently detected in swine wastewater, and the maximum concentration was up to the level in milligram per liter. Macrolides (MLs) and β-lactams (β-Ls) were found in all WWTP effluent samples and some river samples, while they were never found in any of the swine wastewater samples. SAs and quinolones (QNs) were detected in all samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 16 surface water samples was applied to achieve the spatial distribution characteristics of antibiotics in the Jiulongjiang River. As a result, two categories were obviously obtained. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis showed that TCs and SAs as well as their metabolites were the major antibiotics in Jiulongjiang River, and they mainly originated from swine wastewater, while the QNs, MLs, and β-Ls in the Jiulongjiang River came from WWTP effluent.
Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Xiao, H.; Ma, R.
The northwest of China is characterized by an arid climate and fragile ecosystems. With irrigated agriculture, the region is a prolific producer of cotton, wheat, and maize with some of the highest output per acre in the country. The region is also rich in ore deposits, with the reserves of numerous minerals ranked at or near the top in the country. However, the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and economic development in the region is threaten by severe eco-environmental problems resulting from both global changes and human activities, such as desertification, salinization, groundwater depletion, and dust storms. All these problems are a direct consequence of water scarcity. As global warming accelerates and rapid economic growth continues, the water shortage crisis is expected to worsen. To improve the bleak outlook for the health of ecosystem and environment in northwest China, the Chinese government has invested heavily in ecosystem restoration and watershed management in recent years. However, the effectiveness of such measures and actions depends on scientific understanding of the complex interplays among ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic factors. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to study the integration of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations toward more sustainable exploitation of surface water and groundwater resources in the Hei River Basin in northwest China. The Hei River Basin is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid region in East Asia, stretching from Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the desert in the north bordering China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia. The total area of Hei River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2. The research initiative builds on existing research infrastructure and ecohydrological data and seeks to reveal complex
Xu, Yan; Guo, Changsheng; Luo, Yi; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Haixia; Wang, Li; Xu, Jian
The occurrence and distribution of sulfonamide and tetracycline, corresponding bacterial resistant rate and resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrase genes were investigated in seven urban rivers in Beijing, China. The total concentration of sulfonamide and tetracycline ranged from 1.3 × 10(1)-1.5 × 10(3) ng/L and 3.9 × 10(1)-5.4 × 10(4) ng/L for water, and 1.0 × 10(0)-2.7 × 10(2) and 3.1 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(2) ng/g for sediment, respectively. The sul resistant rate was 2-3 times higher than tet resistant rate in both surface water and sediment. The average rate of sul resistance and tet resistance were up to 81.3% and 38.6% in surface water, 89.1% and 69.4% in the sediment, respectively. The sul1, tetA and tetE genes were predominant in term of the absolute abundance. The absolute abundance of ARGs in Wenyu River and Qinghe River, which were close to the direct discharging sites, were 5-50 times higher than those in the other investigated urban rivers, suggesting that the source release played an important role in the distribution of ARGs. The sul1 and sul2 genes had positive correlation (p < 0.05) with sulfonamides, and the tet resistance genes was significantly correlated with tetracyclines (p < 0.05), indicating that some ARGs and antibiotics in the urban rivers had identical sources of pollution. Considering principal component analysis, sampling sites (QH5, QH6, B1, B2, B3 and BX2) intimated that a complex interplay of processes govern fate and transport of ARGs in the junction of rivers. These results are significant to understand the fate, and the contribution of ARGs from the source release. In view of the large-scale investigation of urban rivers system in Beijing, it reflected the bacterial resistance in sewage drainage system. Such investigation highlights the management on controlling the pollutant release which was seemed as a major driving force for the maintenance and propagation of many ARGs during the development of
Gu, Jiawei; Chen, Jing; Sun, Qianli; Wang, Zhanghua; Wei, Zixin; Chen, Zhongyuan
This study investigates sediment source to sink relating the connection of the Yangtze River to the sea. A sediment borehole (PD) on the river coast, penetrating thick Quaternary sediments and thin sediments of late Pliocene age down to the bedrock, recorded a change in sediment provenance through time. Geochemical elements and magneto-stratigraphy help identify five zones. Zone I (the late Pliocene-the Early Pleistocene), characterized by Pb, Th, U, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Hf, Y, Zr, Nb and Mn, indicates a local sediment provenance. This means that the study area was a localized sub-basin. Zone II (the Early Pleistocene-the mid-stage of the Early Pleistocene), with remarkable high Fe, K, As and Rb implies a new sediment provenance joining the sub-basin from the middle Yangtze reach after the opening of the Zhenjiang Gorge. Zone III (the mid-stage of Early Pleistocene-the Middle Pleistocene), featured by Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Sc, Cu, Co, Ni, Mg, Ca, Na and P suggests a further extension of sediment provenance to the upper Yangtze basin, where a large block of the E'mei basalt and carbonate occurs. This suggests that the Three Gorges valley linking the upper and middle Yangtze reaches had developed by that time. Zones IV and V (the Middle Pleistocene-the Holocene) have shown their geochemical similarity to Zone III. Discrimination ratio f(Cr, Th), f(La) and f(K, La), a new approach developed for tracing sediment provenance, confirms a basin-wide sediment source through Zones III-V. These together witness a progressive extension of the sediment provenance towards the upper Yangtze basin, corresponding to the long-term tilting effect of the Cenozoic Topographic Reversal of the eastern China continent. The timing of the Yangtze River running through into the East China Sea appears at ca. 1.0-1.2 Ma (bottom of Zone III).
Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Jin; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Hughes, Robert M; Wang, Bei-Xin
Aquatic organisms' tolerance to water pollution is widely used to monitor and assess freshwater ecosystem health. Tolerance values (TVs) estimated based on statistical analyses of species-environment relationships are more objective than those assigned by expert opinion. Region-specific TVs are the basis for developing accurate bioassessment metrics particularly in developing countries, where both aquatic biota and their responses to human disturbances have been poorly documented. We used principal component analysis to derive a synthetic gradient for four stressor variables (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and % silt) based on 286 sampling sites in the Taihu Lake and Qiantang River basins (Yangtze River Delta), China. We used the scores of taxa on the first principal component (PC1), which explained 49.8% of the variance, to estimate the tolerance values (TV(r)) of 163 macroinvertebrates taxa that were collected from at least 20 sites, 81 of which were not included in the Hilsenhoff TV lists (TV(h)) of 1987. All estimates were scaled into the range of 1-10 as in TV(h). Of all the taxa with different TVs, 46.3% of TV(r) were lower and 52.4% were higher than TV(h). TV(r) were significantly (p < 0.01, Fig. 2), but weakly (r(2) = 0.34), correlated with TVh. Seven biotic metrics based on TVr were more strongly correlated with the main stressors and were more effective at discriminating references sites from impacted sites than those based on TV(h). Our results highlight the importance of developing region-specific TVs for macroinvertebrate-based bioassessment and to facilitate assessment of streams in China, particularly in the Yangtze River Delta.
Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis
From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern
Yu, Ge; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xueqing; Li, Zhengyan
At present, most estuarine ecological risk studies are based on terrestrial ecosystem models, which ignore spatial heterogeneity. The Daliao River estuary has representative characteristics of many estuaries in China, and we used this estuary as the study area to formulate an estuarine ecological risk evaluation model. Targeting the estuary's special hydrodynamic condition, this model incorporated variables that were under the influence of human activities and used them as the major factors for partitioning sections of the river according to risk values. It also explored the spatial and temporal distribution laws of estuarine ecological risk. The results showed that, on the whole, the ecological risk of the Daliao River estuary area was relatively high. At a temporal level, runoff was the main factor resulting in differences in ecological risk, while at the spatial level, the ecological risk index was affected by pollutants carried by runoff from upstream, as well as downstream pollution emissions and dilution by seawater at the mouth of the sea. The characteristics of this model make it possible to simulate the spatial and temporal risk distribution in different regions and under different rainfall regimes. This model can thus be applied in other estuarine areas and provides some technical support for analysis and control of ecological destruction in estuary areas.
Xia, Peng; Meng, Xianwei; Feng, Aiping; Yin, Ping; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Jun
Historical records of metal inputs were studied by using a sediment core collected from a sand-rich mudflat in the Qinjiang River estuary, China. 210Pb chronology was used to reconstruct the fluxes of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As to the core site during the last 86 years. Based on the constant initial concentration model, the sedimentation rates are 1.18 cm year-1 in the top 30 cm sandy layer and 0.92 cm year-1 in the muddy bottom layer. To compensate for grain-size and mineralogy effects on metal concentrations, aluminum was used as the normalizing element. The enrichment factors ( EF) indicate that the natural inputs had prevailed up to the early 1980s. After this period, the intensity of human activities has resulted in continual increasing trend of metals towards the surface. Recent sediment samples from the Qinjiang River estuary are found moderately enriched by Cd ( EF>1.5) and slightly enriched by other metals ( EF<1.5). Considering that the drainage area of the Qinjiang River is mostly agricultural land, the increased Cd may be due to the usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural activities and the combustion of fossil fuels.
Hu, Guiming; Huang, Chun Chang; Zhou, Yali; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Xueru
Palaeo-hydrological and sedimentary investigations were carried out in the Longmenxia Gorge of the middle Yihe River. Five bedsets of flood slackwater deposits (SWD) were found interbedded into Holocene aeolian loess-soil profiles in the river bank at the Longmenxia site. They were identified as the deposits of the suspended sediment load during the extreme flood events of the Holocene. The minimum flood peak discharges were estimated to be 12, 300-15, 300 m3/s using the slope-area method. These are about twice the largest gauged record (7180 m3/s) that has occurred since 1937. These flood events occurred at 3100-3000 a B.P., 1800-1700 a B.P., 700-550 a B.P. and 350-250 a B.P., as dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in combination with stratigraphic correlation, to which may be added the recorded events of the 223 and 1761 CE floods. These were associated with Holocene monsoonal shifts and abrupt climatic events. This research not only provides palaeoflood discharge estimates on the middle Yihe River, but also provides important data for understanding interactions between regional hydro-climatic systems and global climate change in humid and semi-humid monsoonal regions, such as China.
With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components) parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened. PMID:28127493
He, Jianhua; Ma, Jinzhu; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Shuang
Groundwater recharge and evolution in the Shule River basin, Northwest China, was investigated by a combination of hydrogeochemical tracers, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon methods. Results showed the general chemistry of the groundwater is of SO4 2- type. Water-rock reactions of halite, Glauber's salt, gypsum and celestite, and reverse ionic exchange dictated the groundwater chemistry evolution, increasing concentrations of Cl-, Na+, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr2+ in the groundwater. The δ18O and δ2H values of groundwater ranged from -10.8 to -7.7 and -74.4 to -53.1 ‰, respectively. Modern groundwater was identified in the proluvial fan and the shallow aquifer of the fine soil plain, likely as a result of direct infiltration of rivers and irrigation returns. Deep groundwater was depleted in heavy isotopes with 14C ages ranging from 3,000 to 26,000 years, suggesting palaeowater that was recharged during the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene epochs under a cold climate. These results have important implications for groundwater management in the Shule River basin, since large amounts of groundwater are effectively being mined and a water-use strategy is urgently needed.
Deng, Guoping; Yang, Wenqing; Zhou, Guanye; Li, Yun; Liu, Shili
With the analysis of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from the Shenzhen River, South China, the ecological risks associated were evaluated using Hakanson's method (for the metals) and the Effect Range Low/Effect Range Median (ERL/ERM) method (for the PAHs). The result shows concentrations of heavy metal in the order Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and among which the Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb are exceeding the maximum contaminant level for sediments while those of PAHs are far below. The potential ecological risk index value for the heavy metals in the sediment samples was 261.90, which is in the moderate risk category. Total PAH concentrations in the sediments ranged from 1,028 to 1,120 ng/g, which are all far lower than the sediment guideline concentration of 4,022 ng/g, indicating that the risks of biological impacts caused by PAHs in Shenzhen River sediments are, therefore, relatively low. Besides, the fluorene concentration was above the ERL, and would potentially cause negative biological effects in the Shenzhen River. Heavy metals risks are suggested among the most important concerns that the environmental recover measures pay attention to.
Tian, Yongqiang; Huang, Bangqin; Yu, Chaochao; Chen, Nengwang; Hong, Huasheng
Phytoplankton blooms occurring in the Jiangdong Reservoir of Jiulong River, Fujian Province, South China, are a potential source of contamination of the drinking water of Xiamen (Amoy) City. To understand the main factors governing phytoplankton composition and succession, we sampled phytoplankton and measured environmental parameters in the reservoir, weekly or biweekly from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2012. We identified 123 species of phytoplankton from 7 phyla and 74 genera. The major phyla were Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Cryptophyta, Cyanophyta, and Dinophyta. The main trend in the succession of phytoplankton was from prevalence of Cryptophyta-Bacillariophyta communities to those of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta. High cell concentrations of Cryptophyta, predominantly Komma caudate, Cryptomonas marssonii, and Cryptomonas erosa, were present in winter, associated with low river discharge and cold water. Bacillariophyta, primarily Cyclotella meneghiniana, Aulacoseira granulata, and Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima, dominated in early spring, coinciding with high turbulence and low irradiance. During early summer and autumn, Chlorophyta, comprising Scenedesmus quadricauda, Dictyosphaerium ehrenbergianum, and Pandorina sp. were prevalent during conditions of warmer water temperatures and low turbulence. Cyanophyta, with dominance of Pseudanabaena mucicola, Merismopedia tenuissima and Raphidiopsis sp. increased throughout the summer, coinciding with higher water temperatures and lower nutrient concentrations. Dinophyta content was occasionally high during winter and summer. Peridiniopsis penardii (Dinophyta) bloomed during winter 2009, with a persistently high biomass recorded into early spring. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that phytoplankton communities were influenced by river discharge, irradiance, water temperature, and nutrient concentrations.
Suping, P.; Flores, R.M.
Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.
Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang
This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community.
Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhang, Y.
Pearl River delta, an economically developed region in Guangdong province China, has been suffering from serious ground-level ozone pollution. To understand the formation mechanisms of the photochemical smog in this area, a field measurement campaign involving 12 separate institutes, was performed from Oct. 1 to Nov. 4, 2004. Measurements of gas phase pollutants, performed by the different research groups using several different methods, were inter-compared. Ambient SO2, O3 and NO were measured by Peking University and Hong Kong Polytechnic University using the same methods: chemiluminescence for NOx, pulsed fluorescence for SO2, and UV photometric method for O3. VOC speciation was accomplished using canister sampling followed by GC-MS measurement by Peking University and on-line GC-FID technology by National Central University in Taiwan. Ambient concentrations of HONO, the photolysis of which is the most important source of OH radical in Pearl River delta, was measured by two wet chemical methods: one from Energy Research Foundation of the Netherlands and one developed in Peking University. Based on these inter-comparisons, the co-variation of O3, NO and VOCs at an urban site and one rural site in Pearl River delta and estimates of the relative contributions to OH production from photolysis of O3, HONO and HCHO will be presented.
Bai, Yangwei; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Changsheng
The occurrence and distribution of 19 antibiotics including ten sulfonamides, four quinolones, three tetracyclines and two macrolides in water, sediment, and biota samples from the Liao River Basin, China were investigated in the present study. The samples were collected in May 2012, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the Liao River Basin. Macrolides made up the majority of antibiotics in the water ranging from not detected (ND) to 3162.22 ng L(-1), while tetracyclines and macrolides were the predominant antibiotics in the sediments, ranging from ND to 404.82 μg kg(-1) (mean 32.11 μg kg(-1) dw) and ND to 375.13 (mean 32.77 μg kg(-1) dw), with detection frequencies of 37.3% and 38.1%, respectively. In biological samples, quinolones were the most frequently detected antibiotics (57.1-100%), with concentrations ranging from 286.6-1655.3 μg kg(-1). The highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of 45407 L kg(-1) was found for enrofloxacin. The phase distribution calculation showed that tetracyclines were the most strongly adsorbed antibiotics in the sediment, with the highest pseudo-partitioning coefficient values, ranging from 1299 to 1499 L kg(-1). The geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were largely due to anthropogenic activities and the sewage discharges from the local cities along the rivers.
HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.
Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.
Xu, Lingyang; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhao, Fuping; Zhang, Li; Han, Xu; Du, Lixin; Liu, Chousheng
Background China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, however, extensive studies are focused on the genetic diversity within the fewer breeds and limited regions, the population demograogic history and origin of Chinese goats are still unclear. The roles of geographical structure have not been analyzed in Chinese goat domestic process. In this study, the genetic relationships of Chinese indigenous goat populations were evaluated using 30 microsatellite markers. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty Chinese indigenous populations containing 2078 goats were sampled from different geographic regions of China. Moderate genetic diversity at the population level (HS of 0.644) and high population diversity at the species level (HT value of 0.737) were estimated. Significant moderate population differentiation was detected (FST value of 0.129). Significant excess homozygosity (FIS of 0.105) and recent population bottlenecks were detected in thirty-six populations. Neighbour-joining tree, principal components analysis and Bayesian clusters all revealed that Chinese goat populations could be subdivided into at least four genetic clusters: Southwest China, South China, Northwest China and East China. It was observed that the genetic diversity of Northern China goats was highest among these clusters. The results here suggested that the goat populations in Southwest China might be the earliest domestic goats in China. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggested that the current genetic structure of Chinese goats were resulted from the special geographical structure, especially in the Western China, and the Western goat populations had been separated by the geographic structure (Hengduan Mountains and Qinling Mountains-Huaihe River Line) into two clusters: the Southwest and Northwest. It also indicated that the current genetic structure was caused by the geographical origin mainly, in close accordance with the human’s migration history throughout China. This study
Liu, X.; Tang, Q.; Cui, H.; Mu, M.
The uncertainties in simulations of river flow extremes (RFEs) using multiple meteorological forcings and global hydrological models (GHMs) are examined for China during the historical (1971-2001) period. RFEs are defined by monthly maximum / minimum river flows and threshold-based (e.g. 95th and 5th percentiles) extreme flows. The uncertainties arising from the forcing data and models based on the hydrological simulations are quantified with and without human impact (water withdrawal) which is made available by the ISI-MIP2 project. The entropy theory is incorporated to measure the uncertainties transferred from forcings to the hydrological models. Firstly, monthly discharge and RFEs simulations with human impact are validated against observed station data in the major basins of China for all GHMs and forcings. Annual means of monthly maximum / minimum flows and frequency of threshold-based RFEs are computed, and their trends are estimated over the historical period. GHMs variance of RFEs are computed across all GHM simulations for each forcing individually and then averaged for all forcings, which is further used to characterize GHMs uncertainty in RFEs simulation. The separation of GHMs for different forcings is helpful to assess uncertainty sources in regional hydrological simulation. Then uncertainties are calculated in the term of entropy for simulations with and without human activities to see whether the inclusion of human impact simulation in GHMs reduces or increases the uncertainty. This research would be in favor of understanding of the uncertainty in assessment of hydrological extremes at regional scale in China and potential improvement of GHMs in future.
Role of river bends for the formation and evolution of channel bedforms: Combined field studies and numerical modeling from the tidally influenced zones of the Yellow River, China, and Mississippi River, USA.
Ma, H.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Moodie, A.; Calson, B.; Parker, G.
River bedforms represent the unstable interface between fluid flow and the granular channel bed, and these features play an important role for modifying flow resistance and sediment transport rates, and thus influencing river morphology. Although widely observed in natural rivers, bedforms are difficult to measure quantitatively and are rarely connected to other fluvial morphological processes. This study presents high-resolution channel bathymetric data from the tidally influenced, lowermost Yellow River, China, collected using a multibeam swath profiler. Repeat surveys were conducted over rising and flood discharge conditions, which is the first such kind of survey in Yellow River. The bathymetry data show that for all water discharges, a flat bed, devoid of a thalweg or dunes, persists within straight-reach segments near the bends of the Yellow River, despite the bed consisting of fine sand. Interestingly, in bend segments, the channel deepens, and linear dunes develop. Moreover, as the water discharge increases over time, the edge of dune field contained in the bend segments propagates into the adjacent upstream and downstream straight-reach segments. In contrasting case study, Nittrouer et al. (2008) reported persistent dune field in the straight reaches of the tidally influenced Mississippi River; however these dunes disappear in neighboring river bends. Based on the two cases of the Yellow and Mississippi Rivers, which have fundamentally different conditions of water-to-sediment discharge ratios, the threshold condition of bedform formation and stability are evaluated, and connected to local conditions of river bend morphology. This work improves the understanding of the co-evolution of bedforms and flow conditions in river bends, which are intertwined and important morphological processes that affect fluvial-deltaic sediment transport dynamics. In addition, the straight-bend structure is a basic element of river morphology, and so the results of this study
Zeng, Yong; Cai, Yanpeng; Jia, Peng; Mao, Jiansu
Flooding is the most frequent disaster in China. It affects people's lives and properties, causing considerable economic loss. Flood forecast and operation of reservoirs are important in flood emergency management. Although great progress has been achieved in flood forecast and reservoir operation through using computer, network technology, and geographic information system technology in China, the prediction accuracy of models are not satisfactory due to the unavailability of real-time monitoring data. Also, real-time flood control scenario analysis is not effective in many regions and can seldom provide online decision support function. In this research, a decision support system for real-time flood forecasting in Yujiang River Basin, South China (DSS-YRB) is introduced in this paper. This system is based on hydrological and hydraulic mathematical models. The conceptual framework and detailed components of the proposed DSS-YRB is illustrated, which employs real-time rainfall data conversion, model-driven hydrologic forecasting, model calibration, data assimilation methods, and reservoir operational scenario analysis. Multi-tiered architecture offers great flexibility, portability, reusability, and reliability. The applied case study results show the development and application of a decision support system for real-time flood forecasting and operation is beneficial for flood control.
Yu, J. S.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, W. C.; Li, Z. J.
The Northeast China Plain is one of the main grain growing regions in China. Due to the high latitude and black soil ecological system, the crop growth in there is vulnerable to climate change, which makes it important to evaluate the influences of climate change on water resources. In this study, the influences of climate change on water resources of a typical basin in northeast China, the Second Songhua River Basin were assessed using the SWAT model. Ensemble downscaled output from sixteen GCMs for A1B emission scenario in 2050s was adopted as the regional climate scenario and was used to drive SWAT model to predict hydrological changes. The prediction shows that mean evapotranspiration of whole basin increases in most time of a year. Stream flow of Fuyu gauging station downstream this basin exhibits a decrease trend from April to June, November and December, and increases in the remaining period of the year. It is indicated that water resources may not be sufficient in spring for irrigation and the possibility of flood in summer may increases, indicating countermeasures should be made to ensure agricultural water use and prevent possible damages of flood on crop.
Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse
Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…
Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...
Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan
Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.
Liu, Su Mei; Qi, Xiao Hong; Li, Xiaona; Ye, Hao Ran; Wu, Ying; Ren, Jing Ling; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wei Yi
Water and sediment samples were collected from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and the adjacent East China Sea during impoundment of the river at the Three Gorges Dam. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic and organic nutrients, and particulate inorganic phosphorus and particulate organic phosphorus in the water column (PIP and POP, respectively) and sediments (SIP and SOP, respectively) were analyzed. The nutrient dynamics in salt marshes associated with the Changjiang estuary were also considered. In addition, river water samples were collected bimonthly in the lower reaches of the Changjiang. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients, PIP and POP showed temporal and spatial variations, which decreased from the coast to offshore areas. The dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus (P) concentrations showed patchy distributions, but were consistent with the distribution of phytoplankton biomass. Phosphorus is the major limiting element for phytoplankton growth. Among the various P forms, particulate P represented 38-52% of total P. The PIP and POP concentrations showed clear seasonal variations corresponding to the occurrence of the levels of suspended particulate matter. The P accumulation rates showed a decreasing trend from the coast to offshore areas, and high P burial efficiencies were found; the latter were related to a low benthic PO43 - flux and high sediment accumulation rates. The potential bioavailable P was estimated to be 65-70% of total P, of which more than two-thirds was regenerated in the water column. The salt marsh in the Changjiang estuary plays an important ecological role in nutrient transport from the river to offshore areas, and increased P limitation.
Cao, Yingjie; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Yinghua
The characteristics of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in major rivers and aquifers of the Sanjiang Plain, China were investigated by hydrogeochemical conditions, nitrogen isotope technique and CFCs trace. An overall understanding on the sources and fate of NO(3)(-) in the surface water and the groundwater was obtained. The NO(3)(-) concentrations in the surface water were low and no samples exceeds the WTO standards. However, 11.4% of the groundwater samples exceeded the WTO standards, indicating local NO(3)(-) pollution in rural areas. Redox condition analysis revealed that most of the surface water had oxic condition, while for the shallow groundwater (mean well depth smaller than 30 m), the redox condition began to change into anoxic zone, and the deep groundwater (mean well depth larger than 50 m) showed strong anoxic condition. The δ(15)N-NO(3) data indicated soil N and fertilizer contributed the major sources in the surface water, and NO(3)(-) in the groundwater mainly showed a manure origin. In the Songhua-Heilong River, dilution effect was dominating, while for the Wusuli River, it showed that mix with water contained excess of NO(3)(-) resulted in the NO(3)(-) concentration increased along the river. Additionally, the NO(3)(-) transportation in the groundwater was analyzed by groundwater ages derived from environmental tracer (CFCs) data. The relation between the groundwater ages and the NO(3)(-) concentrations showed that the young groundwater with the age less than 60 years had higher NO(3)(-) concentrations than the old groundwater over the age of 60 years because anthropogenic activities began to boom from 1950s in the Sanjiang Plain.
Fan, Juntao; Semenzin, Elena; Meng, Wei; Giubilato, Elisa; Zhang, Yuan; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Zhou, Yun; Ding, Sen; Wan, Jun; He, Mengchang; Lin, Chunye
Integrated risk assessment approaches allow to achieve a sound evaluation of ecological status of river basins and to gain knowledge about the likely causes of impairment, useful for informing and supporting the decision-making process. In this paper, the integrated risk assessment (IRA) methodology developed in the EU MODELKEY project (and implemented in the MODELKEY Decision Support System) is applied to the Taizi River (China), in order to assess its Ecological and Chemical Status according to EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. The available dataset is derived by an extensive survey carried out in 2009 and 2010 across the Taizi River catchment, including the monitoring of physico-chemical (i.e. DO, EC, NH3-_N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5) and TP), chemical (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals), biological (i.e. macroinvertebrates, fish, and algae), and hydromorphological parameters (i.e. water quantity, channel change and morphology diversity). The results show a negative trend in the ecological status from the highland to the lowland of the Taizi River Basin. Organic pollution from agriculture and domestic sources (i.e. COD and BOD5), unstable hydrological regime (i.e. water quantity shortage) and chemical pollutants from industry (i.e. PAHs and metals) are found to be the main stressors impacting the ecological status of the Taizi River Basin. The comparison between the results of the IRA methodology and those of a previous study (Leigh et al. 2012) indicates that the selection of indicators and integrating methodologies can have a relevant impact on the classification of the ecological status. The IRA methodology, which integrates information from five lines of evidence (i.e., biology, physico-chemistry, chemistry, ecotoxicology and hydromorphology) required by WFD, allows to better identify the biological communities that are potentially at risk and the stressors that are most
Dong, D.; Guo, Z.; Liu, X.; Hua, X.; Liang, D.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of typical persistent organic pollutants, widely exist in the environment and are potentially harmful to human health. They can enter the waters through atmospheric deposition, soil leaching, shipping, sewage discharges and surface runoff. In recent years, many studies on the distributions of PAHs in major rivers, lakes and bays around the world have been carried out. In this study, 9 surface sediments (0-10cm) were sampled from the Songhua River in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The contents of 16 PAHs in the US Environmental Protection Agency list of priority pollutants were determined and their spatial distributions were discussed. Sediment cores (50cm length) in three oxbow lakes in this area were also collected and cut into 2 cm thickness sub-samples. PAHs concentrations in these samples were determined and the cores were dated using a 210Pb geochronology technique. Finally, the sedimentary history of PAHs in the Songhua River since the 1920s was revealed. Results indicated that total concentration of the 16 PAHs analyzed in the surface sediments was 187-2079 ng/g (dry weight), and the mean was 1029 ng/g. Sediments collected from near urban areas (Jilin and Harbin City) contained higher PAHs content. Compared with the domestic and international rivers, the PAHs content in this river sediments is at a medium level. The PAHs profiles showed that 2-3 ring PAHs, especially naphthalene, were dominant in all of the samples. Sedimentary flux can reflect the accumulating history of pollutants better. The PAHs fluxes were low and varied little from the 1920s to 1970s, but higher PAH fluxes were found since the 1980s in each core (Fig. 1). The PAHs sedimentary flux near Harbin City (Shuangcheng) was found changed remarkably. We inferred that the PAHs might be influenced by hydrological conditions, population mobility and economic activity in this area. PAHs sedimentary record in the Songhua River revealed that the
Zhao, Jun; Liu, Qiuxia; Lin, Liqing; Lv, Huafang; Wang, Yao
Around 2000, China began to address the comprehensive restoration of its urban rivers and attempt to restore river ecosystem services. This paper reports an integrated contingent valuation of the ecosystem services of Zhangjiabang Creek in Shanghai, which is in the most developed region of China. A total of 1440 questionnaires were delivered, and 1153 were returned as usable in August 2008. The willingness to pay for the restoration of the urban river is 20.22 RMB (2.91 USD) per month per household under the payment card and 110.64 RMB (15.92 USD) under the dichotomous format. Several important methodological issues of the contingent valuation method (CVM) are observed, including the disparity between willingness to pay and willingness to accept, the difference between payment card and dichotomous choice question formats, and the comparison of different models in welfare estimation using dichotomous choice data. Several new findings are disclosed for these three issues of CVM.
