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Sample records for human androgen independent

  1. The PPAR{gamma} ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Patrice E.; Lyles, Besstina E.; Stewart, LaMonica V.

    2010-12-10

    The androgen receptor (AR) regulates growth and progression of androgen-dependent as well as androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonists have been reported to reduce AR activation in androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. To determine whether PPAR{gamma} ligands are equally effective at inhibiting AR activity in androgen-independent prostate cancer, we examined the effect of the PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and rosiglitazone on C4-2 cells, an androgen- independent derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Luciferase-based reporter assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} ligand reduced dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced increases in AR activity in LNCaP cells. However, in C4-2 cells, these compounds increased DHT-induced AR driven luciferase activity. In addition, ciglitazone did not significantly alter DHT-mediated increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein or mRNA levels within C4-2 cells. siRNA-based experiments demonstrated that the ciglitazone-induced regulation of AR activity observed in C4-2 cells was dependent on the presence of PPAR{gamma}. Furthermore, overexpression of the AR corepressor cyclin D1 inhibited the ability of ciglitazone to induce AR luciferase activity in C4-2 cells. Thus, our data suggest that both PPAR{gamma} and cyclin D1 levels influence the ability of ciglitazone to differentially regulate AR signaling in androgen-independent C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

  2. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of some 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives on androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Yakini; Ononiwu, Innocent; Adedeji, Dolapo; Williams, Vonetta; Mouamba, Claudia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Copeland, Robert L; Wright, Dwayne A; Butcher, Ray J; Denmeade, Samuel R; Bakare, Oladapo

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis of five 2-arylnaphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione derivatives was accomplished by refluxing 2-amino-3-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone with appropriate benzoyl chloride analogs at elevated temperatures. In vitro anticancer evaluation of these compounds was performed on androgen-dependent, LNCaP, and androgen-independent, PC3, human prostate cancer cell lines. In general, these compounds displayed slightly stronger cytotoxicity on the androgen-dependent LNCaP than on the androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. The meta-substituted 2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-d]oxazole-4,9-dione (10) appear to display the best cytotoxicity on both cell lines with an IC(50) of 0.03 μM on LNCaP and 0.08 μM on PC3 after 5 days of exposure.

  3. The Role of AKT in Androgen-Independent Progression of Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    mediated iAKT activation promote tumor growth in castrated nude mice. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Prostate Cancer, AKT/Protein Kinase B...United States (1). While digital rectal exams and early prostate specific antigen screening have led to earlier detection and diagnosis, the number of...to determine whether CID-mediated activation of iAKT can lead to survival or proliferation after androgen withdrawal. Finally, LNCaP tumor will be

  4. Chemical Suppression of the Reactivated Androgen Signaling Pathway in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-08

    Prostate Cancer, Castration Resistant Disease, Hedgehog Signaling, Smoothened, Gli, Cyclopamine, Androgen Signaling, Androgen Biosynthesis, Androgen...role of Hedgehog /Gli Signaling in generating the androgen-independent growth phenotype of castration resistant prostate cancer and will test the ability...of drugs that target Hedgehog /Gli as a means to suppress the androgen independent growth behavior associated with castration resistant prostate

  5. p38MAPK activation is involved in androgen-independent proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by regulating IL-6 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Shida, Yohei; Igawa, Tsukasa . E-mail: tigawa@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Hakariya, Tomoaki; Sakai, Hideki; Kanetake, Hiroshi

    2007-02-16

    Increased levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) are frequently observed in patients with advanced, hormone-refractory prostate cancer. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 regulation is still largely unknown. Since prostate cancer gradually progresses to an androgen-independent state despite the stress caused by various therapeutic agents, we hypothesized the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) involvement in androgen-independent growth or IL-6 secretion of prostate cancer cells. Using PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells, we analyzed the role of SAPKs in IL-6 mediated cell growth and found that the p38MAPK and JNK are involved in androgen-independent cancer cell growth. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion by PC-3 and DU145 cells was significantly suppressed by SAPKs inhibitor, especially by p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK inhibitor, PD98059. These results raised the possibility that the IL-6 mediated androgen-independent proliferation of PC-3 and DU145 cells is regulated at least partly via SAPKs signaling pathway especially through p38MAPK activation.

  6. Phenethyl isothiocyanate sensitizes androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells to docetaxel-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Singh, Shivendra Vikram

    2010-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) for sensitization of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (AIPC) to Docetaxel-induced apoptosis using cellular and xenograft models. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Microscopy and DNA fragmentation assay were performed to quantify apoptotic cell death in cultured cells. Protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model was utilized to determine in vivo efficacy of the PEITC and/or Docetaxel treatments. Pharmacologic concentrations of PEITC augmented Docetaxel-induced apoptosis in PC-3 and DU145 cells in association with suppression of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein levels and induction of Bax and Bak. The PEITC-Docetaxel combination was markedly more efficacious against PC-3 xenograft in vivo compared with PEITC or Docetaxel alone. Significantly higher counts of apoptotic bodies were also observed in tumor sections from mice treated with the PEITC-Docetaxel combination compared with PEITC or Docetaxel alone. The PEITC and/or Docetaxel-mediated changes in the levels of apoptosis regulating proteins in the tumor were generally consistent with the molecular alterations observed in cultured cells. These results offer obligatory impetus to test PEITC-Docetaxel combination for the treatment of AIPC in a clinical setting.

  7. The pure anti-androgen bicalutamide inhibits cyclin A expression both in androgen-dependent and -independent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Murashima, Teruko; Saeki, Yoshiko; Nishizawa, Yasuko

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the effects of testosterone and the pure anti-androgen, bicalutamide, on DNA synthesis and cell cycle in androgen-sensitive or -insensitive human and mouse cell lines by 3H-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blotting. In androgen-dependent mouse SC-3 cells, testosterone induced DNA synthesis, shift of cell cycle distribution from G0/G1 to S/G2/M and expression of cyclin A. The induction was preceded by that of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8), and completely blocked by monoclonal antibody to FGF-8. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced cyclin A expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells, but not in androgen-independent cell lines. Bicalutamide almost completely inhibited these androgen-dependent effects both in LNCaP and SC-3 cells, but had no or limited effect on androgen-independent or FGF-8-induced DNA synthesis, and FGF-8 induced cyclin A expression. Interestingly, bicalutamide inhibited both DNA synthesis and the cyclin A expression in androgen-independent human cell lines in serum-free condition. A MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked both androgen- and rFGF-8-induced DNA synthesis. Overall, bicalutamide inhibits the cyclin A expression possibly by inhibiting FGF-8 mRNA expression and FGF-8 protein secretion but not by inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling in androgen-dependent cell lines, and by other mechanisms in androgen-independent cell lines. The results suggest that combination with compounds such as FGFR signalling inhibitors may provide additional benefits to anti-androgens. It is also suggested that cyclin A could be a sensitive marker for androgen-induced cancer growth and for the growth inhibitory effects of anti-androgen.

  8. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter–Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W. K.; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor–promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter–driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers. PMID:27054343

  9. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W K; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.

  10. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Y J; Kim, S J; Danielpour, D; O'Reilly, M A; Kim, K Y; Myers, C E; Trepel, J B

    1992-01-01

    The standard therapy for advanced prostate cancer is androgen ablation. Despite transitory responses, hormonally treated patients ultimately relapse with androgen-independent disease that is resistant to further hormonal manipulation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines. We report here that elevation of intracellular cAMP markedly inhibits the growth of the hormone-refractory cell line PC-3. To examine the mechanism of cAMP action in PC-3 cells, we tested the effect of the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2-cAMP) on the regulation of the potent negative growth factor transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Bt2-cAMP selectively induced the secretion of TGF-beta 2 and not TGF-beta 1 by PC-3 cells. This TGF-beta 2 was shown to be bioactive by using the CCL-64 mink lung cell assay. TGF-beta 1 was not activated despite being present at 3-fold higher concentrations than TGF-beta 2. Northern analysis showed that Bt2-cAMP induced an increase in the five characteristic TGF-beta 2 transcripts and had no effect on the level of TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 3 transcripts. TGF-beta 2 induction was only weakly enhanced by cycloheximide and was completely inhibited by actinomycin D. These data show that Bt2-cAMP induces the expression of active TGF-beta 2 by PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells, suggesting a new approach to the treatment of prostate cancer and a new molecular mechanism of cAMP action. Images PMID:1373503

  11. Androgen Metabolism in Progression to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    related hormones. BJU. Int. 101, 1084- 1089 . Bao,B.Y., Chuang,B.F., Wang,Q., Sartor,O., Balk,S.P., Brown,M., Kantoff,P.W., and Lee,G.S. (2008). Androgen...in castration- resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU. Int. 101, 1084- 1089 . Bao,B.Y., Chuang,B.F

  12. Expression of a hyperactive androgen receptor leads to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Cai, Changmeng; Giwa, Ahmed; Bivins, Aaronica; Chen, Shao-Yong; Sabry, Dina; Govardhan, Kumara; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2008-07-01

    Cellular changes that affect the androgen receptor (AR) can cause prostate cancer to transition from androgen dependent to androgen independent, which is usually lethal. One common change in prostate tumors is overexpression of the AR, which has been shown to lead to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This led us to hypothesize that expression of a hyperactive AR would be sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, stable lune cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell lines were generated, which express a virion phosphoprotein (VP)16-AR hybrid protein that contains full-length AR fused to the strong viral transcriptional activation domain VP16. This fusion protein elicited as much as a 20-fold stronger transcriptional activity than the natural AR. Stable expression of VP16-AR in LNCaP cells yielded androgen-independent cell proliferation, while under the same growth conditions the parental LNCaP cells exhibited only androgen-dependent growth. These results show that expression of a hyperactive AR is sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To study the molecular basis of this enhanced growth, we measured the expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase-alpha1 (sGCalpha1), a subunit of the sGC, an androgen-regulated gene that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, the expression of sGCalpha1 is androgen independent in VP16-AR-expressing cells, in contrast to its androgen-induced expression in control LNCaP cells. RNA(I)-dependent inhibition of sGCalpha1 expression resulted in significantly reduced proliferation of VP16-AR cells, implicating an important role for sGCalpha1 in the androgen-independent growth of these cells.

  13. Androgen Metabolism in Progression to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    by research staff. Dose modifications for toxicity were outlined in the protocol. As mifepristone is metabolized by CYP4503A4, concomitant...phase II study of mifepristone (RU-486) in castration- resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU. Int...due to CYP17A1 blockade and not a toxic effect (Figure 2B). Abiraterone, a more specific CYP17A1 inhibitor, similarly decreased basal PSA and ERG

  14. Androgen Metabolism in Progression to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    levels of AKR1C3 relative to VCaP cells (Fig. 1B). Ketoconazole , an inhibitor of an upstream step in androgen synthesis (CYP17A1), decreases basal PSA...1A, right panel). However, as expected, ketoconazole does not prevent block PSA expression in response to androstenedione. Taken 5 together...Indomethacin (20µM) 0 1 10 100 0 1 10 100 0 1 10 100 DMSO VCaP LNCaP DMSO Ketoconazole (2µM) 0 1 10 100 0 1 10 100 VCaP IDMTHN 433 434 436 + R el at iv

  15. Active Sonic Hedgehog Signaling between Androgen Independent Human Prostate Cancer Cells and Normal/Benign but Not Cancer-Associated Prostate Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Huang, Wen-Chin; Li, Xiangyan; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Zhu, Guodong; Gotoh, Akinobu; Fujisawa, Masato; Xie, Jingwu; Marshall, Fray F.; Chung, Leland W. K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a pivotal role in stromal-epithelial interaction during normal development but its role in tumor-stromal interaction during carcinogenic progression is less well defined. Since hormone refractory prostate cancer with bone metastasis is difficult to treat, it is crucial to investigate how androgen independent (AI) human prostate cancer cells communicate with their associated stroma. METHODS Shh and its target transcription factor, Gli1 mRNA, were assessed by RT-PCR and/or quantitative RT-PCR in co-cultured cell recombinants comprised of AI C4-2 either with NPF (prostate fibroblasts from normal/benign prostate gland) or CPF cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts) under Shh/cyclopamine (a hedgehog signaling inhibitor) treatment. Human bone marrow stromal (HS27A) cells were used as controls. In vivo investigation was performed by checking serum PSA and immunohistochemical staining for the apoptosis-associated M30 gene in mice bearing chimeric C4-2/NPF tumors. RESULTS CONCLUSIONS Based on co-culture and chimeric tumor models, active Shh-mediated signaling was demonstrated between AI prostate cancer and NPF in a paracrine- and tumor progression-dependent manner. Our study suggests that drugs like cyclopamine that interfere with Shh signaling could be beneficial in preventing AI progression in prostate cancer cells. PMID:21520153

  16. Chemical Suppression of the Reactivated Androgen Signaling Pathway in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The project studies the role of Hedgehog/ Gli signaling in generating the androgen growth-independent...behavior of castration resistant prostate cancer and will test the ability of drugs that target Hedgehog or Gli as a means to suppress this behavior...work in Aim 3 will determine the extent to which Gli activity is involved in intratumoral steroidogenesis that supports androgen growth independence of

  17. Kuguacin J, a triterpeniod from Momordica charantia leaf, modulates the progression of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, PC3.

