Science.gov

Sample records for hulgas ja selle

  1. Selling Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Ibarra, Jose L.

    1975-01-01

    To reverse trends toward reductions in the number of foreign language teaching positions, it is necessary to change the negative image associated with foreign languages and to try to attract more students. A four-point selling program is suggested. (Author/RM)

  2. To Sell An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alan J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of Aurora University, a small university that not only raised money but established new links with donors, are described. The key to fund raising is selling an idea. As donors become more sophisticated, sentiment and traditional patterns play a less significant role in motivating donors. (MLW)

  3. To Sell An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alan J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of Aurora University, a small university that not only raised money but established new links with donors, are described. The key to fund raising is selling an idea. As donors become more sophisticated, sentiment and traditional patterns play a less significant role in motivating donors. (MLW)

  4. Selling Your Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Dawn; Murtagh, Maria

    1982-01-01

    A Credits-For-Resale program underwritten by the California Association of College Stores is described. A brief history of the program, guidelines on the mechanics involved, and suggestions on how selling credits could work for individual stores are presented. (MLW)

  5. Selling the brand inside.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colin

    2002-01-01

    When you think of marketing, chances are your mind goes right to your customers--how can you persuade more people to buy whatever it is you sell? But there's another "market" that's equally important: your employees. Author Colin Mitchell argues that executives by and large ignore this critical internal audience when developing and executing branding campaigns. As a result, employees end up undermining the expectations set by the company's advertising--either because they don't understand what the ads have promised or because they don't believe in the brand and feel disengaged or, worse, hostile toward the company. Mitchell offers three principles for executing internal branding campaigns--techniques executives can use to make sure employees understand, embrace, and "live" the brand vision companies are selling to the public. First, he says, companies need to market to employees at times when the company is experiencing a fundamental challenge or change, times when employees are seeking direction and are relatively receptive to new initiatives. Second, companies must link their internal and external marketing campaigns; employees should hear the same messages that are being sent to the market-place. And third, internal branding campaigns should bring the brand alive for employees, creating an emotional connection to the company that transcends any one experience. Internal campaigns should introduce and explain the brand messages in new and attention-grabbing ways and then reinforce those messages by weaving them into the fabric of the company. It is a fact of business, writes Mitchell, that if employees do not care about or understand their company's brands, they will ultimately weaken their organizations. It's up to top executives, he says, to give them a reason to care.

  6. SELL — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: sL-selectin, also known as SELL, is a cell surface adhesion molecule that belongs to a family of adhesion/homing receptors. SELL mediates the adherence of lymphocytes to endothelial cells of high endothelial venules in peripheral lymph nodes and promotes initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes in endothelia, facilitating their migration into secondary lymphoid organs and inflammation sites. SELL contains a C-type lectin-like domain, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain, and two short complement-like repeats. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.

  7. Show and Sell: Teaching Sales through Hands-On Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippé, Cindy B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of qualified salespeople, which creates a challenge for educators to prepare more students for a sales career. One of the most common teaching techniques used in preparing students is role playing, which mirrors real-world selling. However, role plays are not necessarily authentic because the players and conditions are not a…

  8. Show and Sell: Teaching Sales through Hands-On Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippé, Cindy B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of qualified salespeople, which creates a challenge for educators to prepare more students for a sales career. One of the most common teaching techniques used in preparing students is role playing, which mirrors real-world selling. However, role plays are not necessarily authentic because the players and conditions are not a…

  9. The Selling of the Sheepskin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Maureen

    1980-01-01

    As higher education turns from a seller's to a buyer's market, colleges are using marketing strategy as an aid for student recruitment. Unethical and ethical promotion and recruiting practices, recruiting abuses (selling of immigration papers, etc.), legal contractual responsibilities, ethical decay, and consumer rights of students are discussed.…

  10. The Selling of the Sheepskin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Maureen

    1980-01-01

    As higher education turns from a seller's to a buyer's market, colleges are using marketing strategy as an aid for student recruitment. Unethical and ethical promotion and recruiting practices, recruiting abuses (selling of immigration papers, etc.), legal contractual responsibilities, ethical decay, and consumer rights of students are discussed.…

  11. Advertising: To Get The Reader to Buy, Buy, Buy, You Must Sell, Sell, Sell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of advertising as it relates to student publications. Discusses what advertising is; what the consumer wants; the buyer and seller; creating a selling strategy; basic building blocks; advertising art; and text. Describes basic guidelines for designing an ad, outlines some assignments for students, and notes a few things not to…

  12. [Children and adolescents selling sex].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, W; Hegna, K

    2000-01-20

    Our knowledge about prostitution is shaped by female street prostitutes, many of whom are drug addicts. Less is known about children and adolescents from the normal population who sell sex. Total cohorts of pupils in all Oslo's schools (N 10,812) in the age groups 14-17 filled in a questionnaire at school. 1.4% of the adolescents had sold sex at least one time, more than three times as many boys as girls. Mean age for first episode was 12.6 years in boys, and 14.1 years in girls, and seventy per cent had sold sex more than three times. There were no associations to indicators of parental social class or residential area in Oslo. The adolescents who had sold sex were more lonely and more often reported symptoms of depression and anxiety than others. A multivariate analysis showed that associations to conduct problems, alcohol problems and use of drugs were most important. The majority reported no contact with public services aiming at helping adolescents with psychosocial problems. A group of children and adolescents in Oslo sell sex. Boys are involved more often than girls, their customers are assumed to be bisexual or homosexual men. These behaviours fall into a pattern of conduct and substance problems, and some of these adolescents could have high long-term risk of antisocial problems and drug abuse. More knowledge is needed, and preventive work should be intensified.

  13. The Advanced Course in Professional Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott

    2014-01-01

    More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…

  14. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  15. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  16. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  17. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  18. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  19. Selling Your Ideas to Your Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlatt, Harold

    2008-01-01

    If you've got an idea you want to sell, you need to do two things: scan your environment and use effective tactics. This guidebook explains how to scan your environment and provides a collection of tactics you can use to sell your idea. Using this systematic approach will make you more likely to accomplish your objective--solving a problem or…

  20. Children and Host-Selling Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Dale

    This study explores children's understanding of television commercials that feature the same primary characters as those in the adjacent program content, a commercial technique known as "host-selling." Responses of children 4 to 5 and 7 to 8 years of age to identical commercials presented in both a host-selling and normal viewing…

  1. The Advanced Course in Professional Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott

    2014-01-01

    More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…

  2. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  3. Helium sell-off risks future supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The US must stop selling off its helium reserves so that the country has enough of the gas to meet the needs of researchers and medical programmes, warns a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The report, entitled "Selling the Nation's Helium Reserve", says that failure to halt the sale of helium could lead to a drop in supply of the gas, which is vital for research into magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and low-temperature physics.

  4. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  5. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  6. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  7. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  8. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  9. 13 CFR 120.431 - Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans? 120.431 Section 120.431 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Other Conveyances § 120.431 Which Lenders may sell, sell participations...

  10. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    PubMed

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.

  11. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  12. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  13. Selling real estate to meet capital needs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Robert A; Nelson, Gregory P

    2003-05-01

    Real estate can provide a means for hospitals to raise capital. Selling a building and investing proceeds in revenue-producing operations may yield greater return than rental income. In a ground lease, a hospital can require the buyer to adhere to certain limitations that are beneficial to the hospital's strategic goals.

  14. Go with the Flow: Selling Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boule, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    A librarian may be comfortable with the idea of using a blog, wiki, or other social application with students, but other stakeholders in his or her community may not be so sure. Any technology maverick looking to sell the use of Web-based applications will, at some point, have to make the case. This article presents some of the most common…

  15. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  16. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  17. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  18. An Empirical Look at Professional Selling from a Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Dennis N.; Amyx, Douglas; Slack, Jennifer; Gulati, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined students' perceptions of professional selling. They found significant differences between the perceptions of students who had completed personal selling courses and students who had not. The authors observed differences in students' perceptions of personal selling as a career, the contribution of personal…

  19. An Empirical Look at Professional Selling from a Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Dennis N.; Amyx, Douglas; Slack, Jennifer; Gulati, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined students' perceptions of professional selling. They found significant differences between the perceptions of students who had completed personal selling courses and students who had not. The authors observed differences in students' perceptions of personal selling as a career, the contribution of personal…

  20. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4... SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling visual information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve the...

  1. Teaching Written Communication Skills in Professional Selling: The Cover Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Vicki L.

    2006-01-01

    The selling process steps have been an integral part of professional selling courses and textbooks for years. Although slight changes have been made in their wording and format, most textbooks are consistent in the recommended process for an effective sales interaction. In an effort to combine teaching the selling process with the increased demand…

  2. 2 CFR 200.467 - Selling and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling and marketing costs. 200.467 Section 200.467 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... Cost § 200.467 Selling and marketing costs. Costs of selling and marketing any products or services...

  3. Teaching Written Communication Skills in Professional Selling: The Cover Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Vicki L.

    2006-01-01

    The selling process steps have been an integral part of professional selling courses and textbooks for years. Although slight changes have been made in their wording and format, most textbooks are consistent in the recommended process for an effective sales interaction. In an effort to combine teaching the selling process with the increased demand…

  4. Strategies for selling and consolidating physician practices.

    PubMed

    Mancino, D M

    1997-01-01

    The changing dynamics of healthcare service delivery is forcing many physicians to consider selling their practices to hospitals or health plans or consolidating them with other practices. Besides being subject to the corporate and tax requirements that apply to the sale of any business, the sale of physician practices is also subject to Federal fraud and abuse and self-referral laws. Several sale strategies are available to physicians who desire to sell or consolidate their practices, including asset sales, stock sales, forward mergers, drop down consolidations, spinoffs, and statutory mergers. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages, but whichever strategy is chosen, both sellers and buyers must ensure that tax issues are addressed and that the transaction complies with the requirements of Federal anti-kickback and self-referral laws.

  5. Does organ selling violate human dignity?

    PubMed

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt; Baumann, Holger; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2017-07-11

    Shortages in the number of donated organs after death and the growing number of end-stage organ failure patients on waiting lists call for looking at alternatives to increase the number of organs that could be used for transplantation purposes. One option that has led to a legal and ethical debate is to have regulated markets in human organs. Opponents of a market in human organs offer different arguments that are mostly founded on contingent factors that can be adjusted. However, some authors have asked the question whether we still have a reason to believe that there is something wrong with offering human organs for sale for transplantation purposes, even if the circumstances under which the practice takes place are improved. One prominent argument regarding this appeals to the notion of human dignity. It is argued that organ selling violates human dignity. This paper presents a systematic discussion of dignity-based arguments in the organ selling debate, and then develops a social account of dignity. It is argued that allowing the practice of organ selling inherently runs the risk of promoting the notion that some persons have less worth than others and that persons have a price, which is incompatible with dignity. The approach is defended against possible objections and it is shown that it can capture the notion that autonomy is linked to human dignity in important ways, while dignity at the same time can constrain the autonomous choices of persons with regards to certain practices.

  6. Cocaine selling among urban black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Dembo, R; Williams, L; Schmeidler, J

    1994-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of juvenile detainees are used to examine the relationships between cocaine selling, substance use, and other delinquency among the Black and White males in the study. A descriptive comparison of rates of cocaine selling among the youths is followed by a descriptive comparison of prevalence of substance use and other delinquency across four subgroups: White and Black males indicating they sold and did not sell cocaine. These comparisons are followed by analyses of variance examining the relationships between involvement in substance use and other delinquency, and ethnicity, cocaine selling, and the interaction of ethnicity and cocaine selling. Important ethnicity and cocaine-selling effects are found, but not ethnicity by cocaine-selling interactions. The implications of our findings for theory and service provision are drawn.

  7. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  8. Selling the PSS in a School of Business: Relationship Selling in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a step-by-step process for the development and implementation of a professional selling specialization program in the marketing curriculum of a school of business at an AACSB accredited state university. The program is presented in detail along with the process followed in order to develop support for the program with three…

  9. Nuts and bolts issues to consider when selling your practice.

    PubMed

    Schlager, D D; Miaoulis, G

    1995-01-01

    Ten issues are provided that will help physicians and administrators through the process of selling a practice. Those issues include determining the buyers reasons for buying, determine your reason for selling, finding the right people, how the buyer is valuing your practice, how you value your practice, preparing the selling package, employment agreements and compensation packages, negotiating the operating contract, tax consequences and knowing when to walk away from the deal.

  10. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  11. A "Duty" to Continue Selling Medicines.

    PubMed

    Janssen, William M

    2014-01-01

    With disappointing frequency, shortages occur in the supply of prescription pharmaceuticals. Sometimes, those shortages persist for months (even years), and can implicate the only known medicine to treat a life-threatening medical condition. Sometimes, those shortages may also be due to avoidably negligent decisions in manufacture. Twice in the past two years, seriously ill patients--confronting just such medicine supply shortages--have resorted to the courts, demanding a judicial remedy for negligently caused supply interruptions to critically needed medicines. In doing so, they have asserted a bold litigating position: the law ought to impose upon drug manufacturers a legal duty to continue selling their medicines. In other words, once a pharmaceutical manufacturer enters a medicine market, it is obligated by law to remain there and preserve perpetually its medicine's supply. This claim of compelled-access-to-pharmaceuticals pushes to the very frontier of drug law in America. This Article begins by tracing the two cases (one in Utah, the other in Florida) that confronted these creative compelled-access-to-medicines arguments. Earlier cases, resolving a distinctive but thematically similar compelled-access argument in the context of experimental drugs, are introduced as well. The discussion explains how each claim lost in court. The Article next performs an independent survey of a wide range of legal theories--in constitutional principle, enacted law, regulatory law, and case law--that could be cited as alternative potential sources for imposing a duty on manufacturers to continue selling their drugs. It demonstrates that none is likely to be a credible source for that duty. Finally, the Article examines the competing policy considerations that would be implicated by "inventing" such a duty, finds that a judicial invention is unwise, but offers a potential statutory amendment designed to strike a sound balance between the legitimate proprietary and autonomy

  12. To Sell or Not to Sell? Behavior of Shareholders During Price Collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    It is a common belief that the behavior of shareholders depends upon the direction of price fluctuations: if prices increase they buy, if prices decrease they sell. That belief, however, is more based on ``common sense'' than on facts. In this paper, we present evidence for a specific class of shareholders which shows that the actual behavior of shareholders can be markedly different. For instance, they may continue to buy despite a prolonged fall in prices or they may sell even though prices climb. A closer analysis shows that a substantial proportion of investors are more influenced by the ``general social climate'' than by actual price changes. The percentage of speculative investors who optimize their portfolio on a monthly basis can be estimated and turns out to be about 5 to 10%. The results presented in this paper can be of usefulness in order to test the assumptions or the results of market simulations and models.

  13. Suggestions for Successfully Establishing a University Selling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, C. David; Eastman, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the multiple benefits a university selling center offers to students, faculty members, administrators, and the general business community. The seven essential steps in first establishing a university selling center are addressed: find a champion, obtain the support of administration, find a white knight, establish a board of…

  14. 12 CFR 1805.403 - Authority to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.403 Authority to sell. The Fund may, at any time, sell its equity investments and loans, provided the Fund shall retain the...

  15. 43 CFR 402.3 - Power to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power to sell. 402.3 Section 402.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.3 Power to sell. The Commissioner of Reclamation may, in accordance with the...

  16. 43 CFR 402.3 - Power to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power to sell. 402.3 Section 402.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.3 Power to sell. The Commissioner of Reclamation may, in accordance with the...

  17. 43 CFR 402.3 - Power to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power to sell. 402.3 Section 402.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.3 Power to sell. The Commissioner of Reclamation may, in accordance with the...

  18. 43 CFR 402.3 - Power to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Power to sell. 402.3 Section 402.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.3 Power to sell. The Commissioner of Reclamation may, in accordance with the...

  19. 43 CFR 402.3 - Power to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power to sell. 402.3 Section 402.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.3 Power to sell. The Commissioner of Reclamation may, in accordance with the...

  20. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  1. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  2. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  3. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  4. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  5. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  6. Adolescents' Lifetime Experience of Selling Sex: Development over Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…

  7. Adolescents' Lifetime Experience of Selling Sex: Development over Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…

  8. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  9. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  10. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selling costs. 31.205-38... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-38 Selling costs. (a) “Selling” is a generic term encompassing all efforts to market...

  11. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  12. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  13. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  16. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  17. 12 CFR 1805.403 - Authority to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.403 Authority to sell. The Fund may, at any time, sell its equity investments and loans, provided the Fund shall retain the...

  18. A Study On Direct Selling Through Multi Level Marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, F. Mary

    2012-09-01

    Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation.A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling

  19. Buy-sell options for radiology: what works and why.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2006-12-01

    Buy-sell agreements for shareholders entering and leaving a radiology practice are different from those commonly used in other business endeavors. This paper explores the reasons for these differences, focusing on the culture of radiology and its unique influence on the buy-sell process. Buy-sell methodologies commonly used in most business transactions are described, and basic principles that influence these methodologies are discussed. The reasons these traditional methods are not applicable to most radiology groups are explored in depth. The paper concludes with a presentation of several workable buy-sell options for radiology practices. The strengths and weaknesses of these options are enumerated, so that each group can customize the option that best suits its needs.

  20. Learning to Sell Door to Door: Teaching as Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Two national firms with standardized marketing schemes employ persuasion rather than instruction in teaching an employee to sell. Students leave for their first assignment convinced of success in spite of a lack of skill. (JB)

  1. Evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a job development planning process.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda; Smith, Galen; Rapp, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    Job development is integral to evidence-based supported employment practice. This paper reviews the limited research on job development and critically examines various definitions of job development. The authors describe Conceptual Selling, an existing method currently used in sales that can be adopted for use in job development. An exploratory evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a method for job development is described and implications discussed.

  2. On revenue maximization for selling multiple independently distributed items

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinye; Yao, Andrew Chi-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Consider the revenue-maximizing problem in which a single seller wants to sell k different items to a single buyer, who has independently distributed values for the items with additive valuation. The case was completely resolved by Myerson’s classical work in 1981, whereas for larger k the problem has been the subject of much research efforts ever since. Recently, Hart and Nisan analyzed two simple mechanisms: selling the items separately, or selling them as a single bundle. They showed that selling separately guarantees at least a fraction of the optimal revenue; and for identically distributed items, bundling yields at least a fraction of the optimal revenue. In this paper, we prove that selling separately guarantees at least fraction of the optimal revenue, whereas for identically distributed items, bundling yields at least a constant fraction of the optimal revenue. These bounds are tight (up to a constant factor), settling the open questions raised by Hart and Nisan. The results are valid for arbitrary probability distributions without restrictions. Our results also have implications on other interesting issues, such as monotonicity and randomization of selling mechanisms. PMID:23798394

  3. On revenue maximization for selling multiple independently distributed items.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinye; Yao, Andrew Chi-Chih

    2013-07-09

    Consider the revenue-maximizing problem in which a single seller wants to sell k different items to a single buyer, who has independently distributed values for the items with additive valuation. The k = 1 case was completely resolved by Myerson's classical work in 1981, whereas for larger k the problem has been the subject of much research efforts ever since. Recently, Hart and Nisan analyzed two simple mechanisms: selling the items separately, or selling them as a single bundle. They showed that selling separately guarantees at least a c/log2 k fraction of the optimal revenue; and for identically distributed items, bundling yields at least a c/log k fraction of the optimal revenue. In this paper, we prove that selling separately guarantees at least c/log k fraction of the optimal revenue, whereas for identically distributed items, bundling yields at least a constant fraction of the optimal revenue. These bounds are tight (up to a constant factor), settling the open questions raised by Hart and Nisan. The results are valid for arbitrary probability distributions without restrictions. Our results also have implications on other interesting issues, such as monotonicity and randomization of selling mechanisms.