Shang, Zhaoyi; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yu
River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China) was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP). The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation. PMID:23202821
Hu, Jian; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhang, Yanlin; Li, Siliang; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Baojian; Guo, Qinjun
The Liao River drainage basin, which is one of China's seven major rivers basins, is located in northeast China. This region is characterized by important industrial bases including steel factories and oil and chemical plants, all of which have the potential to contribute pollutants to the drainage basin. In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the major rivers of the Liao River drainage basin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 76.5 μg/g (dry weight) in SPM and 32.6 to 108 ng/L in surface water, respectively. Low-ring PAHs (including two- and three-ring PAHs) were dominant in all PAH samples, and the level of low-ring PAHs in surface water was higher than that in SPM. The proportion of two-ring PAHs was the highest, accounting for an average of 68.2 % of the total PAHs in surface water, while the level of three-ring PAHs was the highest in SPM, with an average of 66.3 %. When compared with other river systems, the concentrations of PAHs in the Liao River drainage basin were lower. Identification of the emission sources based on diagnostic ratios suggested petroleum and fossil fuel combustion were important contribution to PAHs in the study area.
Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui
Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.
Guo, B.; Xie, T.; Liu, G.
Biyun Guo1,21College of Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316004,China; 2State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Abstract: The great Wenchuan earthquake(Ms=8.0) occurred on May 12, 2008 in the southwestern China which triggerednumerous landslides and collapses that providedflows of an abundant unconsolidated material of debris. Landslides and debris flows were very active and caused river channel change over the affected mountain area. River channel changes due to the earthquake.Many potentially dangerous debris filledgullies have yet to be identified. In this paper,we present a study in the Longxi river watershed of the upper Min River located in Dujiangyan, discussingthe unconsolidated deposits and debris flows and their relationship with the riverbed changes. The secondary geological disasters triggered by this earthquake is delineated across the Longxi Rvier basin. Based on remote sensing and image interpretation of two QuickBird panchromatic images and comparison between two DEM data of different time periods, wevalidatedthe data with field survey by a differential GPS and laser rangefinder. Several variables were systematically measured (width, slope, bed level change, sediment size) along an18.22 km stretch of the river for specific sites. We have found from the study that: (1) the significant feature of geological disaster was near the Longxi river, where it had the mostintensity; (2) the longitudinal profile of channel bed was changed; (3) channel changes were associated with the land use and cover change, especially with the forest degradation and reforest, and post-quake reconstruction;(4)the landslide and debris flows caused the morphology changes in the Longxi River watershed, leading to sharp changes of the riverbed profiles and the slope in the upper and lower reaches. Keywords: Earthquake ;landslides; debris flows; channel change; riverbed evolution
Zhang, Wenqiang; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for aquatic organisms. However, too much P discharged into limnetic ecosystems can induce eutrophication. The concentration of P in freshwater ecosystems has escalated in Eastern China due to overuse of fertilizer and excess emission of sewage, which is the result of the development of industry and agriculture in this area. However, little is known about the P characteristics and its environmental factors in river systems. Here, we present the results of P characterization and its relationships with environmental factors in Eastern China by applying SMT and (31)P-NMR methods. The results showed that the concentrations of P in surface sediments varied with the river system, and more than 50 % of the samples had P concentrations exceeding 500 mg kg(-1). HCl-Pi was the dominant Pi in surface sediments, with the highest percentage (96.5 %) in the Yellow River System. Mono-P was the dominant Po in river sediments, followed by DNA-P. The PCA approach indicated that NaOH-Pi and ortho-P clustered in one group, with a second group including mono-P, diesters-P, and HCl-Pi. Phon-P and pyro-P belonged to different groups. On a regional scale, NaOH-Pi and Po showed a negative relationship with pH in sediments. Continuous eutrophication was induced by the presence of dams, and oxygen-consuming pollutants, such as NH3-N and CODcr, even when external P input was cut in heavily polluted rivers. The research revealed the characteristics of P in different river systems and proposed a conceptual model of P biogeochemical cycles in heavily polluted rivers. Results from this study may provide insight into P characteristics in Eastern China and would set a scientific basis for effective P management in developing countries.
Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Zheng, Yanfeng
Three different hydrological models are chosen to simulate rainfall-runoff relationships under each of three objective functions including mean squared errors of squared transformed flows, squared root transformed flows and logarithmic transformed flows; thus nine individual models are constructed. By weighted averaging over these nine models, the method of Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was used to provide both the mean value and the uncertainty intervals of flow prediction. Three kinds of uncertainty information can be generated: the uncertainty of individual member model's predictions; the total uncertainty of BMA mean prediction; the between-model and within-model uncertainties in the BMA scheme. Based on the estimated results in this study, the coupling of multiple models with multiple objective functions in general offers better results for both the mean prediction and the uncertainty intervals for the runoffs in a selected basin in Han River, China, than the individual models.
Sun, Mingyang; Huang, Linglin; Tan, Lisha; Yang, Zhe; Baig, Shams Ali; Sheng, Tiantian; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Xinhua
The water quality and cyanobacterial variation of rivers surrounding southern Taihu Lake, China were purposively monitored from 2008 to 2010. Trophic level index (TLI) was used to evaluate the trophic levels of southern Taihu Lake. Results showed a considerable decline in the monitored data compared with 2007, and the data showed downward trends year after year. The TLI decreased from 55.6 to 51.3, which implied that southern Taihu Lake was mildly eutrophic. The water quality and cyanobacterial variation indicated a positive response to the adopted control measures in the southern Taihu Lake basin, but the intra- and inter-annual variability was still quite varied. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus typically lead to algae outbreaks, however, the cyanobacteria growth may result in a decline of the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. Temperature and other weather conditions are also important factors for algae outbreaks; the risk of blue-green algal blooms still persists.
Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin
Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (MARINA) for China. The MARINA Nutrient Model quantifies river export of nutrients by source at the sub-basin scale as a function of human activities on land. MARINA is a downscaled version for China of the Global NEWS-2 (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model with an improved approach for nutrient losses from animal production and population. We use the model to quantify dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) export by six large rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf (Yellow, Hai, Liao), Yellow Sea (Yangtze, Huai) and South China Sea (Pearl) in 1970, 2000 and 2050. We addressed uncertainties in the MARINA Nutrient model. Between 1970 and 2000 river export of dissolved N and P increased by a factor of 2-8 depending on sea and nutrient form. Thus, the risk for coastal eutrophication increased. Direct losses of manure to rivers contribute to 60-78% of nutrient inputs to the Bohai Gulf and 20-74% of nutrient inputs to the other seas in 2000. Sewage is an important source of dissolved inorganic P, and synthetic fertilizers of dissolved inorganic N. Over half of the nutrients exported by the Yangtze and Pearl rivers originated from human activities in downstream and middlestream sub-basins. The Yellow River exported up to 70% of dissolved inorganic N and P from downstream sub-basins and of dissolved organic N and P from middlestream sub-basins. Rivers draining into the Bohai Gulf are drier, and thus transport fewer nutrients. For the future we calculate further increases in river export of nutrients. The MARINA Nutrient model quantifies the main sources of coastal water pollution for sub-basins. This information can contribute to formulation of
Heese, B.; Althausen, D.; Bauditz, M.; Deng, R.; Bao, R.; Li, Z.
The priority program "Megacities-Megachallenge - Informal Dynamics of Global Change" is a large interdisciplinary project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). One of the subproject deals with mega-urbanisation in the Pearl River Delta, South-China, with special respect to particulate air pollution and public health. In the frame of this subproject the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties are investigated by measurements with the multiwavelength-Raman-polarization lidar PollyXT of the IfT. The instrument can measure the particle backscatter coefficient at 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm, the particle extinction coefficients at 355 nm and 532 nm, and the particle linear depolarization ratio at 532 nm. These measurements are supported by a dual-polar sun photometer that provides height integrated data as the aerosol optical depth and the degree of linear depolarization. These instruments are placed at the East campus of the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta is a developing area with currently around 11 Million inhabitants. The measurements started in November 2011 and are supposed to continue for at least half a year covering the late autumn and winter season and parts of the spring season. Extensions of the measurements towards a whole seasonal cycle are planned. Thus, different meteorological conditions will lead to particle transport from several source regions. Different aerosol types are expected to be observed during the measurement period: urban particles from local and regional sources as well as dust from the deserts in Central Asia. The observed particles can be distinguished by analyzing their optical properties at several wavelengths. In particular, the depolarization measurements from both instruments promise a better determination of the particle shape.
Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.
The Tarim River basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin in China and one of the largest in all of Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate, with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim rivers solely depends on river water. This is linked to anthropogenic activities (e.g., agriculture) and natural and semi-natural ecosystems as both compete for water. The ongoing increase in water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes have formed the consortium SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River; http://www.sumario.de), which aims to create a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River basin. On the basis of the results from field studies and modeling approaches as well as from suggestions by the relevant regional stakeholders, a decision support tool (DST) will be implemented that will then assist stakeholders in balancing the competition for water, acknowledging the major external effects of water allocation to agriculture and to natural ecosystems. This consortium was formed in 2011 and is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. As the data collection phase was finished this year, the paper presented here brings together the results from the fields from the disciplines of climate modeling, cryology, hydrology, agricultural sciences, ecology, geoinformatics, and social sciences in order to present a comprehensive picture of the effects of different water availability schemes on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems along the
Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang
Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345 t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245 t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20-367 ng/L in water, and 0.009-25.2 ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294 t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China.
Wu, Pan; Qin, Boqiang; Yu, Ge; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Jian
To explore the linkage of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and phytoplankton during the summer and winter in the inflow rivers of the Taihu Basin, China, 51 main rivers were investigated in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that high P and N input deteriorated the water quality, and P primarily limited Chlorophyll a concentrations. Diatoms, green algae, and cyanobacteria were the dominant phyla, totaling 29 and 41 species in summer and winter, respectively. Total P negatively affected the phytoplankton diversity during summer and had a stronger positive relationship with richness than total N during winter. The P level restricted the biomass of dominant algae, and turbidity had a greater interaction with cyanobacteria. This study suggests that P drives the phytoplankton assemblages under N-rich environments in the inflow rivers during summer and winter, indicating the need for nutrient reduction and further monitoring of the rivers to improve the water ecology.
Zou, Hui; Zou, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaojing
The increase and the complexity of data caused by the uncertain environment is today's reality. In order to identify water quality effectively and reliably, this paper presents a modified fast clustering algorithm for water quality analysis. The algorithm has adopted a varying weights K-means cluster algorithm to analyze water monitoring data. The varying weights scheme was the best weighting indicator selected by a modified indicator weight self-adjustment algorithm based on K-means, which is named MIWAS-K-means. The new clustering algorithm avoids the margin of the iteration not being calculated in some cases. With the fast clustering analysis, we can identify the quality of water samples. The algorithm is applied in water quality analysis of the Haihe River (China) data obtained by the monitoring network over a period of eight years (2006-2013) with four indicators at seven different sites (2078 samples). Both the theoretical and simulated results demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and reliable for water quality analysis of the Haihe River. In addition, the algorithm can be applied to more complex data matrices with high dimensionality.
Song, Maoyong; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Qinting; Lam, Paul K S; O'Toole, Desmond K; Giesy, John P; Jiang, Guibin
Sediments from two rivers in China, the Haihe and Dagu Rivers, were examined for estrogenic activity using an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated in vitro bioassay system. ER-active compounds were isolated from sediments by Soxhlet extraction, and the crude extracts were fractionated using a florisil column into three fractions. The estrogenic activity of each extract was detected by measuring luciferase activity in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 transfected with a luciferase receptor gene. Significant estrogenic activity was observed in each total extract. The 17beta-estradiol equivalents (E2-EQs) ranged from 8.24 to 95.28 ng E2 g(-1) dw. As a result, the relative estrogenic potencies of three fractions in this study descended in the order of Fraction 3>Fraction 2>Fraction 1. The results of the bioassay analysis indicated the heavy pollution status of these sites with estrogenic contaminants. In this study, five selected chemicals, the natural estrogens 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), and the xeno-estrogens 4-octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) were also analyzed using the in vitro bioassay. The estrogenic activity of these chemicals were E2>E1>NP>OP>BPA.
Chen, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhenhua; Fang, Hongda; Ye, Shufeng
Marine ecosystem is a complex nonlinear system. However, ecosystem health assessment conventionally builds on a linear superposition of changes in ecosystem components and probably fails to evaluate nonlinear interactions among various components. To better reflect the intrinsic interactions and their impacts on ecosystem health, an ecosystem coordination index, defined as the matching level of ecosystem structure/services, is proposed and incorporated into the ecosystem health index for a systematic diagnosis in the Pearl River Estuary, China. The analysis results show that the ecosystem health index over the last three decades decreased from 0.91 to 0.50, indicating deteriorating from healthy to unhealthy status. The health index is 3–16% lower than that calculated using the common method without considering ecosystem coordination. Ecosystem health degradation in the Pearl River Estuary manifested as significant decreases in structure/services and somewhat mismatching among them. Overall, the introduction of coordination in ecosystem health assessment could improve the understanding of the mechanism of marine ecosystem change and facilitate effective restoration of ecosystem health. PMID:23894670
Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Connell, D W; Zhang, X; Wong, H L; Giesy, J P; Fang, Z; Lam, P K S
Local marine environments in China's Pearl River Delta (PRD), the most rapidly developing region in one of the world's fastest growing economies, have been experiencing significant environmental stress during the past decades. This investigation was conducted to determine the status and trends of persistence organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-related compounds in marine sediments collected from sixteen coastal stations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in March 2003. Elevated concentrations of PAHs (94-4300 ng/g), PCBs (6.0-290 ng/g), PHCs (14-150 microg/g), and DDTs (1.4-600 ng/g) were detected in sediment samples. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like activities in the sediment samples were estimated to range from 0.3 to 440 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Sediments collected from Xiashan contained the greatest concentrations of trace organic contaminations amongst all the sampling stations in the present study. The degree of trace organic contamination was, in general, more severe at stations situated along the west shores of the PRD than their counterparts in the east. A preliminary assessment was performed to examine the probable risks to the marine ecosystem due to POPs. The results showed that OC pesticide contamination in the PRD was particularly serious and might pose a threat to the health of the marine inhabitants.
Song, Wei; Zhang, Ying
The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. An agricultural oasis is a typical landscape in arid regions providing precious fertile soil, living space and ecological services. The agricultural oasis change has been one of the key issues in sustainable development in recent decades. In this paper, we examined the changes in the agricultural oasis in HRB and analyzed the socio-economic and climatic driving forces behind them. It was found that the agricultural oasis in HRB expanded by 25.11% and 14.82% during the periods of 1986-2000 and 2000-2011, respectively. Most of the newly added agricultural oases in HRB were converted from grassland (40.94%) and unused land (40.22%). The expansion in the agricultural oasis mainly occurred in the middle reaches of HRB, particularly in the counties of Shandan, Minle, Jinta and Jiuquan city. Changes in the rural labor force, annual temperature and precipitation have significant positive effects on agricultural oasis changes, while the ratio of irrigated agricultural oases has significant negative effects on agricultural oasis changes. The agricultural oasis expansion in HRB is the combined effect of human activity and climate change.
Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting
Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.
Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong
Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853
Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Sun, Fulin; Wang, Yutu; Hong, Yiguo
A cruise was commissioned in the summer of 2009 to evaluate water quality in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Chemometrics such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) were employed to identify anthropogenic and natural influences on estuary water quality. The scores of stations in the surface layer in the first principal component (PC1) were related to NH4-N, PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, and Chlorophyll a while salinity, turbidity, and SiO3-Si in the second principal component (PC2). Similarly, the scores of stations in the bottom layers in PC1 were related to PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TP, while salinity, Chlorophyll a, NH4-N, and SiO3-Si in PC2. Results of the PCA identified the spatial distribution of the surface and bottom water quality, namely the Guangzhou urban reach, Middle reach, and Lower reach of the estuary. Both cluster analysis and PCA produced the similar results. Self-organizing map delineated the Guangzhou urban reach of the Pearl River that was mainly influenced by human activities. The middle and lower reaches of the PRE were mainly influenced by the waters in the South China Sea. The information extracted by PCA, CA, and SOM would be very useful to regional agencies in developing a strategy to carry out scientific plans for resource use based on marine system functions.
Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling
The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency.
Gong, Yao; Yu, Zhigang; Yao, Qingzhen; Chen, Hongtao; Mi, Tiezhu; Tan, Jiaqiang
The rapid growth of the economy in China has caused dramatic growth in the industrial and agricultural development in the Yellow River (YR) watershed. The hydrology of the YR has changed dramatically due to the climate changes and water management practices, which have resulted in a great variation in the fluxes of riverine nutrients carried by the YR. To study these changes dissolved nutrients in the YR were measured monthly at Lijin station in the downstream region of the YR from 2002 to 2004. This study provides detailed information on the nutrient status for the relevant studies in the lower YR and the Bohai Sea. The YR was enriched in nitrate (average 314 μmol·L−1) with a lower concentration of dissolved silicate (average 131 μmol·L−1) and relatively low dissolved phosphate (average 0.35 μmol·L−1). Nutrient concentrations exhibited substantial seasonal and yearly variations. The annual fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, and silicate in 2004 were 5.3, 2.5, and 4.2 times those in 2002, respectively, primarily due to the increase in river discharge. The relative contributions of nutrient inputs to nitrogen in the YR were: wastewater > fertilizer > atmospheric deposition > soil; while to phosphorus were: wastewater > fertilizer > soil > atmospheric deposition. The ratios of N, P and Si suggest that the YR at Lijin is strongly P-limited with respect to potential phytoplankton growth. PMID:26287226
Zou, Hui; Zou, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaojing
The increase and the complexity of data caused by the uncertain environment is today’s reality. In order to identify water quality effectively and reliably, this paper presents a modified fast clustering algorithm for water quality analysis. The algorithm has adopted a varying weights K-means cluster algorithm to analyze water monitoring data. The varying weights scheme was the best weighting indicator selected by a modified indicator weight self-adjustment algorithm based on K-means, which is named MIWAS-K-means. The new clustering algorithm avoids the margin of the iteration not being calculated in some cases. With the fast clustering analysis, we can identify the quality of water samples. The algorithm is applied in water quality analysis of the Haihe River (China) data obtained by the monitoring network over a period of eight years (2006–2013) with four indicators at seven different sites (2078 samples). Both the theoretical and simulated results demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and reliable for water quality analysis of the Haihe River. In addition, the algorithm can be applied to more complex data matrices with high dimensionality. PMID:26569283
Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing
The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.
Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan
Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future
Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.
The joint probability behaviors of extreme hydro-meteorological events, such as droughts, have been receiving increasing attentions in recent years. Since extreme hydro-meteorological events are reflected by more than one variable, such as duration and intensity, copula functions have been widely applied. However, uncertainties of copula-based analysis of hydrological droughts as a result of selection of marginal distribution and copulas have not yet received significant concerns. The aim of this study is to evaluate such uncertainties based on Bayesian approach. The method is used to analyze hydrological drought in the East River basin (China), which is the principal supplier of water resources for megacities in the Pearl River Delta and also for Hong Kong. The results indicate that the credible intervals of most likely design drought events with a return period of 20 years in terms of drought severity and duration are considerably large at all stations in the East River basin, covering the drought event curves at return periods of 10 and 50 years. Also the influences of heavy-tailed marginal distribution on the uncertainty evaluation of joint distribution have been investigated. Results show that the stronger the heavy-tailed marginal distribution, the greater the uncertainty of the joint distribution, especially for the extreme event. Results of this study provide a technical reference for uncertainty evaluation in copula-based analysis of drought events at regional and global scales. The large credible interval of drought severity and duration greatly challenges measures of mitigation of drought hazards and water resource management.
Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,
Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan
Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.
Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan
Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.
Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing
The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale. PMID:26544070
Qian, Bao; Zhang, Debing; Wang, Jincheng; Huang, Feng; Wu, Yao
The Hanjiang River is an important tributary of the Yangtze River in China. Long-term observed streamflow and sediment load data that spanned 1951-2014 was collected from the Huangzhuang hydrometric station, which is located at the middle reaches. The data was analyzed to reveal the impacts of reservoirs on streamflow and sediment load of the Hanjiang River. The coefficient of variation (C v) and concentration degree (C d) were applied to describe the intra-annual distribution characteristics. Abrupt changes in the time series of the streamflow and sediment load were detected by the heuristic segmentation algorithm. The annual streamflow significantly decreased from 1561 to 1263 m(3)/s after 1991, which was mainly caused by climate change. Two significant change points in the annual sediment load series occurred at 1966 and 1985, and the average values of the sub-series were 3198, 952, and 251 kg/s, respectively. Significant change points in the C v and C d series of the streamflow and sediment load occurred around 1967. The C v and C d series decreased dramatically after the change points. Abrupt changes in the time series of the streamflow and sediment load mainly occurred around 1967 when the Danjiangkou reservoir began to impound water, indicating that the Danjiangkou reservoir was an important factor that caused hydrological changes. The reservoir trapped sediment, reduced sediment concentration, mitigated the monthly streamflow and sediment load fluctuations, and reduced the intra-annual variation and concentration. Assessed by the range of variability approaches, the overall alteration degrees of the streamflow and sediment regimes were 36 and 60 %, respectively, which qualified as a moderate degree. The reservoir exerted greater influence on the sediment regime than on the streamflow regime.
Xian, Qiming; Ramu, Karri; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Takahashi, Shin; Yu, Hongxia; Tanabe, Shinsuke
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes from the lower reach of the Yangtze River, China. The present study is the first to report HBCD concentrations in the environment of China. The concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs in muscle of freshwater fishes from the Yangtze River ranged from 18 to 1100ng/g and 12 to 330ng/g lipid weight (wt.), respectively. When compared with other regions of the world, the contamination of PBDEs in biota could be regarded as moderate, whereas contamination of HBCDs in biota was relatively high. The PBDE congener profiles in fishes of the present study were markedly different from those observed in freshwater and marine fishes from other regions of the world. In the present study, BDE-15, BDE-28 and BDE-47 were the predominant congeners in the fishes. This particular congener profile in fishes from the Yangtze River revealed that a specific commercial PBDE formulation (probably made in China) might have been used in the Yangtze River Delta region.
Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Fei; Qu, Chengkai; Zhang, Yuan; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Jiaquan
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a sub-group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have raised the concerns from researchers all around the world for several decades. But very little research has been conducted on POPs in the arid zone of Northwest China. More than 100 soil and sediment samples were collected from Kaidu-Peacock River of Xinjiang, Northwest of China, to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in this region analysed by the gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Our pre-study in 2006 (Chen et al. 2011) in the same region, showed that OCPs except o,p'-DDT were detected in sediments from the Peacock River. Similar results were found in the whole river catchment in this investigation. DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and endosulfans were the dominant OCPs residual in the soil and sediments. This study confirmed that POPs, such as OCPs in this region were contributed to by both local emissions and long-term atmospheric transport and may pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. Chen, W., Jing, M., Bu, J., Ellis Burnet, J., Qi, S., Song, Q., Ke, Y., Miao, J., Liu, M. & Yang, C. (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 1-21.
Li, Zheng; Xia, Chonghuan; Wang, Xinming; Xiang, Yunrong; Xie, Zhouqing
Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was monitored at Wanqingsha, a rural site in the central Pearl River Delta region, south China from 23 November to 22 December, 2008. TGM ranged 0.50-18.67 ng m -3 with an average of 2.94 ng m -3. TGM was found to present a diurnal cycle with the maximum at 7:00-8:00 and the minimum at 14:00-16:00 (local time). The afternoon minimum in TGM were likely related to increased vertical mixing and the TGM oxidation by ozone, which was observed to negative correlation with TGM. A sudden increase in TGM from 6:00-7:00 could be due to activation of local surface emission sources by rising air temperature. Similar variations in TGM and trace gases including CO and SO 2 suggested potential anthropogenic sources contribution as well. Wind-rose patterns further indicated that the westerly wind might carry high concentration of TGM from the high mercury emission areas of Southwest China and/or local anthropogenic emission sources.
Guo, Yang; Wang, Xiujun; Li, Xianglan; Wang, Jiaping; Xu, Minggang; Li, Dongwei
Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and organic carbon (SOC) are important carbon reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little attention was paid to SIC dynamics in cropland. We conducted a survey in the upper Yellow River Delta of North China Plain. We collected 155 soil samples from 31 profiles, and measured SOC, SIC and soluble Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents. Our results showed that mean SOC content decreased from 9.30 g kg‑1 near the surface to 2.36 g kg‑1 in 80–100 cm whereas mean SIC content increased from 10.48 to 12.72 g kg‑1. On average, SOC and SIC stocks over 0–100 cm were 5.73 kg C m‑2 and 16.89 kg C m‑2, respectively. There was a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) between SOC and SIC in the cropland. We also found that SIC had a significantly positive correlation with both soluble Ca2+ (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and Mg2+ (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Our study suggested that increasing SOC might lead to an increase in SIC stocks in the cropland of North China Plain. This study highlights the importance of SIC in the carbon cycle of China’s semi-arid region.
Guo, Yang; Wang, Xiujun; Li, Xianglan; Wang, Jiaping; Xu, Minggang; Li, Dongwei
Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and organic carbon (SOC) are important carbon reservoirs in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little attention was paid to SIC dynamics in cropland. We conducted a survey in the upper Yellow River Delta of North China Plain. We collected 155 soil samples from 31 profiles, and measured SOC, SIC and soluble Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents. Our results showed that mean SOC content decreased from 9.30 g kg−1 near the surface to 2.36 g kg−1 in 80–100 cm whereas mean SIC content increased from 10.48 to 12.72 g kg−1. On average, SOC and SIC stocks over 0–100 cm were 5.73 kg C m−2 and 16.89 kg C m−2, respectively. There was a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) between SOC and SIC in the cropland. We also found that SIC had a significantly positive correlation with both soluble Ca2+ (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and Mg2+ (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Our study suggested that increasing SOC might lead to an increase in SIC stocks in the cropland of North China Plain. This study highlights the importance of SIC in the carbon cycle of China’s semi-arid region. PMID:27782204
Kuo, Yi-Ming; liu, Wenwen
Algal bloom was occurred every year in the down stream of the Han River in recent five years. The operation of the Middle Route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer (MSNW) Project may affect the hydrological condition and self-purification of water body in the down and middle streams of the Han River, trigger algal bloom, and elevate the difficulty in the treatment of water pollutants, which is a crucial issue involved in ecology, environment, and economy. In this study, the monthly water samples were collected from the middle and down streams of Han River from July 2014 to December 2015. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis were applied to identify major pollution types and areas and determine the reasons influencing the variations of water quality in the down and middle streams of the Han River. The results show that whole monitoring period can be divided into three periods as different pollution levels. The factor analysis distinguishes three pollution types (inorganic pollution, organic pollution, and agricultural pollution) and thier contributions on Han River water quality in dry and wet seasons. Industrial areas are influenced by inorganic pollution and cultivated lands are influenced by agricultural pollution. The water quality in wet season is significantly affected by flow rate, which was sometimes controlled by two projects. The heavy polluted water may be diluted by high flow volume.
Yu, Yiyi; Huang, Qiuxin; Wang, Zhifang; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Caiming; Cui, Jianlan; Feng, Jialiang; Peng, Xianzhi
The occurrence and behavior of β-blockers, antiepileptic drug carbamazepine and its metabolites, X-ray contrast agent iopromide, natural and synthetic hormones, and several groups of hormone-like personal care products (PCPs), including antiseptics (triclocarban, triclosan, and 2-phenylphenol), parabens and bisphenol A, were investigated in municipal wastewater, sewage sludge, and urban river water of the Pearl River Delta, South China. The pharmaceuticals, natural hormones and PCPs were ubiquitously detected in the raw wastewater from a sewage treatment plant (STP). Only triclocarban and triclosan were detected at significant amounts in the dewatered sludge. Iopromide and the PCPs were greatly removed/transformed from the aqueous phase of the wastewater. The β-blockers were only moderately removed/transformed. Carbamazepine passed through the STP almost unchanged. Biodegradation was the dominant process for elimination/transformation of the pharmaceuticals, hormones, and most PCPs in the STP. However, sorption also played an important role in the fate of triclocarban with nearly 50% of the mass load entering the STP ended up and persisted in the dewatered sludge. The pharmaceuticals, estrone, and PCPs were also widely detected in the Pearl River at Guangzhou. Bisphenol A had the highest concentration. The pharmaceutical concentrations in the Pearl River were higher in March than in May, most likely due to less dilution by lower precipitation. The omnipresence and high levels of the pharmaceuticals and PCPs in the Pearl River may be associated with direct discharge of untreated wastewater and pose potential risks to the ecological system.
