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Sample records for human adipose tissue

  1. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  2. Nutritional regulation of lipid metabolism in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Coppack, S W; Patel, J N; Lawrence, V J

    2001-01-01

    Pfeiffer and colleagues years ago pointed out that different distributions and amounts of adipose tissue are associated with abnormalities of lipolysis and lipoprotein metabolism. Adipose tissue has several crucial roles including (i) mobilization from stores of fatty acids as an energy source, (ii) catabolism of lipoproteins such as very-low-density lipoprotein and (iii) synthesis and release of hormonal signals such as leptin and interleukin-6. These adipose tissue actions are crucially regulated by nutrition. The review considers the existence of metabolic pathways and modes of regulation within adipose tissue, and how such metabolic activity can be quantitated in humans. Nutrition can influence adipose tissue at several 'levels'. Firstly the level of obesity or malnutrition has important effects on many aspects of adipose tissue metabolism. Secondly short-term overfeeding, underfeeding and exercise have major impacts on adipose tissue behaviour. Lastly, specific nutrients are capable of regulating adipose tissue metabolism. Recently there have been considerable advances in understanding adipose tissue metabolism and in particular its regulation. This review discusses the behaviour of adipose tissue under various nutritional conditions. There is then a review of recent work examining the ways in which nutritional influences act via intra-cellular mechanisms, insulin and the sympathetic innervation of adipose tissue.

  3. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  4. Total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, N.; Harsas, W.; Marolt, R.S.; Morton, M.; Pollack, J.K.

    1988-12-01

    As far as the authors could ascertain only 4 well-documented analytical studies have been carried out in Australia determining the total DDT and dieldrin content of human adipose tissue. The latest of these studies was published over 16 years ago. Therefore it is timely and important to re-examine the total DDT and dieldrin concentration within the adipose tissue of the Australian population. The present investigation has analyzed 290 samples of human adipose tissue obtained from Westmead Hospital situated in an outer suburb of Sydney, New South Wales for their content of total DDT and dieldrin.

  5. Brown adipose tissue as an anti-obesity tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Chechi, K; Nedergaard, J; Richard, D

    2014-02-01

    During the 11th Stock Conference held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, world-leading experts came together to present and discuss recent developments made in the field of brown adipose tissue biology. Owing to the vast capacity of brown adipose tissue for burning food energy in the process of thermogenesis, and due to demonstrations of its presence in adult humans, there is tremendous interest in targeting brown adipose tissue as an anti-obesity tissue in humans. However, the future of such therapeutic approaches relies on our understanding of the origin, development, recruitment, activation and regulation of brown adipose tissue in humans. As reviewed here, the 11th Stock Conference was organized around these themes to discuss the recent progress made in each aspect, to identify gaps in our current understanding and to further provide a common groundwork that could support collaborative efforts aimed at a future therapy for obesity, based on brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  6. Human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibit specific lipidomic signatures.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Despite their differential effects on human metabolic pathophysiology, the differences in omental and subcutaneous lipidomes are largely unknown. To explore this field, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used for lipidome analyses of adipose tissue samples (visceral and subcutaneous) selected from a group of obese subjects (n=38). Transcriptomics and in vitro studies in adipocytes were used to confirm the pathways affected by location. The analyses revealed the existence of obesity-related specific lipidome signatures in each of these locations, attributed to selective enrichment of specific triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, because these were not observed in adipose tissues from nonobese individuals. The changes were compatible with subcutaneous enrichment in pathways involved in adipogenesis, triacylglyceride synthesis, and lipid droplet formation, as well as increased α-oxidation. Marked differences between omental and subcutaneous depots in obese individuals were seen in the association of lipid species with metabolic traits (body mass index and insulin sensitivity). Targeted studies also revealed increased cholesterol (Δ56%) and cholesterol epoxide (Δ34%) concentrations in omental adipose tissue. In view of the effects of cholesterol epoxide, which induced enhanced expression of adipocyte differentiation and α-oxidation genes in human omental adipocytes, a novel role for cholesterol epoxide as a signaling molecule for differentiation is proposed. In summary, in obesity, adipose tissue exhibits a location-specific differential lipid profile that may contribute to explaining part of its distinct pathogenic role.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudifar, Nastaran; Doran, Pauline M

    2015-01-01

    Human adult mesenchymal stem cells are present in fat tissue, which can be obtained using surgical procedures such as liposuction. The multilineage capacity of mesenchymal stem cells makes them very valuable for cell-based medical therapies. In this chapter, we describe how to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from human adult fat tissue, propagate the cells in culture, and cryopreserve the cells for tissue engineering applications. Flow cytometry methods are also described for identification and characterization of adipose-derived stem cells and for cell sorting.

  8. Adipose tissue macrophages impair preadipocyte differentiation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li Fen; Craig, Colleen M.; Tolentino, Lorna L.; Choi, Okmi; Morton, John; Rivas, Homero; Cushman, Samuel W.; Engleman, Edgar G.; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Aim The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. Methods Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Preadipocytes were isolated, and cultured in the presence or absence of CD14+ macrophages obtained from the same adipose tissue sample. Adipocyte differentiation was quantified after 14 days via immunofluorescence, Oil-Red O, and adipogenic gene expression. Cytokine secretion by mature adipocytes cultured with or without CD14+macrophages was quantified. Results Adipocyte differentiation was significantly lower in VAT than SAT by all measures (p<0.001). With macrophage removal, SAT preadipocyte differentiation increased significantly as measured by immunofluorescence and gene expression, whereas VAT preadipocyte differentiation was unchanged. Adipocyte-secreted proinflammatory cytokines were higher and adiponectin lower in media from VAT vs SAT: macrophage removal reduced inflammatory cytokine and increased adiponectin secretion from both SAT and VAT adipocytes. Differentiation of preadipocytes from SAT but not VAT correlated inversely with systemic insulin resistance. Conclusions The current results reveal that proinflammatory immune cells in human SAT are causally-related to impaired preadipocyte differentiation, which in turn is associated with systemic insulin resistance. In VAT, preadipocyte differentiation is poor even in the absence of tissue macrophages, pointing to inherent differences in fat storage potential between the two depots. PMID:28151993

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Tissue-Engineered Adipose Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Maryse; Aubin, Kim; Lagueux, Jean; Audet, Pierre; Auger, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) substitutes are being developed to answer the strong demand in reconstructive surgery. To facilitate the validation of their functional performance in vivo, and to avoid resorting to excessive number of animals, it is crucial at this stage to develop biomedical imaging methodologies, enabling the follow-up of reconstructed AT substitutes. Until now, biomedical imaging of AT substitutes has scarcely been reported in the literature. Therefore, the optimal parameters enabling good resolution, appropriate contrast, and graft delineation, as well as blood perfusion validation, must be studied and reported. In this study, human adipose substitutes produced from adipose-derived stem/stromal cells using the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering were implanted into athymic mice. The fate of the reconstructed AT substitutes implanted in vivo was successfully followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the imaging modality of choice for visualizing soft ATs. T1-weighted images allowed clear delineation of the grafts, followed by volume integration. The magnetic resonance (MR) signal of reconstructed AT was studied in vitro by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). This confirmed the presence of a strong triglyceride peak of short longitudinal proton relaxation time (T1) values (200±53 ms) in reconstructed AT substitutes (total T1=813±76 ms), which establishes a clear signal difference between adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and native fat (total T1 ∼300 ms). Graft volume retention was followed up to 6 weeks after implantation, revealing a gradual resorption rate averaging at 44% of initial substitute's volume. In addition, vascular perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI confirmed the graft's vascularization postimplantation (14 and 21 days after grafting). Histological analysis of the grafted tissues revealed the persistence of numerous adipocytes without evidence of cysts or tissue necrosis. This study

  10. Two types of brown adipose tissue in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the existence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has been widely accepted by the research community. Its unique ability to dissipate chemical energy stored in triglycerides as heat makes it an attractive target for new drugs against obesity and its related diseases. Hence the tissue is now subject to intense research, the hypothesis being that an expansion and/or activation of the tissue is associated with a healthy metabolic phenotype. Animal studies provide evidence for the existence of at least two types of brown adipocytes. Apart from the classical brown adipocyte that is found primarily in the interscapular region where it constitutes a thermogenic organ, a second type of brown adipocyte, the so-called beige adipocyte, can appear within white adipose tissue depots. The fact that the two cell types develop from different precursors suggests that they might be recruited and stimulated by different cues and therefore represent two distinct targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this commentary is to discuss recent work addressing the question whether also humans possess two types of brown adipocytes and to highlight some issues when looking for molecular markers for such cells. PMID:24575372

  11. Diversity of lipid mediators in human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Clària, Joan; Nguyen, Binh T.; Madenci, Arin L.; Ozaki, C. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ with remarkable variations in fat cell metabolism depending on the anatomical location. However, the pattern and distribution of bioactive lipid mediators between different fat depots and their relationships in complex diseases have not been investigated. Using LC-MS/MS-based metabolo-lipidomics, here we report that human subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues possess a range of specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) including resolvin (Rv) D1, RvD2, protectin (PD) 1, lipoxin (LX) A4, and the monohydroxy biosynthetic pathway markers of RvD1 and PD1 (17-HDHA), RvE1 (18-HEPE), and maresin 1 (14-HDHA). The “classic” eicosanoids prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGD2, PGF2α, leukotriene (LT) B4, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), 12-HETE, and 15-HETE were also identified in SC fat. SC fat from patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) exhibited a marked deficit in PD1 and 17-HDHA levels. Compared with SC, perivascular adipose tissue displayed higher SPM levels, suggesting an enhanced resolution capacity in this fat depot. In addition, augmented levels of eicosanoids and SPM were observed in SC fat surrounding foot wounds. Notably, the profile of SC PGF2α differed significantly when patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI). In the case of peri-wound SC fat, BMI negatively correlated with PGE2. In this tissue, proresolving mediators RvD2 and LXA4 were identified in lower levels than the proinflammatory LTB4. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a diverse distribution of bioactive lipid mediators depending on the localization of human fat depots and uncover a specific SPM pattern closely associated with PVD. PMID:23364264

  12. Defining dermal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Ryan R; Jahoda, Colin A B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Watt, Fiona M; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    Here, we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. The association of lipid-filled cells with the skin is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism in Clock Genes Expression in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Abellán, P.; Madrid, J. A.; Luján, J. A.; Frutos, M. D.; González, R.; Martínez-Augustín, O.; de Medina, F. Sánchez; Ordovás, J. M.; Garaulet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate whether sex-related differences exist in the adipocyte expression of clock genes from subcutaneous abdominal and visceral fat depots in severely obese patients. Methods We investigated 16 morbidly obese patients, eight men and eight women (mean age 45±20 years; mean BMI 46±6 kg/m2), undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. Biopsies were taken as paired samples [subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT)] at the beginning of the surgical process at 11:00 h in the morning. Metabolic syndrome features such as waist circumference, plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also studied. The expression of clock genes (PER2, BMAL1, and CRY1) was measured by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Gene expression was significantly higher in women than in men for the three genes studied in both ATs (P<0.05). In visceral fat, these differences were more marked. (P<0.001). Western blot analysis partially confirmed these results since statistical differences were observed for PER2 in both ATs and for CRY1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. There were no differences in BMAL1 protein expression. Interestingly, clock gene expression level was correlated with LDL-C and HDL-C (P<0.05). Moreover, we found significant associations with body fat mass in women and with age in men. Conclusions Clock genes expression is sex dependent in human adipose tissue from morbidly obese subjects and correlates to a decreased in metabolic syndrome-related traits. These preliminary results make necessary to go deep into the knowledge of the molecular basis of the sexual dimorphism in chronobiology. PMID:22081238

  14. Brown adipose tissue as a therapeutic target for human obesity.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki

    2013-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the major site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermogenesis during cold exposure and after spontaneous hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure and body fat. Recent radionuclide studies have demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. In fact, either repeated cold exposure or daily ingestion of some food ingredients acting on transient receptor potential channels recruited BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fat even in individuals with low BAT activities before the treatment. Thus, BAT is a promising therapeutic target for combating human obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  15. Human brown adipose tissue: regulation and anti-obesity potential.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermognenesis during cold exposure and after hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat. Radionuclide imaging studies have demonstrated that adult humans have metabolically active BAT composed of mainly beige/brite adipocytes, recently identified brown-like adipocytes. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT is, because of its energy dissipating activity, protective against body fat accumulation in humans as it is in small rodents. In fact, either repeated cold exposure or daily ingestion of some food ingredients acting on transient receptor potential channels recruits BAT in parallel with increased EE and decreased body fat. In addition to the sympathetic nervous system, several endocrine factors are also shown to recruit BAT. Thus, BAT is a promising therapeutic target for combating human obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  16. Brown adipose tissue in humans: therapeutic potential to combat obesity.

    PubMed

    Carey, Andrew L; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2013-10-01

    Harnessing the considerable capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to consume energy was first proposed as a potential target to control obesity nearly 40years ago. The plausibility of this approach was, however, questioned due to the prevailing view that BAT was either not present or not functional in adult humans. Recent definitive identification of functional BAT in adult humans as well as a number of important advances in the understanding of BAT biology has reignited interest in BAT as an anti-obesity target. Proof-of-concept evidence demonstrating drug-induced BAT activation provides an important foundation for development of targeted pharmacological approaches with clinical application. This review considers evidence from both human and relevant animal studies to determine whether harnessing BAT for the treatment of obesity via pharmacological intervention is a realistic goal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endogenous ways to stimulate brown adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Evie; Bouvy, Nicole D; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). Successful long-term weight loss is difficult to achieve with current strategies for the correction of this caloric imbalance. Non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a possible therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In recent years, more knowledge about the function and stimulation of bat has been obtained. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is currently seen as the main effector for brown fat function. Also, interplay between the thyroid axis and SNS plays an important role in BAT thermogenesis. Almost daily new pathways for the induction of BAT thermogenesis and 'browning' of white adipose tissue (WAT) are identified. Especially the activation of BAT via endogenous pathways has received strong scientific attention. Here we will discuss the relevance of several pathways in activating BAT and their implications for the treatment of obesity. In this review we will focus on the discussion of the most promising endocrine and paracrine pathways to stimulate BAT, by factors and pathways that naturally occur in the human body.

  18. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for use in whole human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Haim, Yulia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Bashari, Dana; Rudich, Assaf

    2013-11-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a central method when studying in vivo protein-DNA interactions, with the major challenge being the hope to capture "authentic" interactions. While ChIP protocols have been optimized for use with specific cell types and tissues including adipose tissue-derived cells, a working ChIP protocol addressing the challenges imposed by fresh whole human adipose tissue has not been described. Utilizing human paired omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained during elective abdominal surgeries, we have carefully identified and optimized individual steps in the ChIP protocol employed directly on fresh tissue fragments. We describe a complete working protocol for using ChIP on whole adipose tissue fragments. Specific steps required adaptation of the ChIP protocol to human whole adipose tissue. In particular, a cross-linking step was performed directly on fresh small tissue fragments. Nuclei were isolated before releasing chromatin, allowing better management of fat content; a sonication protocol to obtain fragmented chromatin was optimized. We also demonstrate the high sensitivity of immunoprecipitated chromatin from adipose tissue to freezing. In conclusion, we describe the development of a ChIP protocol optimized for use in studying whole human adipose tissue, providing solutions for the unique challenges imposed by this tissue. Unraveling protein-DNA interaction in whole human adipose tissue will likely contribute to elucidating molecular pathways contributing to common human diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS) anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM) on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3) and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration. Conclusions Our

  20. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P < 0.00001). Insulin sensitivity reached its maximum (acrophase) around noon, being 54% higher than during midnight (P = 0.009). The amplitude of the rhythm was positively correlated with in vivo sleep duration (r = 0.53; P = 0.023) and negatively correlated with in vivo bedtime (r = -0.54; P = 0.020). No circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

  1. The effects of adipose tissue and adipocytokines in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Valsamakis, G; Kumar, S; Creatsas, G; Mastorakos, G

    2010-09-01

    During pregnancy, important changes take place in maternal metabolism because of the growing fetus and placental formation. The increase in insulin resistance during pregnancy is paralleled by the progressive increase of maternal adipose tissue deposition. This review examines the topography of fat mass deposition during pregnancy in relation to factors such as parity and maternal age that might affect this deposition. We also examine adipose tissue markers, such as pregravid weight and weight gain during pregnancy, and their effect on fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes. In addition, this review studies the possible effects of cytokines that are produced by adipose tissue and the placenta on maternal metabolism and its complications. Finally, we also consider the possible role of maternal adipocytokines and fetal adipocytokines on fetal growth. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Decellularized extracellular matrix derived from human adipose tissue as a potential scaffold for allograft tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Beob Soo; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Jae Dong; Choi, Young Chan; Yang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kinam; Lee, Hee Young; Cho, Yong Woo

    2011-06-01

    Decellularized tissues composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have been clinically used to support the regeneration of various human tissues and organs. Most decellularized tissues so far have been derived from animals or cadavers. Therefore, despite the many advantages of decellularized tissue, there are concerns about the potential for immunogenicity and the possible presence of infectious agents. Herein, we present a biomaterial composed of ECM derived from human adipose tissue, the most prevalent, expendable, and safely harvested tissue in the human body. The ECM was extracted by successive physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments of human adipose tissue isolated by liposuction. Cellular components including nucleic acids were effectively removed without significant disruption of the morphology or structure of the ECM. Major ECM components were quantified, including acid/pepsin-soluble collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and soluble elastin. In an in vivo experiment using mice, the decellularized ECM graft exhibited good compatibility to surrounding tissues. Overall results suggest that the decellularized ECM containing biological and chemical cues of native human ECM could be an ideal scaffold material not only for autologous but also for allograft tissue engineering.

  3. Lipocalin 2 produces insulin resistance and can be upregulated by glucocorticoids in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Prasad G; Pereira, Maria J; Sidibeh, Cherno O; Amini, Sam; Sundbom, Magnus; Börjesson, Joey Lau; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-05-15

    The adipokine lipocalin 2 is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. However, its role in human adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism is not explored. Here we show that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone dose-dependently increased lipocalin 2 gene expression in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from pre-menopausal females, while it had no effect in post-menopausal females or in males. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from both genders treated with recombinant human lipocalin 2 showed a reduction in protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 and in glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, lipocalin 2 increased IL-6 gene expression whereas expression of PPARγ and adiponectin was reduced. Our findings suggest that lipocalin 2 can contribute to insulin resistance in human adipose tissue. In pre-menopausal females, it may partly mediate adverse metabolic effects exerted by glucocorticoid excess. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Caspase Induction and BCL2 Inhibition in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco José; Coín Aragüez, Leticia; Murri, Mora; Oliva Olivera, Wilfredo; Mayas Torres, María Dolores; Barbarroja, Nuria; Gomez Huelgas, Ricardo; Malagón, Maria M.; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Cell death determines the onset of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here, we analyze the relationship among obesity, adipose tissue apoptosis, and insulin signaling. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The expression levels of initiator (CASP8/9) and effector (CASP3/7) caspases as well as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 and inflammatory markers were assessed in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from patients with different degrees of obesity and without insulin resistance or diabetes. Adipose tissue explants from lean subjects were cultured with TNF-α or IL-6, and the expression of apoptotic and insulin signaling components was analyzed and compared with basal expression levels in morbidly obese subjects. RESULTS SAT and VAT exhibited increased CASP3/7 and CASP8/9 expression levels and decreased BCL2 expression with BMI increase. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and macrophage infiltration markers. In obese subjects, CASP3/7 activation and BCL2 downregulation correlated with the IRS-1/2–expression levels. Expression levels of caspases, BCL2, p21, p53, IRS-1/2, GLUT4, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and leukocyte antigen-related phosphatase in TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants from lean subjects were comparable with those found in adipose tissue samples from morbidly obese subjects. These insulin component expression levels were reverted with CASP3/7 inhibition in these TNF-α– or IL-6–treated explants. CONCLUSIONS Body fat mass increase is associated with CASP3/7 and BCL2 expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, this proapoptotic state correlated with insulin signaling, suggesting its potential contribution to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:23193206

  6. Evidence for Trypanosoma cruzi in adipose tissue in human chronic Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; Segatto, Marcela; Menezes, Zélia; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Gelape, Cláudio; de Oliveira Andrade, Luciana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Scherer, Philipp E.; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected experimental animals and humans. Here we demonstrate the persistence of the parasite in adipose tissue from of three of 10 elderly seropositive patients with chronic chagasic heart disease. Nine control patients had no parasites in the fat. We also demonstrate that T. cruzi parasitizes primary adipocytes in vitro. Thus, in humans as in mice the parasite may persist in adipose tissue for decades and become a reservoir of infection. PMID:21726660

  7. Evidence for Trypanosoma cruzi in adipose tissue in human chronic Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; Segatto, Marcela; Menezes, Zélia; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Gelape, Cláudio; de Oliveira Andrade, Luciana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Scherer, Philipp E; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2011-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected experimental animals and humans. Here we demonstrate the persistence of the parasite in adipose tissue from of three of 10 elderly seropositive patients with chronic chagasic heart disease. Nine control patients had no parasites in the fat. We also demonstrate that T. cruzi parasitizes primary adipocytes in vitro. Thus, in humans as in mice the parasite may persist in adipose tissue for decades and become a reservoir of infection.

  8. Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yong, Iain T.H.; Thorn, Natasha; Ganatra, Rakesh; Perkins, Alan C.; Symonds, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in adult humans where it may be important in the prevention of obesity, although the main factors regulating its abundance are not well established. BAT demonstrates seasonal variation relating to ambient temperature and photoperiod in mammals. The objective of our study was therefore to determine whether seasonal variation in BAT activity in humans was more closely related to the prevailing photoperiod or temperature. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 3,614 consecutive patients who underwent positron emission tomography followed by computed tomography scans. The presence and location of BAT depots were documented and correlated with monthly changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature. RESULTS BAT activity was demonstrated in 167 (4.6%) scans. BAT was demonstrated in 52/724 scans (7.2%) in winter compared with 27/1,067 (2.5%) in summer months (P < 0.00001, χ2 test). Monthly changes in the occurrence of BAT were more closely related to differences in photoperiod (r2 = 0.876) rather than ambient temperature (r2 = 0.696). Individuals with serial scans also demonstrated strong seasonal variation in BAT activity (average standardized uptake value [SUVmax] 1.5 in July and 9.4 in January). BAT was also more common in female patients (female: n = 107, 7.2%; male: n = 60, 2.8%; P < 0.00001, χ2 test). CONCLUSIONS Our study demonstrates a very strong seasonal variation in the presence of BAT. This effect is more closely associated with photoperiod than ambient temperature, suggesting a previously undescribed mechanism for mediating BAT function in humans that could now potentially be recruited for the prevention or reversal of obesity. PMID:19696186

  9. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was surveyed by inverted light microscopy. For in vivo studies, HA gel containing hASCs, hASCs without HA gel, HA gel alone were allocated and subcutaneously injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the back of nude mice (n=6) in each group. At eight weeks post-injection, the implants were harvested for histological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, Oil-Red O stain and immunohistochemical staining. The human-specific Alu gene was examined. Results: hASCs were well attachment and proliferation on the HA gel. In vivo grafts showed well-organized new adipose tissue on the HA gel by histologic examination and Oil-Red O stain. Analysis of neo-adipose tissues by PCR revealed the presence of the Alu gene. This study demonstrated not only the successful culture of hASCs on HA gel, but also their full proliferation and differentiation into adipose tissue. Conclusions: The efficacy of injected filler could be permanent since the reduction of the volume of the HA gel after bioabsorption could be replaced by new adipose tissue generated by hASCs. This is a promising approach for developing long lasting soft tissue filler. PMID:25589892

  10. Role of cannabinoid receptor 1 in human adipose tissue for lipolysis regulation and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sidibeh, Cherno O; Pereira, Maria J; Lau Börjesson, Joey; Kamble, Prasad G; Skrtic, Stanko; Katsogiannos, Petros; Sundbom, Magnus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W

    2017-03-01

    We recently showed that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) gene is upregulated by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. CNR1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system and has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here we explore the role of peripheral CNR1 in states of insulin resistance in human adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects and controls. Subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression levels of CNR1 and endocannabinoid synthesizing and degrading enzymes were assessed. Furthermore, paired human subcutaneous adipose tissue and omental adipose tissue from non-diabetic volunteers undergoing kidney donation or bariatric surgery, was incubated with or without dexamethasone. Subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from volunteers through needle biopsy was incubated with or without dexamethasone and in the presence or absence of the CNR1-specific antagonist AM281. CNR1 gene and protein expression, lipolysis and glucose uptake were evaluated. Subcutaneous adipose tissue CNR1 gene expression levels were 2-fold elevated in type 2 diabetes subjects compared with control subjects. Additionally, gene expression levels of CNR1 and endocannabinoid-regulating enzymes from both groups correlated with markers of insulin resistance. Dexamethasone increased CNR1 expression dose-dependently in subcutaneous adipose tissue and omental adipose tissue by up to 25-fold. Dexamethasone pre-treatment of subcutaneous adipose tissue increased lipolysis rate and reduced glucose uptake. Co-incubation with the CNR1 antagonist AM281 prevented the stimulatory effect on lipolysis, but had no effect on glucose uptake. CNR1 is upregulated in states of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Furthermore, CNR1 is involved in glucocorticoid-regulated lipolysis. Peripheral CNR1 could be an interesting drug target in type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  11. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerate adipose tissue in both structure and function. Recently, a number of studies have been designed to explore various methods to engineer human adipose tissue. This review will focus on these developments in the area of adipose tissue engineering for soft tissue replacement. The physiology of adipose tissue and current surgical therapies used to replace lost tissue volume, specifically in breast tissue, are introduced, and current biomaterials, cell sources, and tissue culture strategies are discussed. We discuss future areas of study in adipose tissue engineering. PMID:20166810

  12. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  13. Human adipose tissue contains erythroid progenitors expressing fetal hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Amparo; Carbonell-Uberos, Francisco; Marín, Severiano; Miñana, María Dolores

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the origin of hematopoietic progenitors contained in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of human adipose tissue. METHODS: Tissue samples obtained from lipectomies were subjected to enzymatic digestion with collagenase to obtain a single-cell suspension. The centrifuged cell pellet, termed SVF, was separated immunomagnetically into CD45+ and CD45- cells and cultured in serum-free medium containing hematopoietic cytokines. The freshly isolated and cultured cells were evaluated to determine their ability to form hematopoietic colony-forming units in clonogenic assays and for the expression of certain hematopoietic transcription factors by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the gene expression level was compared to that in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells from cord blood (CB) and adult peripheral blood (PB). To characterize erythroid progenitors, burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E) were developed in a semisolid medium under different culture conditions, and the hemoglobin composition and globin gene expression in the erythroid colonies were determined. RESULTS: The transcription factors SCL/TAL1, RUNX1, RUNX2 and GATA2 were expressed in both the CD45+ and CD45- SVF populations; however, in contrast to our observations in the CD34+ cells from CB and adult PB, GATA1 was not detected. Nevertheless, GATA1 could be detected in the SVF cells after seven days in culture, whereas its expression was upregulated in the CB CD34+ cells. The analysis of BFU-E-derived colonies revealed that virtually all erythroid cells produced by SVF cells expressed fetal hemoglobin, and the γ-globin mRNA levels ranged between those obtained in the adult- and neonatal-derived erythroid cells. Moreover, the SVF-derived erythroid cells synthesized similar levels of α- and β-globin mRNA, whereas the α-globin transcript levels were consistently higher those of β-globin in the cells derived from CB or PB CD34+ cells. Furthermore, although the cellular

  14. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR) activation elevates proinflammatory factor expression in human adipose cells and adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, Mariana; Fuentes, Cecilia; Acevedo, Ingrid; Villalobos, Elisa; Hugo, Eric; Ben Jonathan, Nira; Reyes, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    We have previously established that human adipose cells and the human adipose cell line LS14 express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) and that its expression is elevated upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines that are typically elevated in obese humans. Research in recent years has established that an important part of the adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity derive from a dysfunction of the tissue, one of the mechanisms being a disordered secretion pattern leading to an excess of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Given the reported association of the CaSR to inflammatory processes in other tissues, we sought to evaluate its role elevating the adipose expression of inflammatory factors. We exposed adipose tissue and in-vitro cultured LS14 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to the calcimimetic cinacalcet and evaluated the expression or production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL6, IL1β and TNFα as well as the chemoattractant factor CCL2. CaSR activation elicited an elevation in the expression of the inflammatory factors, which was in part reverted by SN50, an inhibitor of the inflammatory mediator NFκB. Our observations suggest that CaSR activation elevates cytokine and chemokine production through a signaling pathway involving activation of NFκB nuclear translocation. These findings confirm the relevance of the CaSR in the pathophysiology of obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, with an interesting potential for pharmacological manipulation in the fight against obesity- associated diseases. PMID:22449852

  15. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Catalán, Victoria; Hu, Pingzhao; Cunha, Virgínia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Lobo, Francisco; Morais, António; Silva, Vitor; Sanches-Magalhães, José; Oliveira, Jorge; Pina, Francisco; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-09-25

    Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for prostate cancer progression.

  16. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  17. Prolactin suppresses malonyl-CoA concentration in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L A; Roepstorff, C; Kiens, B; Billig, H; Ling, C

    2009-10-01

    Prolactin is best known for its involvement in lactation, where it regulates mechanisms that supply nutrients for milk production. In individuals with pathological hyperprolactinemia, glucose and fat homeostasis have been reported to be negatively influenced. It is not previously known, however, whether prolactin regulates lipogenesis in human adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prolactin on lipogenesis in human adipose tissue in vitro. Prolactin decreased the concentration of malonyl-CoA, the product of the first committed step in lipogenesis, to 77+/-6% compared to control 100+/-5% (p=0.022) in cultured human adipose tissue. In addition, prolactin was found to decrease glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4) mRNA expression, which may cause decreased glucose uptake. In conclusion, we propose that prolactin decreases lipogenesis in human adipose tissue as a consequence of suppressed malonyl-CoA concentration in parallel with decreased GLUT-4 expression. In the lactating woman, this regulation in adipose tissue may enhance the provision of nutrients for the infant instead of nutrients being stored in adipose tissue. In hyperprolactinemic individuals, a suppressed lipogenesis could contribute to an insulin resistant state with consequences for the health.

  18. Effects of glucose and insulin on secretion of amyloid-β by human adipose tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Tharp, William G; Gupta, Dhananjay; Smith, Joshua; Jones, Karen P; Jones, Amanda M; Pratley, Richard E

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are risk factors for developing Alzheimer disease. Overlapping patterns of metabolic dysfunction may be common molecular links between these complex diseases. Amyloid-β (Aβ) precursor protein and associated β- and γ-secretases are expressed in adipose tissue. Aβ precursor protein is up-regulated with obesity and correlated to insulin resistance. Aβ may be secreted by adipose tissue, its production may be regulated through metabolic pathways, and Aβ may exert effects on adipose tissue insulin receptor signaling. Human stromal-vascular cells and differentiated adipocytes were cultured with different combinations of glucose and insulin and then assayed for Aβ in conditioned media. Aβ was measured in vivo using adipose tissue microdialysis. Aβ secretion was increased by glucose and insulin in vitro. Adipose tissue microdialysates contained Aβ. Adipocytes treated with Aβ had decreased expression of insulin receptor substrate-2 and reduced Akt-1 phosphorylation. Aβ was made by adipose tissue cells in vitro at concentrations similar to in vivo measurements. Regulation of Aβ production by glucose and insulin and effects of Aβ on the insulin receptor pathway suggest similar cellular mechanisms may exist between neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer disease and adipose dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  19. Automated adipose study for assessing cancerous human breast tissue using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yu; Yao, Xinwen; Chang, Ernest W.; Bin Amir, Syed A.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death in women in the United States. In human breast tissue, adipose cells are infiltrated or replaced by cancer cells during the development of breast tumor. Therefore, an adipose map can be an indicator of identifying cancerous region. We developed an automated classification method to generate adipose map within human breast. To facilitate the automated classification, we first mask the B-scans from OCT volumes by comparing the signal noise ratio with a threshold. Then, the image was divided into multiple blocks with a size of 30 pixels by 30 pixels. In each block, we extracted texture features such as local standard deviation, entropy, homogeneity, and coarseness. The features of each block were input to a probabilistic model, relevance vector machine (RVM), which was trained prior to the experiment, to classify tissue types. For each block within the B-scan, RVM identified the region with adipose tissue. We calculated the adipose ratio as the number of blocks identified as adipose over the total number of blocks within the B-scan. We obtained OCT images from patients (n = 19) in Columbia medical center. We automatically generated the adipose maps from 24 B-scans including normal samples (n = 16) and cancerous samples (n = 8). We found the adipose regions show an isolated pattern that in cancerous tissue while a clustered pattern in normal tissue. Moreover, the adipose ratio (52.30 ± 29.42%) in normal tissue was higher than the that in cancerous tissue (12.41 ± 10.07%).

  20. An atlas of G-protein coupled receptor expression and function in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Amisten, Stefan; Neville, Matt; Hawkes, Ross; Persaud, Shanta J; Karpe, Fredrik; Salehi, Albert

    2015-02-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in the regulation of adipose tissue function, but the total number of GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as their function and interactions with drugs, is poorly understood. We have constructed an atlas of all GPCRs expressed by human subcutaneous adipose tissue: the 'adipose tissue GPCRome', to support the exploration of novel control nodes in metabolic and endocrine functions. This atlas describes how adipose tissue GPCRs regulate lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. We also discuss how adipose tissue GPCRs interact with their endogenous ligands and with GPCR-targeting drugs, with a focus on how drug/receptor interactions may affect lipolysis, and present a model predicting how GPCRs with unknown effects on lipolysis might modulate cAMP-regulated lipolysis. Subcutaneous adipose tissue expresses 163 GPCRs, a majority of which have unknown effects on lipolysis, insulin resistance and adiponectin and leptin secretion. These GPCRs are activated by 180 different endogenous ligands, and are the targets of a large number of clinically used drugs. We identified 119 drugs, acting on 23 GPCRs, that are predicted to stimulate lipolysis and 173 drugs, acting on 25 GPCRs, that are predicted to inhibit lipolysis. This atlas highlights knowledge gaps in the current understanding of adipose tissue GPCR function, and identifies GPCR/ligand/drug interactions that might affect lipolysis, which is important for understanding and predicting metabolic side effects of drugs. This approach may aid in the design of new, safer therapeutic agents, with fewer undesired effects on lipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adipose tissue glycogen accumulation is associated with obesity-linked inflammation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Ejarque, Miriam; Serena, Carolina; Duran, Xavier; Montori-Grau, Marta; Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; Yanes, Oscar; Núñez-Roa, Catalina; Roche, Kelly; Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Saez, Enrique; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Gómez-Foix, Anna Ma; Saltiel, Alan R.; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Glycogen metabolism has emerged as a mediator in the control of energy homeostasis and studies in murine models reveal that adipose tissue might contain glycogen stores. Here we investigated the physio(patho)logical role of glycogen in human adipose tissue in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. Methods We studied glucose metabolic flux of hypoxic human adipoctyes by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based metabolic approaches. Glycogen synthesis and glycogen content in response to hypoxia was analyzed in human adipocytes and macrophages. To explore the metabolic effects of enforced glycogen deposition in adipocytes and macrophages, we overexpressed PTG, the only glycogen-associated regulatory subunit (PP1-GTS) reported in murine adipocytes. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis was performed on wild type and homozygous PTG KO male mice. Finally, glycogen metabolism gene expression and glycogen accumulation was analyzed in adipose tissue, mature adipocytes and resident macrophages from lean and obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance in 2 independent cohorts. Results We show that hypoxia modulates glucose metabolic flux in human adipocytes and macrophages and promotes glycogenesis. Enforced glycogen deposition by overexpression of PTG re-orients adipocyte secretion to a pro-inflammatory response linked to insulin resistance and monocyte/lymphocyte migration. Furthermore, glycogen accumulation is associated with inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and increased basal autophagy flux, correlating with greater leptin release in glycogen-loaded adipocytes. PTG-KO mice have reduced expression of key inflammatory genes in adipose tissue and PTG overexpression in M0 macrophages induces a pro-inflammatory and glycolytic M1 phenotype. Increased glycogen synthase expression correlates with glycogen deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese patients. Glycogen content in subcutaneous mature adipocytes is associated

  2. Agouti expression in human adipose tissue: functional consequences and increased expression in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven R; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Janderová, Lenka; Nguyen, Taylor; Murrell, Angela; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Mynatt, Randall L

    2003-12-01

    It is well recognized that the agouti/melanocortin system is an important regulator of body weight homeostasis. Given that agouti is expressed in human adipose tissue and that the ectopic expression of agouti in adipose tissue results in moderately obese mice, the link between agouti expression in human adipose tissue and obesity/type 2 diabetes was investigated. Although there was no apparent relationship between agouti mRNA levels and BMI, agouti mRNA levels were significantly elevated in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The regulation of agouti in cultured human adipocytes revealed that insulin did not regulate agouti mRNA, whereas dexamethasone treatment potently increased the levels of agouti mRNA. Experiments with cultured human preadipocytes and with cells obtained from transgenic mice that overexpress agouti demonstrated that melanocortin receptor (MCR) signaling in adipose tissue can regulate both preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results reveal that agouti can regulate adipogenesis at several levels and suggest that there are functional consequences of elevated agouti levels in human adipose tissue. The influence of MCR signaling on adipogenesis combined with the well-established role of MCR signaling in the hypothalamus suggest that adipogenesis is coordinately regulated with food intake and energy expenditure.

  3. Updated survey of the steroid-converting enzymes in human adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, André; Mansour, Mohamed Fouad; Pelletier, Mélissa; Boulet, Marie-Michèle; Nadeau, Mélanie; Luu-The, Van

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, adipose tissues have been increasingly known for their endocrine properties, that is, their ability to secrete a number of adipocytokines that may exert local and/or systemic effects. In addition, adipose tissues have long been recognized as significant sites for steroid hormone transformation and action. We hereby provide an updated survey of the many steroid-converting enzymes that may be detected in human adipose tissues, their activities and potential roles. In addition to the now well-established role of aromatase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1, many enzymes have been reported in adipocyte cell lines, isolated mature cells and/or preadipocytes. These include 11β-HSD type 2, 17β-HSDs, 3β-HSD, 5α-reductases, sulfatases and glucuronosyltransferases. Some of these enzymes are postulated to bear relevance for adipose tissue physiology and perhaps for the pathophysiology of obesity. This elaborate set of steroid-converting enzymes in the cell types of adipose tissue deserves further scientific attention. Our work on 20α-HSD (AKR1C1), 3α-HSD type 3 (AKR1C2) and 17β-HSD type 5 (AKR1C3) allowed us to clarify the relevance of these enzymes for some aspects of adipose tissue function. For example, down-regulation of AKR1C2 expression in preadipocytes seems to potentiate the inhibitory action of dihydrotestosterone on adipogenesis in this model. Many additional studies are warranted to assess the impact of intra-adipose steroid hormone conversions on adipose tissue functions and chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glucocorticoids fail to cause insulin resistance in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hazlehurst, Jonathan M; Gathercole, Laura L; Nasiri, Maryam; Armstrong, Matthew J; Borrows, Sarah; Yu, Jinglei; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2013-04-01

    It is widely believed that glucocorticoids cause insulin resistance in all tissues. We have previously demonstrated that glucocorticoids cause insulin sensitization in human adipose tissue in vitro and induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to determine whether glucocorticoids have tissue-specific effects on insulin sensitivity in vivo. Fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited into a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, receiving both an overnight hydrocortisone and saline infusion. The tissue-specific actions of insulin were determined using paired 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps incorporating stable isotopes with concomitant adipose tissue microdialysis. The study was performed in the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. The sensitivity of sc adipose tissue to insulin action was measured. Hydrocortisone induced systemic insulin resistance but failed to cause sc adipose tissue insulin resistance as measured by suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis and enhanced insulin-stimulated pyruvate generation. In primary cultures of human hepatocytes, glucocorticoids increased insulin-stimulated p-ser473akt/protein kinase B. Similarly, glucocorticoids enhanced insulin-stimulated p-ser473akt/protein kinase B and increased Insulin receptor substrate 2 mRNA expression in sc, but not omental, intact human adipocytes, suggesting a depot-specificity of action. This study represents the first description of sc adipose insulin sensitization by glucocorticoids in vivo and demonstrates tissue-specific actions of glucocorticoids to modify insulin action. It defines an important advance in our understanding of the actions of both endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and may have implications for the development and targeting of future glucocorticoid therapies.

  5. Characterization and assessment of hyperelastic and elastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Ehsan; Fuetterer, Lydia; Reza Mousavi, Seyed; Armstrong, Ryan C; Flynn, Lauren E; Samani, Abbas

    2014-11-28

    Decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has shown potential as a regenerative scaffold for plastic and reconstructive surgery to augment or replace damaged or missing adipose tissue (e.g. following lumpectomy or mastectomy). The mechanical properties of soft tissue substitutes are of paramount importance in restoring the natural shape and appearance of the affected tissues, and mechanical mismatching can lead to unpredictable scar tissue formation and poor implant integration. The goal of this work was to assess the linear elastic and hyperelastic properties of decellularized human adipose tissue and compare them to those of normal breast adipose tissue. To assess the influence of the adipose depot source on the mechanical properties of the resultant decellularized scaffolds, we performed indentation tests on DAT samples sourced from adipose tissue isolated from the breast, subcutaneous abdominal region, omentum, pericardial depot and thymic remnant, and their corresponding force-displacement data were acquired. Elastic and hyperelastic parameters were estimated using inverse finite element algorithms. Subsequently, a simulation was conducted in which the estimated hyperelastic parameters were tested in a real human breast model under gravity loading in order to assess the suitability of the scaffolds for implantation. Results of these tests showed that in the human breast, the DAT would show similar deformability to that of native normal tissue. Using the measured hyperelastic parameters, we were able to assess whether DAT derived from different depots exhibited different intrinsic nonlinearities. Results showed that DAT sourced from varying regions of the body exhibited little intrinsic nonlinearity, with no statistically significant differences between the groups.

  6. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  7. Comparison of organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue autopsy samples from two Ontario municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.T.; LeBel, G.L.; Junkins, E.

    1984-01-01

    Human adipose tissue samples obtained during autopsies in a Canadian Great Lakes community, Kingston, Ontario, and a second community, Ottawa, Ontario, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, chlorobenzenes, and chlorophenols. Significantly different levels of Dichlorodiphenyl-dichlorethane, mirex, hexachlorobenzene, and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol were found in Kingston adipose tissues compared to Ottawa tissues. Residue levels of oxychlordane, mirex, and polychlorinated biphenyls were significantly different in Kingston males versus Kingston females. The means and ranges of residue levels were contrasted with those reported in previous Canadian surveys.

  8. Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru )

    1991-05-01

    Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

  9. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk . E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

    2006-03-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

  10. Human adipose tissue cells keep tight control on the angiotensin II levels in their vicinity.

    PubMed

    Schling, Petra; Schäfer, Thorsten

    2002-12-13

    Human adipose tissue expresses all components necessary for the local production of angiotensin II, which has multiple functions in adipose tissue, ranging from regulation of local blood flow to complex influences on tissue homeostasis. Still the mechanisms controlling human adipose tissue angiotensin II concentrations are not yet known. We investigated whether angiotensin II is degraded by human primary cultured preadipocytes and adipocytes and which enzymes are responsible for its metabolism. Distinct but transient angiotensin II production was limited by degradation due to consecutive proteolytic cleavage by endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities. The endopeptidase could be identified as neprilysin expressed on the surface of both preadipocytes and adipocytes. Degradation of angiotensin II was preceded by a lag phase that was considerably longer in preadipocytes. This time span could not be explained by an induction of neprilysin nor by an increase in its surface localization. Following the lag phase, adipocytes showed a higher degradation activity than preadipocytes as mirrored by increased neprilysin levels and activity measured in their membrane fractions. Our findings demonstrate that human preadipocytes and adipocytes differentially express functional neprilysin and aminopeptidase activity involved in the regulation of angiotensin II concentrations in human adipose tissue.

  11. Quantitative diffusion imaging of adipose tissue in the human lower leg at 1.5 T.

    PubMed

    Steidle, G; Eibofner, F; Schick, F

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging was developed and applied for assessment of diffusion coefficients of adipose tissue in human lower leg on a 1.5-T whole-body MR scanner. Because of the higher molecular weight of triglycerides, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of adipose tissue are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller compared with water, leading to the necessity of using high b-values up to 50,000 sec/mm(2) and an echo time of 240 msec for sufficient diffusion-related signal attenuation. ADC maps of adipose tissue in the human lower leg were derived for diffusion encoding along orthogonal spatial directions in six healthy volunteers. Mean diffusion coefficients in the tibial bone marrow amounted to (1.81 ± 0.10) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (left-right), (1.96 ± 0.10) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (anterior-posterior), and (1.96 ± 0.20) × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec (head-feet), respectively. Pixel-wise calculated ADC values of subcutaneous adipose tissue showed a distinctly higher variation with the smallest ADC values similar to those measured for tibial bone marrow. Some subcutaneous adipose tissue regions showed increased signal attenuation at higher b-values resulting in ADC coefficients up to 4.2 × 10(-5) mm(2) /sec. It must be noted that diffusion measurements with extremely high b-values in vivo are extremely sensitive to incoherent motion effects in tissue. Nonetheless, it could be shown that in vivo diffusion imaging of adipose tissue in human lower leg is possible at 1.5 T in acceptable measurement time of a few minutes. Potential future applications of fat diffusion imaging are seen in temperature measurements in adipose tissue, detection of free fatty acids in white or brown adipose tissue in case of high lipolysis, differentiation of macro- and microvesicular steatosis, or assessment of the mobility of intramyocellular lipids.

  12. Site-specific circadian expression of leptin and its receptor in human adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Circadian variability of circulating leptin levels has been well established over the last decade. However, the circadian behavior of leptin in human adipose tissue remains unknown. This also applies to the soluble leptin receptor. We investigated the ex vivo circadian behavior of leptin and its rec...

  13. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V) and subcutaneous (S) adipose tissue (AT) in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX) on positive and negative clock ...

  14. Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adiponectin is one of the most clinically relevant cytokines associated with obesity. However, circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin in human adipose tissue (AT) has not been analyzed. To assess whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) might show daily circadian ...

  15. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E.; Saraf, Manish K.; Labbe, Sebastien M.; Hurren, Nicholas M.; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R.; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT+) men and five BAT-negative (BAT−) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5–8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT+ group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. PMID:25056438

  16. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Joseph R; Maples, Jill M; Hickner, Robert C

    2015-06-15

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m(2); n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2); n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown.

  17. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche1

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zach S.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Tamaresis, John S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. PMID:26696367

  18. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Balanced caloric macronutrient composition downregulates immunological gene expression in human blood cells-adipose tissue diverges.

    PubMed

    Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Arbo, Ingerid; Aagaard, Siv; Lindseth, Inge; de Soysa, Ann Kristin Hjelle; Langaas, Mette; Kulseng, Bård; Lindberg, Fedon; Johansen, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are conditions characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation, strongly influenced by lifestyle, but the mechanisms that link these characteristics are poorly understood. Our first objective was to investigate if a normocaloric diet with a calorically balanced macronutrient composition influenced immunological gene expression. Findings regarding the suitability of blood as biological material in nutrigenomics and gene expression profiling have been inconclusive. Our second objective was to compare blood and adipose tissue sample quality in terms of adequacy for DNA-microarray analyses, and to determine tissue-specific gene expression patterns. Blood and adipose tissue samples were collected for gene expression profiling from three obese men before, during, and after a 28-day normocaloric diet intervention where each meal contained an approximately equal caloric load of macronutrients. Time series analyses of blood gene expression revealed a cluster of downregulated genes involved in immunological processes. Blood RNA quality and yield were satisfactory, and DNA-microarray analysis reproducibility was similar in blood and adipose tissue. Gene expression correlation between blood and adipose tissue varied according to gene function, and was especially low for genes involved in immunological and metabolic processes. This suggests that diet composition is of importance in inflammatory processes in blood cells. The findings also suggest that a systems biology approach, in which tissues are studied in parallel, should be employed to fully understand the impact of dietary challenges on the human body.

  20. Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue (MEAT) of cows and humans: a distinct nonneoplastic entity.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hurt, Mark A

    2011-10-01

    Mobile encapsulated adipose tissue can be found in both the subcutis and peritoneal cavity. The cutaneous lesions are more common and better described; they are usually designated as "mobile encapsulated lipoma" or "nodular-cystic fat necrosis." The clinical name of abacus tumor describes best the small marble-like nodules that often can be moved freely through the subcutaneous tissue planes. Histopathologically, the nodules are composed of a dense fibrous capsule surrounding fat that may show varying degrees of necrosis, calcification, and lipomembranous changes. The peritoneal nodules are thought to originate from detached epiploic appendices. They are described occasionally in humans but more commonly in cows. Because these bovine mobile peritoneal bodies are clinically and histopathologically identical to the nodules in human subcutaneous tissue, the authors suggest that one can better understand both processes by comparing them. Because the lesions are reactive, not neoplastic, and necrosis is not an invariable feature, the authors suggest the neutral designation of mobile encapsulated adipose tissue.