  4. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

    2009-12-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.

  5. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  6. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  7. Commercialism in Schools: Supporting Students or Selling Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    1998-01-01

    This information brief discusses the impact of commercialism in schools. It asks the question of whether such advertising is supporting students or is simply selling access. It describes how children are a desirable market since they have most of their purchases ahead of them; they can also frequently convince parents to buy items. The brief…

  8. Wholesale Selling, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batis, Harry P.

    This document containing assignments on 16 varied topics, with objectives, content information, and a separate answer book was designed to be used by secondary or post-secondary distributive education students and by wholesale distributors for use as training guides for employees. Topics discussed include: (1) thinking about selling today, (2)…

  9. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  10. Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole

    1985-01-01

    In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…

  11. Our Hard Sell Almost Blew a Successful Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, George T.

    1985-01-01

    Based on his own experience, a school executive counsels against using a hard sell in promoting a bond issue, since Washington State public disclosure law requires that school levy material printed and distributed by the school system be strictly limited to factual information. (TE)

  12. Why HPT Will Continue to Be a Hard Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlstein, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Most executives have not heard of human performance technology (HPT), but a recent Google search showed 25 times more Google hits for "lean six sigma" than for "human performance technology." This article describes five factors that make HPT a hard sell: (1) HPT is not part of standard business jargon, (2) organizational executives associate…

  13. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  14. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223...

  15. 31 CFR 0.211 - Soliciting, selling and canvassing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soliciting, selling and canvassing. 0.211 Section 0.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DEPARTMENT OF.... Employees shall not solicit, make collections, canvass for the sale of any article, or distribute literature...

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Best-Selling Basic Course Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, David W.; Worley, Debra A.; McMahan, David

    A study examined eight best-selling hybrid texts for public speaking or speech communication courses, looking at how each text is organized, what the focus is, which topics are included, how many pages are dedicated to each topic, which pedagogical features are incorporated into each text, and what ancillaries are available with each text. The…

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Selling activity includes the following broad categories: (1) Advertising. Advertising is defined at 31...) Bid and proposal costs. Bid and proposal costs are defined at 31.205-18 and are subject to the allowability provisions of that subsection. (4) Market planning. Market planning involves market research and...

  18. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  19. Service Learning Inputs and Outcomes in a Personal Selling Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbuch, David J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the use of service learning in the marketing curriculum, Petkus (2000) recommended that future research focus on empirical studies of service learning in specific marketing courses. Personal selling represents a key component of marketing that is quite amenable to service learning, yet very little research has examined the use of…

  20. 48 CFR 1631.205-75 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Selling costs. 1631.205-75 Section 1631.205-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL..., Subchapter S2-3(f) ‘Controlling contacts between employees and carriers’). ...

  1. Wholesale Selling, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batis, Harry P.

    This document containing assignments on 16 varied topics, with objectives, content information, and a separate answer book was designed to be used by secondary or post-secondary distributive education students and by wholesale distributors for use as training guides for employees. Topics discussed include: (1) thinking about selling today, (2)…

  2. Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole

    1985-01-01

    In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…

  3. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C. 528-531), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as amended (88 Stat. 476; as amended, 16 U.S.C. 1600-1614), and the Program thereunder. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223...

  4. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960, as amended (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C. 528-531), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as amended (88 Stat. 476; as amended, 16 U... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223...

  5. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960, as amended (74 Stat. 215; 16 U.S.C. 528-531), and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, as amended (88 Stat. 476; as amended, 16 U... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223...

  6. Service Learning Inputs and Outcomes in a Personal Selling Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbuch, David J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the use of service learning in the marketing curriculum, Petkus (2000) recommended that future research focus on empirical studies of service learning in specific marketing courses. Personal selling represents a key component of marketing that is quite amenable to service learning, yet very little research has examined the use of…

  7. Why HPT Will Continue to Be a Hard Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlstein, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Most executives have not heard of human performance technology (HPT), but a recent Google search showed 25 times more Google hits for "lean six sigma" than for "human performance technology." This article describes five factors that make HPT a hard sell: (1) HPT is not part of standard business jargon, (2) organizational executives associate…

  8. Commercialism in Schools: Supporting Students or Selling Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    1998-01-01

    This information brief discusses the impact of commercialism in schools. It asks the question of whether such advertising is supporting students or is simply selling access. It describes how children are a desirable market since they have most of their purchases ahead of them; they can also frequently convince parents to buy items. The brief…

  9. Propensity of alcohol establishments to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J

    2006-07-01

    Although it is illegal to sell alcohol to an individual who appears obviously intoxicated, several recent studies show that the propensity of these types of sales is high. Our study further assesses the propensity of alcohol establishments to sell alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons. In addition to providing more recent data (2001) on pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at Midwestern on-premise establishments, our study examines the association between establishment policies/practices and the likelihood of sales to intoxicated patrons. We hired professional actors to feign intoxication while attempting to purchase alcohol (pseudo-intoxicated patrons) at 231 bars and restaurants, and we conducted a phone survey of owners/managers of each establishment. Our dependent variable was purchase attempt outcome (alcohol sold vs not sold). Our independent variables included policies/practices of establishments and characteristics of buyers/servers, establishments, and neighborhoods. Pseudo-intoxicated patrons were able to purchase alcohol in 65% of their attempts. Multivariate analyses showed the following: (1) compared with establishments with beer- and/or wine-only licenses, establishments with full liquor licenses were less likely to sell to intoxicated patrons; (2) establishments with average length of employment among managers of at least 1 year were more likely to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons; and (3) establishments that held staff meetings at least once a month were less likely to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with our outcome in multivariate analyses. Our findings provide increased evidence of the need to address the illegal sale of alcohol to intoxicated patrons, particularly given that increased intoxication levels among patrons resulting from these types of sales can lead to alcohol-related problems.

  10. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section 13(b)(14... the exemption, includes “such an establishment which sells products and services used in the...

  11. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  12. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  13. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  14. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  15. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  16. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  17. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…

  18. 12 CFR 150.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 150.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  19. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  20. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  1. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…

  2. Modified TAROT for cross-selling personal financial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn

    2014-09-01

    The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.

  3. Adolescents' lifetime experience of selling sex: development over five years.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents from a representative sample of Swedish high school students with a mean age 18.3 years. Of these adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had given sexual services for reimbursement and both male and female buyers existed. The adolescents who had sold sex had a poorer parent-child relationship during childhood and had fewer people to confide in about problems and worries. Changes over time were found especially regarding the Internet as a contact source and also immigrant background.

  4. How to buy and sell a group practice.

    PubMed

    Groth, C D

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the world of mergers, acquisitions and divestitures, providing guidelines for the group practice administrator who is in the position of considering a merger or sale. The importance of strategic planning is discussed, and a set of working tools for buying and selling a medical practice is provided, along with suggestions for ways for groups to compete with industrial health/clinic programs in the area of long-term growth/acquisition programs.

  5. Selling organs and souls: should the state prohibit 'demeaning' practices?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C

    2004-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that practices such as organ-selling should be prohibited because they are demeaning to the individuals involved. In this article the plausibility of such an argument is questioned. I will examine what it means to demean or be demeaned, and suggest that the mere fact that an individual is demeaning themself does not provide sufficient justification for legal prohibition. On the contrary, such laws might be argued to be demeaning.

  6. Why do rural primary care physicians sell their practices?

    PubMed

    Stensland, Jeffrey; Brasure, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates why rural primary care physicians sell their practices. A random sample of rural primary care practices in California, Utah, Ohio, Texas, and Virginia were surveyed to investigate changes in ownership of the practices during the period 1995-1998. These five states were selected because they represent areas with different experiences with physician-hospital integration and varied rates of managed care penetration. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to examine the factors that led independent physicians to sell their practices to either nonlocal buyers, local hospitals, or local physicians. Findings suggest that sales to nonlocal buyers represent the majority of practice ownership changes. The motivations for ceding control to nonlocal buyers center on managed care concerns, recruitment concerns, and administrative burdens. Sellers were also concerned about their level of net income prior to being acquired. However, the preacquisition financial concerns of sellers were not significantly stronger than the financial concerns of practices that remained independent. The environmental conditions that motivate rural physicians to sell their practices are not expected to improve. Therefore, additional sales of rural primary care practices to nonlocal buyers are expected. Further research is necessary to determine whether this shift in control will lead to changes in the quality or accessibility of care.

  7. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  8. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.102 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under this section is the...

  13. The prevalence and correlates of single cigarette selling among urban disadvantaged drug users in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Murray, Laura I; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Cohen, Joanna E; Knowlton, Amy R

    2013-10-01

    Selling of single cigarettes, also known as loosies, is a public health concern. Loosies allow for those with fewer resources to buy cigarettes without having to purchase a pack. Selling of loosies may cue smoking behaviors. In the US, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations have high rates of smoking and illicit drug use and the selling of loosies appears to be linked to the urban informal economy. We examined the proportion and frequency of cigarette selling and roles in the informal economy associated with selling loosies among a sample of urban drug users. There were 801 participants, recruited by community outreach, assessed at baseline, who were enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention for drug users. Most (89%) smoked cigarettes in the prior 30 days, of whom 92% smoked daily. Self-reported selling of cigarettes was common with 58% reporting that they had sold cigarettes within the last six months; 20.4% reported selling cigarettes a few times a week and 7.4% reported daily selling of cigarettes. In a stepwise regression model, four sources of income were associated with frequent cigarette selling: providing street security (OR=2.214, 95% CI 1.177-4.164), selling food stamps (OR=1.461, 95% CI 1.003-2.126), pawning items (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.475-3.135), and selling drugs (OR=1.634, 95% CI 1.008-2.648). There is a high rate of selling loosies among urban substance users. The wide availability of loosies may promote smoking. Smoking cessation programs with drug treatment and economic development programs may help to reduce economic pressures to sell loosies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social context of needle selling in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey, Melissa A; Hua, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Although much of the debate surrounding the distribution of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on needle exchange programs (NEPs), IDUs acquire their syringes from three major sources: NEPs, pharmacies, and secondary exchangers or needle sellers. The purpose of the present study is to examine types and frequencies of social interactions among drug injectors who sell needles, most of which come from NEPs, compared with individuals who do not sell needles. Specifically, we compared engagement in drug-related behaviors, roles in the drug economy, and social network membership. Data were collected as part of the SHIELD study, an HIV prevention intervention targeted at drug users and their social networks (n=910) from February 2001 through September 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this sample, 56 participants reported selling needles. Needle sellers had higher levels of engagement in drug-related social interactions, including using drugs with others, giving or receiving drugs from others, and buying drugs with other users. Participants who sold needles had a significantly higher number of roles in the drug economy. Also, they had more social network members who were injectors, with whom they talked about risky drug behaviors, gave needles to, and shared cookers and bleach with. Compared with nonselling injectors, needle sellers engage in HIV risk-related behaviors, such as injecting daily and sharing injection equipment, more frequently. The study's findings may be useful to determine whether secondary exchangers should be targeted for HIV prevention activities both to reduce their own risk and to diffuse risk reduction information throughout the drug using community.

  15. Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Cohen, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.

  16. [Legal aspects of selling medical products by gynecologists].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Monika; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2013-07-01

    Sales and distribution of medical products and drugs in Poland remains under strict regulations, especially legal regulation contained in the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, that banned sales of medical products by doctors. It needs to be emphasized that currently doctors are allowed to sell drugs and medical products only in rigorously specified situations. Knowledge of current legal regulations concerning sales of medical products by gynecologists allows to conform with the law and to distribute drugs and medical products under special and predefined conditions.

  17. The quality of information on websites selling St. John's wort.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Vijeta; Leach, Matthew J; Gillham, David; Esterman, Adrian

    2011-06-01

    Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to access information about health care, to self-diagnose, and to purchase medication. The use of the Internet to purchase herbal products is of particular interest because of the high level of consumer expenditure on herbal medicines, and the misperception by some consumers that herbal products are natural, and thus absent of any contraindications, drug interactions and adverse effects. It is possible that consumers may purchase herbal medicines via the Internet without consulting health professionals and therefore, use these medicines in an unsafe manner. To examine the quality of e-commerce websites that sell herbal products; specifically, websites where St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) can be purchased. Cross-sectional survey of 54 selected websites, including online pharmacies, online health food stores and manufacturers of herbal medicines. A modified version of the DISCERN instrument was used to assess the quality of websites. The majority of websites rated poorly with a concerning lack of information about the interaction between hypericum and warfarin, anti-depressants and oral contraceptives. Most sites also failed to provide sufficient information about the contraindications and adverse effects of hypericum treatment. The results of this study strongly support the need for improved consumer education about herbal medicine, as well as the application of more stringent standards to websites that sell medications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset...

  2. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  3. Eleven essential steps to purchasing or selling a medical practice.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience in representing more than 100 doctors and medical specialists in practice sales and acquisitions, we have identified 11 key considerations important to a deal. There are several issues to consider while going through the process of buying or selling a practice including the implementation of a "letter of intent" as a first step rather than drafting a contract, securing a lease, and verifying the property is not in violation of the local zoning requirements. There are also considerations with regard to the patients, which range from how will the accounts receivable at the time of the closing be handled to who is responsible for the handling of continued treatment in an ongoing case after a deal is finalized. This article details these considerations and more.

  4. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  5. The speakers’ bureau system: a form of peer selling

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the speakers’ bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers’ bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers’ bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician–industry relations to participation in a speakers’ bureau. We argue that speakers’ bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers’ bureaus. PMID:24348883

  6. The speakers' bureau system: a form of peer selling.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In the speakers' bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers' bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers' bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician-industry relations to participation in a speakers' bureau. We argue that speakers' bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers' bureaus.

  7. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.52 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under this section is...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.52 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under this section is...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.52 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under...

  10. Selling forensic psychiatry: recruiting for the future, establishing services.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Kris; Gunn, John; Calcedo-Barba, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The Ghent Group - a group of European forensic psychiatrists - has discussed ways of informing fellow professionals and the wider public about their difficult and frequently misunderstood discipline, agreeing that the specialty may have to be 'sold' to those who pay for it and use it. Our aim was to consider the areas where this commonly occurs and the strengths and pitfalls of such promotion. Forensic psychiatrists need to be effective, accurate communicators. For court work, they need special training. High standards of work are the best selling technique. Outside court, the greatest challenge for forensic psychiatry is to reduce its stigma - it can easily be construed, wrongly, as excusing serious anti-social behaviour. Special attention should be given to writing for a wider audience, not just the inner circle of practitioners. Electronic social media should also be deployed for this task. Those who provide funds for academic work should be specifically but differently targeted. They need to be persuaded of the scientific merit of the subject. Temptation to claim more for the discipline than can be justified have to be resisted. An English case that led to a miscarriage of justice illustrates this. The limitations of science here have to be understood. Philosophical questions relating to responsibility and culpability cannot be resolved by physical science alone. Misuse neuroimaging in court, for example, can lead to miscarriages of justice. Selling forensic psychiatry to public and professionals is difficult but essential to counter anti-forensic psychiatry movements that have emerged. The discipline needs to persuade others of its unique skills and embrace good science, compassion, public duty and ethical practice. It needs to treat with politicians and funders as well as the medical, psychological and legal professions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 17 CFR 242.105 - Short selling in connection with a public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short selling in connection with a public offering. 242.105 Section 242.105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M § 242.105 Short selling in connection with a public offering. (a)...

  12. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...

  13. Factors Influencing Farmers' Expectations to Sell Agricultural Land for Non-Agricultural Uses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollinger, Brett; Krannich, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we identify factors that influence farmers' expectations to sell some or all of their farming operation in areas where the increase in the conversion of agricultural land has been relatively rapid. Findings indicate that the following factors increase farmers' propensity to sell some or all of the agricultural operation for…

  14. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  15. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  17. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  19. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  20. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  1. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  2. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  3. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? 161.711 Section 161.711 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  5. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer in...

  6. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer in...

  7. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer in...

  8. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer in...

  9. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer in...

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sell undistributed surplus property include? 102-37.310 Section 102-37.310 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus Property (SASP) Disposing of Undistributed Property § 102-37.310 What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sell undistributed surplus property include? 102-37.310 Section 102-37.310 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus Property (SASP) Disposing of Undistributed Property § 102-37.310 What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sell undistributed surplus property include? 102-37.310 Section 102-37.310 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus Property (SASP) Disposing of Undistributed Property § 102-37.310 What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sell undistributed surplus property include? 102-37.310 Section 102-37.310 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus Property (SASP) Disposing of Undistributed Property § 102-37.310 What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property...

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.310 - What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sell undistributed surplus property include? 102-37.310 Section 102-37.310 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY State Agency for Surplus Property (SASP) Disposing of Undistributed Property § 102-37.310 What must a proposal to sell undistributed surplus property...

  15. An intervention to reduce the number of convenience stores selling tobacco: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Paynter, Janine; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Sonia, Deepika

    2016-05-01

    Reduction of the availability of tobacco has been proposed as a means of reducing and denormalising tobacco use. Some retailers have stopped selling tobacco. Therefore, we investigated how willing New Zealand convenience store owners were to stop selling tobacco or sell nicotine replacement therapy. Promotion of their stores was offered as an incentive to stop selling tobacco. We asked convenience store owners in the Auckland metropolitan region of New Zealand to choose one of three actions. The first was to stop selling tobacco for a short period of time; the second was to restrict the hours that they sold tobacco; the third was to display and sell nicotine replacement therapy. All participating retailers completed a short interview about selling tobacco. We also surveyed customers about nicotine replacement and cessation. One-third of eligible retailers agreed to participate. Most who participated (93%) were unwilling to stop or restrict tobacco sales and 2 (7%) had already stopped selling tobacco. Tobacco was perceived as a key product for their businesses. Very few customers who purchased cigarettes noticed nicotine replacement therapy or obtained it from convenience stores. Substantially reducing the availability of tobacco in communities is likely to require legislative approaches, underpinned by sustained community pressure and support for convenience store owners who are willing to change their business model. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. 17 CFR 250.87 - Subsidiaries authorized to perform services or construction or to sell goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment trust; or (2) Such services, construction, or goods are reasonably required by such associate to..., or sell goods to, associate companies thereof: (1) An approved mutual service company. (2) A... businesses other than that of selling goods to associate companies, that of performing services...

  17. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  18. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  19. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  20. Close It, Sell It, or Lease It: What to Do with That Old School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter

    Recommendations on leasing or selling a surplus school building that has been closed due to declining enrollment are offered. Questions which need to be addressed in deciding which option to pursue are presented including whether it would be better to use the building for community purposes than to lease or sell it. The advantages and…

  1. 12 CFR 192.680 - How do I sell my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How do I sell my shares? 192.680 Section 192.680 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Voluntary Supervisory Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.680 How do I sell my...

  2. 12 CFR 192.680 - How do I sell my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How do I sell my shares? 192.680 Section 192.680 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Voluntary Supervisory Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.680 How do I sell my...

  3. 12 CFR 192.680 - How do I sell my shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How do I sell my shares? 192.680 Section 192.680 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Voluntary Supervisory Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.680 How do I sell my...