    PubMed

    Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Suzuki, Shugo; Ogawa, Kumiko; Pompimon, Wilart; Takahashi, Satoru; Asamoto, Makoto; Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we focused on the in vitro effects of Kuguacin J (KuJ), a purified component of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) leaf extract (BMLE), on the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the in vivo effect of dietary BMLE on prostate carcinogenesis using a PC3-xenograph model. KuJ exerted a strong growth-inhibitory effect on PC3 cells. Growth inhibition was mainly through G1-arrest: KuJ markedly decreased the levels of cyclins (D1 and E), cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk2 and Cdk4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Interestingly, KuJ also dramatically decreased the levels of survivin expressed by PC3 cells. In addition, KuJ exerted anti-invasive effects on PC3 cells, significantly inhibiting migration and invasion: KuJ inhibited secretion of the active forms of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA by PC3 cells. In addition, KuJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) by PC3 cells. In vivo, 1% and 5% BMLE in the diet resulted in 63% and 57% inhibition of PC3 xenograft growth without adverse effect on host body weight. Our results suggest that KuJ is a promising new candidate chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) cooperate in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in human androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ma, Qi; Luo, JinDan; Liu, Ben; Tan, FuQing; Zhang, ZhiGen; Chen, ZhaoDian

    2009-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PC), which responds well to androgen ablation initially, invariably progresses to treatment resistance. The so-called androgen-independent PC is also a concern, since there is no effective therapy so far. Nkx3.1 is a putative prostate tumor suppressor that is expressed exclusively in the prostate under the regulation of androgen, and p27(KIP1) functions as a cell proliferation inhibitor and apoptosis trigger by disrupting the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-cyclin complex. Lack of expressions of Nkx3.1 and/or p27(KIP1) have been detected in most advanced PC and is associated with poor clinical progression. Here, we show that endogenous expressions of both Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) are lost in the androgen-independent PC3 PC cells, while remaining intact in LNCaP PC cells, which contain functional androgen receptor (AR) and are hormone-responsive. Ectopic restoration of either Nkx3.1 or p27(KIP1) in PC3 cells results in reduced cell proliferation, and increased cell death. Both effects are synergistically enhanced when the two molecules are coexpressed. p27(KIP1) overexpression in PC3 results in increased cell population ceased at the G0/G1 phase, and this cell-cycle-arresting effect is significantly enhanced by the coexpression of Nkx3.1. Flow cytometry further revealed that Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) also cooperatively render more PC3 cells undergoing apoptosis. Consistently, the coexpression of Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) leads to the decreased expression of Bcl-2 oncogene and a concomitantly upregulated Bax expression. It also activates caspase 3 and leads to increased cleavage of PARP. Our findings thus reveal the crucial relevance of the combined antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of Nkx3.1 and p27(KIP1) in androgen-independent PC cells, and further suggest that a combined, rather than single gene manipulation may be of clinical value for hormone-refractory PC.

  19. Oncogenic herpesvirus HHV-8 promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Mygatt, Justin G; Singhal, Adit; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Dalgard, Clifton L; Kaleeba, Johnan A R

    2013-09-15

    Mechanisms underlying progression to androgen-independent prostate cancer following radical ablation therapy remain poorly defined. Although intraprostatic infections have been highlighted as potential cofactors, pathogen influences on pathways that support tumor regrowth are not known. To explore this provocative concept, we derived androgen-sensitive and -insensitive prostate epithelial cells persistently infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), an oncogenic herpesvirus that has been detected in normal prostate epithelium, prostate adenocarcinoma, and biologic fluids of patients with prostate cancer, to explore its effects on transition to hormone-refractory disease. Strikingly, we found that HHV-8 infection of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells conferred the capacity for androgen-independent growth. This effect was associated with altered expression and transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR). However, HHV-8 infection bypassed AR signaling by promoting enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2)-mediated epigenetic silencing of tumor-suppressor genes, including MSMB and DAB2IP that are often inactivated in advanced disease. Furthermore, we found that HHV-8 triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Although HHV-8 has not been linked etiologically to prostate cancer, virologic outcomes revealed by our study provide mechanistic insight into how intraprostatic infections could constitute risk for progression to androgen-independent metastatic disease where EZH2 has been implicated. Taken together, our findings prompt further evaluations of the relationship between HHV-8 infections and risk of advanced prostate cancer.

  20. Distinct Osteomimetic Response of Androgen-Dependent and Independent Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Mechanical Action of Fluid Flow: Prometastatic Implications.

    PubMed

    González, Álvaro; García de Durango, Cira; Alonso, Verónica; Bravo, Beatriz; Rodríguez de Gortázar, Arancha; Wells, Alan; Forteza, Jerónimo; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer frequently expresses an osteomimetic phenotype, but it is unclear how it is regulated and what biological and clinical implications it confers. Because mechanical forces physiologically regulate bone-remodeling activity in osteocytes, we hypothesized that mechanical action of fluid flow (MAFF) at the cancer microenvironment may similarly foster prostate cancer cell osteomimicry. We showed that in vitro MAFF on androgen-dependent (LNCap) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cells remarkably increased OPG, VEGF, RunX2, PTH1R, and PTHrP gene expression in both cell lines irrespective of their androgen dependency. MAFF also altered the cytokine secretion pattern of prostate cancer cells, including Ang2, SCF, and TNFα increase with TRAIL decrease in the supernatant of both cell lines; preferential increase of Leptin and PDGF-BB in LnCap and of VEGF, IL-8, and G-CSF in PC3; and exclusive increase of FGFβ, MIF, and PECAM-1 with HGF decrease in LnCap, and of TGBβ1, HGF, M-CSF, CXCL1, and CCL7 with NGF decrease in PC3. Murine MLO-Y4 osteocyte-conditioned medium (CM) abrogated M-CSF, G-CSG, IL-8, TNFα, and FGFβ secretion-stimulating activity of mechanical stimulation on PC3 cells, and did the opposite effect on LnCap cells. However, MAFF fostered osteomimetic gene expression response of PC3 cells, but not of LnCap cells, to mechanically stimulated osteocyte-CM. Moreover, it abrogated TNFα and IL-8 secretion inhibitory effect of osteocyte-CM on mechanically stimulated PC3 cells and G-CSF, TNFα, and FGFβ-stimulating effect on mechanically stimulated LnCap cells. MAFF activated osteoblast-like phenotype of prostate cancer cells and altered their responses to osteocyte soluble factors. It also induced osteocyte production of osteomimetic gene expression- and cytokine secretion-stimulating factors for prostate cancer cells, particularly, when they were mechanically stimulated. Importantly, MAFF induced a prometastatic response in androgen-independent

  1. Androgen Receptor Variants and Prostate Cancer in Humanized AR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albertelli, Megan A.; O’Mahony, Orla A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Androgen, acting via the androgen receptor (AR), is central to male development, differentiation and hormone-dependent diseases such as prostate cancer. AR is actively involved in the initiation of prostate cancer, the transition to androgen independence, and many mechanisms of resistance to therapy. To examine genetic variation of AR in cancer, we created mice by germ-line gene targeting in which human AR sequence replaces that of the mouse. Since shorter length of a polymorphic N-terminal glutamine (Q) tract has been linked to prostate cancer risk, we introduced alleles with 12, 21 or 48 Qs to test this association. The three “humanized” AR mouse strains (h/mAR) are normal physiologically, as well as by cellular and molecular criteria, although slight differences are detected in AR target gene expression, correlating inversely with Q tract length. However, distinct allele-dependent differences in tumorigenesis are evident when these mice are crossed to a transgenic prostate cancer model. Remarkably, Q tract variation also differentially impacts disease progression following androgen depletion. This finding emphasizes the importance of AR function in androgen-independent as well as –dependent disease. These mice provide a novel genetic paradigm in which to dissect opposing functions of AR in tumor suppression vs. oncogenesis. PMID:17936615

  2. Androgen receptor in human health: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Nanda, Sanjeev; Parray, Aijaz; Saleem, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Androgen is a key for the activation of Androgen Receptor (AR) in most of the disease conditions, however androgen-independent activation of AR is also found in aggressive type human malignancies. An intense search for the inhibitors of AR is underway to cure AR-dependent diseases. In addition to targeting various components of AR signaling pathway, compounds which directly target AR are under preclinical and clinical investigation. Various In vitro and preclinical animal studies suggest that different natural compounds have potential to act against AR. Some natural compounds have been found to be pharmacologically effective against AR irrespective of varying routs of administration viz; oral, intra-peritoneal and intravenous. This mini-review summarizes the studies conducted with different natural agents in determining their pharmacological utility against AR signaling.

  3. Androgen receptor in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Estay, Verónica; Carreño, Daniela V; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Sotomayor, Paula; Godoy, Alejandro S; Smith, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor, and a member of the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptor superfamily, that mediates the biological effects of androgens in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. AR expression was identified in vascular cells nearly 20 years ago, and recent research has shown that AR mediates a variety of actions of androgens in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this mini-review, we review evidence indicating the importance of AR in human endothelial cell (HUVEC) homeostatic and pathogenic processes. Although a role for AR in the modulation of HUVEC biology is evident, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates HUVEC homeostasis and disease processes are not fully understood. Understanding these mechanisms could provide critical insights into the processes of pathogenesis of diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to cancer that are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. PMID:25563353

  4. Estrogen receptor–β activated apoptosis in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the prostate is androgen independent and TNFα mediated

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Stephen J.; Hussain, Shirin; Balanathan, Preetika; Hedwards, Shelley L.; Niranjan, Birunthi; Grant, Michael; Chandrasiri, Upeksha P.; Toivanen, Roxanne; Wang, Yuzhuo; Taylor, Renea A.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are androgen-dependent diseases commonly treated by inhibiting androgen action. However, androgen ablation or castration fail to target androgen-independent cells implicated in disease etiology and recurrence. Mechanistically different to castration, this study shows beneficial proapoptotic actions of estrogen receptor–β (ERβ) in BPH and PCa. ERβ agonist induces apoptosis in prostatic stromal, luminal and castrate-resistant basal epithelial cells of estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out mice. This occurs via extrinsic (caspase-8) pathways, without reducing serum hormones, and perturbs the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. TNFα knock-out mice fail to respond to ERβ agonist, demonstrating the requirement for TNFα signaling. In human tissues, ERβ agonist induces apoptosis in stroma and epithelium of xenografted BPH specimens, including in the CD133+ enriched putative stem/progenitor cells isolated from BPH-1 cells in vitro. In PCa, ERβ causes apoptosis in Gleason Grade 7 xenografted tissues and androgen-independent cells lines (PC3 and DU145) via caspase-8. These data provide evidence of the beneficial effects of ERβ agonist on epithelium and stroma of BPH, as well as androgen-independent tumor cells implicated in recurrent disease. Our data are indicative of the therapeutic potential of ERβ agonist for treatment of PCa and/or BPH with or without androgen withdrawal. PMID:20133657

  5. Targeting Ligand Dependent and Ligand Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    or replace the effect of a natural peptide. A classic example is the human analogue of insulin , admin- istered to patients with insulin - dependent ... diabetes . Initially purified from bovine and porcine (44), insulin is now routinely manufactured via recombinant methods as pro- insulin (45). However...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Ligand Dependent and Ligand Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  6. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists inhibit the proliferation of androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Markus; Schally, Andrew V.; Busto, Rebeca; Bajo, Ana M.; Varga, Jozsef L.

    2003-01-01

    The antiproliferative effects of an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) JV-1-38 were evaluated in nude mice bearing s.c. xenografts of LNCaP and MDA-PCa-2b human androgen-sensitive and DU-145 androgen-independent prostate cancers. In the androgen-sensitive models, JV-1-38 greatly potentiated the antitumor effect of androgen deprivation induced by surgical castration, but was ineffective when given alone. Thus, in castrated animals bearing MDA-PCa-2b cancers, the administration of JV-1-38 for 35 days virtually arrested tumor growth (94% inhibition vs. intact control, P < 0.01; and 75% vs. castrated control, P < 0.05). The growth of LNCaP tumors was also powerfully suppressed by JV-1-38 combined with castration (83% inhibition vs. intact control, P < 0.01; and 68% vs. castrated control, P < 0.05). However, in androgen-independent DU-145 cancers, JV-1-38 alone could inhibit tumor growth by 57% (P < 0.05) after 45 days. In animals bearing MDA-PCa-2b and LNCaP tumors, the reduction in serum prostate-specific antigen levels, after therapy with JV-1-38, paralleled the decrease in tumor volume. Inhibition of MDA-PCa-2b and DU-145 cancers was associated with the reduction in the expression of mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. The mRNA expression for GHRH receptor splice variants was found in all these models of prostate cancer. Our results demonstrate that GHRH antagonists inhibit androgen-independent prostate cancers and, after combination with androgen deprivation, also androgen-sensitive tumors. Thus, the therapy with GHRH antagonist could be considered for the management of both androgen-dependent or -independent prostate cancers. PMID:12538852

  7. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyoung; Kang, Minsung; Wang, Hong; Naik, Gurudatta; Mobley, James A; Sonpavde, Guru; Garvey, W Timothy; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2017-04-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling. This reversal after ES treatment significantly decreased PCa cell proliferation through down-regulation of GR and up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione levels. Proteome and biochemical analyses of ES-treated PCa cells further indicated a significant up-regulation of enzymes in the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging machinery, including catalase, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, biliverdin reductase, and thioredoxin reductase, resulting in a concomitant reduction of intracellular ROS. ES further augmented the antioxidant system through up-regulation of glucose influx, the pentose phosphate pathway, and NAD salvaging pathways. This shift in cancer cell redox homeostasis by ES significantly decreased the effect of protumorigenic oxidative machinery on androgen-independent PCa growth, suggesting that ES can suppress GR-induced resistant phenotype upon AR antagonism and that the dual targeting action of ES on AR and GR can be further translated to PCa therapy.-Lee, J. H., Kang, M., Wang, H., Naik, G., Mobley, J. A., Sonpavde, G., Garvey, W. T., Darley-Usmar, V. M., Ponnazhagan, S. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

  8. Transcriptional up-regulation of the human androgen receptor by androgen in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Wiren, K M; Zhang, X; Chang, C; Keenan, E; Orwoll, E S

    1997-06-01

    Androgen regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression has been observed in a variety of tissues, generally as inhibition, and is thought to attenuate cellular responses to androgen. AR is expressed in osteoblasts, the bone-forming cell, suggesting direct actions of androgens on bone. Here we characterized the effect of androgen exposure on AR gene expression in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 and U-2 OS cells. Treatment of osteoblastic cells with the nonaromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone increased AR steady state messenger RNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Reporter assays with 2.3 kilobases of the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human AR promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in transfected cultures showed that up-regulation of AR promoter activity by androgen was time and dose dependent. Treatment with other steroid hormones, including progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and dexamethasone, was without effect. The antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide completely antagonized androgen up-regulation. Thus, in contrast to many other androgen target tissues, androgen exposure increases steady state AR messenger RNA levels in osteoblasts. This regulation occurs at least partially at the level of transcription, is mediated by the 5'-promoter region of the AR gene, and is dependent on functional AR. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of androgens have significant effects on AR expression in skeletal tissue.

  9. Anti-proliferative effect and induction of apoptosis in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells by 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one.