Pan, Baotian; Chen, Dianbao; Hu, Xiaofei; Cao, Xilin; Chen, Jinjun; Mao, Junwei
The uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau has significantly changed the environment in surrounding areas by delivering abundant water and sediment. The Heihe River draining the Qilian Shan in the NE Tibetan Plateau acts as a dominant sediment routing system from the uplifted NE Tibetan Plateau to the Hexi Corridor as well as the Badain Jaran Desert. Reconstructing the evolution of the Heihe River could provide evidence for the birth of the Badain Jaran Desert and enhance the understanding of sedimentary basin fill and the relationship between tectonism, drainage evolution and environmental changes. With this aim, two parallel cores (DWJ and XKJD with depths of 140 and 68.2 m, respectively) were drilled in the floodplain of the Heihe River. The facies analysis of the sedimentary sequences from the drilling cores showed that the sedimentary environment changed from the lake system to a delta system and finally to a fluvial system at the depths of ∼133.3 and ∼68 m, respectively. The magnetostratigraphic results revealed ages of approximately 1.75 and 1.12 Ma for the DWJ and XKJD cores, respectively, and an age of approximately 1.1 Ma for the transition from delta to fluvial environment in both the cores. The change of the sedimentary environment at approximately 1.1 Ma was caused by the formation of the integrated Heihe River. The integrated Heihe River may have developed via mechanisms such as river capture and river diversion due to the uplifting of the North Qilian Shan and the Longshou Shan. The present study suggested that the formation of large inland rivers, such as the Heihe River and the Shiyang River in NW China, played an important role in the evolution of the deserts and the Loess Plateau.
Zhang, Zhaoyong; Juying, Li; Mamat, Zulpiya; QingFu, Ye
The current study focused on the Bortala River - a typical inland river located in an oasis of arid area in northwestern China. The sediment and soil samples were collected from the river and drainage basin. Results showed that: (1) the particle size of the sand fraction of the sediments was 78-697 µm, accounting for 78.82% of the total samples; the average concentrations of eight heavy metals fell within the concentration ranges recommended by the Secondary National Standard of China, while the maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg exceeded these standards; (2) results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cu, Ni, As, and Zn originated primarily from natural geological background, while Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr in the sediments originated from human activities; (3) results of the enrichment factor analysis and the geo-accumulation index evaluation showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb were present in the surface sediments of the river at low or partial serious pollution levels, while Zn, Cr, As, Ni, and Cu existed at zero or low pollution levels; (4) calculation of the potential ecological hazards index showed that among the eight tested heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr were the main potential ecological risk factors, with relative contributions of 25.43%, 22.23%, 21.16%, and 14.87%, respectively; (5) the spatial distribution of the enrichment factors (EF(S)), the Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(r)(i)) for eight heavy metals showed that there was a greater accumulation of heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Hg in the sediments of the central and eastern parts of the river. Results of this research can be a reference for the heavy metals pollution prevention, the harmony development of the ecology protection and the economy development of the oases of inland river basin of arid regions of China, Central Asia and also other parts of the world.
Liu, Tao; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Zhou, Yali; Zhang, Yuzhu; Ji, Lin
Slackwater palaeoflood deposits (SWDs) were identified in a bedrock gorge in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River of central China. The Hanjiang River is the longest tributary of the Yangtze River, one of the most flood-prone rivers in China, and the main source of water for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Three main loess-soil profiles with late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoflood SWD bedsets were found. Palaeoflood SWDs identified interbedded in the loess-soil sequence of late Pleistocene and Holocene age within the cliff riverbanks were studied by field observations and laboratory analysis, including particle-size distribution and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. At least eight extreme flood events documented by palaeoflood SWDs occurred in the Wufeng reaches of the upper Hanjiang River. The discharge estimation associated with palaeoflood SWDs, indicates that the minimum flood peak discharges of these flood episodes range from 42,220 to 63,400 m3/s. The SWDs were OSL dated to between 12,600-12,400, 4200-4000, 3200-2800 and 1900-1700 a BP and these dates were corroborated with pottery remains retrieved from the profiles and dated by archaeological methods. These periods of increased flood magnitude coincide with contemporaneous global climatic events dated to 12,500, 4200, 3100 and 1900 a BP worldwide. These findings are of great significance in understanding the interactions between hydrological systems and climatic change in monsoonal zones.
Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M.; Zeng, E.Y.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 59 surface sediments from rivers in the Pearl River Delta and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea. Total PAH concentrations varied from 138 to 6,793 ng/g dry weight. The sources of PAH inputs to sediments in the Pearl River Delta were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by diagnostic ratios and principal components analysis with multiple linear regression. The results showed that on average coal and wood combustion, petroleum spills, vehicle emissions, and nature sources contributed 36%, 27%, 25%, and 12% of total PAHs, respectively. Coal and biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs in sediments of the South China Sea, whereas petroleum combustion was the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in riverine and estuarine sediments of the Pearl River Delta. Perylene was formed in situ in river sediments and then transported to coastal areas along with other PAHs. The relative abundance of perylene from five-ring PAHs can be used to estimate the contribution of riverine-discharged PAHs to coastal sediments.
Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Wandres, Camille; Liu, Qingsong
In order to use the magnetic properties of marine sediments as a tracer for past changes in the precipitation rate and in oceanic water masses transport and exchanges, it is critical to identify and to characterize the different sources of the detrital fraction among which the magnetic particles. This is of peculiar importance in marginal seas such as the South China Sea extending from about 25°N to the equator. Thanks to the Westpac project, we had access to a number of sediments collected in the deltas of the main rivers feeding the South China Sea. This is represented on the Asian continent by the Pearl river, the Red River, the Mekong river, by Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo regions with minor rivers but also contributing to the South China Sea, and finally by Luzon and Taiwan. The geological formations contributing to the river sediment discharges are different from one catchment basin to another as well as the present climatic conditions. The magnetic analyses conducted on the samples are the low-field magnetic susceptibility, the ARM acquisition and decay, the IRM acquisition and decay, the back-field acquisition, the thermal demagnetization of 3-axes IRM, the hysteresis parameters, the FORC diagrams. The obtained parameters all together allow us to define the nature of the magnetic grains and their grain size distribution when magnetite is dominant. Some degree of variability is observed at the river mouths, illustrating different geological sources at the local/regional scale. As an average, it appears that the Southern basin of the South China Sea is surrounded by regions richer in high coercivity magnetic minerals than the northern basin. This mineral is identified as hematite while magnetite is more abundant in the north. These results are complementary to the clay mineral assemblages previously determined on the same samples. We'll give some example of how this knowledge allows us to interpret the paleo-marine records from the South China Sea in terms
Li, X.; Che, T.; Li, H.; Jin, R.; Liu, S.; Huang, C.
We provide an overview of a high mountain river basin observing system in the Qilian Mountains of China. Mountain cryosphere is very sensitive to climate change, however, monitoring and modeling of cryospheric process and its interaction with hydrology and ecology needs to be further strengthened. We establish a multi-scale high mountain river basin observing system in the upstream area of the Heihe River Basin, Qilian Mountains of China. This system consists of flux towers on alpine tundra, alpine meadow and alpine steppes, a network of automatic meteorological stations, a wireless sensor network of soil moisture, soil temperature, snow depth, and precipitation, and two super observatories for monitoring snow and frozen soil, respectively. Super-high resolution (1 meter) DEMs of four experiment sub-watersheds (each about 20-40 km2) within this river basin were obtained via airborne LiDAR remote sensing.We introduce the data obtained since 2012 and present some preliminary modeling and data assimilation results. The results show that runoff, precipitation, snowmelt, and glacier melt keep increasing in the upstream area of the Heihe River Basin due to a warming climate. The ratio of snowmelt in total runoff has increased and the onset of snowmelt has gone ahead. The contribution of glacier melt to total runoff has almost doubled in the past decade. Frozen soil melt advances in time as well, and it may also contributes to the increase of the portion of baseflow in total runoff.This observatory has joined the International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology (NARCH) and will work as a unique site to monitor cryospheric and hydroclimatological changes in very high mountains.
Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie
A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001–2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R2), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin. PMID:25013863
Zhang, Wei; Ruan, Xiaohong; Zheng, Jinhai; Zhu, Yuliang; Wu, Hongxu
This paper focuses on identifying changes in the tidal range and the duration of the flood tide in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Mann-Kendall test and regression methods are employed to verify the existence of trends in the annual tidal range and duration series (from the 1950s to 2005) at 17 stations in the 3 major tributaries of the delta. The research results indicate that generally there is an increasing trend in the tidal range and flood tide duration at most of the stations in the channel network. Moreover, the more upstream the location of the station, the more obvious the change in trend is, and these increasing trends are all significant at the stations in the upper part of the delta. Specifically, the tidal range at Shilong station in the East River has increased abruptly since the middle of the 1980s such that the mean level of post-1990 data is approximately three times that for pre-1985. Most stations near the mouth of the estuary show significant downward trends in the tidal range and flood tide duration. Results of the intersection point of the Mann-Kendall test curves for these Pearl River Delta stations appear mostly in 1980s-1990s, indicating that a noticeable change point occurs during this period. Human activities in the Pearl River Delta reached their peak during the 1980s. Among these, large-scale and long-term sand excavation modified the hydrodynamic regime dramatically in a way that increased the water depth and lowered the level of the riverbed, leading to an increased tidal prism and upstream movement of the tidal limit. Land reclamation is also likely to have had a relatively large effect on the tidal range and flood tide duration at stations near to the estuary mouth. Changes in other factors, such as freshwater flow and sea-level rise, seem to be of relatively minor importance. It is noteworthy that in a dry season the tidal dynamics are greatly enhanced and has resulted in strong saltwater intrusion into the estuary in recent
Chen, Yongshan S; Yu, Shen; Hong, Youwei W; Lin, Qiaoying Y; Li, Hongbo B
Pharmaceutical compounds were increasingly detected in environmental matrices but little is known whether these compounds would transport to coastal zones via watersheds. Three typical tidal rivers in southeastern China were selected and 15 surface sediment samples (0-10 cm) were collected along a 50-km tidal section of each river. Surface sediment samples were frozen-drying and then extracted for pharmaceutical compounds by an accelerated solvent extraction system. The pharmaceutical compounds in extracts were scanned using a high-performance liquid chromatography/tandern mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three hundred and thirty compounds from nine pharmaceutical groups were detected with signal-to-noise above three (detectable level) in the surface sediments, of which 186 compounds were with a signal-to-noise above ten (measurable level). Of all, 291 and 80 compounds were detectable and measurable in all the three rivers, respectively. The Jiulong River showed a high load of pharmaceutical compounds in surface sediment than other two rivers. Of the nine pharmaceutical groups, the antihistamines and detoxification group and anti-infective drug group contributed five dominant compounds in the surface sediments in all the three rivers. Natures of pharmaceutical compounds rather than the sediment properties (pH, EC, and total carbon content) might influence their residues. The incredible number and intensity of pharmaceutical residues were detected in tidal surface sediments of the three rivers indicating that the pharmaceutical contamination should be strongly considered in China. Source identification and eco-toxicity assessment should be taken into account in the future study. Therapeutic medicine managements need to be strictly improved at a watershed scale to reduce loads of pharmaceuticals into aquatic ecosystems.
Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng
A framework for characteristics identification and source apportionment of water pollution in the Jinjiang River of China was proposed in this study for evaluation. A total of 114 water samples which were generated between May 2009 and September 2010 at 13 sites were collected and analysed. First, support vector machine (SVM) and water quality pollutant index (WQPI) were used for water quality comprehensive evaluation and identifying characteristic contaminants. Later, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC) was employed for source apportionment. Finally, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component score (APCS/MLR) was applied to further estimate source contributions for each characteristic contaminant. The results indicated that the water quality of the Jinjiang River was mainly at the third level (65.79%) based on national surface water quality permissible standards in China. Ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, mercury, iron and manganese were identified as characteristic contaminants. Source apportionment results showed that industrial activities (63.16%), agricultural non-point source (16.50%) and domestic sewage (12.85%) were the main anthropogenic pollution sources which were influencing the water quality of Jinjiang River. This proposed method provided a helpful framework for conducting water pollution management in aquatic environment.
Carbon (POC, DOC) and carbon isotopes (δ13C) within two headwater tributaries to the Xi River Basin, southwest China were analyzed to document the geochemical characteristics and sources of organic carbon (C) within basins characterized by a monsoonal climate and karst landforms. δ13 C POC value and C/N ratio data indicate that suspended soil organic carbon (SOC) was an important source of POC in both the Nanpan and Beipan rivers (i.e., the studied tributaries). However, differences in C sources exist between the Nanpan and Beipan River Basins. Higher terrestrial plants supplied a portion of the POC within the Beipan River. In contrast, the Nanpan River was characterized by an inverse correlation between POC and DOC, and a positive relationship between the δ13C values. These trends indicate that DOC within the Nanpan River was partly derived from the degradation of soil C within the water column. In addition, the interception of C by hydrological projects (e.g., dams) positioned along the Nanpan River led to higher DOC/POC ratios. In contrast, within the Beipan River δ13C DOC values range from -20 to -25.2 ‰ and are consistent with ratios associated with soil C, suggesting that leaching of C from catchment soil was the dominant source of DOC. Organic C in tributaries to the Beipan River may also have been derived from intense upland soil erosion, a process that resulted in the lowest DOC/POC ratios. The collected data indicate that land-use changes have potentially influenced regional- to local-scale organic C budgets within subtropical basins subjected to karstification.
Wang, Bin; Huang, Bin; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Shimin; Li, Farong; Hu, Ping; Pan, Xuejun
The objectives of this study are to track the occurrence, distribution, and sources of phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the 22 rivers around Dianchi Lake in China, to estimate the input and output amounts of phenolic EDCs in the water system, and to provide more comprehensive fundamental data for risk assessment and contamination control of phenolic EDCs in aquatic environment. Six phenolic EDCs were systematically evaluated in water and surface sediment in the estuaries of those rivers. The water and sediment samples were preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted extraction system, respectively. Phenolic EDCs were analyzed by GC-MS (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) after derivatization. Phenolic EDCs were found ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. The total concentrations ranged from 248 to 4,650 ng/L in water, and 113 to 3,576 ng/g dry weight in surface sediment. The residue amount of phenolic EDCs in Dianchi Lake was 258 kg/a. Concentrations of the phenolic EDCs in the Lake decreased with increase in distance to the estuaries of those rivers which run through urban and industrial areas. The rivers seriously contaminated by phenolic EDCs were Xin River, Yunliang River, Chuanfang River, Cailian River, Jinjia River, Zhengda River, and Daqing River which run through the old area of Kunming City. Satisfying correlations were observed between the concentrations of the target compounds in water and in surface sediment. NP1EO, NP2EO, and BPA were identified as the three predominant phenolic EDCs. There were significant correlations between phenolic EDCs and many basic water quality parameters. Urban and industrial areas are the major contributors for phenolic EDCs, especially in Kunming City. Compositional profiles of phenolic EDCs in surface sediment were similar to those in river water. The concentrations of phenolic EDCs in the rivers located in the northwest part of the valley were very high, and posed a potential
Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Li, Shanshan; Rong, Nan
The distributions and mobilities of metals in pore water strongly influence the biogeochemical processes and bioavailabilities of metals at sediment-water interfaces. Heavy metal concentrations were measured in pore water samples from the Shaocun River (SR), the Wangyang River (WR), and the Xiao River (XR), tributaries of the Ziya River system, northern China. The aim was to assess heavy metal contamination in the system and the associated environmental risks. The mean Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in all three tributaries were 0.373, 57.1, 37.7, 20.4, 14.0, and 90.6 μg/L, respectively. The calculated Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn diffusion fluxes in the rivers were -0.427 to 0.469, -71.8 to 42.5, 3.16 to 86.6, 5.29 to 14.0, 7.24 to 19.0, and -204 to 21.9 μg/(m(2) day), respectively, showing that the pore water was a source of most of the metals to the water column. Only Cu and Pb in the XR and Cu in the WR exceeded the final chronic value recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency, but the metals in the WR sediment could have caused toxic effects. These results are likely to be useful to the authorities responsible for sustainable river management.
Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hong; Rong, Nan; Ding, Yuekui
The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River Basin to determine if amino acids were potential sources of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. The rivers were found to be in a state of hypoxia and contain abnormally high levels of ammonium and organic nitrogen. Additionally, NH₃-N was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments, while organic nitrogen accounted for 92.53% of sedimentary nitrogen. THAAs-C accounted for 14.92% of the total organic carbon, while THAAs-N accounted for more than 49.59% of organic nitrogen and 45.68% of total nitrogen. The major fraction of THAAs were protein amino acids. Three sediment cores of the most heavily polluted rivers also showed high levels of THAAs. Evaluation of the degradation index (DI) of sedimentary organic matter in sediments evaluated based on the THAAs revealed that most positive DI values were found in the downstream portion of the Ziya River Watershed. Additionally, the DI of surface sediment was correlated with THAAs (r² = 0.763, p < 0.001), as was the DI of sediment cores (r² = 0.773, p < 0.001). Overall, amino acids in sediments were found to be an important potential source of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon.
Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hong; Rong, Nan; Ding, Yuekui
The Haihe River Basin, which is one of the most water-scarce and polluted river basins in China, has abnormally high nitrogen levels. In this study, total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) were measured in surface sediment and sediment core samples in the Haihe River Basin to determine if amino acids were potential sources of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. The rivers were found to be in a state of hypoxia and contain abnormally high levels of ammonium and organic nitrogen. Additionally, NH3-N was the predominant form of inorganic nitrogen in the surface sediments, while organic nitrogen accounted for 92.53% of sedimentary nitrogen. THAAs-C accounted for 14.92% of the total organic carbon, while THAAs-N accounted for more than 49.59% of organic nitrogen and 45.68% of total nitrogen. The major fraction of THAAs were protein amino acids. Three sediment cores of the most heavily polluted rivers also showed high levels of THAAs. Evaluation of the degradation index (DI) of sedimentary organic matter in sediments evaluated based on the THAAs revealed that most positive DI values were found in the downstream portion of the Ziya River Watershed. Additionally, the DI of surface sediment was correlated with THAAs (r2 = 0.763, p < 0.001), as was the DI of sediment cores (r2 = 0.773, p < 0.001). Overall, amino acids in sediments were found to be an important potential source of ammonium, organic nitrogen, and organic carbon. PMID:26907310
Yuan, Zijiao; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Da, Chunnian
The levels of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were determined in surface sediments and one dated sediment core from the abandoned Old Yellow River Estuary, China. Total PAH concentrations in the surface sediments ranged from 100.4 to 197.3 ng g(-1) dry weight and the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ(carc)) values of the carcinogenic PAHs were very low. An evaluation of PAH sources based on diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that PAHs in the surface sediments mainly derived from combustion sources. The total PAH concentrations altered significantly with year of deposition and showed quite different patterns of change compared with other studies: it is hypothesized that the principal cause of these changes is the relocation of the course of the Yellow River to the sea in 1976 and 1996.
Li, C.; Zhu, Y. J.; Li, G. E.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Li, R. H.; Wang, L.; Wu, Y. J.
Water and soil loss problems are serious in China, especially in the upper and middle reaches of big rivers. This paper dynamically observed water and soil loss in key control regions in Jialing River Basin. Based on remotely sensed images, the method used in this paper is a combination of field investigation and indoor artificial interpretation under the technologies of RS and GIS. The method was proven to be effective of improving the accuracy of interpreting. The result shows the land use types of the researched regions and how they changed among the previous years. Evaluation of water and soil conservation was made. This result can provide references for further policy-making and water and soil loss controlling.
Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.
Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang
Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.
Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Chengjie; Ding, Huiping; Xie, Peng; Ma, Xufa; Guo, Yan; Xie, Congxin
The reproductive biology of bream Abramis brama (L.) was studied from 546 fish collected from the lower reaches of the Irtysh River in Xinjiang, north-west China, from March to November 2013. The overall sex ratio (M/F) was 1.06:1, and was not significantly different from the theoretical 1:1 ratio (P>0.5). However, there was a dominance of males during the pre-spawning season (1.33 in March and 1.56 in April, P<0.5), while females were dominant during the peak spawning season (0.88 in June, P<0.5). The monthly variation in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and proportion of gonads at each macroscopic maturity stage, indicated that A. brama spawned once a year with peak spawning occurring from late May to June. The unimodal distribution of oocyte diameter each month indicated that A. brama is a single spawner, with a high degree of spawning synchronicity. The standard lengths (SL50) and ages (A 50) at first maturity for males and females, were 178 and 204 mm, and 5.6 and 6.8 years, respectively. The mean absolute fecundity (AF) was 77 311 eggs per fish, and mean relative fecundity (RF) was 162 eggs per gram of body weight (BW). The AF of A. brama increased linearly with increasing of gonad weight (GW), eviscerated weight (EW) and standard length (SL), but was not significantly correlated with age. As, A. brama in the lower reaches of the Irtysh River reaches reproductive maturity relatively late in their life span, is mature for a short period and spawns in aggregations, this fish is vulnerable to overexploitation.
An, Wei; Zhang, Dongqing; Xiao, Shumin; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Min
The concentrations of Cryptosporidium in the source water of several cities of Zhejiang Province, China were determined to be in the range of 0-17 oocysts/10 L in the rainy season in 2008, with a mean value of 7 oocysts/10 L. Based on the investigation data, comprehensive risk assessment of Cryptosporidium infection was performed by considering different water intake routes as well as water consumption. Intakes of unboiled tapwater (including drinking and tooth-brushing and food and dish washing) and source water (through swimming in rivers) were estimated to be 2.59-25.9 and 0.32-0.74 L/year-person, respectively. The mortality due to Cryptosporidium infection for people in this region, excluding HIV-infected patients, was calculated as 0-0.0146 per 10(5) persons using a conditional probability formula. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used to quantify the risk of Cryptosporidium infection, for which uncertainty was analyzed. For people who consumed conventionally treated water, the DALYs due to Cryptosporidium infection were 6.51 per 10(5) (95% CI: 2.16 × 10(-5)-22.35 × 10(-5)) persons, which were higher than a risk judged acceptable by some (1.97 × 10(-5) DALYs per year), and the risk for those consuming ozone-treated water became 0.0689 × 10(-5) DALYs per year. The major risk of infection resulted from swimming in the river. This study provides a method to establish the risk of Cryptosporidium infection and optimize the scheme for reducing the risk effectively, which is useful for the modification of water quality standards based on cost utility analysis given use of DALYs.
Gu, Xihui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Yongqin David; Shi, Peijun
The occurrence rates of floods in Tarim River basin, the largest arid basin in China, were estimated using the Peak-over-Threshold (POT) technique. The intra-annual, seasonal and inter-annual clustering of floods was then analyzed using the Cox regression model, month frequency method and dispersion index, respectively. Possible impacts of climate indices on the occurrence rates were also investigated. Both NAO and AO are selected as significant covariates to occurrence rates of floods in Tarim River basin by Cox regression model, suggesting occurrence of flood events is not independent, but exhibits temporal clustering in intra-annual scale. On the basis of the results of the station and region-wide modeling by Cox regression model, we suggest using a model in which the rate of occurrence depends on monthly averaged NAO or AO. The Cox regression model not only can be used to assess the time-varying rate of flood occurrence, but also has the capability to forecast the predictors. Flood occurrence time and probability of exceedance are changing with climate index from negative to positive on both station and region scale. In addition, seasonal clustering of station-based floods and regional observed floods are also identified with mainly concentrating from June to August. Meanwhile, dispersion index is used to evaluate the inter-annual clustering of annual number of flood occurrences both on station and region. We found that inter-annual clustering of regional floods is more evident than that of station-based floods, indicating that regional observed flood records are generally over-dispersed with a tendency for flood events to cluster in time.
The knowledge of plant water use characteristics under changing environmental conditions is essential for ecosystem management and water resources distribution in water-stressed environments. This study was conducted to quantify variations in transpiration and canopy conductance in a shelterbelt in the middle of the Heihe River Basin, China. Sap flow of eight Gansu Poplar trees (Populus gansuensis) with different diameters at breast height (DBH) was measured over three consecutive growing seasons (2012-2014). The evapotranspiration of groundwater via plant use was estimated by the White method, with diurnal water table fluctuations. Results showed that mean sap flow density varied between 30.62 ±11.44 and 101.88 ±28.98 kg m-2 h-1, and it increased linearly with the DBH. Variations of sap flow density were mainly controlled by meteorological factors in addition to water table depth. Average stand transpiration during the growing season was about 4.85 mm day-1, and it had a logarithmic relationship with reference crop evapotranspiration. Precipitation increased stand transpiration, but not at a statistically significant level (p>0.05). The recharge of soil water by irrigation significantly accelerated stand transpiration (p<0.05). Stand transpiration and canopy conductance increased by 27% and 31%, respectively, when soil water conditions changed from dry to wet. Canopy conductance decreased logarithmically with vapor pressure deficit, whereas there was no apparent relationship between canopy conductance and solar radiation. The sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit decreased under dry soil conditions. Groundwater evapotranspiration (0.6-7.1 mm day-1) was linearly correlated with stand transpiration (1.1-6.5 mm day-1) (R2 = 0.71). During the drought period, approximately 80% of total stand transpiration came from groundwater evapotranspiration. This study highlighted the critical role of irrigation and groundwater for shelterbelts, and might
Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek
SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.
Yang, Z. Y.; Wang, W. K.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, G. H.; Li, W. L.
In arid and semi-arid regions, a close relationship exists between groundwater and supergene eco-environmental issues such as swampiness, soil salinization, desertification, vegetation degradation, reduction of stream base flow, and disappearance of lakes and wetlands. When the maximum allowable withdrawal of groundwater (AWG) is assessed, an ecology-oriented regional groundwater resource assessment (RGRA) method should be used. In this study, a hierarchical assessment index system of the supergene eco-environment was established based on field survey data and analysis of the supergene eco-environment factors influenced by groundwater in the Tuwei River watershed, Shaanxi Province, China. The assessment system comprised 11 indices, including geomorphological type, lithology and structure of the vadose zone, depth of the water table (DWT), total dissolved solids content of groundwater, etc. Weights for all indices were calculated using an analytical hierarchy process. Then, the current eco-environmental conditions were assessed using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Under the imposed constraints, and using both the assessment results on the current eco-environment situation and the ecological constraint of DWT (1.5-5.0 m), the maximum AWG (0.408 × 108 m3/a or 24.29 % of the river base flow) was determined. This was achieved by combining the groundwater resource assessment with the supergene eco-environmental assessment based on FCE. If the maximum AWG is exceeded in a watershed, the eco-environment will gradually deteriorate and produce negative environmental effects. The ecology-oriented maximum AWG can be determined by the ecology-oriented RGRA method, and thus sustainable groundwater use in similar watersheds in other arid and semi-arid regions can be achieved.
Shang, Z; Ren, J; Tao, L; Wang, X
The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cr, Pb, and Cd in 28 samples collected from bottom sediments in the Gansu section of Yellow River, China, were investigated in order to evaluate their distribution and pollution level. The measured metals in the sediments were found to be in the range of Cu 15.52∼57.50 mg/kg, Fe 19593.24∼69963.42 mg/kg, Mn 472.70∼1491.67 mg/kg, Ni 5.10∼74.28 mg/kg, Zn 64.61∼173.83 mg/kg, Cr 57.68∼183.47 mg/kg, Pb 1.21∼28.36 mg/kg, and Cd 0.35∼4.25 mg/kg. The mean values of the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd. There were significantly positive correlations between Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, principal component analysis (PCA) extracted two factors with Eigenvalues explaining 62.15 % of the total variance. Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cr had a natural origin controlled by the first factor. Ni and Pb could originate anthropogenic sources controlled by the second factor. Cd could be affected by natural geological background and human activity. It was attributed principally to anthropogenic activities that the geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, and pollution load index of Cr were all higher than other measured metals. Zn appears to pose no risk at all of the sites of the system. The pollution class of sediment from the Gansu section in the upstream of Yellow River was 0∼1, from unpolluted to moderately polluted degree.
The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.
Li, Yiping; Acharya, Kumud; Zhu, Jianting; Yu, Zhongbo
To improve water quality and alleviate the eutrophication problem for Lake Taihu, the third largest shallow lake in China, water transfer project from Yangtze River, was initiated to dilute the polluted water and export pollutants out of the lake in 2002. The impact of water transfer on transport processes of dissolved substance in the lake is studied by using the concept of water age using a three-dimensional numerical model, Environmental Fluid dynamic Code (EFDC). Influences of inflow tributaries and wind forcing on water age distribution are investigated. Model results show that the effect of water transfer on transport processes in the lake is strongly affected by hydrodynamic conditions induced by wind and inflow/outflow tributaries. Water age in Lake Taihu has highly spatial and temporal heterogeneity, with the mean water age of approximately 130 days in summer and 230 days in other seasons during the simulation year. Southeastly wind, the dominant wind direction in summer, could improve eastern areas of the lake which provide drinking water source and Meiliang Bay, the most polluted bay in the lake. The most efficient flow discharge of transferred water for diluting the lake could be approximately 100 m3/s while considering benefit/cost ratio. Additionally, the water transfer project just minor effects on parts of the lake rather than the entire lake, unless nutrient concentrations in the transferred water are reduced to a reasonable level. This study provides useful information for better understanding the complex hydrodynamic and mass transport processes in the lake, which is important for developing and implementing effective lake management strategies. Keywords: water transfer; water age; EFDC; Lake Taihu; Yangtze River
Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi
Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.
Luo, Y.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Chen, X.
Baseflow is an important component in hydrological modeling. Complex streamflow recession process complicates the baseflow simulation. In order to simulate the snow and/or glacier melt dominated streamflow receding quickly during high-flow period but very slowly during the low-flow period in rivers in arid and cold Northwest China, the current one-reservoir baseflow approach in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model was extended by adding a slow reacting reservoir and applied to the Manas River basin in Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, a digital filter program was employed to separate baseflow from streamflow records for comparisons. Results indicated that the two-reservoir method yielded much better results than the one-reservoir one in reproducing streamflow processes, and the low-flow estimation was improved markedly. Nash-Sutcliff efficiency values at the calibration and validation stages are 0.68 and 0.62 for the one-reservoir case, and 0.76 and 0.69 for the two-reservoir case, respectively. The filter-based method estimated the baseflow index as 0.60, while the model-based as o.45. The filter-based baseflow responds almost immediately to surface runoff occurrence at onset of rising limb, while the model-based with a delay. In consideration of watershed surface storage retention and soil freezing/thawing effects on infiltration and recharge during initial snowmelt season, a delay response is considered to be more reasonable. However, a more detailed description of freezing/thawing processes should be included in soil modules so as to determine recharge to aquifer during these processes, and thus an accurate onset point of rising limb of the simulated baseflow.