  4. A New Approach to Organizing and Selling Advertising for the School Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, Shirley C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes ways in which a high school newspaper reorganized its approach to designing advertising layouts and selling advertising space. The new approach includes the use of "unitized" page samples to show to advertisers and the preparation of advertising packets for use by staff members in selling ads. (GW)

  5. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock on commission; relationships with dealers. 201.61 Section 201.61 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers. (a) Market agencies selling on commission. No market agency selling consigned livestock shall enter into any agreement, relationship...

  6. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  7. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  8. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  9. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  10. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  11. 12 CFR 617.7620 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? 617.7620 Section 617.7620 Banks and... What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate at a public auction? System institutions electing to sell or lease acquired agricultural real estate or...

  12. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  13. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  14. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  15. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  16. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between principals. 1.39 Section 1.39... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  17. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between principals. 1.39 Section 1.39... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  18. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between principals. 1.39 Section 1.39... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... shall have in hand at the same time both buying and selling orders of different principals for the...

  19. Would you sell a kidney in a regulated kidney market? Results of an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Rid, A; Bachmann, L M; Wettstein, V; Biller-Andorno, N

    2009-09-01

    It is often claimed that a regulated kidney market would significantly reduce the kidney shortage, thus saving or improving many lives. Data are lacking, however, on how many people would consider selling a kidney in such a market. A survey instrument, developed to assess behavioural dispositions to and attitudes about a hypothetical regulated kidney market, was given to Swiss third-year medical students. Respondents' (n = 178) median age was 23 years. Their socioeconomic status was high or middle (94.6%). 48 (27%) considered selling a kidney in a regulated kidney market, of whom 31 (66%) would sell only to overcome a particularly difficult financial situation. High social status and male gender was the strongest predictor of a disposition to sell. 32 of all respondents (18%) supported legalising a regulated kidney market. This attitude was not associated with a disposition to sell a kidney. 5 respondents (2.8%) endorsed a market and considered providing a kidney to a stranger if and only if paid. 4 of those 5 would sell only under financial duress. Current understanding of a regulated kidney market is insufficient. It is unclear whether a regulated market would result in a net gain of kidneys. Most possible kidney vendors would only sell in a particularly difficult financial situation, raising concerns about the validity of consent and inequities in the provision of organs. Further empirical and normative analysis of these issues is required. Any calls to implement and evaluate a regulated kidney market in pilot studies are therefore premature.

  20. A typology of drug selling among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Shook, Jeffrey J; Terzis, Lauren

    2015-02-01

    Although studies have found that young adults who sell drugs are more likely to be involved in risky behaviors than those who do not sell drugs, there has been relatively little research that has explored heterogeneity among young adults who sell drugs. Using a pooled sample of 18 to 25 year olds from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006-2010) who report past-year drug selling (N = 5,373), this study employs latent profile analysis to specify latent groups and assess the correlates of group membership. Findings indicate substantial differences among young adults who sell drugs. In particular, the analysis found four groups of drug sellers: normative (49.6%), club drug users (23.6%), polysubstance users (16.0%), and criminal offenders (10.8%). Club drug users were characterized by high levels of ecstasy and hallucinogen use, polysubstance users were more likely to be depressed and anxious, White and female than the other groups. Criminal offenders were overwhelmingly male and more likely to be comprised of African-Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS indicate that drug selling in early adulthood varies substantially. Contrary to media and popular notions most drug sellers are not involved in crime and polysubstance using drug sellers are in clear need of mental health services. Further, most drug sellers in this age range are White. Findings suggest that policy efforts that operate under the assumption of homogeneity of drug selling may be misguided.

  1. Selling antimicrobials without prescription - Far beyond an administrative problem.

    PubMed

    Guinovart, Maria C; Figueras, Albert; Llor, Carles

    2016-11-17

    Selling antibiotics without prescription is common in many countries; beyond the administrative restrictions, this practice is a risk for patients and society. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information provided by the staff of the pharmacy to a simulated patient requesting an antibiotic. A prospective study was carried out in January 2013 - February 2014 in the Health Region of Tarragona, in which a mystery shopper visited 220 pharmacies requesting an antibiotic to be sold. The actress was not asked about allergies in 73.9% of cases and never was asked about possible pregnancy. Recommendation to see a doctor was observed in 36.1% of cases. When antibiotics were not sold, the explanation provided by the staff was reasoned only in 9.9% of the cases. It is necessary and urgent to improve the training of pharmacists in dispensing antibiotics but also strengthen basic health knowledge among the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. European experience of regulating distance selling of medicines for Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Hrekov, Yevhen; Hrekova, Maryna

    Some countries have already tried and tested mechanisms of regulating distance sales as form of distribution of medicines that have been used more or less effectively for a fairly long time. Herewith, so far, the approach of the competent authorities of some countries including Ukraine can be called prevailing in quantitative terms under which the official prohibition on distance sales of medicines is set. The aim of this study is a detailed examination of the nature of the prohibition of the medicines distance selling in Ukraine, namely the an analysis of advantages and disadvantages of this form of distribution of medicines and identification of appropriate ways for gradual repeal of the prohibition in terms of regulatory reform in Ukraine in the sphere of circulation of medicines due to the process of adaptation of statutory regulation in this area to the EU legislation. This study is based on Ukrainian regulation acts, Council Directives 97/7/EC, 2000/31/EC, 2001/83/EC, scientific works and opinions of progressiveminded people in this sphere. Such methods as dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive have been used in the article. Reception of the described experience of regulation in EU will allow a further review of the principles of regulation in Ukraine in the sphere of medicines with a shift in the main emphasis in the direction of ensuring adequate consumer rights in this area and preventing the risks of patients' and public health.

  3. Assembling cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine.

    PubMed

    Bode, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The paper discusses the many forms and representations of cyavanaprāsh, Ayurveda's best-selling medicine, already mentioned in Caraka's Compendium (c. 200 CE). The medicine's compositions, applications, and meanings, change over time and from locality to locality. Cyavanaprāsh is, for example, a patriotic formula, a booster of the immune system, a modern geriatric drug, and one of the elements in canonical Ayurvedic treatments. In the beginning of the 19th century cyavanaprāsh was a patriotic formula for fortifying Indian bodies and the nascent Indian nation. Nowadays the medicine is a Fast Moving Consumer Good (FMCG) and a money maker for Dabur India Ltd., the world largest Ayurvedic manufacturer. Instead of vitalising the nation its consumption now promises to make urban middle class consumers effectively modern. Branding and modern science must make Dabur Chyawanprash attractive in the eyes of these consumers. Ayurveda and cyavanaprāsh are also part of a global counter culture marked by neo-Orientalism and Ayurvedic medicines as facilitators of spirituality. The marketing of cyavanaprāsh by India's largest Ayurvedic manufacturer is used as a case study for discussing the proliferation of Ayurvedic brands and its critics. The imaging of Ayurvedic brands such as Dabur Chyawanprash threatens to obscure the fact that Ayurveda represents a unique way of looking upon health, disease and the human body. The proliferation of brands also makes Ayurvedic medicines more expensive and puts pressure on the natural environment as the main supplier of Ayurvedic ingredients.

  4. Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant Stephen L. Howard Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Wayne A. Churaman Sensors and... Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant by Stephen L. Howard, Wayne A. Churaman, and Luke J. Currano ARL-TR-6950 June 2014...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanoporous Silicon Ignition of JA2 Propellant 5a

  5. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    preference, one might expect "free markets" to value art in proportion to its aesthetic appeal, at least to some extent. To assess the role of value, a further test of preference was performed on a separate set of paintings recently sold at auction. Results showed that the selling price of these works showed no correlation with preference, while basic statistics were significantly correlated with preference. We conclude that selling price, which could be seen as a proxy for a painting's "value," is not predictive of preference, while shared preferences may to some extent be predictable based on image statistics. We also suggest that contextual and semantic factors play an important role in preference given that image content appears to lead to greater divergence between similarity and preference ratings for representational works, and especially for artwork that prominently depicts faces. The present paper paves the way for a more complete understanding of the relationship between shared human preferences and image statistical regularities, and it outlines the basic geometry of perceptual spaces for artwork.

  6. 31 CFR 356.0 - What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... sell and issue securities? Chapter 31 of Title 31 of the United States Code authorizes the Secretary of...

  7. It`s time to sell the TVA

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    The electric power functions of the Tennessee Valley Authority should be sold now, in total, says a former top TVA executive - not because the agency can`t survive as is, but because doing so would produce a better result for TVA`s customers and employees, as well as U.S. taxpayers. It seems ironic to the author that while the U.S. generally encourages the spread of free enterprise, and as we are witnessing an unprecedented privatization of many formerly government-owned utility systems around the world, the U.S. government retains ownership of one of the largest electric companies in the U.S. and the world in the Tennessee Valley Authority. In many areas of the globe, privatization is moving with strong investment from U.S. firms and quasi-governmental institutions like the World Bank, yet our government won`t seriously consider selling the TVA. The author believes such a sale would be beneficial in many ways. It would generate big savings for the U.S. taxpayer. It would reduce the federal debt, and build on massive operating and financial progress made at TVA in the last seven years. It might also provide a model of how and why to privatize other parts of the federal government. At the same time it would move one of the largest electric companies in America out from under the burden of federal bureaucracy into the private sector, where the author believes it could compete effectively, without excuses or alibis.

  8. The search for organs: halachic perspectives on altruistic giving and the selling of organs.

    PubMed

    Kunin, J D

    2005-05-01

    Altruistic donation of organs from living donors is widely accepted as a virtue and even encouraged as a duty. Selling organs, on the other hand, is highly controversial and banned in most countries. What is the Jewish legal (halachic) position on these issues? In this review it is explained that altruistic donation is praiseworthy but in no way obligatory. Selling organs is a subject of rabbinic dispute among contemporary authorities.

  9. The search for organs: halachic perspectives on altruistic giving and the selling of organs

    PubMed Central

    Kunin, J

    2005-01-01

    Altruistic donation of organs from living donors is widely accepted as a virtue and even encouraged as a duty. Selling organs, on the other hand, is highly controversial and banned in most countries. What is the Jewish legal (halachic) position on these issues? In this review it is explained that altruistic donation is praiseworthy but in no way obligatory. Selling organs is a subject of rabbinic dispute among contemporary authorities. PMID:15863684

  10. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Options to buy or sell. 1.1234-1 Section 1.1234... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1234-1 Options to buy or... privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital asset in the hands of...

  11. Injury prevention advice in top-selling parenting books.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wanda M; Helou, Samah; Saluja, Gitanjali; Runyan, Carol W; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2005-11-01

    Parenting books are a commonly used source of information on how to keep children and adolescents safe from injuries, the leading cause of death and disability for children aged 1 to 18 years. The content and the quality of the messages contained in these books have not been evaluated formally. The objective of this study was to determine the quantity and the quality of injury prevention messages contained in popular parenting books. Top-selling parenting books for 2 major booksellers were reviewed to determine the presence and the accuracy of injury prevention messages as compared with those recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) through The Injury Prevention Program (TIPP) for younger children, aged 0 to 12 years, and the American Medical Association (AMA) through its Parent Package for the safety of adolescents. Forty-six parenting books were reviewed, including 41 with messages related to younger children and 19 with messages related to adolescents. These books varied widely with regard to the number of injury prevention messages included. Although some books covered the great majority of TIPP messages for parents of young children, others included very few. In the case of books that address safety for adolescents, no book had more than half of the messages recommended by the AMA. Prevention of burns and motor vehicle injury were the most commonly addressed injury prevention topics in the books focused on younger children, whereas gun safety was the most prevalent injury prevention topic in books that focused on adolescents. Books that were authored by physicians addressed more of the recommended topics and messages than books that were written by authors from other professional backgrounds. The quality of messages was good, ie, consistent with the advice given by the AAP and the AMA. In only a few cases, the parenting books gave injury prevention advice that was inconsistent with recommendations. Overall, books on parenting adolescents are

  12. Factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions in 2005.

    PubMed

    Barham, B L; Troxel, T R

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected from 15 Arkansas livestock auctions to determine factors affecting selling price. Data included how calves were sold (single or groups), sex, breed or breed type, color, muscle thickness, horn status, frame score, fill, body condition, age, health, BW, and price. Data were randomly collected on 52,401 lots consisting of 105,542 calves. Selling prices for steers ($124.20 +/- 0.07), bulls ($117.93 +/- 0.12), and heifers ($112.81 +/- 0.07) were different from each other (P <0.001). Hereford x Charolais feeder calves sold for the highest price ($122.66 +/- 0.14) and Longhorns sold for the lowest price ($74.52 +/- 0.46). Yellow feeder cattle received the highest selling price ($96.47 +/- 0.12), and spotted or striped feeder cattle received the lowest price ($83.84 +/- 0.23). The selling price of singles was lower than the price for calves sold in groups of 6 or more ($117.26 +/- 0.06 vs. $122.61 +/- 0.21; P <0.001). For cattle classified as having muscle scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, selling prices were $120.45 +/- 0.05, $111.31 +/- 0.09, $96.28 +/- 0.44, and $82.21 +/- 1.87, respectively. Polled feeder cattle sold for $118.57 +/- 0.05, and horned feeder cattle sold for $114.87 +/- 0.14 (P <0.001). Interactions (P <0.001) were detected between frame score and BW groups, and muscle score and BW groups on the selling price of cattle. A number of management and genetic factors affected the selling price of feeder cattle.

  13. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  14. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  15. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  16. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security for...

  17. The Army Information Technology Personnel Challenge (Are We Selling Our Seed Corn & Can We Buy It Back?)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    USAWC FELLOWSHIP RESEARCH PROJECT The Army Information Technology Personnel Challenge (Are we selling our seed corn & can we buy it back?) by LTC...Challenge Are We Selling Our Seed Corn & Can We Buy It Back? Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Boggs TITLE: The Army Information Technology Personnel Challenge (Are we selling our seed corn & can we buy it back?) FORMAT: Civilian Fellowship

  18. 17 CFR 230.135b - Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. 230.135b Section 230.135b Commodity and Securities... § 230.135b Materials not deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy nor a prospectus. Materials meeting the requirements of § 240.9b-1 of this chapter shall not be deemed an offer to sell or offer to buy a security...

  19. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  20. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  1. The prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in top-selling foods in grocery stores.

    PubMed

    León, Janeen B; Sullivan, Catherine M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best-selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top-selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. The labels of 2394 best-selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best-selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created, and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content. Forty-four percent of the best-selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread and baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive-containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 g more than matched nonadditive-containing foods (P = .03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared with meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Phosphorus additives are common in best-selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Phosphorus Containing Food Additives in Top Selling Foods in Grocery Stores

    PubMed Central

    León, Janeen B.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of phosphorus-containing food additives in best selling processed grocery products and to compare the phosphorus content of a subset of top selling foods with and without phosphorus additives. Design The labels of 2394 best selling branded grocery products in northeast Ohio were reviewed for phosphorus additives. The top 5 best selling products containing phosphorus additives from each food category were matched with similar products without phosphorus additives and analyzed for phosphorus content. Four days of sample meals consisting of foods with and without phosphorus additives were created and daily phosphorus and pricing differentials were computed. Setting Northeast Ohio Main outcome measures Presence of phosphorus-containing food additives, phosphorus content Results 44% of the best selling grocery items contained phosphorus additives. The additives were particularly common in prepared frozen foods (72%), dry food mixes (70%), packaged meat (65%), bread & baked goods (57%), soup (54%), and yogurt (51%) categories. Phosphorus additive containing foods averaged 67 mg phosphorus/100 gm more than matched non-additive containing foods (p=.03). Sample meals comprised mostly of phosphorus additive-containing foods had 736 mg more phosphorus per day compared to meals consisting of only additive-free foods. Phosphorus additive-free meals cost an average of $2.00 more per day. Conclusion Phosphorus additives are common in best selling processed groceries and contribute significantly to their phosphorus content. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than phosphorus additive-free foods. As a result, persons with chronic kidney disease may purchase these popular low-cost groceries and unknowingly increase their intake of highly bioavailable phosphorus. PMID:23402914

  3. Effect of national recommendation on sweet selling as an intervention for a healthier school environment.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Jaakko; Rytkönen, Tatu; Kankaanpää, Rami; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Lahti, Satu

    2015-02-01

    In 2007, the Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) gave a national recommendation that Finnish upper comprehensive schools should not sell sweet products. The aim was to find out how the national recommendation changed the schools' selling of sweet products. This longitudinal survey was conducted in Finnish upper comprehensive school classes 7-9 (13-15-year-old pupils) in 2007 and 2010. All the schools (N=970) were invited to answer the questionnaire and 237 schools answered in both years (response rate 24%). The questionnaires contained questions concerning the selling of sweet and healthy products and school policy on sweet selling guidelines. Of the nine items in the questionnaire, three weighted sum scores were formed for oral health promotion: Exposure, enabling and policy (higher score indicating better actions). These sum scores were also trichotomized. Statistical significances of the changes were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon's test, McNemar's test, and McNemar-Bowker's test. Schools had decreased exposure of pupils to sweet products (p<0.001), more often provided oral health protecting items (p=0.047) and had improved their oral health-promoting policy (p<0.001). The selling of some sweet products, candies and soft drinks had decreased (p<0.001) whereas the selling of other sweet products had not changed (p=0.665). Schools tended to improve their exposure and policy status (p<0.001). It is possible to improve school environments by means of a national recommendation. Other actions are needed both inside and outside schools in order to decrease the total consumption of sweet products among adolescents. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Buying and Selling Stocks of Multi Brands Using Genetic Network Programming with Control Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkawa, Etsushi; Chen, Yan; Bao, Zhiguo; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    A new evolutionary method named “Genetic Network Programming with control nodes, GNPcn” has been applied to determine the timing of buying or selling stocks. GNPcn represents its solutions as directed graph structures which has some useful features inherently. For example, GNPcn has an implicit memory function which memorizes the past action sequences of agents and GNPcn can re-use nodes repeatedly in the network flow, so very compact graph structures can be made. GNPcn can determine the strategy of buying and selling stocks of multi issues. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulations.

  5. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... a swap execution facility who shall have at the same time both buying and selling orders of...

  6. 17 CFR 1.39 - Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals; execution of, for and between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Simultaneous buying and... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.39 Simultaneous buying and selling orders of different principals... a swap execution facility who shall have at the same time both buying and selling orders of...

  7. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What should the System institution do when it... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it...

  8. Selling and Implementing Leadership Development: Chapter, Verse, and Lessons Learned from Carlson's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevette, Rick D.; Cohen, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a case study template for creating and "selling" an enterprise-wide leadership development initiative in a highly decentralized organization. Using a story-telling approach, the authors delineate the five separate but highly interdependent stages used to achieve this. Sandwiched between a prologue and epilogue are five…

  9. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  10. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Key employees not to purchase livestock out of consignments. No market agency engaged in selling... consignment for any purpose for their own account, either directly or indirectly. (d) Purchase from... the account of sale the name of the buyer and the nature of the relationship existing between...

  11. 31 CFR 356.0 - What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What authority does the Treasury have to sell and issue securities? 356.0 Section 356.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... CIRCULAR, PUBLIC DEBT SERIES NO. 1-93) General Information § 356.0 What authority does the Treasury have to...

  12. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  13. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging...