    PubMed

    Citalingam, Kamini; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin H; Othman, Iekhsan; Naidu, Rakesh

    2015-02-17

    Curcumin has poor in vivo absorption and bioavailability, highlighting a need for new curcumin analogues with better characteristics in these aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the anti-cancer properties of four selected curcumin analogues, on the cytotoxicity, proliferative and apoptotic effects on androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU 145). Initial cytotoxicity screening showed MS17 has the highest cell inhibitory effect, with EC50 values of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 4.1 ± 0.8 µM, followed by MS13 (7.5 ± 0.1 and 7.4 ± 2.6 µM), MS49 (14.5 ± 1.2 and 12.3 ± 2.3 µM) and MS40E (28.0 ± 7.8 and 30.3 ± 1.9 µM) for PC-3 and DU 145 cells, respectively. Time-dependent analysis also revealed that MS13 and MS17 displayed a greater anti-proliferative effect than the other compounds. MS17 was chosen based on the high selectivity index value for further analysis on the morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed apoptotic changes in both treated prostate cancer cells. Relative caspase-3 activity increased significantly at 48 h in PC-3 and 12 h in DU 145 cells. Highest enrichment of free nucleosomes was noted at 48 h after treatment with MS17. In conclusion, MS17 demonstrated anti-proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner suggesting its potential for development as an anti-cancer agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  10. PRK1/PKN1 controls migration and metastasis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jilg, Cordula A.; Ketscher, Anett; Metzger, Eric; Hummel, Barbara; Willmann, Dominica; Rüsseler, Vanessa; Drendel, Vanessa; Imhof, Axel; Jung, Manfred; Franz, Henriette; Hölz, Stefanie; Krönig, Malte; Müller, Judith M.; Schüle, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The major threat in prostate cancer is the occurrence of metastases in androgen-independent tumor stage, for which no causative cure is available. Here we show that metastatic behavior of androgen-independent prostate tumor cells requires the protein-kinase-C-related kinase (PRK1/PKN1) in vitro and in vivo. PRK1 regulates cell migration and gene expression through its kinase activity, but does not affect cell proliferation. Transcriptome and interactome analyses uncover that PRK1 regulates expression of migration-relevant genes by interacting with the scaffold protein sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9/JIP4). SPAG9 and PRK1 colocalize in human cancer tissue and are required for p38-phosphorylation and cell migration. Accordingly, depletion of either ETS domain-containing protein Elk-1 (ELK1), an effector of p38-signalling or p38 depletion hinders cell migration and changes expression of migration-relevant genes as observed upon PRK1-depletion. Importantly, a PRK1 inhibitor prevents metastases in mice, showing that the PRK1-pathway is a promising target to hamper prostate cancer metastases in vivo. Statement of significance Here we describe a novel mechanism controlling the metastatic behavior of PCa cells and identify PRK1 as a promising therapeutic target to treat androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:25504435

  11. The liver X receptor agonist T0901317 acts as androgen receptor antagonist in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chuu, Chih-pin; Chen, Rou-Yu; Hiipakka, Richard A.; Kokontis, John M.; Warner, Karen V.; Xiang, Jialing; Liao, Shutsung . E-mail: sliao@uchicago.edu

    2007-06-01

    T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR. T0901317 also inhibited binding of a radiolabeled androgen to AR, but inhibition was much weaker compared to the effect of the antiandrogens, bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide. The LXR agonist T0901317, therefore, acts as an antiandrogen in human prostate cancer cells.

  12. Altered expression of genes regulating angiogenesis in experimental androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Heléne; Jennbacken, Karin; Welén, Karin; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the expression of genes regulating angiogenesis is altered when prostate cancer cells progress into androgen-independency. A gene array specific for angiogenesis was used to compare the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) with its more angiogenic and tumorigenic subline LNCaP-19 (androgen-independent). Results were verified with real-time RT-PCR, and further investigations were focused on the angiogenesis inhibitor a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1). Expression of ADAMTS1 was investigated in vitro as well as in subcutaneous tumors with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Microvessel density (MVD), versican proteolysis and protein levels of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, known as ADAMTS1 inhibitors, were also analyzed in tumor xenografts. The gene array revealed decreased expression of ADAMTS1, ephrin-A5, fibronectin 1, and neuropilin 1 in LNCaP-19 compared to LNCaP, while expression of midkine and VEGF were increased. Further studies showed that mRNA and protein levels of ADAMTS1 were significantly lower in LNCaP-19 compared to LNCaP, both in vitro and in subcutaneous tumors. The amount of ADAMTS1 correlated negatively with MVD, but no relation was found between ADAMTS1 and versican proteolysis. Expression of several genes associated with angiogenesis was altered during transition into androgen-independency. Among these, a significant decrease was found for ADAMTS1, whose expression inversely correlated with MVD. Its role in progression of prostate cancer needs further investigation, but this inhibitor of angiogenesis could be an interesting candidate for future anti-angiogenic therapy.

  13. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV.

  14. Dysregulation of sterol response element-binding proteins and downstream effectors in prostate cancer during progression to androgen independence.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Susan L; Sobel, Richard; Whitmore, Tanis G; Akbari, Majid; Bradley, Dawn R; Gleave, Martin E; Nelson, Colleen C

    2004-03-15

    progression to androgen independence. Levels of SREBP cleavage-activating protein, a regulator of SREBP transcriptional activity, decreased after castration and increased significantly at androgen independence. In clinical prostate cancer specimens from patients with varying grades of disease, the stained tissue sections showed high levels of SREBP-1 protein compared with noncancerous prostate tissue. After hormone withdrawal therapy, tumor levels of SREBP-1 decreased significantly after 6 weeks. AI tumors expressed significantly higher levels of SREBP-1. In summary, the LNCaP xenograft model of human prostate cancer as well as clinical specimens of prostate cancer demonstrated an up-regulation of SREBPs and their downstream effector genes during progression to androgen independence. As the AI phenotype emerges, enzymes critical for lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis are activated and likely contribute significantly to cell survival of AI prostate cancer.

  15. Characterizing and Targeting Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    combined with dutasteride (ZD), bicalutamide and dutasteride (ZBD), or bicalutamide, dutasteride, and ketoconazole (ZBDK) for 3 months before...SRD5A) inhibitor dutasteride to inhibit conversion of testosterone to the more potent androgen DHT, the CYP11A1/CYP17A1 inhibitor ketoconazole to...including drugs affecting androgen or ketoconazole metabolism, his- tory of thrombosis, unstable angina, or heart failure were exclusionary. Men were

  16. Characterizing and Targeting Androgen Receptor Pathway-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH- 10 -1-0771 TITLE: Characterizing and Targeting Androgen...NUMBER Seattle, WA 98109-1024 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S...pros- tate cancer cells in the absence of exogenous AR ligands, we performed a high-throughput RNAi screen ( HTRS ) using two androgen-sensitive prostate

  17. Cytoplasmic localization of the androgen receptor is independent of calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh M.; Dincer, Zehra; Wade, James R.; Alur, Mahesh; Michalak, Marek; DeFranco, Donald B.; Wang, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Identification and characterization of factors regulating intracellular localization of the androgen receptor (AR) are fundamentally important because nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of AR is a critical step in AR regulation by androgen manipulation. Normally, AR is localized to the cytoplasm in the absence of androgen. Upon ligand binding, AR translocates to the nucleus, where it can modulate transcription of AR-responsive genes. The withdrawal of androgen results in the export of unliganded AR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is transcriptionally inactive. Calreticulin has been implicated as a possible nuclear export factor for AR because the two proteins form a complex. In this study, we assessed whether the cytoplasmic localization of AR requires binding to calreticulin. To test this we substituted the calreticulin binding sequence (CBS) KVFFKR (residues 579–584) with the amino acids RLAARK in AR and monitored the cellular localization of a GFP-AR fusion protein in the absence of androgen. We also determined if knockdown or knockout of calreticulin expression affected the cytoplasmic localization of the AR. We found that a mutated CBS did not affect the localization of AR and that in the absence of androgen, AR is localized to the cytoplasm regardless of its ability to interact with calreticulin. Also, a reduction in the levels or loss of calreticulin did not affect the localization of AR. These data argue that calreticulin is not required for the cytoplasmic localization of AR. PMID:19150386

  18. Survival Advantage of AMPK Activation to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells During Energy Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L.; Ip, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells. PMID:20570728

  19. Survival advantage of AMPK activation to androgen-independent prostate cancer cells during energy stress.

    PubMed

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Mohler, James L; Ip, Clement

    2010-10-01

    Androgen-independent prostate cancer usually develops as a relapse following androgen ablation therapy. Removing androgen systemically causes vascular degeneration and nutrient depletion of the prostate tumor tissue. The fact that the malignancy later evolves to androgen-independence suggests that some cancer cells are able to survive the challenge of energy/nutrient deprivation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important manager of energy stress. The present study was designed to investigate the role of AMPK in contributing to the survival of the androgen-independent phenotype. Most of the experiments were carried out in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and the androgen-independent C4-2 cells. These two cell lines have the same genetic background, since the C4-2 line is derived from the LNCaP line. Glucose deprivation (GD) was instituted to model energy stress encountered by these cells. The key findings are as follows. First, the activation of AMPK by GD was much stronger in C4-2 cells than in LNCaP cells, and the robustness of AMPK activation was correlated favorably with cell viability. Second, the response of AMPK was specific to energy deficiency rather than to amino acid deficiency. The activation of AMPK by GD was functional, as demonstrated by appropriate phosphorylation changes of mTOR and mTOR downstream substrates. Third, blocking AMPK activation by chemical inhibitor or dominant negative AMPK led to increased apoptotic cell death. The observation that similar results were found in other androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, including CW22Rv1 abd VCaP, provided further assurance that AMPK is a facilitator on the road to androgen-independence of prostate cancer cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of the Co-Chaperone, CHIP, in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0285 TITLE: The Role of the Co-Chaperone, CHIP, in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer ...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of the Co-Chaperone, CHIP, in Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1...ADT), is the mainstay of treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer . This therapy is only temporizing, however

  1. Glucocorticoid- and androgen-secreting black adrenocortical adenomas: unique cause of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Aiba, Motohiko; Hizuka, Naomi; Takano, Kazue; Zhang, Jun; Young, William F

    2011-01-01

    To describe the unique association of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome caused by cortisol- and androgen-secreting black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. We report the clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings from 2 patients who presented with androgen excess and typical signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Endocrine investigations showed high serum cortisol concentrations that lacked diurnal rhythm, undetectable plasma corticotropin concentrations, and absence of serum cortisol suppression after overnight dexamethasone suppression tests. Serum levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed unilateral adrenal masses (largest lesional diameters 4.0 and 3.1 cm). On the basis of the plurihormonal hypersecretion and the imaging characteristics, adrenocortical carcinoma was considered as a possible diagnosis. However, histopathologic analysis in both patients revealed black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. After surgery, adrenal androgens normalized, and the signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome and androgen excess resolved. There was no evidence of recurrent disease at last follow-up. A unique form of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome is described: cortisol- and androgen-secreting black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. Although most patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome associated with androgen excess prove to have adrenocortical carcinoma, the clinician should be aware of the possibility of benign, black adrenal adenomas in this clinical setting.

  2. Physiological effects of androgens on human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Nheu, Lina; Nazareth, Lester; Xu, Guo-Ying; Xiao, Fu-Ying; Luo, Rui-Zhi; Komesaroff, Paul; Ling, Shanhong

    2011-12-20

    Androgenic hormones are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study examines the impact of androgens on the physiology of human vascular endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in culture. Cells were incubated with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at various physiological concentrations (5-50 nM) in the present or absence of an androgen receptor (AR) blocker flutamide (100 nM). Cell growth and death, DNA and collagen synthesis, and gene protein expression were assessed. It was shown that: (1) DHEA protected EC from superoxide injury via AR-independent mechanisms; (2) testosterone induced DNA synthesis and growth in EC via an AR-independent manner with activation of ERK1/2 activity; (3) DHT inhibited DNA synthesis and growth in EC in an AR-dependent manner; (4) testosterone and DHT enhanced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation in SMC via AR-independent and -dependent pathways, respectively; and (5) these androgens did not significantly affect collagen synthesis in SMC. We conclude that androgens possess multiple effects on vascular cells via either AR-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Testosterone and DHEA may be "beneficial" in preventing atherosclerosis by improving EC growth and survival; in contrast, stimulation of VSMC proliferation by testosterone and DHT is potentially "harmful". The relationship of these in vitro effects by androgens to in vivo vascular function and atherogenesis needs to be further clarified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Suppression of the Reactivated Androgen Signaling Pathway in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Gli transcription factors and to increase Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. The plant -derived alkaloid, cyclopamine, is a prototype for a drug...the androgen- growth dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells and its variants, C4 -2 and C4 -2B, however, the situation was found to be changed by chronic...growth ( C4 -2, LN3, LNCaP-AI) or androgen responsive VCaP cells that are unrelated to LNCaP, to study the effects of Hh signal- ing manipulation on the

  4. Identification of an anabolic selective androgen receptor modulator that actively induces death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Azriel; Meissner, Robert S; Gentile, Michael A; Chisamore, Michael J; Opas, Evan E; Scafonas, Angela; Cusick, Tara E; Gambone, Carlo; Pennypacker, Brenda; Hodor, Paul; Perkins, James J; Bai, Chang; Ferraro, Damien; Bettoun, David J; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Alves, Stephen E; Flores, Osvaldo; Ray, William J

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) initially responds to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but inevitably progresses to hormone ablation-resistant disease. Much effort is focused on optimizing this androgen deprivation strategy by improving hormone depletion and AR antagonism. However we found that bicalutamide, a clinically used antiandrogen, actually resembles a selective AR modulator (SARM), as it partially regulates 24% of endogenously 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-responsive genes in AR(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. These data suggested that passive blocking of all AR functions is not required for PCa therapy. Hence, we adopted an active strategy that calls for the development of novel SARMs, which induce a unique gene expression profile that is intolerable to PCa cells. Therefore, we screened 3000 SARMs for the ability to arrest the androgen-independent growth of AR(+) 22Rv1 and LNCaP PCa cells but not AR(-) PC3 or DU145 cells. We identified only one such compound; the 4-aza-steroid, MK-4541, a potent and selective SARM. MK-4541 induces caspase-3 activity and cell death in both androgen-independent, AR(+) PCa cell lines but spares AR(-) cells or AR(+) non-PCa cells. This activity correlates with its promoter context- and cell-type dependent transcriptional effects. In rats, MK-4541 inhibits the trophic effects of DHT on the prostate, but not the levator ani muscle, and triggers an anabolic response in the periosteal compartment of bone. Therefore, MK-4541 has the potential to effectively manage prostatic hypertrophic diseases owing to its antitumor SARM-like mechanism, while simultaneously maintaining the anabolic benefits of natural androgens.