  1. The effects of thyroid hormones on brown adipose tissue in humans: a PET-CT study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiongyue; Miao, Qing; Ye, Hongying; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Zuo, Chuantao; Hua, Fengchun; Guan, Yihui; Li, Yiming

    2014-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for energy expenditure through thermogenesis, although its regulatory factors are not well known in humans. There is evidence suggesting that thyroid hormones affect BAT functions in some mammals, but the effects of thyroid hormones on BAT activity in humans are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on glucose metabolism of BAT and other organs in humans. Nine Graves' disease-caused hyperthyroid patients who were newly diagnosed and untreated were studied. Putative brown adipose tissue activity was determined by the integrated ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT). All hyperthyroid patients were treated with methimazole and had been monitored until their symptoms disappeared and thyroid hormone levels returned to normal. At the end, a second PET-CT scan was performed. The average follow-up period was 77 days. Meanwhile, compared with a group of seventy-five brown adipose tissue-negative controls, thyroid hormones of seventy-five BAT-positive healthy subjects were measured. Active brown adipose tissue was not present in any of the hyperthyroid patients. However, one patient with normalized thyroid function showed active BAT after therapy. The free T3 levels and free T4 levels were significantly lower in the 75 BAT-positive subjects than in the BAT-negative subjects. All hyperthyroid patients showed symmetrically increased uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in skeletal muscles before treatment, whereas, the standardized uptake value was substantially decreased after treatment. Abnormally high circulating thyroid hormone levels may not increase brown adipose tissue activity, which may be limited by the increased obligatory thermogenesis of muscle in adult humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Alessandro R.; Amstalden, Eliane M. I.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.; Martins, Virginia C. A.; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Miranda, João B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  3. Cholinoceptor-mediated effects on glycerol output from human adipose tissue using in situ microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, K.; Arner, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. Possible cholinoceptor-mediated effects on lipolysis were investigated in vivo in human subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-smoking, healthy subjects, by use of microdialysis. Cholinomimetic and sympathomimetic agents were added to the ingoing dialysate solvent. 2. Addition of nicotine to the perfusion solvent caused a concentration-dependent reversible increase in the levels of glycerol in the dialysate (lipolysis index). The opposite effect (also concentration-dependent and reversible) was caused by the addition of carbachol. The maximum effects were 100% stimulation and 50% inhibition, respectively, by nicotine and carbachol. Neither nicotine nor carbachol stimulated nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue (as measured with an ethanol escape technique). 3. The nicotine effect in situ was concentration-dependently counteracted by the nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Likewise, the carbachol effect was concentration-dependently counteracted by the muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist, atropine. 4. When adipose tissue was pretreated with phentolamine plus propranolol in order to obtain a complete alpha and beta-adrenoceptor blockade, the subsequent addition of nicotine or carbachol still induced an increase and decrease in dialysate glycerol levels (lipolytic or antilipolytic effects), respectively. When adipose tissue was pretreated with mecamylamine or atropine, the subsequent addition of acetylcholine caused a reversible decrease and increase, respectively, of the dialysate glycerol levels. 5. Nicotine and carbachol had no effects on glycerol release from human isolated subcutaneous fat cells that were incubated in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582538

  4. Physiological effects of proinsulin-connecting peptide in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Shafiee-Nick, R; Zojaji, S A; Rajabi-Mashhadi, M T

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that proinsulin-connecting peptide (C-peptide) may exhibit characteristics of a hormone and show physiological functions in various tissues. This study was aimed to determine whether C-peptide could be involved in the regulation of lipolysis, adiponectin release, and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adipose tissue. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was cultured in the presence of C-peptide. The level of lipolysis was determined by glycerol measurement in the conditioned media. Effect of C-peptide on adiponectin secretion was evaluated in differentiated adipocytes. The adipogenic and osteogenic abilities of adipose MSCs were evaluated using oil red and alizarin red staining, respectively. The tetrazolium bromide test was conducted for evaluating the effect of C-peptide on MSCs proliferation. C-peptide induced a significant decrease in basal lipolysis at concentrations of 8 and 16 nM (p < 0.05). It had no significant effects on isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, adiponectin secretion, and adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. At a concentration of 4 nM, this peptide significantly increased the proliferative capability of MSCs (p < 0.05). These results suggest that C-peptide has some physiological effects in human subcutaneous adipose tissue and contributes to the regulation of basal lipolysis and pool of MSCs.

  5. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) and NEFA (5.99±1.06 vs. 8.48±1.57 mmol/L/g tissue, p<0.05) release at 24 h. H89 and PD98059 partially inhibited resistin induced glycerol and NEFA release, while SB201290 has no such effect. Resistin induced the phosphorylation of p-HSL at serine 563, PKA at ~62 kDa and ERK1/2 as measured by Western blotting. Resistin led to significant reduction of the secretion of adiponectin (38.16±10.43 vs. 21.81±4.21 ng/mL/g tissue, p<0.05). Our current findings implicate that resistin might play a significant role in obesity related pathologies in various tissues via its effect on adipose tissue function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is a negative regulator of adipose tissue browning in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Quesada-López, Tania; Cairó, Montserrat; Giralt, Marta; Fernández-Real, José M; Villarroya, Francesc

    2016-10-01

    Adipocyte lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) biosynthesis is associated with obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Our purpose was to study the role of LBP in regulating the browning of adipose tissue. Adult mice were maintained at 4°C for 3 weeks or treated with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316,243, for 1 week to induce the browning of white fat. Precursor cells from brown and white adipose tissues were cultured under differentiation-inducing conditions to yield brown and beige/brite adipocytes, respectively. In vitro, Lbp was knocked down in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and cells were treated with recombinant LBP or co-cultured in transwells with control 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Wild-type and Lbp-null mice, fed a standard or high fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks, were also used in investigations. In humans, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were obtained from a cohort of morbidly obese participants. The induction of white fat browning by exposure of mice to cold or CL316,243 treatment was strongly associated with decreased Lbp mRNA expression in white adipose tissue. The acquisition of the beige/brite phenotype in cultured cells was associated with downregulation of Lbp. Moreover, silencing of Lbp induced the expression of brown fat-related genes in adipocytes, whereas LBP treatment reversed this effect. Lbp-null mice exhibited the spontaneous induction of subcutaneous adipose tissue browning, as evidenced by a remarkable increase in Ucp1 and Dio2 gene expression and the appearance of multivacuolar adipocyte clusters. The amount of brown adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue activity were also increased in Lbp-null mice. These changes were associated with decreased weight gain in Lbp-null mice and protection against HFD-induced inflammatory responses, as shown by reduced IL-6 levels. However, rather than improving glucose homeostasis, these effects led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. LBP is identified as a negative regulator of the

  7. Inflammatory Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Human and Murine Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Poulain-Godefroy, Odile; Le Bacquer, Olivier; Plancq, Pauline; Lecœur, Cécile; Pattou, François; Frühbeck, Gema; Froguel, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that TLR4 activation via dietary lipids triggers inflammatory pathway and alters insulin responsiveness in the fat tissue during obesity. Here, we question whether other TLR family members could participate in the TLR-mediated inflammatory processes occurring in the obese adipose tissue. We thus studied the expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 in adipose tissue. These receptors are expressed in omental and subcutaneous human fat tissue, the expression being higher in the omental tissue, independently of the metabolic status of the subject. We demonstrated a correlation of TLRs expression within and between each depot suggesting a coregulation. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells stimulated with Pam3CSK4 induced the expression of some proinflammatory markers. Therefore, beside TLR4, other toll-like receptors are differentially expressed in human fat tissue, and functional in an adipocyte cell line, suggesting that they might participate omental adipose tissue-related inflammation that occurs in obesity. PMID:20339530

  8. Human eyelid adipose tissue-derived Schwann cells promote regeneration of a transected sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangyang; Cao, Lingling; Wang, Yang; Hua, Yingqi; Cai, Zhengdong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Lulu; Jin, Yuqing; Niu, Lina; Shen, Hua; Lu, Yan; Shen, Zunli

    2017-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves while the clinical application is limited by donor site complications and the inability to generate an ample amount of cells. In this study, we have isolated human eyelid adipose-derived Schwann cells (hE-SCs) from human eyelid adipose tissue and identified the cell phenotype and function. Using immunofluorescence and H & E staining, we detected subtle nerve fibers and SCs in human eyelid adipose tissue. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that hE-SCs expressed glial markers, such as S100, p75NTR GFAP, Sox10 and Krox20. To explore whether hE-SCs promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves in vivo, a Balb/c-nu mice model was used in the study, and mice were randomly assigned to five groups: Matrigel; hE-SCs/P0; hE-SCs/P2; hE-FLCs/P2; and Autograft. After 12 weeks, functional and histological assessments of the regenerated nerves showed that sciatic nerve defect was more effectively repaired in the hE-SCs/P2 group which achieved 66.1 ± 6.5% purity, than the other three groups and recovered to similar level to the Autograft group. These results indicated that hE-SCs can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve and the abundant, easily accessible supply of adipose tissue might be a promising source of SCs for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:28256528

  9. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  10. Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion

    PubMed Central

    Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Flach, Rachel J. Roth; DiStefano, Marina; Chawla, Anil; Nicoloro, Sarah; Straubhaar, Juerg; Hardy, Olga T.; Noh, Hye Lim; Kim, Jason K.; Wabitsch, Martin; Scherer, Philipp E.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Proper regulation of energy storage in adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining insulin sensitivity and molecules contributing to this process have not been fully revealed. Here we show that type II transmembrane protein tenomodulin (TNMD) is upregulated in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive individuals, who were matched for body mass index (BMI). TNMD expression increases in human preadipocytes during differentiation, whereas silencing TNMD blocks adipogenesis. Upon high-fat diet feeding, transgenic mice overexpressing Tnmd develop increased epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass, and preadipocytes derived from Tnmd transgenic mice display greater proliferation, consistent with elevated adipogenesis. In Tnmd transgenic mice, lipogenic genes are upregulated in eWAT, as is Ucp1 in brown fat, while liver triglyceride accumulation is attenuated. Despite expanded eWAT, transgenic animals display improved systemic insulin sensitivity, decreased collagen deposition and inflammation in eWAT, and increased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that TNMD acts as a protective factor in visceral adipose tissue to alleviate insulin resistance in obesity. PMID:26880110

  11. Human Adipose Tissue Derived Extracellular Matrix and Methylcellulose Hydrogels Augments and Regenerates the Paralyzed Vocal Fold

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Na; Sung, Myung Whun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Cho, Yong Woo; Kwon, Seong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis results from various etiologies and can induce voice changes, swallowing complications, and issues with aspiration. Vocal fold paralysis is typically managed using injection laryngoplasty with fat or synthetic polymers. Injection with autologous fat has shown excellent biocompatibility. However, it has several disadvantages such as unpredictable resorption rate, morbidities associated with liposuction procedure which has to be done in operating room under general anesthesia. Human adipose-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts have been reported to form new adipose tissue and have greater biostability than autologous fat graft. Here, we present an injectable hydrogel that is constructed from adipose tissue derived soluble extracellular matrix (sECM) and methylcellulose (MC) for use in vocal fold augmentation. Human sECM derived from adipose tissue was extracted using two major steps—ECM was isolated from human adipose tissue and was subsequently solubilized. Injectable sECM/MC hydrogels were prepared by blending of sECM and MC. Sustained vocal fold augmentation and symmetric vocal fold vibration were accomplished by the sECM/MC hydrogel in paralyzed vocal fold which were confirmed by laryngoscope, histology and a high-speed imaging system. There were increased number of collagen fibers and fatty granules at the injection site without significant inflammation or fibrosis. Overall, these results indicate that the sECM/MC hydrogel can enhance vocal function in paralyzed vocal folds without early resorption and has potential as a promising material for injection laryngoplasty for stable vocal fold augmentation which can overcome the shortcomings of autologous fat such as unpredictable duration and morbidity associated with the fat harvest. PMID:27768757

  12. Ex-Vivo Tissues Engineering Modeling for Reconstructive Surgery Using Human Adult Adipose Stem Cells and Polymeric Nanostructured Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Morena, Francesco; Argentati, Chiara; Calzoni, Eleonora; Cordellini, Marino; Emiliani, Carla; D’Angelo, Francesco; Martino, Sabata

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge for stem cell translation regenerative medicine is the regeneration of damaged tissues by creating biological substitutes capable of recapitulating the missing function in the recipient host. Therefore, the current paradigm of tissue engineering strategies is the combination of a selected stem cell type, based on their capability to differentiate toward committed cell lineages, and a biomaterial, that, due to own characteristics (e.g., chemical, electric, mechanical property, nano-topography, and nanostructured molecular components), could serve as active scaffold to generate a bio-hybrid tissue/organ. Thus, effort has been made on the generation of in vitro tissue engineering modeling. Here, we present an in vitro model where human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate adipose tissue and breast adipose tissue, cultured on polymeric INTEGRA® Meshed Bilayer Wound Matrix (selected based on conventional clinical applications) are evaluated for their potential application for reconstructive surgery toward bone and adipose tissue. We demonstrated that human adipose stem cells isolated from lipoaspirate and breast tissue have similar stemness properties and are suitable for tissue engineering applications. Finally, the overall results highlighted lipoaspirate adipose tissue as a good source for the generation of adult adipose stem cells.

  13. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  14. Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA-Seq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0251 TITLE: Evaluation of Human Adipose Tissue Stromal Heterogeneity in Metabolic Disease Using Single Cell RNA -Seq...Using Single Cell RNA -Seq 5 b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0251 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Linus Tzu-Yen Tsai 5e...Adipocytes, Stromal Vascular Fraction, Single-cell RNA - seq, Transcriptional profiling, Drop-seq 6 ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major

  15. Regulation of the clock gene expression in human adipose tissue by weight loss.

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, O; Gögebakan, Ö; Sucher, S; Groth, J; Murahovschi, V; Kessler, K; Osterhoff, M; Rudovich, N; Kramer, A; Pfeiffer, A F H

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock coordinates numerous metabolic processes to adapt physiological responses to light-dark and feeding regimens and is itself regulated by metabolic cues. The implication of the circadian clock in the regulation of energy balance and body weight is widely studied in rodents but not in humans. Here we investigated (1) whether the expression of clock genes in human adipose tissue is changed by weight loss and (2) whether these alterations are associated with metabolic parameters. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples were collected before and after 8 weeks of weight loss on an 800 kcal per day hypocaloric diet (plus 200 g per day vegetables) at the same time of the day. Fifty overweight subjects who lost at least 8% weight after 8 weeks were selected for the study. The expression of 10 clock genes and key metabolic and inflammatory genes in adipose tissue was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of core clock genes PER2 and NR1D1 was increased after the weight loss. Correlations of PERIOD expression with body mass index (BMI) and serum total, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and of NR1D1 expression with total and LDL cholesterol were found that became non-significant after correction for multiple testing. Clock gene expression levels and their weight loss-induced changes tightly correlated with each other and with genes involved in fat metabolism (FASN, CPT1A, LPL, PPARG, PGC1A, ADIPOQ), energy metabolism (SIRT1), autophagy (LC3A, LC3B) and inflammatory response (NFKB1, NFKBIA, NLRP3, EMR1). Clock gene expression in human SAT is regulated by body weight changes and associated with BMI, serum cholesterol levels and the expression of metabolic and inflammatory genes. Our data confirm the tight crosstalk between molecular clock and metabolic and inflammatory pathways involved in adapting adipose tissue metabolism to changes of the energy intake in humans.

  16. Rheological and recovery properties of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels and human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parul Natvar; Smith, Connie Kathleen; Patrick, Charles W

    2005-06-01

    The viscosity and elastic and viscous moduli of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels and human abdominal adipose tissue are measured as a function of shear rate and frequency. Results indicate that both materials exhibit shear thinning and are viscoelastic in nature. Rheological tests suggest that the hydrogels become firmer as strain and frequency increase. Adipose tissue, however, begins to fail at higher strains and frequencies. This behavior is confirmed by measuring the complex modulus of both materials as a function of strain. Recovery properties are also measured for each material as a function of deformation. Although PEGDA hydrogels are able to recover up to 78% of their original height after 15% deformation, adipose tissue is not able to recover over the range of deformations tested. The frequencies and strains over which the tests are conducted are those physiologically experienced by the human body. The hydrogels are able to withstand this range of forces and, hence, are appropriate for use as a soft tissue filler material. In addition, the hydrogels swell 38.1% +/- 0.9% independent of surface area. The complex modulus of hydrogels of varying polymer concentrations is also measured as a function of strain to determine the effects of changing polymer content. These results indicate that as polymer content increases, the hydrogels become firmer due to the higher number of polymer chains and behave more elastically. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Depot-specific regulation of autotaxin with obesity in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rancoule, Chloé; Dusaulcy, Rodolphe; Tréguer, Karine; Grès, Sandra; Guigné, Charlotte; Quilliot, Didier; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2012-12-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a lysophospholipase D involved in synthesis of a bioactive mediator: lysophosphatidic. ATX is abundantly produced by adipocytes and exerts a negative action on adipose tissue expansion. In both mice and humans, ATX expression increases with obesity in association with insulin resistance. In the present study, fat depot-specific regulation of ATX was explored in human. ATX mRNA expression was quantified in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2); n = 27) and non-obese patients (BMI < 25 kg/m(2); n = 10). Whatever the weight status of the patients is, ATX expression was always higher (1.3- to 6-fold) in subcutaneous than in visceral fat. Nevertheless, visceral fat ATX was significantly higher (42 %) in obese than in non-obese patients, whereas subcutaneous fat ATX remained unchanged. In obese patients, visceral fat ATX expression was positively correlated with diastolic arterial blood pressure (r = 0.67; P = 0.001). This correlation was not observed with subcutaneous fat ATX. Visceral fat ATX was mainly correlated with leptin (r = 0.60; P = 0.001), inducible nitric oxide synthase (r = 0.58; P = 0,007), and apelin receptor (r = 0.50; P = 0.007). These correlations were not observed with subcutaneous fat ATX. These results reveal that obesity-associated upregulation of human adipose tissue ATX is specific to the visceral fat depot.

  18. Simulation of muscle and adipose tissue deformation in the passive human pharynx.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, Nicholas B; Carey, Jason P; Martin, Andrew R; Remmers, John E; Zareian, Ali; Topor, Zbigniew; Grosse, Joshua; Noga, Michelle; Finlay, Warren H

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of passive mechanical deformation in the human pharynx to upper airway collapse is fundamental to understanding the competing biomechanical processes that maintain airway patency. This study uses finite element analysis to examine deformation in the passive human pharynx using an intricate 3D anatomical model based on computed tomography scan images. Linear elastic properties are assigned to bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, and membrane structures based on a survey of values reported in the literature. Velopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cross-sectional area versus airway pressure slopes are determined as functions of Young's moduli of muscle and adipose tissue. In vivo pharyngeal mechanics for small deformations near atmospheric pressure are matched by altering Young's moduli of muscle and adipose tissue. The results indicate that Young's moduli ranging from 0.33 to 14 kPa for muscle and adipose tissue matched the in vivo range of area versus pressure slopes. The developed anatomical model and determined Young's moduli range are expected to be useful as a starting point for more complex simulations of human upper airway collapse and obstructive sleep apnea therapy.

  19. Development of thermogenic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Loncar, D

    1991-09-01

    Besides having a metabolic and insulatory-supporting function, adipose tissue in endotherms also performs a thermogenic function. Thermogenic adipocytes contain specific UC-mitochondria with uncoupling protein (UCP) and produce heat. Thermogenic adipose tissue has two forms: brown adipose tissue (BAT) and convertible adipose tissue (CAT). Brown adipocytes have UC-mitochondria and express UCP throughout the entire life of small rodents, chiropterans, and insectivores. However, in other endotherms and in humans CAT participates as thermogenic tissue only during early postnatal period. Both BAT and CAT start to develop in utero, although in some animals (hamsters, marsupials) or in some particular areas (thoraco-periaortal and medio-perirenal areas in rats) development of thermogenic adipose tissue starts after birth. Postnatal development of BAT in small endotherms is characterized by quantitative changes (the amount of UC-mitochondria, UCP, and lipids). Postnatal development of CAT causes qualitative changes during which UC-mitochondria in convertible adipocytes are replaced by common, nonthermogenic C-mitochondria; vascularization of adipocytes drops to a low level and, with lipid accumulation, convertible adipocytes appear as lipid-store cells. Postnatal development of CAT can be modulated or reversed by the environmental temperature. The duration of postnatal changes varies between species; i.e., cats, rabbits and sheep, change their thermogenic form of CAT into the lipid-store form within the first postnatal month, while in humans the same process takes up to 15-20 years. In maturity all these large endotherms have CAT in lipid-store form. In light of these results, the question of participation of thermogenic adipose tissue in the regulation of human obesity needs to be answered.

  20. Decreased RB1 mRNA, Protein, and Activity Reflect Obesity-Induced Altered Adipogenic Capacity in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Petrov, Petar; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Oliver, Paula; Ribot, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, Mª Luisa; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic phenotype. In conclusion, Rb1 seems to play a permissive role for human adipose tissue function, being downregulated in obesity and increased during differentiation of human adipocytes. Rb1 knockdown findings further implicate Rb1 as necessary for maintenance of adipogenic characteristics in fully differentiated adipocytes. PMID:23315497

  1. Decreased RB1 mRNA, protein, and activity reflect obesity-induced altered adipogenic capacity in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Petrov, Petar; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Estefanía; Oliver, Paula; Ribot, Joan; Ricart, Wifredo; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic phenotype. In conclusion, Rb1 seems to play a permissive role for human adipose tissue function, being downregulated in obesity and increased during differentiation of human adipocytes. Rb1 knockdown findings further implicate Rb1 as necessary for maintenance of adipogenic characteristics in fully differentiated adipocytes.

  2. In humans the adiponectin receptor R2 is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and linked to the adipose tissue expression of MMIF-1.

    PubMed

    Kos, K; Wong, S P Y; Huda, M S B; Cakir, M; Jernas, M; Carlsson, L; Kerrigan, D; Wilding, J P H; Pinkney, J H

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the regional adipose tissue-adiponectin (AT-ADN) and adiponectin receptor (R1 and R2) expression and their relation with metabolic parameters, circulating and AT-derived cytokine expressions were compared. Paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were taken from 18 lean and 39 obese humans, AT-mRNA expression of adipokines analysed by RT-PCR and corresponding serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). R1 and R2 adipocyte expression was compared with 17 other human tissues. ADN-gene expression was lower in VAT than SCAT [mean (SD) 1.54 (1.1) vs. 2.84 (0.87); p < 0.001], and lower in obese subjects (VAT : p = 0.01;SCAT : p < 0.001). SCAT-ADN correlated positively with serum ADN (r = 0.33;p = 0.036) but not VAT-ADN. AT expressions of ADN and macrophage migration inhibiting factor (MMIF), IL18 and cluster of differentiation factor 14 (CD14) in both depots showed inverse correlations. R1 and R2 were expressed ubiquitously and R2 highest in SCAT, and this is much higher (x100) than R1 (x100). R expression was similar in lean and obese subjects and unrelated to the metabolic syndrome, however, receptors correlated with VAT-MMIF (R 1: r = 0.4;p = 0.008;R 2: r = 0.35,p = 0.02) and SCAT-MMIF expression (R 2: r = 0.43;p = 0.004). Unlike ADN, its receptors are expressed in many human tissues. Human R2 expression is not highest in the liver but in AT where it is associated with MMIF expression. The adiponectin-dependent insulin-sensitizing action of thiazolidinediones is thus probably to differ amongst species with weaker effects on the human liver.

  3. IL-15 concentrations in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans: local effects of IL-15 on adipose tissue lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Joseph R.; Maples, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Animal/cell investigations indicate that there is a decreased adipose tissue mass resulting from skeletal muscle (SkM) IL-15 secretion (e.g., SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis). IL-15 could regulate fat mass accumulation in obesity via lipolysis, although this has not been investigated in humans. Therefore, the purpose was to examine whether SkM and/or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) IL-15 concentrations were correlated with SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese humans and determine whether IL-15 perfusion could induce lipolysis in human SCAT. Local SkM and abdominal SCAT IL-15 (microdialysis) and circulating IL-15 (blood) were sampled in lean (BMI: 23.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2; n = 10) and obese (BMI: 34.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2; n = 10) subjects at rest/during 1-h cycling exercise. Lipolysis (SCAT interstitial glycerol concentration) was compared against local/systemic IL-15. An additional probe in SCAT was perfused with IL-15 to assess direct lipolytic responses. SkM IL-15 was not different between lean and obese subjects (P = 0.45), whereas SCAT IL-15 was higher in obese vs. lean subjects (P = 0.02) and was correlated with SCAT lipolysis (r = 0.45, P = 0.05). Exercise increased SCAT lipolysis in lean and obese (P < 0.01), but exercise-induced SCAT lipolysis changes were not correlated with exercise-induced SCAT IL-15 changes. Microdialysis perfusion resulting in physiological IL-15 concentrations in the adipose tissue interstitium increased lipolysis in lean (P = 0.04) but suppressed lipolysis in obese (P < 0.01). Although we found no support for a human IL-15 SkM-blood-adipose tissue axis, IL-15 may be produced in/act on the abdominal SCAT depot. The extent to which this autocrine/paracrine IL-15 action regulates human body composition remains unknown. PMID:25921578

  4. Differential coexpression analysis of obesity-associated networks in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Walley, A J; Jacobson, P; Falchi, M; Bottolo, L; Andersson, J C; Petretto, E; Bonnefond, A; Vaillant, E; Lecoeur, C; Vatin, V; Jernas, M; Balding, D; Petteni, M; Park, Y S; Aitman, T; Richardson, S; Sjostrom, L; Carlsson, L M S; Froguel, P

    2012-01-01

    To use a unique obesity-discordant sib-pair study design to combine differential expression analysis, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) mapping and a coexpression regulatory network approach in subcutaneous human adipose tissue to identify genes relevant to the obese state. Genome-wide transcript expression in subcutaneous human adipose tissue was measured using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA), and genome-wide genotyping data was obtained using an Applied Biosystems (Applied Biosystems; Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) SNPlex linkage panel. A total of 154 Swedish families ascertained through an obese proband (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg m(-2)) with a discordant sibling (BMI>10 kg m(-2) less than proband). Approximately one-third of the transcripts were differentially expressed between lean and obese siblings. The cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) KEGG grouping contained the largest number of differentially expressed genes under cis-acting genetic control. By using a novel approach to contrast CAMs coexpression networks between lean and obese siblings, a subset of differentially regulated genes was identified, with the previously GWAS obesity-associated neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1) as a central hub. Independent analysis using mouse data demonstrated that this finding of NEGR1 is conserved across species. Our data suggest that in addition to its reported role in the brain, NEGR1 is also expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue and acts as a central 'hub' in an obesity-related transcript network.

  5. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies of brown adipose tissue recruitment in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2015-12-15

    Humans maintain core temperature through a complex neuroendocrine circuitry, coupling environmental thermal and nutritional cues to heat-producing and dissipating mechanisms. Up to 40% of resting energy expenditure contributes to thermal homeostasis maintenance. Recent re-discovery of thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) has brought the relation between ambient temperature, thermogenesis and systemic energy and substrate metabolism to the forefront. In addition to well-known pituitary-thyroid-adrenal axis, new endocrine signals, such as FGF21 and irisin, orchestrate crosstalk between white adipose tissue (WAT), BAT and muscle, tuning non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis responses. Cold exposure modulates the endocrine milieu, and cold-induced hormones cause bioenergetics transformation sufficient to impact whole body metabolism. This review will appraise the nature of human BAT and the basis of BAT-centred therapeutics, highlighting how the interaction between hormones and adipose tissue impacts metabolic responses. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies of BAT recruitment and/or fat browning for metabolic benefits will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). Results A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). Conclusions ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity. PMID:28323901

  7. Wound Healing Effect of Conditioned Media Obtained From Adipose Tissue on Human Skin Cells: A Comparative in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kober, Johanna; Gugerell, Alfred; Schmid, Melanie; Zeyda, Maximilian; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Nickl, Stefanie; Hacker, Stefan; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Keck, Maike

    2016-08-01

    Split-thickness skin grafting is the gold standard to cover extensive acute and chronic wounds with a well-vascularized wound bed. Although some headway has been made in developing biological agents to speed up healing, there is still no treatment that sufficiently replaces skin grafts to date. The use of secretory factors of adipose tissue may be a feasible approach to developing topical wound applications for faster wound healing. In this study, the effect of conditioned media (CMs) of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), adipocytes, or adipose tissue on human skin cells was evaluated for viability, proliferation, and migration in vitro. Differentiation potential of stem cells treated with CM was monitored by AdipoRed staining and qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Angiogenic potential of human endothelial cells treated with CM was tested via sprouting assay. The CM of adipose tissue significantly enhanced ASC proliferation (P < 0.01). Treatment with CM showed no inductive effect on ASC differentiation into adipocytes but, at the same time, significantly induced cell sprouting of endothelial cells (P < 0.001). We show for the first time that CM of adipose tissue is a potent inducer of proliferation of ASCs and angiogenesis, with comparable effects with those of stem cell-enriched CM. We suggest the use of the secretome of adipose tissue to produce CM for topical application on wounds, rather than working with adipose tissue or including the difficult process of enriching the patients' stem cells in vitro.

  8. Accumulation levels and characteristics of some pesticides in human adipose tissue samples from Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Shi, Lili; Kong, Deyang; Cai, Daoji; Cao, Yanzhong; Liu, Yongming; Pang, Guofang; Yu, Rongbin

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of pesticide levels and bio-accumulation characteristics in human adipose tissues among residents of Southeast China. A large number of adipose samples (n=633) were selected for 58 pesticides and were analyzed by high sensitive Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed that POPs pesticides were frequently detected, including 2,4'-DDD, 2,4'-DDE, 2,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex. Other detected pesticide species were dicofol, methamidophos and chlordimeform, which have rarely been reported. Comparing to different countries, the concentrations of total DDT and HCH in these three Chinese southeastern sites were in the middle range, whereas the HCB and mirex were in the lower end. A significant correlation was observed between region as well as age and POPs pesticide levels. Some pesticide residue levels were also found significantly correlated to occupation. However, there was no significant correlation between gender and pesticides. Meanwhile, it is interesting to find that mortality of malignant tumors tends to associate with the pesticides levels in human adipose tissue. More importantly, the measured data presented in this study provide realistic information which is useful for assessing human exposure to pesticides in the general population of Southeast China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EGFL6 is increasingly expressed in human obesity and promotes proliferation of adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Rupert; Rist, Wolfgang; Lenter, Martin C; Hamilton, Bradford S; Neubauer, Heike

    2010-10-01

    With increasing rates of obesity driving the incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases to epidemic levels, understanding of the biology of adipose tissue expansion is a focus of current research. Identification and characterization of secreted proteins of the adipose tissue could provide further insights into the function of adipose tissue and might help to therapeutically influence the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In the present study, we identified human epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple-6 (EGFL6) as an adipose tissue-secreted protein. EGFL6 expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue significantly increased with obesity and decreased after weight loss. Further, expression and secretion of EGFL6 increased with in vitro differentiation of human preadipocytes, suggesting that mature adipocytes are the main source of EGFL6. Containing epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin binding motif and a mephrin, A5 protein and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase mu (MAM) domain, EGFL6 was suggested to be an extra-cellular matrix protein. Recombinant human EGFL6 protein mediated cell adhesion of human adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular cells (AD-SVC) in an RGD-dependent manner. FACS analyses revealed specific binding of the protein to the cell surface of AD-SVC with the binding being predominantly mediated by the EGF-like repeats. Recombinant EGFL6 enhanced proliferation of human AD-SVC as measured by MTS assay and [(14)C]-thymidine incorporation. These results indicate that human EGFL6 is a paracrine/autocrine growth factor of adipose tissue up-regulated in obesity and potentially involved in the process of adipose tissue expansion and the development of obesity.

  10. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in human brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Taube, Magdalena; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Lindberg, Kristin; Pereira, Maria J; Gäbel, Markus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has during the last 5 year been subjected to an increasing research interest, due to its putative function as a target for future obesity treatments. The most commonly used method for molecular studies of human BAT is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This method requires normalization to a reference gene (genes with uniform expression under different experimental conditions, e.g. similar expression levels between human BAT and WAT), but so far no evaluation of reference genes for human BAT has been performed. Two different microarray datasets with samples containing human BAT were used to search for genes with low variability in expression levels. Seven genes (FAM96B, GNB1, GNB2, HUWE1, PSMB2, RING1 and TPT1) identified by microarray analysis, and 8 commonly used reference genes (18S, B2M, GAPDH, LRP10, PPIA, RPLP0, UBC, and YWHAZ) were selected and further analyzed by quantitative PCR in both BAT containing perirenal adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results were analyzed using 2 different algorithms (Normfinder and geNorm). Most of the commonly used reference genes displayed acceptably low variability (geNorm M-values <0.5) in the samples analyzed, but the novel reference genes identified by microarray displayed an even lower variability (M-values <0.25). Our data suggests that PSMB2, GNB2 and GNB1 are suitable novel reference genes for qPCR analysis of human BAT and we recommend that they are included in future gene expression studies of human BAT.

  11. The gene expression profile of non-cultured, highly purified human adipose tissue pericytes: Transcriptomic evidence that pericytes are stem cells in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    da Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo; de Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Bonini Palma, Patrícia Viana; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2016-12-10

    Pericytes (PCs) are a subset of perivascular cells that can give rise to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) when culture-expanded, and are postulated to give rise to MSC-like cells during tissue repair in vivo. PCs have been suggested to behave as stem cells (SCs) in situ in animal models, although evidence for this role in humans is lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes of highly purified, non-cultured adipose tissue (AT)-derived PCs (ATPCs) to detect gene expression changes that occur as they acquire MSC characteristics in vitro, and evaluated the hypothesis that human ATPCs exhibit a gene expression profile compatible with an AT SC phenotype. The results showed ATPCs are non-proliferative and express genes characteristic not only of PCs, but also of AT stem/progenitor cells. Additional analyses defined a gene expression signature for ATPCs, and revealed putative novel ATPC markers. Almost all AT stem/progenitor cell genes differentially expressed by ATPCs were not expressed by ATMSCs or culture-expanded ATPCs. Genes expressed by ATMSCs but not by ATPCs were also identified. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that PCs are SCs in vascularized tissues, highlight gene expression changes they undergo as they assume an MSC phenotype, and provide new insights into PC biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncovering Suitable Reference Proteins for Expression Studies in Human Adipose Tissue with Relevance to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Pérez, Rafael; López, Juan A.; García-Santos, Eva; Camafeita, Emilio; Gómez-Serrano, María; Ortega-Delgado, Francisco J.; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José M.; Peral, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein expression studies based on the two major intra-abdominal human fat depots, the subcutaneous and the omental fat, can shed light into the mechanisms involved in obesity and its co-morbidities. Here we address, for the first time, the identification and validation of reference proteins for data standardization, which are essential for accurate comparison of protein levels in expression studies based on fat from obese and non-obese individuals. Methodology and Findings To uncover adipose tissue proteins equally expressed either in omental and subcutaneous fat depots (study 1) or in omental fat from non-obese and obese individuals (study 2), we have reanalyzed our previously published data based on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four proteins (12 in study 1 and 12 in study 2) with similar expression levels in all conditions tested were selected and identified by mass spectrometry. Immunoblotting analysis was used to confirm in adipose tissue the expression pattern of the potential reference proteins and three proteins were validated: PARK7, ENOA and FAA. Western Blot analysis was also used to test customary loading control proteins. ENOA, PARK7 and the customary loading control protein Beta-actin showed steady expression profiles in fat from non-obese and obese individuals, whilst FAA maintained steady expression levels across paired omental and subcutaneous fat samples. Conclusions ENOA, PARK7 and Beta-actin are proper reference standards in obesity studies based on omental fat, whilst FAA is the best loading control for the comparative analysis of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues either in obese and non-obese subjects. Neither customary loading control proteins GAPDH and TBB5 nor CALX are adequate standards in differential expression studies on adipose tissue. The use of the proposed reference proteins will facilitate the adequate analysis of proteins differentially expressed in the context of obesity

  13. Human bone marrow harbors cells with neural crest-associated characteristics like human adipose and dermis tissues

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Cécile; Neirinckx, Virginie; Sharma, Anil; Agirman, Gulistan; Rogister, Bernard; Foguenne, Jacques; Lallemend, François

    2017-01-01

    Adult neural crest stem-derived cells (NCSC) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Several locations such as skin, adipose tissue, dental pulp or bone marrow have been described in rodent, as sources of NCSC. However, very little information is available concerning their correspondence in human tissues, and more precisely for human bone marrow. The main objective of this study was therefore to characterize NCSC from adult human bone marrow. In this purpose, we compared human bone marrow stromal cells to human adipose tissue and dermis, already described for containing NCSC. We performed comparative analyses in terms of gene and protein expression as well as functional characterizations. It appeared that human bone marrow, similarly to adipose tissue and dermis, contains NESTIN+ / SOX9+ / TWIST+ / SLUG+ / P75NTR+ / BRN3A+/ MSI1+/ SNAIL1+ cells and were able to differentiate into melanocytes, Schwann cells and neurons. Moreover, when injected into chicken embryos, all those cells were able to migrate and follow endogenous neural crest migration pathways. Altogether, the phenotypic characterization and migration abilities strongly suggest the presence of neural crest-derived cells in human adult bone marrow. PMID:28683107

  14. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W.; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m2) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor’s BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. Significance The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal

  15. Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Pachón-Peña, Gisela; Serena, Carolina; Ejarque, Miriam; Petriz, Jordi; Duran, Xevi; Oliva-Olivera, W; Simó, Rafael; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n=8; body mass index [BMI]: 23±1 kg/m2) and obese (n=8; BMI: 35±5 kg/m2). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor's BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension. The obesity-related hypoxic environment may have latent effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) with

  16. Genome-wide DNA promoter methylation and transcriptome analysis in human adipose tissue unravels novel candidate genes for obesity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Maria; Hopp, Lydia; Liu, Xuanshi; Wohland, Tobias; Rohde, Kerstin; Cancello, Raffaella; Klös, Matthias; Bacos, Karl; Kern, Matthias; Eichelmann, Fabian; Dietrich, Arne; Schön, Michael R; Gärtner, Daniel; Lohmann, Tobias; Dreßler, Miriam; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; DiBlasio, Anna-Maria; Ling, Charlotte; Binder, Hans; Blüher, Matthias; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in obesity and related metabolic complications. We examined genome-wide DNA promoter methylation along with mRNA profiles in paired samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from non-obese vs. obese individuals. We identified negatively correlated methylation and expression of several obesity-associated genes in our discovery dataset and in silico replicated ETV6 in two independent cohorts. Further, we identified six adipose tissue depot-specific genes (HAND2, HOXC6, PPARG, SORBS2, CD36, and CLDN1). The effects were further supported in additional independent cohorts. Our top hits might play a role in adipogenesis and differentiation, obesity, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue expandability. Finally, we show that in vitro methylation of SORBS2 directly represses gene expression. Taken together, our data show distinct tissue specific epigenetic alterations which associate with obesity.

  17. Human adipose CD34+ CD90+ stem cells and collagen scaffold constructs grafted in vivo fabricate loose connective and adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Giuseppe A; De Francesco, Francesco; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Paino, Francesca; Desiderio, Vincenzo; Tirino, Virginia; D'Andrea, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues are of great interest for a high number of diseases. Adult stem cells, instead, are more available, abundant and harvested with minimally invasive procedures. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent progenitors, able to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissues. Human adult adipose tissue seems to be the most abundant source of MSCs and, due to its easy accessibility; it is able to give a considerable amount of stem cells. In this study, we selected MSCs co-expressing CD34 and CD90 from adipose tissue. This stem cell population displayed higher proliferative capacity than CD34(-) CD90(-) cells and was able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes (PPARγ(+) and adiponectin(+)) and endothelial cells (CD31(+) VEGF(+) Flk1(+)). In addition, in methylcellulose without VEGF, it formed a vascular network. The aim of this study was to investigate differentiation potential of human adipose CD34(+) /CD90(+) stem cells loaded onto commercial collagen sponges already used in clinical practice (Gingistat) both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that human adult adipose and loose connective tissues can be obtained in vivo, highlighting that CD34(+) /CD90 ASCs are extremely useful for regenerative medicine.

  18. Organochlorine residues in human adipose tissue in Spain: Study of an agrarian area

    SciTech Connect

    Camps, M.; Planas, J.; Gomez-Catalan, J.; Sabroso, M.; To-Figueras, J.; Corbella, J.

    1989-02-01

    The environmental pollution by persistent organochlorine residues has received much attention in the last years because of its possible effects on wildlife and human health. These residues - organochlorine insecticides, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, in minor levels, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) - are accumulated in lipid-rich tissues. Their concentrations in adipose tissues of human populations are the best indices in determining the extent of exposure and in evaluating the hazard. In a previous study on the urban population of Barcelona (Spain) during the years 1982-83, high levels of DDE, DDT, /beta/-HCH and HCB were determined. Recently the incidence of HCB in Barcelona has been confirmed by serum determinations. In the present paper the authors have investigated the levels of organochlorine residues - with special concern on HCB- in human adipose tissues from an agrarian area, located at 130 km from Barcelona, mainly devoted to fruit-trees and cereal culture. Results obtained will form part of an up-to-date report on organochlorine pollution in Spain, including several populations of different geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, that will make it possible to identify the sources and trends of this contamination.

  19. An approximation to the temporal order in endogenous circadian rhythms of genes implicated in human adipose tissue metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although it is well established that human adipose tissue (AT) shows circadian rhythmicity, published studies have been discussed as if tissues or systems showed only one or few circadian rhythms at a time. To provide an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human AT in...

  20. Human adipose tissue-resident monocytes exhibit an endothelial-like phenotype and display angiogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue has the unique property of expanding throughout adult life, and angiogenesis is required for its growth. However, endothelial progenitor cells contribute minimally to neovascularization. Because myeloid cells have proven to be angiogenic, and monocytes accumulate in expanding adipose tissue, they might contribute to vascularization. Methods The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from human adipose tissue were magnetically separated according to CD45 or CD14 expression. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were obtained from SVF CD45- cells. CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells and then cultured with SVF-derived MSCs. Freshly isolated or cultured cells were characterized with flow cytometry; the conditioned media were analyzed for the angiogenic growth factors, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) with Luminex Technology; their angiogenic capacity was determined in an in vivo gelatinous protein mixture (Matrigel) plug angiogenesis assay. Results CD45+ hematopoietic cells within the SVF contain CD14+ cells that co-express the CD34 progenitor marker and the endothelial cell antigens VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR), VEGFR1/Flt1, and Tie2. Co-culture experiments showed that SVF-derived MSCs promoted the acquisition of KDR and Tie-2 in PB monocytes. MSCs secreted significant amounts of Ang-2 and HGF, but minimal amounts of bFGF, G-CSF, or GM-CSF, whereas the opposite was observed for SVF CD14+ cells. Additionally, SVF CD14+ cells secreted significantly higher levels of VEGF and bFGF than did MSCs. Culture supernatants of PB monocytes cultured with MSCs contained significantly higher concentrations of VEGF, HGF, G-CSF, and GM-CSF than did the supernatants from cultures without MSCs

  1. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans – With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  2. Important mitochondrial proteins in human omental adipose tissue show reduced expression in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lindinger, Peter W.; Christe, Martine; Eberle, Alex N.; Kern, Beatrice; Peterli, Ralph; Peters, Thomas; Jayawardene, Kamburapola J.I.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired mitochondrial function. This study compares mitochondrial protein expression in omental fat in obese and non-obese humans. Omental adipose tissue was obtained by surgical biopsy, adipocytes were purified and mitochondria isolated. Using anion-exchange chromatography, SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometry, 128 proteins with potentially different abundances in patient groups were identified, 62 of the 128 proteins are mainly localized in the mitochondria. Further quantification of 12 of these 62 proteins by immune dot blot analysis revealed four proteins citrate synthase, HADHA, LETM1 and mitofilin being inversely associated with BMI, and mitofilin being inversely correlated with gender. PMID:26217759

  3. Adipocytes and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Wieland; Petzold, Stephanie; Töpfer, Madlen; Garten, Antje; Blüher, Susann; Kapellen, Thomas; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    An epidemic of obesity is taking place in most societies around the world. Overall obesity substantially increases the risk of subsequent morbidity. In children and adolescents the degree of body fat mass depends upon ethnic background, gender, developmental stage and age. Obesity is characterized by increases in the number or size of fat cells, or a combination of both. It is generally believed that the number of fat cells depends on age of onset and degree of obesity. This chapter provides information on intrauterine growth of fetal adipose tissue, the earliest period of onset of proliferation, and some of the factors that interact to enhance or suppress development. Fetal adipose tissue development is regulated by the complex interaction of transcription factors, nutrients and adipocytokines. Maternal, endocrine, and paracrine factors also influence specific changes in angiogenesis, adipogenesis, and metabolism. During embryogenesis and in fetal life, leptin and adiponectin, two important adipocytokines, are present at high concentrations in the circulation and in tissues. Developmental stages and metabolic processes influenced by specific hormones and paracrine factors have been identified through examination of the offspring of obese and diabetic pregnancies, hormonal manipulation during late pregnancy in animal models, and the use of cell cultures. Collectively, the results of the studies cited herein delineate the basis for imprinting or conditioning of fetal pre-adipocytes at the paracrine/autocrine level, and of fetal adipose tissue development and metabolism.

  4. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  5. Comparison of Characteristics of Human Amniotic Membrane and Human Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dizaji Asl, Khadijeh; Shafaei, Hajar; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Nozad, Hojjat Ollah

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal candidates for treatment of diseases. Amniotic membranes are an inexpensive source of MSCs (AM-MSC) without any donor site morbidity in cell therapy. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are also suitable cells for cell therapy. There is discrepancy in CD271 expression among MSCs from different sources. In this study, the characteristics of AM-MSC and ASCs and CD271 expression were compared. METHODS Adult adipose tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgical procedure, and samples of amniotic membrane were collected immediately after caesarean operation. After isolation and expansion of MSCs, the proliferation rate and viability of cells were evaluated through calculating DT and MTT assay. Expression of routine mesenchymal specific surface antigens of MSCs and CD271 was evaluated by flow cytometry for both types of cells. RESULTS The growth rate and viability of the MSCs from the amniotic membrane was significantly higher compared with the ASCs. The low expression of CD14 and CD45 indicated that AM-MSC and ASCs are non hematopoietic cells, and both cell types expressed high percentages of CD44, CD105. The results revealed that AM-MSC and ASCs expressed no CD271 on their surfaces. CONCLUSION This study showed that amniotic membrane is a suitable cell source for cell therapy, and CD271 is a negative marker for MSCs identification from amniotic membrane and adipose tissue. PMID:28289611

  6. Comparison of Characteristics of Human Amniotic Membrane and Human Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Dizaji Asl, Khadijeh; Shafaei, Hajar; Soleimani Rad, Jafar; Nozad, Hojjat Ollah

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal candidates for treatment of diseases. Amniotic membranes are an inexpensive source of MSCs (AM-MSC) without any donor site morbidity in cell therapy. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) are also suitable cells for cell therapy. There is discrepancy in CD271 expression among MSCs from different sources. In this study, the characteristics of AM-MSC and ASCs and CD271 expression were compared. Adult adipose tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgical procedure, and samples of amniotic membrane were collected immediately after caesarean operation. After isolation and expansion of MSCs, the proliferation rate and viability of cells were evaluated through calculating DT and MTT assay. Expression of routine mesenchymal specific surface antigens of MSCs and CD271 was evaluated by flow cytometry for both types of cells. The growth rate and viability of the MSCs from the amniotic membrane was significantly higher compared with the ASCs. The low expression of CD14 and CD45 indicated that AM-MSC and ASCs are non hematopoietic cells, and both cell types expressed high percentages of CD44, CD105. The results revealed that AM-MSC and ASCs expressed no CD271 on their surfaces. This study showed that amniotic membrane is a suitable cell source for cell therapy, and CD271 is a negative marker for MSCs identification from amniotic membrane and adipose tissue.

  7. Inverse relation between FASN expression in human adipose tissue and the insulin resistance level

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy balance playing an active role in lipid storage and may be a dynamic buffer to control fatty acid flux. Just like PPARγ, fatty acid synthesis enzymes such as FASN have been implicated in almost all aspects of human metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance or dyslipemia. The aim of this work is to investigate how FASN and PPARγ expression in human adipose tissue is related to carbohydrate metabolism dysfunction and obesity. Methods The study included eighty-seven patients which were classified according to their BMI and to their glycaemia levels in order to study FASN and PPARγ gene expression levels, anthropometric and biochemical variables. Results The main result of this work is the close relation between FASN expression level and the factors that lead to hyperglycemic state (increased values of glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, BMI and triglycerides). The correlation of the enzyme with these parameters is inversely proportional. On the other hand, PPARγ is not related to carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions We can demonstrate that FASN expression is a good candidate to study the pathophysiology of type II diabetes and obesity in humans. PMID:20148112

  8. Inverse relation between FASN expression in human adipose tissue and the insulin resistance level.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María D; Ortega, Francisco J; Macías-González, Manuel; Bernal, Rosa; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2010-01-15

    Adipose tissue is a key regulator of energy balance playing an active role in lipid storage and may be a dynamic buffer to control fatty acid flux. Just like PPARgamma, fatty acid synthesis enzymes such as FASN have been implicated in almost all aspects of human metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance or dyslipemia. The aim of this work is to investigate how FASN and PPARgamma expression in human adipose tissue is related to carbohydrate metabolism dysfunction and obesity. The study included eighty-seven patients which were classified according to their BMI and to their glycaemia levels in order to study FASN and PPARgamma gene expression levels, anthropometric and biochemical variables. The main result of this work is the close relation between FASN expression level and the factors that lead to hyperglycemic state (increased values of glucose levels, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, BMI and triglycerides). The correlation of the enzyme with these parameters is inversely proportional. On the other hand, PPARgamma is not related to carbohydrate metabolism. We can demonstrate that FASN expression is a good candidate to study the pathophysiology of type II diabetes and obesity in humans.

  9. Influence of secreted factors from human adipose tissue on glucose utilization and proinflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Tréguer, Karine; Dusaulcy, Rodolphe; Grès, Sandra; Wanecq, Estelle; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the nature of the autocrine/paracrine signal within human adipose tissue that may alter glucose metabolism and the inflammatory status in adipocytes. We prepared a conditioned medium from abdominal dermolipectomies in the absence (CM) or the presence (CMBSA) of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and we tested the influence of CM and CMBSA on glucose transport, maximal insulin response, and the expression of inflammation marker genes in differentiated human SGBS adipocytes. We found that CMBSA increased basal and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation along with a reduced mRNA level of the glucose transport GLUT4, and an increased expression of GLUT1. These effects were associated with a potent upregulation in the mRNA level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. These regulations were strongly attenuated in the absence of BSA during the preparation of CM, or after BSA depletion of CM, and were attributed to water-soluble molecules rather than lipids. Finally, fractionation of CMBSA by isoelectric focusing showed that part of its bioactivity could be reproduced with proteins with pHi ranging from 6.6 to 7.6. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the production by human adipose tissue of autocrine/paracrine neutral proteins is able to increase the inflammatory status of the adipocytes and to deteriorate their glucose metabolism and maximal insulin response, and their release is greatly amplified by the presence of albumin.

  10. Deformations experienced in the human skin, adipose tissue, and fascia in osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Ji, Zhiming; Stecco, Antonio; Findley, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Osteopathic manipulative medicine techniques involve compressive and tangential forces to target the fascia. These forces are transmitted to the skin and adipose tissue before the fascia is encountered. Knowing the extent of deformation of these 2 tissue layers relative to the fascia will assist osteopathic physicians in evaluating techniques for manual therapies and adjusting these therapies to reduce patient discomfort and improve results. To determine the magnitude of the forces transmitted to the skin, adipose tissue, and fascia, and to determine the magnitude of deformation produced in the skin and adipose tissue relative to the fascia using a mathematical model. The large deformation theory of elasticity, valid for 3-dimensional deformations, was used to evaluate the forces that need to be applied such that a specified deformation is produced in any region of the skin, adipose tissue, or fascia layers. Similarly, if the forces are specified, then the deformation produced can be determined. The normal and tangential forces required to produce a deformation of 9% compression and 4% shear for the skin were 50 N and 11 N, respectively. Normal and tangential forces of about 100 N and 22 N were found for a similar deformation of fascia. For adipose tissue, these forces were 36 N and 8 N, respectively. In addition, the skin experienced more compression and shear-about 1.5 times as much as the fascia, and the adipose tissue experienced about 2.5 to 3.5 times the deformation of the fascia and 50% more than the skin when a given force was applied to the skin. The forces applied to the surface of the skin were transmitted through this layer and the adipose layer entirely to the fascia. Therefore, the skin and adipose tissue experienced the same magnitude of force as the fascia. However, the skin and adipose tissue experienced more compression and shear than the fascia. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  11. Intracutaneously injected human adipose tissue-derived stem cells in a mouse model stay at the site of injection.