  14. Integrating the Concept of Customer Needs into an Undergraduate Professional Selling Course in a Marketing Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Vaughan C.

    This paper argues that professional selling within the context of a marketing curricula in a business school should be described and practiced in a manner compatible with the marketing concept, which emphasizes satisfaction of consumers' needs. The paper looks at textbook approaches to sales presentations to determine their congruency with the…

  15. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  16. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  17. The Local Food Grower's Behavior during Planning, Growing, Harvesting, and Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumirakiza, J. Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the behavior of the local food grower during the market-related decision-making process. The relevant behavior is manifested during the planning, growing, and harvesting and selling phases of the agricultural business cycle. The local food grower faces a set of market alternatives from which, if applying a…

  18. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for beverage...

  19. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for beverage...

  20. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for beverage...

  1. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for beverage...

  2. 27 CFR 31.65 - Persons selling products unfit for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unfit for beverage use. 31.65 Section 31.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.65 Persons selling products unfit for beverage...

  3. 17 CFR 242.105 - Short selling in connection with a public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short selling in connection with a public offering. 242.105 Section 242.105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS...

  4. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of buyer... registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...

  5. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of buyer... registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...

  6. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of buyer... registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...

  7. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of buyer... registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...

  8. 9 CFR 205.104 - Registration of buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent-minimum information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration of buyer, commission... AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.104 Registration of buyer... registration of a buyer, commission merchant, or selling agent is as follows: (1) Buyer, commission...

  9. "Selling" value: the influence of language on willingness-to-accept.

    PubMed

    Manson, Kirk F; Levy, Ifat

    2015-01-01

    In behavioral economics, the "endowment effect" describes the robust finding that prices people are willing to accept (WTA) for a good exceed prices people are willing to pay (WTP) for the same good. The increase in WTA values is often explained by the sellers' negative hedonic response to losing their item. Recent studies, however, show that subtle cues may change participants' perspective, influencing their valuations. We hypothesized that implicit connotations of instructional language may be one of those cues. To test this hypothesis we manipulated the wording of instructions in two conditions: in the Sell condition, subjects were endowed with a set of pens and asked to select an amount of money for which they would sell the pens back and in the Take condition, subjects were endowed with the pens and asked to select an amount of money they would take for the pens. Participants in each condition also estimated the market value of the pens. Consistent with our hypothesis, WTA in the Sell condition was higher than in the Take condition, though there were no differences in market values between conditions. These findings show that instructional language does influence participant valuations. Furthermore, we suggest that those being asked to "sell" use their market estimations as the salient reference point in the transaction.

  10. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products...

  11. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or sell...

  12. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products...

  13. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products...

  14. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or sell...

  15. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or sell...

  16. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or sell...

  17. 40 CFR 165.67 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products to refillers for repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide products to refillers for repackaging. 165.67 Section 165.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.67 Registrants who distribute or sell...

  18. 40 CFR 165.65 - Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products in refillable containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide products in refillable containers. 165.65 Section 165.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Repackaging Pesticide Products into Refillable Containers § 165.65 Registrants who distribute or sell pesticide products...

  19. Writing Juvenile Stories and Novels: How to Write and Sell Fiction for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Phyllis A.

    Phyllis Whitney, author of more than 30 juvenile novels and 20 adult novels, offers specific advice to aspiring writers on how to write, and sell, fiction for young people. Telling a good story, entertaining the reader, is the most important factor in each of the four divisions of children's books. These divisions can be structured roughly…

  20. Cross-Cultural Selling: Examining the Importance of Cultural Intelligence in Sales Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpechitre, Duleep; Baker, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural selling has become an important factor in sales education. In the current competitive business graduate market, students who enter the workforce in frontline customer service positions are expected to perform sales at a higher level. Students that have acquired an education in sales during their undergraduate program have been found…

  1. An Innovative, Experiential-Learning Project for Sales Management and Professional Selling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Joseph; Schetzsle, Stacey; Wahlers, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an innovative, experiential-learning project that incorporates students from two different courses: sales management and professional selling. Sales management students actually manage sales students on an outside sales project. Students apply classroom knowledge to a real-life sales project for a local community…

  2. The Local Food Grower's Behavior during Planning, Growing, Harvesting, and Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumirakiza, J. Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the behavior of the local food grower during the market-related decision-making process. The relevant behavior is manifested during the planning, growing, and harvesting and selling phases of the agricultural business cycle. The local food grower faces a set of market alternatives from which, if applying a…

  3. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses. 367.9120 Section 367.9120 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... and temporary space rental. (3) Loss in value on equipment and appliances used for demonstration...

  4. 18 CFR 367.9120 - Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 912, Demonstrating and selling expenses. 367.9120 Section 367.9120 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... and temporary space rental. (3) Loss in value on equipment and appliances used for demonstration...

  5. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  6. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  7. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  8. Selling the "Electrical Dream" in the 1920s: A Case Study in the Manipulation of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Andrew

    To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates…

  9. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  10. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  11. 12 CFR 192.325 - When may I offer to sell my conversion shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When may I offer to sell my conversion shares? 192.325 Section 192.325 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.325 When may I...

  12. 12 CFR 192.325 - When may I offer to sell my conversion shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false When may I offer to sell my conversion shares? 192.325 Section 192.325 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.325 When may I...

  13. 12 CFR 192.325 - When may I offer to sell my conversion shares?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When may I offer to sell my conversion shares? 192.325 Section 192.325 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONVERSIONS FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Offers and Sales of Stock § 192.325 When may I...

  14. Both Sides of the Story--Buying and Selling; Business Education: 7705.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luksa, Cecelia

    Offering a study of records that deal with buying and selling at retail and wholesale levels, the course includes invoices, statements, charge sales, cash sales, sales taxes, and returns. Prerequisite skills include the objectives of Welcome to Recordkeeping and Money Records, and a pretest to aid in student placement is offered. Performance…

  15. Standard and Poor's How to Invest. A Handbook for Buying and Selling Stocks and Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard & Poor's Corp., New York, NY.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school and college economic students, the handbook gives general information about investing in the stock market. Arranged into seven sections, the handbook discusses the typical shareholder, common and preferred stocks, buying and selling bonds, how to develop a personal…

  16. Publishers See Online Mega-Courses as Opportunity to Sell Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Colleges are not the only enterprises interested in the possibilities of free, online courses. Publishers have begun to investigate whether so-called MOOC's, or massive open online courses, can help them reach new readers and sell more books. For the moment, providers of the classes encourage professors not to require students to buy texts, in…

  17. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  18. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  19. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  20. Best-Selling Books Advising Parents about Gender: A Feminist Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krafchick, Jennifer L.; Schindler Zimmerman, Toni; Haddock, Shelley A.; Banning, James H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine how gender in parenting was addressed, a content analysis was conducted on the six best-selling self-help books (1997-2002) that provide general parenting advice. A feminist perspective was used to code gendered meaning units in the six books. Findings were that 82% of the implicit gender messages across all books were stereotypical,…

  1. Selling the "Electrical Dream" in the 1920s: A Case Study in the Manipulation of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Andrew

    To illustrate the relevance of critical communication history and theory to media ethics, this paper examines a crucial episode in the history of public relations: the American electrical industry's cooperative advertising and public relations efforts in the 1920s to sell the "electrical idea" to consumers. The paper first enumerates…

  2. Writing Juvenile Stories and Novels: How to Write and Sell Fiction for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Phyllis A.

    Phyllis Whitney, author of more than 30 juvenile novels and 20 adult novels, offers specific advice to aspiring writers on how to write, and sell, fiction for young people. Telling a good story, entertaining the reader, is the most important factor in each of the four divisions of children's books. These divisions can be structured roughly…

  3. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to...

  4. Health-seeking behaviour of women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M S; Unemo, M; Zaman, S; Lundborg, C Stålsby

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and health-seeking behaviour related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and abortion among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, quantitative study. A total of 730 women selling sex were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. The median age of the participants was 30 years. Thirteen percent of the participants said it was common for them to have an abnormal vaginal discharge. Seventy-five percent of the participants recognized STIs as either leucorrhoea or AIDS. Sixty-five percent of the participants complained of having suffered from STI(s) in the six months preceding the survey, of whom 28% sought treatment. Women selling sex who reported consistent condom use were 1.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.2) more likely to seek treatment than women who did not report consistent condom use. The level of knowledge about STIs remains low among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan, and health-seeking behaviour for the management of STIs and abortions is influenced by ability to pay and ease of access in the private sector.

  5. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND.... (c) Key employees not to purchase livestock out of consignments. No market agency engaged in...

  6. Standard and Poor's How to Invest. A Handbook for Buying and Selling Stocks and Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standard & Poor's Corp., New York, NY.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school and college economic students, the handbook gives general information about investing in the stock market. Arranged into seven sections, the handbook discusses the typical shareholder, common and preferred stocks, buying and selling bonds, how to develop a personal…

  7. An assessment of forest landowner interest in selling forest carbon credits in the Lake States, USA

    Treesearch

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore

    2012-01-01

    The nation's family forest lands can be an important contributor to carbon sequestration efforts. Yet very little is known about how family forest landowners view programs that enable them to sell carbon credits generated from the growth of their forest and the compensation that would be required to encourage a meaningful level of participation. To address this...

  8. The Capstone Sales Course: An Integral Part of a University Level Professional Selling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The Capstone Sales course is the final in a sequence of five required courses in a 15 credit Professional Selling program housed in the Marketing Department at St. Cloud State University. The course is heavily focused on experiential learning activities for senior-level sales students. In this paper details of the course design, instructor and…

  9. Buying a handgun for someone else: firearm dealer willingness to sell

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, S; Vittes, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine firearm dealer willingness to sell when a handgun is being purchased for another person. US law requires a background check of the purchaser but not the end user of a firearm. Subjects and methods: A total of 120 handgun dealers (six from each of the 20 largest US cities with 10 or more dealers) participated in telephone interviews. Dealers within each city were randomly assigned to a male or female interviewer and then randomly assigned to one of three purchase conditions—when the consumer said that the handgun was for him/herself, a gift for a girl/boyfriend, or for a girl/boyfriend "because s/he needs it". Results: Most dealers were willing to sell a handgun regardless of the end user (self: 87.5%; gift: 70.8%; "need": 52.5%). Multivariate analyses indicate that dealers in the Midwest, South, and West were more willing to sell than those in the Northeast (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 21.30, 18.74, and 8.93, respectively) and that willingness to sell is lower when the sale would be illegal, that is, under the "need" condition (AOR = 0.20). Conclusions and implications: Dealers are in a position to exercise judgment when a customer is explicit about buying a firearm for someone else. Some appeared willing to ignore or sidestep relevant information even when told that the end user was prohibited from purchasing a firearm him/herself. In the absence of federal handgun registration, which would track ownership changes, resources with which to conduct compliance checks (for example, as are conducted to identify retailers who sell tobacco or alcohol to under-age persons) seem warranted. PMID:12810742

  10. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap) if...

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap) if...

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap) if...

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap) if...

  14. 41 CFR 102-37.305 - May a SASP act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? 102-37.305 Section...'s agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap)? Yes, you may act as GSA's agent in selling undistributed surplus property (either as usable property or scrap) if...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources... resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? If you sell geothermal resources produced from Class I, II, or III leases at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use, then the royalty on the...

  16. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a... Fiduciary Powers Restrictions on Self Dealing § 550.350 May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary... (b) of this section, you may not lend, sell, or otherwise transfer assets of a fiduciary account for...

  17. Treatment Plan Adherence for Your Child With JA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenile Arthritis Camps Juvenile Arthritis Conference Resources JA Power Pack Educational Rights Kit JA Transition Toolkit Print ... Drevlow Family: Coping Through Community Tiffany Family Nora Powers: Taking Charge Jodi Van Emmerik: Happy Campers Bridget ...

  18. Memorandum on ground-water investigations in the Sells area, Papago Indian Reservation, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.

    1954-01-01

    From 1950 to the present date the Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, has been collecting data about the ground-water supply in the Sells area, at the request of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Papago Indian Agency.  The purpose of these studies has been to aid in locating and developing additional ground-water supplies for the community of Sells, the agency headquarters.  The work has been financed by and has been in cooperation with the Papago Indian Agency.  In addition to the author of this memorandum, the following personnel aided in collecting data: D. G. Metzger, H. E. Skibitzke, S.F. Turner, H. N. Wolcott, and C. B. Yost, Jr.

  19. To give or sell human gametes - the interplay between pragmatics, policy and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, K

    2000-01-01

    The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate. Key Words: Gametes • gifting • selling • ethics • policy PMID:10860215

  20. Organ markets and human dignity: on selling your body and soul.

    PubMed

    Stempsey, W E

    2000-08-01

    This article addresses the ethics of selling transplantable organs. I examine and refute the claim that Catholic teaching would permit and even encourage an organ market. The acceptance of organ transplantation by the Church and even its praise of organ donors should not distract us from the quite explicit Church teaching that condemns an organ market. I offer some reasons why the Church should continue to disapprove of an organ market. The recent commercial turn in medicine can blind us to the problem of an organ market. In addition, the reliance on the gift image in organ transplantation raises difficulties of its own. What is needed is a fuller appreciation of the fact that the human person is essentially embodied with all its parts, and not merely an autonomous being that possesses organs as properties to sell. I support this vision of the embodied human person by appealing to the writings of Immanuel Kant.

  1. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  2. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-24

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  3. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA. PMID:27883040

  4. Children's understanding of the selling versus persuasive intent of junk food advertising: implications for regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Owen B J; Patterson, Lisa J; Donovan, Robert J; Ewing, Michael T; Roberts, Clare M

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that until 8 years of age most children are cognitively incapable of appreciating the commercial purpose of television advertising and are particularly vulnerable to its persuasive techniques. After this age most children begin to describe the 'selling' intent of advertising and it is widely assumed this equips them with sufficient cognitive defences to protect against advertisers' persuasion attempts. However, much of the previous literature has been criticised for failing to differentiate between children's awareness of 'selling' versus 'persuasive' intent, the latter representing a more sophisticated understanding and superior cognitive defence. Unfortunately there is little literature to suggest at what age awareness of 'persuasive intent' emerges; our aim was to address this important issue. Children (n = 594) were recruited from each grade from Pre-primary (4-5 years) to Grade 7 (11-12 years) from ten primary schools in Perth, Western Australia and exposed to a McDonald's television advertisement. Understanding the purpose of television advertising was assessed both nonverbally (picture indication) and verbally (small discussion groups of 3-4), with particular distinction made between selling versus persuasive intent. Consistent with previous literature, a majority of children described the 'selling' intent of television advertising by 7-8 years both nonverbally and verbally, increasing to 90% by 11-12 years. Awareness of 'persuasive' intent emerged slowly as a function of age but even by our oldest age-group was only 40%. Vulnerability to television advertising may persist until children are far older than previously thought. These findings have important implications regarding the debate surrounding regulation of junk food (and other) advertising aimed at children.

  5. An overview of the key routes to the best selling 5-membered ring heterocyclic pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary This review presents a comprehensive overview on selected synthetic routes towards commercial drug compounds as published in both journal and patent literature. Owing to the vast number of potential structures, we have concentrated only on those drugs containing five-membered heterocycles and focused principally on the assembly of the heterocyclic core. In order to target the most representative chemical entities the examples discussed have been selected from the top 200 best selling drugs of recent years. PMID:21647262

  6. Subscriptions to share: new way to sell content or help fundraising online.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2003-11-28

    While exploring business models for the newsletter we found a radically different way to sell information or help raise funds online. A system designed to encourage sharing allows subscribers or donors to use parts of their subscription to create new subscriptions for others, without the publisher's involvement--eliminating registration, reducing transaction costs, encouraging larger subscriptions or donations, and creating opportunities for bringing people together around an idea, purpose, or cause.

  7. The Stock Price Prediction and Sell-buy Strategy Model by Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shigeo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu

    Various stock prices predicting and sell-buy strategy models have been so far proposed. They are classified as the fundamental analysis using the achievements of the companies and the trend of business, etc., and the technical analysis which carries out the numerical analysis of the movement of stock prices. On the other hand, as one of the methods for data mining which finds out the regularity from a vast quantity of stock price data, Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been so far applied widely. As a concrete example, the optimal values of parameters of stock indices like various moving averages and rates of deviation, etc. is computed by GA, and there have been developed various methods for predicting stock prices and determinig sell-buy strategy based on it. However, it is hard to determine which is the most effective index by the conventional GA. Moreover, the most effective one depends on the brands. So in this paper, a stock price prediction and sell-buy strategy model which searches for the optimal combination of various indices in the technical analysis has been proposed using Genetic Network programming and its effectiveness is confirmed by simulations.

  8. Market Exclusivity Time for Top Selling Originator Drugs in Canada: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This study looks at market exclusivity time for the top selling originator drugs in Canada. Total sales for drugs without competition were also calculated. A list of the top selling originator drugs by dollar sales from 2009 to 2015 inclusive, except for 2010, was compiled along with their annual sales. Health Canada databases were used to extract the following information: generic name, date of Notice of Compliance (NOC, date of marketing authorization), whether the product was a small molecule drug or a biologic, and date of NOC for a generic or biosimilar. Market exclusivity time was calculated in days for drugs. A total of 121 drugs were identified. There were 96 small molecule drugs (63 with a generic competitor and 33 with no generic competitor) and 25 biologics (none with a biosimilar competitor). The 63 drugs with a competitor had a mean market exclusivity time of 4478 days (12.3 years) (95% CI 4159-4798). The 58 drugs without competition had total annual sales of Can$8.59 billion and were on the market for a median of 5357 days (14.7 years) (interquartile range 3291-6679) as of January 31, 2017. Top selling originator drugs in Canada have a considerably longer period of market exclusivity than the 8 to 10 years that the research-based pharmaceutical industry claims. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gun Carrying and Drug Selling Among Young Incarcerated Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between illegal drug economy involvement, gun-related victimization, and recent gun carrying among young men and women incarcerated in a state prison in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year old incarcerated men (n = 135) and women (n = 69) between July 1999 and October 2000. Forty-five percent of men and 16% of women reported carrying a gun in the year prior to incarceration. Respondents who sold crack cocaine or other drugs were more likely to have carried guns than those not selling drugs. However, hard drug use was not associated with gun carrying among men. All ten women who carried guns had used hard drugs. Sixty-seven percent of men and 28% of women had been shot at. Respondents who sold crack cocaine were at elevated risk of being shot at. Among men, selling crack (OR = 10.2, 95% CI = 2.5, 42.1) and ever being shot at (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.7, 12.2), were associated with carrying guns. These findings provide further evidence of a link between crack selling (but not necessarily drug using) and gun carrying. PMID:16736375

  10. 40 CFR 1051.330 - May I sell vehicles from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.330 May I sell vehicles from...

  11. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an...

  12. 40 CFR 1054.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.330 May I sell engines from...