  5. Molecular cloning of canine co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) and investigation of its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuiko; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Masaki; Azakami, Daigo; Nakahira, Rei; Morimatsu, Masami; Ishiguro-Oonuma, Toshina; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Kobayashi, Masato; Bonkobara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masanori; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Watanabe, Masami; Omi, Toshinori

    2015-11-01

    Although the morbidity of canine prostate cancer is low, the majority of cases present with resistance to androgen therapy and poor clinical outcomes. These pathological conditions are similar to the signs of the terminal stage of human androgen-independent prostate cancer. The co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) is known to be overexpressed in human androgen-independent prostate cancer. However, there is little information about the structure and function of canine SGTA. In this study, canine SGTA was cloned and analysed for its ability to suppress androgen receptor signalling. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the canine SGTA gene was amplified by RT-PCR using primers designed from canine-expressed sequence tags that were homologous to human SGTA. The canine SGTA ORF has high homology with the corresponding human (89%) and mouse (81%) sequences. SGTA dimerisation region and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains are conserved across the three species. The ability of canine SGTA to undergo homodimerisation was demonstrated by a mammalian two-hybrid system and a pull-down assay. The negative impact of canine SGTA on androgen receptor (AR) signalling was demonstrated using a reporter assay in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell lines. Pathological analysis showed overexpression of SGTA in canine prostate cancer, but not in hyperplasia. A reporter assay in prostate cells demonstrated suppression of AR signalling by canine SGTA. Altogether, these results suggest that canine SGTA may play an important role in the acquisition of androgen independence by canine prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bile acids induce apoptosis selectively in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Beach, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent age-related disease in North America, accounting for about 15% of all diagnosed cancers. We have previously identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a potential chemotherapeutic compound that selectively kills neuroblastoma cells while sparing normal human neurons. Now, we report that LCA inhibits the proliferation of androgen-dependent (AD) LNCaP prostate cancer cells and that LCA is the most potent bile acid with respect to inducing apoptosis in LNCaP as well as androgen-independent (AI) PC-3 cells, without killing RWPE-1 immortalized normal prostate epithelial cells. In LNCaP and PC-3 cells, LCA triggered the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis and cell death induced by LCA was partially dependent on the activation of caspase-8 and -3. Moreover, LCA increased cleavage of Bid and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and activation of caspase-9. The cytotoxic actions of LCA occurred despite the inability of this bile acid to enter the prostate cancer cells with about 98% of the nominal test concentrations present in the extracellular culture medium. With our findings, we provide evidence to support a mechanism of action underlying the broad anticancer activity of LCA in various human tissues. PMID:23940835

  7. Successful treatment of metastatic androgen-independent prostate carcinoma in a transsexual patient.

    PubMed

    Dorff, Tanya B; Shazer, Ronald L; Nepomuceno, Edward M; Tucker, Steven J

    2007-06-01

    The occurrence of prostate carcinoma in transsexual patients has rarely been reported. These cases present a unique challenge in that such patients are effectively receiving androgen deprivation therapy. By definition, their disease is androgen-independent prostate cancer, and the role of local therapy is undefined. We report on a male-to-female transsexual patient with metastatic prostate cancer treated successfully with combination chemotherapy after previous standard therapy failed.

  8. Signal transduction pathways in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Paramita M; Malik, Shazli N; Bedolla, Roble G; Wang, Yu; Mikhailova, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J; Troyer, Dean A; Kreisberg, Jeffrey I

    2005-03-01

    In a previous report, we showed that increased activation of Akt, a downstream effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) together with decreased activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, predicted poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer (Kreisberg et al. 2004 Cancer Research 64 5232-5236). We now show that Akt activation, but not ERK activation, is correlated with proliferation in human prostate tumors as estimated by the expression of the cell proliferation antigen Ki67. We verified these results in vitro, using the androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its androgen-independent clone C4-2 as models of prostate cancer of good and poor clinical outcome, respectively. C4-2 cells expressed higher Akt activation, lower ERK activation and increased proliferation compared with LNCaP cells, similar to cases of poor clinical outcome. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002, but not the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059, induced growth arrest in both cell lines. Transient transfection with constitutively active Akt increased proliferation while dominant negative Akt decreased it, thus showing that Akt plays an important role in prostate cancer proliferation. Akt regulates the expression and activation of the androgen receptor. Androgen receptor inhibition with Casodex induced growth arrest in LNCaP cells, but not in C4-2 cells. Another PI3K downstream effector, p70 S6 kinase, requires prior phosphorylation by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) for complete activation. Activation of p70 S6 kinase was higher in C4-2 compared with LNCaP cells. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, had a growth-inhibitory effect in C4-2 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Our data suggest a shift from a Casodex-sensitive proliferation pathway in LNCaP cells to a rapamycin-sensitive pathway in C4-2 cells.

  9. Gene microarray assessment of multiple genes and signal pathways involved in androgen-dependent prostate cancer becoming androgen independent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Bao; Dai, Chun-Mei; Su, Xiao-Yun; Cao, Lu; Qin, Rui; Kong, Qing-Bo

    2014-01-01

    To study the gene expression change and possible signal pathway during androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) becoming androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), an LNCaP cell model of AIPC was established using flutamide in combination with androgen-free environment inducement, and differential expression genes were screened by microarray. Then the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway of differential expression genes are analyzed by Molecule Annotation System (MAS). By comparison of 12,207 expression genes, 347 expression genes were acquired, of which 156 were up-ragulated and 191 down-regulated. After analyzing the biological process and molecule function of differential expression genes, these genes are found to play crucial roles in cell proliferation, differntiation, cell cycle control, protein metabolism and modification and other biological process, serve as signal molecules, enzymes, peptide hormones, cytokines, cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion molecules. The analysis of KEGG show that the relevant genes of AIPC transformation participate in glutathione metabolism, cell cycle, P53 signal pathway, cytochrome P450 metabolism, Hedgehog signal pathway, MAPK signal pathway, adipocytokines signal pathway, PPAR signal pathway, TGF-β signal pathway and JAK-STAT signal pathway. In conclusion, during the process of ADPC becoming AIPC, it is not only one specific gene or pathway, but multiple genes and pathways that change. The findings above lay the foundation for study of AIPC mechanism and development of AIPC targeting drugs.

  10. Androgen-independent Molecular Imaging Vectors to Detect Castration-Resistant and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ziyue Karen; Sato, Makoto; Wei, Liu H.; Kao, Chinghai; Wu, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Prostate specific promoters are frequently employed in gene mediated molecular imaging and therapeutic vectors to diagnose and treat castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that emerges from hormone ablation therapy. Many of the conventional prostate specific promoters rely on the androgen axis to drive gene expression. However, considering the cancer heterogeneity and varying androgen receptor status, we herein evaluated the utility of prostate specific enhancing sequence (PSES), an androgen-independent promoter in CRPC. The PSES is a fused enhancer derived from the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) gene regulatory region. We augmented the activity of PSES by the two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system to drive the expression of imaging reporter genes for either bioluminescent or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The engineered PSES-TSTA system exhibits greatly elevated transcriptional activity, androgen-independency and strong prostate specificity, verified in cell culture and preclinical animal experimentations. These advantageous features of PSES-TSTA elicit superior gene expression capability for CRPC in comparison to the androgen-dependent PSA promoter driven system. In preclinical settings, we demonstrated robust PET imaging capacity of PSES-TSTA in a castrated prostate xenograft model. Moreover, intravenous administrated PSES-TSTA bioluminescent vector correctly identified tibial bone marrow metastases in 9 out of 9 animals while NaF- and FDG-PET was unable to detect the lesions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that the promising utility of a potent, androgen-independent and prostate cancer-specific expression system in directing gene-based molecular imaging in CRPC even in the context of androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:21933883

  11. Androgens in human evolution. A new explanation of human evolution.

    PubMed

    Howard, J

    2001-01-01

    Human evolution consists of chronological changes in gene regulation of a continuous and relatively stable genome, activated by hormones, the production of which is intermittently affected by endogenous and exogenous forces. Periodic variations in the gonadal androgen, testosterone, and the adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), significantly participated in all hominid transformations. The hominid characteristics of early Australopithecines are primarily a result of increased testosterone. The first significant cold of the early Pleistocene resulted in an increase in DHEA that simultaneously produced Homo and the robust Australopithecines. Subsequent Pleistocene climatic changes and differential reproduction produced changes in DHEA and testosterone ratios that caused extinction of the robust Australopithecines and further changes and continuation of Homo. Changes in testosterone and DHEA produce allometric and behavioral changes that are identifiable and vigorous in modern populations.

  12. The differential role of androgens in early human sex development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sexual development in humans is only partly understood at the molecular level. It is dependent on genetic control primarily induced by the sex chromosomal differences between males and females. This leads to the development of the gonads, whereby afterwards the differentiation of the apparent phenotype is controlled by hormone action. Sex steroids may exert permanent and temporary effects. Their organizational features of inducing permanent changes in phenotype occur through genetic control of downstream genes. In this, androgens are the key elements for the differentiation of male internal and external genitalia as well as other sexual organs and general body composition, acting through a single androgen receptor. The androgen receptor is a nuclear transcription factor modulating DNA transcription of respective target genes and thereby driving development and growth in a stringent manner. The specificity of androgen action seems to be a strictly time-controlled process with the androgen receptor acting in concert with different metabolites and an array of cofactors modulating the cellular response and thereby permanently altering the phenotype of any given individual. For every cell programmed by androgens, a specific ‘androgen response index’ must be proposed. PMID:23800242

  13. Autoimmune anti-androgen-receptor antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S; Witte, D

    1985-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies to human and rat androgen receptors are present at high titers in the blood sera of some patients with prostate diseases. The antibodies from some serum samples were associated with a purified IgG fraction and interacted with the 3.8S cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes of rat ventral prostate to form 9- to 12S units. Other serum samples, however, formed 14- to 19S units, suggesting that other immunoglobulins might be involved. In the presence of an anti-human immunoglobulin as a second antibody, the androgen-receptor-antibody complexes could be immunoprecipitated. The antibodies interacted with the nuclear and the cytosolic androgen-receptor complexes, either the DNA-binding or the nonbinding form, but not with receptors for estradiol, progestin, or dexamethasone from a variety of sources. Human testosterone/estradiol-binding globulin, rat epididymal androgen-binding protein, or rat prostate alpha-protein (a nonreceptor steroid-binding protein) also did not interact with the antibodies to form immunoprecipitates. About 37% of male and 3% of female serum samples screened had significant antibody titer. The chance of finding serum with a high titer is much better in males older than 66 years than in the younger males or females at all ages. The presence of the high-titer antibodies may make it possible to prepare monoclonal antibodies to androgen receptors without purification of the receptors for immunization. PMID:3866227

  14. Histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen independent prostate cancer tumors: evaluation in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Galvan-Salazar, Héctor R.; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A.; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L.; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Espinoza-Gómez, Francisco; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A.; Lara-Esqueda, Agustín; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meclofenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has shown therapeutic potential for different types of cancers, including androgen-independent prostate neoplasms. The antitumor effect of diverse nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to be accompanied by histological and molecular changes that are responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of the present work was to analyze the histological changes caused by meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Tumors were created in a nude mouse model using PC3 cancerous human cells. Meclofenamic acid (10 mg/kg/day; experimental group, n=5) or saline solution (control group, n=5) was administered intraperitoneally for twenty days. Histological analysis was then carried out on the tumors, describing changes in the cellular architecture, fibrosis, and quantification of cellular proliferation and tumor vasculature. Meclofenamic acid causes histological changes that indicate less tumor aggression (less hypercellularity, fewer atypical mitoses, and fewer nuclear polymorphisms), an increase in fibrosis, and reduced cellular proliferation and tumor vascularity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the molecular changes that cause the beneficial and therapeutic effects of meclofenamic acid in androgen-independent prostate cancer. PMID:26689527

  15. Testosterone-mediated increase in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content, nuclear androgen receptor levels, and cell division in an androgen-independent prostate carcinoma of Noble rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Leav, I; Damassa, D; Kwan, P W; Merk, F B; Seto, H S

    1988-02-01

    An androgen-independent, transplantable prostate carcinoma line (AIT), originally derived from the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) of Noble rat, was implanted into orchiectomized Noble rats and its response to androgen stimulation was studied and compared to that of the regenerating DLP tissue in sexually ablated rats. AIT tumors carried in castrated hosts displayed a high basal level of proliferative activity (mitotic index (MI), 15.0 +/- 0.5) while DLP tissue in untreated castrates exhibited no proliferative activity. Following androgen stimulation by testosterone capsule implantation into host rats, the AIT responded with a marked increase in cell proliferation; MI values doubled to 30.0 +/- 2.9 on Day 5 following androgen stimulation. This androgen-induced increase in MI values was coincident with elevations in nuclear androgen receptor (20-fold increase) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content (3-fold increase) in the tumor. However, by Day 10 following androgen treatment, indices of cell proliferation in the AIT declined to pre-androgen-stimulated levels (MI, 14.8 +/- 1.9) despite the continued elevations in nuclear androgen receptor and tissue 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone contents. Parallel changes in MI were also observed in the normal regenerating DLP following androgen stimulation. MI values in this tissue increased from nondetectable levels to 38.1 +/- 4.7 on Day 5 but declined to relatively low levels (4.5 +/- 0.9) by Day 10 following androgen replacement. Taken together these findings led us to conclude that the AIT carried in castrates is capable of responding to testosterone in a manner similar to that observed for androgen-stimulated DLP of sexually ablated rats. Thus, in both the neoplastic and regenerating tissues, the initial response to androgen is characterized by a marked enhancement of cell proliferation which was correlated with an increase in androgen receptor and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content. However, like its tissue of origin, the AIT