Luo, Y.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Chen, X.
Baseflow is an important component in hydrological modeling. The complex streamflow recession process complicates the baseflow simulation. In order to simulate the snow and/or glacier melt dominated streamflow receding quickly during the high-flow period but very slowly during the low-flow period in rivers in arid and cold northwest China, the current one-reservoir baseflow approach in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model was extended by adding a slow- reacting reservoir and applying it to the Manas River basin in the Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, a digital filter program was employed to separate baseflow from streamflow records for comparisons. Results indicated that the two-reservoir method yielded much better results than the one-reservoir one in reproducing streamflow processes, and the low-flow estimation was improved markedly. Nash-Sutcliff efficiency values at the calibration and validation stages are 0.68 and 0.62 for the one-reservoir case, and 0.76 and 0.69 for the two-reservoir case. The filter-based method estimated the baseflow index as 0.60, while the model-based as 0.45. The filter-based baseflow responded almost immediately to surface runoff occurrence at onset of rising limb, while the model-based responded with a delay. In consideration of watershed surface storage retention and soil freezing/thawing effects on infiltration and recharge during initial snowmelt season, a delay response is considered to be more reasonable. However, a more detailed description of freezing/thawing processes should be included in soil modules so as to determine recharge to aquifer during these processes, and thus an accurate onset point of rising limb of the simulated baseflow.
Zhou, Guoyi; Wei, Xiaohua; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Mingfang; Li, Yuelin; Qiao, Yuna; Liu, Haigui; Wang, Chunlin
Information on how large-scale forest changes affect water resources is important in China as country-wide reforestation programs are being implemented and concerns have arisen over possible water reduction. In this study, water budget analysis and statistical methods were used to assess the effects of significant forest recovery on river discharge at Guangdong Province based on 50 years of data. We used realized water yield (RWY) as a balance term between the outflows from and inflows to the province to represent the river discharge produced solely in Guangdong Province. The relationship between forest recovery and RWY was inferred after quantitatively examining other contributing variables including precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, development of impervious areas, human water consumption, and reservoir constructions. We applied time series analysis to test the statistical relationship between forest recovery and RWYs at annual, wet season, and dry season intervals. Both approaches showed that large-scale forest recovery did not cause significant water reduction over the past 50 years. This finding is contrary to the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between carbon (reforestation) and water. There were no significant trends in precipitation or in RWY annually and in the wet season, but there was a significant increase of RWY in the dry season over the past 50 years. It is estimated that forest recovery may play a positive role in redistributing water from the wet season to the dry season and, consequently, in increasing water yield in the dry season. The implication of those research findings for future reforestation programs and water resource protection is also discussed.
Hou, P; Beeton, R J S; Carter, R W; Dong, X G; Li, X
Increased water-dependent development and utilization have led to significant environmental and hydrological degradation of the Tarim River in western China and its dependent ecosystems. Between the 1950s and 1970s, 350 km of the lower reaches were drained and between 1960 and 1980 the water-table fell from between -2 and -3 m to between -8 and -10 m. Subsequently, riparian ecosystems were seriously degraded. In 2000, the Chinese government launched a program to restore the lower reaches of the river. Four environmental flows of 1034 x 10(6) m(3) were released from 2000 to 2002. This paper interprets and discusses the ecological significance of changes following the releases and identifies the relationship between water-table dynamics and vegetation responses. Short-term objectives for river restoration are proposed with possible monitoring parameters suggested.
Uehara, K.; Tanaka, A.; Saito, Y.; Tamura, T.; Nguyen, V. L.; Ta, T. K.
Seasonal water level change within and around the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta (MRD) has been analyzed to understand the impact of climate change in the South China Sea on river flooding within the MRD. It was found that the sea level variability along the deltaic coast has high coherence with the strength of offshore oceanic currents which seasonally reverse their direction under the SE Asian monsoon climate, indicating that the coastal sea level is linked with offshore currents through a geostrophic relation. It was also suggested that the temporal pattern of water levels in the middle reaches of the MRD, 80-100km apart from the river mouth, was influenced not only by upstream information but also by the downstream sea level change. These results indicates that the climatic change in the oceanic current field may influence the occurrence of flooding within the MRD especially during the NE monsoon season when the sea level is high.
Ni, Jinren; Sun, Liyiing; Sun, Weiling
This paper presents a modification of chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring giving a better indication of the pollution level compared with the conventional COD method for rivers with a high content of sediments. The correlation between the sediment organic carbon and COD was investigated using sediments sampled in the middle Yellow River, China. Partitioning of the sediment organic carbon between the water and sediment phases was also investigated using batch experiments, with the sediment concentration varying from 20 to 400 g/L. As a result, the COD modification equations are proposed for both turbid water (mixture of water and sediment) and supematant water (filtrate using a 0.45-microm membrane). The modified COD in turbid water and supernatant water could be 40 and 10% less than the monitored COD values, respectively. These results may have a significant influence on the assessment of water quality class in the Yellow River.
Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying
Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.
Miao, Xiaodong; Lindsey, David A.; Lai, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaodong
Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2 Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ≤ 0.15 Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology.
Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can
The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907
Tian, Fei; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shumin
Water resources in North China have declined sharply in recent years. Low runoff (especially in the mountain areas) has been identified as the main factor. Hutuo River Basin (HRB), a typical up-stream basin in North China with two subcatchments (Ye and Hutuo River Catchments), was investigated in this study. Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the general trend of precipitation and runoff for 1960-1999. Then Sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to establish runoff slope-break from which the beginning point of sharp decline in runoff was determined. Finally, regression analysis was done to illustrate runoff decline via comparison of precipitation-runoff correlation for the period prior to and after sharp runoff decline. This was further verified by analysis of rainy season peak runoff flows. The results are as follows: (1) annual runoff decline in the basin is significant while that of precipitation is insignificant at alpha=0.05 confidence level; (2) sharp decline in runoff in Ye River Catchment (YRC) occurred in 1968 while that in Hutuo River Catchment (HRC) occurred in 1978; (3) based on the regression analysis, human activity has the highest impact on runoff decline in the basin. As runoff slope-breaks in both Catchments strongly coincided with increase in agricultural activity, agricultural water use is considered the dominate factor of runoff decline in the study area.
Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng
Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698
Tan, Haobo; Liu, Li; Fan, Shaojia; Li, Fei; Yin, Yan; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P. W.
Aerosols contribute the largest uncertainty to the total radiative forcing estimate, and black carbon (BC) that absorbs solar radiation plays an important role in the Earth's energy budget. This study analysed the aerosol optical properties from 22 February to 18 March 2014 at the China Meteorological Administration Atmospheric Watch Network (CAWNET) station in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. The representative values of dry-state particle scattering coefficient (σsp), hemispheric backscattering coefficient (σhbsp), absorption coefficient (σabsp), extinction coefficient (σep), hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF), single scattering albedo (SSA), as well as scattering Ångström exponent (α) were presented. A comparison between a polluted day and a clean day shows that the aerosol optical properties depend on particle number size distribution, weather conditions and evolution of the mixing layer. To investigate the mixing state of BC at the surface, an optical closure study of HBF between measurements and calculations based on a modified Mie model was employed for dry particles. The result shows that the mixing state of BC might be between the external mixture and the core-shell mixture. The average retrieved ratio of the externally mixed BC to the total BC mass concentration (rext-BC) was 0.58 ± 0.12, and the diurnal pattern of rext-BC can be found. Furthermore, considering that non-light-absorbing particles measured by a Volatility-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (V-TDMA) exist independently with core-shell and homogenously internally mixed BC particles, the calculated optical properties were just slightly different from those based on the assumption that BC exist in each particle. This would help understand the influence of the BC mixing state on aerosol optical properties and radiation budget in the PRD.
Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Fan, Ruifang; Ma, Shexia; Xu, Zhencheng; Ren, Mingzhong; He, Qiusheng
The potential for Hg release during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is attracting increased attention due to high volume of municipal waste being treated by incineration in China. Emission amounts have been estimated using emission factors developed for other countries. To fine tune our emission estimate total mercury (THg) and mercury speciation were measured using isokinetic sampling in eight plants, of which six used grate furnace combustor (GFC) and two circulation fluidized bed combustors (CFBCs). Results showed that average THg concentration (19.5 ± 13.6 μg/Nm) in flue gas at the facilities that used CFBC was significantly lower than that at those using GFC (51.4 ± 28.3 μg/Nm, p=0.002). Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg), and particulate mercury (Hg) represented 95.5 ± 3.8%, 4.1 ± 3.9% and 0.4 ± 0.3% in GFC, and 63.8 ± 8.6%, 33.6 ± 10.5% and 2.6 ± 1.9% in CFBC, respectively. The measured average THg emission factor for the 8 MSWI plants was 208 ± 130 mg/t in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, with 217 ± 158 mg/t and 188 ± 17.7 mg/t were from GFC and CFBC, respectively. Using the average emission factor the estimated total mercury emissions from MSWI were 4.67 ± 2.91 t in China, and 770 ± 65.5 kg in the PRD region in 2010. Of these, 4240 ± 210 kg, 408 ± 231 kg and 14.8 ± 14.1 kg, and 688 ± 37 kg, 78.9 ± 40.6 kg and 3.2 ± 3.0 kg were GOM, Hg, and Hg, respectively. Mercury emissions will continue to increase as the amounts of MSW being incinerated increases.
Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng
Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.
Dong, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun
China announced the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality standards (CH-NAAQS) on Feb. 29th, 2012, and PM2.5 is for the very first time included in the standards as a criteria pollutant. In order to probe into PM2.5 pollution over Yangtze River Delta, which is one of the major urban clusters hosting more than 80 million people in China, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system is applied for a full year simulation to examine the PM2.5 concentration and seasonality, and also the inorganic aerosols responses to precursor emission changes. Both simulation and observation demonstrated that, inorganic aerosols have substantial contributions to PM2.5 over YRD, ranging from 37.1% in November to 52.8% in May. Nocturnal production of nitrate (NO3-) through heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was found significantly contribute to high NO3-concentration throughout the year. We also found that in winter NO3- was even increased under nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction due to higher production of N2O5 from the excessive ozone (O3) introduced by attenuated titration, which further lead to increase of ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), while other seasons showed decrease response of NO3-. Sensitivity responses of NO3- under anthropogenic VOC emission reduction was examined and demonstrated that in urban areas over YRD, NO3- formation was actually VOC sensitive due to the O3-involved nighttime chemistry of N2O5, while a reduction of NOx emission may have counter-intuitive effect by increasing concentrations of inorganic aerosols.
Zhao, Xueru; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Guo, Yongqiang; Hu, Guiming
Palaeohydrological investigations were carried out in the middle reaches of the Yiluohe River, a major tributary in the lower-middle Yellow River basin. Typical palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified in the Holocene pedostratigraphy on the cliffy river banks. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility and grain-size distribution data, indicated that these SWDs were deposited from the suspended sediment load in flood water. These SWDs are different from eolian loess, soils and aeolian sands in the riverbank profile. They recorded several episodes of extraordinary palaeoflood events. In the Longmenxia reaches of the Yihe River valley, these flood events were dated at 3100-3000 a, 1800-1700 a, 770-610 a, and 420-340 a using the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with the pedostratigraphic correlations. In the Longhutan reaches of the Luohe River valley, the palaeoflood events were dated at 1975-1466 a, i.e., from the Han to Wei dynasties (AD 25-534), during which the capital city on the river banks was flooded many times, as recorded in the literature. These extraordinary flood events are well correlated chronologically with the known Holocene climatic events that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the monsoonal climate was highly variable with both floods and droughts occurring frequently during these episodes. These results are important for understanding the response of river systems in eastern Asia to global changes.
Cui, Baoshan; Wang, Chongfang; Tao, Wendong; You, Zheyuan
Vulnerability of river channels to urbanization has been lessened by the extensive construction of artificial water control improvements. The challenge, however, is that traditional engineering practices on isolated parts of a river may disturb the hydrologic continuity and interrupt the natural state of ecosystems. Taking the Xiaoqinghe River basin as a whole, we developed a river channel network design to mitigate river risks while sustaining the river in a state as natural as possible. The river channel risk from drought during low-flow periods and flood during high-flow periods as well as the potential for water diversion were articulated in detail. On the basis of the above investigation, a network with "nodes" and "edges" could be designed to relieve drought hazard and flood risk respectively. Subsequently, the shortest path algorithm in the graph theory was applied to optimize the low-flow network by searching for the shortest path. The effectiveness assessment was then performed for the low-flow and high-flow networks, respectively. For the former, the network connectedness was evaluated by calculating the "gamma index of connectivity" and "alpha index of circuitry"; for the latter, the ratio of flood-control capacity to projected flood level was devised and calculated. Results show that the design boosted network connectivity and circuitry during the low-flow periods, indicating a more fluent flow pathway, and reduced the flood risk during the high-flow periods.
Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui
Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation.
Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping
Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.
Shi, Xiaonan; Zhang, Fan
The Yarlung Tsangpo River (YL River), flowing from west to east across the southern section of the Tibetan Plateau, is the longest river and as well an important activity center for Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The suspended sediment in the river is an important proxy for regional erosional severity and ecological environment. However, the sediment transport in the river is rarely reported under data scarcity due to the harsh climate conditions, high elevation, and intensive area. Under the interaction of monsoon climate and topography variability, what are the spatial patterns and variations of the suspended sediment in the YL River and how to explain the spatial pattern and variation? Based on the analysis of monthly discharge and suspended sediment concentration data from four mainstream stations, spatial patterns and variations of suspended sediment in the upper- and mid-stream YL River are studied. The results of spatial distribution analysis show that high erosion intensity occurred in the upper area of the mid-stream reaches while there is a large deposition area located at the end of middle stream. On the whole, the annual sediment yield transported at the end of mid-stream is 1043 *104 t with average specific sediment yield of 54.4 t/km2/yr which illustrates that the sediment contribution is at a relative low level from the upper- and mid-stream YL River. The sediment transport mainly occurs in the three months of Jul. to Sep., as just the time of rainy season, flood season, and intensive melting time period of glaciers, accounting for 79%~93% of the annual gross yield (more concentrated for upstream). Finally, the spatial variations of suspended sediment are comprehensively analyzed and explained in terms of the sediment rating curve, climate, hydrology, and riverbed morphology characteristics.
Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin
The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.
Huang, J.; Zhou, Q.
Water is essential for human survival and well-being, and important to virtually all sectors of the economy. In the aridzone of China's west, water resource is the controlling factor on the distribution of human settlements. Water cycle variation is sensitive to temperature and precipitation, which are influenced by human activity and climate change. Satellite observations of Earth's time-variable gravity field from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, which enable direct measurement of changes of total terrestrial water storage, could be useful to aid this modelling. In this pilot study, TWS change from 2002 to 2013 obtained from GRACE satellite mission over the Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, China is presented. Precipitation and temperature data from in-situ station and National Satellite Meteorological Centre of China (NSMC) are analysed to examine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between them.
Leopold, Luna Bergere
Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.
Zhao, Yinjun; Ding, Aizhong
River classification is a very useful tool for river management yet still a difficult task. This paper proposed a new decision classifier (DCF) to classify rivers for Chinese river management based on existing classification systems. Aimed at river function management, the DCF with the five-layers frame was developed on reach level in a spatially nested pattern that from top to bottom are natural province, basin, valley, reach, habitat and microhabitat. Five indexes (artificial degree, closeness, sinuosity, bed material texture, geomorphic units (GUs)) were selected and organized into the DCF according to the importance of the influence on river structure from macro to micro, large to small and top to bottom, because they represent main aspects of river structures and are easy to obtain. In addition, the closeness index is another good connector between valley level and reach level, and the GUs index links reach level to habitat level. The overall procedure to use DCF includes primary indoor classification and field validation. Remote sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system technologies were adopted in the process to dramatically reduce workload, especially fieldwork. Finally, the approach was applied to the Yongding river as a good example, and 17 river styles were identified.
Liu, Bing; Zhao, Wenzhi; Wen, Zijuan; Teng, Jirong; Li, Xiaohong
A case study was conducted on the forest ecosystem in the Baishuijiang River basin of China to reveal the influences of environmental factors and human disturbance on the floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns. Field surveys of the floristic composition, environmental factors, and disturbance factors were conducted along an elevation gradient, and the relationships between biodiversity pattern and environmental factors were analyzed using CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The results showed that the floristic composition of higher plants consisted of 197 families, 796 genera, 2165 species, 19 subspecies, 239 varietas, and 12 forma, and it was characterized by the multi-geographic composition and by the transition from tropical to temperate zones. Along an elevation gradient, the variations in α and β diversity were best described by a bimodal curve, and the peak values occurred at middle elevations. The CCA indicated that the elevation had the greatest influence on the biodiversity pattern, followed by the topographic index, slope direction, slope, slope position, slope shape, and vegetation coverage. In addition, human disturbance has greatly impacted the floristic composition and biodiversity patterns, and the biodiversity indices were higher with intermediate disturbance at middle elevations compared to higher and lower disturbances at low and high elevations, respectively. This reflected a disturbance-diversity pattern and thus revealed the obvious importance to maintain the intermediate disturbance for biodiversity conservation.
Liu, Bing; Zhao, Wenzhi; Wen, Zijuan; Teng, Jirong; Li, Xiaohong
A case study was conducted on the forest ecosystem in the Baishuijiang River basin of China to reveal the influences of environmental factors and human disturbance on the floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns. Field surveys of the floristic composition, environmental factors, and disturbance factors were conducted along an elevation gradient, and the relationships between biodiversity pattern and environmental factors were analyzed using CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The results showed that the floristic composition of higher plants consisted of 197 families, 796 genera, 2165 species, 19 subspecies, 239 varietas, and 12 forma, and it was characterized by the multi-geographic composition and by the transition from tropical to temperate zones. Along an elevation gradient, the variations in alpha and beta diversity were best described by a bimodal curve, and the peak values occurred at middle elevations. The CCA indicated that the elevation had the greatest influence on the biodiversity pattern, followed by the topographic index, slope direction, slope, slope position, slope shape, and vegetation coverage. In addition, human disturbance has greatly impacted the floristic composition and biodiversity patterns, and the biodiversity indices were higher with intermediate disturbance at middle elevations compared to higher and lower disturbances at low and high elevations, respectively. This reflected a disturbance-diversity pattern and thus revealed the obvious importance to maintain the intermediate disturbance for biodiversity conservation.
Tong, Chuan; Wang, Wei-Qi; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Marrs, Rob
The total methane emission to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and its seasonal variation, were estimated using an enclosed static chamber technique from a tidal marshes dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Min River estuary, southeast China. Measurements were taken at three tidal stages (before flood, during the flooding and ebbing process, and after ebb). Potential rates of methane production from the marsh sediment layers were also measured using an incubation technique. This P. australis tidal marsh was a net methane source, emitting 32.59 and 6.87 g CH(4) x m(-2) x yr(-1) to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, respectively. There was considerable monthly variation with emissions greater before flood in some months, whereas at other months emission was greater after ebb. The average methane fluxes were 5.13, 5.06 and 4.74 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1) before flood, during flooding and ebbing, and after ebb, respectively. Emissions to the tidewater and the atmosphere during the flooding and ebbing process were 2.98 and 2.08 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1),respectively. Sediment methane production potential (0-40 cm depth) ranged from 0.028-0.123 micro g CH(4) x g(-1) x d(-1), with the greatest production was in the surface soil. Methane fluxes had a significant correlation with atmospheric, sediment temperature and above ground biomass. The implications of these data for global warming are discussed briefly.
Han, Dongmei; Yan, Denghua; Xu, Xinyi; Gao, Yu
Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.
Gao, Lina; Jia, Gensuo; Zhang, Renjian; Che, Huizheng; Fu, Congbin; Wang, Tijian; Zhang, Meigen; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Peng
Visual range (VR) data from 1981 to 2005 were examined for 20 meteorological monitoring sites in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Cumulative percentile analysis was used to construct VR trend. The 25-yr average domain-average 50% VR was approximately 21.9 +/- 1.9 km. Domain-average 50% VR decreased from 1981 to 2005 with a trend of -2.41 km/decade. The worst 20% and 50% and best 20% VR and variation rates for the 20 sites were analyzed. The 50% VR of the town, county-level city, and prefecture-level city sites were 24.1, 21.5, and 19.4 km, respectively. The best 20% VR decreased fastest with a rate of -3.5 km/decade. Regional median VR decreased from the coastal sites to the inland sites. Ridit analysis and cumulative percentile were adopted to study the VR variation properties between economically developed areas (e.g., Nanjing and Hangzhou) and remote areas (e.g., Lvsi). The two analyses show that VR decreased in Nanjing and Hangzhou but remained constant in Lvsi from 1981 to 2005.
Zheng, Junyu; Ou, Jiamin; Mo, Ziwei; Yin, Shasha
A 3 km × 3 km gridded mercury emission inventory in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region for 2008 was compiled from the best available emission factors and official statistical data. The inventory presented a comprehensive estimation of anthropogenic mercury sources and roughly estimated the emissions from natural sources. The total mercury emissions in the PRD region for the year of 2008 are estimated to be 17,244 kg, of which 85% released as Hg(0), 11% as Hg(2+), and 4% as Hg(P). Anthropogenic activities are dominant sources, accounting for 91% of the total emissions, while natural sources constitute the remaining emissions. Ranking by cities, Foshan produces the largest mercury emissions, followed by Dongguan, Guangzhou and Jiangmen. Coal combustion, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, fluorescent lamp and battery production are dominant contributors, responsible for 28%, 21%, 19% and 16% of the anthropogenic emissions, respectively. The high contribution of MSW incineration results from the rapid growth of MSW incineration in this region, reflecting a new trend of mercury emissions in China, especially in the fast developing regions. This implies the urgent need for further investigation of mercury emissions and the importance of controlling mercury emissions from MSW incineration.
Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Cheng, Zhang; Wang, Hongsheng; Huang, Minjuan; Wu, Shengchun; Chen, Kunci; Wong, Ming H
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is located in the Southern part of China and is the main region for fish culture in Guangdong Province. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with dietary consumption of mercury, hair samples from 91 urban, town and fishing village residents, 37 species of fish, cereal, vegetables, and meat samples were collected. The average total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in hair were 1.08 ± 0.94 and 0.58 ± 0.59 μg/g, respectively. Daily Hg intake via fish consumption is significantly correlated with THg and MeHg accumulated in human hair (r=0.48, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01). The estimated daily intake of Hg via different food types showed that both fish and cereal consumption were the two main routes of Hg exposure for residents in the sampling areas. Besides food intake, smoking was also an important source for daily THg intake in the smoke group, contributing 11-18% to EDI of THg.
Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju
Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.
Zhao, N.; Zeng, X.; Sun, H.
Global radiation can impact the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. This study analysed changes in global radiation in Hai River basin, China during 1960 to 2012. Global radiation decreased significantly from 1960 to 1989 and increased from 1990 to 2012, which has been described as "from dimming to brightening". Sunshine duration was used as a proxy index where radiation records were unavailable. Results showed that sunshine duration (for 45 stations) show a significant decreasing trend from 1960 to 2012, which was a little different to global radiation (for 6 stations) during the brightening phase. Penman-Monteith model was used for estimating trends of reference evapotranspiration. The consistency of temporal and spatial variations in sunshine duration and reference evapotranspiration was examined during the periods 1960-1989 and 1990-2012. The results showed that the annual reference evapotranspiration trend was consistent with the sunshine duration trend (both were decreasing for 37 of the 45 stations) during 1960 to 1989, followed by an upward trend (for 26 of the 45 stations) from 1990, while the annual sunshine duration indicated a downward trend (for all 45 stations) during the whole period 1960-2012. Overall, global dimming could be the dominant factor for the decreased reference evapotranspiration from 1960 to 1989, while the increased reference evapotranspiration from 1990 to 2012 could be driven by other meteorological variables, especially global warming.
Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yunjiang; Qin, Wei; Wang, Zhuang; Chen, Wentai; Hua, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxiao
To quantify regional sources contributing to submicron particulate matter (PM1) pollution in haze episodes, on-line measurements combining two modeling methods, namely, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM), were conducted for the period of one month in urban Nanjing, a city located in the western part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. Several multi-day haze episodes were observed in December 2013. Long-range transport of biomass burning from the southwestern YRD region largely contributed to PM1 pollution with more than 25% of total organics mass in a lasting heavy haze. The LPDM analysis indicates that regional transport is a main source contributing to secondary low-volatility production. The high-potential source regions of secondary low-volatility production are mainly located in areas to the northeast of the city. High aerosol pollution was mainly contributed by regional transport associated with northeastern air masses. Such regional transport on average accounts for 46% of total NR-PM1 with sulfate and aged low-volatility organics being the largest fractions (>65%).
Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in the atmosphere in rapidly developing parts of China have been studied little. In this study, polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers were used to comprehensively investigate PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere of the Yangtze River Delta in different seasons in 2010 and 2011. The mean sum of the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners was 3.3 pg/m(3) in spring, 7.3 pg/m(3) in summer, 1.0 pg/m(3) in autumn, and 12 pg/m(3) in winter. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in urban areas than in rural areas. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations that have been found in cities around the world. BDE28, BDE47, BDE99, BDE153, and BDE183 were the dominant PBDE congeners in all seasons. High PBDE concentrations were found in satellite cities, such as Changshu, Wujiang, and Zhangjiagang, suggesting that commercial PBDEs (including pentabromodiphenyl ether products) are produced and/or used in those cities. The PBDE concentrations in the atmosphere were used to estimate daily doses through the inhalation of outdoor air. The most severe risks posed by exposure to PBDEs were found to occur in winter, for both adults and children, but the PBDE concentrations were found not to pose appreciable risks to human health.
Wang, Mengya; Cao, Chunxiang; Li, Guoshuai; Singh, Ramesh P.
A severe prolonged regional haze episode occurred over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2 to 14 December 2013. In this paper, we have discussed the probable cause of haze episode and aerosol characteristics. Analysis of visibility and meteorological parameters suggest that the meteorological conditions play a very important role in the accumulation of aerosol particles that cause haze. The height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is considered as one of the key factors together with other factors in the haze formation. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) clearly shows accumulation process of air pollutants from vehicular, industrial and anthropogenic sources are major contributors for the haze formation. The aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth - AOD, Ångström exponent - α and Ultra Violet Aerosol Index - UVAI) are analyzed to study the temporal and spatial variations of aerosol loadings. The results show concentrations of fine mode particles during the haze episode, the dust could have been also entered in the region from the northwestern China. Analysis of vertical aerosol profiles indicate that dust aerosols concentrated in the lower part of the haze layers.
Background The aims were to identify predictors of treatment retention in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Pearl River Delta, China. Methods Retrospective longitudinal study. Participants: 6 MMT clinics in rural and urban area were selected. Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was employed, and the data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and life table method. Protective or risk factors were explored using Cox’s proportional hazards model. Independent variables were enrolled in univariate analysis and among which significant variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results A total of 2728 patients were enrolled. The median of the retention duration was 13.63 months, and the cumulative retention rates at 1,2,3 years were 53.0%, 35.0%, 20.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed: age, relationship with family, live on support from family or friends, income, considering treatment cost suitable, considering treatment open time suitable, addiction severity (daily expense for drug), communication with former drug taking peer, living in rural area, daily treatment dosage, sharing needles, re-admission and history of being arrested were predictors for MMT retention. Conclusions MMT retention rate in Guangdong was low and treatment skills and quality should be improved. Meanwhile, participation of family and society should be encouraged. PMID:23497263
Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Pagano, Thomas C.; Xu, Yueping; Bao, Zhenxin; Liu, Yanli; Jin, Junliang; Liu, Cuishan; Song, Xiaomeng; Wan, Sicheng
The responses of stream flow, actual evaporation, and soil moisture to climate change in six catchments within Xiang River basin, China, are investigated using Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Results show that stream flows are highly correlated to precipitation while weakly correlated to temperature, which indicates precipitation governs variability of stream flow for these catchments. The VIC model performs well at simulating monthly discharge, with Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies (NSEs) exceeding 70 % and relative errors (REs) of the volumetric fit falling in the range of ±10 % for both calibration and validation periods. The model can simulate seasonal cycles of soil moisture and actual evaporation reasonably well. Due to humid climate of the region, stream flows are more sensitive to changes in precipitation than to change in temperature, while soil moisture and actual evaporation tend to be relatively more affected by temperature. A 2 °C rise in temperature will lead to 5.62 % (4.3-7.45 %) decrease in stream flow, 6.45 % (5.8-7.02 %) increase in actual evaporation, and 5 % (4.16-5.59 %) decrease in soil moisture. A 10 % increase in precipitation will result in 14.17 % (13.44-15.70 %), 5.22 % (4.32-5.62 %), and 4.57 % (2.90-4.96 %) increases in stream flow, actual evaporation, and soil moisture, respectively.
Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui; He, Ying; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Jiao, Nianzhi
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans, and encompass a significant reservoir of genetic diversity. However, little is known about their biodiversity in estuary environments, which represent a highly dynamic and potentially more diverse habitat. Here, we report a metagenomic analysis of the dsDNA viral community from the Jiulong River Estuary (JRE), China, and provide a comparative analysis with other closely related environments. The results showed that the majority of JRE virome did not show any significant similarity to the database. For the major viral group (Caudovirales) detected in the sample, Podoviridae (44.88%) were the most abundant family, followed by Siphoviridae (32.98%) and Myoviridae (17.32%). The two most abundant viruses identified in the virome were phages HTVC010P and HMO-2011, which infect bacteria belonging to marine SAR11 and SAR116 clades, respectively. Two contigs larger than 20 kb, which show similar overall genome architectures to Celeribacter phage P12053L and Thalosomonas phage BA3, respectively, were generated during assembly. Comparative analysis showed that the JRE virome was more similar to marine viromes than to freshwater viromes, and shared a relative coarse-grain genetic overlap (averaging 14.14% ± 1.68%) with other coastal viromes. Our study indicated that the diversity and community structure of the virioplankton found in JRE were mainly affected by marine waters, with less influence from freshwater discharge. PMID:26848678
Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Nan-Jing; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Ming-Jun; Fang, Li; Wang, Yin; Meng, De-Shuo; Yu, Yang; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing
By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.
Huang, Qiuxin; Yu, Yiyi; Tang, Caiming; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Jianlan; Peng, Xianzhi
Occurrence of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin and diclofenac) and three lipid regulators (bezafibrate, clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) was investigated in wastewater, sewage sludge, and river water of the urban section of the Pearl River at Guangzhou in South China. Behavior and fate of the pharmaceuticals during treatment in two sewage treatment plants (STPs) were also studied in depth by determining concentrations in the influents and effluents at major treatment units and the sewage sludge. Concentrations of the pharmaceuticals in the raw wastewater were mostly at ng L(-1) levels except salicylic acid whose concentrations ranged from 9.6 to 23.3 μg L(-1). No significant amount of the pharmaceuticals was detected in the suspended particulate matter of wastewater and sewage sludge. Salicylic acid, indomethacin, and naproxen were almost completely removed (≥ 99%); gemfibrozil, ibuprofen and bezafibrate were significantly removed (>75%), whereas diclofenac and clofibric acid were removed by 60-70% during treatment in the STPs. Generally, biodegradation was the governing process for elimination of the investigated pharmaceuticals. Anaerobic biodegradation was responsible for most of the removal of diclofenac whereas aerobic biodegradation also played an important role in elimination of the other pharmaceuticals except SA, which was nearly completely removed after the anoxic process. In the Pearl River, the pharmaceuticals were widely detected. Both the concentrations and detection frequency were higher in March 2008 than those in the other seasons, which may be ascribed mainly to less dilution caused by lower precipitation. Besides the STPs, urban canals directly connected with the Pearl River may also be important contributors to the pharmaceutical contamination in the river.
Sun, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Qin, Long; Zhu, Haixiao; Huang, Yu; Xue, Yingang; An, Shuqing; Xie, Xianchuan; Li, Aimin
To further treat the reclaimed municipal wastewater and rehabilitate the aquatic ecosystem of polluted urban rivers, an 18.5-km field-scale ecological restoration project was constructed along Jialu River, a polluted urban river which receives only reclaimed municipal wastewater from Zhengzhou City without natural upland water dilution. This study investigated the potential efficiency of water quality improvement, as well as genotoxicity and cytotoxicity reduction along the ecological restoration project of this polluted urban river. Results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) of the reclaimed municipal effluent were reduced by more than 45 and 70%, respectively, meeting the Chinese surface water environmental quality standard level IV, while the total phosphorus and metal concentrations had no significant reduction along the restoration project, and Pb concentrations in all river water samples exceeded permissible limit in drinking water set by WHO (2006) and China (GB5749-2006). The in vitro SOS/umu assay showed 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide equivalent (4-NQO-EQ) values of reclaimed municipal wastewater of 0.69 ± 0.05 μg/L in April and 0.68 ± 0.06 μg/L in December, respectively, indicating the presence of genotoxic compounds. The results of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and hepatic cell apoptosis in zebrafish after a chorionic long-term (21 days) in vivo exposure also demonstrated that the reclaimed municipal wastewater caused significant DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity. After the ecological purification of 18.5-km field-scale restoration project, the genotoxicity assessed by in vitro assay was negligible, while the DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity in exposed fish were still significantly elevated. The mechanisms of DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity caused by the reclaimed municipal wastewater need further study.
Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qianjiahua; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng
Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake’s only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. PMID:26561822
Zhao, Hui; Sheng, Yongwei; Li, Bo; Fan, Yuxin
The Sara Us River is located along the boundary of the Mu Us Desert and the Chinese Loess Plateau in northern China. The river has cut down through Quaternary sediments creating 70-80 m deep valleys with thick lacustrine/aeolian sequences exposed. We applied optical stimulated luminescence on sediments from a Holocene section of aeolian sand/lacustrine deposits in the top of the river valley. The dating results show that a humid period existed from 7.1 to 2.0 ka ago as evidenced by two layers of peat and lacustrine sediments. However, compared to other published Holocene sections in the Sara Us River valleys close to the section under studying, the local environment experienced very complicated changes during the Holocene. All of the sections recorded a period with drought and/or cold before the Holocene at around 13 ka, and an episode of aridity after about 2 ka ago as evidenced by the layers of aeolian sand. However, the ages of the lacustrine and peat layers in these sections are substantially different. Geomorphological analysis by digital elevation models does not support the existence of a mega lake covering the study area at 2 ka. The intricate environmental changes may have been caused by the meandering of the Sara Us River. Environmental changes also strongly affected human migration in this area, which is documented by Chinese historical records.
Zhang, Lei; Liao, Qianjiahua; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng
Heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) pollution, fractionation, and ecological risks in the sediments of Lake Chaohu (Eastern China), its eleven inflowing rivers and its only outflowing river were studied. An improved BCR (proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to fractionate heavy metals within sediments, a geoaccumulation index was used to assess the extent of heavy metal pollution, and a risk assessment code was applied to evaluate potential ecological risks. Heavy metals in the Shuangqiao and Nanfei Rivers were generally higher than the other studied sites. Of the three Lake Chaohu sites, the highest concentrations were identified in western Chaohu. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risks in the lake's only outflowing river were similar to those in the eastern region of the lake, to which the river is connected. Heavy metal concentrations occurred in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni ≈ Cr. Cr, Ni, and Cu made up the largest proportion of the residual fraction, while Cd was the most prominent metal in the exchangeable and carbonate-included fraction. Cd posed the greatest potential ecological risk; the heavy metals generally posed risks in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr.
Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A
The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p < 0.01) suggesting that it is suitable for differentiating sources. Dissolved Sr is also positively correlated with most ions and a range of physicochemical parameters (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) in water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p < 0.001) indicating their similarities in the drivers of biogeochemical processes and common origins. The correlations between Sr isotopes and Ca/Na, Ca/K, and 1000/Sr ratios suggest that three end-members of atmospheric inputs, carbonate and silicate weathering control the Sr water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river system in a mountainous catchment.
Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province.
Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian
Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.
Dou, Ming; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Congying
Recent research on the effects of dam and sluice construction on the water environment has attracted extensive attention from academia and governments alike. Because the operation of sluices greatly alters environmental factors such as water flow and sediment load, the water quality in sluice-controlled river reaches (SCRRs) undergoes complex changes compared with those in normal reaches. This work used river reaches near the Huaidian Sluice in Shaying River of China as a case study to analyse the effects of sluice operation on water quality evolution in SCRRs. The most influential factors affecting the rate of change in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in SCRRs were identified through water quality monitoring experiments performed under various modes of sluice operation and by applying a statistical method 'partial correlation analysis'. Then, a hydrodynamic model incorporating sluice operation and a water quality transport and transform model incorporating the release of endogenous loads were developed. Using these two models, the processes of temporal and spatial change of COD concentrations in the SCRRs were simulated under various scenarios designed to represent the dominant factors of influence. Finally, the simulation results were used to develop empirical relationships between the rate of change in COD concentrations and the dominant factors of influence. The results reveal that three factors, i.e., water inflow concentration, gate opening size, and gate opening number, are the dominant factors of influence, and there are logarithmic relationships between the rate of change in COD concentration in the SCRRs and these factors.
Methane is a significant greenhouse gas, which is regulated by microbial processes in surficial environments. However, the population dynamics of methanogens and methanotrophs in a particular environment has not been well studied. In this project, the variation of methanogens and methanotrophs in the sediment of the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea was examined along a salinity gradient （A:0.8‰; B: 18.1‰; C: 23.9‰: D: 31‰）over a period of one year. Quantitative PCR showed that the variation in archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance at site A in the lower Pearl River (from 3.6×103 to 2.6×105 copies/L for archaea and from 1.2×105 to 2.6×106 copies/L for bacteria) is larger than that in at site D in the coastal South China Sea (from 3.5×104 to 2.9×105 copies/L for archaea and from 8.8×105 to 3.2×106 copies/L for bacteria). High throughput sequencing showed that methanogens and methanotrophs were abundant in the sediment of lower Pearl River and decreased sharply with the increasing salinity. Our results indicate that active methane metabolism is favored in the freshwater environment.
Hu, Jianfang; Zhang, Hongbo; Peng, Ping'an
Surface sediments (10 cm) of the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent shelf, Southern China were collected. Fatty acids and compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses were determined to infer their sources and biogeochemical cycle of this lipid in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS). The total concentrations of fatty acids ranged from ˜1.28 to ˜42.25 μg g -1 dry weight. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were low (0.2-4.8% of total fatty acids), suggesting that fatty acids derived from algae were effectively recycled during the whole settling and depositing process. Bacterial fatty acids were significantly high and terrigenous fatty acids were low in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data also indicates that a clear separation of the biogeochemical sources can be seen. The δ13C values of bacterial fatty acids, i.e., i/ aiC 15 (-22.9‰ to -29.4‰) suggest that bacteria within the sediments mainly utilize a labile pool of organic matter derived from algae for their growth in the subtropical Pearl River estuary system.
Wang, Lili; Song, Changchun; Guo, Yuedong
The Heilongjiang River Basin in the eastern Siberia, one of the largest river basins draining to the North Pacific Ocean, is a border river between China, Mongolia, and Russia. In this study, we examined the spatial and seasonal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved total carbon (DTC) concentrations along lower reaches of Heilongjiang River Basin, China. Water samples were collected monthly along the mouths of main rivers (Heilongjiang River, Wusuli River, and Songhua River) and their ten tributary waters for 2 years. The DOC concentrations of waters ranged from 1.74 to 16.64 mg/L, with a mean value of 8.90 ± 0.27 mg/L (n = 165). Notably, mean DIC concentrations were 9.08 ± 0.31 mg/L, accounting for 13.26∼83.27% of DTC. DIC concentrations increased significantly after the Heilongjiang River passed through Northeast China, while DOC concentrations decreased. Over 50% of DIC concentrations were decreased during exports from groundwater to rice fields and from rice fields to ditches. Water dissolved carbon showed large spatial and temporal variations during the 2-year measurement, suggesting that more frequently samplings were required. Carbon (DIC + DOC) loads from the Heilongjiang River to the Sea of Okhotsk were estimated to be 3.26 Tg C/year in this study, accounting for 0.64% of the global water dissolved carbon flux. DIC export contributed an average of 51.84% of the estimated carbon load in the Heilongjiang River, acting as an important carbon component during riverine transport. Our study could provide some guides on agricultural water management and contribute to more accurately estimate global carbon budgets.
Li, Zhenhong; Motagh, Mahdi; Yu, Jun; Gong, Xulong; Wu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Yefei; Chen, Huogen; Zhang, Dengming; Xu, Yulin
Land subsidence is a major worldwide hazard, and its principal causes are subsurface fluid withdrawal, drainage of organic soils, sinkholes, underground mining, hydrocompaction, thawing permafrost, and natural consolidation. Land subsidence causes many problems including: damage to public facilities such as bridges, roads, railroads, electric power lines, underground pipes; damage to private and public buildings; and in some cases of low-lying land, can increase the risk of coastal flooding from storm surges and rising sea-levels. In China, approximately 48600 km2 of land, an area roughly 30 times of the size of the Greater London, has subsided (nearly 50 cities across 16 provinces), and the annual direct economic loss is estimated to be more than RMB 100 million (~12 million). It is believed that the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region within the Yangtze River Delta is the most severely affected area for subsidence hazards in China. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, Interferometric SAR (InSAR) is revolutionizing our ability to image the Earth's surface and the evolution of its shape over time. In this paper, an advanced InSAR time series technique, InSAR TS + AEM, has been employed to analysed ERS (C-band), Envisat (C-band) and TerraSAR-X (X-band) data collected over the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region during the period from 1992 to 2013. Validation with precise levelling and GPS data suggest: (1) the accuracy of the InSAR-derived mean velocity measurements is 1-3 mm/yr; (2) InSAR-derived displacements agreed with precise levelling with root mean square errors around 5 mm. It is evident that InSAR TS + AEM can be used to image the evolution of deformation patterns in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region over time: the maximum mean velocity decreased from ~12 cm/yr during the period of 1992-1993 to ~2 cm/yr in 2003-2013. This is believed to be a result of the prohibition of groundwater use carried out by Jiangsu provincial government. The combination
Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Heping
The secondary salinization induced by irrigation has been presented as a crucial threat to agriculture all over the world, especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Mulched drip irrigation (MDI), as a new micro-irrigation approach incorporating surface drip irrigation method and film mulching technique, has been widely applied in water scarce regions including Tarim River basin of northwestern China. However, salts are likely to build up in the surface soil due to the deficient leaching water in such an irrigation condition. To explore this new kind of secondary salinization issue, the oasis eco-hydrology experimental research station were established in 2008 in a cotton field of Xinjiang, northwestern China. More than 40,000 soil samples were collected to monitor soil moisture and salinity condition within the 1.5 meter depth. The patterns of soil salinity distribution under MDI along the horizontal direction as well as vertical direction have been explored. The results did show that secondary salinization tends to occur in the experimental field under mulched drip irrigation, and winter flush could leach most soil salt in the root zone into groundwater and keep salt balance to mitigate the soil salinization. Meanwhile, soil salt always migrates with the soil water flux such as irrigation and groundwater recharge. Therefore the understanding of water balance is of great importance for estimating soil salinity accumulation, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is the key process, especially in the semi-arid and arid area. In our study, in order to quantify the relation between salinity balance and water balance, ET were derived from a range of measurement systems including eddy covariance, soil water budget (gravimetric methods, Hydra probe, TDT probe and groundwater table sensor, et al.), sap flow and portable photosynthetic system during cotton growing period. Our study is unique in its focus on ET scale issue ranging from leaf and plant scale to field. The up
X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: email@example.com (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the
Huang, Shaoni; Huang, Fei
By using Season-reliant Empirical Orthogonal Function (S-EOF) analysis, three dominant modes of the spatial-temporal evolution of the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are revealed for the period of 1960-2004. The first two leading modes occur during the turnabout phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) decaying year, but the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are different due to the role of the Indian Ocean (IO). The first leading mode appears closely correlated with the ENSO events. In the decaying year of El Niño, the associated western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone located over the Philippine Sea persists from the previous winter to the next early summer, transports warm and moist air toward the southern Yangtze River in China, and leads to wet conditions over this entire region. Therefore, the precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Southern Flood and Northern Drought' pattern over East China. On the other hand, the basin-wide Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) plays a crucial role in prolonging the impact of ENSO on the second mode during the ENSO decaying summer. The Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) warming persists through summer and unleashes its influence, which forces a Matsuno-Gill pattern in the upper troposphere. Over the subtropical western North Pacific, an anomalous anticyclone forms in the lower troposphere. The southerlies on the northwest flank of this anticyclone increase the moisture transport onto central China, leading to abundant rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys. The anomalous anticyclone causes dry conditions over South China and the South China Sea (SCS). The precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Northern Flood and Southern Drought' pattern over East China. Therefore, besides the ENSO event the IOBM is an important factor to influence the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over
Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Yali; Zha, Xiaochun; Mao, Peini
Water depth above the flood deposits should be taken into account in calculations of the palaeoflood peak stages, which can provide more accurately estimate of palaeoflood stage. Here we present a new method, slackwater flow depth, to assess palaeoflood peak stage and to reduce the underestimation of palaeoflood stage. Palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified by palaeohydrological criteria in cliff riverbank on the Yanhe River, middle Yellow River basin. Palaeoflood events recorded in four layers of SWD were dated by optical stimulated luminescence to 9.5-8.5 ka. The estimation of palaeoflood maximum stage was 778.3 m using the slackwater flow depth method and the palaeoflood peak discharge is 15,000 m3/s using the step-backwater method. Palaeoflood results greatly extend the current flood data series in the Yanhe River basin. The regional flood history including gauged flood, historical and palaeoflood data was compiled and evaluated for the major tributaries of the middle Yellow River. The relationship between palaeoflood peak discharges and drainage areas in this region fit well with the global maximum curves. The results of site-specific and regional palaeoflood evaluations demonstrate that the approach estimates the true palaeoflood peak stage and discharges and improves the flood frequency analysis of extreme and rare floods for a particular basin. Meanwhile, the advantages and uncertainties of this method need ongoing discussion in palaeoflood investigations.
Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan
Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario.
Zhang, Lin-Hai; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-E; Tong, Chuan
By using litterbag method, this paper studied the decomposition of the leaf- and flower litters of two emergent macrophytes, native species Phragmites australis and invasive species Spartina alterniflora, and related affecting factors in the Minjiang River estuary of East China. In the decomposition process of the litters, the decay of standing litter (0-90 days) was an important period, and the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 15.0 +/- 3.5% and 13.3 +/- 1.1%, and 31.9 +/- 1.1% and 20.8 +/- 1.4%, respectively. During lodging decay period (91-210 days), the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 69.5 +/- 0.6% and 71.5 +/- 2.5%, and 76.8 +/- 1.9% and 67.5 +/- 2.1%, respectively. In standing decay period, the decomposition rate of the two plants litters was positively correlated with the litters C/N but negatively correlated to the litters N/P, and the litters P was an important factor limiting the litters decay. In lodging decay period, the effects of the litters C/N, C/P, and N/P decreased, while the environment factors (climate, soil moisture, soil acidity and salinity, and sediment properties) acted more important roles. The differences in the factors affecting the decay of the litters in different decomposition periods were mainly related to the micro-environment and tidal process for the two plant communities.
Li, Qianqian; Wang, Fengping; Chen, Zhiwei; Yin, Xijie; Xiao, Xiang
Here the composition of total and active archaeal communities in a sediment core of Jiulong River estuary at Fujian Province, Southern China was reported. Profiles of CH(4) and SO(2-) (4) concentrations from the sediment core indicated the existence of a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in which sulfate reduction-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Accordingly, three sediment layers (16-18.5 cm, 71-73.5 cm, and 161-163.5 cm) from the 1.2 m sediment core were sectioned and named top, middle and bottom, respectively. Total DNA and RNA of each layer were extracted and used for clone libraries and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products of 16S rRNA and methyl CoM reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that archaeal communities of the three layers were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) whose ecological functions were still unknown. The MCG could be further divided into seven subgroups, named MCG-A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. MCG-A and MCG-G were the most active groups in the estuarine sediments. Known anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANMEs) were only found as minor components in these estuarine archaeal communities. This study, together with the studies of deep subsurface sediments, would be a very good start point to target and compare the specific active archaeal groups and their roles in the dark, deep subsurface sediment environments.
Dai, Liang; Wang, Honglei; Zhou, Luyu; An, Junlin; Tang, Lili; Lu, Chunsong; Yan, Wenlian; Liu, Ruiyang; Kong, Shaofei; Chen, Mindong; Lee, Shanhu; Yu, Huan
To study the spatial inhomogeneity of new particle formation (NPF) in the polluted atmosphere of China, we conducted simultaneous measurements at an urban site near a petrochemical industrial area and a regional background site in the Yangtze River Delta region from September to November 2015. At the urban site we observed a type of local NPF event (number of events: n = 5), in which nucleation was limited to a small area but persisted for 6.8 h on average during the daytime. Formation rates of 5 nm particles (J5) were found to be correlated positively with the H2SO4 proxy (log J5 versus log[H2SO4] slope near 1) in both local and regional events. Furthermore, J5 was enhanced by the anthropogenic volatile organic carbon (VOC) plumes from nearby industrial area in the local events compared to the regional events. Size-dependent aerosol dynamics calculation showed that in comparison with the observed regional events, the local events were featured with high nucleation rate (J1.3 > 1000 cm-3 s-1), high growth rate of sub-3 nm particles (GRsub-3 > 20 nm h-1), and high number concentration of nucleation mode particles (mean peak N5-20: 6 × 104 cm-3). Considering these features, the local NPF events of anthropogenic origin may also be an important contributor to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations in urban and regional scales. In addition, the comparison of simultaneous regional NPF events between the two sites (number of events: n = 7) suggested that regional NPF intensity may be underestimated by the single-point measurement at an urban site, due to the heterogeneity of air masses.
Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.
Vegetation plays a key role to water conservation in southern Qilian Mountains (Northwestern China), the upper reaches of Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for vegetation protection because they can supply plants with nitrogen source. Nevertheless, little is known about nitrogen-fixing bacteria in this region. In present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established for detecting the difference of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities between Potentilla parvifolia shrub and Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the Azospirillum sp. was only detected in shrub soil while Thiocapsa sp., Derxiasp., Ectothiorhodospira sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Klebsiella sp., Ensifer sp., Methylocella sp. and Peseudomonas sp. were just detected in meadow soil. Shannon-Wiener index of nifH gene ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in meadow soil than shrub soil. Contrarily, the nifH gene copies and CFUs of cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Furthermore, both of them were lower in meadow soil than shrub soil. Statistical analysis revealed that diversity and copies of nifH gene mostly correlated with aboveground biomass in shrub soil. In meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was principally affected by altitude while copies did by soil available K.
Sun, J T; Pan, L L; Zhan, Yu; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhu, L Z; Li, X D
Atrazine is one of the most widely applied and persistent herbicides in the world. In view of limited information on the regional contamination of atrazine in soils in China, this study investigated the spatial distribution and environmental impacts of atrazine in agricultural soils collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an illustrative analysis of rapidly developing regions in the country. The results showed that the concentrations of atrazine in the YRD agricultural soils ranged from <1.0 to 113 ng/g dry weight, with a mean of 5.7 ng/g, and a detection rate of 57.7 % in soils. Pesticide factory might be a major source for the elevated levels of atrazine in Zhejiang Province. The contamination of atrazine was closely associated with land use types. The concentrations and detection rates of atrazine were higher in corn fields and mulberry fields than in rice paddy fields. There was no significant difference in compositions of soil microbial phospholipids fatty acids among the areas with different atrazine levels. Positive relationship (R = 0.417, p < 0.05, n = 30) was observed between atrazine and total microbial biomass. However, other factors, such as soil type and land management practice, might have stronger influences on soil microbial communities. Human health risks via exposure to atrazine in soils were estimated according to the methods recommended by the US EPA. Atrazine by itself in all the soil samples imposed very low carcinogenic risks (<10(-6)) and minimal non-cancer risks (hazard index <1) to adults and children.
Tang, X.; Huang, S. S. X. E. C.; Zhuang, W.; LIU, Z.; Duan, W.; Hu, S.
The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB hereafter) in the northern margin of the South China Sea has attracted great attention not only because of its special tectonic location but also for its abundant hydrocarbon resources. Tectonic evolution controls the petroleum geological condition of hydrocarbon-bearing basins. Efforts have been made to understand the tectonic evolution of this basin. However, many issues about the tectonic features and the evolution process of this basin, such as the age of the breakup unconformities and the anomalously accelerated subsidence during the post-rifting stage, remain controversial. Here we employ tectonic subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins, a technique of removing isostatic loading and compaction effects by back-stripping, to investigate the tectonic controls on the basin formation of the PRMB. We performed the analysis on 4 drill wells and 43 synthetic wells constructed based on recently acquired seismic profiles. The result shows that tectonic subsidence in the eastern sags of the PRMB began to decrease at ~30Ma while in the western sags the onset was ~23.8Ma. This suggests that the break-up time i.e. the end of rifting in the PRMB is earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Abnormally accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred between 17.5-16.4Ma during the post-rifting stage, at an average subsidence rate as high as 301.9m/Ma. This phenomenon discriminates the PRMB from the category of classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, of which the tectonic subsidence during the post-rifting stage decays exponentially. The main objective of this paper is to provide insights into the geological and geodynamic evolution of the PRMB. The result bears significance to hydrocarbon exploration in this region.
Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Hui, Esther L. C.; Lau, Arthur P. S.
Endotoxin, a toxic and pyrogenic substance in gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols was measured over a period of one year at Nansha, Guangzhou and Hong Kong in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric aerosols were collected by high-volume samplers. The bioactive endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay after extraction with pyrogen-free water while the total endotoxin levels were measured by quantifying the biomarker, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) with GC-MS. Results showed that there was no significant difference (0.19 < p < 0.81) in the bioactive endotoxin level in PM 10 among sites (average concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.39 EU m -3). However, Hong Kong showed a significantly lower ( p < 0.05) total endotoxin level in PM 10 (average of 17.4 ng m -3) compared with Nansha's 29.4 ng m -3 and Guangzhou's 32.7 ng m -3. The bioactive endotoxins were found to be associated with the coarse mode (PM 2.5-10) of the particulates of natural origins while the total endotoxins were associated more with the fine mode (PM 2.5) of the particulates of anthropogenic origins. When normalized with particulate mass, the endotoxin loading is much higher in summer as a result of the increased growth of the bacteria when climatic conditions are favorable. The chemically determined total endotoxins were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the bioactive endotoxins quantified using the LAL assay. Correlation analyses between the bioactive endotoxins and 3-OHFAs with different carbon length were analyzed. Results showed that the correlations detected vary among sites and particulate sizes. Although no generalization between the total and bioactive endotoxins can be drawn from the study, the levels reported in this study suggests that the discrepancies between the two measurement approaches, and the bioactive potential of 3-OHFAs with individual carbon chains deserve further investigation.
Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu
The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0∼20 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794∼19.504 μg g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 μg g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 μg g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world.
Jinmei, Bai; Xueping, Liu
Heavy metal pollution is an increasing environmental problem in Chinese regions undergoing rapid economic and industrial development, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. We determined heavy metal concentrations in surface soils from the PRD. The soils were polluted with heavy metals, as defined by the Chinese soil quality standard grade II criteria. The degree of pollution decreased in the order Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn > As > Cr > Hg > Pb. The degree of heavy metal pollution by land use decreased in the order waste treatment plants (WP) > urban land (UL) > manufacturing industries (MI) > agricultural land (AL) > woodland (WL) > water sources (WS). Pollution with some of the metals, including Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, was attributed to the recent rapid development of the electronics and electroplating industries. Cd, Hg, and Pb (especially Cd) pose high potential ecological risks in all of the zones studied. The soils posing significantly high and high potential ecological risks from Cd covered 73.3 % of UL, 50 % of MI and WP land, and 48.5 % of AL. The potential ecological risks from heavy metals by land use decreased in the order UL > MI > AL > WP > WL > WS. The control of Cd, Hg, and Pb should be prioritized in the PRD, and emissions in wastewater, residue, and gas discharges from the electronics and electroplating industry should be decreased urgently. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should also be decreased.
Xu, Guofeng; Jiang, Yue; An, Wei; Wang, Hongdong; Zhang, Xiuying
Three KPC-2-producing Escherichia coli (E1, E2, and E3) were recovered from water samples of an urban river in the city of Harbin, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Molecular characterization and genetic relatedness of the isolates were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR-directed phylotyping. Plasmids were analyzed by conjugation, S1-PFGE, Southern blotting and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). The genetic environment of the bla KPC-2 gene was determined using PCR and sequencing. PCR analyses revealed that the E1 isolate carried the bla KPC-2, bla CMY-2, bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M-14, and qnrB2 genes and belonged to sequence type ST410, phylogenetic type A; the E2 isolate was assigned to ST131-B2 and carried the bla KPC-2, bla TEM-1, bla CTX-M-3, bla DHA-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qnrS1 genes; while the E3 isolate was of ST648-D and possessed bla KPC-2, bla TEM-1, bla OXA-1, bla CTX-M-15, armA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes. PFGE demonstrated that each of the three KPC-2-producing E. coli isolates exhibited an individual XbaI patterns. The bla KPC-2 gene was located on plasmids of 60-140 kb with IncA/C, IncN, or non-typeable replicon types. The genetic environment of bla KPC-2 of the three strains was consistent with the genetic structure of bla KPC-2 on the plasmid pKP048.
Xu, Yonghang; Sun, Qinqin; Yi, Liang; Yin, Xijie; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai; Chen, Jian
Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ~70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were <1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China.
Li, Xiaogang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Ma, Yugai
Holocene slackwater deposits along the river channels were used to study the magnitude and frequency of the palaeofloods that occurred prior to gauged and historical data sets all over the world. Palaeohydrological investigations along the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China, identified palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) at several sites along the cliffs bordering the river channel. The SWDs are intercalated within Holocene eolian loess-soil profiles and clastic slope deposits. The palaeoflood SWDs were differentiated from eolian loess and soil by the sedimentary criteria and analytical results including magnetic susceptibility and particle-size distribution, similar to the flood SWDs in 2012, which indicated that these well-sorted palaeoflood SWD beds were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. They have recorded the extraordinary palaeoflood events which occurred between 3200 and 3000 a BP as dated by the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with pedostratigraphic correlations with the previously studied Holocene pedo-stratigraphy in the Yellow River drainage basin. Manning slope-area calculations estimate the peak discharged for these palaeoflood events to range from 43,290 to 49,830 m3/s. The drainage area of the study site is 489,900 km2. It is 2.0-2.5 times the largest gauged flood (21,000 m3/s) that has ever occurred since 1934. These events also occurred on Yellow River tributaries, including the Weihe, Jinghe and Qishuihe Rivers. These flood events are therefore considered to be a regional expression of known climatic events in the northern hemisphere and demonstrate Holocene climatic instability. This study provides important data in understanding the interactions between regional hydro-climatic systems and global change in semiarid and subhumid regions.
Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhuowei; Shan, Jiju; Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Yi, Ming
Reconstructing historical sedimentary records is essential for better understanding the effects of anthropogenic activities on river environments. We used lead-210 to date riverine sediment core from the Shima River in China. We obtained a sedimentary history of 34 years (1982-2015) for core S2, which had a length of 34 cm. The sedimentation rate of 0.304-2.04 cm y(-1) was controlled by both flood events and anthropogenic activities. The conservative element content depth profiles remained relatively constant, suggestive of a relatively stable sediment provenance; therefore, the increase in the sedimentation rate over time was mainly the result of domestic and industrial wastewater effluent and the construction of a rubber dam at the middle and lower reach of the Shima River. From 1982 to 2015, the nutrient and trace metal depth profiles could be divided in three periods based on their trends. From 1982 to 1993, the vertical profiles of nutrients (organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) and three trace metals (nickel, zinc, and manganese) were relatively stable; however, the gradual decrease in copper and cadmium was likely associated with a reduction in agricultural chemical application. From 1993 to 2003, a population explosion and rapid industrialization were responsible for an increase in the input of pollutants into the Shima River, which was partly attenuated by water from the Dong River, leading to a gradual increase in nutrient and trace metal contents. Finally, from 2003 to 2015, the Shima River stopped being used as a source of water due to its deteriorating water quality. The relatively lower velocity of the water flow after the recovery of its flow direction and the reconstruction of the rubber dam in 2009 provided advantageous sedimentary conditions, promoting nutrient accumulation and significant trace metal enrichment.
Zhao, Yongqiang; Xia, Yongqiu; Kana, Todd M; Wu, Yucheng; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Xiaoyuan
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recently recognized as an important pathway for the removal of fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic systems. However, the functions of anammox in freshwater river systems remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of anammox activity in two rivers in the Taihu Lake region in China during a seasonal survey. Homogenized sediments were incubated with (15)N-labeled NO3(-) and NH4(+) amendments to determine the potential importance of the anammox process relative to canonical denitrification. Production of (29)N2 and (30)N2 in slurries was determined using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Potential anammox rates in the two river sediments ranged from 0.11±0.07 to 6.79±1.28 μmol N m(-2) h(-1) and the remove of N by anammox accounted for 0.8±0.00% to 10.7±0.03% of total N2 production. Potential anammox rates varied spatially and temporally in the two rivers, with the highest and lowest mean anammox rates appearing during summer and early autumn and during winter, respectively. The variation of the percentage of anammox to total N2 production displayed the same trend with potential anammox rates. Water temperature and NO3(-) content in sediments were the main factors affecting anammox activity. Anammox bacteria were detected in sediment samples using barcode pyrosequencing. The 16S rRNA anammox gene sequences in the river sediments were affiliated with Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Jettenia, and Candidatus Scalindua, among which C. Kuenenia dominated the anammox bacterial communities. Our results confirmed the presence of anammox bacteria but their role is relatively small in removing fixed N from freshwater river systems.
Li, Rongli; Liang, Jing; Gong, Zhenbin; Zhang, Ningning; Duan, Hualing
The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a (210)Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future
Zhan, Lucheng; Chen, Jiansheng; Zhang, Shiyin; Huang, Dewen; Li, Ling
The natural flow properties of the Yangtze River have been changed completely following the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. The dam's operation has affected the resources and environment in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, changing the hydrological conditions and ecological environment of the Dongting Lake. During three different dispatching periods of the reservoir, we took triplicate samples of the river and lake water. All the samples were analysed for δ(2)H and δ(18)O to determine the relationship between the lake and the Yangtze River (and other rivers), and to evaluate objectively the influence of the dam's operation on the lake. During the period of water-supply dispatch, the Four Rivers and Miluo River are the main recharge sources of the lake. During the flood-storage dispatching period, the Dongting Lake is recharged largely by the Three Outlets and the Four Rivers, whereas during the period of water-storage dispatch, most of the lake's water originates from the Miluo, Xiang, Zi, and Yuan rivers. Although the Yangtze River only contributes significantly to the lake's recharge through the Three Outlets during the flood-storage dispatching period, the lake discharges large amounts of water into the Yangtze River during all three periods. Through the operation of the reservoir, it should be ensured that the water level of the Dongting Lake is not too low during the dry season, nor too high during the wet season, thus preventing the lake region from future flood and drought disasters.
Gong, Jian; Duan, Dandan; Yang, Yu; Ran, Yong; Chen, Diyun
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were seasonally investigated in surface water, suspended particulate matter, and sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. EDC concentrations in the surface water were generally higher in the summer than in winter. The surface water in the investigated rivers was heavily contaminated by the phenolic xenoestrogens. Moreover, the in-situ log Ksoc and log Kpoc values and their regression with log Kow in the field experiments suggest that binding mechanisms other than hydrophobic interaction are present for the sedimentary organic carbon and particulate organic carbon (SOC/POC). The logKsoc-logKow and logKpoc-logKow regression analyses imply that higher complexity of nonhydrophobic interactions with EDCs is present on the SOC samples comparing with the POC samples, which is related to their different sources.
Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong
The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.
Chen, Haiyang; Chen, Ruihui; Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin
Recognizing the pollution characteristics of trace metals in river sediments and targeting their potential sources are of key importance for proposing effective strategies to protect watershed ecosystem health. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was conducted to identify the contamination and risk characteristics of trace metals in sediments of Le'an River which is a main tributary of the largest freshwater lake in China, Poyang Lake. To attain this objective, several tools and models were considered. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor were used to understand the general pollution characteristic of trace metals in sediments. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify the spatial variability of sediment metals. Sediment quality guidelines and potential ecological risk index were employed for ecological risk evaluation. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square was proposed to extract potential pollution sources, as well as the application of Monte-Carlo simulation for uncertainty analysis of source identification. Results suggested that the sediments in Le'an River were considerably polluted by the investigated trace metals (Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni). Sediment concentrations of these metals showed significant spatial variations. The potential ecological risk lay in high level. Comparatively speaking, the metals of Cd, Cu and Hg were likely to result in more harmful effects. Mining activities and the application of fertilizers and agrochemicals were identified as the main anthropogenic sources. To protect the ecological system of Le'an River and Poyang Lake watershed, industrial mining and agricultural activities in this area should to be strictly regulated.
Wang, Fushun; Wang, Baoli; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Liu, Xiaolong; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shuang
Reservoirs created for hydropower production have become an important feature impacting a river. Understanding the effects of river impoundment on the downstream environment is critical to decision-making for water resource protection. The changes caused by impoundment are changes in water quality and the resulting effect on the phytoplankton community structure. The impacts caused by a series of reservoirs along a river are still not well understood. In this study, we conducted an investigation of five reservoirs along the Maotiao River, China. We found that a series of impoundments plays a role in decreasing the phytoplankton biomass in downstream reservoirs. Within the studied area, nitrogen is not a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth. The ratio of silicon to phosphorus (Si:P) can become a major factor in the regulation of phytoplankton community structure. The Si:P ratio increased from upstream to downstream reservoirs, causing a concurrent increase in the percentage of Bacillariophyta, particularly during the winter. In addition, our results indicate that the creation of dams eliminates Si limitation downstream.
Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Zhu, Junzhang; Long, Zulie; Jiang, Guangzheng; Huang, Shaopeng; Hu, Shengbiao
The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic sub-sidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5-16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.
Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin
In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.
Zhang, Hao; Ma, Wei-chun; Wang, Xiang-rong
The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers' capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence. PMID:27879819
Cao, Yingjie; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Yinghua
Two multivariate statistical technologies, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA), are applied to study the river and groundwater hydrochemistry and its controlling processes in the Sanjiang Plain of the northeast China. Factor analysis identifies five factors which account for 79.65 % of the total variance in the dataset. Four factors bearing specific meanings as the river and groundwater hydrochemistry controlling processes are divided into two groups, the "natural hydrochemistry evolution" group and the "pollution" group. The "natural hydrochemistry evolution" group includes the salinity factor (factor 1) caused by rock weathering and the residence time factor (factor 2) reflecting the groundwater traveling time. The "pollution" group represents the groundwater quality deterioration due to geogenic pollution caused by elevated Fe and Mn (factor 3) and elevated nitrate (NO3 -) introduced by human activities such as agriculture exploitations (factor 5). The hydrochemical difference and hydraulic connection among rivers (surface water, SW), shallow groundwater (SG) and deep groundwater (DG) group are evaluated by the factor scores obtained from FA and DA (Fisher's method). It is showed that the river water is characterized as low salinity and slight pollution, and the shallow groundwater has the highest salinity and severe pollution. The SW is well separated from SG and DG by Fisher's discriminant function, but the SG and DG can not be well separated showing their hydrochemical similarities, and emphasize hydraulic connections between SG and DG.
Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin
In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well. PMID:27070631
Feng, Qi; Miao, Zheng; Li, Zongxing; Li, Jianguo; Si, Jianhua; S, Yonghong; Chang, Zongqiang
The need for environmental protection challenges societies to deal with difficult problems because strategies designed by scientists to protect the environment often create negative effects on impoverished local residents. We investigated the effects of China's national and regional policies related to environmental protection and rehabilitation projects in inland river basins, by studying the effect of projects in the Heihe and Shiyang river basins, in northwest China. Interviews and surveys were conducted at 30 sites in the lower reaches of these two arid basins, an area that has experienced severe ecological degradation. The survey results show the ecological rehabilitation projects adversely affected the livelihoods of 70.35% of foresters, 64.89% of farmers and 62.24% of herders in the Minqing region in the lower Shiyang River Basin; also, the projects negatively affected 51.9% of residents in the Ejin Qi in the lower Heihe River Basin. This caused 16.33% of foresters, 39.90% of farmers and 45.32% of herders in the Minqing region to not support the project and 37.5% of residents in the Ejin Qi region said they will deforest and graze again after the project ends. The negative impacts of the policies connected to the projects cause these attitudes. The projects prohibit felling and grazing and require residents to give up groundwater mining; this results in a great amount of uncompensated economic loss to them. Extensive survey data document the concerns of local residents, concerns that are supported by the calculation of actual incomes. In addition, the surveys results show poorer interviewees believe the projects greatly affected their livelihoods. While citizens in this region support environment protection work, the poor require considerable assistance if one expects them to support this type of work. Governmental assistance can greatly improve their living conditions, and hence encourage them to participate in and support the implementation of the projects
Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Wang, Chi; Ying, Zhian; Fan, Wei; Yang, Wu
The presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic nitrosamines in water is of great concern. In this study, seven nitrosamines including N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), and N-nitrosodi-n-butyl-amine (NDBA) were investigated in river water and ground water samples collected from 5 representative cities (Jilin, Songyuan, Harbin, Jiamusi and Tongjiang) along the Songhua River. The total concentrations of nitrosamines in ground water were n.d. (not detected) to 60.8ng/L, NDMA was the most frequently detected nitrosamines in ground water, followed by NDEA and NPip. Relatively high detected frequency and concentrations of NDMA were also observed in river water samples, and the total nitrosamines' concentration at midstream is always higher than that at upstream and downstream. After 24hr chlorination, concentration of NDMA, NDBA was obviously increased but NDEA was reduced. Furthermore, UV254 showed a better relationship with NDMA-FP rather than dissolved organic carbon (DOC), NH4-N, and TDN.
Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Liu, C.; Xiao, H.; Zheng, C.; Li, W.
The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in the arid region of northwestern China. Under natural conditions, the Heihe River recharges to groundwater in the piedmont areas after coming out of the Qilian Mountains. In the front edge of the alluvial and fluvial fans in the middle HRB, groundwater discharges to the surface in the form of springs and then flows into the Heihe River and ends up at the terminal lakes in the lower HRB. The surface water-groundwater interactions are frequent and dynamic along the Heihe River, and the understanding of these interactions is essential for conjunctive use and management of water resources and is fundamental to ensuring ecosystem health of the HRB. Among the various methods used to study surface water-groundwater interactions, those based on temperature have some distinct advantages because of the obvious temperature differences between surface water and groundwater and also because of the simplicity and low cost of temperature measurement. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) can measure temperature at very high spatial and temporal resolutions and has led to important insights into the processes of groundwater and surface water interactions. In this study, DTS was applied to measure high-resolution temperature variations in the river water with a 0.25 m spatial interval and a 15 minute temporal frequency in a total distance of 5 km along two sections of the Heihe River. A statistical approach was used to discern the spatial distribution and the size of groundwater discharge zones and hyporheic zones, respectively. The exchange flux was then estimated using 1-D hydrodynamic model, which calculates the inflow flux in the study area by comparing the simulated temperatures with the measured ones. In addition, temperature data, combined with more traditional hydrological data such as hydraulic heads and fluxes, can provide independent constraints for calibrating the coupled surface water
Fischer, T.; Gemmer, M.; Su, B.; Scholten, T.
Floods and droughts are frequently causing large economic losses in China. These conditions vary in space, time, and magnitude. In this study, long-term meteorological and hydrological dryness and wetness conditions are analyzed for the Xijiang River Basin which is the largest tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River. A very similar inter-annual course of precipitation and discharge can be observed. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) is used to show dryness and wetness pattern in the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River. The SPI-24 correlates high with the standardized discharge index (SDI-24) for Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of Xijiang River. Distinct long-term dryness and wetness sequences are found in the time series for the SPI-24 and SDI-24. The principal component analysis reveals many spatial interdependencies in dryness and wetness conditions for the sub-basins and explains some spatio-temporal disparities. Moderate dryness conditions have a larger spatial impact than moderate wetness conditions in the sub-basins. The loading pattern of the first principal component shows that the correlation with the entire Xijiang River Basin is highest in the eastern and lowest in the western sub-basins. Further spatial dipole conditions explain the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of dryness and wetness conditions. Accordingly, the precipitation in the eastern sub-basins contributes more to the hydrological wetness conditions than in the western sub-basins, which mainly contribute to dryness patterns. The spectral analysis for the SPI-24 (entire Xijiang River Basin) and SDI-24 shows similar peaks for periods of 11-14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4-3.7 yr, and 6.3-7.3 yr. The same periods can be found for the SPI-24 of Xijiang River's six sub-basins with some variability in the magnitude. The wavelet analysis shows that the most significant periods are stable over time since the 1980s. The extrapolations of the reconstructed time series do not suggest any spatial or
Dai, Zhijun; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mei, Xuefei; Gao, Jinjuan
The temporal evolution of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in a river debouching into the ocean provides vital insights into erosion processes in the watershed and dictates the evolution of the inner continental shelf. While the delivery of sediment from rivers to the ocean has received special attention in the recent past, few studies focused on the variability and dynamics of river SSC, especially in the Changjiang (Yangtze) river, China, the longest river in Asia. Here, variations in SSC delivered by the Changjiang River to the East China Sea and possible causes of its variability were detected based on a long-term time series of daily SSC and monthly water discharge measured at the Datong gauging station. The SSC data are further compared to a hydrological analysis of yearly precipitation covering the entire catchment. The results indicate the presence of a decline in SSC in the period 1956-2013, which can be divided into three phases: (i) high SSC (0.69 kg/m3) in the wet season and low SSC (0.2 kg/m3) in the dry season from 1956 to 1970; (ii) relative high SSC (0.58 kg/m3) in the wet season and low SSC (0.15 kg/m3) in the dry season from 1971 to 2002; and (iii) low SSC (0.19 kg/m3) in the wet season and very low SSC (0.09 kg/m3) in the dry season after 2002. These three periods have a mean yearly SSC values of 0.62, 0.42, and 0.18 kg/m3, respectively. Compared with 1956-1970, the slope of the rating curve between SSC and water discharge decreased, respectively, by 2% and 30% during the period 1971-2002 and 2002-2013. Soil erosion, dam construction, and banks reinforcement along the Changjiang River are the main causes of SSC variations. Fluctuations in water discharge are also controlling the SSC long-term variations. Specifically, from 1956 to 1970, the effect of soil erosion overrules that of dam impoundment, which is likely responsible for the high SSC; during the period 1970-2002, the influence of dam impoundment increases while that of soil erosion
Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Tao, Ran; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng
The distribution and occurrence of 15 antibiotics in surface water of the Pearl River System (Liuxi River, Shijing River and Zhujiang River) and effluents of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated in two sampling events representing wet season and dry season by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode. Only eight antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H₂O and norfloxacin) were detected in the water samples of the three rivers and the effluents. The detection frequencies and levels of antibiotics in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season. This could be attributed to the dilution effects in the wet season and relatively lower temperature in the dry season under which antibiotics could persist for a longer period. The levels of the detected antibiotics in different sites are generally in a decreasing order as follows: Shijing River ≥WWTP effluent ≥Zhujiang River ≥ Liuxi River. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients showed that only erythromycin-H₂O and roxithromycin detected in the Pearl Rivers might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms.
Xu, S.; Jiang, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhao, Q.
River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restoration techniques were proposed and designed for regional water level control, including submerged dikes, ecological embankments, revegetation and dredging. The restoration engineering has produced good results in water quality, eco-environment, and landscape. Monthly reports of the Daling River show that the water quality of Gudong River was better than Grade III in April 2013 compared with Grade V in May 2012. The economic benefit after restoration construction is 1.71 million RMB per year, about 1.89 times that before. The ratio of economic value, social value and eco-environmental value is 1:4:23.
Chai, Liyuan; Li, Huan; Yang, Zhihui; Min, Xiaobo; Liao, Qi; Liu, Yi; Men, Shuhui; Yan, Yanan; Xu, Jixin
Here, we aim to determine the distribution, ecological risk and sources of heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province, China. Sixty-four surface sediment samples were collected in 16 sites of the Xiangjiang River, and the concentrations of ten heavy metals and metalloids (Mn, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, As, Ni, Co, and Cd) in the sediment samples were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), respectively. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sediment samples followed the order Mn > Zn > Cr > V > Pb > Cu > As ≈ Ni >Co > Cd. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that Cd, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cu, caused severely contaminated and posed very highly potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River, especially in Shuikoushan of Hengyang, Xiawan of Zhuzhou, and Yijiawan of Xiangtan. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sampling sediments of the Xiangjiang River were classified into three groups: (1) Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu which possibly originated from Shuikoushan, Xiawan, and Yijiawan clustering Pb-Zn mining and smelting industries; (2) Co, V, Ni, Cr, and Al from natural resources; and (3) Mn and As. Therefore, our results suggest that anthropogenic activities, especially mining and smelting, have caused severe contamination of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu and posed very high potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River.
The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113
Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei
The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.
Ding, Yuekui; Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing
The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of oxygen depletion on macroinvertebrate community structure in benthic space. Macroinvertebrate assemblages and potential of dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption were investigated simultaneously in the plain rivers of the Ziya River Basin. The degree of DO depletion was represented by sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and DO, chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) in the overlying water. The results showed an all-around hypoxia environment formed, and the values of DO, SOD, CODCr, and NH4 (+)-N were separately 0.11-4.03 mg L(-1), 0.41-2.60 g m(-2) day(-1), 27.50-410.00 mg L(-1), and 1.79-101.41 mg L(-1). There was an abnormal macroinvertebrate assemblage, and only 3 classes, Insecta, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, were found, which included 9 orders, 30 families, and 54 genera. The biodiversity was at a low level, and Shannon-Wiener index was 0.00-1.72. SOD, and NH4 (+)-N had major impact on the macroinvertebrate community, and the former had negative effect on most taxa, for instance, Nais, Branchiura, Paraleptophlebia, etc., which were sensitive or had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. NH4 (+)-N had both positive and negative impacts on benthic animals, for instance, Dicrotendipes, Gomphus, Cricotopus, etc., for the former, and Procladius, Limnodrilus, Hippeutis, etc., for the latter. They all had a moderate-high tolerance to pollution. It is significant to improve DO condition and macroinvertebrate diversity in river harnessing and management.
Tian, Y; Liu, H J; Zheng, T L; Kwon, K K; Kim, S J; Yan, C L
Sixteen sediment samples collected from eight transects in a mangrove swamp of the Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China were investigated for their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the biodegradation potential of the indigenous microorganisms. The bacterial community structures in the mangrove sediments and in enrichment cultures were also investigated. The results showed that the total PAHs concentration of mangrove sediments ranged from 280 to 1074 ng g(-1) dry weight, that the PAHs composition pattern in the mangrove sediments was dominated by high molecular weight PAH components (4-6 rings), and that Benzo[ghi]perylene and Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were the most dominant at different stations. Abundant PAH-degrading bacteria were found in all the stations, the values of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria ranged from 5.85 x 10(4) to 7.80 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry weight, fluoranthene-degrading bacteria ranged from 5.25 x 10(4) to 5.79 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry weight, pyrene-degrading bacteria ranged from 3.10 x 10(4) to 6.97 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry weight and the benzo(a)pyrene-degrading bacteria ranged from 5.25 x 10(4) to 7.26 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry weight. DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments confirmed that there was a remarkable shift in the composition of the bacterial community due to the addition of the different model PAH compound phenanthrene (three ring PAH), fluoranthene(four ring PAH), pyrene(four ring PAH) and benzo(a)pyrene(five ring PAH) during enrichment batch culture. Eleven strains were obtained with different morphology and different degradation ability. The presence of common bands for microbial species in the cultures and in the native mangrove sediment DNA indicated that these strains could be potential in situ PAH-degraders.
Shen, Xiaomei; Sun, Tao; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Jing; Pang, Aiping
Successful artificial hydrologic regulation and environmental flow assessments for the ecosystem protection require an accurate understanding of the linkages between flow events and biotic responses. To explore an ecosystem's functional responses to hydrologic alterations, we analysed spatial and temporal variations in aquatic metabolism and the main factors influenced by artificial hydrologic alterations based on the data collected from 2009 to 2012 in the Yellow River estuary, China. Gross primary production (GPP) ranged from 0.002 to 8.488 mg O2 L-1 d-1. Ecosystem respiration (ER) ranged from 0.382 to 8.968 mg O2 L-1 d-1. Net ecosystem production (NEP) ranged from -5.792 to 7.293 mg O2 L-1 d-1 and the mean of NEP was -0.506 mg O2 L-1 d-1, which means that the trophic status of entire estuary was near to balance. The results showed that seasonal variations in the aquatic metabolism are influenced by the hydrologic alteration in the estuary. High water temperature and solar radiation in summer are associated with low turbidity and consequently high rates of GPP and ER, making the estuary net autotrophic in summer, and that also occurred after water-sediment regulation in August. Turbidity and water temperature were identified as two particularly important factors that influenced the variation in the metabolic balance. As a result, metabolism rate did not decrease but increased after the regulation. ER increased significantly in summer and autumn and reached a maximum after the water-sediment regulation in September. GPP and NEP reached a maximum value after the water-sediment regulation in August, and then decreased in autumn. Estuarine ecosystem shifted from net heterotrophy in spring to net autotrophy in summer, and then to net heterotrophy in autumn. Our study indicated that estuarine metabolism may recover to a high level faster in summer than that in other seasons after the short-term water-sediment regulation due to higher water temperature and nutrients.
Liu, K.; Chunbo, H.; Jiao, J. J.; Jidong, G.
High ammonium loading of groundwater is a major concern because of the potential toxicity to ecosystem and human health. As one of the most complex large-scale delta systems in China, Pearl River Delta (PRD) was reported to have the highest ammonium concentration for natural groundwater ever reported globally. In this research, borehole SD14 was drilled through the aquitard into the basal aquifer in the PRD. 16S rRNA gene library construction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis were conducted to reveal bacterial community variation of different geology strata. A total of 161 clones from three 16S rRNA libraries were sequenced and clustered into 55 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 3% cutoff. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predominant bacterial phylum was Proteobacteria (50.9%), followed by Chloroflexi (16.8%), Acidobacteria (4.38%) and Firmicutes (3.73%). In the sediment samples from SD14 at the depths of 6.9m, 22.5m and 37.4m, Proteobacteria made up 60.3%, 42.0% and 35.3% of the communities respectively, showing a declining ratio with the depth. Most of the bacteria in all the samples were previously discovered in marine environments, indicating that SD14 used to be in a marine sedimentary environment. Bacteria associated with iron oxidation and nitrogen fixing were found in the sample at 6.9 m, while in the other two samples there existed bacteria which were associated with methane cycling, sulfate reducing and denitrifying. The DGGE results showed that microbial community structures varied significantly with the increase of depth, and that Delftia acidovorans, a species of Proteobacteria which was able to reduce nitrate to nitrite, was the predominant species in samples at 22.5 and 37.4 m, suggesting ammonium as a control factor shaping the bacterial community. The results of this research provided important information of the bacteria in the PRD sediments. High bacterial diversity was observed in samples, and
Wang, X.; Fan, Q.
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is one of the most advanced economic districts in China, which has experienced remarkable economic development and urbanization in the past two decades. Accompanied with the rapid economy development and urbanization, the PRD region encountered both severe nitrogen pollution and deposition. In this study, the characteristics of nitrogen deposition and impacts of urbanization on nitrogen deposition in the PRD region were investigated by combining the methods of field study and numerical model. According to the field measurements, the total dry and wet atmospheric deposition of reactive N at a urban site (SYSU) was up to 55.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 in 2010, slightly lower than the results at a rural forest site (DHS) (57.6 kg ha-1 yr-1). Wet deposition was the main form of the total deposition (64-76%). Organic nitrogen (ON) was found to be dominant in the total N deposition, with a contribution of 53% at DHS and 42% at SYSU. NH4+-N and NO3--N accounted for a similar portion of the total N deposition (23-29%). Atmospheric nitrogen deposition was further simulated by using the improved WRF-Chem model. The simulated N deposition flux was high in the north of PRD (i.e., Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing) and relative low in the east (Huizhou) and south (Zhuhai), with an average N deposition flux of about 24 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the whole PRD. The distribution of N dry deposition was mainly controlled by the concentration of reactive N compounds and precipitation governed the wet deposition distribution. The modeling results also indicate that the PRD area is the source region in which the emissions exceed the deposition while the outside area of the PRD is the receptor region in which the deposition exceeds emissions. The impact of emission change and land use change due to urbanization was also investigated using the WRF-Chem model. The results showed that atmospheric N deposition exhibits a direct response to emission change while the land use change
Mu, C.; Zhang, T.; Cao, B.; Wang, Q.; Peng, X.; Cheng, G.
Based on field permafrost sampling and laboratory analysis, we found that the average storages of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in permafrost soils were much more than that in the active layer on the Eboling Mountain in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, northwestern China. The objective of this study is to better understand the main soil physicochemical parameters influencing C and N dynamics in permafrost regions of northwestern China. Specifically, we investigated the effect of pedogenesis, cryogenic structure and SIC on SOC, TN and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the permafrost regions. The preliminary results show that SIC is a significant factor influencing carbon flux between atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem and the distribution patterns of SOC and N. There are high correlation between SIC, SOC and N in permafrost. SOC and SIC can interact with each other, their small change may radically alter the carbon balance. SIC as a major factor will be crucial for developing large scale models evaluating C and N dynamics. High contents of C and N combined with a low vertical variability in each horizon on the Eboling Mountain can be explained by longer duration of pedogenesis and the influence of permafrost. In permafrost regions, the vertical distribution of soil C and N is also influenced by soil cryogenic structure. The high content of WSOC in deep permafrost soils can be explained by the formation of the ground ice causes the WSOC enrichment followed moisture migration. The average WSOC content in permafrost soils was larger than that in the active layer, suggesting that the labile carbon in permafrost soils has higher quality. SIC can reflect the microbial activity indirectly, due to the good negative relationship between SIC, soil pH and C/N ratios in permafrost. Soil pH values were the important factor influencing the distribution of SIC in deep permafrost soils. SIC in permafrost soils was
Bu, Hongmei; Wang, Weibo; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa
Dissolved trace elements and physiochemical parameters were analyzed to investigate their physicochemical characteristics and identify their sources at 12 sampling sites of the Jinshui River in the South Qinling Mts., China from October 2006 to November 2008. The two-factor ANOVA indicated significant temporal variations of the dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, and V (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). With the exception of Sr (p < 0.001), no significant spatial variations were found. Distributions and concentrations of the dissolved trace elements displayed that dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, V, and Cr were originated from chemical weathering and leaching from the soil and bedrock. Dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, As, and Si were also from anthropogenic inputs (farming and domestic effluents). Correlation and regression analysis showed that the chemical and physical processes of dissolved Cu was influenced by water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) to some degree. Dissolved Fe and Sr were affected by colloid destabilization or sedimentary inputs. Concentrations of dissolved Si were slightly controlled by biological uptake. Principal component analysis confirmed that Fe, Sr, and V resulted from domestic effluents, agricultural runoff, and confluence, whereas As, Cu, and Si were from agricultural activities, and Cr and Zn through natural processes. The research results provide a reference for ecological restoration and protection of the river environment in the Qinling Mts., China.
Tuotuo River basin, the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area, where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we examined six global climate models (GCMs) under three Respectively ...