  13. JA but not JA-Ile is the cell-nonautonomous signal activating JA mediated systemic defenses to herbivory in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Bozorov, Tohir A; Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-08-01

    The whole-plant activation of defense responses to wounding and herbivory requires systemic signaling in which jasmonates (JAs) play a pivotal role. To examine the nature of the slower cell-nonautonomous as compared to the rapid cell-autonomous signal in mediating systemic defenses in Nicotiana attenuata, reciprocal stem grafting-experiments were used with plants silenced for the JA biosynthetic gene ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (irAOC) or plants transformed to create JA sinks by ectopically expressing Arabidopsis JA-O-methyltransferase (ovJMT). JA-impaired irAOC plants were defective in the cell-nonautonomous signaling pathway but not in JA transport. Conversely, ovJMT plants abrogated the production of a graft-transmissible JA signal. Both genotypes displayed unaltered cell-autonomous signaling. Defense responses (17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, nicotine, and proteinase inhibitors) and metabolite profiles were differently induced in irAOC and ovJMT scions in response to graft-transmissible signals from elicited wild type stocks. The performance of Manduca sexta larvae on the scions of different graft combinations was consistent with the patterns of systemic defense metabolite elicitations. Taken together, we conclude that JA and possibly MeJA, but not JA-Ile, either directly functions as a long-distance transmissible signal or indirectly interacts with long distance signal(s) to activate systemic defense responses. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address in January, President Obama said he visited "many business leaders who want to hire in the United States but can't find workers with the right skills." Not hard to imagine, considering the U.S. Department of Commerce reports that only one in every 18 workers in America currently works in a science, technology,…

  15. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    In his State of the Union Address in January, President Obama said he visited "many business leaders who want to hire in the United States but can't find workers with the right skills." Not hard to imagine, considering the U.S. Department of Commerce reports that only one in every 18 workers in America currently works in a science, technology,…

  16. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  17. Selling hospice.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Americans are increasingly turning to hospice services to provide them with medical care, pain management, and emotional support at the end of life. The increase in the rates of hospice utilization is explained by a number of factors including a "hospice movement" dating to the 1970s which emphasized hospice as a tool to promote dignity for the terminally ill; coverage of hospice services by Medicare beginning in 1983; and, the market for hospice services provision, sustained almost entirely by governmental reimbursement. On the one hand, the growing acceptance of hospice may be seen as a sign of trends giving substance to the death-with-dignity movement and the growing strength of end-of-life decision-makers and planners who integrate medical, community, family and spiritual networks. On the other hand, the precise relationship between the death-with-dignity and commercial processes driving hospice utilization rates are not well understood. On May 2, 2013, the U.S. Government intervened in a lawsuit brought by former hospice employees alleging that behind Vitas Innovative Hospice Care, the largest for-profit hospice service provider in the United States, lie an intricate web of incentives for patient intake nurses, physicians and marketers which not only drove hospice patients to use more expensive (and medically unnecessary) crisis care services, but influenced patient and family decisions as to whether or not to discontinue curative treatment. The corporate, investment, and regulatory history behind Vitas provides an important insight into the market realities behind Americans' embrace of hospice care and the risks to patient autonomy and health that accompany the commercialization of this ethically and morally complex health care service.

  18. Selling Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Considers how the successful teaching of Shakespeare represents the ultimate challenge for many English teachers, one that measures their ability to enlighten and inspire. Discusses how her colleague approaches teaching Shakespeare to eight graders. Describes how she approaches teaching Henry V to her ninth grade students. (SG)

  19. Stigma, access to healthcare, and HIV risks among men who sell sex to men in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Trevor A; Keshinro, Babajide; Baral, Stefan D; Schwartz, Sheree R; Stahlman, Shauna; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who sell sex (MSS) may be subject to increased sexual behaviour-related stigma that affects uptake of healthcare and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to characterize stigma, access to care, and prevalence of HIV among MSS in Nigeria. Methods: Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit MSM in Abuja and Lagos into the ongoing TRUST/RV368 study, which provides HIV testing and treatment. Detailed behavioural data were collected by trained interviewers. MSS were identified by self-report of receiving goods or money in exchange for sex with men. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to explore the impact of sex-selling on the risk of HIV. Results: From 12 initial seed participants, 1552 men were recruited from March 2013-March 2016. Of these, 735 (47.4%) reported sex-selling. Compared to other MSM, MSS were younger (median 22 vs. 24 years, p < 0.001) and more likely to identify as gay/homosexual (42.4% vs. 31.5%, p < 0.001). MSS were more likely to report perceived and experienced stigmas such as healthcare avoidance (27.6% vs. 21.5%, p = 0.005) and verbal harassment (39.2% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.001). Total HIV prevalence was 53.4%. After controlling for other factors, HIV prevalence among MSS was similar to that observed among other MSM (relative risk 0.94 [95% confidence interval 0.84–1.05]). Conclusions: These data highlight increased sexual behaviour-related stigma affecting MSS, as compared with other MSM, that limits uptake of healthcare services. The distinct characteristics and risks among MSS suggest the need for specific interventions to optimize linkage to HIV prevention and treatment services in Nigeria. PMID:28453241

  20. Oregon Supreme Court Ruling Prohibits Hospital from Refusing a Sell Order.

    PubMed

    Chien, Joseph; Mobbs, Karl E

    2016-03-01

    In a recent decision involving a capital murder case, Oregon State Hospital v. Butts, the Oregon Supreme Court conducted a mandamus hearing to ascertain whether Oregon State Hospital (OSH) had a legal duty to comply with a Sell order from a county trial court to provide antipsychotic medications to an incompetent defendant, despite its belief, as an institution, that medication was not clinically indicated. The case is reviewed and important implications, including the court's being granted the ability to circumvent the medical decision-making process, are discussed.

  1. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  2. Extreme anthropogenic erosion: Topsoil Selling in the Mekong Delta and consequences for soil quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita; Vien, Duong Minh; Kruse, Jens; Guong, Vo Thi; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization leads to increasing demands for construction material, especially in low income countries. For this purpose topsoil is sometimes removed and used as construction material. Topsoil Selling is practiced around the world from America, Europe and Africa to Asia. In the Mekong Delta, Vietnam farmers physically remove the upper 10-40 cm of their paddy fields and sell it to contractors (= Topsoil Selling, TSS). The excavated material is used for road construction or brick production and therefore the most fertile part of the paddy soil is irrecoverably lost. The temporal effects of topsoil removal on soil quality are not yet fully understood. We hypothesized that after soil removal, soil quality and yield potential are significantly lower compared to the original topsoil. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two chronosequences in two different provinces of the Mekong Delta. The provinces are Sóc Trăng (Control, 1, 2, 3, 8 years after TSS) and Trà Vinh (Control, 3, 5, 8 years after TSS). The sampling areas differ in texture and cultivation practice: clayey-loamy vs. sandy-loamy and double vs. triple rice cropping. For each year of the chronosequence, 4 field sites were investigated. We sampled the Ap, Bg1, and Bg2 horizon up to 40 cm depth as composite samples from 6 to 8 cores per field. Soil organic carbon (Corg) stocks at TSS sites were up to 20 t/ha lower than at Control sites (Control: 50 t/ha) in Sóc Trăng and up to 15 t/ha lower in Tra Vinh (Control: 30 t/ha). Especially the Bg horizons revealed a continuous decline in Corg with time after soil removal. Analysis of available nutrients (Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu) determined by the Mehlich3-Method are still ongoing. Preliminary results, however, suggest that there is not sustainable loss of these elements after selling, but that initial risk of losses are reverted under prolonged management. Phosphorus fractionation according to the Hedley method indicate

  3. Contractor Sales Training: Providing the Skills Necessary to Sell Comprehensive Home Energy Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth

    2011-08-17

    Many comprehensive home energy efficiency programs rely on contractors as the customer-facing ‘front line’ to sell energy improvements. Adding sales skills to contractors’ existing technical expertise is key to converting more assessments into comprehensive home energy upgrades. Leading programs recognize the need to support contractors with sales and business training to help them succeed and to support the growth of the home performance industry for the long term. A number of contractor sales training efforts are emerging, including some programs that are seeing encouraging early results.

  4. University of Washington - AFA symposium: shall we sell the nation's forest lands

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.B.

    1983-07-01

    Debate over whether federal forest land should be sold to private owners has been emotional and confused. Congress has received a variety of interpretations of the administration's intent that range from slight modifications in existing programs to virtual privatization. Advocates of the asset management program point out that its intent is to sell only excess property with a higher private use, to make land management more efficient, and to help reduce the national debt. Opponents argue that it violates the Endangered Species and the National Environmental Protection Acts. They disagree on how the public interest is best served. The article presents the arguments on both sides of the issue. (DCK)

  5. Effect of corn stover compositional variability on minimum ethanol selling price (MESP).

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Templeton, David W; Humbird, David; Aden, Andy

    2013-07-01

    A techno-economic sensitivity analysis was performed using a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2011 biochemical conversion design model varying feedstock compositions. A total of 496 feedstock near infrared (NIR) compositions from 47 locations in eight US Corn Belt states were used as the inputs to calculate minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), ethanol yield (gallons per dry ton biomass feedstock), ethanol annual production, as well as total installed project cost for each composition. From this study, the calculated MESP is $2.20 ± 0.21 (average ± 3 SD) per gallon ethanol.

  6. [Historical study of the moth repellent, "Fujisawa Camphor" (7) - selling price and packaging.].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira

    2005-01-01

    The selling price of "Fujisawa Camphor" has increased 1,000-fold in the 100 years since it first went on sale. This 1,000-fold increase is not high at all. The price of "Fujisawa Camphor" was not low in the 1980s, one of grounds for setting the price was the damage caused by moths to expensive Japanese clothes and curios. For packaging in the Edo era, being wrapped in paper was the mainstream form, but modern-age packaging shifted to a cardboard box. As for "Fujisawa Camphor", a beautiful design was created for the cardboard.

  7. Selling the Drama: Army Marketing Strategies and the Future of Word-of-Mouth Marketing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-16

    Degree in Liberal Studies . SSG Darling is a recent graduate of the 27D4O Senior Leader Course at The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and... Strategies and the Future of Word-of-Mouth Marketing Word Count: 2,533 “Selling the Drama”: Army Marketing Strategies and the Future of Word-of-Mouth...be all that you can be” resonated with the public; the copywriter who developed the theme and advertising strategy , “one of the most successful

  8. Selling the Space Telescope - The interpenetration of science, technology, and politics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the politics of initiating the Space Telescope program and to the manner in which the coalition, or working consensus, for the Telescope was assembled, in particular, the role played by astronomers. It is contended that what ensued was a case study in the influence of government patronage on a large-scale scientific and technological program. It is concluded that while a politically feasible Space Telescope did result, in the selling process the Telescope had been both oversold and underfunded.

  9. The availability of web sites offering to sell opioid medications without prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Forman, Robert F; Woody, George E; McLellan, Thomas; Lynch, Kevin G

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the availability of web sites offering to sell opioid medications without prescriptions. Forty-seven Internet searches were conducted with a variety of opioid medication terms, including "codeine," "no prescription Vicodin," and "OxyContin." Two independent raters examined the links generated in each search and resolved any coding disagreements. The resulting links were coded as "no prescription web sites" (NPWs) if they offered to sell opioid medications without prescriptions. In searches with terms such as "no prescription codeine" and "Vicodin," over 50% of the links obtained were coded as "NPWs." The proportion of links yielding NPWs was greater when the phrase "no prescription" was added to the opioid term. More than 300 opioid NPWs were identified and entered into a database. Three national drug-use monitoring studies have cited significant increases in prescription opioid use over the past 5 years, particularly among young people. The emergence of NPWs introduces a new vector for unregulated access to opioids. Research is needed to determine the effect of NPWs on prescription opioid use initiation, misuse, and dependence.

  10. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  11. Motivations for Selling Ecstasy among Young Adults in the Electronic Dance Music Club Culture in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Remy, Lysa S; Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Pechansky, Flavio

    2017-07-10

    This article describes data on the motivations for selling ecstasy among young adults in the electronic dance music (EDM) club culture in Brazil. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 individuals recruited for their involvement in the EDM club scene. Eligible participants were aged 18-39 and reported ecstasy and/or LSD use one or more times in the past 90 days. Exclusion criteria included current treatment for drug/alcohol problems and cognitive impairment or clinically evident psychiatric disorder. Mean age was 22.92 (SD 2.77), 60% were male, 45% reported 12 or more years of education, 50% did not have a primary partner, 50% were living alone, and all had friends who also used ecstasy. Three main themes emerged: (1) "easy" transition from ecstasy user to seller; (2) desire to achieve popularity and fame; and (3) need to sell ecstasy to maintain the high cost of EDM club scene participation. This is one of the first studies of ecstasy sellers in Brazil. The results demonstrate the ease with which the participants transition from ecstasy user to seller. Given the potential health and social dangers associated with ecstasy use, public health campaigns to prevent ecstasy use and policy initiatives to limit the ecstasy supply are warranted.

  12. Cost drivers in total hip arthroplasty: effects of procedure volume and implant selling price.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P; Bozic, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA), though a highly effective procedure for patients with end-stage hip disease, has become increasingly costly, both because of increasing procedure volume and because of the introduction and widespread use of new technologies. Data regarding procedure volume and procedure costs for THA were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample and other published sources for the years 1995 through 2005. Procedure volume increased 61% over the period studied. When adjusted for inflation, using the medical consumer price index, the average selling price of THA implants increased 24%. The selling price of THA implants as a percentage of total procedure costs increased from 29% to 60% during the period under study. The increasing cost of THA in the United States is a result of both increased procedure volume and increased cost of THA implants. No long-term outcome studies related to use of new implant technologies are available, and short-term results have been similar to those obtained with previous generations of THA implants. This study reinforces the need for a US total joint arthroplasty registry and for careful clinical and economic analyses of new technologies in orthopedics.

  13. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads.

    PubMed

    Johnson Shen, Megan; Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2017-03-01

    We describe the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012 to August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a "high end product;" and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, "high end product" for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and "safer" alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff's USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Our results provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits.

  14. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study described the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012-August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Results Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a “high end product;” and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Conclusions Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, “high end product” for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and “safer” alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff’s USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Results of this study provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits. PMID:28452697

  15. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-Selling Moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-09-06

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  16. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  17. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  18. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  19. From a Vital Sign to Vitality: Selling Exercise So Patients Want to Buy It.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Guérin, Eva; Phillips, Edward; Fortier, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is Medicine (EIM) and physical activity as a vital sign are based on health-focused research and reflect ideal frames and messages for clinicians. However, they are nonoptimal for patients because they do not address what drives patients' decision-making and motivation. With the growing national emphasis on patient-centered and value-based care, it is the perfect time for EIM to evolve and advance a second-level consumer-oriented exercise prescription and communication strategy. Through research on decision-making, motivation, consumer behavior, and meaningful goal pursuit, this article features six evidence-based issues to help clinicians make physical activity more relevant and compelling for patients to sustain in ways that concurrently support patient-centered care. Physical activity prescriptions and counseling can evolve to reflect affective and behavioral science and sell exercise so patients want to buy it.

  20. To give or sell human gametes--the interplay between pragmatics, policy and ethics.

    PubMed

    Daniels, K R

    2000-06-01

    The ever-growing acceptance and use of assisted human reproduction techniques has caused demand for "donated" sperm and eggs to outstrip supply. Medical professionals and others argue that monetary reward is the only way to recruit sufficient numbers of "donors". Is this a clash between pragmatics and policy/ethics? Where monetary payments are the norm, alternative recruitment strategies used successfully elsewhere may not have been considered, nor the negative consequences of commercialism on all participants thought through. Considerations leading some countries to ban the buying and selling of sperm, eggs and embryos are outlined and a case made that the collective welfare of all involved parties be the primary consideration in this, at times heated, debate.

  1. 'No willpower required'. The slimming industry and the right to sell dreams.

    PubMed

    de Beaufort, Inez; Vandamme, Sofie

    2008-03-01

    Many products to lose weight are presented on the market. The products are advertised with two 'arguments': the health-argument: obesity and overweight are dangerous for your health, and the beauty argument: obesity and overweight make you ugly. The authors raise ethical questions with regard to the promises made and discuss the following arguments: the exploitation of vulnerable persons who are told they are unhealthy and ugly, the stigmatization of obese people as lazy and without willpower, and the harm some treatments may cause. They argue that raising the health argument should be analyzed very critically as obese people are vulnerable and susceptible to all kind of promises. With regard to the beauty argument, they argue that 'selling dreams' is perhaps less problematic as people are not as susceptible and vulnerable with regard to promises on beauty and therefore less likely to be seduced by such promises. People should be empowered to be very critical of (advertisements for) slimming products.

  2. Violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J

    2005-09-01

    Adults (N = 336) 18 to 54 years old watched a television program containing violence, sex, both violence and sex, or no violence and sex. Programs were shown in a comfortable room containing padded chairs and tasty snacks. Each program contained the same 12 ads. Embedding an ad in a program containing violence or sex reduced (a) viewers' likelihood of remembering the advertised brand, (b) their interest in buying that brand, and (c) their likelihood of selecting a coupon for that brand. These effects occurred for males and females of all ages, regardless of whether they liked programs containing violence and sex. These results show that violence and sex in television programs do not sell products in advertisements.

  3. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  4. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health.

  5. Heterosexual behaviours among men who sell sex to men in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adrian D.; Muhaari, Allan D.; Agwanda, Carole; Kowuor, Dickens; van der Elst, Elise; Davies, Alun; Graham, Susan M.; Jaffe, Harold W.; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective African men who have sex with men often sell sex to men, and MSM who sell sex (MSM-SW) often also have female partners. We compared sexual risk behaviour of MSM-SW who were sexually active with female partners (bisexual MSW) to MSM-SW with only male partners (exclusive MSW). Design Descriptive behavioural study Methods A novel, validated daily event and partner diary self-completed by 82 MSM who sold sex over a follow-up period of 42 days with weekly review. Cumulative individual counts of sex and condomless sex were compiled by partner characteristics. The incidence of specific partnerships and sex acts were compared within and between bisexual and exclusive MSW. Results Most (59%) MSM-SW reported female partners during follow-up. The majority of both male and female partners were cash-paying clients originating locally. Bisexual MSW reported a similar rate of condomless sex with male and female partners, but significantly fewer male partners than exclusive MSW. Bisexual MSW had lower HIV prevalence, were more likely to only report insertive anal sex roles, and reported lower frequencies of condomless receptive anal sex than exclusive MSW. Conclusion Bisexually active male sex workers in coastal Kenya create HIV and other sexually transmitted infection transmission pathways to partners and clients in both MSM and heterosexual networks, but differed from exclusive MSW in having lower HIV acquisition and transmission risks. Epidemiological projection methods are liable to overestimate bridging potential of MSM-SW and MSM populations without account for systematic differences in risk within these populations. PMID:26565965

  6. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-05

    More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic.

  7. Endogenous Bioactive Jasmonate Is Composed of a Set of (+)-7-iso-JA-Amino Acid Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianbin; Li, Suhua; Gu, Min; Yao, Ruifeng; Li, Yuwen; Chen, Juan; Yang, Mai; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Nan, Fajun; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-12-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) regulate a wide range of plant defense and development processes. The bioactive JA is perceived by its receptor COI1 to trigger the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins and subsequently derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors for activation of expression of JA-responsive genes. So far, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile has been the only identified endogenous bioactive JA molecule. Here, we designed coronafacic acid (CFA) conjugates with all the amino acids (CFA-AA) to mimic the JA amino acid conjugates, and revealed that (+)-7-iso-JA-Leu, (+)-7-iso-JA-Val, (+)-7-iso-JA-Met, and (+)-7-iso-JA-Ala are new endogenous bioactive JA molecules. Furthermore, our studies uncover the general characteristics for all the bioactive JA molecules, and provide a new strategy to synthetically generate novel active JA molecules.