  16. Genome-wide Expression Profiling Reveals Transcriptomic Variation and Perturbed Gene Networks in Androgen-dependent and Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay P.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Chaudhary, Kunal; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Smith, Lynette; Eudy, James D.; Johansson, Sonny L.; Lin, Ming-Fong; Batra, Surinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have developed a unique in vitro LNCaP cell model, which includes androgen-dependent (LNCaP-C33), androgen-independent (LNCaP-C81) and an intermediate phenotype (LNCaP-C51) cell lines resembling the stages of prostate cancer progression to hormone independence. This model is advantageous in overcoming the heterogeneity associated with the prostate cancer up to a certain extent. We characterized and compared the gene expression profiles in LNCaP-C33 (androgen-dependent) and LNCaP-C81 (androgen-independent) cells using Affymetrix GeneChip array analyses. Multiple genes were identified exhibiting differential expression during androgen-independent progression. Among the important genes upregulated in androgen-independent cells were PCDH7, TPTE, TSPY, EPHA3, HGF, MET, EGF, TEM8, etc., whereas many candidate tumor suppressor genes (HTATIP2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN1C, TP53, TP73, ICAM1, SOCS1/2, SPRY2, PPP2CA, PPP3CA, etc.) were decreased. Pathway prediction analysis identified important gene networks associated with growth-promoting and apoptotic signaling that were perturbed during androgen-independent progression. Further investigation of one of the genes, PPP2CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of a serine phosphatase PP2A, a potent tumor suppressor, revealed that its expression was decreased in prostate cancer compared to adjacent normal/benign tissue. Furthermore, the downregulated expression of PPP2CA was significantly correlated with tumor stage and Gleason grade. Future studies on the identified differentially-expressed genes and signaling pathways may be helpful in understanding the biology of prostate cancer progression and prove useful in developing novel prognostic biomarkers and therapy for androgen-refractory prostate cancer. PMID:17977648

  17. Targeting Ligand-Dependent and Ligand-Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    sub 10nM range efficacy. Our primary objective was to establish a series of compounds blocking the AR ligand-dependent and ligand-independent gene ...of AR driven genes to be more comprehensive and more in line with what is currently known about AR-driven signaling in prostate cancer. We have...developed a robust panel of genes for AR signaling that is reflective of the clinical findings in both ligand dependent and ligand-independent androgen

  18. Effect of AQP9 Expression in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell PC3

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiwei; Zhu, Liang; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jinliang; Song, Xishuang; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yang, Deyong; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    It is known that aquaporin 9 (AQP9) in the prostate was strictly upregulated by androgen and may represent a novel therapeutic target for several cancers, but whether AQP9 plays a role in the regulation of androgen-independent prostate cancer still remains unclear. In the present study, AQP9 was determined in prostate cancer and adjacent cancer tissues; AQP9-siRNA was applied to silencing AQP9 in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell PC3 cell line. Western blot and flow cytometry analysis were employed to detect changes in related-function of control and AQP9-siRNA groups. The results showed that AQP9 is significantly induced in cancer tissues than that in adjacent cancer tissues. Moreover, knockdown of AQP9 in PC3 androgen-independent prostate cancer cell prostate cancer cells increased inhibition rates of proliferation. In addition, knockdown of AQP9 resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of the Bcl-2 and with a notable increase in the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, indicated that AQP9 knockdown promoted apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. From wound healing assay and matrigel invasion, we suggested that AQP9 expression affects the motility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, In order to explore the pathway may be involved in AQP9-mediated motility and invasion of prostate cancer cells, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significant suppressed in AQP9 siRNA-transfected cells compared with that in control cells, suggesting that AQP9 is involved in the activation of the ERK pathway in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. PMID:27187384

  19. Nevirapine restores androgen signaling in hormone-refractory human prostate carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Landriscina, Matteo; Bagalà, Cinzia; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Schinzari, Giovanni; Quirino, Michela; Fabiano, Annarita; Bianchetti, Sara; Cassano, Alessandra; Sica, Gigliola; Barone, Carlo

    2009-05-15

    Prostate carcinomas are androgen-dependent neoplasms which progress toward a hormone-independent phenotype during hormone-deprivation therapy. We evaluated nevirapine, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, as a new treatment in hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells with the aim of restoring the androgen-dependency of tumor cells, the rationale being that endogenous reverse transcriptase is up-regulated in transformed cells and reverse transcriptase inhibitors exert a differentiating activity in human tumors. Nevirapine induced extensive reprogramming of gene expression in vitro with up-regulation of genes that might be silenced during prostate tumor progression (i.e., K18, PSA and androgen receptor) and down-regulation of genes involved in the progression toward an androgen-independent phenotype (i.e., K5, EGFR1, EGF and VEGF-A). Furthermore, nevirapine down-regulated the growth of prostate carcinoma xenografts in athymic mice and induced a differentiated phenotype in vivo with increased K18 expression. Interestingly, the drug restored androgen signaling by enhancing the ability of tumor cells to respond to dihydrotestosterone stimulation and to the antiproliferative activity of the androgen receptor blocker bicalutamide. Finally, nevirapine pretreatment increased the susceptibility of tumor cells to docetaxel, by enhancing their ability to undergo apoptosis. These data suggest that nevirapine may be clinically tested in human hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma to restore the susceptibility to androgen deprivation therapy or to docetaxel. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Methylseleninic acid potentiates apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongbo; Jiang, Cheng; Ip, Clement; Rustum, Youcef M; Lü, Junxuan

    2005-03-15

    To test whether and how selenium enhances the apoptosis potency of selected chemotherapeutic drugs in prostate cancer (PCA) cells. DU145 and PC3 human androgen-independent PCA cells were exposed to minimal apoptotic doses of selenium and/or the topoisomerase I inhibitor 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide or the microtubule inhibitor paclitaxel/taxol. Apoptosis was measured by ELISA for histone-associated DNA fragments, by flow cytometric analysis of sub-G(1) fraction, and by immunoblot analysis of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. Pharmacologic inhibitors were used to manipulate caspases and c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK). The methylselenol precursor methylseleninic acid (MSeA) increased the apoptosis potency of SN38, etoposide, or paclitaxel by several folds higher than the expected sum of the apoptosis induced by MSeA and each drug alone. The combination treatment did not further enhance JNK1/2 phosphorylation that was induced by each drug in DU145 cells. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 substantially decreased the activation of caspases and apoptosis induced by MSeA combination with SN38 or etoposide and completely blocked these events induced by MSeA/paclitaxel. The caspase-8 inhibitor zIETDfmk completely abolished apoptosis and caspase-9 and caspase-3 cleavage, whereas the caspase-9 inhibitor zLEHDfmk significantly decreased caspase-3 cleavage and apoptosis but had no effect on caspase-8 cleavage. None of these caspase inhibitors abolished JNK1/2 phosphorylation. A JNK-independent suppression of survivin by SN38 and etoposide, but not by paclitaxel, was also observed. In contrast to MSeA, selenite did not show any enhancing effect on the apoptosis induced by these drugs. MSeA enhanced apoptosis induced by cancer therapeutic drugs in androgen-independent PCA cells. In DU145 cells, the enhancing effect was primarily through interactions between MSeA and JNK-dependent targets to amplify the caspase-8-initiated

  1. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  2. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  3. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY.
    MC Cardon, PC Hartig,LE Gray, Jr. and VS Wilson.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for ...

  4. RAINBOW TROUT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA AND THE HUMAN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR: COMPARISONS IN THE COS WHOLE CELL BINDING ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow Trout Androgen Receptor Alpha And Human Androgen Receptor: Comparisons in the COS Whole Cell Binding Assay
    Mary C. Cardon, L. Earl Gray, Jr. and Vickie S. Wilson
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle...

  5. A recurrent synonymous mutation in the human androgen receptor gene causing complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rafael Loch; Rodrigues, Andresa di Santi; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; Faria, José Antonio Diniz; Moraes, Daniela Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Luciani Renata; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Domenice, Sorahia; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2017-07-22

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (46,XY DSD). This syndrome is an X-linked inheritance disease and it is caused by mutations in the human androgen receptor (AR) gene. Non-synonymous point AR mutations are frequently described in this disease, including in the complete phenotype. We present a novel synonymous mutation in the human AR gene (c.1530C > T) in four 46,XY patients from two unrelated families associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). The analysis of mRNA from testis showed that synonymous AR mutation changed the natural exon 1 donor splice site, with deletion of the last 92 nucleotides of the AR exon 1 leading to a premature stop codon 12 positions ahead resulting in a truncate AR protein. Linkage analyses suggested a probable founder effect for this mutation. In conclusion, we described the first synonymous AR mutation associated with CAIS phenotype, reinforcing the disease-causing role of synonymous mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Basis of Prostate-Specific Androgen-Independent Expression of a Homeobox Gene (Prostate)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    underscored by the recognition that de- The mammalian Hox genes are homologs of Dro- regulated expression of Hox and other classes of ho- sophila homeotic ...Homeobox Gene (Prostate) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles Bieberich, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Maryland, Baltimore County Baltimore...Specific Androgen-Independent Expression of a Homeobox DAMD17-98-1-8477 Gene (Prostate) 6. AUTHOR(S) Charles Bieberich, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING

  7. Identifying Androgen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation Antiandrogen Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0276 TITLE: Identifying Androgen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation...Antiandrogen Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Wise, MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York...of Prostate Cancer Resistance to Second-Generation Antiandrogen Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0276 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  8. Photoperiod modulation of aggressive behavior is independent of androgens in a tropical cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Freitas, Eliane; Carvalho, Thaís Billalba; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-10-01

    Photoperiod is a major environmental cue that signals breeding conditions in animals living in temperate climates. Therefore, the activity of the reproductive (i.e. hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, HPG) axis and of the expression of reproductive behaviors, including territoriality, is responsive to changes in day length. However, at low latitudes the seasonal variation in day length decreases dramatically and photoperiod becomes less reliable as a breeding entraining cue in tropical species. In spite of this, some tropical mammals and birds have been found to still respond to small amplitude changes in photoperiod (e.g. 17min). Here we tested the effect of 2 photoperiod regimes, referred to as long-day (LD: 16L:08D) and short-day (SD: 08L:16D), on the activity of the HPG axis, on aggressive behavior and in the androgen response to social challenges in males of the tropical cichlid fish Tilapia rendalli. For each treatment, fish were transferred from a pre-treatment photoperiod of 12L:12D to their treatment photoperiod (either LD or SD) in which they were kept for 20days on stock tanks. Afterwards, males were isolated for 4days in glass aquaria in order to establish territories and initial androgen levels (testosterone, T; 11-ketotestosterone, KT) were assessed. On the 4th day, territorial intrusions were promoted such that 1/3 of the isolated males acted as residents and another 1/3 as intruders. Territorial intrusions lasted for 1h to test the effects of a social challenge under different photoperiod regimes. Photoperiod treatment (either SD or LD) failed to induce significant changes in the HPG activity, as measured by androgen levels and gonadosomatic index. However, SD increased the intensity of aggressive behaviors and shortened the time to settle a dominance hierarchy in an androgen-independent manner. The androgen responsiveness to the simulated territorial intrusion was only present in KT but not for T. The percent change in KT levels in response to the

  9. The Role of HOX Proteins in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 14. ABSTRACT HOX genes encode a large family of transcription factors involved in key...Massachusetts. Abstract: HOX Gene Expression Modulates Androgen- and Vitamin D-Mediated Actions in Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Daddario SN, Lambert...JR, Lucia MS, Nordeen SK. Poster presentation at the 88th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society. June 2007. Toronto, Canada. Abstract: HOX Gene

  10. Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta): timing of androgen-independent versus androgen-driven genital development.

    PubMed

    Browne, P; Place, N J; Vidal, J D; Moore, I T; Cunha, G R; Glickman, S E; Conley, A J

    2006-10-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) have an erectile peniform clitoris and a pseudoscrotum but no external vagina, all established by day 35 of a 110-day gestation. Recent studies indicate that these events are androgen-independent, although androgen secretion by fetal ovaries and testis was hypothesized previously to induce phallic development in both sexes. We present the first data relating to the capacity of the ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena to synthesize androgens at different stages of fetal life. Specifically, spotted hyena fetal gonads were examined by immunohistochemistry at GD 30, 45, 48, 65, and 95 for androgen-synthesizing enzymes, as related to the morphological development. Enzymes included 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), cytochrome b5, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc). Anti-Müllerian-hormone (AMH) expression was also examined. AMH was strongly expressed in fetal Sertoli cells from GD 30 and after. P450c17 expression was detected in Leydig cells of developing testes and surprisingly in Müllerian duct epithelium. Fetal ovaries began to organize and differentiate by GD 45, and medullary cells expressed P450c17, cytochrome b5, 3betaHSD, and P450scc. The findings support the hypothesis that external genital morphology is probably androgen-independent initially, but that fetal testicular androgens modify the secondary, male-specific phallic form and accessory organs. Fetal ovaries appear to develop substantial androgen-synthesizing capacity but not until phallic differentiation is complete, i.e. after GD 45 based on circulating androstenedione concentrations. During late gestation, fetal ovaries and testes synthesize androgens, possibly organizing the neural substrates of aggressive behaviors observed at birth in spotted hyenas. These data provide an endocrine rationale for sexual dimorphisms in phallic structure and reveal a potential

  11. A novel approach to identify driver genes involved in androgen-independent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insertional mutagenesis screens have been used with great success to identify oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Typically, these screens use gammaretroviruses (γRV) or transposons as insertional mutagens. However, insertional mutations from replication-competent γRVs or transposons that occur later during oncogenesis can produce passenger mutations that do not drive cancer progression. Here, we utilized a replication-incompetent lentiviral vector (LV) to perform an insertional mutagenesis screen to identify genes in the progression to androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Methods Prostate cancer cells were mutagenized with a LV to enrich for clones with a selective advantage in an androgen-deficient environment provided by a dysregulated gene(s) near the vector integration site. We performed our screen using an in vitro AIPC model and also an in vivo xenotransplant model for AIPC. Our approach identified proviral integration sites utilizing a shuttle vector that allows for rapid rescue of plasmids in E. coli that contain LV long terminal repeat (LTR)-chromosome junctions. This shuttle vector approach does not require PCR amplification and has several advantages over PCR-based techniques. Results Proviral integrations were enriched near prostate cancer susceptibility loci in cells grown in androgen-deficient medium (p < 0.001), and five candidate genes that influence AIPC were identified; ATPAF1, GCOM1, MEX3D, PTRF, and TRPM4. Additionally, we showed that RNAi knockdown of ATPAF1 significantly reduces growth (p < 0.05) in androgen-deficient conditions. Conclusions Our approach has proven effective for use in PCa, identifying a known prostate cancer gene, PTRF, and also several genes not previously associated with prostate cancer. The replication-incompetent shuttle vector approach has broad potential applications for cancer gene discovery, and for interrogating diverse biological and disease processes. PMID:24885513