    PubMed

    Koellensperger, E; Lampe, K; Beierfuss, A; Gramley, F; Germann, G; Leimer, U

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the local behavior of intracutaneously injected human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue and to determine the safety of a cell-based cutaneous therapy in an animal model.Human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue were labeled with red fluorochrome and were injected intradermally in the paravertebral area in immunodeficient BalbC/nude mice (n = 21). As a control, cell culturemedium was injected in the same fashion on the contralateral paravertebral side. Four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the injection, seven mice were examined. In addition to the injected areas, the lungs, kidneys,spleens, and brains were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Serial sections of all the tissues excised were evaluated for adipose tissue-derived stem cells by means of emerging red fluorescent signals.The injected stem cells could be detected throughout the follow-up period of 1-year at the injection site within the dermal and subcutaneous layers. Bar these areas, adipose tissue-derived stem cells were not found in any otherexamined tissue at any point in time. The adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed a slow transition to deeper subcutaneous adipose tissue layers and, in part, a differentiation into adipocytes. No ulceration, inflammation, ortumor induction could be detected.The present study shows that intracutaneously injected human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue stay at the site of injection, survive in vivo for up to 1-year, and partly differentiate into adipocytes. This is a new andvery important finding needed to safely apply therapies based on such stem cells in fat transplants in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brown adipose tissue: research milestones of a potential player in human energy balance and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zafrir, B

    2013-10-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are worldwide epidemics driven by the disruption in energy balance. In recent years, it was discovered that functional brown adipose tissue (BAT), once thought to exist mainly in infants, is present in adults, and can be detected during cold stimulation, and is associated with decreased adiposity. Brown fat pads were shown to be highly vascularized and metabolically active and on stimulation, they caused enhanced energy expenditure and increased glucose and fatty acid uptake. These observations drew attention to the possibility that nonshivering thermogenesis mediated by activation of BAT might be important in human energy balance and a potential tool to counter obesity. Recent investigations have revealed significant advances in the understanding of the role of BAT-mediated thermogenesis, uncovering essential knowledge on the origin, differentiation, activation, and regulation of BAT in both murine models and humans. In addition to classic BAT depots, transformation of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes, and the development of "beige" cells from distinct precursors, were demonstrated in different animal models and resulted in increased thermogenic activity. Several transcription factors, activating proteins, and hormones are increasingly identified as regulating the development and function of both brown-like adipocytes and classic brown fat pads. This review will summarize the evolution of research on BAT in humans, in light of the renewed scientific interest and growing body of evidence showing that recruitment and activation of BAT and browning of white adipose tissue can affect energy expenditure and may be a future feasible target in the treatment of metabolic diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. De novo generation of adipocytes from circulating progenitor cells in mouse and human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Kathleen M.; Gutman, Jonathan A.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Wei, Qi; Shea, Karen L.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy M.; Erickson, Paul F.; Helm, Karen M.; Acosta, Alistaire S.; Childs, Christine R.; Musselwhite, Evelyn; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Kelly, Kimberly; Majka, Susan M.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2016-01-01

    White adipocytes in adults are typically derived from tissue resident mesenchymal progenitors. The recent identification of de novo production of adipocytes from bone marrow progenitor-derived cells in mice challenges this paradigm and indicates an alternative lineage specification that adipocytes exist. We hypothesized that alternative lineage specification of white adipocytes is also present in human adipose tissue. Bone marrow from transgenic mice in which luciferase expression is governed by the adipocyte-restricted adiponectin gene promoter was adoptively transferred to wild-type recipient mice. Light emission was quantitated in recipients by in vivo imaging and direct enzyme assay. Adipocytes were also obtained from human recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. DNA was isolated, and microsatellite polymorphisms were exploited to quantify donor/recipient chimerism. Luciferase emission was detected from major fat depots of transplanted mice. No light emission was observed from intestines, liver, or lungs. Up to 35% of adipocytes in humans were generated from donor marrow cells in the absence of cell fusion. Nontransplanted mice and stromal-vascular fraction samples were used as negative and positive controls for the mouse and human experiments, respectively. This study provides evidence for a nontissue resident origin of an adipocyte subpopulation in both mice and humans.—Gavin, K. M., Gutman, J. A., Kohrt, W. M., Wei, Q., Shea, K. L., Miller, H. L., Sullivan, T. M., Erickson, P. F., Helm, K. M., Acosta, A. S., Childs, C. R., Musselwhite, E., Varella-Garcia, M., Kelly, K., Majka, S. M., Klemm, D. J. De novo generation of adipocytes from circulating progenitor cells in mouse and human adipose tissue. PMID:26581599

  14. Characterization of In Vitro Engineered Human Adipose Tissues: Relevant Adipokine Secretion and Impact of TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Kim; Safoine, Meryem; Proulx, Maryse; Audet-Casgrain, Marie-Alice; Côté, Jean-François; Têtu, Félix-André; Roy, Alphonse; Fradette, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Representative modelling of human adipose tissue functions is central to metabolic research. Tridimensional models able to recreate human adipogenesis in a physiological tissue-like context in vitro are still scarce. We describe the engineering of white adipose tissues reconstructed from their cultured adipose-derived stromal precursor cells. We hypothesize that these reconstructed tissues can recapitulate key functions of AT under basal and pro-inflammatory conditions. These tissues, featuring human adipocytes surrounded by stroma, were stable and metabolically active in long-term cultures (at least 11 weeks). Secretion of major adipokines and growth factors by the reconstructed tissues was determined and compared to media conditioned by human native fat explants. Interestingly, the secretory profiles of the reconstructed adipose tissues indicated an abundant production of leptin, PAI-1 and angiopoietin-1 proteins, while higher HGF levels were detected for the human fat explants. We next demonstrated the responsiveness of the tissues to the pro-inflammatory stimulus TNF-α, as reflected by modulation of MCP-1, NGF and HGF secretion, while VEGF and leptin protein expression did not vary. TNF-α exposure induced changes in gene expression for adipocyte metabolism-associated mRNAs such as SLC2A4, FASN and LIPE, as well as for genes implicated in NF-κB activation. Finally, this model was customized to feature adipocytes representative of progressive stages of differentiation, thereby allowing investigations using newly differentiated or more mature adipocytes. In conclusion, we produced tridimensional tissues engineered in vitro that are able to recapitulate key characteristics of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. These tissues are produced from human cells and their neo-synthesized matrix elements without exogenous or synthetic biomaterials. Therefore, they represent unique tools to investigate the effects of pharmacologically active products on human stromal cells

  15. Characterization of In Vitro Engineered Human Adipose Tissues: Relevant Adipokine Secretion and Impact of TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Kim; Safoine, Meryem; Proulx, Maryse; Audet-Casgrain, Marie-Alice; Côté, Jean-François; Têtu, Félix-André; Roy, Alphonse; Fradette, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Representative modelling of human adipose tissue functions is central to metabolic research. Tridimensional models able to recreate human adipogenesis in a physiological tissue-like context in vitro are still scarce. We describe the engineering of white adipose tissues reconstructed from their cultured adipose-derived stromal precursor cells. We hypothesize that these reconstructed tissues can recapitulate key functions of AT under basal and pro-inflammatory conditions. These tissues, featuring human adipocytes surrounded by stroma, were stable and metabolically active in long-term cultures (at least 11 weeks). Secretion of major adipokines and growth factors by the reconstructed tissues was determined and compared to media conditioned by human native fat explants. Interestingly, the secretory profiles of the reconstructed adipose tissues indicated an abundant production of leptin, PAI-1 and angiopoietin-1 proteins, while higher HGF levels were detected for the human fat explants. We next demonstrated the responsiveness of the tissues to the pro-inflammatory stimulus TNF-α, as reflected by modulation of MCP-1, NGF and HGF secretion, while VEGF and leptin protein expression did not vary. TNF-α exposure induced changes in gene expression for adipocyte metabolism-associated mRNAs such as SLC2A4, FASN and LIPE, as well as for genes implicated in NF-κB activation. Finally, this model was customized to feature adipocytes representative of progressive stages of differentiation, thereby allowing investigations using newly differentiated or more mature adipocytes. In conclusion, we produced tridimensional tissues engineered in vitro that are able to recapitulate key characteristics of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. These tissues are produced from human cells and their neo-synthesized matrix elements without exogenous or synthetic biomaterials. Therefore, they represent unique tools to investigate the effects of pharmacologically active products on human stromal cells

  16. GMP-compliant human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cellular therapy.

    PubMed

    Aghayan, Hamid-Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells, which can be derived from different sources, demonstrate promising therapeutic evidences for cellular therapies. Among various types of stem cell, mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most common stem cells that are used in cellular therapy. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an easy accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells with some considerable advantages. Accordingly, various preclinical and clinical investigations have shown enormous potential of adipose-derived stromal cells in regenerative medicine. Consequently, increasing clinical applications of these cells has elucidated the importance of safety concerns regarding clinical transplantation. Therefore, clinical-grade preparation of adipose-derived stromal cells in accordance with current good manufacturing practice guidelines is an essential part of their clinical applications to ensure the safety, quality, characteristics, and identity of cell products. Additionally, GMP-compliant cell manufacturing involves several issues to provide a quality assurance system during translation from the basic stem cell sciences into clinical investigations and applications. On the other hand, advanced cellular therapy requires extensive validation, process control, and documentation. It also evidently elucidates the critical importance of production methods and probable risks. Therefore, implementation of a quality management and assurance system in accordance with GMP guidelines can greatly reduce these risks particularly in the higher-risk category or "more than minimally manipulated" products.

  17. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  18. The receptor CD44 is associated with systemic insulin resistance and proinflammatory macrophages in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Fen; Kodama, Keiichi; Wei, Ke; Tolentino, Lorna L; Choi, Okmi; Engleman, Edgar G; Butte, Atul J; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-07-01

    Proinflammatory immune cell infiltration in human adipose tissue is associated with the development of insulin resistance. We previously identified, via a gene expression-based genome-wide association study, the cell-surface immune cell receptor CD44 as a functionally important gene associated with type 2 diabetes. We then showed that, compared with controls, Cd44 knockout mice were protected from insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation during diet-induced obesity. We thus sought to test whether CD44 is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in humans. Participants included 58 healthy, overweight/moderately obese white adults who met predetermined criteria for insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity based on the modified insulin-suppression test. Serum was collected from 43 participants to measure circulating concentrations of CD44. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from 17 participants to compare CD44, its ligand osteopontin (OPN, also known as SPP1) and pro-inflammatory gene expression. CD44 expression on adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) surfaces was determined by flow cytometry. Serum CD44 concentrations were significantly increased in insulin-resistant (IR) participants. CD44 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was threefold higher in the IR subgroup. The expression of OPN, CD68 and IL6 was also significantly elevated in IR individuals. CD44 gene expression correlated significantly with CD68 and IL6 expression. CD44 density on ATMs was associated with proinflammatory M1 polarisation. CD44 and OPN in human adipose tissue are associated with localised inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. This receptor-ligand pair is worthy of further research as a potentially modifiable contributor to human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

  19. FADS2 genotype regulates delta-6 desaturase activity and inflammation in human adipose tissue[S

    PubMed Central

    Vaittinen, Maija; Walle, Paula; Kuosmanen, Emmi; Männistö, Ville; Käkelä, Pirjo; Ågren, Jyrki; Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with disturbed lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation in tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between FA metabolism and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in the Kuopio Obesity Surgery study. We investigated the association of surgery-induced weight loss and FA desaturase (FADS)1/2 genotypes with serum and AT FA profile and with AT inflammation, measured as interleukin (IL)-1β and NFκB pathway gene expression, in order to find potential gene-environment interactions. We demonstrated an association between serum levels of saturated and polyunsaturated n-6 FAs, and estimated enzyme activities of FADS1/2 genes with IL-1β expression in AT both at baseline and at follow-up. Variation in the FADS1/2 genes associated with IL-1β and NFκB pathway gene expression in SAT after weight reduction, but not at baseline. In addition, the FA composition in subcutaneous and visceral fat correlated with serum FAs, and the associations between serum PUFAs and estimated D6D enzyme activity with AT inflammation were also replicated with corresponding AT FAs and AT inflammation. We conclude that the polymorphism in FADS1/2 genes associates with FA metabolism and AT inflammation, leading to an interaction between weight loss and FADS1/2 genes in the regulation of AT inflammation. PMID:26609056

  20. Temperature-Acclimated Brown Adipose Tissue Modulates Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul; Smith, Sheila; Linderman, Joyce; Courville, Amber B.; Brychta, Robert J.; Dieckmann, William; Werner, Charlotte D.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis (CIT; DIT). Whether BAT recruitment is reversible and how it impacts on energy metabolism have not been investigated in humans. We examined the effects of temperature acclimation on BAT, energy balance, and substrate metabolism in a prospective crossover study of 4-month duration, consisting of four consecutive blocks of 1-month overnight temperature acclimation (24°C [month 1] → 19°C [month 2] → 24°C [month 3] → 27°C [month 4]) of five healthy men in a temperature-controlled research facility. Sequential monthly acclimation modulated BAT reversibly, boosting and suppressing its abundance and activity in mild cold and warm conditions (P < 0.05), respectively, independent of seasonal fluctuations (P < 0.01). BAT acclimation did not alter CIT but was accompanied by DIT (P < 0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity enhancement (P < 0.05), evident only after cold acclimation. Circulating and adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, expression levels of leptin and adiponectin displayed reciprocal changes concordant with cold-acclimated insulin sensitization. These results suggest regulatory links between BAT thermal plasticity and glucose metabolism in humans, opening avenues to harnessing BAT for metabolic benefits. PMID:24954193

  1. Different metabolic responses of human brown adipose tissue to activation by cold and insulin.

    PubMed

    Orava, Janne; Nuutila, Pirjo; Lidell, Martin E; Oikonen, Vesa; Noponen, Tommi; Viljanen, Tapio; Scheinin, Mika; Taittonen, Markku; Niemi, Tarja; Enerbäck, Sven; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2011-08-03

    We investigated the metabolism of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) in healthy subjects by determining its cold-induced and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and blood flow (perfusion) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT). Second, we assessed gene expression in human BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT). Glucose uptake was induced 12-fold in BAT by cold, accompanied by doubling of perfusion. We found a positive association between whole-body energy expenditure and BAT perfusion. Insulin enhanced glucose uptake 5-fold in BAT independently of its perfusion, while the effect on WAT was weaker. The gene expression level of insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4 was also higher in BAT as compared to WAT. In conclusion, BAT appears to be differently activated by insulin and cold; in response to insulin, BAT displays high glucose uptake without increased perfusion, but when activated by cold, it dissipates energy in a perfusion-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depot-specific Regulation of the Conversion of Cortisone to Cortisol in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K.; Mundt, Steven S.; Wang, Yanxin; Sullivan, Sean; Stefanni, Alice; Daugherty, Bruce L.; Hermanowski-Vosatka, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our main objective was to compare the regulation of cortisol production within omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abd sc) human adipose tissue. Methods and Procedures Om and Abd sc adipose tissue were obtained at surgery from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity (3H-cortisone and 3H-cortisol interconversion) and expression were measured before and after organ culture with insulin and/or dexamethasone. Results Type 1 HSD (HSD1) mRNA and reductase activity were mainly expressed within adipocytes and tightly correlated with adipocyte size within both depots. There was no depot difference in HSD1 expression or reductase activity, while cortisol inactivation and HSD2 mRNA expression (expressed in stromal cells) were higher in Om suggesting higher cortisol turnover in this depot. Culture with insulin decreased HSD reductase activity in both depots. Culture with dexamethasone plus insulin compared to insulin alone increased HSD reductase activity only in the Om depot. This depot-specific increase in reductase activity could not be explained by an alteration in HSD1 mRNA or protein, which was paradoxically decreased. However, in Om only, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA levels were increased by culture with dexamethasone plus insulin compared to insulin alone, suggesting that higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) production within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributed to the higher HSD reductase activity. Discussion We conclude that in the presence of insulin, glucocorticoids cause a depot-specific increase in the activation of cortisone within Om adipose tissue, and that this mechanism may contribute to adipocyte hypertrophy and visceral obesity. PMID:18388900

  3. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB(1) mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P < 0.001), and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001), whereas FAAH gene expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and circulating 2-AG (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that abdominal fat accumulation is a critical correlate of the dysregulation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes.

  4. Human Brown Adipose Tissue Temperature and Fat Fraction Are Related to Its Metabolic Activity.

    PubMed

    Koskensalo, Kalle; Raiko, Juho; Saari, Teemu; Saunavaara, Virva; Eskola, Olli; Nuutila, Pirjo; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic activity of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been previously examined using positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether the temperature and the fat fraction (FF) of BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) are associated with BAT metabolic activity determined by deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-d-glucose (18F-FDG)-PET. Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men; 25 to 45 years of age) were studied using PET-magnetic resonance imaging during acute cold exposure and at ambient room temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT 1H MRS were measured. The tissue temperature and the FF were derived from the spectra. Tissue metabolic activity was studied through glucose uptake using dynamic FDG PET scanning during cold exposure. A 2-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed on eight subjects. The metabolic activity of BAT associated directly with the heat production capacity and inversely with the FF of the tissue. In addition, the lipid-burning capacity of BAT associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity. During cold exposure, the FF of BAT was lower than at room temperature, and cold-induced FF of BAT associated inversely with high-density lipoprotein and directly with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Both 1H MRS-derived temperature and FF are promising methods to study BAT activity noninvasively. The association between the lipid-burning capacity of BAT and whole-body insulin sensitivity emphasizes the role of BAT in glucose handling. Furthermore, the relation of FF to high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol suggests that BAT has a role in lipid clearance, thus protecting tissues from excess lipid load.

  5. Quantification of the full length leptin receptor (OB-Rb) in human brown and white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kutoh, E; Boss, O; Levasseur, F; Giacobino, J P

    1998-01-01

    Levels of expression of the leptin receptor (OB-R) splice variants have been studied in human omental white and perirenal brown adipose tissues by reverse transcription-PCR. The level of mRNA expression of the full length form (OB-Rb) was approximately 15% of that of the sum of all splice variants in white or brown adipose tissue. In an attempt to quantify the gene expression of OB-Rb in human white adipose tissue, a quantitative competitive PCR technique was developed, using oligonucleotide primers designed for OB-Rb and an internal standard for a "MIMIC" competition strategy. The levels of expression of OB-Rb mRNA in the omental fat of lean and obese patients were compared and no difference could be observed between the two groups. The quantitative RT-PCR technique allows for a fast and accurate measurement of the expression of the OB-Rb mRNA in small tissue samples.

  6. Targeting adipose tissue via systemic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S M; Hinkle, C; Chen, S-J; Sandhu, A; Hovhannisyan, R; Stephan, S; Lagor, W R; Ahima, R S; Johnston, J C; Reilly, M P

    2014-07-01

    Adipose tissue has a critical role in energy and metabolic homeostasis, but it is challenging to adapt techniques to modulate adipose function in vivo. Here we develop an in vivo, systemic method of gene transfer specifically targeting adipose tissue using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. We constructed AAV vectors containing cytomegalovirus promoter-regulated reporter genes, intravenously injected adult mice with vectors using multiple AAV serotypes, and determined that AAV2/8 best targeted adipose tissue. Altering vectors to contain adiponectin promoter/enhancer elements and liver-specific microRNA-122 target sites restricted reporter gene expression to adipose tissue. As proof of efficacy, the leptin gene was incorporated into the adipose-targeted expression vector, package into AAV2/8 and administered intravenously to 9- to 10-week-old ob/ob mice. Phenotypic changes were measured over an 8-week period. Leptin mRNA and protein were expressed in adipose and leptin protein was secreted into plasma. Mice responded with reversal of weight gain, decreased hyperinsulinemia and improved glucose tolerance. AAV2/8-mediated systemic delivery of an adipose-targeted expression vector can replace a gene lacking in adipose tissue and correct a mouse model of human disease, demonstrating experimental application and therapeutic potential in disorders of adipose.

  7. Gene pathway development in human epicardial adipose tissue during early life

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Shalini; Fainberg, Hernan P.; Wilson, Victoria; Pelella, Giuseppe; Castellanos, Marcos; May, Sean T.; Lotto, Attilio A.; Sacks, Harold; Symonds, Michael E.; Budge, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodents and newborn humans demonstrate the influence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in temperature control and energy balance and a critical role in the regulation of body weight. Here, we obtained samples of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from neonates, infants, and children in order to evaluate changes in their transcriptional landscape by applying a systems biology approach. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the transition to infancy is a critical stage for changes in the morphology of EAT and is reflected in unique gene expression patterns of a substantial proportion of thermogenic gene transcripts (~10%). Our results also indicated that the pattern of gene expression represents a distinct developmental stage, even after the rebound in abundance of thermogenic genes in later childhood. Using weighted gene coexpression network analyses, we found precise anthropometric-specific correlations with changes in gene expression and the decline of thermogenic capacity within EAT. In addition, these results indicate a sequential order of transcriptional events affecting cellular pathways, which could potentially explain the variation in the amount, or activity, of BAT in adulthood. Together, these results provide a resource to elucidate gene regulatory mechanisms underlying the progressive development of BAT during early life. PMID:27699231

  8. Gene pathway development in human epicardial adipose tissue during early life.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shalini; Fainberg, Hernan P; Wilson, Victoria; Pelella, Giuseppe; Castellanos, Marcos; May, Sean T; Lotto, Attilio A; Sacks, Harold; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2016-08-18

    Studies in rodents and newborn humans demonstrate the influence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in temperature control and energy balance and a critical role in the regulation of body weight. Here, we obtained samples of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from neonates, infants, and children in order to evaluate changes in their transcriptional landscape by applying a systems biology approach. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the transition to infancy is a critical stage for changes in the morphology of EAT and is reflected in unique gene expression patterns of a substantial proportion of thermogenic gene transcripts (~10%). Our results also indicated that the pattern of gene expression represents a distinct developmental stage, even after the rebound in abundance of thermogenic genes in later childhood. Using weighted gene coexpression network analyses, we found precise anthropometric-specific correlations with changes in gene expression and the decline of thermogenic capacity within EAT. In addition, these results indicate a sequential order of transcriptional events affecting cellular pathways, which could potentially explain the variation in the amount, or activity, of BAT in adulthood. Together, these results provide a resource to elucidate gene regulatory mechanisms underlying the progressive development of BAT during early life.

  9. The Transcriptome of Human Epicardial, Mediastinal and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues in Men with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Gaudreault, Nathalie; Piché, Marie-Ève; Fournier, Dominique; Mauriège, Pascale; Mathieu, Patrick; Bossé, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Background The biological functions of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) remain largely unknown. However, the proximity of EAT to the coronary arteries suggests a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objectives of this study were to identify genes differentially regulated among three adipose tissues, namely EAT, mediastinal (MAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) and to study their possible relationships with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Methods and Results Samples were collected from subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries. Gene expression was evaluated in the three adipose depots of six men using the Illumina® HumanWG-6 v3.0 expression BeadChips. Twenty-three and 73 genes were differentially up-regulated in EAT compared to MAT and SAT, respectively. Ninety-four genes were down-regulated in EAT compared to SAT. However, none were significantly down-regulated in EAT compared to MAT. More specifically, the expression of the adenosine A1 receptor (ADORA1), involved in myocardial ischemia, was significantly up-regulated in EAT. Levels of the prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) gene, recently associated with the progression of atherosclerosis, were significantly different in the three pairwise comparisons (EAT>MAT>SAT). The results of ADORA1 and PTGDS were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR in 25 independent subjects. Conclusions Overall, the transcriptional profiles of EAT and MAT were similar compared to the SAT. Despite this similarity, two genes involved in cardiovascular diseases, ADORA1 and PTGDS, were differentially up-regulated in EAT. These results provide insights about the biology of EAT and its potential implication in CAD. PMID:21603615

  10. Erythropoietin stimulation of human adipose tissue for therapeutic refilling releases protective cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Bosetti, Michela; Borrone, Alessia; Moalem, Liah; Taveggia, Antonio; Verna, Giovanni; Cannas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis and inflammatory processes may be at the basis of reducing graft survival. Erythropoietin is a tissue-protective hormone with pleiotropic potential, and it interferes with the activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates healing following injury, preventing destruction of tissue surrounding the injury site. It may represent a useful tool to increase the autograft integration. Through the use of multipanel kit cytokine analysis we have detected the cytokines secreted by human tissue adipose mass seeded in culture following withdrawal by Coleman’s modified technique in three groups: control, after lipopolysaccharides stimulation and after erythropoietin stimulation. In the control group, we have observed expression of factors that may have a role in protecting the tissue homeostatic mechanism. But the same factors were secreted following stimulation with lipopolysaccharides combined with others factors that delineated the inflammatory state. Instead through erythropoietin stimulation, the factors known to exert tissue-protective action were secreted. Therefore, the use of a trophic factors such as erythropoietin may help to inhibit the potential inflammatory process development and stimulate the activation of reparative/regenerative process in the tissue graft. PMID:27738510

  11. Predictors of the total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB) in human adipose tissue. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, J P; Fernandez, M F; Molina-Molina, J M; Martin-Olmedo, P; Expósito, J; Olea, N

    2012-01-01

    The estrogenicity of biological extracts tested by appropriate bioassay is a standard method to evaluate the total effective xenoestrogen burden (TEXB). Information has been published on the combined effect of xenoestrogens after removing endogenous hormones. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the combined estrogenicity of endogenous and xenoestrogens in human adipose tissue samples with and without HPLC fractionation. The results suggest that both approaches may be useful to study interaction between xenoestrogens and endogenous hormones. TEXB of the whole extract provides information about the overall estrogenicity to which humans are exposed, useful to assess the potential contribution to health outcomes. Additionally, it is possible to identify the source and potency of the estrogenicity by using the method with fractionation, distinguishing the effect of organohalogenated chemicals (alpha-fraction) from that of endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (beta-fraction). Both methods are an integrative measure of internal estrogen load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Translational issues in targeting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis for human obesity management.

    PubMed

    Dulloo, Abdul G

    2013-10-01

    The recent advancements in unraveling novel mechanisms that control the induction, (trans)differentiation, proliferation, and thermogenic activity and capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), together with the application of imaging techniques for human BAT visualization, have generated optimism that these advances will provide novel strategies for targeting BAT thermogenesis, leading to efficacious and safe obesity therapies. This paper first provides an overview of landmark events of the past few decades that have been driving the search for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds that would increase BAT thermogenesis for obesity management. It then addresses issues about what could be expected from an ideal thermogenic antiobesity approach, in particular to what extent daily energy expenditure will need to increase in order to achieve long-term weight loss currently achievable only through bariatric surgery, and whether the human body will have enough thermogenic capacity to reach this target weight loss by future therapies focused on BAT.

  13. Site-specific circadian expression of leptin and its receptor in human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Abellán, P. Gómez; Santos, C. Gómez; Madrid, J. A.; Milagro, F. I.; Campion, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Luján, J. A.; Ordovás, J. M.; Garaulet, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Circadian variability of circulating leptin levels has been well established over the last decade. However, the circadian behavior of leptin in human adipose tissue remains unknown. This also applies to the soluble leptin receptor. Objective We investigated the ex vivo circadian behavior of leptin and its receptor expression in human adipose tissue (AT). Subjects and methods Visceral and subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbid obese women (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Anthropometric variables and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, lipids and lipoprotein concentrations were determined. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of leptin and its receptor, AT explants were cultured during 24-h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 08:00, 14:00, 20:00, 02:00 h, using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Leptin expression showed an oscillatory pattern that was consistent with circadian rhythm in cultured AT. Similar patterns were noted for the leptin receptor. Leptin showed its achrophase (maximum expression) during the night, which might be associated to a lower degree of fat accumulation and higher mobilization. When comparing both fat depots, visceral AT anticipated its expression towards afternoon and evening hours. Interestingly, leptin plasma values were associated with decreased amplitude of LEP rhythm. This association was lost when adjusting for waist circumference. Conclusion Circadian rhythmicity has been demonstrated in leptin and its receptor in human AT cultures in a site-specific manner. This new knowledge paves the way for a better understanding of the autocrine/paracrine role of leptin in human AT. PMID:22411388

  14. Insulin Plays a Permissive Role for the Vasoactive Effect of GIP Regulating Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Humans.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Ali; Holst, Jens Juul; Dela, Flemming; Bülow, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in combination with hyperinsulinemia increases blood flow and triglyceride (TAG) clearance in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans. The present experiments were performed to further investigate the role of insulin for the vasoactive effect of GIP in adipose tissue metabolism and whether the vasodilatory effect of GIP is dependent on C-peptide. Six lean healthy subjects were studied. The sc abdominal adipose tissue metabolism was assessed by Fick's principle during GIP infusion (1.5 pmol/kg/min) in combination with 1) euglycemic-high insulinemic clamp (Eugluc-Hiinsu), raising plasma insulin concentrations to postprandial levels, 2) hyperglycemic-euinsulinemic clamp (Hygluc-Euinsu), and 3) hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, raising plasma insulin concentrations to supraphysiological levels. During the hyperglycemic clamps, endogenous insulin and C-peptide secretion were inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. During GIP infusion, Eugluc-Hiinsu, and hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, sc abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was similar and increased from 2.1 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.4 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1) to 7.1 ± 0.6 and 7.6 ± 0.1 ml min(-1) (100 g tissue)(-1), respectively (P < .01). ATBF remained virtually constant (2.7 ± 0.4 ml min(-1) [100 g tissue](-1)) during Hygluc-Euinsu and GIP infusion. In addition, adipose tissue TAG clearance increased significantly (P = .03), whereas free fatty acid output (P = .01), glycerol output (P = .02) and free fatty acid/glycerol release ratio (P = .04) decreased during the Eugluc-Hiinsu clamp compared to Hygluc-Euinsu clamp with GIP. In healthy lean humans, insulin is permissive for GIP to induce an increase in blood flow and TAG clearance in sc abdominal adipose tissue. This effect is independent of C-peptide.

  15. Brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Anna; Kiefer, Florian W

    2014-07-01

    The growing understanding of adipose tissue as an important endocrine organ with multiple metabolic functions has directed the attention to the (patho)physiology of distinct fat depots. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), in contrast to bona fide white fat, can dissipate significant amounts of chemical energy through uncoupled respiration and heat production (thermogenesis). This process is mediated by the major thermogenic factor uncoupling protein-1 and can be activated by certain stimuli, such as cold exposure, adrenergic compounds or genetic alterations. White adipose tissue (WAT) depots, however, also possess the capacity to acquire brown fat characteristics in response to thermogenic stimuli. The induction of a BAT-like cellular and molecular program in WAT has recently been termed "browning" or "beiging". Promotion of BAT activity or the browning of WAT is associated with in vivo cold tolerance, increased energy expenditure, and protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. These preclinical observations have gained additional significance with the recent discovery that active BAT is present in adult humans and can be detected by 18fluor-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography. As in rodents, human BAT can be activated by cold exposure and is associated with increased energy turnover and lower body fat mass. Despite the tremendous progress in brown fat research in recent years, pharmacological concepts to harness BAT function therapeutically are currently still lacking.

  16. Human adipose-derived stem cells: definition, isolation, tissue-engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Nae, S; Bordeianu, I; Stăncioiu, A T; Antohi, N

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have demonstrated that the most effective repair system of the body is represented by stem cells - unspecialized cells, capable of self-renewal through successive mitoses, which have also the ability to transform into different cell types through differentiation. The discovery of adult stem cells represented an important step in regenerative medicine because they no longer raises ethical or legal issues and are more accessible. Only in 2002, stem cells isolated from adipose tissue were described as multipotent stem cells. Adipose tissue stem cells benefits in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are numerous. Development of adipose tissue engineering techniques offers a great potential in surpassing the existing limits faced by the classical approaches used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Adipose tissue engineering clinical applications are wide and varied, including reconstructive, corrective and cosmetic procedures. Nowadays, adipose tissue engineering is a fast developing field, both in terms of fundamental researches and medical applications, addressing issues related to current clinical pathology or trauma management of soft tissue injuries in different body locations.

  17. A percutaneous needle biopsy technique for sampling the supraclavicular brown adipose tissue depot of humans.

    PubMed

    Chondronikola, M; Annamalai, P; Chao, T; Porter, C; Saraf, M K; Cesani, F; Sidossis, L S

    2015-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been proposed as a potential target tissue against obesity and its related metabolic complications. Although the molecular and functional characteristics of BAT have been intensively studied in rodents, only a few studies have used human BAT specimens due to the difficulty of sampling human BAT deposits. We established a novel positron emission tomography and computed tomography-guided Bergström needle biopsy technique to acquire human BAT specimens from the supraclavicular area in human subjects. Forty-three biopsies were performed on 23 participants. The procedure was tolerated well by the majority of participants. No major complications were noted. Numbness (9.6%) and hematoma (2.3%) were the two minor complications noted, which fully resolved. Thus, the proposed biopsy technique can be considered safe with only minimal risk of adverse events. Adoption of the proposed method is expected to increase the sampling of the supraclavicular BAT depot for research purposes so as to augment the scientific knowledge of the biology of human BAT.

  18. A percutaneous needle biopsy technique for sampling the supraclavicular brown adipose tissue depot of humans

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Palam; Chondronikola, Maria; Chao, Tony; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K.; Cesani, Fernardo; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been proposed as a potential target tissue against obesity and its related metabolic complications. Although the molecular and functional characteristics of BAT have been intensively studied in rodents, only a small number of studies have used human BAT specimens due to the difficulty of sampling human BAT deposits. We established a novel positron emission tomography and computed tomography-guided Bergström needle biopsy technique to acquire human BAT specimens from the supraclavicular area in human subjects. Forty-three biopsies were performed on 23 participants. The procedure was tolerated well by the majority of participants. No major complications were noted. Numbness (9.6%) and hematoma (2.3%) were the two minor complications noted, which fully resolved. Thus, the proposed biopsy technique can be considered safe with only minimal risk of adverse events. Adoption of the proposed method is expected to increase the sampling of the supraclavicular BAT depot for research purposes so as to augment the scientific knowledge of the biology of human BAT. PMID:25920777

  19. De novo generation of adipocytes from circulating progenitor cells in mouse and human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Kathleen M; Gutman, Jonathan A; Kohrt, Wendy M; Wei, Qi; Shea, Karen L; Miller, Heidi L; Sullivan, Timothy M; Erickson, Paul F; Helm, Karen M; Acosta, Alistaire S; Childs, Christine R; Musselwhite, Evelyn; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Kelly, Kimberly; Majka, Susan M; Klemm, Dwight J

    2016-03-01

    White adipocytes in adults are typically derived from tissue resident mesenchymal progenitors. The recent identification of de novo production of adipocytes from bone marrow progenitor-derived cells in mice challenges this paradigm and indicates an alternative lineage specification that adipocytes exist. We hypothesized that alternative lineage specification of white adipocytes is also present in human adipose tissue. Bone marrow from transgenic mice in which luciferase expression is governed by the adipocyte-restricted adiponectin gene promoter was adoptively transferred to wild-type recipient mice. Light emission was quantitated in recipients by in vivo imaging and direct enzyme assay. Adipocytes were also obtained from human recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. DNA was isolated, and microsatellite polymorphisms were exploited to quantify donor/recipient chimerism. Luciferase emission was detected from major fat depots of transplanted mice. No light emission was observed from intestines, liver, or lungs. Up to 35% of adipocytes in humans were generated from donor marrow cells in the absence of cell fusion. Nontransplanted mice and stromal-vascular fraction samples were used as negative and positive controls for the mouse and human experiments, respectively. This study provides evidence for a nontissue resident origin of an adipocyte subpopulation in both mice and humans.

  20. Physical activity and exercise in the regulation of human adipose tissue physiology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dylan; Karpe, Fredrik; Lafontan, Max; Frayn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise are key components of energy expenditure and therefore of energy balance. Changes in energy balance alter fat mass. It is therefore reasonable to ask: What are the links between physical activity and adipose tissue function? There are many complexities. Physical activity is a multifaceted behavior of which exercise is just one component. Physical activity influences adipose tissue both acutely and in the longer term. A single bout of exercise stimulates adipose tissue blood flow and fat mobilization, resulting in delivery of fatty acids to skeletal muscles at a rate well-matched to metabolic requirements, except perhaps in vigorous intensity exercise. The stimuli include adrenergic and other circulating factors. There is a period following an exercise bout when fatty acids are directed away from adipose tissue to other tissues such as skeletal muscle, reducing dietary fat storage in adipose. With chronic exercise (training), there are changes in adipose tissue physiology, particularly an enhanced fat mobilization during acute exercise. It is difficult, however, to distinguish chronic "structural" changes from those associated with the last exercise bout. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of training per se and negative energy balance. Epidemiological observations support the idea that physically active people have relatively low fat mass, and intervention studies tend to show that exercise training reduces fat mass. A much-discussed effect of exercise versus calorie restriction in preferentially reducing visceral fat is not borne out by meta-analyses. We conclude that, in addition to the regulation of fat mass, physical activity may contribute to metabolic health through beneficial dynamic changes within adipose tissue in response to each activity bout.

  1. Fatty acid binding protein expression in different human adipose tissue depots in relation to rates of lipolysis and insulin concentration in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R M; Thörne, A; Hamsten, A; Arner, P

    2002-10-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are expressed in adipose tissue, adipocyte lipid binding protein (ALBP) and keratinocyte lipid binding protein (KLBP). This study investigated FABP expression in visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue depots and associations with lipolytic differences between the depots and circulating insulin concentrations. ALBP and KLBP (protein and RNA) were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese individuals and expressed relative to actin. ALBP RNA and protein expression was significantly higher in subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.05), whereas KLBP RNA and protein expression was no different between the two sites. There were significant inverse correlations between serum insulin concentrations and the ALBP/KLBP RNA ratio in both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue (both p < 0.02). Basal rates of glycerol and fatty acid release measured in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue were significantly higher in the former (p < or = 0.02). Therefore the relative ALBP/KLBP content of human adipose tissue is different in different adipose tissue depots and at the RNA level is related to the circulating insulin concentration, at least in obese subjects. The higher rates of basal lipolysis in adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous compared to omental adipose tissue might be related to the increased ALBP content of the former. Therefore adipose tissue FABPs are interesting candidates for investigation to further our understanding of the insulin resistance syndrome and regulation of lipolysis.

  2. Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kawai, Yuko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Saito, Masayuki

    2012-04-01

    Capsinoids-nonpungent capsaicin analogs-are known to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure (EE) in small rodents. BAT activity can be assessed by [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in humans. The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of capsinoid ingestion on EE and to analyze its relation to BAT activity in humans. Eighteen healthy men aged 20-32 y underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of cold exposure (19°C) while wearing light clothing. Whole-body EE and skin temperature, after oral ingestion of capsinoids (9 mg), were measured for 2 h under warm conditions (27°C) in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. When exposed to cold, 10 subjects showed marked FDG uptake into adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 subjects (BAT-negative group) showed no detectable uptake. Under warm conditions (27°C), the mean (±SEM) resting EE was 6114 ± 226 kJ/d in the BAT-positive group and 6307 ± 156 kJ/d in the BAT-negative group (NS). EE increased by 15.2 ± 2.6 kJ/h in 1 h in the BAT-positive group and by 1.7 ± 3.8 kJ/h in the BAT-negative group after oral ingestion of capsinoids (P < 0.01). Placebo ingestion produced no significant change in either group. Neither capsinoids nor placebo changed the skin temperature in various regions, including regions close to BAT deposits. Capsinoid ingestion increases EE through the activation of BAT in humans. This trial was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as UMIN 000006073.

  3. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O.; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. Methods The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49±20 years; BMI: 31±5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90±10 mg/dl) after 2H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r=0.625,p=0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r=0.798,p<0.001), I-HDL (r=−0.765,p<0.001) and S-HDL (r=−0.629, p=0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r=0.822,p=0.023; L-HDL: r=0.892,p=0.007; I-HDL: r=−0.927,p=0.003) but not men. Conclusions Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. PMID:27323227

  4. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Coh, Ye-Rin; Lee, Hee-Woo; Shin, Il-Seob; Kang, Sung-Keun; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on the growth of human malignancies, including melanoma, are controversial and the underlying mechanisms are not yet-well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of human AT-MSCs on human melanoma. The inhibitory effect of AT-MSC-conditioned medium (AT-MSC-CM) on the growth of A375SM and A375P (human melanoma) cells was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells were investigated by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. To evaluate the in vivo anti-tumor effect of AT-MSCs, CM-DiI-labeled AT-MSCs were circumtumorally injected in tumor-bearing athymic mice and tumor size was measured. AT-MSC-CM inhibited melanoma growth by altering cell-cycle distribution and inducing apoptosis in vitro. AT-MSCs suppressed tumor growth in tumor-bearing athymic mice and fluorescence analysis showed that AT-MSCs migrated efficiently to tumor tissues. AT-MSCs inhibit the growth of melanoma suggesting promise as a novel therapeutic agent for melanoma. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. The expression of FTO in human adipose tissue is influenced by fat depot, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bravard, Amélie; Veilleux, Alain; Disse, Emmanuel; Laville, Martine; Vidal, Hubert; Tchernof, André; Rieusset, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is related to obesity, but the regulation of FTO expression in adipose tissue is not fully understood. We investigated FTO expression in paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues (SAT and OAT) from healthy women undergoing gynecological surgeries, and its relation with adiposity and insulin sensitivity. FTO expression in SAT of type 2 diabetic patients treated or not with Rosiglitazone was also compared. Both the mRNA and protein levels of FTO were higher in OAT from women than in SAT. Only OAT FTO protein levels negatively correlated with BMI and body fat mass, whereas SAT FTO mRNA levels were negatively correlated with subcutaneous fat deposition. In addition, SAT FTO mRNA and protein levels were increased in insulin resistant women (high HOMA) compared to insulin sensitive women (low HOMA), whereas OAT FTO expression was not different between these two subgroups. Interestingly, FTO mRNA levels were increased in SAT of type 2 diabetic patients, and treatment of diabetics with Rosiglitazone improved insulin sensitivity and reduced SAT FTO mRNA levels. Lastly, FTO expression was transiently increased in the early phase of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, which coincides with the induction of PPARγ2 expression. However, partial reduction of FTO did not impact PPARγ2 expression and adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, FTO gene expression is higher in OAT than in SAT in lean to moderately obese women. OAT FTO expression is associated with adiposity, whereas SAT FTO expression is associated with insulin sensitivity. These associations are independent of an effect of FTO on adipocyte differentiation. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. The beneficial effects of body fat and adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    1997-09-01

    Body fat and adipose tissue are considered to have beneficial effects when they promote or protect the present and future function. These effects do not occur at absolute amounts or percentages of the body weight but rather they are context specific. Body fat stores are the major energy stores of the body and are important determinants of survival in starvation or undernutrition. Reproduction features highly as a biological function. Humans are alone in having major sex-specific fat stores and patterns of fat distribution and these have been linked with the onset and maintenance of menstruation, with mate selection and sexual signalling, and with favourable pregnancy and lactation outcomes. To survive and reproduce good physical and psychological health are advantageous attributes. Work metabolism, bone health and, possibly immune function and energy balance itself, are related in functionally beneficial ways to fat content and distribution.

  7. Molecular and morphologic characterization of superficial- and deep-subcutaneous adipose tissue subdivisions in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Cancello, Raffaella; Zulian, Alessandra; Gentilini, Davide; Maestrini, Sabrina; Della Barba, Alberto; Invitti, Cecilia; Corà, Davide; Caselle, Michele; Liuzzi, Antonio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria

    2013-12-01

    Human abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT) is composed of two different subcompartments: a "superficial" SAT (SSAT), located between the skin and a fibrous-fascia plane; and a deeper SAT, located under this fibrous fascia plane, indicated as "deep" SAT (DSAT). In order to investigate whether SSAT and DSAT have different molecular and morphological features, paired SSAT/DSAT biopsies were collected from 10 female obese patients and used for microarray and morphologic analysis. The stroma-vascular fraction cells were also isolated from both depots and cultured in vitro to assess the lipid accumulation rate. SSAT and DSAT displayed different patterns of gene expression, mainly for metabolic and inflammatory genes, respectively. Detailed gene expression analysis indicated that several metabolic genes, including adiponectin, are preferentially expressed in SSAT, whereas inflammatory genes are over-expressed in DSAT. Despite a similar lipid accumulation rate in vitro, in vivo SSAT showed a significant adipocyte hypertrophy together with a significantly lower inflammatory infiltration and vascular vessel lumen mean size, when compared to DSAT. These data show that, SSAT and DSAT are functionally and morphologically different and emphasize the importance of considering independent these two adipose depots when investigating SAT biology and obesity complications. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Extent, Causes, and Consequences of Small RNA Expression Variation in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Andrew J.; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; van de Bunt, Martijn; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Bartonicek, Nenad; van Dongen, Stijn; Mägi, Reedik; Nisbet, James; Barrett, Amy; Rantalainen, Mattias; Nica, Alexandra C.; Quail, Michael A.; Small, Kerrin S.; Glass, Daniel; Enright, Anton J.; Winn, John; Deloukas, Panos; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Spector, Timothy D.; Durbin, Richard; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs are functional molecules that modulate mRNA transcripts and have been implicated in the aetiology of several common diseases. However, little is known about the extent of their variability within the human population. Here, we characterise the extent, causes, and effects of naturally occurring variation in expression and sequence of small RNAs from adipose tissue in relation to genotype, gene expression, and metabolic traits in the MuTHER reference cohort. We profiled the expression of 15 to 30 base pair RNA molecules in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 131 individuals using high-throughput sequencing, and quantified levels of 591 microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. We identified three genetic variants and three RNA editing events. Highly expressed small RNAs are more conserved within mammals than average, as are those with highly variable expression. We identified 14 genetic loci significantly associated with nearby small RNA expression levels, seven of which also regulate an mRNA transcript level in the same region. In addition, these loci are enriched for variants significant in genome-wide association studies for body mass index. Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence for negative correlation between expression level of a microRNA and its target mRNAs. Trunk fat mass, body mass index, and fasting insulin were associated with more than twenty small RNA expression levels each, while fasting glucose had no significant associations. This study highlights the similar genetic complexity and shared genetic control of small RNA and mRNA transcripts, and gives a quantitative picture of small RNA expression variation in the human population. PMID:22589741

  9. Multiaxial mechanical properties and constitutive modeling of human adipose tissue: a basis for preoperative simulations in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Gerhard; Eder, Maximilian; Kovacs, Laszlo; Pathak, Heramb; Bonitz, Lars; Mueller, Christoph; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2013-11-01

    A preoperative simulation of soft tissue deformations during plastic and reconstructive surgery is desirable to support the surgeon's planning and to improve surgical outcomes. The current development of constitutive adipose tissue models, for the implementation in multilayer computational frameworks for the simulation of human soft tissue deformations, has proved difficult because knowledge of the required mechanical parameters of fat tissue is limited. Therefore, for the first time, human abdominal adipose tissues were mechanically investigated by biaxial tensile and triaxial shear tests. The results of this study suggest that human abdominal adipose tissues under quasi-static and dynamic multiaxial loadings can be characterized as a nonlinear, anisotropic and viscoelastic soft biological material. The nonlinear and anisotropic features are consequences of the material's collagenous microstructure. The aligned collagenous septa observed in histological investigations causes the anisotropy of the tissue. A hyperelastic model used in this study was appropriate to represent the quasi-static multiaxial mechanical behavior of fat tissue. The constitutive parameters are intended to serve as a basis for soft tissue simulations using the finite element method, which is an apparent method for obtaining promising results in the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  10. Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Murine Brown and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue: Significance with Human

    PubMed Central

    Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. Methodology/Principle Findings The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Conclusion Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose

  11. Microarray based gene expression analysis of murine brown and subcutaneous adipose tissue: significance with human.

    PubMed

    Baboota, Ritesh K; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Boparai, Ravneet K; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Mantri, Shrikant; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Two types of adipose tissues, white (WAT) and brown (BAT) are found in mammals. Increasingly novel strategies are being proposed for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications by altering amount and/or activity of BAT using mouse models. The present study was designed to: (a) investigate the differential expression of genes in LACA mice subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) and BAT using mouse DNA microarray, (b) to compare mouse differential gene expression with previously published human data; to understand any inter- species differences between the two and (c) to make a comparative assessment with C57BL/6 mouse strain. In mouse microarray studies, over 7003, 1176 and 401 probe sets showed more than two-fold, five-fold and ten-fold change respectively in differential expression between murine BAT and WAT. Microarray data was validated using quantitative RT-PCR of key genes showing high expression in BAT (Fabp3, Ucp1, Slc27a1) and sWAT (Ms4a1, H2-Ob, Bank1) or showing relatively low expression in BAT (Pgk1, Cox6b1) and sWAT (Slc20a1, Cd74). Multi-omic pathway analysis was employed to understand possible links between the organisms. When murine two fold data was compared with published human BAT and sWAT data, 90 genes showed parallel differential expression in both mouse and human. Out of these 90 genes, 46 showed same pattern of differential expression whereas the pattern was opposite for the remaining 44 genes. Based on our microarray results and its comparison with human data, we were able to identify genes (targets) (a) which can be studied in mouse model systems to extrapolate results to human (b) where caution should be exercised before extrapolation of murine data to human. Our study provides evidence for inter species (mouse vs human) differences in differential gene expression between sWAT and BAT. Critical understanding of this data may help in development of novel ways to engineer one form of adipose tissue to another using murine model with focus on

  12. Disruption of GIP/GIPR axis in human adipose tissue is linked to obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria; Duran, Xavier; Pachón, Gisela; Roche, Kelly; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Vilarrasa, Nuria; Tinahones, Francisco J; Vicente, Vicente; Pujol, Jordi; Vendrell, Joan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has a central role in glucose homeostasis through its amplification of insulin secretion; however, its physiological role in adipose tissue is unclear. Our objective was to define the function of GIP in human adipose tissue in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. GIP receptor (GIPR) expression was analyzed in human sc adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose (VAT) from lean and obese subjects in 3 independent cohorts. GIPR expression was associated with anthropometric and biochemical variables. GIP responsiveness on insulin sensitivity was analyzed in human adipocyte cell lines in normoxic and hypoxic environments as well as in adipose-derived stem cells obtained from lean and obese patients. GIPR expression was downregulated in SAT from obese patients and correlated negatively with body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and glucose and triglyceride levels. Furthermore, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glucose, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) emerged as variables strongly associated with GIPR expression in SAT. Glucose uptake studies and insulin signaling in human adipocytes revealed GIP as an insulin-sensitizer incretin. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that GIP promotes the interaction of GRK2 with GIPR and decreases the association of GRK2 to insulin receptor substrate 1. These effects of GIP observed under normoxia were lost in human fat cells cultured in hypoxia. In support of this, GIP increased insulin sensitivity in human adipose-derived stem cells from lean patients. GIP also induced GIPR expression, which was concomitant with a downregulation of the incretin-degrading enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4. None of the physiological effects of GIP were detected in human fat cells obtained from an obese environment with reduced levels of GIPR. GIP/GIPR signaling is disrupted in insulin-resistant states, such as obesity, and normalizing this

  13. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise

    PubMed Central

    van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo; Mulla, Nariman Al; Lyngsø, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-13C] palmitate and [2H5] glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body rate of extracellular FA reesterification was similar at rest and during exercise (≈290 μmol min−1) and increased during recovery to a plateau of 390 μmol min−1. FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake by adipose tissue was undetectable, but a constant but small glycerol uptake of ≈25 nmol (100 g)−1 min−1 was observed. From the FA taken up by the splanchnic area, 13 % was oxidized, 5–11 % converted to ketone bodies, and ≈35 % incorporated in TAG released both at rest and at the third hour of recovery from exercise. Splanchnic FA reesterification could account for 51 % and 58 % of whole body extracellular FA reesterification, of which half was accounted for by TAG released from the splanchnic area, at rest and in recovery, respectively. In conclusion, in the post-absorptive state, adipose tissue contributes very little to extracellular FA reesterification and splanchnic reesterification can account for 50–60 %, implying that FA reesterification in other tissues is important. The extracellular FA reesterification rate does not change with exercise but is higher during recovery. Furthermore, the uptake of glycerol by adipose tissue indicates that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol. PMID:12231657

  14. Regional fat metabolism in human splanchnic and adipose tissues; the effect of exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Bülow, Jens; Sacchetti, Massimo; Al Mulla, Nariman; Lyngso, Dorthe; Simonsen, Lene

    2002-09-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of splanchnic and adipose tissue in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism at rest, during 1 h of semi-recumbent cycle exercise at 60 % of maximal power output and 3 h of recovery. In six post-absorptive healthy volunteers catheters were placed in a radial artery, hepatic vein and a subcutaneous vein on the anterior abdominal wall. Whole body, and regional splanchnic and adipose tissue FA metabolism were measured by a constant infusion of the stable isotopes [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and according to Fick's principle. The whole body rate of extracellular FA reesterification was similar at rest and during exercise (approximately 290 micromol min(-1)) and increased during recovery to a plateau of 390 micromol min(-1). FA and triacylglycerol (TAG) uptake by adipose tissue was undetectable, but a constant but small glycerol uptake of approximately 25 nmol (100 g)(-1) min(-1) was observed. From the FA taken up by the splanchnic area, 13 % was oxidized, 5-11 % converted to ketone bodies, and approximately 35 % incorporated in TAG released both at rest and at the third hour of recovery from exercise. Splanchnic FA reesterification could account for 51 % and 58 % of whole body extracellular FA reesterification, of which half was accounted for by TAG released from the splanchnic area, at rest and in recovery, respectively. In conclusion, in the post-absorptive state, adipose tissue contributes very little to extracellular FA reesterification and splanchnic reesterification can account for 50-60 %, implying that FA reesterification in other tissues is important. The extracellular FA reesterification rate does not change with exercise but is higher during recovery. Furthermore, the uptake of glycerol by adipose tissue indicates that adipose tissue can metabolize glycerol.