  8. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering...

  9. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering...

  10. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering...

  11. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering...

  12. 25 CFR 309.7 - How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering, or displaying art and craft work for sale? 309.7 Section 309.7... PRODUCTS § 309.7 How should a seller disclose the nature and degree of Indian labor when selling, offering...

  13. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall be... summarize the buy-ins and sell-outs of those open contractual commitments and shall be accompanied by the...

  14. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall be... summarize the buy-ins and sell-outs of those open contractual commitments and shall be accompanied by the...

  15. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall be... summarize the buy-ins and sell-outs of those open contractual commitments and shall be accompanied by the...

  16. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall be... summarize the buy-ins and sell-outs of those open contractual commitments and shall be accompanied by the...

  17. 41 CFR 302-11.308 - How much will I receive for reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... site? 302-11.308 Section 302-11.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site? When you purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site, your reimbursement...

  18. 41 CFR 302-11.308 - How much will I receive for reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... site? 302-11.308 Section 302-11.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site? When you purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site, your reimbursement...

  19. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  20. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  1. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  2. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.9 When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style...

  3. Health care tips for your professional corporation. II. Or where there is a buy-sell agreement and an employment agreement, there is a way.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, R W

    1993-11-01

    In my earlier article, I discussed the importance of the Buy-Sell Agreement and the Employment Contract in the professional corporation (PC) environment. In that article the discussion was centered primarily upon the Buy-Sell Agreement and its structure. In this article, my comments will focus upon the shareholder Employment Contract with suggested provisions for language to enhance its efficacy.

  4. 30 CFR 206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 206.355 Section 206.355 Mineral Resources... Geothermal Resources § 206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length... leases at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use, then the royalty on the geothermal resource is the...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.260 - What general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration? 1068.260 Section 1068.260... general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration... ensure that shipping the engine without such components will not result in the engine being operated...

  6. 40 CFR 1068.260 - What general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration? 1068.260 Section 1068.260... general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration... ensure that shipping the engine without such components will not result in the engine being operated...

  7. 41 CFR 302-11.308 - How much will I receive for reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site? When you purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site, your reimbursement will be limited to a pro rata reimbursement of the land reasonably related to the residence site....

  8. 41 CFR 302-11.308 - How much will I receive for reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursement when I purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site? When you purchase or sell land in excess of what reasonably relates to the residence site, your reimbursement will be limited to a pro rata reimbursement of the land reasonably related to the residence site....

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  13. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  14. 17 CFR 301.300a - Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 300-A, for summary of buy... Form 300-A, for summary of buy-ins or sell-outs of all open contractual commitments. This form shall be... summarize the buy-ins and sell-outs of those open contractual commitments and shall be accompanied by...

  15. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  16. The Effects of Task Clarification, Visual Prompts, and Graphic Feedback on Customer Greeting and Up-Selling in a Restaurant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…

  17. 40 CFR 1045.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family with a suspended certificate of conformity? 1045.330 Section 1045.330 Protection of Environment... engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity? You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1045.315 only if one of the following...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of...

  19. California Court Upholds an Injunction Barring Community Colleges from Selling Books that Aren't Specifically Required for Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    Local bookstore owners charge that the selling of best-sellers and trade books unrelated to coursework by community college bookstores violates California's education code. The decision was not based on free-speech grounds but on the language of the state code. (MSE)

  20. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.330 Selling... following occurs: (a) You test each engine you produce and show it complies with emission standards that...

  1. 42 CFR 23.11 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary sell equipment or other property of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manpower shortage area, the Secretary may sell equipment and other property of the United States used by... market value to any entity providing health services in or to a health manpower shortage area if the... assurance that it will use the equipment or property to provide health services in or to the health manpower...

  2. 42 CFR 23.11 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary sell equipment or other property of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manpower shortage area, the Secretary may sell equipment and other property of the United States used by... market value to any entity providing health services in or to a health manpower shortage area if the... assurance that it will use the equipment or property to provide health services in or to the health manpower...

  3. 42 CFR 23.11 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary sell equipment or other property of the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manpower shortage area, the Secretary may sell equipment and other property of the United States used by... market value to any entity providing health services in or to a health manpower shortage area if the... assurance that it will use the equipment or property to provide health services in or to the health manpower...

  4. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  5. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  6. 40 CFR 1045.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... family with a suspended certificate of conformity? 1045.330 Section 1045.330 Protection of Environment... engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity? You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1045.315 only if one of the following...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... family with a suspended certificate of conformity? 1048.330 Section 1048.330 Protection of Environment... family with a suspended certificate of conformity? You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1048.315 only if one of the following occurs:...

  8. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  9. California Court Upholds an Injunction Barring Community Colleges from Selling Books that Aren't Specifically Required for Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchsberg, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    Local bookstore owners charge that the selling of best-sellers and trade books unrelated to coursework by community college bookstores violates California's education code. The decision was not based on free-speech grounds but on the language of the state code. (MSE)

  10. Community Background Reports: Papago Reservation, Sells, Arizona. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 17, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackett, Robert; Chilcott, John H.

    Number 17 in Series I of the final report of the National Study of American Indian Education describes the small community of Sells, Arizona, in terms of (1) location and climate, (2) sociocultural background, (3) transportation problems, (4) housing problems, (5) governmental influence, (6) recreation, (7) educational opportunities, and (8)…

  11. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  12. "Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

  13. Writing Treatments That Sell: How To Create and Market Your Story Ideas to the Motion Picture and TV Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atchity, Kenneth; Wong, Chi-Li

    Pointing out that what sells a story idea for film or television is not writing the script but preparing the "treatment"--the brief pitch of a story to a producer or agent--this book furnishes dozens of examples of treatments from actual productions. The book makes the distinction between scripts designed for feature films, episodic…

  14. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.105 - Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Before we sell a motor vehicle, what motor vehicle identification must we remove? 102-34.105 Section 102-34.105 Public Contracts... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles...

  16. Selling sex in a population-based study of high school seniors in sweden: demographic and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela

    2007-02-01

    Adolescents reporting selling sex for payment were studied with respect to socioeconomic background, perceived mental health and health behavior, antisocial behavior, sexual experiences, including sexual abuse and abusive behaviors, and the use of pornography. The sample consisted of a representative sample of 4,339 students (response rate, 77.2%) from the third year of upper secondary schools in five Swedish cities. Of the participating adolescents, 1.8% of the boys and 1.0% of the girls indicated that they had sold sex for money or other reimbursements. Selling sex was associated with having an immigrant background, higher level of unemployment in the family, and studying a practical/vocational program. Adolescents with the experience of selling sex had an increased risk for different psychosocial problems, such as poorer mental health, weekly use of alcohol, and antisocial behaviors. The adolescents selling sex were also characterized by having had a greater number of sexual experiences, a greater preoccupation with sex, relatively early sexual debut, and experience with sexual abuse as victim and/or perpetrator. The index group students watched pornography more frequently than the majority and they also watched more deviant forms of pornography. The significance of the higher frequency among boys and the gray zone between normal sexual exploration and prostitution are discussed.

  17. "Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

  18. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Design Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. Setting England 2014-15. Population Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Interventions Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45p, and 50p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Main outcome measures Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers’ expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. Results The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers’ mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health—saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23 700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at

  19. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  20. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    PubMed

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P < 0.001). Steers received a greater premium ($6.48 +/- 0.09 vs. $6.02 +/- 0.08; mean +/- SE) and bull calves received greater discounts ($0.30 +/- 0.14 vs. $1.68 +/- 0.09) in 2005 than in 2000. Breeds types that increased in value from 2000 to 2005 were Angus x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P < 0.001). Breed types that received a reduced selling price in 2005 compared with 2000 (P < 0.001) were one-fourth Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0

  1. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that

  2. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers.

    PubMed

    Lulai, Edward; Huckle, Linda; Neubauer, Jonathan; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2011-06-15

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its role(s) in tuber wound-healing. In this study, the effects of wounding on JA content, expression of JA biosynthetic genes, and the involvement of JA in the initiation of closing layer formation in potato tubers were determined. In addition, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in wound-induced JA accumulation was examined. The basal JA content in non-wounded tuber tissues was low (< 3 ng g⁻¹ FW). Two hours after wounding, the JA content increased by > 5-fold, reached a maximum between 4 and 6h after wounding, and declined to near-basal levels thereafter. Tuber age (storage duration) had little effect on the pattern of JA accumulation. The expressions of the JA biosynthetic genes (StAOS2, StAOC, and StOPR3) were greatly increased by wounding reaching a maximum 2-4 h after wounding and declining thereafter. A 1-h aqueous wash of tuber discs immediately after wounding resulted in a 94% inhibition of wound-induced JA accumulation. Neither JA treatment nor inhibition of JA accumulation affected suberin polyphenolic accumulation during closing layer development indicating that JA was not essential for the initiation of primary suberization. ABA treatment did not restore JA accumulation in washed tuber tissues suggesting that leaching of endogenous ABA was either not involved or not solely involved in this loss of JA accumulation by washing. Collectively, these results indicate that JA is not required for the induction of processes essential to the initiation of suberization during closing layer development, but do not exclude the possibility that JA may be involved in other wound related responses. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. RuBPCase activase mediates growth-defense tradeoffs: Silencing RCA redirects JA flux from JA-Ile to MeJA to attenuate induced defense responses in Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sirsha; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary RuBPCase activase (RCA), an abundant photosynthetic protein is strongly down-regulated in response to Manduca sexta’s oral secretion (OS) in Nicotiana attenuata. RCA-silenced plants are impaired not only in photosynthetic capacity and growth, but also in jasmonic acid (JA)-isoleucine (Ile) signaling, and herbivore resistance mediated by JA-Ile dependent defense traits. These responses are consistent with a resource-based growth-defense trade-off. Since JA+Ile-supplementation of OS restored WT levels of JA-Ile, defenses and resistance to M. sexta, but OS supplemented individually with JA- or Ile did not, the JA-Ile deficiency of RCA-silenced plants could not be attributed to lower JA or Ile pools or JAR4/6 conjugating activity. Similar levels of JA-Ile derivatives after OS elicitation indicated unaltered JA-Ile turnover and lower levels of other JA-conjugates ruled out competition from other conjugation reactions. RCA-silenced plants accumulated more methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after OS elicitation, which corresponded with increased jasmonate methyltransferase (JMT) activity. RCA-silencing phenocopies JMT over-expression, wherein elevated JMT activity redirects OS-elicited JA flux towards inactive MeJA, creating a JA sink which depletes JA-Ile and its associated defense responses. Hence RCA plays an additional non-photosynthetic role in attenuating JA-mediated defenses and their associated costs potentially allowing plants to anticipate resource-based constraints on growth before they actually occur. PMID:24491116

  4. Buying on margin, selling short in an agent-based market model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Honggang

    2013-09-01

    Credit trading, or leverage trading, which includes buying on margin and selling short, plays an important role in financial markets, where agents tend to increase their leverages for increased profits. This paper presents an agent-based asset market model to study the effect of the permissive leverage level on traders’ wealth and overall market indicators. In this model, heterogeneous agents can assume fundamental value-converging expectations or trend-persistence expectations, and their effective demands of assets depend both on demand willingness and wealth constraints, where leverage can relieve the wealth constraints to some extent. The asset market price is determined by a market maker, who watches the market excess demand, and is influenced by noise factors. By simulations, we examine market results for different leverage ratios. At the individual level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences agents’ wealth accumulation. At the market level, we focus on how the leverage ratio influences changes in the asset price, volatility, and trading volume. Qualitatively, our model provides some meaningful results supported by empirical facts. More importantly, we find a continuous phase transition as we increase the leverage threshold, which may provide a further prospective of credit trading.

  5. Selling conscience short: a response to Schuklenk and Smalling on conscientious objections by medical professionals.

    PubMed

    Maclure, Jocelyn; Dumont, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Schuklenk and Smalling argue that no right to conscientious objection should be granted to medical professionals. First, they hold that it is impossible to assess either the truth of conscience-based claims or the sincerity of the objectors. Second, even a fettered right to conscientious refusal inevitably has adverse effects on the rights of patients. We argue that the main problem with their position is that it is not derived from a broader reflection on the meaning and implications of freedom of conscience and reasonable accommodation. We point out that they collapse two related but distinct questions, that is, the subjective conception of freedom of conscience and the sincerity test. We note that they do not successfully show that the standard norm according to which exemption claims should not impose undue hardship on others is unworkable. We suggest that the main reason why arguments such as no one is forced to be a medical professional are flawed is that public norms should not constrain citizens to choose between two of their basic rights unless it is necessary. In fine, Schuklenk and Smalling, who see conscience claims as arbitrary dislikes, sell freedom of conscience short and forego any attempts at balancing the competing rights involved. We maintain the authors neglect that most of legal reasoning is contextual and that the blanket restriction of healthcare professionals' freedom of conscience is disproportionate.

  6. Selling sex: female street prostitution and HIV risk behaviour in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    McKeganey, N; Barnard, M

    1992-01-01

    Female prostitutes have often been seen as a major source of HIV infection. In this paper we report on a study of HIV-related risk behaviour among street prostitutes in Glasgow. This paper is based on street interviews using a standardized schedule with 68 women. We focus on the extent of HIV testing amongst the women, travel, the sexual services provided, the use of condoms with clients and private partners, and the extent of drug injecting and equipment sharing by the women. It is shown that female street prostitution within Glasgow is, at present, unlikely to be associated with significant heterosexual spread of HIV as most commercial sex is with a condom. However, some risk activities are continuing. Additionally, prostitutes report worrying rates of condom failure with clients. It is suggested that attention should switch away from an exclusive focus on women selling sexual services to target the men who purchase sex. These data indicate that much of the pressure for these women to provide unprotected sex comes from their clients.

  7. Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Laura M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. Method A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages 17 and 19 at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Results Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription ADHD medication, with a 61.7% diversion rate, and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than non-diverters. Conclusions If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. PMID:20331930

  8. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  9. When sex doesn't sell: using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This "sex sells" approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox--is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N = 82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N = 280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women.

  10. Genetic testing and private insurance--a case of "selling one's body"?

    PubMed

    Hübner, D

    2006-01-01

    Arguments against the possible use of genetic test results in private health and life insurance predominantly refer to the problem of certain gene carriers failing to obtain affordable insurance cover. However, some moral intuitions speaking against this practice seem to be more fundamental than mere concerns about adverse distributional effects. In their perspective, the central ethical problem is not that some people might fail to get insurance cover because of their 'bad genes', but rather that some people would manage to get insurance cover because of their 'good genes'. This paper tries to highlight the ethical background of these intuitions. Their guiding idea appears to be that, by pointing to his favourable test results, a customer might make an attempt to 'sell his body'. The rationale of this concept is developed and its applicability to the case at issue is critically investigated. The aim is to clarify an essential objection against the use of genetic information in private insurance which has not yet been openly addressed in the academic debate of the topic.

  11. Medico-legal aspects of congenital heart diseases in buying and selling of pets

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Pugliese, Michela; Quartarone, Valeria; Russo, Natalia; Bussadori, Roberto; Guercio, Bartolomeo

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The veterinarian should be able to assess congenital and inherited malformations such as heart defects because they may be object of legal disputes. In this study, the authors report some cases of congenital heart defects in pets (dogs and cats) to clarify whether or not they may be considered a redhibitory defect. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 medical records of pets referred with suspected congenital heart disease were examined. All patients aged between 3 and 24 months underwent clinical examination, chest X-ray examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiography and angiocardiography when necessary. Results: Congenital heart diseases or associated cardiac malformations were confirmed. Considering the above congenital diseases as redhibitory defect and the rights of the owners from a strictly legal viewpoint, 9 owners demanded an estimatory action and 11 a redhibitory action; 1 owner decided to demand the reimbursement of veterinary expenses because the animal died; 7 owners took no legal action but requested surgical intervention. Conclusions: Until more appropriate and detailed legislation on the buying and selling of pet animals is put in place; the authors propose to include in the contract a temporal extension of the guarantee relating to congenital heart disease, which can often become evident later. PMID:28246457

  12. Sharing and selling of prescription medications in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Laura M; Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E; Wish, Eric D

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages of 17 and 19 years at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication (61.7% diversion rate) and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than nondiverters. If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. (c) 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Sexuality sells: a content analysis of lesbian and heterosexual women's bodies in magazine advertisements.

    PubMed

    Milillo, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Controversies in the literature suggest varied views as to whether lesbian and heterosexual women accept different cultural norms about body shape and size. This article explores whether messages about the body from lesbian media deviate from mainstream, heterosexually focused media. In particular, I differentiate the messages within both media by the physical appearance of the model in the photo, and how the body is positioned in the type and context of the ad itself. Three hundred randomly selected photo advertisements from lesbian and mainstream women's magazines were examined. Lesbian models varied more in age and weight than mainstream models, and were more likely to be androgynous in gender appearance. In turn, mainstream models were more likely to be wearing revealing clothing that hindered their mobility, such as a tight skirt or stiletto heels. Advertisements in lesbian magazines placed their models in more defined contexts, such as in travel ads, and with more of a purpose than mainstream advertisements, where models were more likely to be placed in front of a non-descript backdrop. Lesbian advertisements were more likely to sell products that engendered community (e.g., travel, book club), whereas mainstream advertisements more often sold products that emphasized the self (e.g., clothing, beauty products). I consider how lesbian and heterosexual bodies are reproduced and impart messages about "doing" gender.

  14. The impact of the principal in the implementation of promoting science among English language learners (P-SELL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittrell, Resma

    School organizations are in a constant state of change. One of the major changes that all schools encounter is adopting new curriculum. It is important to look at the role of the principal during the implementation of a new curriculum so that we can identify specific strategies that might be useful in other areas of school change. This study focuses on the role of the principal during the adoption of a new science curriculum, Promoting Science Among English Language Learners (P-SELL), within six elementary schools. This multiple case study included teacher focus group interviews, principal interviews, and teacher and principal written surveys to identify specific roles and strategies that principals illustrated during implementation of P-SELL. The overarching themes uncovered included (a) distributive leadership, (b) clear communication, and (c) supportive conditions. These findings can be used to understand the process of change within an organization.

  15. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Male sex workers who sell sex to men also engage in anal intercourse with women: evidence from Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

  17. Factors associated with presence of pharmacies and pharmacies that sell syringes over-the-counter in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Stopka, Thomas J; Geraghty, Estella M; Azari, Rahman; Gold, Ellen B; Deriemer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Community pharmacies serve as key locations for public health services including interventions to enhance the availability of syringes sold over-the-counter (OTC), an important strategy to prevent injection-mediated HIV transmission. Little is known about the community characteristics associated with the availability of pharmacies and pharmacies that sell syringes OTC. We conducted multivariable regression analyses to determine whether the sociodemographic characteristics of census tract residents were associated with pharmacy presence in Los Angeles (LA) County during 2008. Using a geographic information system, we conducted hot-spot analyses to identify clusters of pharmacies, OTC syringe-selling pharmacies, sociodemographic variables, and their relationships. For LA County census tracts (N = 2,054), population size (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.22; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.16, 1.28), median age of residents (AOR, 1.03; 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.05), and the percent of households receiving public assistance (AOR, 0.97; 95 % CI, 0.94, 0.99) were independently associated with the presence of all pharmacies. Only 12 % of census tracts had at least one OTC syringe-selling pharmacy and sociodemographic variables were not independently associated with the presence of OTC syringe-selling pharmacies. Clusters of pharmacies (p < 0.01) were located proximally to clusters of older populations and were distant from clusters of poorer populations. Our combined statistical and spatial analyses provided an innovative approach to assess the sociodemographic and geographic factors associated with the presence of community pharmacies and pharmacies that participate in OTC syringe sales.