  12. Sulfur inhibits the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    DUAN, FEI; LI, YUHUA; CHEN, LIANGKANG; ZHOU, XIAOYU; CHEN, JIANXING; CHEN, HAILIN; LI, RUNSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid at room temperature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sulfur on prostate cancer (PCa) in vivo. Prostate tumors were developed by injecting 22Rv1 or DU-145 PCa cells into sulfur-treated or untreated nude mice. The weight and volume of the tumors were measured. The cancer cells were separated from the tumors, and analyzed for their growth rate and clonogenicity in culture. The expression of PCa-targeted genes was also assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The rate of growth of 22Rv1 tumors in sulfur-treated nude mice gradually decreased, and was reduced by 41.99% (P<0.01) after 22 days when compared with that of the control group. In addition, the growth of DU-145 tumors was also suppressed by 75.16% (P<0.05) after 11 weeks. The clonogenicity of the sulfur-treated tumor cells decreased by 36.7% when compared with that of the control cells. However, no significant difference in cell growth was identified. mRNA levels of the androgen-receptor, prostate specific antigen and human Hox (NKX3.1) genes were significantly decreased by 32.8, 48.2 and 42.2% in sulfur-treated tumors, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the serum of sulfur-treated mice was increased by 4.73% (P<0.05). Sulfur significantly suppressed the growth of PCa in vivo. Since sulfur is a known ingredient used in traditional Chinese medicine, it may be used clinically for the treatment of PCa, independently or in combination with other medicine. PMID:25436005

  13. Amyloid precursor protein in human breast cancer: an androgen-induced gene associated with cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Miki, Yasuhiro; Shibahara, Yukiko; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Mika; Inoue, Satoshi; Sasano, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed in brain tissue. Recently, APP has been implicated in some human malignancies, and its regulation by androgens has also been demonstrated. Such findings suggest the importance of APP in hormone-dependent breast carcinoma, but APP has not yet been examined in breast carcinoma tissues. Therefore, in this study, we examined the biological and clinical significance of APP in breast carcinoma using immunohistochemistry and in vitro studies. APP immunoreactivity was detected in 57 out of 117 (49%) breast carcinoma tissues examined, and it was positively associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression. APP immunoreactivity was also significantly associated with Ki-67 LI and increased risk of recurrence in the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases, and was an independent prognostic factor in these patients. Subsequent in vitro experiments demonstrated that APP mRNA expression was significantly induced by biologically active androgen dihydrotestosterone in both a dose-dependent and a time-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, which was potently suppressed by an AR blocker hydroxyflutamide. Moreover, cell proliferation activity of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly associated with their APP expression level. These findings suggest that APP is an androgen-induced gene that promotes proliferation activity of breast carcinoma cells. Moreover, APP immunohistochemical status is considered a potent prognostic factor in ER-positive breast cancer patients. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Androgen Receptor Promotes Ligand-Independent Prostate Cancer Progression through c-Myc Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lina; Schwartzman, Jacob; Gibbs, Angela; Lisac, Robert; Kleinschmidt, Richard; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; Coleman, Ilsa; Nelson, Peter; McWeeney, Shannon; Alumkal, Joshi

    2013-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the principal therapeutic target in prostate cancer. For the past 70 years, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the major therapeutic focus. However, some patients do not benefit, and those tumors that do initially respond to ADT eventually progress. One recently described mechanism of such an effect is growth and survival-promoting effects of the AR that are exerted independently of the AR ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. However, specific ligand-independent AR target genes that account for this effect were not well characterized. We show here that c-Myc, which is a key mediator of ligand-independent prostate cancer growth, is a key ligand-independent AR target gene. Using microarray analysis, we found that c-Myc and AR expression levels strongly correlated with each other in tumors from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progressing despite ADT. We confirmed that AR directly regulates c-Myc transcription in a ligand-independent manner, that AR and c-Myc suppression reduces ligand-independent prostate cancer cell growth, and that ectopic expression of c-Myc attenuates the anti-growth effects of AR suppression. Importantly, treatment with the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 suppressed c-Myc function and suppressed ligand-independent prostate cancer cell survival. Our results define a new link between two critical proteins in prostate cancer – AR and c-Myc – and demonstrate the potential of AR and c-Myc-directed therapies to improve prostate cancer control. PMID:23704919

  15. A Novel Approach to the Elucidation of the Mechanism of Development of Androgen-Independent Growth of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Receiving Pay From Research Effort James L. Mohler, M.D. Christopher Gregory, Ph.D. Tammy Morris Conclusion In summary, we have identified candidate...Using Color Video Image Analysis Desok Kim,1 Christopher W. Gregory,2 GaryJ. Smith, 3,4 andJames L. Mohler1,3,4. ’Department of Surgery, Division of...Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Is Associated with Increased Expression of Androgen-regulated Genes’ Christopher W. Gregory, Katherine G. Hamil

  16. Ligand-independent and tissue-selective androgen receptor inhibition by pyrvinium

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Minyoung; Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Su, Leila; Nguyen, Dan; Chin, Emily; Alliston, Tamara; Jones, Jeremy O.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is a potent non-competitive inhibitor of the androgen receptor (AR). Using a novel method of target identification, we demonstrate that AR is a direct target of PP in prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PP inhibits AR activity via the highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), the only AR inhibitor that functions via this domain. Furthermore, computational modeling predicts that pyrvinium binds at the interface of the DBD dimer and the minor groove of the AR response element. Because PP acts through the DBD, PP is able to inhibit the constitutive activity of AR splice variants, which are thought to contribute to the growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PP also inhibits androgen-independent AR activation by HER2 kinase. The anti-androgen activity of pyrvinium manifests in the ability to inhibit the in vivo growth of CRPC xenografts that express AR splice variants. Interestingly, PP was most potent in cells with endogenous AR expression derived from prostate or bone. PP was able to inhibit several other hormone nuclear receptors (NRs), but not structurally unrelated transcription factors. PP inhibition of other NRs was similarly cell-type selective. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we demonstrate that the cell-type specificity of PP manifests in tissue-selective inhibition of AR activity in mice, as PP decreases prostate weight and bone mineral density, but does not affect lean body mass. Our results suggest that the non-competitive AR inhibitor pyrvinium has significant potential to treat CRPC, including cancers driven by ligand-independent AR signaling. PMID:24354286

  17. Are androgen steroids acting as pheromones in humans?

    PubMed

    Pause, Bettina M

    2004-10-30

    In animals, chemosensory communication is successfully used to transmit behaviourally relevant information, e.g. information about sexual status, danger and social organisation. In many instances pheromones might have evolved from hormone-like substances. Consequently, a large number of studies have been carried out in humans, in order to investigate possible pheromonal properties of androgen steroids. Besides discussing the production and perception of androgen steroids, it will primarily be questioned whether their perception can alter mood and behaviour in humans. Therefore, a study has been carried out to investigate whether local preferences can be altered through androstenone exposure. It is shown that heterosexual women and homosexual men prefer seats sprayed with androstenone. However, as this effect is positively correlated with the sensitivity to androstenone, the effect might be due to a general olfactory attraction of low androstenone concentrations. In regard to the conflicting results of studies on putative human pheromones, it will finally be discussed whether the perceptual context and the individual learning history of the perceiver contribute significantly to a successful communication of pheromonal information.

  18. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Results Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Conclusions Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23231703

  19. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Nrdp1-Mediated ErbB3 Increase During Androgen Ablation and Its Contribution to Androgen-Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    1853; 1(1):393–393. 2. Pisu M, Oliver JS, Kim YI, Elder K, Martin M, Richardson LC. Treatment for older prostate cancer patients: disparities in a...strategies that would help patients with prostate cancer . At the time of the last report, in a high profile article in Cancer Research, we had shown...that ErbB3 is upregulated in prostate cancer cells undergoing androgen ablation, and this upregulation may be a major cause of the progression of

  2. Ligand-independent and tissue-selective androgen receptor inhibition by pyrvinium.

    PubMed

    Lim, Minyoung; Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Su, Leila; Nguyen, Dan; Chin, Emily; Alliston, Tamara; Jones, Jeremy O

    2014-03-21

    Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of the androgen receptor (AR). Using a novel method of target identification, we demonstrate that AR is a direct target of PP in prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PP inhibits AR activity via the highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), the only AR inhibitor that functions via this domain. Furthermore, computational modeling predicts that pyrvinium binds at the interface of the DBD dimer and the minor groove of the AR response element. Because PP acts through the DBD, PP is able to inhibit the constitutive activity of AR splice variants, which are thought to contribute to the growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PP also inhibits androgen-independent AR activation by HER2 kinase. The antiandrogen activity of pyrvinium manifests in the ability to inhibit the in vivo growth of CRPC xenografts that express AR splice variants. Interestingly, PP was most potent in cells with endogenous AR expression derived from prostate or bone. PP was able to inhibit several other hormone nuclear receptors (NRs) but not structurally unrelated transcription factors. PP inhibition of other NRs was similarly cell-type selective. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we demonstrate that the cell-type specificity of PP manifests in tissue-selective inhibition of AR activity in mice, as PP decreases prostate weight and bone mineral density but does not affect lean body mass. Our results suggest that the noncompetitive AR inhibitor pyrvinium has significant potential to treat CRPC, including cancers driven by ligand-independent AR signaling.

  3. Phase I trial of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Milowsky, Matthew I; Nanus, David M; Kostakoglu, Lale; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Bander, Neil H

    2004-07-01

    To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity, human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response, pharmacokinetics, organ dosimetry, targeting, and preliminary efficacy of yttrium-90-labeled anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen monoclonal antibody J591 ((90)Y-J591) in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC). Patients with androgen-independent PC and evidence of disease progression received indium-111-J591 for pharmacokinetic and biodistribution determinations followed 1 week later by (90)Y-J591 at five dose levels: 5, 10, 15, 17.5, and 20 mCi/m(2). Patients were eligible for up to three re-treatments if platelet and neutrophil recovery was satisfactory. Twenty-nine patients with androgen-independent PC received (90)Y-J591, four of whom were re-treated. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen at 20 mCi/m(2), with two patients experiencing thrombocytopenia with non-life-threatening bleeding episodes requiring platelet transfusions. The 17.5-mCi/m(2) dose level was determined to be the MTD. No re-treated patients experienced DLT. Nonhematologic toxicity was not dose limiting. Targeting of known sites of bone and soft tissue metastases was seen in the majority of patients. No HAHA response was seen. Antitumor activity was seen, with two patients experiencing 85% and 70% declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels lasting 8 and 8.6 months, respectively, before returning to baseline. Both patients had objective measurable disease responses. An additional six patients (21%) experienced PSA stabilization. The recommended dose for (90)Y-J591 is 17.5 mCi/m(2). Acceptable toxicity, excellent targeting of known sites of PC metastases, and biologic activity in patients with androgen-independent PC warrant further investigation of (90)Y-J591 in the treatment of patients with PC.

  4. Androgens and Male Sexual Function: A Review of Human Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiavi, Raul C.; White, Daniel

    1976-01-01

    The scope of this article is a review and brief discussion of recently gathered information on androgens and sexual behavior in men. Current pharmacological research does not furnish specific evidence that administration of androgens or preprations that stimulate the secretion of endogenous androgens have beneficial effects on functional…

  5. Androgens and Male Sexual Function: A Review of Human Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiavi, Raul C.; White, Daniel

    1976-01-01

    The scope of this article is a review and brief discussion of recently gathered information on androgens and sexual behavior in men. Current pharmacological research does not furnish specific evidence that administration of androgens or preprations that stimulate the secretion of endogenous androgens have beneficial effects on functional…

  6. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I

    2008-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system.