Chen, G H; Leong, I M; Liu, J; Huang, J C; Lo, I M; Yen, B C
Determination of oxygen deficit in the Hong Kong Shing-Mun River was based on the oxygen uptake by water, algal respiration and river sediment and the oxygen supplied to the river by surface reaeration and algal photosynthesis. A systematic study was conducted to examine the effect of water temperature, flow velocity and water depth on both the oxygen demands and the oxygen supplies. The oxygen budget of a water column in a selected section of the river was modeled. The results of the oxygen budget analysis showed that when water temperature was around 10 degrees C (the lowest temperature in the river), no deficit was observed. When water temperature was 10 degrees C to 20 degrees C, a small oxygen deficit appeared, especially in the deeper water. At the highest water temperature (30 degrees C), the oxygen deficit was maximal, -6.84 g O2/m2/day, in the night-time during the Spring tide period.
Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.
The Yellow River, north-central China, and comparative rivers of the western United States, the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, derive much of their flows from melting snow at high elevations, but derive most of their se diment loads from semiarid central parts of the basins. The three rivers are regulated by larg e reservoirs that store water and sediment, causing downstream channel scour and, farthe r downstream, flood hazard owing to re- deposition of sediment. Potential approaches to reducing continui ng bed aggradation and increasing flood hazard along the lower Yellow Ri ver include flow augmentation, retirement of irrigation that decreases flows and increas es erosion, and re-routing of the middle Yellow River to bypass large sediment i nputs of the Loess Plateau.
Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Wade, T.
As the second largest river in China, the Pearl River discharges ˜7×107 tons of sediment annually to the South China Sea (SCS). About 80% of the sediment was deposited within the Pearl River Estuary; however, the compositional dynamics of organic carbon (OC) at this land-ocean interface is poorly known. This study aimed to delineate the sources, effect of the dam construction and the fate of sedimentary OC from the Feilaixia Dam to the Pearl River estuary and coastal SCS. Surface sediment was collected during a cruise in January 2012 for elemental, and stable carbon/nitrogen isotope analyses. Preliminary data showed that total OC increased from 0.6% at the Feilaixia Dam to 3.1% at Sihui city (100 km downstream from the dam), with the C/N ratio increasing from 10.4 to 18.9; the δ13C of OC, on the other hand, decreased from -20.57‰ to -29.04‰. From Sihui city to the edge of the Pearl River estuary (202 km from the dam), total OC (1.2± 0.6), C/N ratio (11.5 ± 1.0) and the δ13C of OC (-25.89 ± 0.69 ‰) all remained relatively constant. From the estuary towards the coastal SCS, the total OC decreased from 1.3 to 0.4%, with the C/N ratio also decreasing from 10.5 to 7.5; the δ13C of OC, on the other hand, increased from -26.24 to -21.20‰. These data indicate that the composition of riverine OC in general reflects terrestrial vascular plants (higher C/N ratio and more negative δ13C), which can be compounded by in situ primary production (lower C/N ratio and more positive δ13C) in the dam-created reservoir water body. The riverine organic matter, however, appears to regain its terrestrial signature before entering the estuary, which then is in balance with marine primary production (lower C/N ratio and more positive δ13C). The impact of soil and aquatic microbial processes on organic matter degradation also will be examined by analyzing their signature biomarkers and relationship to OC composition.
Song, Dehai; Wang, Xiao Hua
A three-dimensional wave-current-sediment coupled numerical model with wetting and drying process is developed to understand hydrodynamics and sediment transport dynamics in the Deepwater Navigation Channel (DNC), the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), China. The model results are in good agreement with observed data, and statistics show good model skill scores and correlation coefficients. The model well reproduces the spring-neap variation between a well-mixed estuary and a highly stratified estuary. Model results indicate that the estuarine gravitational circulation plays the most important role in the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) formation in the DNC. The upstream nonlocal sediment intrusion through the spillover mechanism is a major source of sediment trapping in the North Passage after the morphological changes. Numerical studies are conducted to show scenarios in the YRE under the effects of different forcings (river discharges, waves, and winds). Between these study cases, surface-wave-breaking relieves the sediment trapping and bottom-wave-current-interaction aggravates the bed erosion and elevates the SSC in the ETM; the former and the latter have the least and largest influence on the suspended sediment transport in the DNC. The wind effects have a greater influence on sediment trapping than the river discharges, and the steady northwesterly wind condition favors the siltation in the DNC most. The significance of density-driven turbidity current is also assessed, which can enhance the saline-water intrusion and suppress the turbulent mixing in the bottom boundary layer.
Fu, Li; Zhang, Lanhui; He, Chansheng
The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river basin in arid Northwest China. The expanding agricultural irrigation, growing industrialization, and increasing urban development in the middle reach have depleted much of the river flow to the lower reach, degrading the corresponding ecosystems. Since the enactment of the State Council of China’s new HRB water allocation policy in 2000 tremendous land use and land cover (LULC) changes have taken place to reduce water consumption in the middle reach and deliver more water downstream. This paper analyzes LULC changes during the period of 2000–2009 to understand how the changing land use patterns have altered water resource dynamics in the region. Results, while yet to be further verified in the field, show that from 2000 to 2009, urban, agricultural land, rangeland, and forest areas have increased, and barren area has decreased. Within the cropland, rice (a high water consumption crop) planting area decreased, while corn and wheat (relatively lower water consumption crops) planting areas increased. These changes in land use patterns, especially in the agricultural zones, have ensured the discharge of the required amount of water to the lower reach. PMID:24599043
He, Qiang; Peng, Shujuan; Zhai, Jun; Xiao, Haiwen
There are many watercraft and production accidents in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of the Yangtze River in China every year. Accidents threaten the water quality of the 1085 km2 surface area of the TGRA and millions of local people if oil and chemical leakage were to occur. A water pollution management system for emergency response (WPMS_ER) was therefore designed for the management of pollution in this area. An integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based water pollution management information system for the TGRA, called WPMS_ER_TGRA, was developed in this study. ArcGIS engine was used as the system development platform, and Visual Basic as the programming language. The models for hydraulic and water quality simulation and the generation of body-fitted coordinates were developed and programmed as a dynamically linked library file using Visual Basic, and they can be launched by other computer programs. Subsequently, the GIS-based information system was applied to the emergency water pollution management of a shipwreck releasing 10 tons of phenol into the Yangtze River during two hours. The results showed that WPMS_ER_TGRA can assist with emergency water pollution management and simulate the transfer and diffusion of accidental pollutants in the river. Furthermore, it can quickly identify the affected area and how it will change over time within a few minutes of an accident occurring.
Dai, Xuerong; Dearing, J. A.; Yu, Lizhong; Zhang, Weiguo; Shi, Yuxin; Zhang, Furui; Gu, Chengjun; Boyle, J. F.; Coulthard, T. J.; Foster, G. C.
This paper describes 20th century climate and human impacts on terrestrial and fluvial systems in the Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, China, based on analyses of four types of information. Analyses of particle size, mineral magnetism, organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a sediment core taken from the Longhekou reservoir, built in 1958 AD in the upper reaches of Hangbu River, provide an ˜ 45 year record of fluvial responses, while monitored meteorological and hydrological data provide records of climate and river discharge. Census data compiled for the local Shucheng County provide records of population and land use, complemented with analyses of satellite images. The Xiaotian river delivers over 65% of the total water and silt to the reservoir. Analyses indicate that the fluvial regime tracks the monsoon climate over seasonal timescales, but human activities have a strongly mediating effect on sediment supply, sediment delivery and, to a lesser extent, runoff over longer timescales. Notable periods of human impact on erosion include the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). A rising trend in precipitation and new land use changes at the present time may be leading to an enhanced flood risk.
Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao
A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19-1.41 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m²·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15-1.38 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m²·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R² = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water.
Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao
A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurementwas performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19–1.41 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m2·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15–1.38 g/(m2·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m2·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R2 = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p < 0.05), the microelectrode method was shown to produce results that were similar to those from the core incubation method. The microelectrode method, therefore, could be used as an alternative method for traditional core incubation method, or as a method to verify SOD rates measured by other methods. We consider that high potential sediment oxygen demand would occur in the Ziya River Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water. PMID:26907307
Yao, Yingying; Huang, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao; He, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuankun
Interactions between groundwater and surface water in arid regions are complex, and recharge-discharge processes are often influenced by the hydrological regime, climate and geology. Traditional methods such as hydraulic gradient measuring by piezometers, differential discharge gauging and conservative tracer experiments, are often inadequate to capture the spatial and temporal variation of exchange rates. In this study, the distribution and the size of the overall groundwater inflow zone (GIZ) and the hyporheic inflow zone (HIZ) in the middle Heihe River Basin, northwest China, are characterized, and the relative inflow flux is estimated by high-resolution temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was used to measure the mixing temperatures of a 5-km reach of streambed with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The sampling interval was 0.25 m, and the temporal interval was 15 and 10 min at Pingchuan and Banqiao experimental sites, respectively. Two separate measurement periods in Pingchuan (Ping1, Ping2) captured different meteorological and stream-flow conditions. The results show that the number and the size range of the individual HIZs are greater than those of GIZs. Groundwater upwelling (GIZ) causes a larger decrease in river-water temperature with less inflow flux compared with the HIZ. The distribution pattern of HIZs and GIZs is influenced by the hydrodynamics of the river and the hydraulic permeability of the riverbed. High-resolution temperature variation based on DTS is an effective predictor of distributed inflows from groundwater upwelling and hyporheic exchange in an arid region.
Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing
Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.
Wu, Bing; Tian, Jianqing; Bai, Chunming; Xiang, Meichun; Sun, Jingzu; Liu, Xingzhong
Whether fungal community structure depends more on historical factors or on contemporary factors is controversial. This study used culture-dependent and -independent (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)) methods to assess the influence of historical and contemporary factors on the distributions of fungi in the wetland sediments at 10 locations along the Changjiang River and at 10 other locations in China. The culture-dependent approach detected greater species diversity (177 operational taxonomic units (OTUs)) than PCR-DGGE analysis (145 OTUs), and the species in the genera of Penicillium (relative frequency=16.8%), Fusarium (15.4%), Aspergillus (7.6%), Trichoderma (5.8%) and Talaromyces (4.2%) were dominant. On the basis of DGGE data, fungal diversity along the Changjiang River increased from upstream to downstream; altitude explained 44.8% of this variation in diversity. And based on the data from all 20 locations, the fungal communities were geographically clustered into three groups: Southern China, Northern China and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Multivariate regression tree analysis for data from the 20 locations indicated that the fungal community was influenced primarily by location (which explained 61.8% of the variation at a large scale), followed by total potassium (9.4%) and total nitrogen (3.5%) at a local scale. These results are consistent with the concept that geographic distance is the dominant factor driving variation in fungal diversity at a regional scale (1000–4000 km), whereas environmental factors (total potassium and total nitrogen) explain variation in fungal diversity at a local scale (<1000 km). PMID:23446835
Yu, Pengtao; Wang, Yanhui; Coles, Neil; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Lihong
The "Grain for Green Project" is a country-wide ecological program to converse marginal cropland to forest, which has been implemented in China since 2002. To quantify influence of this significant vegetation change, Guansihe Hydrological (GSH) Model, a validated physically-based distributed hydrological model, was applied to simulate runoff responses to land use change in the Guansihe watershed that is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in Southwestern China with an area of only 21.1 km2. Runoff responses to two single rainfall events, 90 mm and 206 mm respectively, were simulated for 16 scenarios of cropland to forest conversion. The model simulations indicated that the total runoff generated after conversion to forest was strongly dependent on whether the land was initially used for dry croplands without standing water in fields or constructed (or walled) paddy fields. The simulated total runoff generated from the two rainfall events displayed limited variation for the conversion of dry croplands to forest, while it strongly decreased after paddy fields were converted to forest. The effect of paddy terraces on runoff generation was dependent on the rainfall characteristics and antecedent moisture (or saturation) conditions in the fields. The reduction in simulated runoff generated from intense rainfall events suggested that afforestation and terracing might be effective in managing runoff and had the potential to mitigate flooding in southwestern China.
Fang, Yunxin; Fu, Shaoying
Cold seepage carbonates are usually formed by the interaction of methane oxidizing archaea, sulfate reducing bacteria and cold seepage which contain abundant venting hydrocarbon gases. The presence of cold seepage carbonates on the seabed is one of the evidences that the area exist venting hydrocarbon gases, which are usually result by the dissociation of gas hydrate. The cold seepage property and fluid flow rate can influence the oxidation-deoxidation environment of the bottom water and sediment. Many previous studies focused on the mineral composition, microstructure, elemental composition, isotope composition of the cold seepage carbonates and isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates. The isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates can provide the information of the gas hydrate formation and dissociation in some area of the South China Sea. High precision TIMS-U dating and 14C dating are used as routine method for the dating of the Quaternary carbonates and fossils. The cold seepage carbonates in the study include the samples collected by ROV on the seabed and the drilling for gas hydrate in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of the South China Sea. The authigenic carbonate occurred in different depth in the A, B and C drilling site. They may be represent different events of gas hydrate formation and dissociation in the Quaternary. The dating study for all the cold seepage carbonates can provide the relative accurate eras of the gas hydrate dissociation events in certain area of the South China Sea.
Yu, Pengtao; Wang, Yanhui; Coles, Neil; Xiong, Wei; Xu, Lihong
The "Grain for Green Project" is a country-wide ecological program to converse marginal cropland to forest, which has been implemented in China since 2002. To quantify influence of this significant vegetation change, Guansihe Hydrological (GSH) Model, a validated physically-based distributed hydrological model, was applied to simulate runoff responses to land use change in the Guansihe watershed that is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River basin in Southwestern China with an area of only 21.1 km2. Runoff responses to two single rainfall events, 90 mm and 206 mm respectively, were simulated for 16 scenarios of cropland to forest conversion. The model simulations indicated that the total runoff generated after conversion to forest was strongly dependent on whether the land was initially used for dry croplands without standing water in fields or constructed (or walled) paddy fields. The simulated total runoff generated from the two rainfall events displayed limited variation for the conversion of dry croplands to forest, while it strongly decreased after paddy fields were converted to forest. The effect of paddy terraces on runoff generation was dependent on the rainfall characteristics and antecedent moisture (or saturation) conditions in the fields. The reduction in simulated runoff generated from intense rainfall events suggested that afforestation and terracing might be effective in managing runoff and had the potential to mitigate flooding in southwestern China. PMID:26192181
Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hongbo; Liu, Shaofeng
The Yangtze, the longest river in Asia, was hypothesized to be assembled through a series of Cenozoic capture events, such as the reversal of Middle Yangtze River and the capture of Upper Yangtze River, but the history remains largely unknown. Here, we present new geomorphic observations in the structural context of the eastern Sichuan Basin, namely the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, and identify an important drainage divide along the "midline" of this arc-shape fold belt. Based on longitudinal profile analysis, we find that the river capture events more likely occurred in the syncline valleys of low-relief landscape. Our results yield a new perspective on Middle Yangtze River reversal, and we propose that the "midline" drainage divide, rather than the Three Gorges, was the starting site of Middle Yangtze River reversal. In this manner, the reversal could have been accomplished by a sequence of river reversal over range-parallel segments in syncline valleys with less impact on the pre-existing drainage system in eastern Sichuan Basin.
Jiang, Yonghai; Li, Mingxiao; Guo, Changsheng; An, Da; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Xi, Beidou
In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3) ng L(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3) ng g(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area.
Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo
The Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) is the headwater of the Yangtze River Basin (YARB), Yellow River Basin (YRB), and Lancang River Basin (LRB); it is known as China's 'Water Tower' owing to its important supply of freshwater. In order to assess ecosystem changes in the TRHR during 2000-2012, we systematically and comprehensively evaluated a combination of model simulation results and actual observational data. The results showed the following: (1) Ecosystem pattern was relatively stable during 2000-2010, with a slight decrease in farmland and desert areas, and a slight increase in grassland and wetland/water-body areas. (2) A warmer and wetter climate, and ecological engineering, caused the vegetation cover and productivity to significantly improve. (3) Precipitation was the main controlling factor for streamflow. A significant increase in precipitation during 2000-2012 resulted in an obvious increase in annual and seasonal streamflow. Glacier melting also contributed to the streamflow increase. (4) The total amount of soil conservation increased slightly from 2000 to 2012. The increase in precipitation caused rainfall erosivity to increase, which enhanced the intensity of soil erosion. The decrease in wind speed decreased wind erosion and the frequency of sandstorms. (5) The overall habitat quality in the TRHR was stable between 2000 and 2010, and the spatial pattern exhibited obvious heterogeneity. In some counties that included nature reserves, habitat quality was slightly higher in 2010 than in 2000, which reflected the effectiveness of the ecological restoration. Overall, the aforementioned ecosystem changes are the combined results of ecological restoration and climate change, and they are likely a local and temporary improvement, rather than a comprehensive and fundamental change. Therefore, more investments and efforts are needed to preserve natural ecosystems.
Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Cheung, R Y H; Wong, M H
Concentrations of 8 heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) were examined in 3 species of bivalves ( Perna viridis, Crassostrea rivularis and Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 25 sites along the Pearl River Delta coastal waters in the South China Sea from July to August 1996. In general, Cd, Cu, Zn and Sn concentrations in the three bivalve species collected from the Estuarine Zone were significantly higher than those collected from the Western and Eastern Zones of the Pearl River Delta, which are related to the existence of various anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the Pearl River Delta. The Western Estuarine Zone is mainly impacted hy Cr, Ni and Cu contamination. In Victoria Harbor, heavy metal contamination is mainly due to Cu and Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in oysters were significantly higher than those in mussels and clams. This could be explained by the fact that oysters live mainly in the Estuarine Zone of the Pearl River Delta which receives most of the polluting discharges from the catchment of the Delta. During turbid condition, heavy metals( soluble or adsorbed on suspended particulates) discharged from the Delta are filtered from the water column and subsequently accumulated into the soft body tissues of oysters. Heavy metal concentrations in the three bivalve species were compared with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated by the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, Laws of Hong Kong, and it was revealed that Cd and Cr concentrations in the three bivalve species exceeded the upper limits. At certain hotspots in the Delta, the maximum acceptable daily load for Cd was also exceeded.
Lin, Chengqi; Yu, Ruilian; Hu, Gongren; Yang, Qiuli; Wang, Xiaoming
Concentrations and isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in the surface sediment samples from Jiulong River, Southeast China, were determined to trace the sources of Pb and Sr. The average concentrations of Pb and Sr were 110.9 mg/kg and 69.2 mg/kg, approximately 3.2 and 2.0 times of the local soil background values, respectively. Average 62.9% of total Pb and 36.8% of total Sr in the investigated surface sediment samples were extracted by 0.5 mol/L HNO3. Pb and Sr presented slight contamination, and Pb showed low ecological risk for most of surface sediment samples in Jiulong River according to geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk index (RI). The results of Pb isotopic compositions in sediment samples and potential sources showed that the Pb accumulated in the surface sediments of Jiulong River was mainly from parent material, coal combustion and Fujian Pb-Zn deposit, with the contribution rates of 34.4%, 34.0%, and 31.6%, respectively. The results of Pb isotopic compositions in 0.5 mol/L HNO3-extraction suggested that dilute HNO3-extraction was more sensitive in identifying anthropogenic Pb sources than total digestion. The results of Sr isotopic compositions showed that Sr accumulated in the surface sediments of Jiulong River estuary mainly derived from external source and natural source (parent material) with the contribution rates of 48.1% and 51.9%, respectively.
Wang, Erda; Yu, Yang; Little, Bertis B.; Chen, Zhongxin; Ren, Jianqiang
Factors that caused slow growth in crop insurance participation and its ultimate failure in China were multi-faceted including high agricultural production risk, low participation rate, inadequate public awareness, high loss ratio, insufficient and interrupted government financial support. Thus, a clear and present need for data driven analyses and empirically-based risk management exists in China. In the present investigation, agricultural production data for two crops (corn, rice) in five counties in Jiangxi Province and Hunan province for design of a pilot crop insurance program in China. A crop insurance program was designed which (1) provides 75% coverage, (2) a 55% premium rate reduction for the farmer compared to catastrophic coverage most recently offered, and uses the currently approved governmental premium subsidy level. Thus a safety net for Chinese farmers that help maintain agricultural production at a level of self-sufficiency that costs less than half the current plans requires one change to the program: ≥80% of producers must participate in an area.
Wu, Ziyin; Milliman, John D.; Zhao, Dineng; Zhou, Jieqiong; Yao, Caihua
Decreased fluvial water and sediment discharge, increasing land reclamation, changing climate, and rising sea level have had an ever-increasing impact on river deltas, particularly those deltas bordering Southeast Asia. Utilizing 100 years of navigational and bathymetric data, together with more than 50 years of fluvial discharge data, we here document the impact of human activities on the Pearl River Delta and its estuary at LingDing Bay, China, the site of recent rapid economic expansion and urbanization. Between 1906 and 1988, approximately 80 km2, ~ 1 km2/yr, of land was reclaimed from the Bay, almost entirely for agriculture. During the ensuing 20 years, 1988-2008, nearly 200 km2 of land was reclaimed (10 km2/yr), mostly to be used for manufacturing and shipping facilities; even some of the previously reclaimed agricultural land was converted to industrial use. Most of the reclaimed land came from a corresponding loss of intertidal and shallow depths: between 1988 and 2008, the area occupied by supratidal and subtidal flats (- 2 to 5 m water depths) declined by ~ 180 km2. Channel dredging to accommodate ever larger ships, in contrast, increased areas with depths greater than 10 m by about 36 km2. Although water volume in the northern bay has decreased by 20% since 1906, decreasing bay area has resulted an overall 15% deepening of the bay. With continued economic expansion in the Pearl River Delta, LingDing Bay should continue to shrink in both area and water volume, although the bay should continue to deepen.
Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water.
Zhang, J.X.; Ni, Y.W.; Yang, M.; Zhang, H.J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, J.P.
The concentrations of 16 priority pollutant PAHs in the samples of Daliao River were analyzed by a method based on Soxhlet extraction, solid-phase extraction clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography-programmable fluorescence/ultra violet detection. The total concentrations of PAHs in Daliao River ranged from 267.9 ng/g to 9,212 ng/g. The highest concentration of PAHs was 9,212 ng/g at the Station 24 (Anshan Railroad Bridge), and the lowest 267.9 ng/g at the Station 19 (Estuary). Compared with the total concentrations of PAHs of rivers in other parts of the world, the degree of contamination of Daliao River by PAHs was moderate to high. Specific compounds or groups of PAHs have been used as molecular markers to differentiate petrogenic and pyrogenic origin. The results showed that the main sources of PAHs in Daliao River were pyrolytic inputs such as combustion of coal, wood and petrogenic chemicals. The data was also compared by mean of two guideline values, an effects range-low (ER-L) and effects range-medium (ER-M), to assess the potential biological effects of the sediment adsorbed PAHs. It showed that the PAHs in some sites of Daliao River would exert adverse biological effects.
Liu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Ying
The Yellow River is the most important resource of water supply in northern China. The purpose of this work are to investigate the concentrations and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the concentrations of eight heavy metals including As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in filtered water and suspended particles from 12 sampling sites of Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River of China were studied by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) in this paper. The results implied that all heavy metals in filtered water were lower than the limit standards for drinking water except for Cr (56.9 approximately 71. 5 microg L-1 ). Water quality parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and pH were also determined and the contents were low along the river except for TN at S1 (2.48) and S9 (2.38), which exceeded the maximum permitted concentration of Class V for the protection of surface water. In suspended particles, the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher than those in the background value of soil from local section. Cluster analysis (CA) indicated that same sources for Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb could be stainless steel and petrochemical industrial activities, while As, Cd and Hg derived from agrochemicals, fertilizers, mining, fuel and coal combustion, respectively. Ecological risk assessment was undertaken using risk index (RI) for sampling sites and ecological risk factor (Er) for heavy metals. Eleven suspension samples existed considerable ecological risk (300.6< RI< 508. 6), while S1 was moderate ecological risk (RI, 299.3). According to Er, Hg had considerable or high ecological risk in Inner Mongolia section, while very high ecological risk for Cd at S11 (396.0), S9 (384. 0) and S5 (373. 3), respectively, implied a high pollution in these sampling sites. The results could provide reliable
Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu
Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage
Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Burchardt, Iris; Hu, Xiaoli; Kang, Xingcheng
Past streamflow variability is of special significance in the inland river basin, i.e., the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China, where water shortage is a serious environmental and social problem. However, the current knowledge of issues related to regional water resources management and long-term planning and management is limited by the lack of long-term hydro-meteorological records. Here we present a 1009-year annual streamflow (August-July) reconstruction for the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China based on a well-replicated Qilian juniper ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronology. This reconstruction accounts for 46.9% of the observed instrumental streamflow variance during the period 1958-2006. Considerable multidecadal to centennial flow variations below and above the long-term average are displayed in the millennium streamflow reconstruction. These periods 1012-1053, 1104-1212, 1259-1352, 1442-1499, 1593-1739 and 1789-1884 are noteworthy for the persistence of low-level river flow, and for the fact that these low streamflow events are not found in the observed instrumental hydrological record during the recent 50 years. The 20th century witnessed intensified pluvial conditions in the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China in the context of the last millennium. Comparison with other long-term hydrological reconstructions indicates that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in the twentieth century from different regions could be attributable to regional to large-scale temperature increase during this time. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, the streamflow reconstruction can serve as a robust database for the government to work out more scientific and more reasonable water allocation alternatives for the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.
Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang
This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control.
Pan, Chang-Gui; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Ying, Guang-Guo
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in various industries, which results in their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. This study determined the concentrations of eighteen PFASs in muscle and liver of nine wild freshwater fish species collected from rivers in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, South China, and assessed their bioaccumulation and potential health risks to local people. The results showed that eight and twelve PFASs were detected in the fish muscle and liver samples, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the predominant PFAS both in muscle and liver with its highest concentrations of 79ng/g wet weight (ww) in muscle and 1500ng/g ww in liver, followed by Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and Perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) with trace concentrations. The mean PFOS concentrations in fish muscle and liver tissues of the nine collected species ranged from 0.40ng/g in mud carp to 25ng/g in snakehead, and from 5.6ng/g in mud carp to 1100ng/g in snakehead, respectively. Significant positive correlations were found among PFASs both in water and fish, indicating a similar pollution source for these PFASs. In tilapia samples, PFOS concentrations showed an increasing trend with increasing length and weight, but no significant difference between genders. Bioaccumulation factors (logBAF) in fish for the PFASs were in the range from 2.1 to 5.0. The calculated hazard ratios (HR) of PFOS for all fishes were in the range of 0.05-2.8, with four out of nine species (tilapia, chub, leather catfish and snakehead) having their HR values more than 1.0. The results suggest that frequent consumption of these four fish species may pose health risks to local population.
Pei, Guofeng; Liu, Guoxiang
The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution, density, community structure and biodiversity characteristics of benthic diatoms, and to analyze whether differences in species composition and abundance exist in different regions of the Niyang River, Tibet. Among the 157 taxa observed in 15 sampling sites in the main river and tributary, most were casual species (>100), the relative abundance of the genera Achnanthes and Fragilaria was 67% of the total relative abundance. Achnanthes minutissima was the most important species and dominated the whole river reaches (average relative abundance was 30%); the average diatom densities were 7.4 × 105 cell/cm2 at all sites, and increased slowly from the upper section to downriver. The significant indicator taxa with higher relative abundance were Achnanthes biasolettiana (18.0%) and Fragilaria arcus (18.2%), Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae (31.2%), Fragilaria construens var. venter (11.3%) and Cymbella affinis (11.0%) in the upper, tributary and mid-river sections, respectively. Achnanthes minutissima was the most abundant species (56%) in the downriver section. Biodiversity indices showed a gradual decrease from the up- to down-river section, and dominant species were more abundant in the upper and mid-river sections than in the downriver section. A two-way indictor species analysis (TWINSPAN) of diatom composition clearly showed four different groups, namely the upper, mid, lower and tributary sections. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) supported the results of TWINSPAN, and the characteristics of site distribution and species composition in the Niyang River supported the spatial structure of diatom assemblages. This study indicates that bio-assessment programs utilizing benthic diatoms could clearly benefit lotic water with regional stratification.
Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Wu, Yuping
Eleven persistent organic pollutant (POP) compounds including ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, aldrin, mirex, endrin, ∑CHLs, dieldrin, HCB, heptachlor and pentachlorobenzene were measured in the kidney, liver, muscle, melon and other tissues of Sousa chinensis stranded on the western coast of the Pearl River Estuary in China during 2007-2013. For most parameters of POPs measured, melon tissues contained the highest mean concentrations with the exception of aldrin, which was higher in the kidney and liver tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, heptachlor and endrin in the melon tissue exhibited significant correlations with body length, whereas PCBs and heptachlor also displayed significant regression with age. Our studies showed hepatic concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and mirex in S. chinensis were generally higher than those found in cetaceans from other geographic locations. The high levels of POP residues in the testis of one male dolphin suggested an increasing risk of infertility in the species.
Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu Bon; Nie, Xiang Ping; Wong, Ming Hung
Cadmium, lead, zinc, Chromium, copper, nickel and manganese in sediments and in aquatic organisms were collected from the aquaculture pond ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China and analyzed to evaluate bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in food chains, as well as the potential health risk of exposure to the Hong Kong residents via dietary intake of these aquatic products. The results revealed that based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor, omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated more trace metals from sediment than carnivorous fish. Concentrations of seven trace metals in aquaculture pond of PRD significantly decreased with increasing trophic levels, showing that these trace metals were trophically diluted in predatory and omnivorous food chains. The hazard index values of all fish species were smaller than 1 for adults and children, indicating there was no health risk from the multiple metals via ingestion of the freshwater fish for the inhabitants.