  18. Male Sex Workers Who Sell Sex to Men Also Engage in Anal Intercourse with Women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King’ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education. Conclusions We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond. PMID:23300978

  19. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... your proposed remedy to address a suspended certificate under § 1042.325 is inadequate to solve the problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines from...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.340 - When may EPA revoke my certificate under this subpart and how may I sell these engines again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW... problem or requires you to change the engine's design or emission control system. (b) To sell engines from...

  1. Selling and Smooth-Talking: Effects of Interviewer Impression Management from a Signaling Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmy, Annika; Kleinmann, Martin; Melchers, Klaus G; Götz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    risks and chances in selling and smooth-talking toward applicants.

  2. Selling and Smooth-Talking: Effects of Interviewer Impression Management from a Signaling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmy, Annika; Kleinmann, Martin; Melchers, Klaus G.; Götz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    risks and chances in selling and smooth-talking toward applicants. PMID:28611696

  3. Underage and underserved: reaching young women who sell sex in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Busza, Joanna; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Mapfumo, Rumbidzo; Hanisch, Dagmar; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Cowan, Frances

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Young women who sell sex (YWSS) in Southern Africa are highly vulnerable to HIV, as the risks of being young and female in a high prevalence setting coalesce with those of commercial sex. YWSS are less able to negotiate safe sex, more likely to have higher risk partners, and less likely to use available health services compared to older sex workers. In Zimbabwe’s national HIV programme for sex workers, fewer than 1% of clients were 15–29. We developed monthly interactive workshops for YWSS based on an Activity Pack consisting of 21 sessions organised into six modules. The aim was to encourage YWSS’ interaction with each other, build their trust, confidence and skills, and encourage uptake of clinical services. We conducted a process evaluation to assess programme strengths, identify challenges, and recommend changes. This paper presents findings synthesising programme records with qualitative data and discusses feasibility, acceptability, and outputs during the pilot phase. In total, 143 YWSS attended meetings and most were from the target 15–19-year-old age group. Participants enjoyed the sessions and reported improved cooperation, willingness to negotiate with clients, and self-reflection about their futures. Staff found facilitating sessions easy and activities clear and appropriate. Challenges included identifying appropriate referrals, initial recruitment of women in some sites, and managing participants’ requests for financial compensation. The number of clients aged 15–19 increased at sex worker clinics in all sites. This programme is the first to target YWSS in Zimbabwe to address their disproportionately low service use. It proved feasible to staff and acceptable to participants over a one-year period. Given enhanced vulnerability of YWSS, this programme provides one workable model for reaching this underserved group. PMID:27391994

  4. Buying and selling "loosies" in Baltimore: the informal exchange of cigarettes in the community context.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-07-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General's report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18-24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes ("loosies") within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities.

  5. 25 CFR 309.9 - When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can non-Indians make and sell products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? 309.9 Section 309.9 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF... products in the style of Indian arts and crafts? A non-Indian can make and sell products in the style of...

  6. The University of Jaén Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; García-Hernández, María T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a description and instrumental characterization of the photometric equipment of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Jaén. The observatory hosts a 41 cm automated telescope inside a 4 m dome located at the university main campus, in the outskirts of the city of Jaén (Spain). This facility is used for educational, outreach and occasional scientific research on bright stellar objects. Despite the observatory location in a light polluted urban area, its performance for differential photometry studies has proven to be very acceptable. The discovery of the Be star LS I +5979 as a peculiar eclipsing binary system is so far the most relevant achievement.

  7. Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-09-30

    Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found

  8. Quality of Online Pharmacies and Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Merla, Anna; Schulz, Peter J; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research. Objective The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits. Methods We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities). We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs. We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage. Results We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12. The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything. Regarding quality of drugs

  9. Diversion of methadone and buprenorphine from opioid substitution treatment: patients who regularly sell or share their medication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Björn; Richert, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Diversion-the practice of patients selling or sharing their medication-is a much debated problem of opioid substitution treatment. Regular diversion by patients was studied at 11 opioid substitution treatment programs in the south of Sweden. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was investigated whether those patients differ from other patients, their motives for and means of diversion, and who the recipients are. Regular diverters are a small, yet heterogeneous group. Continued illicit drug use, however, stands out as a common risk factor. Pecuniary need and a desire to help friends are other important motives. The client base mainly consists of people from the regular diverters' own drug milieus.

  10. Decision of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee on Strict Punishment for Criminals Who Abduct, Sell, and Kidnap Women and Children [4 September 1991].

    PubMed

    1991-09-05

    This document contains the text of a 1991 Chinese amended law which seeks to punish criminals who abduct and sell women and children. The law assigns a prison sentence of 3-10 years and a fine for the abduction and sale of women and children. When circumstances are deemed especially serious, the penalty is increased to death and confiscation of property. Such circumstances include being the ringleader of a group which abducts and sells women and children, abducting and selling three or more women or children, raping abducted women, inducing or forcing women to prostitution, causing serious injury or death to abducted women and children or their relatives, and selling women and children outside of the territory. A 10-year sentence is to be imposed for the use of force, threats, or narcotics to kidnap women and children to sell them. Those who buy abducted women or children are also to be punished unless they fail to obstruct the women from returning to their home, fail to abuse the children, or fail to obstruct the children from saving themselves.

  11. Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements. PMID:22567159

  12. Supply chain coordination with two production modes and random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Dong; Zhou, Yong-Wu; Wang, Jun-Ping

    2010-10-01

    This article discusses production and order as well as advertising coordination issues in a single-manufacturer single-buyer supply chain, where the manufacturer sells a newsvendor-type product through the buyer who faces a random demand depending on advertising expenditure and selling price. The buyer has two ordering opportunities: the one happens before the beginning of the season, and the other takes place at the end of the season. The ordered items are produced by the manufacturer in two production modes for different requirements. The first production mode is relatively cheap but requires a long lead-time, whereas the second is expensive but offers quick response. Under such a setting, the centralised and decentralised decision models are developed, respectively, and the closed form solution to each model is provided as well. Moreover, we point out that the traditional revenue-sharing contract fails to coordinate the supply chain. We thus propose an improved revenue-sharing contract that requests the manufacturer not only shares the buyer's revenue but also bears a portion of the buyer's operating costs. Such a contract can achieve perfect coordination of the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate its profit between two parties.

  13. HIV risk among drug-using men who have sex with men, men selling sex, and transgender individuals in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Bao Ngoc; Mulvey, Kevin P; Baldwin, Simon; Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about drug use and its association with HIV risk among men who have sex with men is limited. Although the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam is increasingly acknowledged, understanding the impact of drug use on the spread of HIV is largely lacking. Using qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 93 drug users, 15 non-drug users and 9 community stakeholders, this analysis explores emerging patterns of drug use and risk factors for engaging in risk behaviours among drug-using men having sex with men, men selling sex and transgender individuals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Findings revealed that drug use is shifting from heroin to ecstasy and ice. Drug users reported unsafe sex associated with drug use and men selling sex were particularly at elevated risk because of using drugs as a tool for sex work and trading sex for drugs. These findings are guiding development of programmes addressing unmet HIV-prevention needs in Vietnam.

  14. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  15. Increased SA in NPR1-silenced plants antagonizes JA and JA-dependent direct and indirect defenses in herbivore-attacked Nicotiana attenuata in nature.

    PubMed

    Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-11-01

    The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is known to mediate herbivore resistance, while salicylic acid (SA) and non-expressor of PR-1 (NPR1) mediate pathogen resistance in many plants. Herbivore attack on Nicotiana attenuata elicits increases in JA and JA-mediated defenses, but also increases SA levels and Na-NPR1 transcripts from the plant's single genomic copy. SA treatment of wild-type plants increases Na-NPR1 and Na-PR1 transcripts. Plants silenced in NPR1 accumulation by RNAi (ir-npr1) are highly susceptible to herbivore and pathogen attack when planted in their native habitat in Utah. They are also impaired in their ability to attract Geocorus pallens predators, due to their decreased ability to release cis-alpha-bergamotene, a JA-elicited volatile 'alarm call'. In the glasshouse, Spodoptera exigua larvae grew better on ir-npr1 plants, which had low levels of JA, JA-isoleucine/leucine, lipoxygenase-3 (LOX3) transcripts and JA-elicited direct defense metabolites (nicotine, caffeoyl putrescine and rutin), but high levels of SA and isochorismate synthase (ICS) transcripts, suggesting de novo biosynthesis of SA. A microarray analysis revealed downregulation of many JA-elicited genes and upregulation of SA biosynthetic genes. JA treatment restored nicotine levels and resistance to S. exigua in ir-npr1 plants. We conclude that, during herbivore attack, NPR1 negatively regulates SA production, allowing the unfettered elicitation of JA-mediated defenses; when NPR1 is silenced, the elicited increases in SA production antagonize JA and JA-related defenses, making the plants susceptible to herbivores.

  16. Admission of drug-selling behaviors is structured by genetic and nonshared environmental factors: results from a longitudinal twin-based study.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral genetic research has consistently revealed that approximately one-half of the variance in antisocial behaviors is attributable to genetic factors. Even so, there is some reason to believe that different types of antisocial behaviors may have different developmental etiologies. The current study used this possibility as a springboard to examine the genetic and environmental influences on admission of drug-selling behaviors. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health revealed that 38% of the variance in a continuously coded drug-selling variable was accounted for by genetic factors and 69% of the variance in a dichotomously coded drug-selling variable was the result of genetic factors. The remaining variance for both measures was explained by nonshared environmental factors. The implications that these results have for drug research are discussed and avenues for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response of the Selle River to climatic modifications during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene (Somme Basin-Northern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Munaut, André-Valentin; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Ponel, Philippe; Dupéron, Jean; Dupéron, Monique

    2003-10-01

    Research on Lateglacial sequences from the Selle valley leads to an overview of its evolution in relation to climatic variations between the end of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial and the beginning of the Holocene. The first major modification of the fluvial morphology is dated at the Upper Pleniglacial/Lateglacial transition (13,000 14C-yr BP). At that time, the response to climatic improvement and environmental modifications is marked by downcutting and evolution from a braided river to a transitional river pattern (Bølling infilling in the newly created channels). After a short cold phase recorded in a thin calcareous bed at the top of the Bølling peat attributed to the Older Dryas (Dr. II), the Allerød is characterized by the deposition of organic overbank silts within a large single channel meandering system. In lower slope environments, this period is also marked by slow rates of colluvial accumulation and by the development of upbuilding soils (Allerød soil). On the other hand, the end of the Lateglacial, is characterised by the infilling of the whole valley by fine calcareous overbank silts during the Younger Dryas cold phase (overflow of a large single channel and lateral input of chalk mud). A second major downcutting phase occurs at the beginning of the Holocene at around 10,000 BP, in parallel with another rapid climatic improvement and the renewed spread of vegetation. From a general point of view, the evolution of fluvial environments in the Selle valley is comparable with many other river valleys in NW Europe, showing that fluvial systems react very quickly to climatic variations of short duration (1000 to 100 years). Finally, in the Upper Selle River, incision events occur clearly before the main modifications of the vegetal cover. They are most likely linked to a rapid shift in the balance between water discharge and sediment supply, caused by climate modifications (shift to more temperate and oceanic conditions), and the resulting

  18. Forcing the Navy to sell cigarettes on ships: how the tobacco industry and politicians torpedoed Navy tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Offen, Naphtali; Arvey, Sarah R; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-03-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships' stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces.

  19. Forcing the Navy to Sell Cigarettes on Ships: How the Tobacco Industry and Politicians Torpedoed Navy Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435

  20. Buying and selling sex in Québec adolescents: a study of risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Caroline; Gagné, Marie-Hélène; Hébert, Martine

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the exchange of sexual services for compensation (e.g., money, drugs, alcohol) in high school students. The sale of sex in young people from nonclinical samples has been the subject of recent studies, but buying such services has received far less attention. This study described these two phenomena and associated factors within a nonclinical sample of 815 high school students (M = 15.86 years) from Québec. According to our results, 3% of these youth reported having bought and 4% reported having sold such services in their lifetime. More girls were involved in selling sexual services and more boys were involved in buying them. Young people generally disapproved of prostitution. Logistic regressions revealed that attitudes in support of prostitution, history of sexual abuse, casual sex, and the number of stressful life events were related to the sale of sex. Furthermore, observing sexualized social activities and exhibiting approving attitudes towards prostitution were associated with buying sexual services.

  1. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  2. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its ro...

  3. 40 CFR 1068.260 - What general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section specifies clarifications and exemptions related to these requirements for engines. Except for... parameters. (1) You do not need an exemption to ship an engine that does not include installation or assembly... selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration? 1068.260 Section...

  4. 40 CFR 1068.260 - What general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clarifications and exemptions related to these requirements for engines. Except for paragraph (c) of this section... need an exemption to ship an engine that does not include installation or assembly of certain emission... selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration? 1068.260 Section...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.260 - What general provisions apply for selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clarifications and exemptions related to these requirements for engines. Except for paragraph (c) of this section... need an exemption to ship an engine that does not include installation or assembly of certain emission... selling or shipping engines that are not yet in their certified configuration? 1068.260 Section...

  6. 12 CFR 225.136 - Utilization of foreign subsidiaries to sell long-term debt obligations in foreign markets and to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization of foreign subsidiaries to sell long-term debt obligations in foreign markets and to transfer the proceeds to their United States... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.136 Utilization...

  7. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  8. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  12. 30 CFR 206.53 - How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? 206.53 Section 206.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil §...

  13. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. 270.10f-3 Section 270.10f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES...

  14. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. 270.10f-3 Section 270.10f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES...

  15. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. 270.10f-3 Section 270.10f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.10f-3 Exemption for the acquisition of securities during...

  16. 17 CFR 270.10f-3 - Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for the acquisition of securities during the existence of an underwriting or selling syndicate. 270.10f-3 Section 270.10f-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES...

  17. 31 CFR 363.209 - How can I direct that my marketable Treasury security be sold on the open market (Sell Direct ®)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can I direct that my marketable Treasury security be sold on the open market (Sell Direct ®)? 363.209 Section 363.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.261 - What provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified configuration? 1068.261 Section 1068.261... provisions apply for selling or shipping certified engines that are not yet in the certified configuration... (f) of this section. (a) Shipping an engine separately from an aftertreatment component that you have...

  19. Selling. Unit 16. Level 1. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 301-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on selling in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 1 of learning--understanding the…

  20. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your directors, officers, or employees; to... organizations with whom you have an interest that might affect the exercise of your best judgment. (b) Exceptions—(1) Funds for which you have investment discretion. You may lend, sell or otherwise transfer...

  1. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your directors, officers, or employees; to... organizations with whom you have an interest that might affect the exercise of your best judgment. (b) Exceptions—(1) Funds for which you have investment discretion. You may lend, sell or otherwise transfer...

  2. 12 CFR 550.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your directors, officers, or employees; to... organizations with whom you have an interest that might affect the exercise of your best judgment. (b) Exceptions—(1) Funds for which you have investment discretion. You may lend, sell or otherwise transfer...

  3. 12 CFR 150.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your directors, officers, or employees... organizations with whom you have an interest that might affect the exercise of your best judgment. (b) Exceptions—(1) Funds for which you have investment discretion. You may lend, sell or otherwise transfer...

  4. 12 CFR 150.350 - May I lend, sell, or transfer assets of a fiduciary account if I have an interest in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for which you have investment discretion to yourself or any of your directors, officers, or employees... organizations with whom you have an interest that might affect the exercise of your best judgment. (b) Exceptions—(1) Funds for which you have investment discretion. You may lend, sell or otherwise transfer...

  5. Sexual and reproductive health risks amongst female adolescents who use amphetamine-type stimulants and sell sex: a qualitative inquiry in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Chai, Jia-Jia; Luo, Jian; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

    2015-10-16

    China, as other Southeast Asian countries, has witnessed an increased use in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) amongst urban youth. Amongst female adolescents who both sell sex and use ATS, risk behaviours are compounded resulting in even poorer health outcomes. However, limited knowledge exists on ATS use patterns and ATS-related risk behaviours, particularly in this context. This research aimed to improve the understanding of these issues amongst female adolescents who use ATS and sell sex, and to inform future programming. This study utilised monthly focus group discussions (four in total) with the same study participants in Yunnan, China. From within a drug-treatment programme, female adolescents who reported both a history of drug use and selling sex were purposively enrolled in the study. Participating adolescent females were aged 17-19 years and were all internal-migrants with low literacy. All reported polydrug use (mainly methamphetamine and heroin, whereas ecstasy and ketamine have been infrequently employed). Being less informed about risks of drug use and lack of sexual and reproductive health knowledge seemed to contribute to problematic drug use, rough and prolonged sexual intercourse, inconsistent condom use and ineffective contraceptive practice. For their income, participants largely relied on selling sex, which was frequently coupled with drug sharing services to clients. However, despite the practices, women did not self-identify as sex workers, and therefore did not think that existing intervention services targeting female sex workers were relevant to them. Moreover, criminalization and stigmatisation of drug use and selling sex impeded their access to care services. Current harm reduction and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention services are unlikely to address the demand of female adolescents engaged in drug use and commercial sex. Our findings highlight that a comprehensive and coordinated harm reduction and sexual and

  6. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  7. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; ...

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR

  10. Mitochondrial chaperone DnaJA3 induces Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Elwi, Adam N; Lee, Byoungchun; Meijndert, H Christopher; Braun, Janice E A; Kim, Sung-Woo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and controlled by coordinated fusion and fission pathways. The role of mitochondrial chaperones in mitochondrial morphological changes and pathology is currently unclear. Here we report that altered levels of DnaJA3 (Tid1/mtHsp40) a mitochondrial member of the DnaJ protein family, and heat shock protein (Hsp) co-chaperone of matrix 70 kDa Hsp70 (mtHsp70/mortalin/HSPA9), induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Suppression of DnaJA3 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells. Elevated levels of DnaJA3 in normal Hs68 fibroblast cells and HeLa, SKN-SH, U87 and U251 cancer cell lines induces mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation induction was not observed in HeLa cells when other DnaJA family members, or mitochondrial DnaJ protein HSC20, were ectopically expressed, indicating that the effects on mitochondrial morphology were specific to DnaJA3. We show that the DnaJ domain (amino acids 88-168) of DnaJA3 is sufficient for the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, an H121Q point mutation of the DnaJ domain, which abrogates interaction and activation of mtHsp70 ATPase, eliminates fragmentation induced by DnaJA3. This suggests that DnaJA3 interaction with mtHsp70 may be critical in mitochondrial morphological changes. DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was dependent on fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Ectopic expression of the mitofusins (Mfn1 and Mfn2), however, does not rescue DnaJA3-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Lastly, elevated levels of DnaJA3 inducing mitochondrial fragmentation were associated with reduction in cell viability. Taken together, elevated DnaJA3 induces Drp1-depedendent mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased cell viability.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of two diastereomeric JA-Ile macrolactones.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Aleman, Guillermo H; Machado, Ricardo A R; Görls, Helmar; Baldwin, Ian T; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-06-07

    Jasmonates are phytohormones involved in a wide range of plant processes, including growth, development, senescence, and defense. Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile, 2), an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA, 1), has been identified as a bioactive endogenous jasmonate. However, JA-Ile (2) analogues trigger different responses in the plant. ω-Hydroxylation of the pentenyl side chain leads to the inactive 12-OH-JA-Ile (3) acting as a “stop” signal. On the other hand, a lactone derivative of 12-OH-JA (5) (jasmine ketolactone, JKL) occurs in nature, although with no known biological function. Inspired by the chemical structure of JKL (6) and in order to further explore the potential biological activities of 12-modified JA-Ile derivatives, we synthesized two macrolactones (JA-Ile-lactones (4a) and (4b)) derived from 12-OH-JA-Ile (3). The biological activity of (4a) and (4b) was tested for their ability to elicit nicotine production, a well-known jasmonate dependent secondary metabolite. Both macrolactones showed strong biological activity, inducing nicotine accumulation to a similar extent as methyl jasmonate does in Nicotiana attenuata leaves. Surprisingly, the highest nicotine contents were found in plants treated with the JA-Ile-lactone (4b), which has (3S,7S) configuration at the cyclopentanone not known from natural jasmonates. Macrolactone (4a) is a valuable standard to explore for its occurrence in nature.