  8. Hypoxia-Independent Downregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets by Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnum, Harald Bull; Røe, Kathrine; Holm, Ruth; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Nesland, Jahn Marthin; Aarnes, Eva-Katrine; Ree, Anne Hansen; Flatmark, Kjersti; Seierstad, Therese; Lilleby, Wolfgang; Lyng, Heidi

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: We explored changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) signaling during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts under conditions in which no significant change in immunostaining of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole had occurred. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles of volume-matched androgen-exposed and androgen-deprived CWR22 xenografts, with similar pimonidazole-positive fractions, were compared. Direct targets of androgen receptor (AR) and HIF1 transcription factors were identified among the differentially expressed genes by using published lists. Biological processes affected by ADT were determined by gene ontology analysis. HIF1α protein expression in xenografts and biopsy samples from 35 patients receiving neoadjuvant ADT was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: A total of 1344 genes showed more than 2-fold change in expression by ADT, including 35 downregulated and 5 upregulated HIF1 targets. Six genes were shared HIF1 and AR targets, and their downregulation was confirmed with quantitative RT-PCR. Significant suppression of the biological processes proliferation, metabolism, and stress response in androgen-deprived xenografts was found, consistent with tumor regression. Nineteen downregulated HIF1 targets were involved in those significant biological processes, most of them in metabolism. Four of these were shared AR and HIF1 targets, including genes encoding the regulatory glycolytic proteins HK2, PFKFB3, and SLC2A1. Most of the downregulated HIF1 targets were induced by hypoxia in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines, confirming their role as hypoxia-responsive HIF1 targets in prostate cancer. Downregulation of HIF1 targets was consistent with the absence of HIF1α protein in xenografts and downregulation in patients by ADT (P<.001). Conclusions: AR repression by ADT may lead to downregulation of HIF1 signaling independently of hypoxic fraction, and this may contribute to

  9. Position stand on androgen and human growth hormone use.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Storer, Thomas; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Haff, G Gregory; Willoughby, Darryn S; Rogol, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    Hoffman, JR, Kraemer, WJ, Bhasin, S, Storer, T, Ratamess, NA, Haff, GG, Willoughby, DS, and Rogol, AD. Position stand on Androgen and human growth hormone use. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S1-S59, 2009-Perceived yet often misunderstood demands of a sport, overt benefits of anabolic drugs, and the inability to be offered any effective alternatives has fueled anabolic drug abuse despite any consequences. Motivational interactions with many situational demands including the desire for improved body image, sport performance, physical function, and body size influence and fuel such negative decisions. Positive countermeasures to deter the abuse of anabolic drugs are complex and yet unclear. Furthermore, anabolic drugs work and the optimized training and nutritional programs needed to cut into the magnitude of improvement mediated by drug abuse require more work, dedication, and preparation on the part of both athletes and coaches alike. Few shortcuts are available to the athlete who desires to train naturally. Historically, the NSCA has placed an emphasis on education to help athletes, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals become more knowledgeable, highly skilled, and technically trained in their approach to exercise program design and implementation. Optimizing nutritional strategies are a vital interface to help cope with exercise and sport demands (). In addition, research-based supplements will also have to be acknowledged as a strategic set of tools (e.g., protein supplements before and after resistance exercise workout) that can be used in conjunction with optimized nutrition to allow more effective adaptation and recovery from exercise. Resistance exercise is the most effective anabolic form of exercise, and over the past 20 years, the research base for resistance exercise has just started to develop to a significant volume of work to help in the decision-making process in program design (). The interface with nutritional strategies has been less

  10. RUNX1, an androgen- and EZH2-regulated gene, has differential roles in AR-dependent and -independent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Urano, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Satoru; Homma, Yukio; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for the development of prostate cancer. Here, we report that runt-related transcription factor (RUNX1) could be a key molecule for the androgen-dependence of prostate cancer. We found RUNX1 is a target of AR and regulated positively by androgen. Our RUNX1 ChIP-seq analysis indicated that RUNX1 is recruited to AR binding sites by interacting with AR. In androgen-dependent cancer, loss of RUNX1 impairs AR-dependent transcription and cell growth. The RUNX1 promoter is bound by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and is negatively regulated by histone H3 lysine 27 (K27) trimethylation. Repression of RUNX1 is important for the growth promotion ability of EZH2 in AR-independent cells. In clinical prostate cancer samples, the RUNX1 expression level is negatively associated with EZH2 and that RUNX1 loss correlated with poor prognosis. These results indicated the significance of RUNX1 for androgen-dependency and that loss of RUNX1 could be a key step for the progression of prostate cancer. PMID:25537508

  11. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer metastasis via IQGAP1 and caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeongsun; Ruelcke, Jayde E; Choi, Eunju; Sharpe, Laura J; Nassar, Zeyad D; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shah, Anup; Francois, Mathias; Inder, Kerry L; Brown, Andrew J; Russell, Pamela J; Parton, Robert G; Hill, Michelle M

    2015-04-10

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with several cancers, however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Recent studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral androgen signaling in prostate cancer, but it is unclear whether androgen-independent mechanisms also exist. Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, in this study, we aimed to determine whether and how hypercholesterolemia affects prostate cancer progression in the absence of androgen signaling. We demonstrate that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes orthotopic xenograft PC-3 cell metastasis, concomitant with elevated expression of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 in xenograft tumor tissues. In vitro cholesterol treatment of PC-3 cells stimulated migration and increased IQGAP1 and caveolin-1 protein level and localization to a detergent-resistant fraction. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 or IQGAP1 in PC-3 cells reduced migration and invasion in vitro, and hypercholesterolemia-induced metastasis in vivo. Double knock-down of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 showed no additive effect, suggesting that caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 act via the same pathway. Taken together, our data show that hypercholesterolemia promotes prostate cancer metastasis independent of the androgen pathway, in part by increasing IQGAP1 and caveolin-1. These results have broader implications for managing metastasis of cancers in general as IQGAP1 and hypercholesterolemia are implicated in the progression of several cancers.

  12. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer metastasis via IQGAP1 and caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyeongsun; Ruelcke, Jayde E.; Choi, Eunju; Sharpe, Laura J.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shah, Anup; Francois, Mathias; Inder, Kerry L.; Brown, Andrew J.; Russell, Pamela J.; Parton, Robert G.; Hill, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with several cancers, however, the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Recent studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral androgen signaling in prostate cancer, but it is unclear whether androgen-independent mechanisms also exist. Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, in this study, we aimed to determine whether and how hypercholesterolemia affects prostate cancer progression in the absence of androgen signaling. We demonstrate that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia promotes orthotopic xenograft PC-3 cell metastasis, concomitant with elevated expression of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 in xenograft tumor tissues. In vitro cholesterol treatment of PC-3 cells stimulated migration and increased IQGAP1 and caveolin-1 protein level and localization to a detergent-resistant fraction. Down-regulation of caveolin-1 or IQGAP1 in PC-3 cells reduced migration and invasion in vitro, and hypercholesterolemia-induced metastasis in vivo. Double knock-down of caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 showed no additive effect, suggesting that caveolin-1 and IQGAP1 act via the same pathway. Taken together, our data show that hypercholesterolemia promotes prostate cancer metastasis independent of the androgen pathway, in part by increasing IQGAP1 and caveolin-1. These results have broader implications for managing metastasis of cancers in general as IQGAP1 and hypercholesterolemia are implicated in the progression of several cancers. PMID:25924234

  13. Androgen exposure increases human monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and endothelial cell expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    McCrohon, J A; Jessup, W; Handelsman, D J; Celermajer, D S

    1999-05-04

    Male sex is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Owing to the importance of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in the development of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that androgens might promote this process. We therefore studied the effects of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on human monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells and on endothelial cell-surface expression of adhesion molecules. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were grown to confluence in media supplemented with postmenopausal female serum, then exposed for 48 hours to either DHT (40 and 400 nmol/L), with or without the androgen receptor blocker hydroxyflutamide (HF) (4 micromol/L); HF alone; or vehicle control (ethanol 0.1%). Human monocytes obtained by elutriation were incubated for 1 hour with the HUVECs at 37 degrees C, and adhesion was measured by light microscopy. Compared with vehicle control, monocyte adhesion was increased in the androgen-treated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (116+/-6% and 128+/-3% for DHT 40 and 400 nmol/L respectively; P<0.001). HF blocked this increase (P>/=0.3 compared with control). Surface expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules was measured by ELISA and revealed an increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the DHT-treated HUVECs (125+/-5% versus 100+/-4% in controls; P=0.002), an effect also antagonized by HF (P>/=0.3 compared with controls). Furthermore, the DHT-related increase in adhesion was completely blocked by coincubation with anti-VCAM-1 antibody. Comparable results were obtained in arterial endothelial cells and in endothelium stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Androgen exposure is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a proatherogenic effect mediated at least in part by an increased endothelial cell-surface expression of VCAM-1.

  14. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  15. The G gamma / T-15 transgenic mouse model of androgen-independent prostate cancer: target cells of carcinogenesis and the effect of the vitamin D analogue EB 1089.

    PubMed

    Perez-Stable, Carlos M; Schwartz, Gary G; Farinas, Adan; Finegold, Milton; Binderup, Lise; Howard, Guy A; Roos, Bernard A

    2002-06-01

    Transgenic mouse models of prostate cancer provide unique opportunities to understand the molecular events in prostate carcinogenesis and for the preclinical testing of new therapies. We studied the G gamma T-15 transgenic mouse line, which contains the human fetal globin promoter linked to SV40 T antigen (Tag) and which develops androgen-independent prostate cancer. Using the immunohistochemistry of normal mouse prostates before tumor formation, we showed that the target cells of carcinogenesis in G gamma T-15 mice are located in the basal epithelial layer. We tested the efficacy of the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogue, EB 1089, to chemoprevent prostate cancer in these transgenic mice. Compared with treatment with placebo, treatment with EB 1089 at three different time points before the onset of prostate tumors in mice did not prevent or delay tumor onset. However, EB 1089 significantly inhibited prostate tumor growth. At the highest dose, EB 1089 inhibited prostate tumor growth by 60% (P = 0.0003) and the growth in the number of metastases, although this dose also caused significant hypercalcemia and weight loss. We conducted several in vitro experiments to explore why EB 1089 did not prevent the occurrence of the primary tumors. EB 1089 significantly inhibited the growth of a Tag-expressing human prostate epithelial cell line, BPH-1, and an androgen-insensitive subline of LNCaP cells [which was not inhibited by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. Thus, neither Tag expression nor androgen insensitivity explain the absence of chemopreventive effect. Conversely, neither 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) nor EB 1089 inhibited the growth of the normal rat prostate basal epithelial cell line NRP-152. It is likely that EB 1089 was not effective in delaying the growth of the primary tumor in G gamma T-15 transgenic mice because the target cells of carcinogenesis in these mice are located in the basal epithelial layer. We conclude that G gamma T-15 transgenic mice are a useful model for testing vitamin D

  16. Androgen Regulated Genes in Human Prostate Xenografts in Mice: Relation to BPH and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Love, Harold D.; Booton, S. Erin; Boone, Braden E.; Breyer, Joan P.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Revelo, Monica P.; Shappell, Scott B.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (CaP) are linked to aging and the presence of androgens, suggesting that androgen regulated genes play a major role in these common diseases. Androgen regulation of prostate growth and development depends on the presence of intact epithelial-stromal interactions. Further, the prostatic stroma is implicated in BPH. This suggests that epithelial cell lines are inadequate to identify androgen regulated genes that could contribute to BPH and CaP and which could serve as potential clinical biomarkers. In this study, we used a human prostate xenograft model to define a profile of genes regulated in vivo by androgens, with an emphasis on identifying candidate biomarkers. Benign transition zone (TZ) human prostate tissue from radical prostatectomies was grafted to the sub-renal capsule site of intact or castrated male immunodeficient mice, followed by the removal or addition of androgens, respectively. Microarray analysis of RNA from these tissues was used to identify genes that were; 1) highly expressed in prostate, 2) had significant expression changes in response to androgens, and, 3) encode extracellular proteins. A total of 95 genes meeting these criteria were selected for analysis and validation of expression in patient prostate tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of these genes were measured in pooled RNAs from human prostate tissues with varying severity of BPH pathologic changes and CaP of varying Gleason score. A number of androgen regulated genes were identified. Additionally, a subset of these genes were over-expressed in RNA from clinical BPH tissues, and the levels of many were found to correlate with disease status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility, and some of the problems, of using a mouse xenograft model to characterize the androgen regulated expression profiles of intact human prostate tissues. PMID:20027305

  17. Inhibition of constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling attenuates androgen independent signaling and growth in (C4-2) prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cindy; Richmond, Oliver; Aaron, Latayia; Powell, Joann B

    2013-03-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. AhR mediates the biochemical and toxic effects of a number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8,-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). AhR is widely known for regulating the transcription of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of carcinogens and therapeutic agents, such as cytochrome P450-1B1 (CYP1B1). Additionally, AhR has also been reported to interact with multiple signaling pathways during prostate development. Here we investigate the effect of sustained AhR signaling on androgen receptor function in prostate cancer cells. Immunoblot analysis shows that AhR expression is increased in androgen independent (C4-2) prostate cancer cells when compared to androgen sensitive (LNCaP) cells. RT-PCR studies revealed constitutive AhR signaling in C4-2 cells without the ligand induced activation required in LNCaP cells. A reduction of AhR activity by short RNA mediated silencing in C4-2 cells reduced expression of both AhR and androgen responsive genes. The decrease in androgen responsive genes correlates to a decrease in phosphorylated androgen receptor and androgen receptor expression in the nucleus. Furthermore, the forced decrease in AhR expression resulted in a 50% decline in the growth rate of C4-2 cells. These data indicates that AhR is required to maintain hormone independent signaling and growth by the androgen receptor in C4-2 cells. Collectively, these data provide evidence of a direct role for AhR in androgen independent signaling and provides insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for sustained androgen receptor signaling in hormone refractory prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Androgen-Independent Growth of Prostate Cancer by siRNA-Mediated Androgen Receptor Gene Silencing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Cell Lines and Reagents The human prostate cancer LNCaP, LAPC-4, PC-3, C4-2 and CWR22Rvl cells and HEK293 cells were described previously (32...adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus 18. Carcinogenesis 1997; 18:1215-23. 42. Sramkoski RM, Pretlow TG 2"d...Giaconia JM, et al. A new human prostate carcinoma cell line , CWR22Rvl. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 1999; 35:403-9. 43. Martin SJ,

  19. Hsa-miR-146a-5p modulates androgen-independent prostate cancer cells apoptosis by targeting ROCK1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Huang, Yeqing; Niu, Xiaobing; Tao, Tao; Jiang, Liang; Tong, Na; Chen, Shuqiu; Liu, Ning; Zhu, Weidong; Chen, Ming

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated playing important roles in the procession of prostate cancer cells transformation from androgen-dependence to androgen-independence. We conducted the miRNA microarray and realtime PCR analyses in both androgen-dependent (ADPC) and androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) tissues. We also explored the role of hsa-miR-146a-5p (miR-146a) in MSKCC prostate cancer clinical database. Moreover, the impact of miR-146a on prostate cancer cells apoptosis were detected by Hoechst staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Its target is predicted by DIANA LAB online database and the result was assumed by western blotting and luciferase assay. We demonstrated that miR-146a was down-regulated in AIPC tissues and cell lines compared to that in the ADPC tissues. In MSKCC data re-analyses, we found that miR-146a was underexpressed in metastatic prostate cancer tissues and those with Gleason score >8, moreover, low level of miR-146a represented a high biochemical relapse rate after radical prostatectomy. In the functional analyses, we transfected miR-146a mimics into CPRC cell lines and found miR-146a induced cells apoptosis. In mechanic analyses, we found that miR-146a inhibited the basal level of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) expression by targeting its 3'UTR and an inverse correlation of expression between miR-146a and ROCK1 was observed. Moreover, caspase 3 activity was stimulated by miR-146a overexpression. miR-146a has a critical role in the process of AIPC prostate cancer cells apoptosis through regulation of ROCK/Caspase 3 pathway. Targeting this pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for future personalized anti-cancer treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gonadal and adrenal androgens are potent regulators of human bone cell metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kasperk, C H; Wakley, G K; Hierl, T; Ziegler, R

    1997-03-01

    Androgens stimulate bone formation and play an important role in the maintenance of bone mass. Clinical observations suggest that both gonadal and adrenal androgens contribute to the positive impact of androgenic steroids on bone metabolism. We investigated the mechanism of action of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated compound dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on human osteoblastic cells (HOCs) in vitro. The DHEA- and DHEAS-induced effects were analyzed in parallel with the actions elicited by the gonadal androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). There was no qualitative difference between the effects of gonadal and adrenal androgens on HOC metabolism in vitro. Both were stimulatory as regards cell proliferation and differentiated functions, but the gonadal androgen DHT was significantly more potent than DHEA. The actions of DHT and DHEA on HOC proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production could be prevented by the androgen receptor antagonist hydroxyflutamide and inhibitory transforming growth factor beta antibodies (TGF-beta ab), respectively, but were not affected by the presence of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) and 5-alpha-reductase (5-AR) inhibitor 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl- 4aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one (4-MA). This indicates that DHT and DHEA (1) exert their mitogenic effects by androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms, (2) stimulate ALP production by increased TGF-beta expression, (3) that the action of DHT is not affected by the presence of 4-MA, and that (4) DHEA does not need to be metabolized by 3 beta HSD or 5-AR first to exert its effects on HOCs in vitro.