  15. Cellularity of adipose tissue in fetal pig.

    PubMed

    Desnoyers, F; Pascal, G; Etienne, M; Vodovar, N

    1980-03-01

    Adipose tissue cellularity was studied in the 85-day-old Large-White pig fetus. The aim of this work was to count the adipose cells of forming tissue in an animal species which could be a possible model for studying adipose tissue in humans. Using a morphometric method with electron microscopy, mean triglyceride volume per cell was determined independently of mean cell volume. This method is suitable for counting adipose cells in the early stage of differentiation whatever their size and lipid inclusion volume. Site-by-site dissection of adipose tissue was not feasible in the 85-day old fetus and adipose cell number was computed by dividing total carcass triglyceride volume by mean triglyceride volume per cell. The carcass triglyceride seemed to originate only from adipose cells. The mean total carcass triglyceride volume per fetus (1.84 g) was low but, owing to the low mean triglyceride volume per cell (180.28 microns3), the adipose cell number (11.15 X 10(9)) was relatively important, as it represented about 27% of the extramuscular adipose cell number in the Large-White adult pig (41 X 10(9)).

  16. Sex differences in human adipose tissues – the biology of pear shape

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the relationship of fat distribution to metabolic health in men and women, and then focus on mechanisms underlying sex differences in adipose tissue biology. PMID:22651247

  17. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine; Lohmann, Tobias; Schön, Michael R.; Dietrich, Arne; Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  18. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  19. Impact of glucocorticoid hormones on adipokine secretion and human adipose tissue metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N

    2013-08-01

    The glucocorticoid hormones alter the metabolism of the adipose tissue after an approximately 2-h lag period. The effects are mediated through the nuclear receptors that alter the expression of a wide variety of genes through the mechanisms that are similar to those seen in the other cells. There are many direct metabolic effects of the glucocorticoids on the adipose tissue metabolism, and every year, new effects are added to the list of proteins whose expression is influenced by the glucocorticoids. Furthermore, some enzymatic processes are affected by these hormones only in the presence of the other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) or insulin. Most of the effects of the glucocorticoids are on the gene transcription, and the effects on the mRNA are reflected in the altered levels of the target proteins. The glucocorticoids enhance the leptin release, while reducing that of the inflammatory adipokines and stimulating that of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the presence of insulin. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) is enhanced by the glucocorticoids along with that of α1 glycoprotein 1 and serum amyloid A release by the adipose tissue. In contrast, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue is blocked by the glucocorticoids. It is still unclear which, if any, of these effects account for the insulin resistance due to the glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue. However, recent work suggests that, at least in mice, the reduction in the osteocalcin release by the osteoblasts in the presence of the glucocorticoids accounts for much of the in vivo insulin resistance. In summary, there are multiple direct effects of the glucocorticoids, both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory, on the adipose tissue.

  20. Depot Dependent Effects of Dexamethasone on Gene Expression in Human Omental and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues from Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Gower, Adam; Fried, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days. Dex regulated 32% of the 19,741 genes on the array, while 53% differed by Depot and 2.5% exhibited a Depot*Dex concentration interaction. Gene set enrichment analysis showed Dex regulation of the expected metabolic and inflammatory pathways in both depots. Cluster analysis of the 460 transcripts that exhibited an interaction of Depot and Dex concentration revealed sets of mRNAs for which the responses to Dex differed in magnitude, sensitivity or direction between the two depots as well as mRNAs that responded to Dex only in one depot. These transcripts were also clearly depot different in fresh adipose tissue and are implicated in processes that could affect adipose tissue distribution or functions (e.g. adipogenesis, triacylglycerol synthesis and storage, insulin action). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the depot differences in the effect of Dex on the expression of specific genes and pathways that regulate adipose function may offer novel insights into understanding the biology of visceral adipose tissues and their links to metabolic health. PMID:28005982

  1. Depot Dependent Effects of Dexamethasone on Gene Expression in Human Omental and Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues from Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Pickering, R Taylor; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Karastergiou, Kalypso; Gower, Adam; Fried, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days. Dex regulated 32% of the 19,741 genes on the array, while 53% differed by Depot and 2.5% exhibited a Depot*Dex concentration interaction. Gene set enrichment analysis showed Dex regulation of the expected metabolic and inflammatory pathways in both depots. Cluster analysis of the 460 transcripts that exhibited an interaction of Depot and Dex concentration revealed sets of mRNAs for which the responses to Dex differed in magnitude, sensitivity or direction between the two depots as well as mRNAs that responded to Dex only in one depot. These transcripts were also clearly depot different in fresh adipose tissue and are implicated in processes that could affect adipose tissue distribution or functions (e.g. adipogenesis, triacylglycerol synthesis and storage, insulin action). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the depot differences in the effect of Dex on the expression of specific genes and pathways that regulate adipose function may offer novel insights into understanding the biology of visceral adipose tissues and their links to metabolic health.

  2. VEGF-Mediated Proliferation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Li, Min; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Jun; Qiu, Yu; Wen, Xiangyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yushan; Yang, Shuzhang; Lu, Lixia; Zhang, Jieping; Yuan, Qionglan; Lu, Jianwei; Xu, Guotong; Xue, Yunyun; Jin, Zibing; Jiang, Cizhong; Ying, Ming; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADSC proliferation are not fully understood. Here we show that 47 transcripts are up-regulated while 23 are down-regulated in ADSC compared to terminally differentiated cells based on global mRNA profiling and microRNA profiling. Among the up-regulated genes, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is fine-tuned by miR-199a-5p. Further investigation indicates that VEGF accelerates ADSC proliferation whereas the multipotency of ADSC remains stable in terms of adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic potentials after VEGF treatment, suggesting that VEGF may serve as an excellent supplement for accelerating ADSC proliferation during in vitro expansion. PMID:24098328

  3. Adipose tissue transcriptomic signature highlights the pathological relevance of extracellular matrix in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Henegar, Corneliu; Tordjman, Joan; Achard, Vincent; Lacasa, Danièle; Cremer, Isabelle; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Poitou, Christine; Basdevant, Arnaud; Stich, Vladimir; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique; Bedossa, Pierre; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Clement, Karine

    2008-01-01

    Background Investigations performed in mice and humans have acknowledged obesity as a low-grade inflammatory disease. Several molecular mechanisms have been convincingly shown to be involved in activating inflammatory processes and altering cell composition in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the overall importance of these alterations, and their long-term impact on the metabolic functions of the WAT and on its morphology, remain unclear. Results Here, we analyzed the transcriptomic signature of the subcutaneous WAT in obese human subjects, in stable weight conditions and after weight loss following bariatric surgery. An original integrative functional genomics approach was applied to quantify relations between relevant structural and functional themes annotating differentially expressed genes in order to construct a comprehensive map of transcriptional interactions defining the obese WAT. These analyses highlighted a significant up-regulation of genes and biological themes related to extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents, including members of the integrin family, and suggested that these elements could play a major mediating role in a chain of interactions that connect local inflammatory phenomena to the alteration of WAT metabolic functions in obese subjects. Tissue and cellular investigations, driven by the analysis of transcriptional interactions, revealed an increased amount of interstitial fibrosis in obese WAT, associated with an infiltration of different types of inflammatory cells, and suggest that phenotypic alterations of human pre-adipocytes, induced by a pro-inflammatory environment, may lead to an excessive synthesis of ECM components. Conclusion This study opens new perspectives in understanding the biology of human WAT and its pathologic changes indicative of tissue deterioration associated with the development of obesity. PMID:18208606

  4. The effects of temperature and seasons on subcutaneous white adipose tissue in humans: evidence for thermogenic gene induction.

    PubMed

    Kern, Philip A; Finlin, Brian S; Zhu, Beibei; Rasouli, Neda; McGehee, Robert E; Westgate, Philip M; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2014-12-01

    Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is increased by a cold environment, little is known of the response of human white adipose tissue (WAT) to the cold. We examined both abdominal and thigh subcutaneous (SC) WAT from 71 subjects who were biopsied in the summer or winter, and adipose expression was assessed after an acute cold stimulus applied to the thigh of physically active young subjects. In winter, UCP1 and PGC1α mRNA were increased 4 to 10-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.5 to 2-fold, respectively, along with beige adipose markers, and UCP1 protein was 3-fold higher in the winter. The seasonal increase in abdominal SC WAT UCP1 mRNA was considerably diminished in subjects with a BMI > 30 kg/m(2), suggesting that dysfunctional WAT in obesity inhibits adipose thermogenesis. After applying an acute cold stimulus to the thigh of subjects for 30 min, PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA was stimulated 2.7-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.9-fold (p = 0.07), respectively. Acute cold also induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA in human adipocytes in vitro, which was inhibited by macrophage-conditioned medium and by the addition of TNFα. Human SC WAT increases thermogenic genes seasonally and acutely in response to a cold stimulus and this response is inhibited by obesity and inflammation.

  5. Recycling Between Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Splanchnic, Subcutaneous Adipose, and Skeletal Muscle Tissues In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Katherine A.; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Iqbal, Javaid; Cruden, Nicholas L.; Stimson, Roland H.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Newby, David E.; Andrew, Ruth; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) is a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome because it catalyses reductase regeneration of cortisol from cortisone in adipose and liver. 11βHSD1 can also catalyze the reverse dehydrogenase reaction in vitro (e.g., if cofactor is limited). We used stable isotope tracers to test the hypothesis that both 11βHSD1-reductase and -dehydrogenase activities occur in human metabolic tissues in vivo. 1,2-[2H]2-Cortisone (d2-cortisone) was validated as a tracer for 11β-dehydrogenase activity and its inhibition by licorice. d2-Cortisone and 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol (d4-cortisol) (to measure 11β-reductase activity) were coinfused and venous samples obtained from skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose (n = 6), and liver (n = 4). Steroids were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and arteriovenous differences adjusted for blood flow. Data are means ± SEM. 11β-Reductase and -dehydrogenase activities were detected in muscle (cortisol release 19.7 ± 4.1 pmol/100 mL/min, d3-cortisol 5.9 ± 1.8 pmol/100 mL/min, and cortisone 15.2 ± 5.8 pmol/100 mL/min) and splanchnic (cortisol 64.0 ± 11.4 nmol/min, d3-cortisol 12.9 ± 2.1 nmol/min, and cortisone 19.5 ± 2.8 nmol/min) circulations. In adipose, dehydrogenase was more readily detected than reductase (cortisone release 38.7 ± 5.8 pmol/100 g/min). Active recycling between cortisol and cortisone in metabolic tissues in vivo may facilitate dynamic control of intracellular cortisol but makes consequences of dysregulation of 11βHSD1 transcription in obesity and diabetes unpredictable. Disappointing efficacy of 11βHSD1 inhibitors in phase II studies could be explained by lack of selectivity for 11β-reductase. PMID:22511204

  6. Recycling between cortisol and cortisone in human splanchnic, subcutaneous adipose, and skeletal muscle tissues in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Katherine A; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N; Iqbal, Javaid; Cruden, Nicholas L; Stimson, Roland H; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Newby, David E; Andrew, Ruth; Karpe, Fredrik; Walker, Brian R

    2012-06-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) is a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome because it catalyses reductase regeneration of cortisol from cortisone in adipose and liver. 11βHSD1 can also catalyze the reverse dehydrogenase reaction in vitro (e.g., if cofactor is limited). We used stable isotope tracers to test the hypothesis that both 11βHSD1-reductase and -dehydrogenase activities occur in human metabolic tissues in vivo. 1,2-[(2)H](2)-Cortisone (d2-cortisone) was validated as a tracer for 11β-dehydrogenase activity and its inhibition by licorice. d2-Cortisone and 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol (d4-cortisol) (to measure 11β-reductase activity) were coinfused and venous samples obtained from skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose (n = 6), and liver (n = 4). Steroids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and arteriovenous differences adjusted for blood flow. Data are means ± SEM. 11β-Reductase and -dehydrogenase activities were detected in muscle (cortisol release 19.7 ± 4.1 pmol/100 mL/min, d3-cortisol 5.9 ± 1.8 pmol/100 mL/min, and cortisone 15.2 ± 5.8 pmol/100 mL/min) and splanchnic (cortisol 64.0 ± 11.4 nmol/min, d3-cortisol 12.9 ± 2.1 nmol/min, and cortisone 19.5 ± 2.8 nmol/min) circulations. In adipose, dehydrogenase was more readily detected than reductase (cortisone release 38.7 ± 5.8 pmol/100 g/min). Active recycling between cortisol and cortisone in metabolic tissues in vivo may facilitate dynamic control of intracellular cortisol but makes consequences of dysregulation of 11βHSD1 transcription in obesity and diabetes unpredictable. Disappointing efficacy of 11βHSD1 inhibitors in phase II studies could be explained by lack of selectivity for 11β-reductase.

  7. Mapping of human brown adipose tissue in lean and obese young men

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Brooks P.; Huang, Shan; Brychta, Robert J.; Duckworth, Courtney J.; Baskin, Alison S.; McGehee, Suzanne; Tal, Ilan; Dieckmann, William; Gupta, Garima; Kolodny, Gerald M.; Pacak, Karel; Herscovitch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be activated to increase glucose uptake and energy expenditure, making it a potential target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. Data on the functional and anatomic characteristics of BAT are limited, however. In 20 healthy young men [12 lean, mean body mass index (BMI) 23.2 ± 1.9 kg/m2; 8 obese, BMI 34.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2] after 5 h of tolerable cold exposure, we measured BAT volume and activity by 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT). Obese men had less activated BAT than lean men (mean, 130 vs. 334 mL) but more fat in BAT-containing depots (mean, 1,646 vs. 855 mL) with a wide range (0.1–71%) in the ratio of activated BAT to inactive fat between individuals. Six anatomic regions had activated BAT—cervical, supraclavicular, axillary, mediastinal, paraspinal, and abdominal—with 67 ± 20% of all activated BAT concentrated in a continuous fascial layer comprising the first three depots in the upper torso. These nonsubcutaneous fat depots amounted to 1.5% of total body mass (4.3% of total fat mass), and up to 90% of each depot could be activated BAT. The amount and activity of BAT was significantly influenced by region of interest selection methods, PET threshold criteria, and PET resolutions. The present study suggests that active BAT can be found in specific adipose depots in adult humans, but less than one-half of the fat in these depots is stimulated by acute cold exposure, demonstrating a previously underappreciated thermogenic potential. PMID:28739898

  8. New Physiological Aspects of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Trayhurn, Paul; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue is specialised for the generation of heat by non-shivering mechanisms. In rodents, the tissue plays a role in energy balance and the development of obesity, as well as in thermoregulation. Studies using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), together with the identification of uncoupling protein-1, have provided definitive evidence that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans. Brown fat activity is stimulated by cold exposure, declines with age and is inversely proportional to BMI. This has led to renewed interest in the tissue as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. Brown adipose tissue also plays a role in glucose disposal and triglyceride clearance, implicating it in the metabolic syndrome. A potential mechanism for increasing thermogenesis is by the 'browning' of white adipose depots through the recruitment of the recently identified third type of adipocyte - the brite (or beige) fat cell.

  9. FKBP5 expression in human adipose tissue increases following dexamethasone exposure and is associated with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria J; Palming, Jenny; Svensson, Maria K; Rizell, Magnus; Dalenbäck, Jan; Hammar, Mårten; Fall, Tove; Sidibeh, Cherno O; Svensson, Per-Arne; Eriksson, Jan W

    2014-09-01

    To study effects of dexamethasone on gene expression in human adipose tissue aiming to identify potential novel mechanisms for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue, obtained from non-diabetic donors (10 M/15 F; age: 28-60 years; BMI: 20.7-30.6 kg/m²), was incubated with or without dexamethasone (0.003-3 μmol/L) for 24 h. Gene expression was assessed by microarray and real time-PCR and protein expression by immunoblotting. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 5) and CNR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) were the most responsive genes to dexamethasone in both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue (~7-fold). Dexamethasone increased FKBP5 gene and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in both depots. The gene product, FKBP51 protein, was 10-fold higher in the omental than in the subcutaneous depot, whereas the mRNA levels were similar. Higher FKBP5 gene expression in omental adipose tissue was associated with reduced insulin effects on glucose uptake in both depots. Furthermore, FKBP5 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was positively correlated with serum insulin, HOMA-IR and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter and negatively with plasma HDL-cholesterol. FKBP5 SNPs were found to be associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes in large population-based samples. Dexamethasone exposure promotes expression of FKBP5 in adipose tissue, a gene that may be implicated in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity.

    PubMed

    Blüher, M

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity will cause a decline in life expectancy for the first time in recent history due to numerous co-morbid disorders. Adipocyte and adipose tissue dysfunction belong to the primary defects in obesity and may link obesity to several health problems including increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, dementia, airway disease and some cancers. However, not all obese individuals develop obesity related metabolic or cardiovascular disorders potentially due to a preserved normal adipose tissue architecture and function. The majority of patients with obesity have an impaired adipose tissue function caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors which lead to adipocyte hypertrophy, hypoxia, a variety of stresses and inflammatory processes within adipose tissue. Ectopic fat accumulation including visceral obesity may be considered as a consequence of adipose tissue dysfunction, which is further characterized by changes in the cellular composition, increased lipid storage and impaired insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and secretion of a proinflammatory, atherogenic, and diabetogenic adipokine pattern. This review focuses on the discussion of mechanisms causing or maintaining impaired adipose tissue function in obesity and potentially linking obesity to its associated disorders. A model is proposed how different pathogenic factors and mechanisms may cause dysfunction of adipose tissue.

  11. Regeneration of Cartilage in Human Knee Osteoarthritis with Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Autologous Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This clinical case series demonstrates that percutaneous injections of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and homogenized extracellular matrix (ECM) in the form of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF), along with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) activated by calcium chloride, could regenerate cartilage-like tissue in human knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Autologous lipoaspirates were obtained from adipose tissue of the abdominal origin. Afterward, the lipoaspirates were minced to homogenize the ECM. These homogenized lipoaspirates were then mixed with collagenase and incubated. The resulting mixture of ADSCs and ECM in the form of SVF was injected, along with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, into knees of three Korean patients with OA. The same affected knees were reinjected weekly with additional PRP activated by calcium chloride for 3 weeks. Pretreatment and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, functional rating index, range of motion (ROM), and pain score data were then analyzed. All patients' MRI data showed cartilage-like tissue regeneration. Along with MRI evidence, the measured physical therapy outcomes in terms of ROM, subjective pain, and functional status were all improved. This study demonstrates that percutaneous injection of ADSCs with ECM contained in autologous adipose SVF, in conjunction with HA and PRP activated by calcium chloride, is a safe and potentially effective minimally invasive therapy for OA of human knees. PMID:27588219

  12. Soluble LR11/SorLA represses thermogenesis in adipose tissue and correlates with BMI in humans

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Andrew J.; Jiang, Meizi; Peirce, Vivian; Relat, Joana; Virtue, Sam; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Fukamachi, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Mao; Murano, Takeyoshi; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Jin, Wenlong; Jin, Zhehu; Campbell, Mark; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Bujo, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important component of energy expenditure in mammals. Recent studies have confirmed its presence and metabolic role in humans. Defining the physiological regulation of BAT is therefore of great importance for developing strategies to treat metabolic diseases. Here we show that the soluble form of the low-density lipoprotein receptor relative, LR11/SorLA (sLR11), suppresses thermogenesis in adipose tissue in a cell-autonomous manner. Mice lacking LR11 are protected from diet-induced obesity associated with an increased browning of white adipose tissue and hypermetabolism. Treatment of adipocytes with sLR11 inhibits thermogenesis via the bone morphogenetic protein/TGFβ signalling pathway and reduces Smad phosphorylation. In addition, sLR11 levels in humans are shown to positively correlate with body mass index and adiposity. Given the need for tight regulation of a tissue with a high capacity for energy wastage, we propose that LR11 plays an energy conserving role that is exaggerated in states of obesity. PMID:26584636

  13. Cell density-dependent transcriptional activation of endocrine-related genes in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sagar; Dean, Angela; Walter, Marc; Bao, Yongde; Hu, Yanfen; Ruan, Jianhua; Li, Rong

    2010-08-01

    Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ that plays an important role in human diseases such as type II diabetes and cancer. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), a distinct cell population in adipose tissue, are capable of differentiating into multiple lineages including adipogenesis. When cultured in vitro under a confluent condition, ASCs reach a commitment stage for adipogenesis, which can be further induced into terminally differentiated adipocytes by a cocktail of adipogenic factors. Here we report that the confluent state of ASCs triggers transcriptional activation cascades for genes that are responsible for the endocrine function of adipose tissue. These include insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and aromatase (Cyp19), a key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. Despite similar adipogenic potentials, ASCs from different individuals display huge variations in activation of these endocrine-related genes. Bioinformatics and experimental data suggest that transcription factor Foxo1 controls a large number of "early" confluency-response genes, which subsequently induce "late" response genes. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Foxo1 substantially compromises the ability of committed ASCs to stimulate tumor cell migration in vitro. Thus, our work suggests that cell density is an important determinant of the endocrine potential of ASCs.

  14. PHB/PHBHHx scaffolds and human adipose-derived stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuan; Hu, Ping; Ma, Min-Xian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Ri-Guang; Shang, Xian-Wen

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) (PHB/PHBHHx) to produce neocartilage upon seeding with differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). hASCs were grown on a three-dimensional PHB/PHBHHx scaffold in vitro with or without chondrogenic media for 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy showed that differentiated cells produced abundant extracellular matrices with increasing culture time. No cytotoxicity was observed by the live/dead cell viability assay. GAG and total collagen content in the differentiated cells increased significantly with in vitro culture time. After 14 days of in vitro culture, the differentiated cells grown on the (PHB/PHBHHx) scaffold (differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx)) were implanted into the subcutaneous layer nude mice for 12 or 24 weeks, non-differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx) were implanted as the control group. The differentiated cells/(PHB/PHBHHx) implants formed cartilage-like tissue after 24 weeks of implantation, and stained positive for collagen type II, safranin O, and toluidine blue. In addition, typical cartilage lacuna was observed, and there were no remnants of PHB/PHBHHx. Collagen type II was detected by Western blot at 12 and 24 weeks of implantation. In the control group, no cartilage formation was observed. This study demonstrated that PHB/PHBHHx is a suitable material for cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. CCL5/CCR1 axis regulates multipotency of human adipose tissue derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kauts, Mari-Liis; Pihelgas, Susan; Orro, Kadri; Neuman, Toomas; Piirsoo, Alla

    2013-03-01

    Several potential clinical applications of stem cells rely on their capacity to migrate into sites of inflammation where they contribute to tissue regeneration processes. Inflammatory signals are partially mediated by chemokines acting via their receptors expressed on the target cells. Data concerning the repertoire and biological activities of chemokine receptors in human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are limited. Here we show that CCR1 is one of the few chemokine receptors expressed in ADSCs at a high level. CCR1 expression varies in ADSCs derived from different donors. It sharply decreases in the early phase of ADSCs in vitro propagation, but further demonstrates relative stability. Expression of CCR1 positively correlates with expression of SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG, transcription factors responsible for maintenance of the stemness properties of the cells. We demonstrate that signaling via CCL5/CCR1 axis triggers migration of ADSCs, activates ERK and AKT kinases, stimulates NFκB transcriptional activity and culminates in increased proliferation of CCR1(+) cells accompanied with up-regulation of SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG expression. Our data suggest that chemokine signaling via CCR1 may be involved in regulation of stemness of ADSCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells: a user's guide.

    PubMed

    Mosna, Federico; Sensebé, Luc; Krampera, Mauro

    2010-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that hold great promise in the field of regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from almost any tissue of the body and display, after expansion, very similar properties and minor differences, probably due to their microenvironment of origin. Expansion in vitro can be obtained in cytokine-free, serum-enriched media, as well as in serum-free, basic fibroblast growth factor-enriched media. A detailed immunophenotypic analysis is required to test the purity of the preparation, but no unique distinguishing marker has been described as yet. Functional assays, that is, differentiation studies in vitro, are needed to prove multilineage differentiation of expanded cells, and demonstration of pluripotency is necessary to identify most immature precursors. MSCs show powerful immunomodulative properties toward most of the cells of the immune system: this strengthens the theoretical rationale for their use also in an allogeneic setting across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immunological barriers. Systemic intravenous injection and local use have been tried: after systemic injection, MSCs show a high degree of chemotaxis based on pro-inflammatory cytokines, and localize at inflamed and neoplastic tissues; local regeneration has been improved using synthetic, as well as organic scaffolds. On the other hand, inadequate heterotopic in vivo differentiation and neoplastic transformation are potential risks of this form of cell therapy, even if evidence of this sort has been collected only from studies in mice, and generally after prolonged in vitro expansion. This review tries to provide a detailed technical overview of the methods used for human bone-marrow (BM)-derived and adipose-tissue (AT)-derived MSC isolation, in vitro expansion, and characterization for tissue repair. We chose to use BM-MSCs as a model to describe techniques that have been used for MSC isolation and expansion from very different sources, and

  17. Regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Bézaire, Véronic; Langin, Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Human obesity and its complications are an increasing burden in developed and underdeveloped countries. Adipose tissue mass and the mechanisms that control it are central to elucidating the aetiology of obesity and insulin resistance. Over the past 15 years tremendous progress has been made in several avenues relating to adipose tissue. Knowledge of the lipolytic machinery has grown with the identification of new lipases, cofactors and interactions between proteins and lipids that are central to the regulation of basal and stimulated lipolysis. The dated idea of an inert lipid droplet has been appropriately revamped to that of a dynamic and highly-structured organelle that in itself offers regulatory control over lipolysis. The present review provides an overview of the numerous partners and pathways involved in adipose tissue lipolysis and their interaction under various metabolic states. Integration of these findings into whole adipose tissue metabolism and its systemic effects is also presented in the context of inflammation and insulin resistance.

  18. Flow Cytometry Analyses of Adipose Tissue Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Morris, David L.; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Within adipose tissue, multiple leukocyte interactions contribute to metabolic homeostasis in health as well as to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance with obesity. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are the predominant leukocyte population in fat and contribute to obesity-induced inflammation. Characterization of ATMs and other leukocytes in the stromal vascular fraction from fat has benefited from the use of flow cytometry and flow-assisted cell sorting techniques. These methods permit the immunophenotyping, quantification, and purification of these unique cell populations from multiple adipose tissue depots in rodents and humans. Proper isolation, quantification, and characterization of ATM phenotypes are critical for understanding their role in adipose tissue function and obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Here, we present the flow cytometry protocols for phenotyping ATMs in lean and obese mice employed by our laboratory. PMID:24480353

  19. Cartilage Regeneration in Human with Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Current Status in Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Kartolo, Wiwi Andralia; Lee, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common debilitating disorders among the elderly population. At present, there is no definite cure for the underlying causes of OA. However, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in the form of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) may offer an alternative at this time. ADSCs are one type of mesenchymal stem cells that have been utilized and have demonstrated an ability to regenerate cartilage. ADSCs have been shown to regenerate cartilage in a variety of animal models also. Non-culture-expanded ADSCs, in the form of SVF along with platelet rich plasma (PRP), have recently been used in humans to treat OA and other cartilage abnormalities. These ADSCs have demonstrated effectiveness without any serious side effects. However, due to regulatory issues, only ADSCs in the form of SVF are currently allowed for clinical uses in humans. Culture-expanded ADSCs, although more convenient, require clinical trials for a regulatory approval prior to uses in clinical settings. Here we present a systematic review of currently available clinical studies involving ADSCs in the form of SVF and in the culture-expanded form, with or without PRP, highlighting the clinical effectiveness and safety in treating OA. PMID:26881220

  20. Blunted metabolic responses to cold and insulin stimulation in brown adipose tissue of obese humans.

    PubMed

    Orava, Janne; Nuutila, Pirjo; Noponen, Tommi; Parkkola, Riitta; Viljanen, Tapio; Enerbäck, Sven; Rissanen, Aila; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2013-11-01

    Inactive brown adipose tissue (BAT) may predispose to weight gain. This study was designed to measure metabolism in the BAT of obese humans, and to compare it to that in lean subjects. The impact of weight loss on BAT and the association of detectable BAT with various metabolic characteristics were also assessed. Using positron emission tomography (PET), cold- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and blood flow in the BAT of obese and lean humans were quantified. Further, cold-induced glucose uptake was measured in obese subjects before and after a 5-month conventional weight loss. Mean responses in BAT glucose uptake rate to both cold and insulin stimulation were twice as large in lean as in obese subjects. Blood flow in BAT was also lower in obese subjects under cold conditions. The increase in cold-induced BAT glucose uptake rate after weight loss was not statistically significant. Subjects with cold-activated detectable BAT were leaner and had higher whole-body insulin sensitivity than BAT-negative subjects, irrespective of age and gender. The effects of cold and insulin on BAT activity are severely blunted in obesity, and the presence of detectable BAT may contribute to a metabolically healthy status. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Pro-Inflammatory CD11c+CD206+ Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Associated With Insulin Resistance in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, John M.; Naselli, Gaetano; Brown, Wendy A.; Doyle, Lisa; Phipson, Belinda; Smyth, Gordon K.; Wabitsch, Martin; O'Brien, Paul E.; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome have been causally linked to adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in mice with diet-induced obesity. We aimed to characterize macrophage phenotype and function in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in relation to insulin resistance in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adipose tissue was obtained from lean and obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Metabolic markers were measured in fasting serum and ATMs characterized by immunohistology, flow cytometry, and tissue culture studies. RESULTS ATMs comprised CD11c+CD206+ cells in “crown” aggregates and solitary CD11c−CD206+ cells at adipocyte junctions. In obese women, CD11c+ ATM density was greater in subcutaneous than omental adipose tissue and correlated with markers of insulin resistance. CD11c+ ATMs were distinguished by high expression of integrins and antigen presentation molecules; interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α; and CC chemokine ligand-3, indicative of an activated, proinflammatory state. In addition, CD11c+ ATMs were enriched for mitochondria and for RNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial, proteasomal, and lysosomal proteins, fatty acid metabolism enzymes, and T-cell chemoattractants, whereas CD11c− ATMs were enriched for transcripts involved in tissue maintenance and repair. Tissue culture medium conditioned by CD11c+ ATMs, but not CD11c− ATMs or other stromovascular cells, impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS These findings identify proinflammatory CD11c+ ATMs as markers of insulin resistance in human obesity. In addition, the machinery of CD11c+ ATMs indicates they metabolize lipid and may initiate adaptive immune responses. PMID:20357360

  2. Characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells with enhanced angiogenic and adipogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Lauvrud, Anne Therese; Kelk, Peyman; Wiberg, Mikael; Kingham, Paul J

    2016-02-02

    Autologous fat grafting is a popular method for soft tissue reconstructions but graft survival remains highly unpredictable. Supplementation of the graft with the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) or cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can enhance graft viability. In this study we have examined the phenotypic properties of a selected population of cells isolated from ASCs, with a view to determining their suitability for transplantation into grafts. ASCs were isolated from the SVF of human abdominal fat (n = 8 female patients) and CD146(+) cells were selected using immunomagnetic beads. The angiogenic and adipogenic properties of the positively selected cells were compared with the negative fraction. CD146(+) cells expressed the immunophenotypic characteristics of pericytes. With prolonged in vitro expansion, CD146(-) cells exhibited increased population doubling times and morphological signs of senescence, whereas CD146(+) cells did not. CD146(+) cells expressed higher levels of the angiogenic molecules VEGF-A, angiopoietin-1 and FGF-1. Conditioned medium taken from CD146(+) cells significantly increased formation of in vitro endothelial cell tube networks, whereas CD146(-) cells did not. CD146(+) cells could be differentiated into adipocytes in greater numbers than CD146(-) cells. Consistent with this, differentiated CD146(+) cells expressed higher levels of the adipocyte markers adiponectin and leptin. These results suggest that CD146(+) cells selected from a heterogeneous mix of ASCs have more favourable angiogenic and adipogenic properties, which might provide significant benefits for reconstructive and tissue-engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [HUMAN ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS COMBINED WITH SMALL INTESNITAL SUBMUCOSA POWDER/CHITOSAN CHLORIDE-β-GLYCEROL PHOSPHATE DISODIUM-HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE HYBRID FOR ADIPOSE TISSUE ENGINEERING].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Luo, Jingcong; Lü, Qing; Deng, Xueqin; Xiong, Bingjun

    2015-08-01

    To study the feasibility of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) combined with small intestinal submucosa powder (SISP)/chitosan chloride (CSCl)-β-glycerol phosphate disodium (GP)-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) for adipose tissue engineering. hADSCs were isolated from human breast fat with collagenase type I digestion, and the third passage hADSCs were mixed with SISP/CSCl-GP-HEC at a density of 1 x 10(6) cells/mL. Twenty-four healthy female nude mice of 5 weeks old were randomly divided into experimental group (n = 12) and control group (n=12), and the mice were subcutaneously injected with 1 mL hADSCs+SISP/CSCl-GP-HEC or SISP/CSCl-GP-HEC respectively at the neck. The degradation rate was evaluated by implant volume measurement at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Three mice were euthanized at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks respectively for general, histological, and immunohistochemical observations. The ability of adipogenesis (Oil O staining), angiopoiesis (CD31), and localized the hADSCs (immunostaining for human Vimentin) were identified. The volume of implants of both groups decreased with time, but it was greater in experimental group than the control group, showing significant difference at 8 weeks (t = 3.348, P = 0.029). The general observation showed that the border of implants was clear with no adhesion at each time point; fat-liked new tissues were observed with capillaries on the surface at 8 weeks in 2 groups. The histological examinations showed that the structure of implants got compact gradually after injection, and SISP gradually degraded with slower degradation speed in experimental group; adipose tissue began to form, and some mature adipose tissue was observed at 8 weeks in the experimental group. The Oil O staining positive area of experimental group was greater than that of the control group at each time point, showing significant difference at 8 weeks (t = 3.41 1, P = 0.027). Immunohistochemical staining for Vemintin showed that hADSCs could survive at

  4. The suitability of human adipose-derived stem cells for the engineering of ligament tissue.

    PubMed

    Eagan, Michael J; Zuk, Patricia A; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Bluth, Benjamin E; Brinkmann, Elyse J; Wu, Benjamin M; McAllister, David R

    2012-10-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the one of the most common sports-related injuries. With its poor healing capacity, surgical reconstruction using either autografts or allografts is currently required to restore function. However, serious complications are associated with graft reconstructions and the number of such reconstructions has steadily risen over the years, necessitating the search for an alternative approach to ACL repair. Such an approach may likely be tissue engineering. Recent engineering approaches using ligament-derived fibroblasts have been promising, but the slow growth rate of such fibroblasts in vitro may limit their practical application. More promising results are being achieved using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is often proposed as an alternative choice to the MSC and, as such, may be a suitable stem cell for ligament engineering. However, the use of ASCs in ligament engineering still remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, in this study, the potential use of human ASCs in ligament tissue engineering was initially explored by examining their ability to express several ligament markers under growth factor treatment. ASC populations treated for up to 4 weeks with TGFβ1 or IGF1 did not show any significant and consistent upregulation in the expression of collagen types 1 and 3, tenascin C and scleraxis. While treatment with EGF or bFGF resulted in increased tenascin C expression, increased expression of collagens 1 and 3 were never observed. Therefore, simple in vitro treatment of human ASC populations with growth factors may not stimulate their ligament differentiative potential. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Assumed non-persistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Artacho-Cordón, F; Arrebola, J P; Nielsen, O; Hernández, P; Skakkebaek, N E; Fernández, M F; Andersson, A M; Olea, N; Frederiksen, H

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from adults undergoing trauma surgery. Nine phenols and seven parabens were determined by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. The analytical method showed good accuracy and precision. Limits of detection (LOD) for parabens and phenols ranged from 0.05 to 1.83ng/g tissue. Good recovery rates were found, even when biological samples remained defrosted up to 24h. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3; range of values: tissue) and methylparaben (MeP; tissue) were detected in >70% of adipose tissue samples, while bisphenol-A (BPA; tissue) and 2-phenylphenol (2-PP; tissue) were detected in >40% of adipose tissue samples. In general, levels were similar between adipose tissue and serum, while a correlation between adipose tissue and urine was only found for BP-3. In conclusion, adipose tissue samples in this study were found to contain environmental chemicals considered to be non-persistent, whose levels were weakly or not at all correlated with the urine burden. Therefore, adipose tissue may potentially provide additional information to that obtained from other biological matrices. Further investigations are warranted to explore whether adipose tissue might be a suitable matrix for assessment of the consequences for human health of mid/long-term exposure to these chemicals.

  6. Effect of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kranendonk, Mariëtte E G; Visseren, Frank L J; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; de Jager, Wilco; Wauben, Marca H M; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key mechanism in obesity-induced cardiovascular disease. To unravel mechanisms whereby human adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic IR, the effect of human AT-extracellular vesicles (EVs) on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells was determined. EVs released from human subcutaneous (SAT) and omental AT (OAT)-explants ex vivo were used for stimulation of hepatocytes and myotubes in vitro. Subsequently, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and expression of gluconeogenic genes (G6P, PEPCK) was determined. AT-EV adipokine levels were measured by multiplex immunoassay, and AT-EVs were quantified by high-resolution flow cytometry. In hepatocytes, AT-EVs from the majority of patients inhibited insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, while EVs from some patients stimulated insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In myotubes AT-EVs exerted an ambiguous effect on insulin signaling. Hepatic Akt phosphorylation related negatively to G6P-expression by both SAT-EVs (r = -0.60, P = 0.01) and OAT-EVs (r = -0.74, P = 0.001). MCP-1, IL-6, and MIF concentrations were higher in OAT-EVs compared to SAT-EVs and differently related to lower Akt phosphorylation in hepatocytes. Finally, the number of OAT-EVs correlated positively with liver enzymes indicative for liver dysfunction. Human AT-EVs can stimulate or inhibit insulin signaling in hepatocytes- possibly depending on their adipokine content- and may thereby contribute to systemic IR. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Albers, Peter H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Serup, Annette K; Kristensen, Dorte E; Frystyk, Jan; Clausen, Trine R; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A; Madsbad, Sten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetic subjects at fasting and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp before as well as 1 wk and 3 and 12 mo after RYGB were analyzed for relevant insulin effector proteins/signaling components. Improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity mainly occurred at 12 mo postsurgery when major weight loss was evident and occurred concomitantly with alterations in plasma adiponectin and in protein expression/signaling in peripheral tissues. In skeletal muscle, protein expression of GLUT4, phosphorylated levels of TBC1D4, as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase activity were enhanced 12 mo postsurgery. In adipose tissue, protein expression of GLUT4, Akt2, TBC1D4, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphorylated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and ACC, as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and TBC1D4, were enhanced 12 mo postsurgery. Adipose tissue from glucose-tolerant subjects was the most responsive to RYGB compared with type 2 diabetic patients, whereas changes in skeletal muscle were largely similar in these two groups. In conclusion, an improved molecular insulin-sensitive phenotype of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue appears to contribute to the improved whole body insulin action following a substantial weight loss after RYGB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Diabetic human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells fail to differentiate in functional adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Tettamanti, Guido; Pluchinotta, Francesca R; Bergante, Sonia; Vanella, Luca

    2016-11-30

    Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes. Our results showed that gene profile of all adipogenic markers is not expressed in diabetic cells after differentiation indicating that diabetic cells fail to differentiate into adipocytes. Interestingly, delta like 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and interleukin 1β were upregulated whereas Sirtuin 1 and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression were found downregulated in dASC compared to cells obtained from healthy subjects. Taken together our data indicate that dASC lose their ability to differentiate into mature and functional adipocytes. In conclusion, our in vitro study is the first to suggest that diabetic patients might develop obesity through a hypertrophy of existing mature adipocytes due to failure turnover of adipose tissue.

  9. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  10. Cultured Human Adipose Tissue Pericytes and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display a Very Similar Gene Expression Profile

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Tathiane Maistro; de Deus Wagatsuma, Virgínia Mara; Palma, Patrícia Viana Bonini; Araújo, Amélia Goes; Ribeiro Malmegrim, Kelen Cristina; Morato de Oliveira, Fábio; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Kashima Haddad, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cultured cells that can give rise to mature mesenchymal cells under appropriate conditions and secrete a number of biologically relevant molecules that may play an important role in regenerative medicine. Evidence indicates that pericytes (PCs) correspond to mesenchymal stem cells in vivo and can give rise to MSCs when cultured, but a comparison between the gene expression profiles of cultured PCs (cPCs) and MSCs is lacking. We have devised a novel methodology to isolate PCs from human adipose tissue and compared cPCs to MSCs obtained through traditional methods. Freshly isolated PCs expressed CD34, CD140b, and CD271 on their surface, but not CD146. Both MSCs and cPCs were able to differentiate along mesenchymal pathways in vitro, displayed an essentially identical surface immunophenotype, and exhibited the ability to suppress CD3+ lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Microarray expression data of cPCs and MSCs formed a single cluster among other cell types. Further analyses showed that the gene expression profiles of cPCs and MSCs are extremely similar, although MSCs differentially expressed endothelial cell (EC)-specific transcripts. These results confirm, using the power of transcriptomic analysis, that PCs give rise to MSCs and suggest that low levels of ECs may persist in MSC cultures established using traditional protocols. PMID:26192741

  11. Effects of NSAIDs on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Alexaki, Vasileia Ismini; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), used in the treatment of musculoskeletal pathologies, have been associated with impaired bone healing, possibly through inhibition of osteogenic differentiation. The adipose tissue (AT) is regarded as an attractive source of stromal cells for autologous cell transplantation in the bone. The effects of NSAIDs on human AT-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) are unknown. We examined the effect of several NSAIDs including meloxicam, parecoxib, lornoxicam, diclofenac and paracetamol on the proliferation of hADSCs by means of the PrestoBlue(®) viability assay, and the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hADSCs by means of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition by alizarin red staining and osteogenic gene expression by semi-quantitative PCR. Most of the drugs enhanced hADSC cell growth, while either positively affecting or not influencing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition and osteogenic gene expression. Moreover, selective COX-2 inhibitor NSAIDs, such as meloxicam or parecoxib, were advantageous over the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor NSAIDs lornoxicam and diclofenac. Altogether through this study, we show that NSAIDs, possibly depending on their selectivity for COX inhibition, leave the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hADSCs unaltered or might even enhance it. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Kaempferia parviflora extract increases whole-body energy expenditure in humans: roles of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Mami; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Sugie, Hiroki; Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora extract (KP) has been reported to have a preventive effect on obesity in mice, probably by increasing energy expenditure (EE). The aims of the current study were to examine the acute effects of KP ingestion on whole-body EE in humans and to analyze its relation to the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a site of non-shivering thermogenesis. After an oral ingestion of an ethanol extract of KP, EE increased significantly, showing a maximal increase of 229±69 kJ/d at 60 min, while it did not change after placebo ingestion. To evaluate BAT activity, the subjects underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, and divided into two groups with high- and low-BAT activities. A similar and greater response of EE to KP ingestion was observed in the high-BAT group (351±50 kJ/d at 60 min), but not in the low activity group. Placebo ingestion did not cause any significant EE change in either group. These results indicate that a single oral ingestion of the KP extract can potentially increase whole-body EE probably through the activation of BAT in healthy men, and may be useful as an anti-obesity regimen.

  13. Circulating classical monocytes are associated with CD11c+ macrophages in human visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Kristiaan; Gaens, Katrien; Bijnen, Mitchell; Verboven, Kenneth; Jocken, Johan; Wetzels, Suzan; Wijnands, Erwin; Hansen, Dominique; van Greevenbroek, Marleen; Duijvestijn, Adriaan; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.

    2017-01-01

    Immune cell accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) is associated with the development of AT inflammation, resulting in metabolic dysfunction. Circulating immune cell patterns may reflect immune cell accumulation in expanding AT. However, data linking human leukocytes in blood and AT is lacking. We investigated whether blood immune cell populations are associated with their counterparts in subcutaneous (scAT) or visceral AT (vAT). Flow cytometry was performed on blood, scAT and vAT from 16 lean and 29 obese men. Circulating natural killer (NK)-cells, classical monocytes and nonclassical monocytes were higher in obese individuals. vAT, but not scAT, of obese individuals contained more inflammatory CD11c+ “M1” macrophages and NK cells compared to lean individuals. Blood classical monocytes were associated with CD11c+ macrophages in vAT but not scAT. This association was unrelated to expression of the adhesion molecules CD11b and CD11c or of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on these monocytes. Other AT immune cells were not associated with their respective counterparts in blood. Finally, CD11c+ macrophages and CD4+ T-cells in vAT were associated with their counterparts in scAT. In conclusion, blood classical monocytes reflect CD11c+ macrophages in vAT. PMID:28198418

  14. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beige” adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  16. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  17. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle. PMID:24278771

  18. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in human adipose tissue of inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Valencia Quintana, R; Corona, C A; Herrero, M; Sánchez, K; Aguirre, H; Aldave, I A; Gomez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms. Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate in lipids of the human body, reflecting the rate of environmental exposure. Eighty human abdominal adipose tissue samples from Veracruz and 80 samples from Puebla were analyzed and the obtained results were compared among both populations. The results from Veracruz showed higher contamination levels (mg/kg on lipid base) compared to Puebla: beta-HCH, 0.072 vs. 0.029; pp'DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), 2.364 vs. 0.726; op'DDT, 0.022 vs. 0.025; pp'DDT, 0.192 vs. 0.061; and Sigma-DDT, 2.589 vs. 0.806. The population from Veracruz and from Puebla divided by sex, origin, and cause of death presented no statistical differences. The comparison between sexes (women and men groups) at Veracruz and Puebla indicated significantly higher levels in Veracruz and statistical significant differences. Calculating possible risks (odds ratios, OR), pp'DDE (OR = 5.04) and op'DDT (OR = 2.93) revealed significantly higher risk for the Veracruz population. The study indicated prolonged DDT exposure of Mexicans caused by the past sanitary use and persistence of its residues in soils and air.

  19. Reduced Adipogenic Gene Expression in Thigh Adipose Tissue Precedes Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Mario; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Breen, Patricia A.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Carr, Darcy B.; Kahn, Steven E.; Hughes, James P.; Rutledge, Elizabeth A.; Van Yserloo, Brian; Yukawa, Michi; Weigle, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The expression of adipogenic genes in sc adipose tissue has been reported to be lower among patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy than HIV-uninfected controls. It is unclear whether this is a result or cause of lipoatrophy. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the temporal relationships among changes in adipogenic gene expression in sc adipose tissue and changes in body fat distribution and metabolic complications in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy. Design: This was a prospective longitudinal study. Setting: The study was conducted at HIV clinics in Seattle, Washington. Participants: The study population included 31 HIV-infected and 12 control subjects. Interventions: Subjects were followed up for 12 months after they initiated or modified their existing antiretroviral regimen. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in body composition, plasma lipids, insulin sensitivity, and gene expression in sc abdominal and thigh adipose tissue. Results: Subjects who developed lipoatrophy (n = 10) had elevated fasting triglycerides [3.16 (sd 2.79) mmol/liter] and reduced insulin sensitivity as measured by frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test [1.89 (sd 1.27) × 10−4 min−1/μU·ml] after 12 months, whereas those without lipoatrophy (n = 21) did not show any metabolic complications [triglycerides 1.32 (sd 0.58) mmol/liter, P = 0.01 vs. lipoatrophy; insulin sensitivity 3.52 (sd 1.91) × 10−4 min−1/μU·ml, P = 0.01 vs. lipoatrophy]. In subjects developing lipoatrophy, the expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid uptake, and local cortisol production in thigh adipose tissue was significantly reduced already at the 2-month visit, several months before any loss of extremity fat mass was evident. Conclusions: In HIV-infected subjects, lipoatrophy is associated with elevated fasting triglycerides and insulin resistance and might be caused by a direct or indirect effect of antiretroviral drugs on sc adipocyte

  20. Study of lactoferrin gene expression in human and mouse adipose tissue, human preadipocytes and mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. Association with adipogenic and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mònica; Ortega, Francisco; Serino, Matteo; Pueyo, Neus; Luche, Elodie; Waget, Aurelie; Rodriguez-Hermosa, José Ignacio; Ricart, Wifredo; Burcelin, Remy; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Lactoferrin is considered an epithelial protein present in different gland secretions. Administration of exogenous lactoferrin is also known to modulate adipogenesis and insulin action in human adipocytes. Here, we aimed to investigate lactoferrin gene expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) levels in human (n=143) and mice adipose tissue samples, in adipose tissue fractions and during human preadipocyte and 3T3-L1 cell line differentiation, evaluating the effects of inducers (rosiglitazone) and disruptors (inflammatory factors) of adipocyte differentiation. Lactoferrin (LTF) gene and protein were detectable at relatively high levels in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes in direct association with low-density lipoprotein-related protein 1 (LRP1, its putative receptor). Obese subjects with type 2 diabetes and increased triglycerides had the lowest levels of LTF gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Specifically, LTF gene expression was significantly increased in adipocytes, mainly from lean subjects, increasing during differentiation in parallel to adipogenic genes and gene markers of lipid droplets. The induction or disruption of adipogenesis led to concomitant changes (increase and decrease, respectively) of lactoferrin levels during adipocyte differentiation also in parallel to gene markers of adipogenesis and lipid droplet development. The administration of lactoferrin led to autopotentiated increased expression of the LTF gene. The decreased lactoferrin mRNA levels in association with obesity and diabetes were replicated in mice adipose tissue. In conclusion, this is the first observation, to our knowledge, of lactoferrin gene expression in whole adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes, increasing during adipogenesis and suggesting a possible contribution in adipose tissue physiology through LRP1.