  12. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  13. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  14. Web sites selling cigarettes: how many are there in the USA and what are their sales practices?

    PubMed

    Ribisl, K M; Kim, A E; Williams, R S

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the number and geographic location of web sites selling cigarettes in the USA, and to examine their sales and marketing practices. Comprehensive searches were conducted using four keyword terms and five popular internet search engines, supplemented by sites identified in a news article. Over 1800 sites were examined to identify 88 internet cigarette vendors. Trained raters examined the content of each site using a standardised coding instrument to assess geographic location, presence of warnings, products sold, and promotional strategies. USA. Internet cigarette vendors were located in 23 states. Nearly half (n = 43) were located in New York state, and many were in tobacco producing states with low cigarette excise taxes. Indian reservations housed 49 of the 88 sites. Only 28.4% of sites featured the US Surgeon General's health warnings and 81.8% featured minimum age of sale warnings. Nearly all sites (96.6%) sold premium or value brand cigarettes, 21.6% sold duty-free Marlboros, and 8.0% sold bidis. Approximately one third featured special promotional programmes. Internet cigarette vendors present new regulatory and enforcement challenges for tobacco control advocates because of the difficulty in regulating internet content and because many vendors are on Indian reservations.

  15. Recent process improvements for the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and resulting reductions in minimum ethanol selling price.

    PubMed

    Sendich, Elizabeth Newton; Laser, Mark; Kim, Seungdo; Alizadeh, Hasan; Laureano-Perez, Lizbeth; Dale, Bruce; Lynd, Lee

    2008-11-01

    The ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process has been shown to be an effective pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass. Technological advances in AFEX have been made since previous cost estimates were developed for this process. Recent research has enabled lower overall ammonia requirements, reduced ammonia concentrations, and reduced enzyme loadings while still maintaining high conversions of glucan and xylan to monomeric sugars. A new ammonia recovery approach has also been developed. Capital and operating costs for the AFEX process, as part of an overall biorefining system producing fuel ethanol from biomass have been developed based on these new research results. These new cost estimates are presented and compared to previous estimates. Two biological processing options within the overall biorefinery are also compared, namely consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation. Using updated parameters and ammonia recovery configurations, the cost of ethanol production utilizing AFEX is calculated. These calculations indicate that the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) has been reduced from $1.41/gal to $0.81/gal.

  16. Web sites selling cigarettes: how many are there in the USA and what are their sales practices?

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, K.; Kim, A.; Williams, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number and geographic location of web sites selling cigarettes in the USA, and to examine their sales and marketing practices.
METHODS—Comprehensive searches were conducted using four keyword terms and five popular internet search engines, supplemented by sites identified in a news article. Over 1800 sites were examined to identify 88 internet cigarette vendors.
MEASURES—Trained raters examined the content of each site using a standardised coding instrument to assess geographic location, presence of warnings, products sold, and promotional strategies.
SETTING—USA.
RESULTS—Internet cigarette vendors were located in 23 states. Nearly half (n = 43) were located in New York state, and many were in tobacco producing states with low cigarette excise taxes. Indian reservations housed 49 of the 88 sites. Only 28.4% of sites featured the US Surgeon General's health warnings and 81.8% featured minimum age of sale warnings. Nearly all sites (96.6%) sold premium or value brand cigarettes, 21.6% sold duty-free Marlboros, and 8.0% sold bidis. Approximately one third featured special promotional programmes.
CONCLUSIONS—Internet cigarette vendors present new regulatory and enforcement challenges for tobacco control advocates because of the difficulty in regulating internet content and because many vendors are on Indian reservations.


Keywords: youth access; internet; web sites; policy PMID:11740027

  17. Novel bioactive oxazolomycin isomers produced by Streptomyces albus JA3453.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, H; Wada, K; Nitoda, T; Kawazu, K

    1998-03-01

    Two novel oxazolomycin isomers, oxazolomycins B (2) and C (3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an oxazolomycin-producing strain, Streptomyces albus JA3453. Both compounds are geometrical isomers of oxazolomycin (1), the configurations of their triene moieties being (4'E, 6'E, 8'E) (2) and (4'Z, 6'E, 8'E) (3) while that of oxazolomycin (1) is (4'Z, 6'Z, 8'E). Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against crown gall formation with the same MIC (0.8 microgram/disk) as oxazolomycin. Compounds 2 and 3 showed no antibacterial activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in contrast to oxazolomycin which has specific anti-A. tumefaciens activity.

  18. 41 CFR 302-12.8 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family do not have full title? 302-12.8 Section 302-12.8 Public Contracts and...

  19. 41 CFR 302-12.8 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family do not have full title? 302-12.8 Section 302-12.8 Public Contracts and...

  20. 41 CFR 302-12.8 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family do not have full title? 302-12.8 Section 302-12.8 Public Contracts and...

  1. Adolescents selling sex: exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support--a study of a Swedish national sample.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Frida; Fredlund, Cecilia; Svedin, Carl Göran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-04-01

    Selling sex is not uncommon among adolescents and we need to increase our knowledge of how this affects them. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents who sell sex regarding sexual, mental and physical abuse, mental health as estimated by using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-harm behaviour and the adolescents' experience of receiving help and support. The study was carried out on a national representative sample of adolescents (mean age 18.3 years) in Swedish high schools in the final year of their 3-year programme. The study had 3498 participants and a response rate of 60.4%. Of the adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had sold sexual services. The selling of sex was associated with a history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. Poorer mental health and a higher degree of self-harm behaviour were reported among the adolescents who had sold sex. Help and support was sought to a greater extent by adolescents who had sold sex but these adolescents were not as satisfied with this help and support as the other adolescents. Adolescents that sell sex are a group especially exposed to sexual, mental and physical abuse. They have poorer mental health and engage in more self-harm behaviour than other adolescents. They are in need of more help and support than other adolescents and it is reasonable to assert that more resources, research and attention should be directed to this group to provide better help and support in the future.

  2. Financial Knudsen number: Breakdown of continuous price dynamics and asymmetric buy-and-sell structures confirmed by high-precision order-book information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-10-01

    We generalize the description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets in terms of a Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of incoming, exiting, and annihilating particles by presenting a model of the velocity on each side (buy and sell) independently. The improved model builds on the time-averaged number of particles in the inner layer and its change per unit time, where the inner layer is revealed by the correlations between price velocity and change in the number of particles (limit orders). This allows us to introduce the Knudsen number of the financial Brownian particle motion and its asymmetric version (on the buy and sell sides). Not being considered previously, the asymmetric Knudsen numbers are crucial in finance in order to detect asymmetric price changes. The Knudsen numbers allows us to characterize the conditions for the market dynamics to be correctly described by a continuous stochastic process. Not questioned until now for large liquid markets such as the USD-JPY and EUR-USD exchange rates, we show that there are regimes when the Knudsen numbers are so high that discrete particle effects dominate, such as during market stresses and crashes. We document the presence of imbalances of particles depletion rates on the buy and sell sides that are associated with high Knudsen numbers and violent directional price changes. This indicator can detect the direction of the price motion at the early stage while the usual volatility risk measure is blind to the price direction.

  3. Financial Knudsen number: Breakdown of continuous price dynamics and asymmetric buy-and-sell structures confirmed by high-precision order-book information.

    PubMed

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-10-01

    We generalize the description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets in terms of a Brownian particle embedded in a fluid of incoming, exiting, and annihilating particles by presenting a model of the velocity on each side (buy and sell) independently. The improved model builds on the time-averaged number of particles in the inner layer and its change per unit time, where the inner layer is revealed by the correlations between price velocity and change in the number of particles (limit orders). This allows us to introduce the Knudsen number of the financial Brownian particle motion and its asymmetric version (on the buy and sell sides). Not being considered previously, the asymmetric Knudsen numbers are crucial in finance in order to detect asymmetric price changes. The Knudsen numbers allows us to characterize the conditions for the market dynamics to be correctly described by a continuous stochastic process. Not questioned until now for large liquid markets such as the USD-JPY and EUR-USD exchange rates, we show that there are regimes when the Knudsen numbers are so high that discrete particle effects dominate, such as during market stresses and crashes. We document the presence of imbalances of particles depletion rates on the buy and sell sides that are associated with high Knudsen numbers and violent directional price changes. This indicator can detect the direction of the price motion at the early stage while the usual volatility risk measure is blind to the price direction.

  4. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  5. Buying and Selling “Loosies” in Baltimore: The Informal Exchange of Cigarettes in the Community Context

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Frances; Bone, Lee; Yancey, Norman; Price, Emmanuel; Belin, Precilla; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2007-01-01

    Since the release of the first Surgeon General’s report, the proportion of adult smokers in the U.S. has been reduced by half (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). This success has not, however, been equally felt across all social strata. Recent survey data from Baltimore show considerably elevated smoking rates within urban, African-American communities. Of particular concern was that in some communities, over half of the young adults (18–24 years old) smoke cigarettes. As yet, there has been little focus on understanding or preventing cigarette smoking among young adults, particularly for those seeking entry into the workforce rather than being engaged in higher education. In this paper, we explore community factors contributing to high young adult smoking prevalence. Our analysis is based on data from four focus groups conducted in 2004 as part of a community-based participatory research project with two urban education and job training organizations. The focus group data reflect the experiences and opinions of 28 young adult program participants (23 smokers and 5 nonsmokers). The data highlight a normalized practice of buying and selling single cigarettes (“loosies”) within the community, with participants describing buying loose cigarettes as a preferred acquisition practice. We apply theories of informal economy and suggest that this alternative purchasing option may influence the smoking behavior of these young adults. We argue that public health efforts need to more closely consider the impact of community structures on program implementation. Overlooking key community characteristics such as the availability of single cigarettes may serve to intensify health disparities. PMID:17431795

  6. Selling a service: experiences of peer supporters while promoting exclusive infant feeding in three sites in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even though it has been shown that peer support to mothers at home helps to increase exclusive breastfeeding, little is known about the experiences of peer supporters themselves and what is required of them to fulfil their day-to-day tasks. Therefore, a community-based randomised control trial using trained "lay" women to support exclusive infant feeding at home was implemented in three different sites across South Africa. The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of peer supporters who promote exclusive infant feeding. Methods Three focus group discussions were held, in a language of their choice, with peer supporters. These meetings focused on how the peer educators utilised their time in the process of delivering the intervention. Data from the discussions were transcribed, with both verbatim and translated transcripts being used in the analysis. Results Unlike the services provided by mainstream health care, peer supporters had to market their services. They had to negotiate entry into the mother's home and then her life. Furthermore, they had to demonstrate competence and come across as professional and trustworthy. An HIV-positive mother's fear of being stigmatised posed an added burden - subsequent disclosure of her positive status would lead to an increased workload and emotional distress. Peer supporters spent most of their time in the field and had to learn the skill of self-management. Their support-base was enhanced when supervision focused on their working conditions as well as the delivery of their tasks. Despite this, they faced other insurmountable issues, such as mothers being compelled to offer their infants mixed feeding simultaneously due to normative practices and working in the fields postpartum. Conclusion Designers of peer support interventions should consider the skills required for delivering health messages and the skills required for selling a service. Supportive supervision should be responsive both to the health

  7. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The prospective NASA contractor is provided with information that describes the agency and its procurement practices. Products include ideas, manufacturing capabilities, fabricated components, construction, basic materials, and specialized services. NASA assistance in marketing these and other products is emphasized. Small and minority business enterprises are discussed. The agency's scientific and technical information activities are also discussed.

  8. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  9. Train Today, Sell Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the state of sales training where it was, where it's going, and what companies are doing to ensure that their salespeople have the skills necessary to excel. Highlights electronic learning and emotional experience. (JOW)

  10. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Prospective contractors are acquainted with the organizational structure of NASA, and the major technical program offices and selected staff offices at the Headquarters level are briefly described. The basic procedures for Federal procurement are covered. A primer is presented on how to market to NASA. While the information is specific to NASA, many of the principles are applicable to other agencies as well. Some of the major programs are introduced which are available to small and disadvantaged businesses. The major research programs and fields of interest at individual NASA centers are summarized.

  11. Selling brand MD.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T

    1999-08-01

    Health care is more than local, of course: It's personal. Recognizing the connections between doctors and patients as a potent form of brand loyalty, health systems are looking for ways to leverage those bonds--and encourage new ones--with special marketing campaigns.

  12. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This handbook is designed to promote a better understanding of NASA's interests and the process of doing business with NASA. The document is divided into the following sections: (1) this is NASA; (2) the procurement process; (3) marketing your capabilities; (4) special assistance programs; (5) NASA field installations; (6) sources of additional help; (7) listing of NASA small/minority business personnel; and (8) NASA organization chart.

  13. The selling of olestra.

    PubMed Central

    Nestle, M

    1998-01-01

    The Procter & Gamble Company spent 30 years and an estimated $500 million to bring its non-digestible fat substitute, olestra, to market. The Food and Drug Administration approved olestra as a food additive but requires products containing olestra to carry a warning statement about its potential effects on gastrointestinal function. In obtaining approval for olestra, P&G conducted a lengthy, persistent, and comprehensive campaign to enlist support from members of Congress; FDA staff; and food, nutrition, and health professionals. This campaign raises larger questions about corporate influence on government policies, and the relationships of corporations to health professionals. To address these larger concerns, the author reviews the history of olestra's approval; describes P&G's campaign to obtain support from FDA and Congress, to defend olestra against critics, and to market it to professionals, the press, and consumers; and suggests implications for public health policies. Images p508-a p509-a p510-a p511-a p512-a p513-a p515-a p516-a p517-a PMID:9847922

  14. The selling of olestra.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    1998-01-01

    The Procter & Gamble Company spent 30 years and an estimated $500 million to bring its non-digestible fat substitute, olestra, to market. The Food and Drug Administration approved olestra as a food additive but requires products containing olestra to carry a warning statement about its potential effects on gastrointestinal function. In obtaining approval for olestra, P&G conducted a lengthy, persistent, and comprehensive campaign to enlist support from members of Congress; FDA staff; and food, nutrition, and health professionals. This campaign raises larger questions about corporate influence on government policies, and the relationships of corporations to health professionals. To address these larger concerns, the author reviews the history of olestra's approval; describes P&G's campaign to obtain support from FDA and Congress, to defend olestra against critics, and to market it to professionals, the press, and consumers; and suggests implications for public health policies.

  15. Buying and Selling Laserbases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1986-01-01

    Discusses factors that should be considered by buyers and producers of databases on CD-ROM (compact disc-read only memory). The advantages and disadvantages of CD-ROM are also discussed and compared with those of magnetic and print media, and market projections are provided. (CLB)

  16. Selling your sol

    SciTech Connect

    Canough, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    At almost every solar energy conference there is a session called Marketing Solar. Most of these had nothing to do with what the rest of the business world calls marketing. For example, at a conference last year, the Marketing Solar session was a series of presentations about demo projects. Most solar energy people are still talking about payback. While it is nice to be able to claim that something will save you money that is only one reason people are interested in or buy a certain product. And it's not the number one reason. Time after time marketing experts will show you surveys of customers where price was not the top consideration at all. People do not buy luxury automobiles because they are cheap. They don't buy hot tubs for payback. What does it take to get someone to buy a solar energy system. To what do you have to appeal? What techniques make a sale? The author discusses the answers to these questions based on his experience.

  17. Continuous Dust Formation in SNe 2010jl and 2011ja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafton, Kelsie; Clayton, Geoffrey; Andrews, Jennifer; Barlow, Michael; De Looze, Ilse

    2016-08-01

    Studies in the last 10 years of dust formation in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) have found only small amounts, ~0.001 solar masses. This is far less than the amount needed to account for the large masses of dust seen in some high redshift galaxies. However, the recent discovery of ~1 solar mass of cold dust in the ejecta of SN 1987A has has caused a complete re-evaluation of dust formation in CCSNe. It has been suggested that the CCSNe are continuously forming dust so that by the time they are about 25 years old they will have dust masses similar to SN 1987A. However, there is a wide time gap between the CCSNe that have been studied recently and SN 1987A. We plan to use the sensitivity of Spitzer to detect dust emission from CCSNe 5 or more years after explosion. Radiative transfer models will be used to estimate the dust masses. This proposal is to continue our study of two interesting SNe 2010jl and 2011ja. These observations are part of a long term study requiring multiple epochs of Spitzer observations to look for evidence of continuous dust formation. These observations will help shed light on the mystery of dust in SN 1987A.

  18. THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen; Smith, Randall; Ryder, Stuart; Sutaria, Firoza; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David; Roy, Rupak

    2013-09-01

    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. Methods A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Results Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Conclusions Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information

  20. Hormone replacement therapy advertising: sense and nonsense on the web pages of the best-selling pharmaceuticals in Spain.

    PubMed

    Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Martín Llaguno, Marta; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2010-03-16

    The balance of the benefits and risks of long term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been a matter of debate for decades. In Europe, HRT requires medical prescription and its advertising is only permitted when aimed at health professionals (direct to consumer advertising is allowed in some non European countries). The objective of this study is to analyse the appropriateness and quality of Internet advertising about HRT in Spain. A search was carried out on the Internet (January 2009) using the eight best-selling HRT drugs in Spain. The brand name of each drug was entered into Google's search engine. The web sites appearing on the first page of results and the corresponding companies were analysed using the European Code of Good Practice as the reference point. Five corporate web pages: none of them included bibliographic references or measures to ensure that the advertising was only accessible by health professionals. Regarding non-corporate web pages (n = 27): 41% did not include the company name or address, 44% made no distinction between patient and health professional information, 7% contained bibliographic references, 26% provided unspecific information for the use of HRT for osteoporosis and 19% included menstrual cycle regulation or boosting feminity as an indication. Two online pharmacies sold HRT drugs which could be bought online in Spain, did not include the name or contact details of the registered company, nor did they stipulate the need for a medical prescription or differentiate between patient and health professional information. Even though pharmaceutical companies have committed themselves to compliance with codes of good practice, deficiencies were observed regarding the identification, information and promotion of HRT medications on their web pages. Unaffected by legislation, non-corporate web pages are an ideal place for indirect HRT advertising, but they often contain misleading information. HRT can be bought online from Spain