Li, Baoquan; Li, Xiaojing; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Soissons, Laura M; Cozzoli, Francesco; Wang, Quanchao; Zhou, Zhengquan; Chen, Linlin
Yellow River delta (YRD) is a typical example of a valuable coastal ecosystem that is under increasing anthropogenic threat in China. To understand the current health status of this region, three surveys in 2011 for the abiotic conditions and macrobenthic assemblages were performed. The concentration of trace metals were relatively low in the sediment at all sampling stations representing a good sediment quality. A total of 159 macrobenthic species were identified during the three surveys. ABC curves showed that the macrobenthic fauna at 8 sampling stations suffered disturbances from human activities. M-AMBI index indicates that the benthic ecological quality of YRD is currently still not in a good condition. Five trace metals, water temperature and depth were the main environmental variables affecting the distribution pattern of macrobenthic assemblages. Community succession has occurred over the past 60years, as evidenced by changes of species composition, key species, distribution pattern and range.
Yang, Wei; Nan, Jun; Sun, Dezhi
This paper describes an online water quality monitoring and management system that was developed by combining a chemical oxygen demand sensor with an artificial neural network technology and a virtual instrument technique. The system was used to model the hydrological environment of the Liming River basin in Daqing City, China, in an effort to maintain the water quality in this basin at a level compatible with the status of Daqing City as a scenic resort. Operation of the system during the past 2 years has shown that an optimal allocation of water (including water released from an environmental reservoir to mitigate pollution events) could be achieved for the basin using the information gathered by the system; using mathematic models established for this system, the quantity of water released from the reservoir is adequate to improve the overall water environment. The results demonstrate that the system provides an effective approach to water quality control for environmental protection.
Si, Wantong; Liu, Jumei; Cai, Lu; Jiang, Haiming; Zheng, Chunli; He, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianying; Zhang, Xuefeng
The consumption of water and food crops contaminated with metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We investigated the health risks of metals in Yellow River (YR) water, farmland soil and spring wheat in the Baotou region, northern China. Data indicated that long-term irrigation with polluted YR water led to metal accumulation in local farmland soil and spring wheat. The consumption of YR water and spring wheat in Baotou region can cause adverse health effects to local people, specifically because of Hg, Pb, and Se in YR water and Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn in spring wheat. The integrative risk of various metals depends mainly on the spring wheat intake. Current results emphasized the need for routine monitoring and management in order to avoid contamination of YR water and spring wheat from the wastewater irrigation system in Baotou region.
Zhang, Yuan; Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xu, Ruofeng; Lin, Cong
Forest cover change is one of the most important land cover changes. Intensified economic development and population growth have led to extensive deforestation and afforestation, and greatly altered the forest landscape patterns. This paper analyzed how socioeconomic drivers influenced the forest extent and landscape patterns in a lagged manner within the Li River Basin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, during the period of 1991 to 2013. First, the temporal variations of forest extent and landscape patterns as quantified by six forest cover metrics were analyzed. The cross-correlation analysis was employed to examine the lagged responses of forest cover metrics to each socioeconomic driver across regions. Last, the fixed effects regression models were built to quantitatively assess the spatially variant relationships. The results demonstrated that the influence of socioeconomic drivers lagged, and the lagged influence varied across regions.
Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian
In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.
Feng, Jiarui; Gao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Rukai; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Linyan
Measurement of thermal conductivity of rocks is important to understand the thermal properties of earth materials, the characteristics of terrestrial heat flow, and the formation of oil. In this paper we report thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity data for 12 conglomerate, sandstone, and gypsum-bearing samples from the Paleogene Kuqa River profile in Kuqa, China. Samples were measured via the hot disk technique, yielding thermal conductivity values of 0.436 to 0.998 W/mK, thermal diffusivity measurements of 0.395 to 1.314 mm(2)/s, and heat capacity values of 0.439 to 1.717 MJ/m(3)K. These analyses reveal that gypsum-bearing rocks, with their low thermal conductivity, can act as excellent insulators over oil and gas reservoirs, aiding the formation and thermal maturation of petroleum.
Kang, Zujie; Chen, Yongxia; He, Dekui
A new glyptosterniod catfish, Pareuchiloglanis hupingshanensis, is described on the basis of 29 specimens, which were collected from Hunan Hupingshan National Nature Reserve (HHNNR) in the Yangtze River basin, China. It can be distinguished from all congeners by morphology and sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Morphometric and molecular data show that the new species is closely related to P. sinensis Hora et Silas but differs from it in possessing a premaxillary tooth band with a deeper median indentation; a dentary tooth band which consists of two shorter and wider patches; a lower angle of gill opening, opposite to the base of the 4th or 5th (vs. second or third) branched pectoral-fin ray; an upper lip edged with dense papillae; the posterior end of the ventral fin falling distinctly short of (vs. almost reaching ) anus; a shorter dorsal fin; and a greater caudal-fin base depth.
Sun, Guo-Xin; Wang, Xin-Jun; Hu, Qin-Hong
Lead isotopes and heavy metal concentrations were measured in two sediment cores sampled in estuaries of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in Hunan province, China. The presence of anthropogenic contribution was observed in both sediments, especially in Xiangjiang sediment. In the Xiangjiang sediment, the lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratio, than natural Pb isotope signature (1.198 and 2.075 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb, respectively), indicated a significant input of non-indigenous Pb with low (206)Pb/(207)Pb and high (208)Pb/(206)Pb. The corresponding concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Zn, Mn and Pb) were much higher than natural values, suggesting the contaminations of heavy metals from extensive ore-mining activities in the region.
Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.
Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn
He, Yan; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Sisi; Guo, Changsheng
Twenty-four surface sediment samples were collected from Liaohe River in June 2014 for the analysis of total concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, and Mn. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in Liaohe River was site specific, with Hun River as the most polluted river mainly affected by industrial and human activities. The contents of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) in Liaohe River varied significantly, ranging from 0.03 to 19.4 μmol/g and 0.14 to 10.8 μmol/g, respectively. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community size, organic matter and sulfate availability, and sediment redox status may be the main factors affecting the AVS distribution. Among all the acid-extracted metals, Zn was dominant in all samples, whereas much more toxic Cd contributed less than 1.0 % to the total SEMs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and AVS-SEM models were used to predict the sediment toxicity. Results revealed that only a small portion of sites exhibited potential metal toxicity to aquatic biota, while adverse effects should rarely occur in majority of sites. Comparison of the two assessment methods showed inconsistent results, indicating that each method had its own limitations. The combination of different methods will be more convincing as to the sediment quality assessment.
Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process has recently been recognized as an important pathway for removing fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. Anammox organisms are widely distributed in freshwater environments. However, little is known about their presence in the water column of riverine ecosystems. Here, the existence of a diverse anammox community was revealed in the water column of the Dongjiang River by analyzing 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidation (hzo) genes of anammox bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of hzo genes showed that Candidatus Jettenia related clades of anammox bacteria were dominant in the river, suggesting the ecological microniche distinction from freshwater/estuary and marine anammox bacteria with Ca. Brocadia and Kuenenia genera mainly detected in freshwater/estuary ecosystems, and Ca. Scalindua genus mainly detected in marine ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria along the river were both significantly correlated with concentrations of NH4(+)-N based on Pearson and partial correlation analyses. Redundancy analyses showed the contents of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N and the ratio of NH4(+)-N to NO2(-)-N significantly influenced the spatial distributions of anammox bacteria in the water column of the Dongjiang River. These results expanded our understanding of the distribution and potential roles of anammox bacteria in the water column of the river ecosystem.
Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Cao, Fu; Hu, Guanjiu; Hao, Yingqun; Wei, Si; Wang, Xinru; Yu, Hongxia
The estrogenic activities of source water from Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Taihu Lake and groundwater in Yangtze River Delta in the dry and wet season were determined by use of reporter gene assays based on African green monkey kidney (CV-1) cell lines. Higher estrogenic activities were observed in the dry season, and the estrogenic potentials in water samples from Taihu Lake were greater than other river basins. None of the samples from groundwater showed estrogen receptor (ER) agonist activity. The 17β-Estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQs) of water samples in the dry season ranged from 9.41×10(-1) to 1.20×10(1) ng E2 L(-1). In the wet season, EEQs of all the water samples were below the detection limit as 9.00×10(-1) ng E2 L(-1) except for one sample from Huaihe River. The highest contribution of E2 was detected in Yangtze River as 99% of estrogenic activity. Nonylphenol (NP, 100% detection rate) and octylphenol (OP, 100% detection rate) might also be responsible for the estrogenic activities in water sources. Potential health risk induced by the estrogenic chemicals in source water may be posed to the residents through water drinking.
Gu, Xihui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xi; Liu, Lin
Amplification of floods in the Xinjiang, China, has been observed, but reports on their changing properties and underlying mechanisms are not available. In this study, occurrence rates of floods in the Tarim River basin, the largest inland arid river basin in China, were analyzed using the Kernel density estimation technique and bootstrap resampling method. Also analyzed were the occurrence rates of precipitation extremes using the POT (Peak over Threshold)-based sampling method. Both stationary and non-stationary models were developed using GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape) to model flood frequency with time, climate index, precipitation and temperature as major predictors. Results indicated: (1) two periods with increasing occurrence of floods, i.e., the late 1960s and the late 1990s with considerable fluctuations around 2-3 flood events during time intervals between the late 1960s and the late 1990s; (2) changes in the occurrence rates of floods were subject to nonstationarity. A persistent increase of flood frequency and magnitude was observed during the 1990s and reached a peak value; (3) AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and AO (Atlantic Oscillation) in winter were the key influencing climate indices impacting the occurrence rates of floods. However, NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and SOI (South Oscillation Index) are two principle factors that influence the occurrence rates of regional floods. The AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) values indicated that compared to the influence of climate indices, occurrence rates of floods seemed to be more sensitive to temperature and precipitation changes. Results of this study are important for flood management and development of mitigation measures.
Zhao, H.; Sheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.
Two major oases in the lower reaches of Heihe River, the desertified Juyanze ancient oasis (JAO) and the sustainable Ejina modern oasis (EMO) in Inner Mongolia, north China, are vulnerable to environmental changes and human activities. The evolution processes and mechanisms of the two oases since last 1 ka are the key for us to understand the interaction between the environmental changes and the human activities in this region. This study provides an evolution chronology of the two oases by analyzing the optical dating records from EMO and 14C dating records from JAO, and discusses the evolution mechanisms based on drainage network analysis and field investigations. The optical dating samples collected from aeolian sands below the humus in the Populus euphratica woodlands on EMO indicate that its developing period was between 1.05 and 0.46 ka ago, while the 14C dating samples collected from a number of dead Populus euphratica trees on JAO consistently suggest that the desertification time of JAO was about 400 Cal aBP. These new dating results imply that the two oases evolved simultaneously but in opposite directions. That is, JAO desertified while EMO developed gradually in the last 1 ka. The drought event occurred about 1 ka ago extensively in northern China can not explain the opposite evolution directions of the two oases. The drainage network analysis based on digital elevation models (DEM) and field observations, and the dating ages (~0.5 ka) of the top lacustrine layer from Gaxu Nur Lake north to EMO show that the evolution of the two oases was mainly governed by Heihe River migration.
Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen
Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.
Yu, X.; Xie, X.
The Yellow River flows through nine provinces and provides water for 30% of China's population. It is the largest sandy river in the world and its annual transport capacity is about 1.6 billion tons. Water availability and soil erosion in this basin have continuously obtained great concern. The upper Yellow River basin (UYRB) above the Tangnaihai hydrological station contributes over one-third water discharge to the entire Yellow River basin. This contribution and hydrological regime may have been substantially altered over the past decades due to climate change and human activities. Understanding the streamflow regime and sediment transport in the UYRB, especially in the context of climate change, is crucial for sustainable water resource management and soil-water conservation. In this study, we attempt to quantify the responses of water and sediment discharge to climate change in the UYRB. We employed a distributed hydrological model, i.e., the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to simulate the runoff and sediment load under different scenarios, including climate change and detrended climate conditions. To predict the future trend, we designed scenarios with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) down scaled forcing data. The results indicate that the SWAT model successfully reproduced the historical patterns of water and sediment dischargewith calibration and validation. As a response to the decreased precipitation and increased temperature during 1966-2009, annual runoff and sediment load have significantly decreased with the trends of -11.6 mm/decade and -1.3 million ton/decade, respectively. But precipitation plays a dominate role in reshaping these trends, with the contribution over four times larger than that of temperature. In the near future (2049-2064), however, runoff and sediment load wouldrise to some degree. Especially in the A2 scenario, runoff and sediment load exceed more than double in summer relative to current climate
Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Hsieh, I. C.
Huge quantities of small rivers derived suspended particles are exporting to the ocean from oceanic islands at the present time. Depending on location and proportion of shelf/slope area, a major fraction of small river particles may by-pass the shelf region, transport and deposit on the deep ocean basin. Major mechanisms driving those huge quantities of small river derived particles to the ocean are quantity of precipitation from monsoon and those from short period of tropical cyclone. Although data demonstrate that deeper part of the South China Sea, SCS, is the major final burial location of the river derived particles from the island of Taiwan, it is not sure if this was the same during the glaciation when monsoon and climatic conditions were drastic different from the present time. The purpose of this study is to understand history of small river derived sediment export and deposition during climatic change. A long piston core with length of ~35 meter was taken on r/v Marion DuFresne on a slope basin offshore SW Taiwan. We have measured density, magnetic susceptibility with multi-sensor core logger, MSCL, and organic, inorganic carbon, C/N ratio, biogenic silica as well as grain sizes. Foraminifera (Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides conglobatus) were picked and measured carbon 14 for age determination. Two different types of processes control sediment deposition in our study site, steady state and event driven sedimentation. Our results demonstrated that sedimentation rates were consistent during each major periods, the Holocene (present to 10k year) and the transition (10-20 k year) period, but, difference existed in between the two. Sedimentation rate was about twice faster during the transition period (20-10k year) than that at the Holocene (10-present time) at our study site. A number of spikes existed in our study site, probably a result of turbidite overflow from the adjacent canyon. Frequency and total thickness of event
The forest hunter-gatherers of the middle Yangtze River basin, who were the first to invent pottery and led a sedentary lifestyle, may have begun to cultivate rice during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial global warming period. The earliest rice cultivation may have dated back to 14,000 calibrated (cal.) years before present (YBP). The global warming at 9000 cal. YBP in the early Holocene brought the development of the rice cultivation to the middle Yangtze River basin. On the other hand, ancient rice-cultivating and piscatorial society met a crisis at 4200-4000 cal. YBP that was characterized by a significant cooling of the climate. This climate deterioration led the northern wheat/barley-cultivating pastoral people to migrate to the south and invade, ultimately bringing about the collapse of the rice-cultivating and piscatorial society in the Yangtze River basin.
Xu, Wei-hai; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shi-chun; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Yu-chun
The occurrence and seasonal changes of antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the ambient marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all the target antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high (summer) and low (early spring) water seasons with the concentrations ranging from 13 to 69 ng x L(-1) and from 70 to 489 ng x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the Pearl River are all higher than that in America and other western developed countries, no matter in spring or summer. The concentrations of antibiotics showed sensitive daily changes in the high water season.
Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Yin, Xuwang; Zuo, Depeng
In the Wei River basin, the ecosystem is gradually deteriorating due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies. It is thus important to assess the ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. In this study, an index of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish was developed to aid the conservation of the ecosystem based on a calibration data set. An index of water and habitat quality (IWHQ) was calculated based on environmental variables and habitat quality (QHEI) to identify the environmental degradation in the studied sites. The least degraded sites (IWHQ ≤ 2; W1, W5, W10, W12, W13, W14, and W16) were chosen as the reference sites. Six metrics that are sensitive to environmental degradation were utilized to differentiate the reference and the impaired sites using statistical methods. These metrics included the number of species (P1), the total biomass (P2), the number of Cobitidae species (P8), the proportion of species in the middle and low tiers (P10), the proportion of individuals that were classified as sensitive species (P25), and number of individuals in the sample (P39). A continuous scoring method was used to score the six metrics, and four classes were defined to characterize the ecosystem health of the Wei River basin. The fact that the overall IBI scores were negatively correlated with the index of environmental quality (IWHQ) based on the validation data set indicated that the index should be useful for biomonitoring and the conservation of biodiversity. According to the results, more than half of the sites were classified as poor or very poor. The ecosystem health in the Wei River was better than that in the Jing River and the Beiluo River, and this study will be a great reference for water resources management and ecosystem restoration in the Wei River basin.
Wang, Q.; Ruan, X.; Chen, Y. N.; Li, W. H.
Eco-physiological and plant performance responses and acclimation of Populus euphratica Oliv. to water release of the lower reaches of Tarim River, China were investigated. Three representative areas and 15 transects were selected along the lower reaches of the Tarim River. The groundwater level and salt content as well as plant performance and the contents of proline, soluble sugar, and plant endogenous hormone (ABA, CTK) in leaves were monitored and analyzed before- and after-water release. The groundwater level was raised in different areas and transects by the water release program. The physiological stress to P. euphratica decreased after the water release. Our results suggested that the groundwater level in the studied region changed from -3.15 to -4.12 m, salt content of the groundwater from 67.15 to 72.65 mM, the proline content from 9.28 to 11.06 mM, the soluble sugar content from 224.71 to 252.16 mM, the ABA content from 3.59 to 5.01 ng/(g FW), and the CK content from 4.01 to 4.56 ng/(g FW)- for the optimum growth and recover of P. euphratica indicated by the plant performance parameters, and the efficiency of water release was the highest.
Liu, Ying; Yu, Na; Li, Zhe; Wei, Yanping; Ma, Limin; Zhao, Jianfu
Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in sediment cores and surface sediment samples from the Liangtan River of Chongqing, Southwest China. The total concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 69 to 6251 ng g(-1). The spatial distribution of the PAHs reflects the intensity and scope of human activity in the catchment. A historical record of PAH contamination was reconstructed using a sediment core from a background segment of the river. The characteristic changes of concentrations, fluxes and patterns of 16 PAHs over the past ~90years were captured in detail. An obvious peak of PAH concentration and flux was found in the 1940s, i.e., during war time, and then a sharp increase was observed from the early 1980s to the present. The maximum concentration and flux reached 1260 ng g(-1) and 470 ng cm(-2)year(-1), respectively. The sharp increase was attributed to the contribution of pyrogenic sources of PAHs. The population, length of highways and energy consumption of Chongqing, as indexes of socioeconomic development, were positively correlated with PAH input in the sediment core from the 1950s to the present. The results clearly show that the local socioeconomic development in the last decades remarkably aggravated the environmental load of sedimentary PAHs.
Li, Hongji; Li, Zhihui; Li, Zhaohua; Yu, Jing; Liu, Bing
Ecosystem services evaluation aims at understanding the status of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scale. In this paper, we selected the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), which is the second largest inland river basin in China, as one of the typical area to estimate the ecosystem services values (ESVs) corresponding to the land use changes. Based on the land use data and ecosystem service value coefficients, the total ecosystem services values (TESVs) of the middle reach of the HBR are quantitatively calculated, which were 9.244 × 108, 9.099 × 108, 9.131 × 108 and 9.146 × 108 USD in 1988, 2000, 2005 and 2008 respectively. During 1988-2008, the decrease of grassland, forest land, water area and unused land contributed 148.94%, 57.85%, 87.87% and 16.42% respectively to the net loss of TESVs, while the dramatic increase of cultivated land improved the TESVs with contribution of -211.08% to the net loss of TESVs. Expansion of cultivated land, which especially caused the loss of grassland and forest land, directly exerted negative impacts on the provision of ecosystem services in the study area. The findings of this research indicated that land use change was an important form of human activities, which had a strong impact on ecosystem services.
Chen, Jiabo; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Yanjie
Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP) and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics. PMID:27775679
Yuan, F.; San, Y. Y.; Li, Y.; Ma, M.; Ren, L.; Zhao, C.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Jiang, S.; Shen, H.
In this study, a framework to project the potential future climate change impacts on extreme hydrological drought events in the Weihe River basin in North China is presented. This framework includes a large-scale hydrological model driven by climate outputs from a regional climate model for historical streamflow simulations and future streamflow projections, and models for univariate drought assessment and copula-based bivariate drought analysis. It is projected by the univariate drought analysis that future climate change would lead to increased frequencies of extreme hydrological drought events with higher severity. The bivariate drought assessment using copula shows that future droughts in the same return periods as historical droughts would be potentially longer and more severe, in terms of drought duration and severity. This trend would deteriorate the hydrological drought situation in the Weihe River basin. In addition, the uncertainties associated with climate models, hydrological models, and univariate and bivariate drought analysis should be quantified in the future research to improve the reliability of this study.
Wu, Wenxue; Wang, Lei; Liao, Yu; Huang, Bangqin
To evaluate microbial eukaryotic diversity and distribution in mesoscale processes, we investigated 18S rDNA diversity in a river plume and cyclonic eddy-influenced ecosystem in the southwestern South China Sea (SCS). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was carried out using multiple primer sets. Relative to a wide range of previous similar studies, we observed a significantly higher proportion of sequences of pigmented taxa. Among the photosynthetic groups, Haptophyta accounted for 27.7% of the sequenced clones, which belonged primarily to Prymnesiophyceae. Unexpectedly, five operational taxonomic units of Cryptophyta were closely related to freshwater species. The Chlorophyta mostly fell within the Prasinophyceae, which was comprised of six clades, including Clade III, which is detected in the SCS for the first time in this study. Among the photosynthetic stramenopiles, Chrysophyceae was the most diverse taxon, which included seven clades. The majority of 18S rDNA sequences affiliated with the Dictyochophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, and Pelagophyceae were closely related to those of pure cultures. The results of redundancy analysis and the permutation Mantel test based on unweighted UniFrac distances, conducted for spatial analyses of the Haptophyta subclades suggested that the Mekong River plume and cyclonic eddy play important roles in regulating microbial eukaryotic diversity and distribution in the southwestern SCS.
Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun; Zhou, Dingyang; Zhang, Zhuoying
Along with the accelerating process of industrialization and urbanization, water reallocation from agriculture to industry will be an inevitable trend in most developing countries. In the inland river basin, inter-sectoral water transfer is likely to result in reallocation of water resources between upstream and downstream regions, and further triggers frictions and conflicts between regions. Designing effective policy measures to coordinate these conflicts among stakeholders is crucial for the successful implementation of water reallocation. This study established a participatory multi-attribute decision support model to seek a widely acceptable water allocation alternative in the Heihe River Basin, an arid region in Northwest China. The results indicate that: (1) intense conflicts arise not only among stakeholder groups but also between upstream and downstream regions in the process of water reallocation from agriculture to industry; (2) among the options which respectively emphasize on equity, efficiency, and sustainability, the combination of equity and efficiency is the least controversial alternative for the majority of stakeholder groups, although it is not the most desirable one in the performance of all sub-objectives; (3) the multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) approach is a useful technique to elicit stakeholder values and to evaluate water reallocation options. The technique can improve the transparency and credibility of decision making in the water management process.
Wang, Guofeng; Chen, Jiancheng; Wu, Feng; Li, Zhihui
The water-use efficiency has direct impacts on the water consumption of agriculture production and is vital to water conservation at both local and regional extent. The agricultural water-use efficiency is a critical indicator that reflects the effective water allocation and water productivity improvement among different agricultural sectors. Taking the Heihe River Basin as the case study area, this study explores the changing trajectories of agricultural water use based on the input-output data of 2003-2012, and estimates the water-use efficiency with Data Envelopment Analysis, Malmquist Total Productivity Index and the decomposition of total factor productivity. Further, the influence of driving factors on the water-use efficiency is analyzed with the Tobit model. The research results indicate that the average agricultural water-use efficiency in different counties is all lower than 1 during 2003-2012, indicating that there is still improvement space in the agricultural water-use efficiency. In addition, there is obvious heterogeneity in the agricultural water-use efficiency among different counties, especially prior to 2009. The research results from the Tobit model indicate that agricultural investment and production, economic growth, industrial restructuring and agricultural plants structural adjustment have significant influence on the agricultural water-use efficiency. The research results can provide significant references for agricultural water-use management in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin and other similar regions in Northwest China.
Wang, J. X.
Microbial intact polar GDGTs with phosphate head groups (phospho IP-GDGTs) are powerful biomarkers for tracing interactions between living cells and their environments. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between archaeal isoprenoid (iso-) GDGTs and bacterial branched (br-) in the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected using 0.7 μm- and 0.2 μm-filters in winter and summer of 2012. The results exhibited that 1) the abundance of phospho IP-isoGDGTs is lower than phospho IP-brGDGTs in different seasons, and 2) phospho IP-brGDGTs collected from 0.2 μm-filter in winter are significantly higher than the summer. Linear regression analysis showed that the abundance of phospho IP-isoGDGTs and phospho IP-brGDGTs are significantly correlated, suggesting that the source archaea of the isoGDGTs may have functional relationship with the brGDGT-producing bacteria in the study area. Furthermore, the seasonal highest abundances of iso- and br-GDGTs always occurred in the transitional zone between river and estuary, indicating that the transitional area is a highly productive environment for the GDGT-producing organisms.
Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin
Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.
Sun, Rongguo; Wang, Dingyong; Mao, Wen; Ma, Ming; Zhang, Cheng; Jiang, Tao
Laboratory incubation experiments were performed to identify diurnal characteristics of migration and transformation of mercury (Hg) and effects of nitrate (NO3(-), a hydroxyl radical donor by photolysis) in Jialing River, Chongqing, China. It is found that there are strong diurnal signals of [monomethylmercury (MMHg)] and [reactive Hg (RHg)] in sediment, pore water and overlying water, which suggest that solar radiation may be an important variable that involved in aquatic Hg cycling. Photo-degradation (PD) of MMHg plays a key role in Hg cycling in water systems, and the rates are measured to be 38.22% in March, 2012. The presence of NO3(-) has a marked effect on MMHg PD under solar radiation, and affects inorganic species reducting to Hg(0), resulting in more Hg species available for methylation. So NO3(-) is an important factor for Hg cycling in water systems. Diffusive flux of MMHg, RHg and dissolved Hg (DHg) are 1.92-2.34, 3.43-3.64 and 3.04-5.71 ng m(-2) d(-1) at daytime, and 6.04-6.92, 3.22-3.25 and 7.79-8.37 ng m(-2) d(-1) at nighttime, respectively, implying that sediment is a major Hg source for shallow-water area in Jialing River at springtime. These results show great importance for understanding Hg biogeochemical processes in clear, oligotrophic, shallow, sluggish, and agriculturally-impacted waters.
Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin
The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.
Chen, Jiabo; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Yanjie
Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009-2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May-October, February-April and November-January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), NH₄⁺-N, total phosphorus (TP) and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics.
Gan, Jianping; Lu, Zhongming; Dai, Minhan; Cheung, Anson Y. Y.; Liu, Hongbin; Harrison, Paul
A coupled three-dimensional physical model and a nitrogen-based dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model was used to study the ecosystem responses to the wind-driven summer upwelling and to the Pearl River plume over a distinctly widened shelf in the northeastern South China Sea (NSCS). Forced with an idealized, but representative, upwelling-favorable wind and the river discharge for the purpose of process-oriented study, we identified two high chlorophyll centers that are typically observed over the NSCS shelf and stimulated by nutrient enrichment from intensified upwelling over the widened shelf and from the river plume. The nutrient enrichment has strong along-shore variability involving the variable cross-isobath nutrient transport between the middle and the inner widened shelf during the upwelling and an eastward expansion of the nutrient-rich plume. About 20% of the upwelled nutrient-rich deep water from the outer shelf reaches the inner shelf where algal blooms occur. Nutrient enrichment in the plume stretches over a broad extent of the shelf and produces significant biomass on the NSCS shelf. The plume is physically governed by intensified surface Ekman dynamics that leads to a strong offshore nutrient transport and eventually offsets the shoreward transport caused by the upwelling in the NSCS. Biological forcing and circulation dynamics of the surface Ekman layer jointly form the spatial dislocation and temporal variation of NO3, phytoplankton, and zooplankton biomasses in the upwelled and plume waters. The simulated results qualitatively resemble field and satellite measurements and demonstrate the physically modulated biological responses to the intensified upwelling and plume-influenced NSCS shelf.
Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Xin; Chao, Lei; Zhang, Wei; You, Tao; Zhang, Jie
Pollution discharge disturbs the natural functions of water systems. The environmental microbial community composition and diversity are sensitive key indicators to the impact of water pollutant on the microbial ecology system over time. It is meaningful to develop a way to identify the microbial diversity related to heavy metal effects in evaluating river pollution. Water and sediment samples were collected from eight sections along the Tiaozi River where wastewater and sewage were discharged from Siping City in northeastern China. The main pollutants contents and microbial communities were analyzed. As the primary metal pollutants, zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) were recorded at the maximum concentrations of 420 and 5.72 μg/L in the water, and 1704 and 1.92 mg/kg in the sediment, respectively. These pollutants posed a threat to the microbial community diversity as only a few species of bacteria and eukaryotes with strong resistance were detected through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Acinetobacter johnsonii, Clostridium cellulovorans, and Trichococcus pasteurii were the dominant bacteria in the severely polluted areas. The massive reproduction of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri almost depleted the dissolved oxygen (DO) and resulted in the decline of the aerobic bacteria. It was noted that the pollution reduced the microbial diversity but the L. hoffmeisteri mass increased as the dominant communit