  1. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) affects obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation without systemic effects in humans and in mice.

    PubMed

    Ballak, Dov B; van Essen, Peter; van Diepen, Janna A; Jansen, Henry; Hijmans, Anneke; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya; Sparrer, Helmut; Tack, Cees J; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B; Stienstra, Rinke

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. We used human adipose tissue biopsies to study the relationship of MAP3K8 expression with markers of obesity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8). Moreover, we evaluated obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice lacking MAP3K8 and WT mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Individuals with a BMI >30 displayed a higher mRNA expression of MAP3K8 in adipose tissue compared to individuals with a normal BMI. Additionally, high mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, but not TNF -α, in human adipose tissue were associated with higher expression of MAP3K8. Moreover, high plasma SAA and CRP did not associate with increased MAP3K8 expression in adipose tissue. Similarly, no association was found for MAP3K8 expression with plasma insulin or glucose levels. Mice lacking MAP3K8 had similar bodyweight gain as WT mice, yet displayed lower mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 in adipose tissue in response to the HFD as compared to WT animals. However, MAP3K8 deficient mice were not protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration or the development of insulin resistance. Together, the data in both human and mouse show that MAP3K8 is involved in local adipose tissue inflammation, specifically for IL-1β and its responsive cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but does not seem to have systemic effects on insulin resistance.

  2. Epigenetic and Transcriptional Alterations in Human Adipose Tissue of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokosar, Milana; Benrick, Anna; Perfilyev, Alexander; Fornes, Romina; Nilsson, Emma; Maliqueo, Manuel; Behre, Carl Johan; Sazonova, Antonina; Ohlsson, Claes; Ling, Charlotte; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic factors may predispose women to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common heritable disorder of unclear etiology. Here we investigated differences in genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation in adipose tissue from 64 women with PCOS and 30 controls. In total, 1720 unique genes were differentially expressed (Q < 0.05). Six out of twenty selected genes with largest expression difference (CYP1B1, GPT), genes linked to PCOS (RAB5B) or type 2 diabetes (PPARG, SVEP1), and methylation (DMAP1) were replicated in a separate case-control study. In total, 63,213 sites (P < 0.05) and 440 sites (Q < 0.15) were differently methylated. Thirty differentially expressed genes had corresponding changes in 33 different DNA methylation sites. Moreover, a total number of 1913 pairs of differentially expressed “gene-CpG” probes were significantly correlated after correction for multiple testing and corresponded with 349 unique genes. In conclusion, we identified a large number of genes and pathways that are affected in adipose tissue from women with PCOS. We also identified specific DNA methylation pathways that may affect mRNA expression. Together, these novel findings show that women with PCOS have multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue that are relevant for development of the disease. PMID:26975253

  3. Clinical Grade Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Banking.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Aghayan, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Mohamadi-Jahani, Fereshteh; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Fallahzadeh, Khadijeh; Azam Sayahpour, Forough; Bidaki, Kazem; Arjmand, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to produce a generation of GMP-grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for clinical applications. According to our results, we fulfill to establish consistent and also reproducible current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) compliant adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells from five female donors. The isolated cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and characterized by standard methods. Moreover, karyotyping was performed to evaluate chromosomal stability. Mean of donors' age was 47.6 ± 8.29 year, mean of cell viability was 95.6 ± 1.51%, and cell count was between 9×106 and 14×106 per microliter with the mean of 12.2×106 ± 2863564.21 per microliter. The main aim of this project was demonstrating the feasibility of cGMP-compliant and clinical grade adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells preparation and banking for clinical cell transplantation trials.

  4. Decrease of apoptosis markers during adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Lo Furno, Debora; Graziano, Adriana C E; Caggia, Silvia; Perrotta, Rosario E; Tarico, Maria Stella; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera

    2013-05-01

    Although the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue (AT) have been widely studied, relatively little information is available on the underlying mechanism of apoptosis during the adipogenic differentiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze how the expression of some apoptotic markers is affected by in vitro expansion during adipogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs. The cultures incubated or not with adipogenic medium were investigated by Western blot at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for the production of p53, AKT, pAKT, Bax, PDCD4 and PTEN. MSCs were recognized for their immunoreactivity to MSC-specific cell types markers by immunocytochemical procedure. The effectiveness of adipogenic differentiation was assessed by staining with Sudan III and examination of adipogenic markers expression, such as PPAR-γ and FABP, at different time points by Western blot. The adipogenic differentiation medium led to the appearance, after 7 days, of larger rounded cells presenting numerous vacuoles containing lipids in which it was evident a red-orange staining, that increased in size in a time-dependent manner, parallel to an increase of the levels of expression of PPAR-γ and FABP. More than 50 % of human MSCs were fully differentiated into adipocytes within the four-week induction period. The results showed that during adipogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is activated and that p53, PTEN, PDCD4, and Bax proteins are down-regulated in time-dependent manner. Our data provide new information on the behavior of some apoptotic markers during adipogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs to apply for tissues repair and regeneration.

  5. Nitrogen Solubility in Adipose Tissues of Diving Animals: Implications for Human Divers and for Modeling Diving Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    to quantify the potential for exchange between the circulatory system and adipocytes at the microvascular level. In order for lipid composition to...VII. Major Problems /Issues We encountered two problems over the course of this study. The first problem was access to human adipose tissues . This...development of decompression sickness among U.S. Navy divers. Undersea Biomed Res . 11(4):395-406. Douglas, J.D. 1985. Medical problems of sport

  6. Effects of Exendin-4 on human adipose tissue inflammation and ECM remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Pastel, E; Joshi, S; Knight, B; Liversedge, N; Ward, R; Kos, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Subjects with type-2 diabetes are typically obese with dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are routinely used to improve glycaemia. Although, they also aid weight loss that improves AT function, their direct effect on AT function is unclear. To explore GLP-1 analogues' influence on human AT's cytokine and extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, we therefore obtained and treated omental (OMAT) and subcutaneous (SCAT) AT samples with Exendin-4, an agonist of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). SUBJECTS/METHODS: OMAT and abdominal SCAT samples obtained from women during elective surgery at the Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital (UK) were treated with increasing doses of Exendin-4. Changes in RNA expression of adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, ECM components and their regulators were assessed and protein secretion analysed by ELISA. GLP-1R protein accumulation was compared in paired AT depot samples. RESULTS: Exendin-4 induced an increase in OMAT adiponectin (P=0.02) and decrease in elastin expression (P=0.03) in parallel with reduced elastin secretion (P=0.04). In contrast to OMAT, we did not observe an effect on SCAT. There was no change in the expression of inflammatory markers (CD14, TNFA, MCP-1), collagens, TGFB1 or CTGF. GLP-1R accumulation was higher in SCAT. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of weight loss, which may bias findings of in vivo studies, GLP-1 analogues modify human OMAT physiology favourably by increasing the insulin-sensitising cytokine adiponectin. However, the reduction of elastin and no apparent effect on AT's inflammatory cytokines suggest that GLP-1 analogues may be less beneficial to AT function, especially if there is no associated weight loss. PMID:27941938

  7. Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link With Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss

    PubMed Central

    Divoux, Adeline; Tordjman, Joan; Lacasa, Danièle; Veyrie, Nicolas; Hugol, Danielle; Aissat, Abdelhalim; Basdevant, Arnaud; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Poitou, Christine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Bedossa, Pierre; Clément, Karine

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fibrosis is a newly appreciated hallmark of the pathological alteration of human white adipose tissue (WAT). We investigated the composition of subcutaneous (scWAT) and omental WAT (oWAT) fibrosis in obesity and its relationship with metabolic alterations and surgery-induced weight loss. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Surgical biopsies for scWAT and oWAT were obtained in 65 obese (BMI 48.2 ± 0.8 kg/m2) and 9 lean subjects (BMI 22.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2). Obese subjects who were candidates for bariatric surgery were clinically characterized before, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, including fat mass evaluation by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. WAT fibrosis was quantified and characterized using quantitative PCR, microscopic observation, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Fibrosis amount, distribution and collagen types (I, III, and VI) present distinct characteristics in lean and obese subjects and with WAT depots localization (subcutaneous or omental). Obese subjects had more total fibrosis in oWAT and had more pericellular fibrosis around adipocytes than lean subjects in both depots. Macrophages and mastocytes were highly represented in fibrotic bundles in oWAT, whereas scWAT was more frequently characterized by hypocellular fibrosis. The oWAT fibrosis negatively correlated with omental adipocyte diameters (R = −0.30, P = 0.02), and with triglyceride levels (R = −0.42, P < 0.01), and positively with apoA1 (R = 0.25, P = 0.05). Importantly, scWAT fibrosis correlated negatively with fat mass loss measured at the three time points after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest differential clinical consequences of fibrosis in human WAT. In oWAT, fibrosis could contribute to limit adipocyte hypertrophy and is associated with a better lipid profile, whereas scWAT fibrosis may hamper fat mass loss induced by surgery. PMID:20713683

  8. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide Against Ethanol-Induced Injury in Rat Adipose Tissue and Primary Human Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kema, Venkata Harini; Khan, Imran; Jamal, Reshma; Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Lakki Reddy, Chandrakala; Parwani, Kirti; Patel, Farhin; Patel, Dhara; Khan, Aleem A; Mandal, Palash

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is the fourth leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Several cellular pathways contribute to alcohol-mediated tissue injury. Adipose tissue apart from functioning as an endocrine organ secretes several hormones and cytokines known as adipokines that are known to play a significant role in alcohol-induced tissue damage. This study was designed to test the efficacy of diallyl sulfide (DAS) in regulating the alcohol-induced outcomes on adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed with 36% Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (EtOH) for 4 weeks. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric diet containing maltodextrin instead of EtOH. During the last week of feeding protocol, the EtOH-fed rat group was given 200 mg/kg body weight of DAS through diet. We also studied DAS effect on isolated human primary adipocytes. Viability of human primary adipocytes on DAS treatment was assessed by MTT assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of oxidative stress, was measured by HPLC and the thiobarbituric acid method. Expression of inflammatory genes and lipogenic genes was studied by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Serum inflammatory gene expression was studied by ELISA. Our study results showed that DAS could alleviate EtOH-induced expression levels of proinflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes and improve adipose tissue mass and adipocyte morphology in male Wistar rats fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 6% EtOH. Further, we showed that DAS reduced the expression of lipogenic genes and improved lipid accumulation and adipocyte mass in human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH. Subsequently, we also showed that oxidative stress, as measured by the changes in MDA levels, was reduced in both male Wistar rats and human primary adipocytes treated with EtOH plus DAS. Our study results prove that DAS is effective in ameliorating EtOH-induced damage to adipose tissue as evidenced by the reduction brought about by DAS in oxidative stress

  9. The Effects of Temperature and Seasons on Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans: Evidence for Thermogenic Gene Induction

    PubMed Central

    Finlin, Brian S.; Zhu, Beibei; Rasouli, Neda; McGehee, Robert E.; Westgate, Philip M.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is increased by a cold environment, little is known of the response of human white adipose tissue (WAT) to the cold. Design: We examined both abdominal and thigh subcutaneous (SC) WAT from 71 subjects who were biopsied in the summer or winter, and adipose expression was assessed after an acute cold stimulus applied to the thigh of physically active young subjects. Results: In winter, UCP1 and PGC1α mRNA were increased 4 to 10-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.5 to 2-fold, respectively, along with beige adipose markers, and UCP1 protein was 3-fold higher in the winter. The seasonal increase in abdominal SC WAT UCP1 mRNA was considerably diminished in subjects with a BMI > 30 kg/m2, suggesting that dysfunctional WAT in obesity inhibits adipose thermogenesis. After applying an acute cold stimulus to the thigh of subjects for 30 min, PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA was stimulated 2.7-fold (p < 0.05) and 1.9-fold (p = 0.07), respectively. Acute cold also induced a 2 to 3-fold increase in PGC1α and UCP1 mRNA in human adipocytes in vitro, which was inhibited by macrophage-conditioned medium and by the addition of TNFα. Conclusion: Human SC WAT increases thermogenic genes seasonally and acutely in response to a cold stimulus and this response is inhibited by obesity and inflammation. PMID:25299843

  10. Content of trans fatty acids in human cheek epithelium: comparison with serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ransi A; Bahl, Vinay K; Parshad, Rajinder; Seenu, V; Roy, Ambuj; Golandaz, Smita; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2013-01-01

    Studies pertaining to trans fatty acids (TFA), which have been implicated in development of chronic diseases, are more relevant in developing countries where nutrition transition is changing traditional habits and practices. Measuring TFA is an arduous task because of the need for fat biopsies. This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. The correlation coefficient of total trans fatty acid between cheek epithelium and serum was 0.30 (P < 0.02) and between cheek epithelium and adipose tissue was 0.33 (P < 0.019). This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake.

  11. Secretory function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kuryszko, J; Sławuta, P; Sapikowski, G

    2016-01-01

    There are two kinds of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue - WAT and brown adipose tissue - BAT. The main function of WAT is accumulation of triacylglycerols whereas the function of BAT is heat generation. At present, WAT is also considered to be an endocrine gland that produces bioactive adipokines, which take part in glucose and lipid metabolism. Considering its endocrine function, the adipose tissue is not a homogeneous gland but a group of a few glands which act differently. Studies on the secretory function of WAT began in 1994 after discovery of leptin known as the satiation hormone, which regulates body energy homeostasis and maintainence of body mass. Apart from leptin, the following belong to adipokines: adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and cytokines: TNF and IL 6. Adiponectin is a polypeptide hormone of antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activity. It plays a key role in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Resistin exerts a counter effect compared to adiponectin and its physiological role is to maintain fasting glycaemia. Visfatin stimulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake by muscle cells and adipocytes. Apelin probably increases the insulin sensitivity of tissues. TNF evokes insulin resistance by blocking insulin receptors and inhibits insulin secretion. Approximately 30% of circulating IL 6 comes from adipose tissue. It causes insulin resistance by decreasing the expression of insulin receptors, decreases adipogenesis and adiponectin and visfatin secretion, and stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis. In 2004, Bays introduced the notion of adiposopathy, defined as dysfunction of the adipose tissue, whose main feature is insulin and leptin resistance as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines: TNF and IL 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein. This means that excess of adipose tissue, especially visceral adipose tissue, leads to the development of a chronic subclinical

  12. Notch signalling inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of single-cell-derived mesenchymal stem cell clones isolated from human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Subbalekha, Keskanya; Sastravaha, Panunn; Pavasant, Prasit

    2012-01-01

    ADSCs (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are candidate adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. Notch signalling participates in the differentiation of a heterogeneous ADSC population. We have isolated, human adipose tissue-derived single-cell clones using a cloning ring technique and characterized for their stem cell characteristics. The role of Notch signalling in the differentiation capacity of these adipose-derived single-cell-clones has also been investigated. All 14 clones expressed embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell marker genes. These clones could differentiate into both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. However, the differentiation potential of each clone was different. Low adipogenic clones had significantly higher mRNA expression levels of Notch 2, 3 and 4, Jagged1, as well as Delta1, compared with those of high adipogenic clones. In contrast, no changes in expression of Notch signalling component mRNA between low and high osteogenic clones was found. Notch receptor mRNA expression decreased with the adipogenic differentiation of both low and high adipogenic clones. The γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-(S)-phenylglycine t-butyl ester), enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Correspondingly, cells seeded on a Notch ligand (Jagged1) bound surface showed lower intracellular lipid accumulation. These results were noted in both low and high adipogenic clones, indicating that Notch signalling inhibited the adipogenic differentiation of adipose ADSC clones, and could be used to identify an adipogenic susceptible subpopulation for soft-tissue augmentation application.

  13. Fibronectin gene expression in human adipose tissue and its associations with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Hee; Park, Hye Soon; Lee, Jung Ah; Song, Young Sook; Jang, Yeon Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoonseok

    2013-04-01

    Limited data are available on the in vivo expression of fibronectin, one of the main extracellular matrix components. We investigated the expression of fibronectin in abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and the associations of leptin, adiponectin, and vaspin gene expression with metabolic parameters in obese women. We recruited female subjects undergoing bariatric surgery for obesity (n = 24) and patients undergoing benign gynecological surgery as the control group (n = 23). We measured anthropometric variables, abdominal fat distribution, metabolic parameters, serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and vaspin, and depot-specific mRNA expression of fibronectin, leptin, adiponectin, and vaspin. Fibronectin expression in both VAT and SAT was significantly lower in the obese group than in the control group. Fibronectin expression in both VAT and SAT were negatively correlated with body mass index or waist circumference, with higher prominence in VAT. In multiple regression analysis, fibronectin expression in both VAT and SAT was negatively correlated with serum leptin concentration. Fibronectin expression in VAT was negatively correlated with leptin expression in VAT. Additionally, fibronectin expression in SAT was negatively correlated with leptin expression in SAT and positively correlated with adiponectin expression in VAT and SAT. We found significant negative associations between depot-specific fibronectin expression in human adipose tissue and obesity indices and obesity-related biomarkers. Our results suggest that fibronectin expression may contribute to obesity and metabolic dysregulation in humans.

  14. Creation of a Large Adipose Tissue Construct in Humans Using a Tissue-engineering Chamber: A Step Forward in the Clinical Application of Soft Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Wayne A; Marre, Diego; Grinsell, Damien; Batty, Andrew; Trost, Nicholas; O'Connor, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering is currently exploring new and exciting avenues for the repair of soft tissue and organ defects. Adipose tissue engineering using the tissue engineering chamber (TEC) model has yielded promising results in animals; however, to date, there have been no reports on the use of this device in humans. Five female post mastectomy patients ranging from 35 to 49years old were recruited and a pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator fat flap ranging from 6 to 50ml was harvested, transposed onto the chest wall and covered by an acrylic perforated dome-shaped chamber ranging from 140 to 350cm(3). Magnetic resonance evaluation was performed at three and six months after chamber implantation. Chambers were removed at six months and samples were obtained for histological analysis. In one patient, newly formed tissue to a volume of 210ml was generated inside the chamber. One patient was unable to complete the trial and the other three failed to develop significant enlargement of the original fat flap, which, at the time of chamber explantation, was encased in a thick fibrous capsule. Our study provides evidence that generation of large well-vascularized tissue engineered constructs using the TEC is feasible in humans.

  15. Creation of a Large Adipose Tissue Construct in Humans Using a Tissue-engineering Chamber: A Step Forward in the Clinical Application of Soft Tissue Engineering☆

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Wayne A.; Marre, Diego; Grinsell, Damien; Batty, Andrew; Trost, Nicholas; O'Connor, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering is currently exploring new and exciting avenues for the repair of soft tissue and organ defects. Adipose tissue engineering using the tissue engineering chamber (TEC) model has yielded promising results in animals; however, to date, there have been no reports on the use of this device in humans. Five female post mastectomy patients ranging from 35 to 49 years old were recruited and a pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator fat flap ranging from 6 to 50 ml was harvested, transposed onto the chest wall and covered by an acrylic perforated dome-shaped chamber ranging from 140 to 350 cm3. Magnetic resonance evaluation was performed at three and six months after chamber implantation. Chambers were removed at six months and samples were obtained for histological analysis. In one patient, newly formed tissue to a volume of 210 ml was generated inside the chamber. One patient was unable to complete the trial and the other three failed to develop significant enlargement of the original fat flap, which, at the time of chamber explantation, was encased in a thick fibrous capsule. Our study provides evidence that generation of large well-vascularized tissue engineered constructs using the TEC is feasible in humans. PMID:27211566

  16. Potential application of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted attention as a versatile cell-cell communication mediator. The biological significance of EVs remains to be fully elucidated, but many reports have suggested that the functions of EVs mirror, at least in part, those of the cells from which they originate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be isolated from connective tissue including bone marrow and adipose tissue and have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. Accordingly, an increasing number of reports have shown that EVs derived from MSCs have therapeutic potential in multiple diseases. We recently reported a novel therapeutic potential of EVs secreted from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs) (also known as adipose tissue-derived stem cells; ASCs) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that hADSCs secrete exosomes carrying enzymatically active neprilysin, the most important β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzyme in the brain. In this chapter, we describe a method by which to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hADSC-derived EVs against AD from the point of view of their Aβ-degrading capacity.

  17. Glucagon increases energy expenditure independently of brown adipose tissue activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Salem, V; Izzi-Engbeaya, C; Coello, C; Thomas, D B; Chambers, E S; Comninos, A N; Buckley, A; Win, Z; Al-Nahhas, A; Rabiner, E A; Gunn, R N; Budge, H; Symonds, M E; Bloom, S R; Tan, T M; Dhillo, W S

    2016-01-01

    To investigate, for a given energy expenditure (EE) rise, the differential effects of glucagon infusion and cold exposure on brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation in humans. Indirect calorimetry and supraclavicular thermography was performed in 11 healthy male volunteers before and after: cold exposure; glucagon infusion (at 23 °C); and vehicle infusion (at 23 °C). All volunteers underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanning with cold exposure. Subjects with cold-induced BAT activation on (18)F-FDG PET/CT (n = 8) underwent a randomly allocated second (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan (at 23 °C), either with glucagon infusion (n = 4) or vehicle infusion (n = 4). We observed that EE increased by 14% after cold exposure and by 15% after glucagon infusion (50 ng/kg/min; p < 0.05 vs control for both). Cold exposure produced an increase in neck temperature (+0.44 °C; p < 0.001 vs control), but glucagon infusion did not alter neck temperature. In subjects with a cold-induced increase in the metabolic activity of supraclavicular BAT on (18)F-FDG PET/CT, a significant rise in the metabolic activity of BAT after glucagon infusion was not detected. Cold exposure increased sympathetic activation, as measured by circulating norepinephrine levels, but glucagon infusion did not. Glucagon increases EE by a similar magnitude compared with cold activation, but independently of BAT thermogenesis. This finding is of importance for the development of safe treatments for obesity through upregulation of EE. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Functional expression of adrenoreceptors in mesenchymal stromal cells derived from the human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Polina D; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Fadeeva, Julia I; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2014-09-01

    Cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources represent a heterogeneous population of proliferating non-differentiated cells that contains multipotent stem cells capable of originating a variety of mesenchymal cell lineages. Despite tremendous progress in MSC biology spurred by their therapeutic potential, current knowledge on receptor and signaling systems of MSCs is mediocre. Here we isolated MSCs from the human adipose tissue and assayed their responsivity to GPCR agonists with Ca(2+) imaging. As a whole, a MSC population exhibited functional heterogeneity. Although a variety of first messengers was capable of stimulating Ca(2+) signaling in MSCs, only a relatively small group of cells was specifically responsive to the particular GPCR agonist, including noradrenaline. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry revealed expression of α1B-, α2A-, and β2-adrenoreceptors in MSCs. Their sensitivity to subtype-specific adrenergic agonists/antagonists and certain inhibitors of Ca(2+) signaling indicated that largely the α2A-isoform coupled to PLC endowed MSCs with sensitivity to noradrenaline. The all-or-nothing dose-dependence was characteristic of responsivity of robust adrenergic MSCs. Noradrenaline never elicited small or intermediate responses but initiated large and quite similar Ca(2+) transients at all concentrations above the threshold. The inhibitory analysis and Ca(2+) uncaging implicated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) in shaping Ca(2+) signals elicited by noradrenaline. Evidence favored IP3 receptors as predominantly responsible for CICR. Based on the overall findings, we inferred that adrenergic transduction in MSCs includes two fundamentally different stages: noradrenaline initially triggers a local and relatively small Ca(2+) signal, which next stimulates CICR, thereby being converted into a global Ca(2+) signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lineage depletion of stromal vascular fractions isolated from human adipose tissue: a novel approach towards cell enrichment technology.

    PubMed

    Indumathi, S; Mishra, Rashmi; Harikrishnan, R; Rajkumar, J S; Kantawala, Neha; Dhanasekaran, M

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic rationale for tissue repair and regeneration using stem cells is at its infancy and needs advancement in understanding the role of individual component's innate capability. As stem cells of adipose tissue reside in a more heterogeneous population of stromal vascular fractions, cell separation or sorting becomes an eminent step towards revealing their unique properties. This study elucidates the comparative efficacy of lineage depleted adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and their innate ability using magnetic activated cell sorter (MACS). To this end, isolated SVF from human adipose tissue was lineage depleted according to the manufacturer's instructions using specific antibody cocktail through MACS. The enriched lineage negative (lin-) and lineage positive (lin+) cell fractions were cultured, phenotypically characterized for the panel of cell surface markers using flowcytometry and subjected to osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation. The expression profile obtained for lin- cells was CD34-/CD45-/HLADR-/CD49d-/CD140b-/CD31-/CD90+/CD105+/CD73+/CD54+/CD166+/CD117- when compared to Lin+ cells expressing CD34+/CD45+/HLADR-/CD49d-/CD140b+/CD31-/CD90+/CD105+/CD73+/CD54+/CD166+/CD117+ (CD-cluster of differentiation). These results, thus, advances our understanding on the inherent property of the individual cell population. Furthermore, both the fractions exhibited mesodermal lineage differentiation capacity. To conclude, this research pursuit rationalized the regenerative therapeutic applicability of both lin- and lin+ cultures of human adipose tissue for disorders of mesodermal, haematological and vascular origin.

  20. Overall Adiposity, Adipose Tissue Distribution, and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Backonja, Uba; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Lauver, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis has been associated with a lean body habitus. However, we do not understand whether endometriosis is also associated with other characteristics of adiposity, including adipose tissue distribution and amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT; adipose tissue lining inner organs). Having these understandings may provide insights on how endometriosis develops—some of the physiologic actions of adipose tissue differ depending on tissue amount and location, and are related to proposed mechanisms of endometriosis development. Objectives To review the literature regarding overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution and/or VAT, and endometriosis. Methods We reviewed and synthesized studies indexed in PubMed and/or Web of Science. We included studies that had one or more measures of overall adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, and/or VAT, and women with and without endometriosis for comparison. We summarized the findings and commented on the methods used and potential sources of bias. Results Out of 366 identified publications, 19 (5.2%) were eligible. Two additional publications were identified from reference lists. Current research included measures of overall adiposity (e.g., body figure drawings) or adipose tissue distribution (e.g., waist-to-hip ratio), but not VAT. The weight of evidence indicated that endometriosis was associated with low overall adiposity and with a preponderance of adipose tissue distributed below the waist (peripheral). Discussion Endometriosis may be associated with being lean or having peripherally distributed adipose tissue. Well-designed studies with various sampling frameworks and precise measures of adiposity and endometriosis are needed to confirm associations between adiposity measures and endometriosis, and delineate potential etiologic mechanisms underlying endometriosis. PMID:26938364

  1. Purification of human adipose-derived stem cells from fat tissues using PLGA/silk screen hybrid membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Chung; Chen, Li-Yu; Ling, Qing-Dong; Wu, Meng-Hsueh; Wang, Ching-Tang; Suresh Kumar, S; Chang, Yung; Munusamy, Murugan A; Alarfajj, Abdullah A; Wang, Han-Chow; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Higuchi, Akon

    2014-05-01

    The purification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) from human adipose tissue cells (stromal vascular fraction) was investigated using membrane filtration through poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen hybrid membranes. Membrane filtration methods are attractive in regenerative medicine because they reduce the time required to purify hADSCs (i.e., less than 30 min) compared with conventional culture methods, which require 5-12 days. hADSCs expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73, and CD90 were concentrated in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes. Expression of the surface markers CD44, CD73, and CD99 on the cells in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes, which were obtained using 18 mL of feed solution containing 50 × 10⁴ cells, was statistically significantly higher than that of the primary adipose tissue cells, indicating that the hADSCs can be purified in the permeation solution by the membrane filtration method. Cells expressing the stem cell-associated marker CD34 could be successfully isolated in the permeation solution, whereas CD34⁺ cells could not be purified by the conventional culture method. The hADSCs in the permeation solution demonstrated a superior capacity for osteogenic differentiation based on their alkali phosphatase activity, their osterix gene expression, and the results of mineralization analysis by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining compared with the cells from the suspension of human adipose tissue. These results suggest that the hADSCs capable of osteogenic differentiation preferentially permeate through the hybrid membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  3. Integrative mRNA-microRNA analyses reveal novel interactions related to insulin sensitivity in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Tyler J; Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian; Zhu, Beibei; Unal, Resat; Rasouli, Neda; Peterson, Charlotte A; Kern, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    Adipose tissue has profound effects on whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying biological processes are quite complex and likely multifactorial. For instance, the adipose transcriptome is posttranscriptionally modulated by microRNAs, but the relationship between microRNAs and insulin sensitivity in humans remains to be determined. To this end, we utilized an integrative mRNA-microRNA microarray approach to identify putative molecular interactions that regulate the transcriptome in subcutaneous adipose tissue of insulin-sensitive (IS) and insulin-resistant (IR) individuals. Using the NanoString nCounter Human v1 microRNA Expression Assay, we show that 17 microRNAs are differentially expressed in IR vs. IS. Of these, 16 microRNAs (94%) are downregulated in IR vs. IS, including miR-26b, miR-30b, and miR-145. Using Agilent Human Whole Genome arrays, we identified genes that were predicted targets of miR-26b, miR-30b, and miR-145 and were upregulated in IR subjects. This analysis produced ADAM22, MYO5A, LOX, and GM2A as predicted gene targets of these microRNAs. We then validated that miR-145 and miR-30b regulate these mRNAs in differentiated human adipose stem cells. We suggest that use of bioinformatic integration of mRNA and microRNA arrays yields verifiable mRNA-microRNA pairs that are associated with insulin resistance and can be validated in vitro.

  4. Pathways commonly dysregulated in mouse and human obese adipose tissue: FAT/CD36 modulates differentiation and lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, E; Héraud, S; Mojallal, A; Lequeux, C; Weiss-Gayet, M; Damour, O; Géloën, A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is linked to adipose tissue hypertrophy (increased adipocyte cell size) and hyperplasia (increased cell number). Comparative analyses of gene datasets allowed us to identify 1426 genes which may represent common adipose phenotype in humans and mice. Among them we identified several adipocyte-specific genes dysregulated in obese adipose tissue, involved in either fatty acid storage (acyl CoA synthase ACSL1, hormone-sensitive lipase LIPE, aquaporin 7 AQP7, perilipin PLIN) or cell adhesion (fibronectin FN1, collagens COL1A1, COL1A3, metalloprotein MMP9, or both (scavenger receptor FAT/CD36). Using real-time analysis of cell surface occupancy on xCELLigence system we developed a new method to study lipid uptake and differentiation of mouse 3T3L1 fibroblasts and human adipose stem cells. Both processes are regulated by insulin and fatty acids such as oleic acid. We showed that fatty acid addition to culture media increased the differentiation rate and was required for full differentiation into unilocular adipocytes. Significant activation of lipogenesis, i.e. lipid accumulation, by either insulin or oleic acid was monitored in times ranging from 1 to 24 h, depending on differentiation state, whereas significant effects on adipogenesis, i.e., surperimposed lipid accumulation and gene transcriptional regulations were measured after 3 to 4 d. Combination of selected times for analysis of lipid contents, cell counts, size fractionations, and gene transcriptional regulations showed that FAT/CD36 specific inhibitor AP5258 significantly increased cell survival of oleic acid-treated mouse and human adipocytes, and partially restored the transcriptional response to oleic acid in the presence of insulin through JNK pathway. Taken together, these data open new perspectives to study the molecular mechanisms commonly dysregulated in mouse and human obesity at the level of lipogenesis linked to hypertrophy and adipogenesis linked to hyperplasia. PMID:26257990

  5. Pluripotent muse cells derived from human adipose tissue: a new perspective on regenerative medicine and cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Multilineage Differentiating Stress Enduring (Muse) cells were introduced to the scientific community, offering potential resolution to the issue of teratoma formation that plagues both embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells. Isolated from human bone marrow, dermal fibroblasts, adipose tissue and commercially available adipose stem cells (ASCs) under severe cellular stress conditions, Muse cells self-renew in a controlled manner and do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. Furthermore, Muse cells express classic pluripotency markers and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers both spontaneously and under media-specific induction. When transplanted in vivo, Muse cells contribute to tissue generation and repair. This review delves into the aspects of Muse cells that set them apart from ES, iPS, and various reported adult pluripotent stem cell lines, with specific emphasis on Muse cells derived from adipose tissue (Muse-AT), and their potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy. PMID:24940477

  6. Glyceroneogenesis is inhibited through HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammation in human subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Leroyer, Stéphanie; Vatier, Camille; Kadiri, Sarah; Quette, Joëlle; Chapron, Charles; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Glyceroneogenesis, a metabolic pathway that participates during lipolysis in the recycling of free fatty acids to triglycerides into adipocytes, contributes to the lipid-buffering function of adipose tissue. We investigated whether glyceroneogenesis could be affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) responsible or not for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. We treated explants obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) depots from lean individuals. We observed that the dyslipidemic PIs nelfinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir, but not the lipid-neutral PI atazanavir, increased lipolysis and decreased glyceroneogenesis, leading to an increased release of fatty acids from SAT but not from VAT. At the same time, dyslipidemic PIs decreased the amount of perilipin and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in SAT but not in VAT. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway, counteracted PI-induced increased inflammation and decreased glyceroneogenesis. IL-6 (100 ng) inhibited the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, in SAT but not in VAT. Our data show that dyslipidemic but not lipid-neutral PIs decreased glyceroneogenesis as a consequence of PI-induced increased inflammation in SAT that could have an affect on adipocytes and/or macrophages. These results add a new link between fat inflammation and increased fatty acids release and suggest a greater sensitivity of SAT than VAT to PI-induced inflammation. PMID:21068005

  7. Human perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction as a cause of vascular disease: Focus on vascular tone and wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Gulsev; Daci, Armond; Norel, Xavier; Topal, Gokce

    2015-11-05

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is characterized by excessive or abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including depots which surround the blood vessels named perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT plays endocrine and paracrine roles by producing large numbers of metabolically vasoactive adipokines. The present review outlines our current understanding of the beneficial roles of PVAT in vascular tone and remodeling in healthy subjects supported by clinical studies, highlighting different factors or mechanisms that could mediate protective effects of PVAT on vascular function. Most studies in humans show that adiponectin is the best candidate for the advantageous effect of PVAT. However, in pathological conditions especially obesity-related cardiovascular diseases, the beneficial effects of PVAT on vascular functions are impaired and transform into detrimental roles. This change is defined as PVAT dysfunction. In the current review, the contribution of PVAT dysfunction to obesity-related cardiovascular diseases has been discussed with a focus on possible mechanisms including an imbalance between beneficial and detrimental adipokines (commonly described as decreased levels of adiponectin and increased levels of leptin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)), increased quantity of adipose tissue, inflammation, cell proliferation and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, novel pharmacotherapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells From Human Orbital Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Mahabole, Megha; Horesh, Elan; Wester, Sara; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have gained importance due to their myriad potential clinical applications. We hypothesize that progenitor cells also exist besides those conventionally isolated from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Method. Central and medial orbital adipose tissues obtained from patients during eyelid surgery were digested with collagenase for 3 or 16 hours at 37°C with or without shaking. After centrifugation, the remaining cell pellet was resuspended and filtered to yield flow through in SVF and retained cells (RC) on the filter. Single cells from RC and SVF were cultured on 5% coated Matrigel in serum-free modified embryonic stem cells medium (MESCM) for 10 passages. The progenitor status was evaluated by the expression of a number of markers by qPCR and immunofluorescence staining as well as their plasticity for endothelial and tri-lineage differentiation. Results. Type I collagenase digestion for 3 hours under shaking was significantly less effective in releasing progenitor cells than collagenase A digestion for 16 hours without shaking. Following filtration, cells in SVF and RC, of which the latter were tangled in collagen IV-containing matrix, expressed different markers of progenitor cells. Cells from SVF and RC could be expanded for 10 passages on coated Matrigel in MESCM and exhibited similar or better potential to differentiate into vascular endothelial cells, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes than SVF cells expanded on plastic in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Conclusions. Different progenitor cells can be isolated and expanded from orbital adipose tissues. Further characterization of their mesodermal or neuroectodermal origin might enhance clinical outcome when used as a source of autologous stem cells for ocular surface regeneration. PMID:24994870

  10. Infrared thermography in the detection of brown adipose tissue in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Christina; Jalapu, Sandya; Thuzar, Moe; Law, Phillip W; Jeavons, Susanne; Barclay, Johanna L.; Ho, Ken K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PET‐CT using 18F‐FDG is employed for detecting brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Alternative methods are needed because of the radiation and cost of PET‐CT imaging. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of infrared thermography (IRT) in detecting human BAT benchmarked to PET‐CT imaging. Seventeen individuals underwent a total of 29 PET‐CT scans, 12 of whom were studied twice, after 2 h of cold stimulation at 19°C, in parallel with measurement of skin temperatures overlying the supraclavicular (SCV) fossa and the lateral upper chest (control), before and after cold stimulation. Of the 29 scans, 20 were BAT positive after cold stimulation. The mean left SCV temperature tended to be higher in the BAT‐positive group before and during cooling. It was significantly higher (P =0.04) than the temperature of the control area, which fell significantly during cooling in the BAT‐positive (−1.2 ± 0.3°C, P =0.002) but not in the negative (−0.2 ± 0.4°C) group. The temperature difference (Δtemp) between left SCV and chest increased during cooling in the BAT‐positive (1.2 ± 0.2 to 2.0 ± 0.3°C, P <0.002) but not in the negative group (0.6 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1°C). A Δtemp of 0.9°C conferred a positive predictive value of 85% for SCV BAT, superior to that of SCV temperature. The findings were similar on the right. In conclusion, the Δtemp is significantly and consistently greater in BAT‐positive subjects. The Δtemp quantified by IRT after 2‐h cooling shows promise as a noninvasive convenient technique for studying SCV BAT function. PMID:25413316

  11. Resveratrol ameliorates the chemical and microbial induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in human placenta, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ha T; Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which complicates up to 20% of all pregnancies, is associated with low-grade maternal inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of this inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Resveratrol, a stilbene-type phytophenol, has been implicated to exert beneficial properties including potent anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects in non-pregnant humans and experimental animal models of GDM. However, studies showing the effects of resveratrol on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM in human tissues have been limited. In this study, human placenta, adipose (omental and subcutaneous) tissue and skeletal muscle were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the synthetic viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) to induce a GDM-like model. Treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β and pro-inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 in human placenta and omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Resveratrol also significantly restored the defects in the insulin signalling pathway and glucose uptake induced by TNF-α, LPS and poly(I:C). Collectively, these findings suggest that resveratrol reduces inflammation and insulin resistance induced by chemical and microbial products. Resveratrol may be a useful preventative therapeutic for pregnancies complicated by inflammation and insulin resistance, like GDM.

  12. Resveratrol ameliorates the chemical and microbial induction of inflammation and insulin resistance in human placenta, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ha T.; Liong, Stella; Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which complicates up to 20% of all pregnancies, is associated with low-grade maternal inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of this inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance. Resveratrol, a stilbene-type phytophenol, has been implicated to exert beneficial properties including potent anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects in non-pregnant humans and experimental animal models of GDM. However, studies showing the effects of resveratrol on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM in human tissues have been limited. In this study, human placenta, adipose (omental and subcutaneous) tissue and skeletal muscle were stimulated with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the synthetic viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) to induce a GDM-like model. Treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β and pro-inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 in human placenta and omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Resveratrol also significantly restored the defects in the insulin signalling pathway and glucose uptake induced by TNF-α, LPS and poly(I:C). Collectively, these findings suggest that resveratrol reduces inflammation and insulin resistance induced by chemical and microbial products. Resveratrol may be a useful preventative therapeutic for pregnancies complicated by inflammation and insulin resistance, like GDM. PMID:28278187

  13. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M. )

    1987-12-01

    Rates of synthesis, from ({sup 14}C)glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}day{sup {minus}1} on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased {approximately}80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis.

  14. Reduced oxygenation in human obese adipose tissue is associated with impaired insulin suppression of lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Smith, Steven R; Redman, Leanne M

    2010-08-01

    Adipose tissue in obese individuals is characterized by reduced capillary density and reduced oxygenation. Our objective was to test whether hypoxia is associated with reduced antilipolytic effect of insulin. Twenty-one lean and obese individuals participated in this cross-sectional study at a university-based clinical research center. In all subjects, in situ adipose tissue (AT) oxygenation [AT oxygen partial pressure (ATpO2)] was measured with a Clark electrode, insulin sensitivity as well as basal and insulin-suppressed lipolysis (continuous infusion of (2H5)glycerol) were measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and abdominal sc AT biopsies were collected to assess fat cell size (Coulter counting of osmium-fixed cells), capillary density (by staining of histological sections), and gene expression (by quantitative RT-PCR). In situ ATpO2 was evaluated. The ability of insulin to suppress lipolysis (percent) was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.43; P<0.05), ATpO2 (r=0.44; P<0.05), vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA (r=0.73; P<0.01), and capillary density (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results indicate that low capillary density and ATpO2 in AT are potentially upstream causes of AT dysfunction.

  15. Integrated control of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Marzetti, Emanuele; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Savera, Giulia; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Calvani, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has evolved as a unique thermogenic organ that allows placental mammals to withstand cold environmental temperatures through the dissipation of metabolic energy in the form of heat. Although traditionally believed to be lost shortly after birth, metabolically active BAT depots have recently been identified in a large percentage of human adults. Besides classical brown cells, a distinct type of thermogenic adipocytes named beige or brite (brown in white) cells are recruited in white adipose tissue depots under specific stimuli. Given the well-known energy-dissipating properties of thermogenic adipose tissue and its function of metabolic sink for glucose and lipids, this tissue has attracted considerable research interest as a possible target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. The complex network of interorgan connections that regulate BAT and brite tissue mass and function is a major hurdle for the development of therapeutic strategies against metabolic disorders. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the regulation of BAT and brite adipose tissue function. The possibility of targeting these tissues to treat obesity and other metabolic disorders is also discussed.

  16. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material

    PubMed Central

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth.; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  17. Integrated control of brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Emanuele; D’Angelo, Emanuela; Savera, Giulia; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Calvani, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has evolved as a unique thermogenic organ that allows placental mammals to withstand cold environmental temperatures through the dissipation of metabolic energy in the form of heat. Although traditionally believed to be lost shortly after birth, metabolically active BAT depots have recently been identified in a large percentage of human adults. Besides classical brown cells, a distinct type of thermogenic adipocytes named beige or brite (brown in white) cells are recruited in white adipose tissue depots under specific stimuli. Given the well-known energy-dissipating properties of thermogenic adipose tissue and its function of metabolic sink for glucose and lipids, this tissue has attracted considerable research interest as a possible target for treating obesity and metabolic disease. The complex network of interorgan connections that regulate BAT and brite tissue mass and function is a major hurdle for the development of therapeutic strategies against metabolic disorders. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the regulation of BAT and brite adipose tissue function. The possibility of targeting these tissues to treat obesity and other metabolic disorders is also discussed. PMID:27524955

  18. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  19. An analysis of DNA methylation in human adipose tissue reveals differential modification of obesity genes before and after gastric bypass and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Benton, Miles C; Johnstone, Alice; Eccles, David; Harmon, Brennan; Hayes, Mark T; Lea, Rod A; Griffiths, Lyn; Hoffman, Eric P; Stubbs, Richard S; Macartney-Coxson, Donia

    2015-01-22

    Environmental factors can influence obesity by epigenetic mechanisms. Adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, and gastric bypass provides a model to investigate obesity and weight loss in humans. Here, we investigate DNA methylation in adipose tissue from obese women before and after gastric bypass and significant weight loss. In total, 485,577 CpG sites were profiled in matched, before and after weight loss, subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue. A paired analysis revealed significant differential methylation in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. A greater proportion of CpGs are hypermethylated before weight loss and increased methylation is observed in the 3' untranslated region and gene bodies relative to promoter regions. Differential methylation is found within genes associated with obesity, epigenetic regulation and development, such as CETP, FOXP2, HDAC4, DNMT3B, KCNQ1 and HOX clusters. We identify robust correlations between changes in methylation and clinical trait, including associations between fasting glucose and HDAC4, SLC37A3 and DENND1C in subcutaneous adipose. Genes investigated with differential promoter methylation all show significantly different levels of mRNA before and after gastric bypass. This is the first study reporting global DNA methylation profiling of adipose tissue before and after gastric bypass and associated weight loss. It provides a strong basis for future work and offers additional evidence for the role of DNA methylation of adipose tissue in obesity.

  20. Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2000-07-01

    Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue.

  1. Materials for engineering vascularized adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Uriel, Shiri; Brey, Eric M

    2011-05-01

    Loss of adipose tissue can occur due to congenital and acquired lipoatrophies, trauma, tumor resection, and chronic disease. Clinically, it is difficult to regenerate or reconstruct adipose tissue. The extensive microvsacular network present in adipose, and the sensitivity of adipocytes to hypoxia, hinder the success of typical tissue transfer procedures. Materials that promote the formation of vascularized adipose tissue may offer alternatives to current clinical treatment options. A number of synthetic and natural biomaterials common in tissue engineering have been investigated as scaffolds for adipose regeneration. While these materials have shown some promise they do not account for the unique extracellular microenvironment of adipose. Adipose derived hydrogels more closely approximate the physical and chemical microenvironment of adipose tissue, promote preadipocyte differentiation and vessel assembly in vitro, and stimulate vascularized adipose formation in vivo. The combination of these materials with techniques that promote rapid and stable vascularization could lead to new techniques for engineering stable, vascularized adipose tissue for clinical application. In this review we discuss materials used for adipose tissue engineering and strategies for vascularization of these scaffolds. Materials that promote formation of vascularized adipose tissue have the potential to serve as alternatives or supplements to existing treatment options, for adipose defects or deficiencies resulting from chronic disease, lipoatrophies, trauma, and tumor resection. Copyright © 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Additive effects of microRNAs and transcription factors on CCL2 production in human white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kulyté, Agné; Belarbi, Yasmina; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Bambace, Clara; Arner, Erik; Daub, Carsten O; Hedén, Per; Rydén, Mikael; Mejhert, Niklas; Arner, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is present in insulin-resistant conditions. We recently proposed a network of microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) regulating the production of the proinflammatory chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) in adipose tissue. We presently extended and further validated this network and investigated if the circuits controlling CCL2 can interact in human adipocytes and macrophages. The updated subnetwork predicted that miR-126/-193b/-92a control CCL2 production by several TFs, including v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (avian) (ETS1), MYC-associated factor X (MAX), and specificity protein 12 (SP1). This was confirmed in human adipocytes by the observation that gene silencing of ETS1, MAX, or SP1 attenuated CCL2 production. Combined gene silencing of ETS1 and MAX resulted in an additive reduction in CCL2 production. Moreover, overexpression of miR-126/-193b/-92a in different pairwise combinations reduced CCL2 secretion more efficiently than either miRNA alone. However, although effects on CCL2 secretion by co-overexpression of miR-92a/-193b and miR-92a/-126 were additive in adipocytes, the combination of miR-126/-193b was primarily additive in macrophages. Signals for miR-92a and -193b converged on the nuclear factor-κB pathway. In conclusion, TF and miRNA-mediated regulation of CCL2 production is additive and partly relayed by cell-specific networks in human adipose tissue that may be important for the development of insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes.

  3. Characterisation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human orbital adipose tissue: a comparison with subcutaneous and omental fat

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska, Iwona J; Durrani, Omar M; Abbott, Joseph; Onyimba, Claire U; Khosla, Pamela; Moosavi, Areeb H; Reuser, Tristan T Q; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rauz, Saaeha

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a profound effect on adipose biology increasing tissue mass causing central obesity. The pre-receptor regulation of GCs by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that activates cortisol from cortisone has been postulated as a fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome mediating adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the omental (OM) depot. Orbital adipose tissue (OF) is the site of intense inflammation and tissue remodelling in several orbital inflammatory disease states. In this study, we describe features of the GC metabolic pathways in normal human OF depot and compare it with subcutaneous (SC) and OM depots. Using an automated histological characterisation technique, OF adipocytes were found to be significantly smaller (parameters: area, maximum diameter and perimeter) than OM and SC adipocytes (P<0·001). Although immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated resident CD68+ cells in all three whole tissue adipose depots, OF CD68 mRNA and protein expression exceeded that of OM and SC (mRNA, P<0·05; protein, P<0·001). In addition, there was higher expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α mRNA in the OF whole tissue depot (P<0·05). Conversely, 11β-HSD1 mRNA together with the markers of late adipocyte differentiation (FABP4 and G3PDH) were significantly lower in OF. Primary cultures of OF preadipocytes demonstrated predominant 11β-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity with minimal dehydrogenase activity. Orbital adipocytes are smaller, less differentiated, and express low levels of 11β-HSD1 but abundant GRα compared with SC and OM. OF harbours a large CD68+ population. These characteristics define an orbital microenvironment that has the potential to respond to sight-threatening orbital inflammatory disease. PMID:17283228

  4. Human adipose tissue possesses a unique population of pluripotent stem cells with nontumorigenic and low telomerase activities: potential implications in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Fumitaka; Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Bagheri, Mozhdeh; Heneidi, Saleh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Aiba, Setsuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that a small population of pluripotent stem cells, termed adipose multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (adipose-Muse) cells, exist in adult human adipose tissue and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs). They can be identified as cells positive for both MSC markers (CD105 and CD90) and human pluripotent stem cell marker SSEA-3. They intrinsically retain lineage plasticity and the ability to self-renew. They spontaneously generate cells representative of all three germ layers from a single cell and successfully differentiate into targeted cells by cytokine induction. Cells other than adipose-Muse cells exist in adipose-MSCs, however, do not exhibit these properties and are unable to cross the boundaries from mesodermal to ectodermal or endodermal lineages even under cytokine inductions. Importantly, adipose-Muse cells demonstrate low telomerase activity and transplants do not promote teratogenesis in vivo. When compared with bone marrow (BM)- and dermal-Muse cells, adipose-Muse cells have the tendency to exhibit higher expression in mesodermal lineage markers, while BM- and dermal-Muse cells were generally higher in those of ectodermal and endodermal lineages. Adipose-Muse cells distinguish themselves as both easily obtainable and versatile in their capacity for differentiation, while low telomerase activity and lack of teratoma formation make these cells a practical cell source for potential stem cell therapies. Further, they will promote the effectiveness of currently performed adipose-MSC transplantation, particularly for ectodermal and endodermal tissues where transplanted cells need to differentiate across the lineage from mesodermal to ectodermal or endodermal in order to replenish lost cells for tissue repair.

  5. Age-related decrease in cold-activated brown adipose tissue and accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Matsushita, Mami; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Miyagawa, Masao; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Saito, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT) in adult humans. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between BAT and adiposity in healthy adult humans, particularly to test the idea that decreased BAT activity may be associated with body fat accumulation with age. One hundred and sixty-two healthy volunteers aged 20-73 years (103 males and 59 females) underwent FDG-PET/CT after 2-h cold exposure at 19 °C with light clothing. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 41% of the subjects (BAT-positive). Compared with the BAT-negative group, the BAT-positive group was younger (P < 0.01) and showed a lower BMI (P < 0.01), body fat content (P < 0.01), and abdominal fat (P < 0.01). The incidence of cold-activated BAT decreased with age (P < 0.01), being more than 50% in the twenties, but less than 10% in the fifties and sixties. The adiposity-related parameters showed some sex differences, but increased with age in the BAT-negative group (P < 0.01), while they remained unchanged from the twenties to forties in the BAT-positive group, in both sexes. These results suggest that decreased BAT activity may be associated with accumulation of body fat with age.

  6. Time trend of organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Veracruz, Mexico: 1988-1997 survey.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J; Infanzón, R

    1998-10-08

    The monitoring study of 287 human adipose tissue samples collected from 1988 to 1997 was used to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained indicate DDT as dominant. The fluctuation of DDT levels during the study period reveal a descent tendency and are closely related to the pp'-DDE content. The results, classified according to the origin of donors, indicate a higher contamination of the suburban zone. This difference was caused by diminished use of DDT and its substitution by Malathion and pyrethroids.

  7. Human brown adipose tissue-function and therapeutic potential in metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Padmanabh Shrikant; Dhillo, Waljit S; Salem, Victoria

    2017-08-08

    There has been a resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) over the last decade. Key to this has been our ability to accurately image it, which has improved significantly. The role of BAT in regulating energy expenditure is important, and its pharmacological manipulation may hold therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. There is ample evidence of BAT activation by cold exposure, and pharmacological utilisation of similar pathways, using B3 receptor agonists holds promise since the development of selective agonists with limited cross-reactivity has rekindled interest. Endogenous agents like irisin, FGF21 and certain gut hormones may hold value as BAT activators. Other agents such as steroid hormones may also hold therapeutic potential, although short-term worsening of metabolic profile remains problematic. Clearly, pharmacological manipulation of BAT is important, and thanks to recent advances we may one day be able to add such agents to our anti-obesity arsenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin differentially modulates the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from lean and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Murdolo, G; Kempf, K; Hammarstedt, A; Herder, C; Smith, U; Jansson, P-A

    2007-09-01

    Human obesity has been associated with a dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue (AT) endocannabinoid system (ES). The aim of this study was to elucidate the acute in vivo effects of insulin on gene expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) and type 2 (CB-2) receptors, as well as of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the sc abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT). Nine lean (L) and 9 obese (OB), but otherwise healthy males were studied in the fasting state and during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU/m2 * min(-1)). SCAAT biopsies were obtained at baseline and after 270 min of i.v. maintained hyperinsulinemia. The basal SCAAT gene expression pattern revealed an upregulation of the FAAH in the OB (p=0.03 vs L), whereas similar CB-1 and CB-2 mRNA levels were seen. Following hyperinsulinemia, the FAAH mRNA levels significantly increased approximately 2-fold in the L (p=0.01 vs baseline) but not in the OB. In contrast, insulin failed to significantly change both the adipose CB-1 and CB-2 gene expression. Finally, the FAAH gene expression positively correlated with the fasting serum insulin concentration (r 0.66; p=0.01), whereas an inverse association with the whole-body glucose disposal (r -0.58; p<0.05) was seen. Taken together, these first time observations demonstrate that the ES-related genes in the SCAAT differentially respond to hyperinsulinemia in lean/insulin-sensitive and in obese/insulin-resistant individuals. We suggest that insulin may play a key role in the obesity-linked dysregulation of the adipose ES at the gene level.

  9. Human adipose tissue derived pericytes increase life span in Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice.

    PubMed

    Valadares, M C; Gomes, J P; Castello, G; Assoni, A; Pellati, M; Bueno, C; Corselli, M; Silva, H; Bartolini, P; Vainzof, M; Margarido, P F; Baracat, E; Péault, B; Zatz, M

    2014-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is still an untreatable lethal X-linked disorder, which affects 1 in 3500 male births. It is caused by the absence of muscle dystrophin due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The potential regenerative capacity as well as immune privileged properties of mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has been under investigation for many years in an attempt to treat DMD. One of the questions to be addressed is whether stem cells from distinct sources have comparable clinical effects when injected in murine or canine muscular dystrophy animal models. Many studies comparing different stem cells from various sources were reported but these cells were obtained from different donors and thus with different genetic backgrounds. Here we investigated whether human pericytes obtained from 4 different tissues (muscle, adipose tissue, fallopian tube and endometrium) from the same donor have a similar clinical impact when injected in double mutant Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice, a clinically relevant model for DMD. After a weekly regimen of intraperitoneal injections of 10(6) cells per 8 weeks we evaluated the motor ability as well as the life span of the treated mice as compared to controls. Our experiment showed that only adipose tissue derived pericytes are able to increase significantly (39 days on average) the life span of affected mice. Microarray analysis showed an inhibition of the interferon pathway by adipose derived pericytes. Our results suggest that the clinical benefit associated with intraperitoneal injections of these adult stem cells is related to immune modulation rather than tissue regeneration.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is expressed in neonatal and pheochromocytoma-induced adult human brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hondares, Elayne; Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Flachs, Pavel; Frontini, Andrea; Cereijo, Ruben; Goday, Alberto; Perugini, Jessica; Kopecky, Pavel; Giralt, Marta; Cinti, Saverio; Kopecky, Jan; Villarroya, Francesc

    2014-03-01

    In rodents, brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues are targets and expression sites for fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, human WAT expresses negligible levels of FGF21. We examined FGF21 expression in human BAT samples, including the induced BAT found in adult patients with pheochromocytoma, and interscapular and visceral BAT from newborns. The expression of FGF21 and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1, a brown adipocyte marker), was determined by quantitative real-time-PCR and immunoblotting. The transcript levels of marker genes for developmentally-programmed BAT (zinc-finger-protein of the cerebellum-1, ZIC1) and inducible-BAT (cluster of differentiation-137, CD137) were also determined. FGF21 and UCP1 are significantly expressed in visceral adipose tissue from pheochromocytoma patients, but not in visceral fat from healthy individuals. In neonates, FGF21 and UCP1 are both expressed in visceral and interscapular fat, and their expression levels show a significant positive correlation. Marker gene expression profiles suggest that inducible BAT is present in visceral fat from pheochromocytoma patients and neonates, whereas developmentally-programmed BAT is present in neonatal interscapular fat. Human BAT, but not WAT, expresses FGF21. The expression of FGF21 is especially high in inducible, also called beige/brite, neonatal BAT, but it is also found in the interscapular, developmentally-programmed, BAT of neonates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue harvested by water jet-assisted liposuction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Juliane; Salamon, Achim; Herzmann, Nicole; Adam, Stefanie; Kleine, Hans-Dieter; Matthiesen, Inge; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Peters, Kirsten

    2015-11-01

    In recent years the therapeutic application of extracted adipose tissue for autologous fat grafting and the application of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC) isolated thereof has progressed. Water-jet assisted liposuction (WAL) is 1 procedure for harvesting adipose tissue and provides a favorable aesthetic outcome combined with high tissue protection. Tissue aspirated by WAL has been successfully applied in grafting procedures. The aims of this study were to confirm the tissue viability and to understand the abundance and mesenchymal differentiation capacity of stem cells within the tissue. We analyzed tissue integrity of WAL tissue particles via fluorescence microscopy. The adMSC content was determined by isolating the cells from the tissue. The mesenchymal differentiation capacity was confirmed with cytochemical staining methods. The stromal vascular fraction of WAL tissue showed high viability and contained an average of 2.6 × 105 CD34-positive cells per milliliter of tissue. Thus WAL tissue contains a high number of stem cells. Furthermore adMSC isolated from WAL tissue showed typical mesenchymal differentiation potential. WAL of adipose tissue is well suited for autologous fat grafting because it retains tissue viability. Furthermore it is a valid source for the subsequent isolation of adMSC with multipotent differentiation potential. 3 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparison of in vivo effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation and INSIG-1/2 in rat liver and human and rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2013-06-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. Comparison of In Vivo Effects of Insulin on SREBP-1c Activation and INSIG-1/2 in Rat Liver and Human and Rat Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2012-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. PMID:23913732

  14. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation.

  15. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  16. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  17. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier-1, Nuclear Receptor Coreceptor, Histone Deacetylase 3, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Human Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bodles-Brakhop, Angela M.; Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Zhu, Beibei; Starnes, Catherine P.; McGehee, Robert E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.; Kern, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), the histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)–nuclear receptor coreceptor (NCoR) complex (a corepressor of transcription used by PPARγ), and small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) (a posttranslational modifier of PPARγ) in human adipose tissue and both adipocyte and macrophage cell lines. The objective was to determine whether there were alterations in the human adipose tissue gene expression levels of PPARγ, HDAC3, NCoR, and SUMO-1 associated either with obesity or with treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects with insulin-sensitizing medications. Methods We obtained subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from 86 subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (SI). Additionally, adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from a randomized subgroup of IGT subjects before and after 10 weeks of treatment with either pioglitazone or metformin. Results The adipose mRNA levels of PPARγ, NCoR, HDAC3, and SUMO-1 correlated strongly with each other (P<0.0001); however, SUMO-1, NCoR, and HDAC3 gene expression were not significantly associated with BMI or SI. Pioglitazone increased SUMO-1 expression by 23% (P<0.002) in adipose tissue and an adipocyte cell line (P<0.05), but not in macrophages. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of SUMO-1 decreased PPARγ, HDAC3, and NCoR in THP-1 cells and increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induction in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conclusions These results suggest that the coordinate regulation of SUMO-1, PPARγ1/2, HDAC3, and NCoR may be more tightly controlled in macrophages than in adipocytes in human adipose and that these modulators of PPARγ activity may be particularly important in the negative regulation of macrophage-mediated adipose inflammation by pioglitazone. PMID:22651256

  19. Adipose tissue immunity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-10-02

    Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching toward M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumor growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumor cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumor microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoral drugs.

  20. Adipose tissue immunity and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Frühbeck, Gema

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching toward M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumor growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumor cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumor microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoral drugs. PMID:24106481

  1. Preparation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications of Human Decellularized Adipose Tissue Extracellular Matrix (hDAM): A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Derek A.; Borad, Vedant; Amezcua, Eduardo; Wirth, Garrett A.; Evans, Gregory R.D.; Widgerow, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Fat grafting is commonly employed by plastic and reconstructive surgeons to address contour abnormalities and soft-tissue defects; however, because retention rates and thus volume filling effects are unpredictable, there is a search for new and innovative approaches. Initial studies on the use of human decellularized adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) show promise for its use not only in tissue engineering, but also in fat grafting. In this review, we examine and analyze the literature for the preparation, characterization, and use of hDAM and its derivatives in tissue engineering and plastic surgery applications. All studies reviewed involve physical, chemical, and/or biological treatment stages for the preparation of hDAM; however a distinction should be made between detergent and nondetergent-based processing, the latter of which appears to preserve the native integrity of the hDAM while most-efficiently achieving complete decellularization. Methods of hDAM characterization vary among groups and included simple and immunohistochemical staining, biochemical assays, 3-dimensional (3D) imaging, and mechano-stress testing, all of which are necessary to achieve a comprehensive description of this novel tissue. Finally, we examine the various preclinical models utilized to optimize hDAM performance, which primarily include the addition of adipose-derived stem cells or cross-linking agents. Overall, hDAM appears to be a promising adjunct in fat-grafting applications or even possibly as a stand-alone soft-tissue filler with off-the-shelf potential for commercial applications. PMID:26333991

  2. Preparation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications of Human Decellularized Adipose Tissue Extracellular Matrix (hDAM): A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Banyard, Derek A; Borad, Vedant; Amezcua, Eduardo; Wirth, Garrett A; Evans, Gregory R D; Widgerow, Alan D

    2016-03-01

    Fat grafting is commonly employed by plastic and reconstructive surgeons to address contour abnormalities and soft-tissue defects; however, because retention rates and thus volume filling effects are unpredictable, there is a search for new and innovative approaches. Initial studies on the use of human decellularized adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) show promise for its use not only in tissue engineering, but also in fat grafting. In this review, we examine and analyze the literature for the preparation, characterization, and use of hDAM and its derivatives in tissue engineering and plastic surgery applications. All studies reviewed involve physical, chemical, and/or biological treatment stages for the preparation of hDAM; however a distinction should be made between detergent and nondetergent-based processing, the latter of which appears to preserve the native integrity of the hDAM while most-efficiently achieving complete decellularization. Methods of hDAM characterization vary among groups and included simple and immunohistochemical staining, biochemical assays, 3-dimensional (3D) imaging, and mechano-stress testing, all of which are necessary to achieve a comprehensive description of this novel tissue. Finally, we examine the various preclinical models utilized to optimize hDAM performance, which primarily include the addition of adipose-derived stem cells or cross-linking agents. Overall, hDAM appears to be a promising adjunct in fat-grafting applications or even possibly as a stand-alone soft-tissue filler with off-the-shelf potential for commercial applications. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Clinically applicable human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells delivering therapeutic genes to brainstem gliomas.

    PubMed

    Choi, S A; Lee, Y E; Kwak, P A; Lee, J Y; Kim, S S; Lee, S J; Phi, J H; Wang, K-C; Song, J; Song, S H; Joo, K M; Kim, S-K

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric brainstem glioma is an incurable malignancy because of its inoperability. As a result of their extensive tropism toward cancer and the possibility of autologous transplantation, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSC) are attractive vehicles to deliver therapeutic genes to brainstem gliomas. In this study, in a good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility, we established clinically applicable hAT-MSCs expressing therapeutic genes and investigated their therapeutic efficacy against brainstem glioma in mice. For feasible clinical applications, (1) primary hAT-MSCs were cultured from human subcutaneous fat to make autologous transplantation possible, (2) hAT-MSCs were genetically engineered to express carboxyl esterase (CE) and (3) a secreted form of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) expression vector for synergistic effects was delivered by a gene transfer technology that did not result in genomic integration of the vector. (4) Human CE and sTRAIL sequences were utilized to avoid immunological side effects. The hAT-MSCs expressing CE±sTRAIL showed significant therapeutic effects against brainstem gliomas in vitro and in vivo. However, the simultaneous expression of CE and sTRAIL had no synergistic effects in vivo. The results indicate that non-viral transient single sTRAIL gene transfer to autologous hAT-MSCs is a clinically applicable stem cell-based gene therapy for brainstem gliomas in terms of therapeutic effects and safety.

  4. Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Peter; Kaiserova, Katarina; Altanerova, Veronika; Altaner, Cestmir

    2014-09-01

    Our aims were to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from various tissues by pluripotent stem cells gene expression profile. Four strains of dental pulp stem cells (DP-MSCs) were isolated from dental pulp tissue fragments adhered to plastic tissue culture dishes. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord tissue (UBC-MSCs) were isolated with the same technique. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated from nucleated cells of bone marrow obtained by density gradient centrifugation. Human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) were isolated by collagenase digestion. All kinds of MSCs used in this study were cultivated in low glucose DMEM containing 5% or human platelet extract. All stem cell manipulation was performed in GMP conditions. Expression of 15 pluripotent stem cells genes on the level of proteins was measured by Proteome Profiler Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Array. Induction of MSCs to in vitro differentiation to adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondroblasts was achieved by cultivation of cells in appropriate differentiation medium. All MSCs tested were phenotypically similar and of fibroblastoid morphology. DP-MSCs and UBC-MSCs were more proliferative than bone marrow BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs. Protein expression of 15 genes typical for pluripotent stem cells distinguished them into two groups. While the gene expression profiles of BM-MSC, AT-MSCs and UBC-MSCs were similar, DP-MSCS differed in relative gene expression on the level of their products in several genes. Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells cultivated in vitro under the same conditions as MSCs from bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord tissue can be distinguished by pluripotent stem cell gene expression profile.

  5. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to the second and third group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  6. Therapeutic applications of human adipose-derived stromal cells for soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zielins, Elizabeth R; Luan, Anna; Brett, Elizabeth A; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-04-01

    Adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a multipotent cell population derived from the stromal vascular fraction of lipoaspirate. Given their relatively broad differentiation potential and paracrine capabilities, ASCs represent a readily accessible, endogenous resource for novel reconstructive strategies. In particular, augmentation of autologous fat grafts with ASCs has already been employed clinically for restoration of soft tissue defects. While fat grafting alone remains highly unpredictable, enrichment of fat with supplemental ASCs, also known as cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL), has been shown to significantly enhance volume retention. How addition of these cells to fat grafts results in improved outcomes, however, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the safety of CAL in the setting of prior malignancy and post-radiation wound beds has yet to be fully determined, an important consideration for its use in cancer reconstruction. Thus, further studies to determine the how and why behind the efficacy of CAL are necessary before it can be widely adopted as a safe and reliable surgical technique.

  7. Hot heads & cool bodies: The conundrums of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity research.

    PubMed

    Bahler, Lonneke; Holleman, Frits; Booij, Jan; Hoekstra, Joost B; Verberne, Hein J

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue is able to increase energy expenditure by converting glucose and fatty acids into heat. Therefore, BAT is able to increase energy expenditure and could thereby facilitate weight loss or at least weight maintenance. Since cold is a strong activator of BAT, most prospective research is performed during cold to activate BAT. In current research, there are roughly two methods of cooling. Cooling by lowering ambient air temperature, which uses a fixed temperature for all subjects and personalized cooling, which uses cooling blankets or vests with temperatures that can be adjusted to the individual set point of shivering. These methods might trigger mechanistically different cold responses and hence result in a different BAT activation. This hypothesis is underlined by two studies with the same research question (difference in BAT activity between Caucasians and South Asians) one study found no differences in BAT activity whereas the other did found differences in BAT activity. Since most characteristics (e.g. age, BMI) were similar in the two studies, the best explanation for the differences in outcomes is the use of different cooling protocols. One of the reasons for differences in outcomes might be the sensory input from the facial skin, which might be important for the activation of BAT. In this review we will elaborate on the differences between the two cooling protocols used to activate BAT. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive weight loss reveals distinct gene expression changes in human subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Heiker, John T.; Gärtner, Daniel; Björnson, Elias; Schön, Michael R.; Flehmig, Gesine; Klöting, Nora; Krohn, Knut; Fasshauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Nielsen, Jens; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss has been shown to significantly improve Adipose tissue (AT) function, however changes in AT gene expression profiles particularly in visceral AT (VAT) have not been systematically studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that extensive weight loss in response to bariatric surgery (BS) causes AT gene expression changes, which may affect energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and secretory function of AT. We assessed gene expression changes by whole genome expression chips in AT samples obtained from six morbidly obese individuals, who underwent a two step BS strategy with sleeve gastrectomy as initial and a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as second step surgery after 12 ± 2 months. Global gene expression differences in VAT and subcutaneous (S)AT were analyzed through the use of genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for adipocytes. Significantly altered gene expressions were PCR-validated in 16 individuals, which also underwent a two-step surgery intervention. We found increased expression of cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector a (CIDEA), involved in formation of lipid droplets in both fat depots in response to significant weight loss. We observed that expression of the genes associated with metabolic reactions involved in NAD+, glutathione and branched chain amino acid metabolism are significantly increased in AT depots after surgery-induced weight loss. PMID:26434764

  9. Impact of fat mass and distribution on lipid turnover in human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Kirsty L.; Bernard, Samuel; Näslund, Erik; Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Appelsved, Lena; Fu, Keng-Yeh; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik; Thorell, Anders; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Differences in white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid turnover between the visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots may cause metabolic complications in obesity. Here we compare triglyceride age and, thereby, triglyceride turnover in vWAT and sWAT biopsies from 346 individuals and find that subcutaneous triglyceride age and storage capacity are increased in overweight or obese individuals. Visceral triglyceride age is only increased in excessively obese individuals and associated with a lower lipid removal capacity. Thus, although triglyceride storage capacity in sWAT is higher than in vWAT, the former plateaus at substantially lower levels of excess WAT mass than vWAT. In individuals with central or visceral obesity, lipid turnover is selectively increased in vWAT. Obese individuals classified as ‘metabolically unhealthy' (according to ATPIII criteria) who have small subcutaneous adipocytes exhibit reduced triglyceride turnover. We conclude that excess WAT results in depot-specific differences in lipid turnover and increased turnover in vWAT and/or decreased turnover in sWAT may result in metabolic complications of overweight or obesity. PMID:28534500

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in vitro inhibits adipogenesis in human omental but not subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rice, S P L; Zhang, L; Grennan-Jones, F; Agarwal, N; Lewis, M D; Rees, D A; Ludgate, M

    2010-05-14

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor sex steroid, circulates in sulphated form (DHEAS). Serum DHEAS concentrations are inversely correlated with metabolic syndrome components and in vivo/in vitro studies suggest a role in modulating adipose mass. To investigate further, we assessed the in vitro biological effect of DHEA in white (3T3-L1) and brown (PAZ6) preadipocyte cell lines and human primary preadipocytes. DHEA (from 10(-8)M) caused concentration-dependent proliferation inhibition of 3T3-L1 and PAZ6 preadipocytes. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated unaltered apoptosis but indicated blockade at G1/S or G2/M in 3T3-L1 and PAZ6, respectively. Preadipocyte cell-line adipogenesis was not affected. In human primary subcutaneous and omental preadipocytes, DHEA significantly inhibited proliferation from 10(-8)M. DHEA 10(-7)M had opposing effects on adipogenesis in the two fat depots. Subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation was unaffected or increased whereas omental preadipocytes showed significantly reduced adipogenesis. We conclude that DHEA exerts fat depot-specific differences which modulate body composition by limiting omental fat production.

  11. Calciotropic hormones and lipolysis of human adipose tissue: role of extracellular calcium as conditioning but not regulating factor.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, R; Jobst, W; Minne, H; Faulhaber, J D

    1980-01-01

    The influences of different calcium concentrations (0, 0.924 and 2.772 mMol/l) on lipolysis of in vitro incubated human adipose tissue slices or adipocytes were studied under the conditions of stimulation with isoproterenol and parathyroid hormone preparations or inhibition by insulin. Extractive bovine PTH (as well as synthetic PTH 1--34) stimulated glycerol release in a biphasic pattern similarly to isoproterenol; PTH was about half as potent as isoproterenol. The optimal conditions for lipolysis were observed using a calcium concentration of 0.924 mMol/l, whereas lipolysis was distinctly impaired at concentrations of 0 or 2.772 mMol/l; this was true for basal as well as isoproterenol- and PTH stimulated lipolysis or the inhibitory effect of insulin. In contrast to partially purified extractive calcitonin, pure synthetic calcitonin did not inhibit lipolysis. Isoproterenol- and PTH-administrations led to cAMP accumulation in the adipose tissue, this process was also diminished at the non-optimal calcium concentrations. The results suggest a conditioning, but not a regulating significance of extracellular calcium for lipolysis, whereas the importance of the lipolytic potency of PTH remains to be elucidated.

  12. Relative shrinkage of adipocytes by paraffin in proportion to plastic embedding in human adipose tissue before and after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; van Dijk, Paul; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Adipocyte size is a major modulator of endocrine functioning of adipose tissue and methods allowing accurate determination of adipocyte size are important to study energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relative shrinkage of adipocytes before and after weight loss by comparing adipose tissue from the same subjects embedded in paraffin and plastic. 18 healthy subjects (5 males and 13 females) aged 20-50 y with a BMI of 28-38 kg/m² followed a very low energy diet for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue biopsies were taken prior to and after weight loss and were processed for paraffin and plastic sections. Parameters of adipocyte size were determined with computer image analysis. Mean adipocyte size was smaller in paraffin compared to plastic embedded tissue both before (66 ± 4 vs. 103 ± 5 μm, P < 0.001) as after weight loss (62 ± 4 vs. 91 ± 5 μm, P < 0.001). Relative shrinkage of adipocytes in paraffin embedded tissue in proportion to plastic embedded tissue was not significantly different before and after weight loss (73 and 69%, respectively). Shrinkage due to the type of embedding of the adipose tissue can be ignored when comparing before and after weight loss. Plastic embedding of adipose tissue provides more accurate and sensitive results.

  13. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Gil; Sá, Carla; Fernandes, Virgínia C.; Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia; Faria, Ana; and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  14. PHBV and predifferentiated human adipose-derived stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiong; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Yunqiang; Lin, Yunfeng; Hu, Ping; Ye, Chuan

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether in vitro chondrogenic differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) can maintain the chondrogenic phenotype in (3-hydroxybutrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) scaffolds and whether differentiated hASCs/PHBV construct can produce neocartilage in a heterotopic animal model. hASCs were cultured with or without chondrogenic media in vitro and then seeded on PHBV foams. Differentiated cell/PHBV constructs were subcutaneously implanted in nude mice for 8 or 16 weeks; nondifferentiated cell/PHBV constructs were implanted in the control group. The results in the control group showed no cartilage formation and the disappearance of the scaffold at 8 weeks. Conversely, all differentiated hASCs/PHBV implants kept their original shape throughout 16 weeks. These implants at 16 weeks had stronger chondrocytes-specific histochemical staining than those at 8 weeks, with GAG, total collagen, and compressive moduli increased with implantation time. Cartilage lacunae were observed in all retrieved implants at 16 weeks. The chondrocytes-specific genes were detected by RT-PCR at 16 weeks. The remnants of PHBV were observed in the implants throughout 16 weeks. This study demonstrates that chondrogenic predifferentiated hASCs have the ability to maintain a chondrogenic phenotype in PHBV and that cell/PHBV constructs can produce neocartilage in a heterotopic site, but the degradation rates of PHBV in different environments needs more investigation.

  15. Human mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue deposit laminin and promote regeneration of injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Karla; Nascimento, Marcos Assis; Gonçalves, Juliana Pena; Cruz, Aline Silva; Lopes, Daiana Vieira; Curzio, Bianca; Bonamino, Martin; de Menezes, João Ricardo Lacerda; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel Doria; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy to pursue the unmet need for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although several studies have shown that adult mesenchymal cells contribute to improve the outcomes of SCI, a description of the pro-regenerative events triggered by these cells is still lacking. Here we investigated the regenerative properties of human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (hADSCs) in a rat model of spinal cord compression. Cells were delivered directly into the spinal parenchyma immediately after injury. Human ADSCs promoted functional recovery, tissue preservation, and axonal regeneration. Analysis of the cord tissue showed an abundant deposition of laminin of human origin at the lesion site and spinal midline; the appearance of cell clusters composed of neural precursors in the areas of laminin deposition, and the appearance of blood vessels with separated basement membranes along the spinal axis. These effects were also observed after injection of hADSCs into non-injured spinal cord. Considering that laminin is a well-known inducer of axonal growth, as well a component of the extracellular matrix associated to neural progenitors, we propose that it can be the paracrine factor mediating the pro-regenerative effects of hADSCs in spinal cord injury.

  16. Human Mesenchymal Cells from Adipose Tissue Deposit Laminin and Promote Regeneration of Injured Spinal Cord in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Karla; Nascimento, Marcos Assis; Gonçalves, Juliana Pena; Cruz, Aline Silva; Lopes, Daiana Vieira; Curzio, Bianca; Bonamino, Martin; de Menezes, João Ricardo Lacerda; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel Doria; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy to pursue the unmet need for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although several studies have shown that adult mesenchymal cells contribute to improve the outcomes of SCI, a descripton of the pro-regenerative events triggered by these cells is still lacking. Here we investigated the regenerative properties of human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (hADSCs) in a rat model of spinal cord compression. Cells were delivered directly into the spinal parenchyma immediately after injury. Human ADSCs promoted functional recovery, tissue preservation, and axonal regeneration. Analysis of the cord tissue showed an abundant deposition of laminin of human origin at the lesion site and spinal midline; the appearance of cell clusters composed of neural precursors in the areas of laminin deposition, and the appearance of blood vessels with separated basement membranes along the spinal axis. These effects were also observed after injection of hADSCs into non-injured spinal cord. Considering that laminin is a well-known inducer of axonal growth, as well a component of the extracellular matrix associated to neural progenitors, we propose that it can be the paracrine factor mediating the pro-regenerative effects of hADSCs in spinal cord injury. PMID:24830794

  17. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue and Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Alicja; Kałucka, Magdalena; Kokoszka-Mikołaj, Edyta; Wilczok, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Induced osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may provide an important tool for bone injuries treatment. Human umbilical cord and adipose tissue are routinely discarded as clinical waste and may be used as noncontroversial MSCs sources. It still remains to be verified which source of MSCs is the most suitable for bone regeneration. The aim of this research was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord (WJ-MSCs) differentiated under the same conditions. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was detected and quantified by alizarin red S (ARS) staining for calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and osteocalcin (OC) secretion measurements. Under osteogenic conditions, after 21 days of differentiation, the measured ALP activity and calcium deposition were significantly higher in the AT-MSCs than in the WJ-MSCs, while the OPG and OC secretion were higher in the WJ-MSCs vs. AT-MSCs. Low concentrations of OPG and high levels of OC in AT-MSCs and WJ-MSCs, prove that these cells reached an advanced stage of the osteogenic differentiation. The levels of OC secreted by AT-MSCs were lower than by WJ-MSCs. Both cell types, AT-MSCs and WJ-MSCs possess a potential to differentiate towards the osteogenic lineage. The observed differences in the levels of osteogenic markers suggest that after 21-days of osteogenic differentiation, the AT-MSCs might have reached a more advanced stage of differentiation than WJ-MSCs.

  18. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: β3-adrenoreceptors as a potential target for the treatment of obesity in humans.

    PubMed

    Mund, Ross A; Frishman, William H

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown in rodents and newborn babies that brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in the generation of heat for maintenance of core body temperature. BAT is responsible for the process of adaptive thermogenesis, which involves heat generation in response to a drop in the environment's temperature or to high energy intake from diet. In rodents, the process of BAT thermogenesis is controlled by activation of the β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), which has a protective effect against development of obesity. Previously, it was generally thought that in humans, BAT dissipated after childhood and adopted an insignificant role in human physiology. However, over the past few years, it has been discovered that adult humans still possess fully functional BAT. Through imaging with F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans, it has been determined that not only does human BAT exist, but also it is still responsive to stimuli, such as a drop in the environment's temperature. Although some evidence exists for β3-AR control of BAT thermogenesis in humans, this fact remains unclear due to a lack of highly selective β3-AR agonists and antagonists which have an effect on the human body. With further investigation on thermogenesis receptor control and effect of BAT metabolism on whole body energy expenditure, BAT may serve as a potential target for the treatment and prevention of obesity and other metabolic conditions in humans.

  19. Sex differences in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Ros, Purificación; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and its associated secondary complications are active areas of investigation in search of effective treatments. As a result of this intensified research numerous differences between males and females at all levels of metabolic control have come to the forefront. These differences include not only the amount and distribution of adipose tissue, but also differences in its metabolic capacity and functions between the sexes. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of these dimorphisms and emphasize the fact that these differences between males and females must be taken into consideration in hopes of obtaining successful treatments for both sexes. PMID:23991358

  20. A specific l-tri-iodothyronine-binding protein in the cytosol fraction of human breast adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Marie Luise; Rao, Govind S.

    1982-01-01

    1. Binding of l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine to the cytosol fraction of normal human female breast adipose tissue was investigated by the charcoal adsorption method. Equilibrium of binding was reached after 120s at 25°C. 2. The l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine-binding component is a protein; this was confirmed by experiments in which binding was totally lost after heating the cytosol fraction for 10min at 100°C and in which binding was diminished after treatment with proteolytic enzymes and with thiol-group-blocking reagents. The binding protein was stable at −38°C for several months. 3. It displayed saturability, high affinity (apparent Kd 3.28nm) and a single class of binding sites. 4. High specificity for l-tri-iodothyronine and l-3,5-di-iodo-3′-isopropylthyronine was observed, whereas other iodothyronines were less effective in displacing l-tri-[125I]-iodothyronine from its binding site. 5. The binding of the hormone by the cytosol fraction did not show a pH optimum. 6. When cytosol fractions of adipose tissue from different females were subjected to radioimmunoassay for the determination of thyroxine-binding globulin a value of 0.304±0.11μg/mg of cytosol protein (mean±s.d., n=4) was obtained; the mean concentration in plasma was 0.309±0.07μg/mg of plasma protein (mean±s.d., n=3). 7. The Ka value of 6.3×108m−1 of l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine for binding to plasma, the similar thermalinactivation profiles of binding and the reactivity to thiol-group-blocking reagents were some properties common between the binding components from the cytosol fraction and plasma. 8. These results suggest that the cytosol fraction of human female breast adipose tissue contains thyroxine-binding globulin; the protein that binds l-tri-[125I]iodothyronine with high affinity and specificity appears to be similar to thyroxine-binding globulin. PMID:6289813

  1. Pericoronary Adipose Tissue as Storage and Supply Site for Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Human Coronary Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Yasumi; Uchida, Yasuto; Shimoyama, Ei; Hiruta, Nobuyuki; Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It is generally believed that low-density lipoprotein enters the vascular wall from its lumen and oxidized (oxLDL), after which it plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Because voluminous epicardial adipose tissue is a risk factor for coronary events, there is a possibility that the pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT), which is a part of epicardial adipose tissue, acts as a risk factor by supplying oxLDL to the coronary arterial wall. The present study was performed whether PCAT stores and supplies oxLDL to the coronary wall. Methods Localization of oxLDL in PCAT and its relation to plaque morphology were examined by immunohistochemical techniques in 27 epicardial coronary arteries excised from 9 human autopsy cases. Results OxLDL deposited in all PCAT of the studied cases. The percent (%) incidence of oxLDL in the intima of 25 normal segment, 19 white plaques, 15 yellow plaques without necrotic core (NC) and 10 yellow plaques with NC, was 32, 84, 93 (p<0.05 vs normal segments and yellow plaques with NC), and 30, respectively. OxLDL deposited either in dotted or diffuse pattern. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that the dotted oxLDL was that contained in CD68(+)-macrophages. The oxLDL-containing macrophages were observed in the interstitial space but not inside of the vasa vasorum, and they traversed PCAT, adventitia, external and internal elastic laminae, suggesting their migration towards the intima. Diffuse oxLDL deposits were observed in 17 preparations, the majority of which were co-localized with the vasa vasorum in outer or in both inner and outer halves of intima, and rarely in the inner half alone. Conclusions The results suggested that PCAT is a supply source of oxLDL to coronary intima and acts as a risk factor for coronary events, that oxLDL increasingly deposits in the intima with plaque growth and decreases after plaque maturation, and therefore molecular therapies targeting the PCAT before plaque growth could be effective

  2. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters.

    PubMed

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49 ± 20 years; BMI: 31 ± 5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90 ± 10 mg/dl) after (2)H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r = 0.625,p = 0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r = 0.798,p < 0.001), I-HDL (r = -0.765,p < 0.001) and S-HDL (r = -0.629, p = 0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r = 0.822,p = 0.023; L-HDL: r = 0.892,p = 0.007; I-HDL: r = -0.927,p = 0.003) but not men. Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue under xeno-free conditions for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-yu; Wu, Xiao-yun; Tong, Jia-bei; Yang, Xin-xin; Zhao, Jing-li; Zheng, Quan-fu; Zhao, Guo-bin; Ma, Zhi-jie

    2015-04-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. Human platelet lysate represents an efficient alternative to fetal bovine serum for clinical-scale expansion of MSCs. Different media used in culture processes should maintain the biological characteristics of MSCs during multiple passages. However, bone marrow-derived MSCs and adipose tissue-derived MSCs have not yet been directly compared with each other under human platelet lysate conditions. This study aims to conduct a direct head-to-head comparison of the biological characteristics of the two types of MSCs under human platelet lysate-supplemented culture conditions for their ability to be used in regenerative medicine applications. The bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were cultured under human platelet lysate conditions and their biological characteristics evaluated for cell therapy (morphology, immunophenotype, colony-forming unit-fibroblast efficiency, proliferation capacity, potential for mesodermal differentiation, secreted proteins, and immunomodulatory effects). Under human platelet lysate-supplemented culture conditions, bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs exhibited similar fibroblast-like morphology and expression patterns of surface markers. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs had greater proliferative potential than bone marrow-derived MSCs, while no significantly difference in colony efficiency were observed between the two types of cells. However, bone marrow-derived MSCs possessed higher capacity toward osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation compared with adipose tissue-derived MSCs, while similar adipogenic differentiation potential wase observed between the two types of cells. There were some differences between bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs for several secreted proteins, such as cytokine (interferon-γ), growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1), and chemokine (stem

  4. Human adipose dynamics and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Tracy; Xu, Haiyan

    2013-04-01

    The two types of adipose tissue in humans, white and brown, have distinct developmental origins and functions. Human white adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis by storing triglycerides when energy is in surplus, releasing free fatty acids as a fuel during energy shortage, and secreting adipokines that are important for regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. The size of white adipose mass needs to be kept at a proper set point. Dramatic expansion of white fat mass causes obesity--now become a global epidemic disease--and increases the risk for the development of many life-threatening diseases. The absence of white adipose tissue or abnormal white adipose tissue redistribution leads to lipodystrophy, a condition often associated with metabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ whose mass is inversely correlated with body mass index and age. Therapeutic approaches targeting adipose tissue have been proven to be effective in improving obesity-related metabolic disorders, and promising new therapies could be developed in the near future. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Anatomical locations of human brown adipose tissue: functional relevance and implications in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Harold; Symonds, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    We will review information about and present hypotheses as to the anatomy of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Why is it located where it is in humans? Its anatomical distribution is likely to confer survival value by protecting critical organs from hypothermia by adaptive thermogenesis. Ultimately, the location and function will be important when considering therapeutic strategies for preventing and treating obesity and type 2 diabetes, in which case successful interventions will need to have a significant effect on BAT function in subjects living in a thermoneutral environment. In view of the diverse locations and potential differences in responsiveness between BAT depots, it is likely that BAT will be shown to have much more subtle and thus previously overlooked functions and regulatory control mechanisms.

  6. Effects of Moderate and Subsequent Progressive Weight Loss on Metabolic Function and Adipose Tissue Biology in Humans with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Fraterrigo, Gemma; Yoshino, Jun; Luecking, Courtney; Kirbach, Kyleigh; Kelly, Shannon C; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; He, Songbing; Okunade, Adewole L; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-04-12

    Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and β cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved β cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and some other persistent organochlorines in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2000-01-01

    Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) are among the most recently identified environmental contaminants. Despite their widespread contamination in the marine environment, human exposure to these compounds remains relatively unknown. We determined the concentrations of TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds (CHLs) in human adipose tissue from Japan. TCPMe and TCPMOH were detected in all of the adipose samples analyzed; the concentrations ranged from 2.5-21 and 1.1-18 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans were less than those reported in marine mammals, suggesting the possibility of metabolism and elimination of these compounds by humans. Significant correlation between TCPMe and TCPMOH with concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in human adipose tissues suggested that exposure to DDT is the source of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. The age- and sex-dependent accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH as well as other organochlorines was less pronounced. Results for other organochlorines indicated that recent contamination status of PCBs in human samples from Japan was higher than that in developing countries, whereas DDT contamination is lower. Greater concentrations of CHLs in human adipose tissue from Japan than in those from other countries suggest that continuous monitoring of CHLs in humans in Japan is necessary. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the accumulation of TCPMe and TCPMOH in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10903611

  8. Characterizing active and inactive brown adipose tissue in adult humans using PET-CT and MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [18F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; −69.4 ± 11.5 vs. −74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI FSF, and MRI R2* values are significantly different between BAT and WAT, regardless of the activation status of BAT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify PET-CT and MRI FSF measurements and utilize a semiautomated algorithm to identify inactive and active BAT in the same adult subjects. Our findings support the use of these metrics to characterize and distinguish between BAT and WAT and lay the foundation for future MRI analysis with the hope that some day MRI-based delineation of BAT can stand on its own. PMID:27166284

  9. Automated quantitation of cold-inducible human brown adipose tissue with FDG PET/CT with application to fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, José V; Lee, Joel T; Larson, Robert C; Thuras, Paul; Larson, Alice A

    2017-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) motivates the development of reproducible and quantitative methods for measuring it. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has become the principal method to non-invasively detect brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Improvements in quantitation and standardization will drive further clinical application. One disorder hypothesized to involve dysregulation in thermoregulation and the processing of pain involving BAT is fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). This report describes an approach with additional technical standardization to measure cold-inducible, BAT activity (ci-BAT) semi-quantitatively and reliably with minimal operator intervention with the FDG PET/CT technique. Ci-BAT was measured to test whether FMS patients have decreased BAT activation compared to normal controls. Threshold parameters to optimally separate ci-BAT from non-ci-BAT were developed based on the distribution of the pixel-wise parametric data from each merged PET/CT scan for each study session occurring on different days. BAT activity was the same under warm conditions in both control and FMS subjects attesting to reproducibility and reliability. However, considerable variability arose between groups at cool temperatures consistent with other literature. Increases in ci-BAT activity were significantly less in FMS patients than in controls, as hypothesized. Ci-BAT recruitment can be quantified non-invasively using FDG PET/CT using semi-automated techniques in human subjects across different diagnostic groups or within groups undergoing manipulations of interest. PMID:28123865

  10. Transplantation of insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human adipose tissue-derived stem cells into type 2 diabetes mice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ji Sun; Kang, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seah; Kim, Haekwon; Ahn, Chul Woo; Park, Jin Oh; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2014-01-10

    Currently, there are limited ways to preserve or recover insulin secretory capacity in human pancreas. We evaluated the efficacy of cell therapy using insulin-secreting cells differentiated from human eyelid adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hEAs) into type 2 diabetes mice. After differentiating hEAs into insulin-secreting cells (hEA-ISCs) in vitro, cells were transplanted into a type 2 diabetes mouse model. Serum levels of glucose, insulin and c-peptide were measured, and changes of metabolism and inflammation were assessed in mice that received undifferentiated hEAs (UDC group), differentiated hEA-ISCs (DC group), or sham operation (sham group). Human gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis were done. DC group mice showed improved glucose level, and survival up to 60 days compared to those of UDC and sham group. Significantly increased levels of human insulin and c-peptide were detected in sera of DC mice. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis showed human gene expression and the presence of human cells in kidneys of DC mice. When compared to sham mice, DC mice exhibited lower levels of IL-6, triglyceride and free fatty acids as the control mice. Transplantation of hEA-ISCs lowered blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mice by increasing circulating insulin level, and ameliorating metabolic parameters including IL-6.

  11. Human Ng2+ adipose stem cells loaded in vivo on a new crosslinked hyaluronic acid-Lys scaffold fabricate a skeletal muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, Vincenzo; De Francesco, Francesco; Schiraldi, Chiara; De Rosa, Alfredo; La Gatta, Annalisa; Paino, Francesca; d'Aquino, Riccardo; Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; Tirino, Virginia; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2013-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy holds promise for treating diseases and tissue repair. Regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue that is lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries is sustained by the production of new myofibers. Human Adipose stem cells (ASCs) have been reported to regenerate muscle fibers and reconstitute the pericytic cell pool after myogenic differentiation in vitro. Our aim was to evaluate the differentiation potential of constructs made from a new cross-linked hyaluronic acid (XHA) scaffold on which different sorted subpopulations of ASCs were loaded. Thirty days after engraftment in mice, we found that NG2(+) ASCs underwent a complete myogenic differentiation, fabricating a human skeletal muscle tissue, while NG2(-) ASCs merely formed a human adipose tissue. Myogenic differentiation was confirmed by the expression of MyoD, MF20, laminin, and lamin A/C by immunofluorescence and/or RT-PCR. In contrast, adipose differentiation was confirmed by the expression of adiponectin, Glut-4, and PPAR-γ. Both tissues formed expressed Class I HLA, confirming their human origin and excluding any contamination by murine cells. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence that NG2(+) ASCs loaded on XHA scaffolds are able to fabricate a human skeletal muscle tissue in vivo without the need of a myogenic pre-differentiation step in vitro. We emphasize the translational significance of our findings for human skeletal muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication.

    PubMed

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.

  13. Fascia tissue engineering with human adipose-derived stem cells in a murine model: Implications for pelvic floor reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man-Jung; Wen, Mei-Chin; Huang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Gin-Den; Chou, Min-Min; Yang, Vivian Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Mesh-augmented vaginal surgery for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) does not meet patients' needs. This study aims to test the hypothesis that fascia tissue engineering using adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be a potential therapeutic strategy for reconstructing the pelvic floor. Human ADSCs were isolated, differentiated, and characterized in vitro. Both ADSCs and fibroblastic-differentiated ADSCs were used to fabricate tissue-engineered fascia equivalents, which were then transplanted under the back skin of experimental nude mice. ADSCs prepared in our laboratory were characterized as a group of mesenchymal stem cells. In vitro fibroblastic differentiation of ADSCs showed significantly increased gene expression of cellular collagen type I and elastin (p < 0.05) concomitantly with morphological changes. By contrast, ADSCs cultured in control medium did not demonstrate these changes. Both of the engrafted fascia equivalents could be traced up to 12 weeks after transplantation in the subsequent animal study. Furthermore, the histological outcomes differed with a thin (111.0 ± 19.8 μm) lamellar connective tissue or a thick (414.3 ± 114.9 μm) adhesive fibrous tissue formation between the transplantation of ADSCs and fibroblastic-differentiated ADSCs, respectively. Nonetheless, the implantation of a scaffold without cell seeding (the control group) resulted in a thin (102.0 ± 17.1 μm) fibrotic band and tissue contracture. Our results suggest the ADSC-seeded implant is better than the implant alone in enhancing tissue regeneration after transplantation. ADSCs with or without fibroblastic differentiation might have a potential but different role in fascia tissue engineering to repair POP in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Tendon Tissue Engineering: Mechanism and Effects of Human Tenocyte Coculture With Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Legrand, Anais; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, James; Fox, Paige M

    2017-09-06

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a potential candidate for cell-based therapy targeting tendon injury; however, their therapeutic benefit relies on their ability to interact with native tenocytes. This study examines the mechanism and effects of coculturing human tenocytes and ASCs. Tenocytes (T) were directly cocultured with either ASCs (A) or fibroblasts (F) (negative control) in the following ratios: 50% T/50% A or F; 25% T/75% A or F; and 75% T/25% A or F. Cells were indirectly cocultured using a transwell insert that allowed for exchange of soluble factors only. Proliferation and collagen I production were measured and compared with monoculture controls. Synergy was quantified using the interaction index (II), which normalizes measured values by the expected values assuming no interaction (no synergy when II = 1). The ability of ASCs to elicit tenocyte migration was examined in vitro using a transwell migration assay and ex vivo using decellularized human flexor tendon explants. Compared with monoculture controls, II of proliferation was greater than 1 for all tenocyte and ASC direct coculture ratios, but not for tenocyte and fibroblast direct coculture ratios or for tenocyte and ASC indirect coculture. The ASCs elicited greater tenocyte migration in vitro and ex vivo. The II of collagen I production was greater than 1 for direct coculture groups with 25% T/75% A and 75% T/25% A. Direct coculture of ASCs and tenocytes demonstrated synergistic proliferation and collagen I production, and ASCs elicited tenocyte migration in vitro and ex vivo. These interactions play a key role in tendon healing and were absent when ASCs were replaced with fibroblasts, supporting the use of ASCs for cell-based therapy targeting tendon injuries. When ASCs are delivered for cell-based therapy, they directly interact with native tenocytes to increase cell proliferation, collagen I production, and tenocyte migration, which may enhance tendon healing. Copyright © 2017

  15. FEEDING INFLUENCES ADIPOSE TISSUE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chih; Travers, Rebecca L; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier T; Koumanov, Francoise; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-03-14

    Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations. Adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and one hour post-exercise to examine changes in adipose tissue mRNA expression and secretion of selected adipokines ex-vivo. Adipose tissue mRNA expression of PDK4, ATGL, HSL, FAT/CD36, GLUT4 and IRS2 in response to exercise were lower in FED compared to FASTED conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). Post-exercise adipose IRS2 protein was affected by feeding (p ≤ 0.05), but Akt2, AMPK, IRS1, GLUT4, PDK4 and HSL protein levels were not different. Feeding status did not impact serum and ex-vivo adipose secretion of IL-6, leptin or adiponectin in response to exercise. This is the first study to show that feeding prior to acute exercise affects post-exercise adipose tissue gene expression and we propose that feeding is likely to blunt long-term adipose tissue adaptation to regular exercise.

  16. Evaluation of the synuclein-y (SNCG) gene as a PPARy target in murine adipocytes, dorsal root ganglia somatosensory neurons, and human adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synuclein-gamma is highly expressed in both adipocytes and peripheral nervous system (PNS) somatosensory neurons. Its mRNA is induced during adipogenesis, increased in obese human white adipose tissue (WAT), may be coordinately regulated with leptin, and is decreased following treatment of murine 3T...

  17. Understanding androgen action in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michael W; House, Philip J; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2014-09-01

    Androgens play an important role in regulation of body fat distribution in humans. They exert direct effects on adipocyte differentiation in a depot-specific manner, via the androgen receptor (AR), leading to modulation of adipocyte size and fat compartment expansion. Androgens also impact directly on key adipocyte functions including insulin signalling, lipid metabolism, fatty acid uptake and adipokine production. Androgen excess and deficiency have implications for metabolic health in both males and females, and these metabolic effects may be mediated through adipose tissue via effects on fat distribution, adipocyte function and lipolysis. Research into the field of androgen metabolism in human and animal adipose tissue has produced inconsistent results; it is important to take into account the sex-, depot- and organism-specific effects of androgens in fat. In general, studies point towards a stimulatory effect on lipolysis, with impairment of adipocyte differentiation, insulin signalling and adipokine generation. Observed effects are frequently gender-specific. Adipose tissue is an important organ of pre-receptor androgen metabolism, through which local androgen availability is rigorously controlled. Adipose androgen exposure is tightly controlled by isoenzymes of AKR1C, 5α-reductase and others, but regulation of the balance between generation and irreversible inactivation remains poorly understood. In particular, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are crucial in the regulation of local androgen bioavailability within adipose tissue. These isoforms control the balance between activation of androstenedione (A) to testosterone (T) by the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (17β-HSD) of AKR1C3, or inactivation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol by the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) activity of AKR1C2. Most studies suggest that androgen inactivation is the predominant reaction in fat, particularly in the abdominal subcutaneous (SC

  18. A clinical approach to brown adipose tissue in the para-aortic area of the human thorax.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huixing; Chiba, Seiichi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Ina, Keisuke; Aosa, Taishi; Tomonari, Kenichiro; Gotoh, Koro; Masaki, Takayuki; Katsuragi, Isao; Noguchi, Hitoshi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Shimada, Tatsuo; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Human thoracic brown adipose tissue (BAT), composed of several subdivisions, is a well-known target organ of many clinical studies; however, the functional contribution of each part of human thoracic BAT remains unknown. The present study analyzed the significance of each part of human thoracic BAT in the association between regional distribution, cellularity, and factors involved in the functional regulation of thoracic BAT. We analyzed 1550 healthy adults who underwent medical check-ups by positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging, 8 cadavers, and 78 autopsy cases in an observational study. We first characterized the difference between the mediastinum and the supraclavicular areas using counts of BAT detection and conditions based on PET-CT outcomes. The measurable important area was then subjected to systematic anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) antibody to characterize the cellularity in association with age and sex. In PET-CT scanning, the main site of thoracic BAT was the mediastinum rather than the supraclavicular area (P < 0.05). Systemic macroanatomy revealed that the thumb-sized BAT in the posterior mediastinal descending para-aortic area (paBAT) had feeding vessels from the posterior intercostal arteries and veins and sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation from trunks of the sympathetic and vagus nerves, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the paBAT exhibited immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter located in the pericellular nervous fibers and intracellular UCP1. The brown adipose cells of paBAT showed age-dependent decreases in UCP1 expression (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant increase in vacuole formation, indicating fat accumulation (P < 0.05), from 10 to 37 years of age (P < 0.01). paBAT may be one of the essential sites for clinical application in BAT study because of its visible anatomy with feeding

  19. Ginsenoside Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin enhance human breast adipose-derived stem cell function for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Tian; Liang, Zhi-Jie; Li, Hong-Mian; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Min-Hong; Li, De Quan; Liang, Yi-Dan; Chi, Gang-Yi; Li, De Hui; Yu, Bing-Chao; Huang, Ji-Rong

    2016-06-07

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to repair soft tissue defects, wounds, burns, and scars and to regenerate various damaged tissues. The cell differentiation capacity of ASCs is crucial for engineered adipose tissue regeneration in reconstructive and plastic surgery. We previously reported that ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 or Rg1) promotes proliferation and differentiation of ASCs in vitro and in vivio. Here we show that both G-Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improve the proliferation, differentiation, and soft tissue regeneration capacity of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs) on collagen type I sponge scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Three months after transplantation, tissue wet weight, adipocyte number, intracellular lipid, microvessel density, and gene and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PPARγ were higher in both G-Rg1- and PRF-treated HBASCs than in control grafts. More extensive new adipose tissue formation was evident after treatment with G-Rg1 or PRF. In summary, G-Rg1 and/or PRF co-administration improves the function of HBASCs for soft tissue regeneration engineering.

  20. Ginsenoside Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin enhance human breast adipose-derived stem cells function for soft tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Mian; Peng, Qi-Liu; Huang, Min-Hong; Li, De-Quan; Liang, Yi-Dan; Chi, Gang-Yi; Li, De-Hui; Yu, Bing-Chao; Huang, Ji-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to repair soft tissue defects, wounds, burns, and scars and to regenerate various damaged tissues. The cell differentiation capacity of ASCs is crucial for engineered adipose tissue regeneration in reconstructive and plastic surgery. We previously reported that ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1 or Rg1) promotes proliferation and differentiation of ASCs in vitro and in vivio. Here we show that both G-Rg1 and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improve the proliferation, differentiation, and soft tissue regeneration capacity of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs) on collagen type I sponge scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Three months after transplantation, tissue wet weight, adipocyte number, intracellular lipid, microvessel density, and gene and protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PPARγ were higher in both G-Rg1- and PRF-treated HBASCs than in control grafts. More extensive new adipose tissue formation was evident after treatment with G-Rg1 or PRF. In summary, G-Rg1 and/or PRF co-administration improves the function of HBASCs for soft tissue regeneration engineering. PMID:27191987

  1. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Brian G.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Sheng, Mei; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Jones, Ryan K.; Frazier, Trivia P.; Asher, Majdouline; Lacayo, Eduardo A.; Friedlander, Paul L.; Kutner, Robert; Chiu, Ernest S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents “triple negative” breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells. Conclusions Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231

  2. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat

    2014-02-01

    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  4. Projection Stereolithographic Fabrication of Human Adipose Stem Cell-Incorporated Biodegradable Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Aaron X; Lin, Hang; Beck, Angela M; Kilroy, Evan J; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-01-01

    The poor self-healing ability of cartilage necessitates the development of methods for cartilage regeneration. Scaffold construction with live stem cell incorporation and subsequent differentiation presents a promising route. Projection stereolithography (PSL) offers high resolution and processing speed as well as the ability to fabricate scaffolds that precisely fit the anatomy of cartilage defects using medical imaging as the design template. We report here the use of a visible-light-based PSL (VL-PSL) system to encapsulate human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) into a biodegradable polymer [poly-d,l-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/poly-d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA-PEG)]/hyaluronic acid (HA) matrix to produce live cell constructs with customized architectures. After fabrication, hASCs showed high viability (84%) and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs, which possessed high mechanical properties with a compressive modulus of 780 kPa. The hASC-seeded constructs were then cultured in control or TGF-β3-containing chondrogenic medium for up to 28 days. In chondrogenic medium-treated group (TGF-β3 group), hASCs maintained 77% viability and expressed chondrogenic genes Sox9, collagen type II, and aggrecan at 11, 232, and 2.29 × 10(5) fold increases, respectively compared to levels at day 0 in non-chondrogenic medium. The TGF-β3 group also produced a collagen type II and glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix, detected by immunohistochemistry, Alcian blue staining, and Safranin O staining suggesting robust chondrogenesis within the scaffold. Without chondroinductive addition (Control group), cell viability decreased with time (65% at 28 days) and showed poor cartilage matrix deposition. After 28 days, mechanical strength of the TGF-β3 group remained high at 240 kPa. Thus, the PSL and PDLLA-PEG/HA-based fabrication method using adult stem cells is a promising approach in producing mechanically competent engineered cartilage for joint

  5. Projection Stereolithographic Fabrication of Human Adipose Stem Cell-Incorporated Biodegradable Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Aaron X.; Lin, Hang; Beck, Angela M.; Kilroy, Evan J.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    The poor self-healing ability of cartilage necessitates the development of methods for cartilage regeneration. Scaffold construction with live stem cell incorporation and subsequent differentiation presents a promising route. Projection stereolithography (PSL) offers high resolution and processing speed as well as the ability to fabricate scaffolds that precisely fit the anatomy of cartilage defects using medical imaging as the design template. We report here the use of a visible-light-based PSL (VL-PSL) system to encapsulate human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) into a biodegradable polymer [poly-d,l-lactic acid/polyethylene glycol/poly-d,l-lactic acid (PDLLA-PEG)]/hyaluronic acid (HA) matrix to produce live cell constructs with customized architectures. After fabrication, hASCs showed high viability (84%) and were uniformly distributed throughout the constructs, which possessed high mechanical properties with a compressive modulus of 780 kPa. The hASC-seeded constructs were then cultured in control or TGF-β3-containing chondrogenic medium for up to 28 days. In chondrogenic medium-treated group (TGF-β3 group), hASCs maintained 77% viability and expressed chondrogenic genes Sox9, collagen type II, and aggrecan at 11, 232, and 2.29 × 105 fold increases, respectively compared to levels at day 0 in non-chondrogenic medium. The TGF-β3 group also produced a collagen type II and glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix, detected by immunohistochemistry, Alcian blue staining, and Safranin O staining suggesting robust chondrogenesis within the scaffold. Without chondroinductive addition (Control group), cell viability decreased with time (65% at 28 days) and showed poor cartilage matrix deposition. After 28 days, mechanical strength of the TGF-β3 group remained high at 240 kPa. Thus, the PSL and PDLLA-PEG/HA-based fabrication method using adult stem cells is a promising approach in producing mechanically competent engineered cartilage for joint

  6. Simvastatin coating of TiO₂ scaffold induces osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pullisaar, Helen; Reseland, Janne E; Haugen, Håvard J; Brinchmann, Jan E; Ostrup, Esben

    2014-04-25

    Bone tissue engineering requires an osteoconductive scaffold, multipotent cells with regenerative capacity and bioactive molecules. In this study we investigated the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) on titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffold coated with alginate hydrogel containing various concentrations of simvastatin (SIM). The mRNA expression of osteoblast-related genes such as collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1), alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), osteopontin (SPP1), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) was enhanced in hAD-MSCs cultured on scaffolds with SIM in comparison to scaffolds without SIM. Furthermore, the secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC) to the cell culture medium was higher from hAD-MSCs cultured on scaffolds with SIM compared to scaffolds without SIM. The TiO2 scaffold coated with alginate hydrogel containing SIM promote osteogenic differentiation of hAD-MSCs in vitro, and demonstrate feasibility as scaffold for hAD-MSC based bone tissue engineering.

  7. Kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives promote adiponectin production during adipogenesis in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Jongho; Jung, Hyo-Il; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, John Hwan; Shin, Song Seok; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-05-01

    The subcutaneous fat tissue mass gradually decreases with age, and its regulation is a strategy to develop anti-aging compounds to ameliorate the photo-aging of human skin. The adipogenesis of human adipose tissue-mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) can be used as a model to discover novel anti-aging compounds. Cinnamomum cassia methanol extracts were identified as adipogenesis-promoting agents by natural product library screening. Cinnamates, the major chemical components of Cinnamomum cassia extracts, promoted adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We synthesized kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives to improve the pharmacological activity of cinnamates. Structure-activity studies of kojyl cinnamate derivatives showed that both the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ester group and the kojic acid moiety play core roles in promoting adiponectin production during adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. We conclude that kojyl cinnamate ester derivatives provide novel pharmacophores that can regulate adipogenesis in hAT-MSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Searching for signatures of cold adaptations in modern and archaic humans: hints from the brown adipose tissue genes.

    PubMed

    Sazzini, M; Schiavo, G; De Fanti, S; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Luiselli, D

    2014-09-01

    Adaptation to low temperatures has been reasonably developed in the human species during the colonization of the Eurasian landmass subsequent to Out of Africa migrations of anatomically modern humans. In addition to morphological and cultural changes, also metabolic ones are supposed to have favored human isolation from cold and body heat production and this can be hypothesized also for most Neandertal and at least for some Denisovan populations, which lived in geographical areas that strongly experienced the last glacial period. Modulation of non-shivering thermogenesis, for which adipocytes belonging to the brown adipose tissue are the most specialized cells, might have driven these metabolic adaptations. To perform an exploratory analysis aimed at looking into this hypothesis, variation at 28 genes involved in such functional pathway was investigated in modern populations from different climate zones, as well as in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. Patterns of variation at the LEPR gene, strongly related to increased heat dissipation by mitochondria, appeared to have been shaped by positive selection in modern East Asians, but not in Europeans. Moreover, a single potentially cold-adapted LEPR allele, different from the supposed adaptive one identified in Homo sapiens, was found also in Neandertal and Denisovan genomes. These findings suggest that independent mechanisms for cold adaptations might have been developed in different non-African human groups, as well as that the evolution of possible enhanced thermal efficiency in Neandertals and in some Denisovan populations has plausibly entailed significant changes also in other functional pathways than in the examined one.

  9. Differences in Gene Expression and Cytokine Release Profiles Highlight the Heterogeneity of Distinct Subsets of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in the Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Perrini, Sebastio; Ficarella, Romina; Picardi, Ernesto; Cignarelli, Angelo; Barbaro, Maria; Nigro, Pasquale; Peschechera, Alessandro; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; De Fazio, Michele; Natalicchio, Annalisa; Laviola, Luigi; Pesole, Graziano; Giorgino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    of Sc and V adipose tissue in humans. PMID:23526958

  10. Regulation and Function of FTO mRNA Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Grunnet, Louise G.; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Common variants in FTO (the fat mass– and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and nongenetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62–83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25–32 years) and elderly (58–66 years) nondiabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n = 226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 158). RESULTS Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated to fat and positively to glucose oxidation rates as well as positively correlated with expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation including PGC1α. CONCLUSIONS The heritability of FTO expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is low and not influenced by obesity-associated FTO genotype. The age-dependent decline in FTO expression is associated with peripheral defects of glucose and fat metabolism. PMID:19587359

  11. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille

    2009-10-01

    Common variants in FTO (the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and nongenetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62-83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25-32 years) and elderly (58-66 years) nondiabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n = 226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 158). Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was low, and FTO expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated to fat and positively to glucose oxidation rates as well as positively correlated with expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation including PGC1alpha. The heritability of FTO expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is low and not influenced by obesity-associated FTO genotype. The age-dependent decline in FTO expression is associated with peripheral defects of glucose and fat metabolism.

  12. Is adipose tissue metabolically different at different sites?

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Olza, Josune; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on metabolic differences of adipose tissue at different sites of the body, with emphasis in pediatrics. Adipose tissue is composed of various cell types, which include adipocytes and other cells of the stromal vascular fraction such as preadipocytes, blood cells, endothelial cells and macrophages. Mammals have two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT), each of which possesses unique cell autonomous properties. WAT and BAT differ at the functional, as well as the morphological and molecular levels. WAT accumulates surplus energy mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and BAT dissipates energy directly as heat. Recently, functional BAT in humans has been located in the neck, supraclavicular, mediastinal and interscapular areas. WAT is distributed throughout the body in the form of two major types: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SWAT) and the intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VWAT). VWAT tissue is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis, and overall mortality whereas SWAT and BAT have intrinsic beneficial metabolic properties. Subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes derive from different progenitor cells that exhibit a different gene expression pattern. SWAT responds better to the antilipolytic effects of insulin and other hormones, secrets more adiponectin and less inflammatory cytokines, and is differentially affected by molecules involved in signal transduction as well as drugs compared with VWAT. Current research is investigating various approaches of BAT and SWAT transplantation, including new sources of adipocyte progenitors. This may be important for the potential treatment of childhood obesity.

  13. Marrow adipose tissue: trimming the fat

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Aaron A.; Horowitz, Mark C.; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-01-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of MAT’s potential impact on health and disease. PMID:27094502

  14. Imaging White Adipose Tissue With Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents. PMID:24480339

  15. Imaging white adipose tissue with confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Jason D; Krueth, Stacy B; Bernlohr, David A; Katz, Stephen A

    2009-02-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS.

  17. Preferential loss of 5S and 28S rDNA genes in human adipose tissue during ageing.

    PubMed

    Zafiropoulos, A; Tsentelierou, E; Linardakis, M; Kafatos, A; Spandidos, D A

    2005-02-01

    Loss of genomic rDNA has been associated with cellular and organismal ageing. The rDNA locus in humans comprises multiple copies of the 5.8S, 28S and 18S genes. Aim of the present study was to test the effect of aging on the copy number of the three rDNA genes individually in post-mitotic human tissue. We utilized real time polymerase chain reaction relative quantification to measure the copy number of 5.8S, 28S and 18S rDNA genes individually. We obtained adipose tissue from 120 male individuals aged from 9 to 94 years. The available data of each subject corresponding to the time of tissue sampling included: age, height, weight and calculated body mass index. Each rDNA gene was directly tested with Pearson correlation against age and body mass index. We found a significant negative correlation of the gene copy of 5.8S (P < 0.001) and 28S (P < 0.003) with age. Interestingly 18S gene copy displayed a different pattern with no statistically significant correlation with age. Conversely, we observed a significant negative correlation of the 18S gene copy with body mass index (P = 0.004) and a marginally non-significant negative correlation of the 5.8S (P = 0.097) gene copy with body mass index. In summary our results indicate that the rDNA recombination events in humans can be differentially targeted and regulated in response to ageing and/or fat accumulation. The proposed model generates possible implications regarding the effects of each rDNA gene loss in cell function as well as the mechanism of recombination targeting.

  18. Interferon-gamma released from omental adipose tissue of insulin-resistant humans alters adipocyte phenotype and impairs response to insulin and adiponectin release.

    PubMed

    Wentworth, J M; Zhang, J-G; Bandala-Sanchez, E; Naselli, G; Liu, R; Ritchie, M; Smyth, G K; O'Brien, P E; Harrison, L C

    2017-08-03

    Inflammatory factors derived from adipose tissue have been implicated in mediating insulin resistance in obesity. We sought to identify these using explanted human adipose tissue exposed to innate and adaptive immune stimuli. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant donors was cultured in the presence of macrophage and T-cell stimuli, and the conditioned medium tested for its ability to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. The nature of the inhibitory factor in conditioned medium was characterized physicochemically, inferred by gene microarray analysis and confirmed by antibody neutralization. Conditioned medium from omental adipose tissue exposed to a combination of macrophage- and T-cell stimuli inhibited insulin action and adiponectin secretion in SGBS adipocytes. This effect was associated with a pronounced change in adipocyte morphology, characterized by a decreased number of lipid droplets of increased size. The bioactivity of conditioned medium was abolished by trypsin treatment and had a molecular weight of 46 kDa by gel filtration. SGBS adipocytes exposed to a bioactive medium expressed multiple gene transcripts regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Recombinant human IFN-γ recapitulated the effects of the bioactive medium and neutralizing antibody against IFN-γ but not other candidate factors abrogated medium bioactivity. IFN-γ released from inflamed omental adipose tissue may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities seen in human obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.180.

  19. The cell-engineered construct of cartilage on the basis of biopolymer hydrogel matrix and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Surguchenko, Valentina A; Ponomareva, Anna S; Kirsanova, Ljudmila A; Skaleckij, Nikolaj N; Sevastianov, Viktor I

    2015-02-01

    The study results of in vitro formation of tissue-engineered cartilage construct on the basis of cell-engineered construct composed of biopolymer hydrogel matrix and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) are presented. It was revealed that hADSCs in biopolymer hydrogel matrix Sphero®GEL under chondrogenic conditions generate three-dimensional structures and produce cartilaginous extracellular matrix components: collagen type II and glycosaminoglycans.

  20. A multicompartmental model of in vivo adipose tissue glycerol kinetics and capillary permeability in lean and obese humans.

    PubMed

    Coppack, Simon W; Chinkes, David L; Miles, John M; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2005-07-01

    Lipolysis of adipose tissue triglycerides releases glycerol. Twenty-four volunteers, of whom 6 were obese and 13 were women, received a primed-constant infusion of 2H5-glycerol for 120 min during postabsorptive steady-state conditions. Arterial, abdominal venous, and interstitial (microdialysis) samples were taken, and a four-compartment model was applied to assess subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue glycerol kinetics. Adipose tissue blood flow was measured using 133Xe washout. Venous glycerol concentrations (median 230 micromol/l [interquartile range 210-268]) were consistently greater than those of arterial blood (69.1 micromol/l [56.5-85.5]), while glycerol isotopic enrichments (tracer-to-tracee ratio) were greater in arterial blood (8.34% [7.44-10.1]) than venous blood (2.34% [1.71-2.69], P < 0.01). Microdialysate glycerol enrichment was 1.44% (1.11-1.79), indicating incomplete permeability of glycerol between capillary blood and interstitium. Calculated interstitial glycerol concentrations were between 270 micromol/l (256-350) and 332 micromol/l (281-371) (examining different boundary conditions). The calculated capillary diffusion capacity (ps) was between 2.21 ml . 100 g tissue(-1) . min(-1) (1.31-3.13) and 3.09 ml . 100 g tissue(-1) . min(-1) (1.52-4.90) and correlated inversely with adiposity (Rs< or = -0.45, P < 0.05). Our results support previous estimates of interstitial glycerol concentration within adipose tissue and reveal capillary diffusion capacity is reduced in obesity.

  1. Inhibition of Intracellular Triglyceride Lipolysis Suppresses Cold-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Increases Shivering in Humans.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Denis P; Frisch, Frédérique; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Haman, François; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-07

    Indirect evidence from human studies suggests that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is fueled predominantly by fatty acids hydrolyzed from intracellular triglycerides (TGs). However, no direct experimental evidence to support this assumption currently exists in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the role of intracellular TG in BAT thermogenesis, in cold-exposed men. Using positron emission tomography with (11)C-acetate and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we showed that oral nicotinic acid (NiAc) administration, an inhibitor of intracellular TG lipolysis, suppressed the cold-induced increase in BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose uptake, despite no difference in BAT blood flow. There was a commensurate increase in shivering intensity and shift toward a greater reliance on glycolytic muscle fibers without modifying total heat production. Together, these findings show that intracellular TG lipolysis is critical for BAT thermogenesis and provides experimental evidence for a reciprocal role of BAT thermogenesis and shivering in cold-induced thermogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular pathways regulating the formation of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huiqin; Mao, Yushan; Wang, Anshi; Wang, Xin; Zou, Zuquan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is functionally composed of brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. The unique thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue results from expression of uncoupling protein 1 in the mitochondrial inner membrane. On the basis of recent findings that adult humans have functionally active brown adipose tissue, it is now recognized as playing a much more important role in human metabolism than was previously thought. More importantly, brown-like adipocytes can be recruited in white adipose tissue upon environmental stimulation and pharmacologic treatment, and this change is associated with increased energy expenditure, contributing to a lean and healthy phenotype. Thus, the promotion of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue offers novel possibilities for the development of therapeutic strategies to combat obesity and related metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the recruitment of brown-like adipocyte in white adipose tissue.

  3. Four-week cold acclimation in adult humans shifts uncoupling thermogenesis from skeletal muscles to brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Denis P; Daoud, Amani; Taylor, Taryn; Tingelstad, Hans C; Bézaire, Véronic; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C; Taylor, Albert W; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Aguer, Céline; Haman, François

    2017-03-15

    Muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans consists of a combination of cold-induced increases in skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering. Daily cold exposure results in an increase in brown adipose tissue oxidative capacity coupled with a decrease in the cold-induced skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering intensity. Improved coupling between electromyography-determined muscle activity and whole-body heat production following cold acclimation suggests a maintenance of ATPase-dependent thermogenesis and decrease in skeletal muscle ATPase independent thermogenesis. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the vastus lateralis, the fibre composition was a strong predictor of the shivering pattern evoked during acute cold exposure. We previously showed that 4 weeks of daily cold exposure in humans can increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume by 45% and oxidative metabolism by 182%. Surprisingly, we did not find a reciprocal reduction in shivering intensity when exposed to a mild cold (18°C). The present study aimed to determine whether changes in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism or shivering activity could account for these unexpected findings. Nine men participated in a 4 week cold acclimation intervention (10°C water circulating in liquid-conditioned suit, 2 h day(-1) , 5 days week(-1) ). Shivering intensity and pattern were measured continuously during controlled cold exposure (150 min at 4 °C) before and after the acclimation. Muscle biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis were obtained to measure oxygen consumption rate and proton leak of permeabilized muscle fibres. Cold acclimation elicited a modest 21% (P < 0.05) decrease in whole-body and m. vastus lateralis shivering intensity. Furthermore, cold acclimation abolished the acute cold-induced increase in proton leak. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the m. vastus lateralis, fibre composition was a strong

  4. Adipose tissue macrophages: the inflammatory link between obesity and cancer?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marek; Samdal Steinskog, Eli Sihn; Wiig, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically over the last three decades. Thus, epidemiological evidence linking obesity and cancer has ignited our interest in the relationship between adipose tissue mass and cancer development. Obesity is defined as an excess of adipose tissue that is typified by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response instigated by macrophage infiltration. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the putative causal relationship between obesity-induced chronic inflammation and cancer with particular focus on adipose tissue macrophages. Chronic, low-grade inflammation has long been associated with cancer initiation, promotion and progression. Therefore, signals derived from adipose tissue macrophages may play a significant role in carcinogenesis. In this review we will discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer development in obesity and highlight possible therapeutic strategies aiming at adipose tissue macrophages. The strong correlation between tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and tumor growth and progression emphasizes the value of macrophages as an effective therapeutic target. It remains to be deciphered to what extent adipose tissue macrophages contribute to these processes, especially in tumors growing within or adjacent to adipose tissue. More effort should also be placed on elucidating macrophage differences between humans and mice that may lead to the development of more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Osteogenic potential of human adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on 3D-printed porous structured titanium.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Eric A; Jones, Dakota L; Dudakovic, Amel; Thaler, Roman; Paradise, Christopher R; Kremers, Hilal M; Abdel, Matthew P; Kakar, Sanjeev; Dietz, Allan B; Cohen, Robert C; Lewallen, David G; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-05-01

    Integration of porous metal prosthetics, which restore form and function of irreversibly damaged joints, into remaining healthy bone is critical for implant success. We investigated the biological properties of adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) and addressed their potential to alter the in vitro microenvironment of implants. We employed human AMSCs as a practical source for musculoskeletal applications because these cells can be obtained in large quantities, are multipotent, and have trophic paracrine functions. AMSCs were cultured on surgical-grade porous titanium disks as a model for orthopedic implants. We monitored cell/substrate attachment, cell proliferation, multipotency, and differentiation phenotypes of AMSCs upon osteogenic induction. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy and histology revealed that AMSCs adhere to the porous metallic surface. Compared to standard tissue culture plastic, AMSCs grown in the porous titanium microenvironment showed differences in temporal expression for genes involved in cell cycle progression (CCNB2, HIST2H4), extracellular matrix production (COL1A1, COL3A1), mesenchymal lineage identity (ACTA2, CD248, CD44), osteoblastic transcription factors (DLX3, DLX5, ID3), and epigenetic regulators (EZH1, EZH2). We conclude that metal orthopedic implants can be effectively seeded with clinical-grade stem/stromal cells to create a pre-conditioned implant.

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulate osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Alessia; Pellati, Agnese; Bagheri, Leila; Fortini, Cinzia; Setti, Stefania; De Mattei, Monica

    2014-09-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) play a regulatory role on osteoblast activity and are clinically beneficial during fracture healing. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from different sources have been extensively used in bone tissue engineering. Compared with MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BMSCs), those derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) are easier to obtain and available in larger amounts, although they show a less osteogenic differentiation potential than BMSCs. The hypothesis tested in this study was to evaluate whether PEMFs favor osteogenic differentiation both in BMSCs and in ASCs and to compare the role of PEMFs alone and in combination with the biochemical osteogenic stimulus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Early and later osteogenic markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin levels, and matrix mineralization, were analyzed at different times during osteogenic differentiation. Results showed that PEMFs induced osteogenic differentiation by increasing ALP activity, osteocalcin, and matrix mineralization in both BMSCs and ASCs, suggesting that PEMF activity is maintained during the whole differentiation period. The addition of BMP-2 in PEMF exposed cultures further increased all the osteogenic markers in BMSCs, while in ASCs, the stimulatory role of PEMFs was independent of BMP-2. Our results indicate that PEMFs may stimulate an early osteogenic induction in both BMSCs and ASCs and they suggest PEMFs as a bioactive factor to enhance the osteogenesis of ASCs, which are an attractive cell source for clinical applications. In conclusion, PEMFs may be considered a possible tool to improve autologous cell-based regeneration of bone defects in orthopedics.

  7. Adult stromal cells derived from human adipose tissue provoke pancreatic cancer cell death both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Beatrice; Ravet, Emmanuel; Poglio, Sandrine; De Toni, Fabienne; Bertuzzi, Mélanie; Lulka, Hubert; Touil, Ismahane; André, Mireille; Grolleau, Jean-Louis; Péron, Jean-Marie; Chavoin, Jean-Pierre; Bourin, Philippe; Pénicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre

    2009-07-17

    Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained by dynamic interactions between epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Disrupting this homeostasis can induce aberrant cell proliferation, adhesion, function and migration that might promote malignant behavior. Indeed, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) spread and metastasis, and this raises the possibility that novel stroma-targeted therapies represent additional approaches for combating this malignant disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of human stromal cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC) on pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. Co-culturing pancreatic tumor cells with ADSC and ADSC-conditioned medium sampled from different donors inhibited cancer cell viability and proliferation. ADSC-mediated inhibitory effect was further extended to other epithelial cancer-derived cell lines (liver, colon, prostate). ADSC conditioned medium induced cancer cell necrosis following G1-phase arrest, without evidence of apoptosis. In vivo, a single intra-tumoral injection of ADSC in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced a strong and long-lasting inhibition of tumor growth. These data indicate that ADSC strongly inhibit PDAC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo and induce tumor cell death by altering cell cycle progression. Therefore, ADSC may constitute a potential cell-based therapeutic alternative for the treatment of PDAC for which no effective cure is available.

  8. Adult Stromal Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue Provoke Pancreatic Cancer Cell Death both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Beatrice; Ravet, Emmanuel; Poglio, Sandrine; De Toni, Fabienne; Bertuzzi, Mélanie; Lulka, Hubert; Touil, Ismahane; André, Mireille; Grolleau, Jean-Louis; Péron, Jean-Marie; Chavoin, Jean-Pierre; Bourin, Philippe; Pénicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained by dynamic interactions between epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Disrupting this homeostasis can induce aberrant cell proliferation, adhesion, function and migration that might promote malignant behavior. Indeed, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) spread and metastasis, and this raises the possibility that novel stroma-targeted therapies represent additional approaches for combating this malignant disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of human stromal cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC) on pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. Principal Findings Co-culturing pancreatic tumor cells with ADSC and ADSC-conditioned medium sampled from different donors inhibited cancer cell viability and proliferation. ADSC-mediated inhibitory effect was further extended to other epithelial cancer-derived cell lines (liver, colon, prostate). ADSC conditioned medium induced cancer cell necrosis following G1-phase arrest, without evidence of apoptosis. In vivo, a single intra-tumoral injection of ADSC in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced a strong and long-lasting inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusion These data indicate that ADSC strongly inhibit PDAC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo and induce tumor cell death by altering cell cycle progression. Therefore, ADSC may constitute a potential cell-based therapeutic alternative for the treatment of PDAC for which no effective cure is available. PMID:19609435

  9. Caspase induction and BCL2 inhibition in human adipose tissue: a potential relationship with insulin signaling alteration.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, Francisco José; Coín Aragüez, Leticia; Murri, Mora; Oliva Olivera, Wilfredo; Mayas Torres, María Dolores; Barbarroja, Nuria; Gomez Huelgas, Ricardo; Malagón, Maria M; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2013-03-01

    Cell death determines the onset of obesity and associated insulin resistance. Here, we analyze the relationship among obesity, adipose tissue apoptosis, and insulin signaling. The expression levels of initiator (CASP8/9) and effector (CASP3/7) caspases as well as antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 and inflammatory markers were assessed in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue from patients with different degrees of obesity and without insulin resistance or diabetes. Adipose tissue explants from lean subjects were cultured with TNF-α or IL-6, and the expression of apoptotic and insulin signaling components was analyzed and compared with basal expression levels in morbidly obese subjects. SAT and VAT exhibited increased CASP3/7 and CASP8/9 expression levels and decreased BCL2 expression with BMI increase. These changes were accompanied by increased inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels and macrophage infiltration markers. In obese subjects, CASP3/7 activation and BCL2 downregulation correlated with the IRS-1/2-expression levels. Expression levels of caspases, BCL2, p21, p53, IRS-1/2, GLUT4, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and leukocyte antigen-related phosphatase in TNF-α- or IL-6-treated explants from lean subjects were comparable with those found in adipose tissue samples from morbidly obese subjects. These insulin component expression levels were reverted with CASP3/7 inhibition in these TNF-α- or IL-6-treated explants. Body fat mass increase is associated with CASP3/7 and BCL2 expression in adipose tissue. Moreover, this proapoptotic state correlated with insulin signaling, suggesting its potential contribution to the development of insulin resistance.

  10. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  11. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Brian G; Lacayo, Eduardo A; Sheng, Mei; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Jones, Ryan K; Joseph, Walter J; Friedlander, Paul L; Chiu, Ernest S

    2016-01-01

    Fat grafting has become popular for repair of postsurgical/postradiation defects after head/neck cancers resection. Fat graft supplementation with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve graft viability/efficacy, although the impact of ASCs on head/neck cancer cells is unknown. To determine whether ASCs affect growth, migration, and metastasis of human head/neck cancer. Human Cal-27 and SCC-4 head/neck cancer cells were co-cultured human ASCs, or treated with ASC conditioned medium (CM), and cancer cell growth/migration was assessed by MTT, cell count, and scratch/wound healing assays in vitro. Co-injection of 3 × 10(6) Cal-27/green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells and ASCs into the flank of NUDE mice assessed ASC effect on tumor growth/morphology. Quantitation of human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs assessed ASC effects on micrometastasis. Primary tumors were evaluated for markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, matrix metalloproteinases, and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry. Co-culture of Cal-27 or SCC-4 cells with ASCs from 2 different donors or ASC CM had no effect on cell growth in vitro. However, ASC CM stimulated Cal-27 and SCC-4 migration. Co-injection of ASCs from 2 different donors with Cal-27 cells did not affect tumor volume at 6 weeks, but increased Cal-27 micrometastasis to the brain. Evaluation of tumors sections from 1 ASC donor co-injection revealed that ASCs were viable and well integrated with Cal-27/GFP cells. These tumors exhibited increased MMP2, MMP9, IL-8, and microvessel density. Human ASCs did not alter growth of human head/neck cancer cells or tumor xenografts, but stimulated migration and early micrometastasis to mouse brain. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The mechanical properties of human adipose tissues and their relationships to the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Alkhouli, Nadia; Mansfield, Jessica; Green, Ellen; Bell, James; Knight, Beatrice; Liversedge, Neil; Tham, Ji Chung; Welbourn, Richard; Shore, Angela C; Kos, Katarina; Winlove, C Peter

    2013-12-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion in obesity is characterized by cellular growth and continuous extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling with increased fibrillar collagen deposition. It is hypothesized that the matrix can inhibit cellular expansion and lipid storage. Therefore, it is important to fully characterize the ECM's biomechanical properties and its interactions with cells. In this study, we characterize and compare the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous and omental tissues, which have different physiological functions. AT was obtained from 44 subjects undergoing surgery. Force/extension and stress/relaxation data were obtained. The effects of osmotic challenge were measured to investigate the cellular contribution to tissue mechanics. Tissue structure and its response to tensile strain were determined using nonlinear microscopy. AT showed nonlinear stress/strain characteristics of up to a 30% strain. Comparing paired subcutaneous and omental samples (n = 19), the moduli were lower in subcutaneous: initial 1.6 ± 0.8 (means ± SD) and 2.9 ± 1.5 kPa (P = 0.001), final 11.7 ± 6.4 and 32 ± 15.6 kPa (P < 0.001), respectively. The energy dissipation density was lower in subcutaneous AT (n = 13): 0.1 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.2 kPa, respectively (P = 0.006). Stress/relaxation followed a two-exponential time course. When the incubation medium was exchanged for deionized water in specimens held at 30% strain, force decreased by 31%, and the final modulus increased significantly. Nonlinear microscopy revealed collagen and elastin networks in close proximity to adipocytes and a larger-scale network of larger fiber bundles. There was considerable microscale heterogeneity in the response to strain in both cells and matrix fibers. These results suggest that subcutaneous AT has greater capacity for expansion and recovery from mechanical deformation than omental AT.

  13. HMOX1 as a marker of iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction, affecting glucose uptake and respiratory capacity in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Rodríguez, Amaia; Latorre, Jèssica; Becerril, Sara; Sabater-Masdeu, Mònica; Ricart, Wifredo; Frühbeck, Gema; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Iron excess in adipose tissue is known to promote adipose tissue dysfunction. Here, we aimed to investigate the possible role of haem oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in iron excess-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Cross-sectionally, HMOX1 gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue was analysed in two independent cohorts (n = 234 and 40) in relation to obesity. We also evaluated the impact of weight loss (n = 21), weight gain (in rats, n = 20) on HMOX1 mRNA; HMOX1 mRNA levels during human adipocyte differentiation; the effects of inflammation and iron on adipocyte HMOX1; and the effects of HMOX1-induced activity on adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function, glucose uptake and adipogenesis. Adipose tissue HMOX1 was increased in obese participants (p = 0.01) and positively associated with obesity-related metabolic disturbances, and markers of iron accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress (p < 0.01). HMOX1 was negatively correlated with mRNAs related to mitochondrial biogenesis, the insulin signalling pathway and adipogenesis (p < 0.01). These associations were replicated in an independent cohort. Bariatric surgery-induced weight loss led to reduced HMOX1 (0.024 ± 0.010 vs 0.010 ± 0.004 RU, p < 0.0001), whereas in rats, high-fat diet-induced weight gain resulted in increased Hmox1 mRNA levels (0.22 ± 0.15 vs 0.54 ± 0.22 RU, p = 0.005). These changes were in parallel with changes in BMI and adipose tissue markers of iron excess, adipogenesis and inflammation. In human adipocytes, iron excess and inflammation led to increased HMOX1 mRNA levels. HMOX1 induction (by haem arginate [hemin] administration), resulted in a significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory capacity (including basal respiration and spare respiratory capacity), glucose uptake and adipogenesis in parallel with increased expression of inflammatory- and iron excess-related genes. HMOX1 is an important marker of iron excess

  14. Differentiation potential of human adipose tissue derived stem cells into photoreceptors through explants culture and enzyme methods

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Wei; Huang, Li; Chong, Kelvin K.L.; Leung, Doreen S.Y.; Li, Benjamin F.L.; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Huang, Yi-Fei; Pang, Chi Pui

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the retinal photoreceptor differentiation potential of human orbital adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) generated by enzyme (EN) and explant (EX) culture methods. METHODS We investigated potentials of human orbital ADSCs to differentiate into photoreceptors through EN and EX culture methods. EN and EX orbital ADSCs were obtained from the same donor during rehabilitative orbital decompression, and then were subject to a 3-step induction using Noggin, DKK-1, IGF-1 and b-FGF at different time points for 38d. Stem cell, eye-field and photoreceptor-related gene and protein markers were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent (IMF) staining. RESULTS Both EX and EN orbital ADSCs expressed CD133, a marker of cell differentiation. Moreover, PAX6 and rhodopsin, markers of the retinal progenitor cells, were detected from EX and EN orbital ADSCs. In EX orbital ADSCs, PAX6 mRNA was detected on the 17th day and then the rhodopsin mRNA was detected on the 24th day. In contrast, the EN orbital ADSCs expressed PAX6 and rhodopsin mRNA on the 31st day. EX orbital ADSCs expressed rhodopsin protein on the 24th day, while EN orbital ADSCs expressed rhodopsin protein on the 31st day. CONCLUSION Orbital ADSCs isolated by direct explants culture show earlier and stronger expressions of markers towards eye field and retinal photoreceptor differentiation than those generated by conventional EN method. PMID:28149772

  15. Bone tissue engineering by using a combination of polymer/Bioglass composites with human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Ji, Kun; Kirkham, Jennifer; Yan, Yu; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kellett, Margaret; Jin, Yan; Yang, Xuebin B

    2014-04-01

    Translational research in bone tissue engineering is essential for "bench to bedside" patient benefit. However, the ideal combination of stem cells and biomaterial scaffolds for bone repair/regeneration is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the osteogenic capacity of a combination of poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) porous foams containing 5 wt% and 40 wt% of Bioglass particles with human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Live/dead fluorescent markers, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that PDLLA/Bioglass porous scaffolds supported ADSC attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation, as confirmed by enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Higher Bioglass content of the PDLLA foams increased ALP activity compared with the PDLLA only group. Extracellular matrix deposition after 8 weeks in the in vitro cultures was evident by Alcian blue/Sirius red staining. In vivo bone formation was assessed by using scaffold/ADSC constructs in diffusion chambers transplanted intraperitoneally into nude mice and recovered after 8 weeks. Histological and immunohistochemical assays indicated significant new bone formation in the 40 wt% and 5 wt% Bioglass constructs compared with the PDLLA only group. Thus, the combination of a well-developed biodegradable bioactive porous PDLLA/Bioglass composite scaffold with a high-potential stem cell source (human ADSCs) could be a promising approach for bone regeneration in a clinical setting.

  16. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Ruben

    2013-04-20

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.

  17. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance. PMID:23671428

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands inhibit estrogen biosynthesis in human breast adipose tissue: possible implications for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G L; Zhao, Y; Kalus, A M; Simpson, E R

    2000-03-15

    Estrogen biosynthesis is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P-450 (the product of the CYP19 gene). Adipose tissue is the major site of estrogen biosynthesis in postmenopausal women, with the local production of estrogen in breast adipose tissue implicated in the development of breast cancer. In human adipose tissue, aromatase is primarily expressed in the mesenchymal stromal cells and is a marker of the undifferentiated preadipocyte phenotype. Aromatase expression in adipose tissue is regulated via the distal promoter I.4, under the control of glucocorticoids and class I cytokines such as oncostatin M, interleukin 6, and interleukin 11, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha. These cytokines, which are expressed in adipose, also inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesized that factors which stimulate adipocyte differentiation should inhibit aromatase expression. These factors include synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands such as thiazolidinediones, e.g., troglitazone and rosiglitazone (BRL49653) and the endogenous PPARgamma ligand 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2. We have demonstrated by measurement of aromatase activity and by reverse transcription-PCR/Southern blotting that these PPARgamma ligands inhibit aromatase expression in cultured breast adipose stromal cells stimulated with oncostatin M or tumor necrosis factor alpha plus dexamethasone in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas a metabolite of troglitazone that does not activate PPARgamma has no effect. We have also shown that troglitazone inhibits luciferase activity of reporter constructs containing various lengths of the upstream region of promoter I.4 transfected into mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte mesenchymal cells, whereas the troglitazone metabolite does not. Because local estrogen production in breast fat is implicated in breast cancer development in postmenopausal women, the actions of PPARgamma ligands suggest that they may have

  19. Prostaglandin E2 Exerts Multiple Regulatory Actions on Human Obese Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Inflammation, Adaptive Thermogenesis and Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    García-Alonso, Verónica; Titos, Esther; Alcaraz-Quiles, Jose; Rius, Bibiana; Lopategi, Aritz; López-Vicario, Cristina; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Delgado, Salvadora; Lozano, Juanjo; Clària, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES). IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1α1, Col1α2 and αSMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-β. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1) in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16) in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of interactions

  20. Accelerated growth and prolonged lifespan of adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells in a medium using reduced calcium and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsai-Ming; Tsai, Jin-Lian; Lin, Sin-Daw; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2005-02-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from bone marrow and other adult tissues and are potentially useful for tissue engineering. Adipose tissue has several clear advantages as a starting material for harvesting stem cells, as it is abundant and relatively easy to procure. However, existing methods to expand adipose-derived MSCs are less than optimal. Here we describe a new cell culture method that accelerates greatly the growth rate and prolongs the lifespan of adipose MSCs. This was accomplished by using a growth medium with low calcium and supplemented with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate. Cells produced early in these cultures displayed characteristics similar to those previously reported for multipotential stem cells, including a high frequency of anchorage- independent growth in soft agar, lack of gap junctional intercellular communication in a cell type with serpiginous morphology, and the expression of Oct-4. Furthermore, these cells could readily be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Thus, modification of growth medium by reduction of calcium and addition of antioxidants greatly enhanced the growth rate and extended the lifespan of adipose-derived multipotential human MSCs.

  1. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (P<0.05). Lower MDA concentration and longer telomere length were seen in subjects with diabetes compared to those without (P<0.05). DNA damage, analysed via Comet assay, was significantly lower in subjects with diabetes compared to those without (P<0.05). A paradoxical decrease in oxidative stress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation: the perils of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Redheuil, Alban; Gandjbakhch, Estelle

    2016-04-01

    The amount of adipose tissue that accumulates around the atria is associated with the risk, persistence, and severity of atrial fibrillation (AF). A strong body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that this relationship is not an epiphenomenon but is the result of complex crosstalk between the adipose tissue and the neighbouring atrial myocardium. For instance, epicardial adipose tissue is a major source of adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, or reactive oxidative species, which can contribute to the fibrotic remodelling of the atrial myocardium. Fibro-fatty infiltrations of the subepicardium could also contribute to the functional disorganization of the atrial myocardium. The observation that obesity is associated with distinct structural and functional remodelling of the atria has opened new perspectives of treating AF substrate with aggressive risk factor management. Advances in cardiac imaging should lead to an improved ability to visualize myocardial fat depositions and to localize AF substrates.

  3. A Clinical Approach to Brown Adipose Tissue in the Para-Aortic Area of the Human Thorax

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huixing; Chiba, Seiichi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Ina, Keisuke; Aosa, Taishi; Tomonari, Kenichiro; Gotoh, Koro; Masaki, Takayuki; Katsuragi, Isao; Noguchi, Hitoshi; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Shimada, Tatsuo; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Human thoracic brown adipose tissue (BAT), composed of several subdivisions, is a well-known target organ of many clinical studies; however, the functional contribution of each part of human thoracic BAT remains unknown. The present study analyzed the significance of each part of human thoracic BAT in the association between regional distribution, cellularity, and factors involved in the functional regulation of thoracic BAT. Methods We analyzed 1550 healthy adults who underwent medical check-ups by positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET–CT) imaging, 8 cadavers, and 78 autopsy cases in an observational study. We first characterized the difference between the mediastinum and the supraclavicular areas using counts of BAT detection and conditions based on PET–CT outcomes. The measurable important area was then subjected to systematic anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) antibody to characterize the cellularity in association with age and sex. Results In PET–CT scanning, the main site of thoracic BAT was the mediastinum rather than the supraclavicular area (P < 0.05). Systemic macroanatomy revealed that the thumb-sized BAT in the posterior mediastinal descending para-aortic area (paBAT) had feeding vessels from the posterior intercostal arteries and veins and sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation from trunks of the sympathetic and vagus nerves, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the paBAT exhibited immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter located in the pericellular nervous fibers and intracellular UCP1. The brown adipose cells of paBAT showed age-dependent decreases in UCP1 expression (P < 0.05), accompanied by a significant increase in vacuole formation, indicating fat accumulation (P < 0.05), from 10 to 37 years of age (P < 0.01). Conclusions paBAT may be one of the essential sites for clinical application in BAT study

  4. Engraftment Potential of Adipose Tissue-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Transplantation in the Fetal Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Itziar; Moreno, Rafael; Petriz, Jordi; Gratacós, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Due to their favorable intrinsic features, including engraftment, differentiation, and immunomodulatory potential, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed for therapeutic in utero intervention. Further improvement of such attributes for particular diseases might merely be achieved by ex vivo MSC genetic engineering previous to transplantation. Here, we evaluated for the first time the feasibility, biodistribution, long-term engraftment, and transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression of genetically engineered human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (EGFP+-ASCs) after intra-amniotic xenotransplantation at E17 of gestation into our validated pregnant rabbit model. Overall, the procedure was safe (86.4% survival rate; absence of anatomical defects). Stable, low-level engraftment of EGFP+-ASCs was confirmed by assessing the presence of the pWT-EGFP lentiviral provirus in the young transplanted rabbit tissues. Accordingly, similar frequencies of provirus-positive animals were found at both 8 weeks (60%) and 16 weeks (66.7%) after in utero intervention. The presence of EGFP+-ASCs was more frequent in respiratory epithelia (lung and trachea), according to the route of administration. However, we were unable to detect EGFP expression, neither by real-time polymerase chain reaction nor by immunohistochemistry, in the provirus-positive tissues, suggesting EGFP transgene silencing mediated by epigenetic events. Moreover, we noticed lack of both host cellular immune responses against xenogeneic ASCs and humoral immune responses against transgenic EGFP. Therefore, the fetal microchimerism achieved by the EGFP+-ASCs in the young rabbit hosts indicates induction of donor-specific tolerance after fetal rabbit xenotransplantation, which should boost postnatal transplantation for the early treatment/prevention of many devastating congenital disorders. PMID:22738094

  5. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  6. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal-stem-cell bioactive materials on porcine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min-Jee; Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Jun-Beom; Jeong, Chang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key-Jung; Park, Se-Pill

    2013-12-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) secrete bioactive materials that are beneficial for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we characterized human hAT-MSC bioactive material (hAT-MSC-BM), and examined the effect of hAT-MSC-BM on porcine embryo development. hAT-MSC-BM was enriched with several growth factors and cytokines, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Among the various concentrations and days of treatment tested, 10% hAT-MSC-BM treatment beginning on culture Day 4 provided the best environment for the in vitro growth of parthenogenetic porcine embryos. While the addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the hatching rate and the total cell number of parthenogenetic porcine embryos compared with the control and hAT-MSC culture medium group, the best results were from the group cultured with 10% hAT-MSC-BM. Mitochondrial activity was also higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression levels of development and anti-apoptosis genes were significantly higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group than in control, hAT-MSC culture medium, or 10% FBS groups, whereas the transcript abundance of an apoptosis gene was slightly lower. Treatment with 10% hAT-MSC-BM starting on Day 4 also improved the development rate and the total cell number of in vitro-fertilized embryos. This is the first report on the benefits of hAT-MSC-BM in a porcine embryo in vitro culture system. We conclude that hAT-MSC-BM is a new, alternative supplement that can improve the development of porcine embryos during both parthenogenesis and fertilization in vitro. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tam, Charmaine S; Redman, Leanne M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation due to increased immune cells, specifically infiltrated macrophages into adipose tissue, which in turn secrete a range of proinflammatory mediators. This nonselective low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is systemic in nature and can impair insulin signaling pathways, thus, increasing the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an update on clinical studies examining the role of adipose tissue in the development of obesity-associated complications in humans. We will discuss adipose tissue inflammation during different scenarios of energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction including obesity and overfeeding, weight loss by calorie restriction or bariatric surgery, and conditions of insulin resistance (diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome).

  9. Segmentation and quantification of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this brief review, introductory concepts in animal and human adipose tissue segmentation using proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are summarized in the context of obesity research. Adipose tissue segmentation and quantification using spin relaxation-based (e.g., T1-weighted, T2-weighted), relaxometry-based (e.g., T1-, T2-, T2*-mapping), chemical-shift selective, and chemical-shift encoded water–fat MRI pulse sequences are briefly discussed. The continuing interest to classify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots into smaller sub-depot compartments is mentioned. The use of a single slice, a stack of slices across a limited anatomical region, or a whole body protocol is considered. Common image post-processing steps and emerging atlas-based automated segmentation techniques are noted. Finally, the article identifies some directions of future research, including a discussion on the growing topic of brown adipose tissue and related segmentation considerations. PMID:26336839

  10. The inflammatory response seen when human omental adipose tissue explants are incubated in primary culture is not dependent upon albumin and is primarily in the nonfat cells.

    PubMed

    Fain, John N; Cheema, Paramjeet; Tichansky, David S; Madan, Atul K

    2010-01-21

    The present studies were designed to investigate the changes in gene expression during in vitro incubation of human visceral omental adipose tissue explants as well as fat cells and nonfat cells derived from omental fat. Adipose tissue was obtained from extremely obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Explants of the tissue as well as fat cells and the nonfat cells derived by digestion with collagenase were incubated for 20 minutes to 48 h. The expression of interleukin 1beta [IL-1beta], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFalpha], interleukin 8 [IL-8], NFkappaB(1)p50 subunit, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha [HIF1alpha], omentin/intelectin, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 [11beta-HSD1] mRNA were measured by qPCR as well as the release of IL-8 and TNFalpha. There was an inflammatory response at 2 h in explants of omental adipose tissue that was reduced but not abolished in the absence of albumin from the incubation buffer for IL-8, IL-1beta and TNFalpha. There was also an inflammatory response with regard to upregulation of HIF1alpha and NFkappaB1 gene expression that was unaffected whether albumin was present or absent from the medium. In the nonfat cells derived by a 2 h collagenase digestion of omental fat there was an inflammatory response comparable but not greater than that seen in tissue. The exception was HIF1alpha where the marked increase in gene expression was primarily seen in intact tissue. The inflammatory response was not seen with respect to omentin/intelectin. Over a subsequent 48 h incubation there was a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression and IL-8 release in adipose tissue explants that was also seen to the same extent in the nonfat cells incubated in the absence of fat cells. The marked inflammatory response seen when human omental adipose tissue is incubated in vitro is reduced but not abolished in the presence of albumin with respect to IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IL-8, and is primarily in the nonfat cells of adipose tissue.

  11. The inflammatory response seen when human omental adipose tissue explants are incubated in primary culture is not dependent upon albumin and is primarily in the nonfat cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present studies were designed to investigate the changes in gene expression during in vitro incubation of human visceral omental adipose tissue explants as well as fat cells and nonfat cells derived from omental fat. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from extremely obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Explants of the tissue as well as fat cells and the nonfat cells derived by digestion with collagenase were incubated for 20 minutes to 48 h. The expression of interleukin 1β [IL-1β], tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα], interleukin 8 [IL-8], NFκB1p50 subunit, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α [HIF1α], omentin/intelectin, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 [11β-HSD1] mRNA were measured by qPCR as well as the release of IL-8 and TNFα. Results There was an inflammatory response at 2 h in explants of omental adipose tissue that was reduced but not abolished in the absence of albumin from the incubation buffer for IL-8, IL-1β and TNFα. There was also an inflammatory response with regard to upregulation of HIF1α and NFκB1 gene expression that was unaffected whether albumin was present or absent from the medium. In the nonfat cells derived by a 2 h collagenase digestion of omental fat there was an inflammatory response comparable but not greater than that seen in tissue. The exception was HIF1α where the marked increase in gene expression was primarily seen in intact tissue. The inflammatory response was not seen with respect to omentin/intelectin. Over a subsequent 48 h incubation there was a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression and IL-8 release in adipose tissue explants that was also seen to the same extent in the nonfat cells incubated in the absence of fat cells. Conclusion The marked inflammatory response seen when human omental adipose tissue is incubated in vitro is reduced but not abolished in the presence of albumin with respect to IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, and is primarily in the nonfat cells of adipose tissue. PMID:20145729

  12. Construction of engineering adipose-like tissue in vivo utilizing human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Long; Liu, Yi; Hui, Ling

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the use of a combination of human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUMSCs) with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. In this study hUMSCs were isolated and cultured. HUMSCs infected with Ade-insulin-EGFP were seeded in fibroin 3D scaffolds with uniform 50-60 µm pore size. Silk fibroin scaffolds with untransfected hUMSCs were used as control. They were cultured for 4 days in adipogenic medium and transplanted under the dorsal skins of female Wistar rats after the hUMSCs had been labelled with chloromethylbenzamido-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (CM-Dil). Macroscopical impression, fluorescence observation, histology and SEM were used for assessment after transplantation at 8 and 12 weeks. Macroscopically, newly formed adipose tissue was observed in the experimental group and control group after 8 and 12 weeks. Fluorescence observation supported that the formed adipose tissue originated from seeded hUMSCs rather than from possible infiltrating perivascular tissue. Oil red O staining of newly formed tissue showed that there was substantially more tissue regeneration in the experimental group than in the control group. SEM showed that experimental group cells had more fat-like cells, whose volume was larger than that of the control group, and degradation of the silk fibroin scaffold was greater under SEM observation. This study provides significant evidence that hUMSCs transfected by adenovirus vector have good compatibility with silk fibroin scaffold, and adenoviral transfection of the human insulin gene can be used for the construction of tissue-engineered adipose.

  13. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA.

  14. Increased infiltration of macrophages in omental adipose tissue is associated with marked hepatic lesions in morbid human obesity.

    PubMed

    Cancello, Raffaella; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Guilhem, Gaël; Bouillot, Jean Luc; Hugol, Danielle; Coussieu, Christiane; Basdevant, Arnaud; Bar Hen, Avner; Bedossa, Pierre; Guerre-Millo, Michèle; Clément, Karine

    2006-06-01

    In human obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. How macrophage infiltration in WAT contributes to the complications of obesity is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that recruitment of macrophages in omental WAT is associated with hepatic damage in obese patients. Paired biopsies of subcutaneous and omental WAT and a liver biopsy were collected during gastric surgery in 46 obese women and 9 obese men (BMI 47.9 +/- 0.93 kg/m(2)). The number of HAM56+ macrophages in WAT was quantified microscopically, and correlations with clinical and biological parameters and histological liver pathology were investigated. There were twice as many macrophages in omental as in subcutaneous WAT (P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, omental WAT macrophage infiltration was correlated to fasting glucose and insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. We propose an easy equation to estimate the amount of macrophages in omental WAT. Increased macrophage accumulation specifically in omental WAT was associated with hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions (P=0.01). The best predictive model for the severity of hepatic damage includes adiponectinemia, AST, and omental WAT macrophages. These data suggest that the presence of macrophages in omental WAT participates in the cellular mechanisms favoring hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions in obese patients.

  15. Propyl Gallate Inhibits Adipogenesis by Stimulating Extracellular Signal-Related Kinases in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation. PMID:25813451

  16. Health Span-Extending Activity of Human Amniotic Membrane- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dajeong; Kyung, Jangbeen; Park, Dongsun; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Kwang Sei; Shin, Kyungha; Lee, Hangyoung; Shin, Il Seob; Kang, Sung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Aging brings about the progressive decline in cognitive function and physical activity, along with losses of stem cell population and function. Although transplantation of muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells extended the health span and life span of progeria mice, such effects in normal animals were not confirmed. Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMMSCs) or adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) (1 × 106 cells per rat) were intravenously transplanted to 10-month-old male F344 rats once a month throughout their lives. Transplantation of AMMSCs and ADMSCs improved cognitive and physical functions of naturally aging rats, extending life span by 23.4% and 31.3%, respectively. The stem cell therapy increased the concentration of acetylcholine and recovered neurotrophic factors in the brain and muscles, leading to restoration of microtubule-associated protein 2, cholinergic and dopaminergic nervous systems, microvessels, muscle mass, and antioxidative capacity. The results indicate that repeated transplantation of AMMSCs and ADMSCs elongate both health span and life span, which could be a starting point for antiaging or rejuvenation effects of allogeneic or autologous stem cells with minimum immune rejection. Significance This study demonstrates that repeated treatment with stem cells in normal animals has antiaging potential, extending health span and life span. Because antiaging and prolonged life span are issues currently of interest, these results are significant for readers and investigators. PMID:26315571

  17. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate atopic dermatitis via regulation of B lymphocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soon Won; Shin, Ji-Hee; Kang, Insung; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Hong-Ki; Jung, Jae-Eon; Choi, Yong-Woon; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Choi, Jin-Sub; Lee, Chi-Seung; Seo, Yoojin; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been applied for the therapy of allergic disorders due to its beneficial immunomodulatory abilities. However, the underlying mechanisms for therapeutic efficacy are reported to be diverse according to the source of cell isolation or the route of administration. We sought to investigate the safety and the efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs) in mouse atopic dermatitis (AD) model and to determine the distribution of cells after intravenous administration. Murine AD model was established by multiple treatment of Dermatophagoides farinae. AD mice were intravenously infused with hAT-MSCs and monitored for clinical symptoms. The administration of hAT-MSCs reduced the gross and histological signatures of AD, as well as serum IgE level. hAT-MSCs were mostly detected in lung and heart of mice within 3 days after administration and were hardly detectable at 2 weeks. All of mice administered with hAT-MSCs survived until sacrifice and did not demonstrate any adverse events. Co-culture experiments revealed that hAT-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation and the maturation of B lymphocytes via cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 signaling. Moreover, mast cell (MC) degranulation was suppressed by hAT-MSC. In conclusion, the intravenous infusion of hAT-MSCs can alleviate AD through the regulation of B cell function. PMID:27888809

  18. Obesity and inflammation: reduced cytokine expression due to resveratrol in a human in vitro model of inflamed adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zagotta, Ivana; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Wabitsch, Martin; Kietzmann, Thomas; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an inflammatory status and linked with a number of pathophysiological complications among them cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or the metabolic syndrome. Resveratrol was proposed to improve obesity-related inflammatory problems, but the effect of resveratrol on cytokine expression in obesity is not completely understood. In this study, we used an in vitro model of human adipose tissue inflammation to examine the effects of resveratrol on the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). We found that resveratrol reduced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 levels in a concentration-dependent manner in adipocytes under inflammatory conditions. Further experiments showed that the action of resveratrol was mainly due to its NFκB inhibitory potential. Thus, our data support the concept that resveratrol can alleviate obesity-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines providing a new insight toward novel treatment options in obesity. PMID:25926797

  19. Propyl gallate inhibits adipogenesis by stimulating extracellular signal-related kinases in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-Young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

    2015-04-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation.

  20. Therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue-derived stem cell (hADSC) transplantation on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Chen, Ying; Chen, Zhibo; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Dehao; Su, Zhongqian; Weng, Yiyun; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue-derived stem cell (hADSC) transplantation on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. EAE mouse model was established by MOG35-55 immunization. Body weight and neurological function were assessed. H&E and LFB staining was performed to evaluate histopathological changes. Flow cytometry was used to detect Th17 and Treg cells. ELISA and real-time PCR were performed to determine transcription factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Transplantation of hADSCs significantly alleviated the body weight loss and neurological function impairment of EAE mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination were significantly increased, which were relieved by hADSC transplantation. Moreover, the Th17 cells and the ROR-γt mRNA level were significantly elevated, while the Treg cells and the Foxp3 mRNA level were significantly declined, resulting in significantly increased Th17/Treg ratio. This was reversed by the transplantation of hADSCs. Furthermore, serum levels of IL-17A, IL-6, IL-23, and TGF-β, were significantly increased, which could be influenced by the hADSC transplantation. Transplantation of hADSCs alleviates the neurological function impairment and histological changes, and reduces the inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination in EAE mice, which might be associated with the regulation of Th17/Treg balance. PMID:28198408

  1. Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Perfilyev, Alexander; Dahlman, Ingrid; Gillberg, Linn; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Volkov, Petr; Nilsson, Emma; Risérus, Ulf; Ling, Charlotte

    2017-03-08

    Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue.Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 α (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that

  2. White adipose tissue: getting nervous.

    PubMed

    Fliers, E; Kreier, F; Voshol, P J; Havekes, L M; Sauerwein, H P; Kalsbeek, A; Buijs, R M; Romijn, J A

    2003-11-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative physiology of fuel and energy metabolism, eating behaviour and the regulation of hormone secretion and sensitivity. WAT is controlled by humoral factors, para- and intracrine factors and by neural regulation. Sympathetic nerve fibres innervate WAT and stimulate lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and free fatty acids. In addition, recent research in rats has clearly shown a functional parasympathetic innervation of WAT. There appears to be a distinct somatotopy within the parasympathetic nuclei: separate sets of autonomic neurones in the brain stem innervate either the visceral or the subcutaneous fat compartment. We therefore propose that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a major role in the hitherto unexplained regulation of body fat distribution. Parasympathectomy induces insulin resistance with respect to glucose and fatty acid uptake in the innervated fat depot and has selective effects on local hormone synthesis. Thus, the CNS is involved not only in the regulation of hormone production by WAT, but also in its hormone sensitivity. The developments in this research area are likely to increase our insights in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes mellitus type 2 and lipodystrophy syndromes.

  3. Ageing, adipose tissue, fatty acids and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pararasa, Chathyan; Bailey, Clifford J; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of ageing is the alteration in tissue distribution and composition, with a shift in fat away from lower body and subcutaneous depots to visceral and ectopic sites. Redistribution of adipose tissue towards an ectopic site can have dramatic effects on metabolic function. In skeletal muscle, increased ectopic adiposity is linked to insulin resistance through lipid mediators such as ceramide or DAG, inhibiting the insulin receptor signalling pathway. Additionally, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is increased with elevated visceral adipose distribution. In ageing, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, with the pathway of differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes becoming impaired; this results in dysfunctional adipocytes less able to store fat and subsequent fat redistribution to ectopic sites. Low grade systemic inflammation is commonly observed in ageing, and may drive the adipose tissue dysfunction, as proinflammatory cytokines are capable of inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. Beyond increased ectopic adiposity, the effect of impaired adipose tissue function is an elevation in systemic free fatty acids (FFA), a common feature of many metabolic disorders. Saturated fatty acids can be regarded as the most detrimental of FFA, being capable of inducing insulin resistance and inflammation through lipid mediators such as ceramide, which can increase risk of developing atherosclerosis. Elevated FFA, in particular saturated fatty acids, maybe a driving factor for both the increased insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation in older adults.

  4. Altered Metabolic and Stemness Capacity of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells from Obese Mouse and Human

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Laura M.; Bernal, Aurora; de Lucas, Beatriz; San Martin, Nuria; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Gálvez, Beatriz G.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are an appealing source of cells for therapeutic intervention; however, the environment from which ASCs are isolated may impact their usefulness. Using a range of functional assays, we have evaluated whether ASCs isolated from an obese environment are comparable to cells from non-obese adipose tissue. Results showed that ASCs isolated from obese tissue have a reduced proliferative ability and a loss of viability together with changes in telomerase activity and DNA telomere length, suggesting a decreased self-renewal capacity. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial content and function was impaired in obese-derived ASCs resulting in changes in favored oxidative substrates. These findings highlight the impact of obesity on adult stem properties. Hence, caution should be exercised when considering the source of ASCs for cellular therapies since their therapeutic potential may be impaired. PMID:25875023

  5. Altered metabolic and stemness capacity of adipose tissue-derived stem cells from obese mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Laura M; Bernal, Aurora; de Lucas, Beatriz; San Martin, Nuria; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral; Gálvez, Beatriz G

    2015-01-01

    Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are an appealing source of cells for therapeutic intervention; however, the environment from which ASCs are isolated may impact their usefulness. Using a range of functional assays, we have evaluated whether ASCs isolated from an obese environment are comparable to cells from non-obese adipose tissue. Results showed that ASCs isolated from obese tissue have a reduced proliferative ability and a loss of viability together with changes in telomerase activity and DNA telomere length, suggesting a decreased self-renewal capacity. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial content and function was impaired in obese-derived ASCs resulting in changes in favored oxidative substrates. These findings highlight the impact of obesity on adult stem properties. Hence, caution should be exercised when considering the source of ASCs for cellular therapies since their therapeutic potential may be impaired.

  6. Comprehensive qualification and quantification of triacylglycerols with specific fatty acid chain composition in horse adipose tissue, human plasma and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Dai, Dongsheng; Li, Lin; Wei, Jinchao; Yang, Hui; Li, Shilei; Zhang, Yangyang; Lin, Yu; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2017-09-01

    High levels of triacylglycerols (TGs) have been linked to cardiovascular disease and liver diseases. Comprehensively analyzing TGs is helpful to understand the TGs functions in these diseases. However, due to the existence of a large number of isomers TGs and the lack of commercial standards, precise analysis of individual triacylglycerol (TG) with specific fatty acid chain composition is full of challenge. In this work, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) were employed for comprehensive qualification and quantification of TGs with specific fatty acid chain composition in horse adipose tissue, human plasma and liver tissues including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and para-carcinoma tissues. Multiple MS detection modes from QTRAP MS and FT-ICR MS were utilized, and hundreds of TG species (including many oxidized TG species) with their specific fatty acid chain compositions have been qualified and quantified. The isomer TGs interference, the isobaric interference, and oxidized TG species interference were firstly indicated. Several isomer TGs, for example, 18:1/20:1/18:2 TG and 20:3/18:1/18:0 TG, which were all 56:4 TG, demonstrated different trends in HCC tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissue, which showed the importance of analysis of TG with specific fatty acid chain composition. In addition, 10 TGs with the degree of unsaturation beyond three were significantly decreased, while 16:0/17:0/18:0 TG, no double bond, was significantly increased in the HCC tissue, which firstly revealed aberrant specific TG metabolism in HCC. This is a systematic report about comprehensive analysis of TGs by UPLC-ESI-MS, which is of significance for accurate analysis of these lipids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bahler, L; Molenaars, R J; Verberne, H J; Holleman, F

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to convert calories into heat rather than storing them. Therefore, activated BAT could be a potential target in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in the activation of human BAT. Although the number of studies focusing on BAT in humans is limited, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in BAT activation is evident. Metabolic BAT activity can be visualized with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, whereas sympathetic activation of BAT can be visualized with nuclear-medicine techniques using different radiopharmaceuticals. Also, interruption of the sympathetic nerves leading to BAT activation diminishes sympathetic stimulation, resulting in reduced metabolic BAT activity. Furthermore, both β- and α-adrenoceptors might be important in the stimulation process of BAT, as pretreatment with propranolol or α-adrenoceptor blockade also diminishes BAT activity. In contrast, high catecholamine levels are known to activate and recruit BAT. There are several interventional studies in which BAT was successfully inhibited, whereas only one interventional study aiming to activate BAT resulted in the intended outcome. Most studies have focused on the SNS for activating BAT, although the parasympathetic nervous system might also be a target of interest. To better define the possible role of BAT in strategies to combat the obesity epidemic, it seems likely that future studies focusing on both histology and imaging are essential for identifying the factors and receptors critical for activation of human BAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; Ficarella, Romina; Peschechera, Alessandro; Nigro, Pasquale; Giorgino, Francesco

    2012-12-10

    Stem cells are unique cells exhibiting self-renewing properties and the potential to differentiate into multiple specialised cell types. Totipotent or pluripotent stem cells are generally abundant in embryonic or fetal tissues, but the use of discarded embryos as sources of these cells raises challenging ethical problems. Adult stem cells can also differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. In particular, adult adipose tissue contains a pool of abundant and accessible multipotent stem cells, designated as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), that are able to replicate as undifferentiated cells, to develop as mature adipocytes and to differentiate into multiple other cell types along the mesenchymal lineage, including chondrocytes, myocytes and osteocytes, and also into cells of endodermal and neuroectodermal origin, including beta-cells and neurons, respectively. An impairment in the differentiation potential and biological functions of ASCs may contribute to the development of obesity and related comorbidities. In this review, we summarise different aspects of the ASCs with special reference to the isolation and characterisation of these cell populations, their relation to the biochemical features of the adipose tissue depot of origin and to the metabolic characteristics of the donor subject and discuss some prospective therapeutic applications.

  9. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. miR-21 modulates tumor outgrowth induced by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Keun Koo; Lee, Ae Lim; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Young; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-21 modulates hADSC-induced increase of tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The action is mostly mediated by the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of miR-21 enhances the blood flow recovery in hindlimb ischemia. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical situations, due principally to their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs remains limited, unless the favorable effects of MSCs on tumor growth in vivo, and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs, can be more thoroughly understood. In this study, we determined whether microRNAs can modulate MSC-induced tumor outgrowth in BALB/c nude mice. Overexpression of miR-21 in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) inhibited hADSC-induced tumor growth, and inhibition of miR-21 increased it. Downregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2), but not of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, in hADSCs showed effects similar to those of miR-21 overexpression. Downregulation of TGFBR2 and overexpression of miR21 decreased tumor vascularity. Inhibition of miR-21 and the addition of TGF-{beta} increased the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in hADSCs. Transplantation of miR-21 inhibitor-transfected hADSCs increased blood flow recovery in a hind limb ischemia model of nude mice, compared with transplantation of control oligo-transfected cells. These findings indicate that MSCs might favor tumor growth in vivo. Thus, it is necessary to study the long-term safety of this technique before MSCs can be used as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  11. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  12. [Kidney, adipose tissue, adipocytes--what's new?].

    PubMed

    Lafontan, Max

    2011-04-01

    Increased evidence suggests that obesity-related glomerulopathy and chronic kidney diseases should be identified as isolated complications of obesity. It is questioned if the numerous adipose tissue productions could play a role in the initiation/maintenance of such kidney diseases. This review will provide a sum-up of recent advances on fat cell metabolism and adipose tissue physiology. The adipose tissue behaves as an endocrine organ with multiple activities. It is secreting hormones (leptin, adiponectin, apelin) and numerous factors with autocrine, paracrine and systemic effects. These secretions are coming from adipocytes themselves or from cells present in the stroma-vascular fraction of the adipose tissue. When expanding, the adipose tissue of the obese is infiltrated by immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes; the role of which is not fully clarified. An attempt will be done to delineate if alterations of lipid storage/fatty acid release or of the secretion potencies of adipose tissue could contribute to kidney lipotoxicity and other chronic kidney diseases described in the obese. Copyright © 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. De novo RNA sequence assembly during in vivo inflammatory stress reveals hundreds of unannotated lincRNAs in human blood CD14+ monocytes and in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chenyi; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Hanrui; Ferguson, Jane F; Wang, Ying; Hinkle, Christine; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-04-07

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of cellular functions and physiology. Yet functional lincRNAs often have low, context-specific and tissue-specific expression. We hypothesized that many human monocyte and adipose lincRNAs would be absent in current public annotations due to lincRNA tissue specificity, modest sequencing depth in public data, limitations of transcriptome assembly algorithms and lack of dynamic physiological contexts. Deep RNA-seq was performed in peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes (monocytes; average ~247 million reads per sample) and adipose tissue (average ~378 million reads per sample) collected before and after human experimental endotoxemia, an in vivo inflammatory stress, to identify tissue-specific and clinically relevant lincRNAs. Using a stringent filtering pipeline, we identified 109 unannotated lincRNAs in monocytes and 270 unannotated lincRNAs in adipose. Most unannotated lincRNAs are not conserved in rodents and are tissue-specific while many have features of regulated expression and are enriched in transposable elements. Specific subsets have enhancer RNA characteristics or are expressed only during inflammatory stress. A subset of unannotated lincRNAs were validated and replicated for their presence and inflammatory induction in independent human samples and for their monocyte and adipocyte origins. Through interrogation of public genome-wide association data, we also found evidence of specific disease association for selective unannotated lincRNAs. Our findings highlight the critical need to perform deep RNA-seq in a cell-, tissue- and context- specific manner in order to annotate the full repertoire of human lincRNAs for a complete understanding of lincRNA roles in dynamic cell functions and in human disease.

  14. Porous decellularized adipose tissue foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Claire; Bianco, Juares; Brown, Cody; Fuetterer, Lydia; Watkins, John F; Samani, Abbas; Flynn, Lauren E

    2013-04-01

    To design tissue-specific bioscaffolds with well-defined properties and 3-D architecture, methods were developed for preparing porous foams from enzyme-solubilized human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). Additionally, a technique was established for fabricating "bead foams" comprised of interconnected networks of porous DAT beads fused through a controlled freeze-thawing and lyophilization procedure. In characterization studies, the foams were stable without the need for chemical crosslinking, with properties that could be tuned by controlling the protein concentration and freezing rate during synthesis. Adipogenic differentiation studies with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) suggested that stiffness influenced ASC adipogenesis on the foams. In support of our previous work with DAT scaffolds and microcarriers, the DAT foams and bead foams strongly supported adipogenesis and were also adipo-inductive, as demonstrated by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, endpoint RT-PCR analysis of adipogenic gene expression, and intracellular lipid accumulation. Adipogenic differentiation was enhanced on the microporous DAT foams, potentially due to increased cell-cell interactions in this group. In vivo assessment in a subcutaneous Wistar rat model demonstrated that the DAT bioscaffolds were well tolerated and integrated into the host tissues, supporting angiogenesis and adipogenesis. The DAT-based foams induced a strong angiogenic response, promoted inflammatory cell migration and gradually resorbed over the course of 12 weeks, demonstrating potential as scaffolds for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration.

  15. Effects of expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the viability of cryopreserved fat grafts in the nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Ko, Myung-Soon; Jung, Ji-Youl; Shin, Il-Seob; Choi, Eun-Wha; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan

    2011-03-14

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70 °C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.

  16. Effects of Expanded Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Grafts in the Nude Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Myung-Soon; Jung, Ji-Youl; Shin, Il-Seob; Choi, Eun-Wha; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan

    2011-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70°C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells. PMID:21448310

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced ADAM12 expression mediates human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Do, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Mi; Heo, Soon Chul; Kwon, Yang Woo; Shin, Sang Hun; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Yoon, Man-Soo; Kim, Jae Ho

    2012-11-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in mesenchymal stem cell-stimulated tumor growth in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism by which mesenchymal stem cells promote tumorigenesis remains elusive. In the present study, we demonstrate that conditioned medium from A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 CM) induced the expression of ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloproteases family member, in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). A549 CM-stimulated ADAM12 expression was abrogated by pretreatment of hASCs with the LPA receptor 1 inhibitor Ki16425 or by small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of LPA receptor 1, suggesting a key role for the LPA-LPA receptor 1 signaling axis in A549 CM-stimulated ADAM12 expression. Silencing of ADAM12 expression using small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA abrogated LPA-induced expression of both α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, and ADAM12 in hASCs. Using a xenograft transplantation model of A549 cells, we demonstrated that silencing of ADAM12 inhibited the hASC-stimulated in vivo growth of A549 xenograft tumors and the differentiation of transplanted hASCs to α-smooth muscle actin-positive carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. LPA-conditioned medium from hASCs induced the adhesion of A549 cells and silencing of ADAM12 inhibited LPA-induced expression of extracellular matrix proteins, periostin and βig-h3, in hASCs and LPA-conditioned medium-stimulated adhesion of A549 cells. These results suggest a pivotal role for LPA-stimulated ADAM12 expression in tumor growth and the differentiation of hASCs to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin, periostin, and βig-h3.

  18. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L; Saltiel, Alan R; Chandler, William F; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly.

  19. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292

  20. UCP1 in adipose tissues: two steps to full browning.

    PubMed

    Kalinovich, Anastasia V; de Jong, Jasper M A; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues. Contrastingly, in another step, if the process is followed starting with mice initially housed at 30 °C (thermoneutrality for mice, thus similar to normal human conditions), large increases in UCP1 gene expression and UCP1 protein abundance are observed in the classical brown adipose tissue depots; there is then practically no observable UCP1 gene expression in brite/beige tissues. This apparent conundrum can be resolved when it is realized that the classical brown adipose tissue at 21 °C is already essentially fully differentiated and thus expands extensively through proliferation upon further browning induction, rather than by further enhancing cellular differentiation. When the limiting factor for thermogenesis, i.e. the total amount of UCP1 protein per depot, is analyzed, classical brown adipose tissue is by far the predominant site for the browning process, irrespective of which of the two steps is analyzed. There are to date no published data demonstrating that alternative browning agents would selectively promote brite/beige tissues

  1. Brain-adipose tissue neural crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Bartness, Timothy J; Song, C Kay

    2007-07-24

    The preponderance of basic obesity research focuses on its development as affected by diet and other environmental factors, genetics and their interactions. By contrast, we have been studying the reversal of a naturally-occurring seasonal obesity in Siberian hamsters. In the course of this work, we determined that the sympathetic innervation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is the principal initiator of lipid mobilization not only in these animals, but in all mammals including humans. We present irrefutable evidence for the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation of WAT with respect to neuroanatomy (including its central origins as revealed by transneuronal viral tract tracers), neurochemistry (norepinephrine turnover studies) and function (surgical and chemical denervation). A relatively unappreciated role of WAT SNS innervation also is reviewed--the control of fat cell proliferation as shown by selective chemical denervation that triggers adipocyte proliferation, although the precise mechanism by which this occurs presently is unknown. There is no, however, equally strong evidence for the parasympathetic innervation of this tissue; indeed, the data largely are negative severely questioning its existence and importance. Convincing evidence also is given for the sensory innervation of WAT (as shown by tract tracing and by markers for sensory nerves in WAT), with suggestive data supporting a possible role in conveying information on the degree of adiposity to the brain. Collectively, these data offer an additional or alternative view to the predominate one of the control of body fat stores via circulating factors that serve as efferent and afferent communicators.

  2. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Gillberg, Linn; Jørgensen, Sine W; Brøns, Charlotte; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Jansson, Per-Anders; Nilsson, Emma; Rönn, Tina; Vaag, Allan; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI), lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT) demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys)metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and

  3. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H.; Gillberg, Linn; Jørgensen, Sine W.; Brøns, Charlotte; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Jansson, Per-Anders; Nilsson, Emma; Rönn, Tina; Vaag, Allan; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI), lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT) demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dys)metabolic traits associated with the development of obesity and

  4. Adipose tissue attracts and protects acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Rocky; Sheng, Xia; Ichihara, Brian; Heisterkamp, Nora; Mittelman, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse. Using mouse and cell co-culture models, we investigated whether adipose tissue attracts ALL to a protective microenvironment. Syngeneically implanted ALL cells migrated into adipose tissue within ten days. In vitro, murine ALL cells migrated towards adipose tissue explants and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Human and mouse ALL cells migrated toward adipocyte conditioned media, which was mediated by SDF-1α. In addition, adipose tissue explants protected ALL cells against daunorubicin and vincristine. Our findings suggest that ALL migration into adipose tissue could contribute to drug resistance and potentially relapse. PMID:23332453

  5. Comparison of molecular profiles of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Heo, June Seok; Choi, Youjeong; Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are clinically useful due to their capacity for self-renewal, their immunomodulatory properties and tissue regenerative potential. These cells can be isolated from various tissues and exhibit different potential for clinical applications according to their origin, and thus comparative studies on MSCs from different tissues are essential. In this study, we investigated the immunophenotype, proliferative potential, multilineage differentiation and immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs derived from different tissue sources, namely bone marrow, adipose tissue, the placenta and umbilical cord blood. The gene expression profiles of stemness-related genes [octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), sex determining region Y-box (SOX)2, MYC, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), NANOG, LIN28 and REX1] and lineage‑related and differentiation stage-related genes [B4GALNT1 (GM2/GS2 synthase), inhibin, beta A (INHBA), distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), proliferator‑activated receptor gamma (PPARG), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPA), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and SOX9] were compared using RT-PCR. No significant differences in growth rate, colony-forming efficiency and immunophenotype were observed. Our results demonstrated that MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue shared not only in vitro tri-lineage differentiation potential, but also gene expression profiles. While there was considerable inter-donor variation in DLX5 expression between MSCs derived from different tissues, its expression appears to be associated with the osteogenic potential of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) significantly inhibited allogeneic T cell proliferation possibly via the high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL10 and TGFB1. Although MSCs derived from different tissues and fibroblasts share many characteristics, some of the marker genes, such as B4GALNT1 and DLX5 may be useful for

  6. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES IN HUMAN ADIPOSE TISSUE AND BREAST MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examining the enantiomeric patterns of pesticides can provide a sensitive indicator of biological degradation. However, little work has been done to date on chiral pesticides in the human body. This study looks at the enantiomeric patterns of chiral pesticides and their chira...

  7. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly.

  8. Regulation of CD163 mRNA and soluble CD163 protein in human adipose tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fjeldborg, Karen; Møller, Holger J; Richelsen, Bjørn; Pedersen, Steen B

    2014-10-01

    CD163-positive macrophages are highly expressed in the human adipose tissue (AT) particularly from obese individuals. However, little is known about the regulation of CD163 mRNA and the protein level of sCD163 in human AT. We aimed to examine the regulation of CD163 and sCD163 in AT. Human s.c. AT samples (n=5) were stimulated with dexamethasone (DEX; 200  nmol/l), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100  ng/ml), or DEX+LPS for various time periods up to 24  h. Gene expressions of CD163, ADAM17, IL10, and TNFA (TNF) were measured by RT-PCR. Protein levels of sCD163, IL10, and TNFα (TNF) were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, AT was separated into stromal and adipocyte fraction. We found that CD163 mRNA was strongly expressed in the stromal vascular fraction but hardly detectable in the isolated adipocytes. Incubating whole AT with DEX significantly up-regulated CD163 (P<0.001), whereas incubation with LPS had no effects on CD163 (P>0.05). By contrast, the protein level of sCD163 was not affected by DEX (P>0.05), but LPS significantly increased the level of sCD163 and TNFα (P<0.05). This might be due to the concomitant LPS stimulation of ADAM17, which is known to mediate shedding of the extracellular domains of sCD163 and TNFα. Finally, DEX significantly reduced the LPS-induced TNFα release to the incubation medium but had no effects on sCD163. We conclude that the expression of CD163 and the release of sCD163 are differentially regulated in human AT. Moreover, similar to studies on differentiated blood monocytes, TNFα and sCD163 are concomitantly released in human AT by LPS, which also up-regulate ADAM17. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Absence of humoral mediated 5′AMP-activated protein kinase activation in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Johnsen, Anders Bo; Birk, Jesper B; Nielsen, Jakob Nis; Jensen, Bente Rona; Hellsten, Ylva; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2007-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) exists as a heterotrimer comprising a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. The AMPK system is activated under conditions of cellular stress, indicated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio, as observed, e.g. in muscles during contractile activity. AMPK was originally thought to be activated only by local intracellular mechanisms. However, recently it has become apparent that AMPK in mammals is also regulated by humoral substances, e.g. catecholamines. We studied whether humoral factors released during exercise regulate AMPK activity in contracting and resting muscles as well as in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans. In resting leg muscle and adipose tissue the AMPK activity was not up-regulated by humoral factors during one-legged knee extensor exercise even when arm cranking exercise, inducing a ∼20-fold increase in plasma catecholamine level, was added simultaneously. In exercising leg muscle the AMPK activity was increased by one-legged knee extensor exercise eliciting a whole body respiratory load of only 30% but was not further increased by adding arm cranking exercise. In conclusion, during exercise with combined leg kicking and arm cranking, the AMPK activity in human skeletal muscle is restricted to contracting muscle without influence of marked increased catecholamine levels. Also, with this type of exercise the catecholamines or other humoral factors do not seem to be physiological regulators of AMPK in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. PMID:17962330

  10. Brown adipose tissue in humans: detection and functional analysis using PET (positron emission tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and DECT (dual energy computed tomography).

    PubMed

    Borga, Magnus; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Romu, Thobias; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Persson, Anders; Nuutila, Pirjo; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    If the beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) on whole body metabolism, as observed in nonhuman experimental models, are to be translated to humans, tools that accurately measure how BAT influences human metabolism will be required. This chapter discusses such techniques, how they can be used, what they can measure and also some of their limitations. The focus is on detection and functional analysis of human BAT and how this can be facilitated by applying advanced imaging technology such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual energy computed tomography. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A stringent validation of mouse adipose tissue identity markers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Larsson, Ola; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-06-15

    The nature of brown adipose tissue in humans is presently debated: whether it is classical brown or of brite/beige nature. The dissimilar developmental origins and proposed distinct functions of the brown and brite/beige tissues make it essential to ascertain the identity of human depots with the perspective of recruiting and activating them for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. For identification of the tissues, a number of marker genes have been proposed, but the validity of the markers has not been well documented. We used established brown (interscapular), brite (inguinal), and white (epididymal) mouse adipose tissues and corresponding primary cell cultures as validators and examined the informative value of a series of suggested markers earlier used in the discussion considering the nature of human brown adipose tissue. Most of these markers unexpectedly turned out to be noninformative concerning tissue classification (Car4, Cited1, Ebf3, Eva1, Fbxo31, Fgf21, Lhx8, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9). Only Zic1 (brown), Cd137, Epsti1, Tbx1, Tmem26 (brite), and Tcf21 (white) proved to be informative in these three tissues. However, the expression of the brite markers was not maintained in cell culture. In a more extensive set of adipose depots, these validated markers provide new information about depot identity. Principal component analysis supported our single-gene conclusions. Furthermore, Zic1, Hoxc8, Hoxc9, and Tcf21 displayed anteroposterior expression patterns, indicating a relationship between anatomic localization and adipose tissue identity (and possibly function). Together, the observed expression patterns of these validated marker genes necessitates reconsideration of adipose depot identity in mice and humans.

  12. Unveiling the Differences of Secretome of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells, and Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells: A Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Ana O; Mendes-Pinheiro, Barbara; Teixeira, Fábio G; Anjo, Sandra I; Ribeiro-Samy, Silvina; Gomes, Eduardo D; Serra, Sofia C; Silva, Nuno A; Manadas, Bruno; Sousa, Nuno; Salgado, Antonio J

    2016-07-15

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy for CNS-related conditions. Research in the last decade strongly suggests that MSC-mediated benefits are closely related with their secretome. Studies published in recent years have shown that the secretome of hMSCs isolated from different tissue sources may present significant variation. With this in mind, the present work performed a comparative proteomic-based analysis through mass spectrometry on the secretome of hMSCs derived from bone marrow (BMSCs), adipose tissue (ASCs), and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs). The results revealed that BMSCs, ASCs, and HUCPVCs differed in their secretion of neurotrophic, neurogenic, axon guidance, axon growth, and neurodifferentiative proteins, as well as proteins with neuroprotective actions against oxidative stress, apoptosis, and excitotoxicity, which have been shown to be involved in several CNS disorder/injury processes. Although important changes were observed within the secretome of the cell populations that were analyzed, all cell populations shared the capability of secreting important neuroregulatory molecules. The difference in their secretion pattern may indicate that their secretome is specific to a condition of the CNS. Nevertheless, the confirmation that the secretome of MSCs isolated from different tissue sources is rich in neuroregulatory molecules represents an important asset not only for the development of future neuroregenerative strategies but also for their use as a therapeutic option for human clinical trials.

  13. Adipocyte Pseudohypoxia Suppresses Lipolysis and Facilitates Benign Adipose Tissue Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Nicholas M.; Moreno Navarrete, José Maria; West, Christopher C.; Stewart, Kenneth J.; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Schofield, Christopher J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHDs) sense cellular oxygen upstream of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, leading to HIF degradation in normoxic conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that adipose PHD2 inhibition plays a key role in the suppression of adipocyte lipolysis. Adipose Phd2 gene ablation in mice enhanced adiposity, with a parallel increase in adipose vascularization associated with reduced circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels and normal glucose homeostasis. Phd2 gene–depleted adipocytes exhibited lower basal lipolysis in normoxia and reduced β-adrenergic–stimulated lipolysis in both normoxia and hypoxia. A selective PHD inhibitor suppressed lipolysis in murine and human adipocytes in vitro and in vivo in mice. PHD2 genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition attenuated protein levels of the key lipolytic effectors hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), suggesting a link between adipocyte oxygen sensing and fatty acid release. PHD2 mRNA levels correlated positively with mRNA levels of AB-hydrolase domain containing-5, an activator of ATGL, and negatively with mRNA levels of lipid droplet proteins, perilipin, and TIP47 in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Therapeutic pseudohypoxia caused by PHD2 inhibition in adipocytes blunts lipolysis and promotes benign adipose tissue expansion and may have therapeutic applications in obesity or lipodystrophy. PMID:25377876

  14. Brown adipose tissue is involved in diet-induced thermogenesis and whole-body fat utilization in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, M; Oishi, S; Matsushita, M; Yoneshiro, T; Yamaguchi, T; Usui, C; Yasunaga, K; Katsuragi, Y; Kubota, K; Tanaka, S; Saito, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target against obesity and diabetes through thermogenesis and substrate disposal with cold exposure. The role of BAT in energy metabolism under thermoneutral conditions, however, remains controversial. We assessed the contribution of BAT to energy expenditure (EE), particularly diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and substrate utilization in human adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, BAT activity was evaluated in 21 men using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) after cold exposure (19 °C). The subjects were divided into BAT-positive (n=13) and BAT-negative (n=8) groups according to the 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings. Twenty-four hour EE, DIT and respiratory quotient were measured using a whole-room indirect calorimeter at 27 °C. Results: Body composition, blood metabolites and 24-h EE did not differ between groups. DIT (%), calculated as DIT divided by total energy intake, however, was significantly higher in the BAT-positive group (BAT-positive: 9.7±2.5%, BAT-negative: 6.5±4.0%, P=0.03). The 24-h respiratory quotient was significantly lower (P=0.03) in the BAT-positive group (0.861±0.027) than in the BAT-negative group (0.889±0.024). Conclusion: DIT and fat utilization were higher in BAT-positive subjects compared to BAT-negative subjects, suggesting that BAT has a physiologic role in energy metabolism. PMID:27430878

  15. Human Adipose Stem Cells Differentiated on Braided Polylactide Scaffolds Is a Potential Approach for Tendon Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Vuornos, Kaisa; Björninen, Miina; Talvitie, Elina; Paakinaho, Kaarlo; Kellomäki, Minna; Huhtala, Heini; Miettinen, Susanna; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Haimi, Suvi

    2016-03-01

    Growing number of musculoskeletal defects increases the demand for engineered tendon. Our aim was to find an efficient strategy to produce tendon-like matrix in vitro. To allow efficient differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) toward tendon tissue, we tested different medium compositions, biomaterials, and scaffold structures in preliminary tests. This is the first study to report that medium supplementation with 50 ng/mL of growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and 280 μM l-ascorbic acid are essential for tenogenic differentiation of hASCs. Tenogenic medium (TM) was shown to significantly enhance tendon-like matrix production of hASCs compared to other tested media groups. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and tenogenic differentiation of hASCs were supported on braided poly(l/d)lactide (PLA) 96l/4d copolymer filament scaffolds in TM condition compared to foamed poly(l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) 70L/30CL scaffolds. A uniform cell layer formed on braided PLA 96/4 scaffolds when hASCs were cultured in TM compared to maintenance medium (MM) condition after 14 days of culture. Furthermore, total collagen content and gene expression of tenogenic marker genes were significantly higher in TM condition after 2 weeks of culture. The elastic modulus of PLA 96/4 scaffold was more similar to the elastic modulus reported for native Achilles tendon. Our study showed that the optimized TM is needed for efficient and rapid in vitro tenogenic extracellular matrix production of hASCs. PLA 96/4 scaffolds together with TM significantly stimulated hASCs, thus demonstrating the potential clinical relevance of this novel and emerging approach to tendon injury treatments in the future.

  16. Transcriptional Networks in Single Perivascular Cells Sorted from Human Adipose Tissue Reveal a Hierarchy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hardy, W Reef; Moldovan, Nicanor I; Moldovan, Leni; Livak, Kenneth J; Datta, Krishna; Goswami, Chirayu; Corselli, Mirko; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Murray, Iain R; Péault, Bruno; March, Keith

    2017-02-24

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD31(-) /CD45(-) /CD34(+) /CD146(-) cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells [ASCs]) and CD31(-) /CD45(-) /CD34(-) /CD146(+) cells (pericytes [PCs]). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses. To this end, the stromal vascular fraction from a human lipoaspirate was simultaneously stained with fluorescent antibodies to CD31, CD45, CD34, and CD146 antigens and the ALDH substrate Aldefluor, then sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Individual ASCs (n = 67) and PCs (n = 73) selected from the extremities of the ALDH-staining spectrum were transcriptionally profiled by Fluidigm single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a predefined set (n = 429) of marker genes. To these single-cell data, we applied differential expression and principal component and clustering analysis, as well as an original gene coexpression network reconstruction algorithm. Despite the stochasticity at the single-cell level, covariation of gene expression analysis yielded multiple network connectivity parameters suggesting that these perivascular progenitor cell subclasses possess the following order of maturity: (a) ALDH(br) ASC (most primitive); (b) ALDH(dim) ASC; (c) ALDH(br) PC; (d) ALDH(dim) PC (least primitive). This order was independently supported by specific combinations of class-specific expressed genes and further confirmed by the analysis of associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, single-cell transcriptional analysis of four populations isolated from fat by surface markers and enzyme activity suggests a developmental hierarchy among perivascular mesenchymal stem cells supported by markers and

  17. Comparative Analysis of Apoptotic Resistance of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Human Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ertaş, Gökhan; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek; Aksoy, Ayça; Kozdağ, Güliz; Gacar, Gülçin; Karaöz, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human bone marrow (hBM) and adipose tissue (hAT) are perceived as attractive sources of stem cells for cell therapy. The aim of this study was to compare MSCs from hBM and hAT for their immunocytochemistry staining and resistance to in vitro apoptosis. Methods. In our study, we investigated the antiapoptotic ability of these MSCs toward oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and serum deprivation. Results were assessed by MTT and flow cytometry. All experiments were repeated a minimum of three times. Results. Flow cytometry and MTT analysis revealed that hAT-MSCs exhibited a higher resistance toward H2O2-induced apoptosis (n = 3, hBM-hAT viability H2O2  58.43 ± 1.24–73.02 ± 1.44, P < 0.02) and to serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis at days 1 and 4 than the hBM-MSCs (n = 3, hAT-hBM absorbance, resp., day 1: 0.305 ± 0.027–0.234 ± 0.015, P = 0.029, day 4: 0.355 ± 0.003–0.318 ± 0.007, P = 0.001, and day 7: 0.400 ± 0.017–0.356 ± 0.008, P = 0.672). hAT-MSCs showed superior tolerance to oxidative stress triggered by 2 mmol/L H2O2 and also have superior antiapoptosis capacity toward serum-free culture. Conclusion. In this study we found that hAT-MSCs are more resistant to in vitro apoptosis. PMID:22619573

  18. Transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons in deaf guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujeong; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Bum; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Excessive noise, ototoxic drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, and aging can cause loss of spiral ganglion neurons, leading to permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Stem cells have been confirmed to be able to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. Little has been reported on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of neural induced-human ADSCs (NI-hADSCs) can repair the injured spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pigs with neomycin-induced sensorineural hearing loss. NI-hADSCs were induced with culture medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin and then injected to the injured cochleae. Guinea pigs that received injection of Hanks' balanced salt solution into the cochleae were used as controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the number of surviving spiral ganglion neurons in the cell transplantation group was significantly increased than that in the control group. Also at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that a greater number of NI-hADSCs in the spiral ganglions were detected in the cell transplantation group than in the control group, and these NI-hADSCs expressed neuronal markers neurofilament protein and microtubule-associated protein 2. Within 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the guinea pigs in the cell transplantation group had a gradually decreased auditory brainstem response threshold, while those in the control group had almost no response to 80 dB of clicks or pure tone burst. These findings suggest that a large amount of NI-hADSCs migrated to the spiral ganglions, survived for a period of time, repaired the injured spiral ganglion cells, and thereby contributed to the recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in guinea pigs.

  19. Determinants of Human Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: Impact of Diet, Sex, Metabolic Status, and Cis Genetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José; Roussel, Balbine; Combes, Marion; Valle, Carine; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Iacovoni, Jason S.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Vidal, Hubert; Clément, Karine; Hager, Jorg; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases. PMID:23028366

  20. Differences in the redox status of human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues--relationships to obesity and metabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Aleksandra; Srdic-Galic, Biljana; Buzadzic, Biljana; Otasevic, Vesna; Stancic, Ana; Vucetic, Milica; Markelic, Milica; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Korac, Bato

    2014-05-01

    Metabolic homeostasis depends on adipocyte metabolic responses/processes, most of which are redox-regulated. Besides, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT, respectively) differ metabolically and in their contribution to metabolic complications, but their redox characteristics in humans are still unknown. To understand the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome development, we analysed the redox characteristics of VAT and SAT in groups with various body weights and metabolic risks. Fifty premenopausal women were classified according to body mass index into normal-weight and obese groups, and these groups were further sub-classified into metabolically healthy and metabolically obese ("at risk") based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and the triglyceride, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels. Antioxidant components, NADPH oxidase protein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels were analysed in VAT and SAT. Compared with the SAT, the VAT showed a higher basal level of glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzyme activities. Compared with the metabolically healthy normal-weight controls, the obese groups of women showed lower GSH levels in both depots. However, in these groups, additional prooxidative changes (increased NADPH oxidase and 4-HNE and decreased levels of SOD and/or CAT) were observed only in VAT. Because of the critical role of thiol-redox homeostasis in lipogenesis, interdepot-differences in the GSH-dependent antioxidant part may be connected to the higher metabolic activity found in VAT. Analogously, the lower GSH levels that occur during obesity and the corresponding additional redox imbalance may be signs of VAT metabolic dysfunction that underlie the subsequent metabolic impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin

  2. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via 'browning' of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin regulation

  3. Storage of Circulating Free Fatty Acid in Adipose Tissue of Postabsorptive Humans

    PubMed Central

    Koutsari, Christina; Ali, Asem H.; Mundi, Manpreet S.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preferential upper-body fat gain, a typical male pattern, is associated with a greater cardiometabolic risk. Regional differences in lipolysis and meal fat storage cannot explain sex differences in body fat distribution. We examined the potential role of the novel free fatty acid (FFA) storage pathway in determining body fat distribution in postabsorptive humans and whether adipocyte lipogenic proteins (CD36, acyl-CoA synthetases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) predict differences in FFA storage. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rates of postabsorptive FFA (palmitate) storage into upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) and lower-body subcutaneous (LBSQ) fat were measured in 28 men and 53 premenopausal women. Stable and radiolabeled palmitate tracers were intravenously infused followed by subcutaneous fat biopsies. Body composition was assessed with a combination of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. RESULTS Women had greater FFA (palmitate) storage than men in both UBSQ (0.37 ± 0.15 vs. 0.27 ± 0.18 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P = 0.0001) and LBSQ (0.42 ± 0.19 vs. 0.22 ± 0.11 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P < 0.0001) fat. Palmitate storage rates were significantly greater in LBSQ than UBSQ fat in women, whereas the opposite was true in men. Plasma palmitate concentration positively predicted palmitate storage in both depots and sexes. Adipocyte CD36 content predicted UBSQ palmitate storage and sex-predicted storage in LBSQ fat. Palmitate storage rates per kilogram fat did not decrease as a function of fat mass, whereas lipolysis did. CONCLUSIONS The FFA storage pathway, which had remained undetected in postabsorptive humans until recently, can have considerable, long-term, and sex-specific effects on body fat distribution. It can also offer a way of protecting the body from excessive circulating FFA in obesity. PMID:21659500

  4. [New anatomo clinic approach of adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Dardour, J-C

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, adipose tissue was supposed to be inert with only a function of long-term energetic reserve. The obesity, abnormal accumulation of fat, for its part has always been considered the sole result of hyperphagia, itself secondary to a lack of willingness of the subject. This article focuses on the multiple aspects and functions of the different fatty tissues. One must distinguish brown adipose tissue (AT) and the white AT. This includes visceral fat and subcutaneous AT, which itself is divided into two sectors, a genetic fat and grease that we called ecological. The brown adipose tissue has essentially a function of thermogenesis. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), from a certain volume, behaves as true endocrine gland acting on glycemic and lipid function. In addition to its role of energy reserve, the sub cutaneous AT has a mechanical role of shock absorber and fabric slip. We will emphasize finally the genetic aspect still too misunderstood and underestimated that regulates the different functions of the adipose tissue.

  5. Adipose tissue INSR splicing in humans asso