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Reveals a Role for Protein S during the Development of High Grade and Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saraon, Punit; Musrap, Natasha; Cretu, Daniela; Karagiannis, George S.; Batruch, Ihor; Smith, Chris; Drabovich, Andrei P.; Trudel, Dominique; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Morrissey, Colm; Jarvi, Keith A.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation constitutes the principal therapy for advanced and metastatic prostate cancers. However, this therapeutic intervention usually results in the transition to a more aggressive androgen-independent prostate cancer. The elucidation of molecular alterations during the progression to androgen independence is an integral step toward discovering more effective targeted therapies. With respect to identifying crucial mediators of this transition, we compared the proteomes of androgen-independent (PC3, DU145, PPC1, LNCaP-SF, and 22Rv1) and androgen-dependent (LNCaP and VCaP) and/or normal prostate epithelial (RWPE) cell lines using mass spectrometry. We identified more than 100 proteins that were differentially secreted in the androgen-independent cell lines. Of these, Protein S (PROS1) was elevated in the secretomes of all of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines, with no detectable secretion in normal and androgen-dependent cell lines. Using quantitative PCR, we observed significantly higher (p < 0.05) tissue expression levels of PROS1 in prostate cancer samples, further indicating its importance in prostate cancer progression. Similarly, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed elevation of PROS1 in high grade prostate cancer (Gleason grade ≥8), and further elevation in castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer lesions. We also observed its significant (p < 0.05) elevation in high grade prostate cancer seminal plasma samples. Taken together, these results show that PROS1 is elevated in high grade and castration-resistant prostate cancer and could serve as a potential biomarker of aggressive disease. PMID:22908226

  2. Silibinin inhibits aberrant lipid metabolism, proliferation and emergence of androgen-independence in prostate cancer cells via primarily targeting the sterol response element binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Deep, Gagan; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-10-30

    Prostate cancer (PCA) kills thousands of men every year, demanding additional approaches to better understand and target this malignancy. Recently, critical role of aberrant lipogenesis is highlighted in prostate carcinogenesis, offering a unique opportunity to target it to reduce PCA. Here, we evaluated efficacy and associated mechanisms of silibinin in inhibiting lipid metabolism in PCA cells. At physiologically achievable levels in human, silibinin strongly reduced lipid and cholesterol accumulation specifically in human PCA cells but not in non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Silibinin also decreased nuclear protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and 2 (SREBP1/2) and their target genes only in PCA cells. Mechanistically, silibinin activated AMPK, thereby increasing SREBP1 phosphorylation and inhibiting its nuclear translocation; AMPK inhibition reversed silibinin-mediated decrease in nuclear SREBP1 and lipid accumulation. Additionally, specific SREBP inhibitor fatostatin and stable overexpression of SREBP1 further confirmed the central role of SREBP1 in silibinin-mediated inhibition of PCA cell proliferation and lipid accumulation and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, silibinin also inhibited synthetic androgen R1881-induced lipid accumulation and completely abrogated the development of androgen-independent LNCaP cell clones via targeting SREBP1/2. Together, these mechanistic studies suggest that silibinin would be effective against PCA by targeting critical aberrant lipogenesis.

  3. NF-κB and Androgen Receptor Variant Expression Correlate with Human BPH progression

    PubMed Central

    Austin, David C; Strand, Douglas W; Love, Harold L; Franco, Omar E; Jang, Alex; Grabowska, Magdalena M; Miller, Nicole L; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E; Fowke, Jay H; Matusik, Robert J; Jin, Ren J; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common, chronic progressive disease. Inflammation is associated with prostatic enlargement and resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) therapy. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is linked to both inflammation and ligand-independent prostate cancer progression. Methods NF-κB activation and androgen receptor variant (AR-V) expression were quantified in transition zone tissue samples from patients with a wide range of AUASS from incidental BPH in patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer to advanced disease requiring surgical intervention. To further investigate these pathways, human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were transduced with constitutively active or kinase dead forms of IKK2 to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The effects on AR full length (AR-FL) and androgen-independent AR-V expression as well as cellular growth and differentiation were assessed. Results Canonical NF-κB signaling was found to be upregulated in late versus early stage BPH, and to be strongly associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Elevated expression of AR-variant 7 (AR-V7), but not other AR variants, was found in advanced BPH samples. Expression of AR-V7 significantly correlated with the patient AUASS and TRUS volume. Forced activation of canonical NF-κB in human prostatic epithelial and stromal cells resulted in elevated expression of both AR-FL and AR-V7, with concomitant ligand-independent activation of AR reporters. Activation of NF-κB and over expression of AR-V7 in human prostatic epithelial cells maintained cell viability in the face of 5ARI treatment. Conclusion Activation of NF-κB and AR-V7 in the prostate is associated with increased disease severity. AR-V7 expression is inducible in human prostate cells by forced activation of NF-κB resulting in resistance to 5ARI treatment, suggesting a potential mechanism by which patients may

  4. Synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and paclitaxel in both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shang, Donghao; Liu, Yuting; Liu, Qingjun; Zhang, Fengbo; Feng, Lang; Lv, Wencheng; Tian, Ye

    2009-06-08

    To determine the synergy of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) and paclitaxel (PTX) against prostate carcinoma (PC) cells by isobolographic analysis. We demonstrated that DAC could significantly increase the susceptibility of PC cells to PTX, and confirmed the synergy of DAC and PTX. DAC enhanced the PTX induced up-regulation of caspase activity and antiproliferative effect, resulting in an increase of cells in subG1 and G2/M phases. In addition, the synergy was observed in both androgen-dependent and -independent PC cell lines. It suggested that combination chemotherapy with DAC and PTX might be a new strategy to improve the clinical response rate of PC.

  5. Krüppel-like factor 5 in human breast carcinoma: a potent prognostic factor induced by androgens.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Mika; Inoue, Satoshi; Sasano, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (intestinal) or Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and involved in important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, clinical significance of KLF5 protein has remained largely unknown in breast cancer. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized KLF5 in 113 human breast carcinoma cases. KLF5 immunoreactivity was frequently detected in the nuclei of breast carcinoma cells, and median value of the ratio of KLF5-positive carcinoma cells was 30% and was positively associated with the status of androgen receptor. KLF5 immunoreactivity was also significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence and worse clinical outcome in breast cancer patients by univariate analyses, and subsequent multivariate analyses demonstrated that KLF5 immunoreactivity was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and breast cancer-specific survival of the patients. We then examined possible regulation of KLF5 by androgen using MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. KLF5 mRNA was induced by biologically active androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. In addition, results of transfection experiments demonstrated that proliferation activity of MCF-7 cells was significantly associated with the KLF5 expression level. These findings suggest that KLF5 is an androgen-responsive gene in human breast carcinomas and play important roles in the progression of breast carcinomas. KLF5 immunoreactivity is therefore considered a potent prognostic factor in human breast cancers.

  6. Molecular Basis of Prostate-Specific Androgen-Independent Expression of a Homeobox Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    genes are homologs of Dro- g sophila homeotic genes that encode homeodomain meobox-containing genes have been implicated in transcription factors [1...Expression of the homeotic gene Hox-d13 in the developing and adult mouse cells and is androgen-dependent [14,21,22]. nkx-3.1 is prostate. J Urol...Expression of a Homeobox Gene PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles J. Bieberich, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Maryland, Baltimore County

  7. Intracrine Androgens Enhance Decidualization and Modulate Expression of Human Endometrial Receptivity Genes.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Douglas A; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Cousins, Fiona L; Critchley, Hilary O D; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2016-01-28

    The endometrium is a complex, steroid-dependent tissue that undergoes dynamic cyclical remodelling. Transformation of stromal fibroblasts (ESC) into specialised secretory cells (decidualization) is fundamental to the establishment of a receptive endometrial microenvironment which can support and maintain pregnancy. Androgen receptors (AR) are present in ESC; in other tissues local metabolism of ovarian and adrenal-derived androgens regulate AR-dependent gene expression. We hypothesised that altered expression/activity of androgen biosynthetic enzymes would regulate tissue availability of bioactive androgens and the process of decidualization. Primary human ESC were treated in vitro for 1-8 days with progesterone and cAMP (decidualized) in the presence or absence of the AR antagonist flutamide. Time and treatment-dependent changes in genes essential for a) intra-tissue biosynthesis of androgens (5α-reductase/SRD5A1, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3/AKR1C3), b) establishment of endometrial decidualization (IGFBP1, prolactin) and c) endometrial receptivity (SPP1, MAOA, EDNRB) were measured. Decidualization of ESC resulted in significant time-dependent changes in expression of AKR1C3 and SRD5A1 and secretion of T/DHT. Addition of flutamide significantly reduced secretion of IGFBP1 and prolactin and altered the expression of endometrial receptivity markers. Intracrine biosynthesis of endometrial androgens during decidualization may play a key role in endometrial receptivity and offer a novel target for fertility treatment.

  8. Intracrine Androgens Enhance Decidualization and Modulate Expression of Human Endometrial Receptivity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Douglas A.; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Cousins, Fiona L.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.

    2016-01-01

    The endometrium is a complex, steroid-dependent tissue that undergoes dynamic cyclical remodelling. Transformation of stromal fibroblasts (ESC) into specialised secretory cells (decidualization) is fundamental to the establishment of a receptive endometrial microenvironment which can support and maintain pregnancy. Androgen receptors (AR) are present in ESC; in other tissues local metabolism of ovarian and adrenal-derived androgens regulate AR-dependent gene expression. We hypothesised that altered expression/activity of androgen biosynthetic enzymes would regulate tissue availability of bioactive androgens and the process of decidualization. Primary human ESC were treated in vitro for 1–8 days with progesterone and cAMP (decidualized) in the presence or absence of the AR antagonist flutamide. Time and treatment-dependent changes in genes essential for a) intra-tissue biosynthesis of androgens (5α-reductase/SRD5A1, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3/AKR1C3), b) establishment of endometrial decidualization (IGFBP1, prolactin) and c) endometrial receptivity (SPP1, MAOA, EDNRB) were measured. Decidualization of ESC resulted in significant time-dependent changes in expression of AKR1C3 and SRD5A1 and secretion of T/DHT. Addition of flutamide significantly reduced secretion of IGFBP1 and prolactin and altered the expression of endometrial receptivity markers. Intracrine biosynthesis of endometrial androgens during decidualization may play a key role in endometrial receptivity and offer a novel target for fertility treatment. PMID:26817618

  9. Gonadotropin-Activated Androgen-Dependent and Independent Pathways Regulate Aquaporin Expression during Teleost (Sparus aurata) Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zapater, Cinta; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The mediation of fluid homeostasis by multiple classes of aquaporins has been suggested to be essential during spermatogenesis and spermiation. In the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), seven distinct aquaporins, Aqp0a, -1aa, -1ab, -7, -8b, -9b and -10b, are differentially expressed in the somatic and germ cell lineages of the spermiating testis, but the endocrine regulation of these channels during germ cell development is unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vivo developmental expression of aquaporins in the seabream testis together with plasma androgen concentrations. We then examined the in vitro regulatory effects of recombinant piscine gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, and sex steroids on aquaporin mRNA levels during the spermatogenic cycle. During the resting phase, when plasma levels of androgens were low, the testis exclusively contained proliferating spermatogonia expressing Aqp1ab, whereas Aqp10b and -9b were localized in Sertoli and Leydig cells, respectively. At the onset of spermatogenesis and during spermiation, the increase of androgen plasma levels correlated with the additional appearance of Aqp0a and -7 in Sertoli cells, Aqp0a in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, Aqp1ab, -7 and -10b from spermatogonia to spermatozoa, and Aqp1aa and -8b in spermatids and spermatozoa. Short-term in vitro incubation of testis explants indicated that most aquaporins in Sertoli cells and early germ cells were upregulated by rFsh and/or rLh through androgen-dependent pathways, although Aqp1ab in proliferating spermatogonia was also activated by estrogens. However, expression of Aqp9b in Leydig cells, and of Aqp1aa and -7 in spermatocytes and spermatids, was also directly stimulated by rLh. These results reveal a complex gonadotropic control of aquaporin expression during seabream germ cell development, apparently involving both androgen-dependent and independent pathways, which may assure the fine tuning

  10. Gonadotropin-Activated Androgen-Dependent and Independent Pathways Regulate Aquaporin Expression during Teleost (Sparus aurata) Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boj, Mónica; Chauvigné, François; Zapater, Cinta; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The mediation of fluid homeostasis by multiple classes of aquaporins has been suggested to be essential during spermatogenesis and spermiation. In the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), seven distinct aquaporins, Aqp0a, -1aa, -1ab, -7, -8b, -9b and -10b, are differentially expressed in the somatic and germ cell lineages of the spermiating testis, but the endocrine regulation of these channels during germ cell development is unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vivo developmental expression of aquaporins in the seabream testis together with plasma androgen concentrations. We then examined the in vitro regulatory effects of recombinant piscine gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, and sex steroids on aquaporin mRNA levels during the spermatogenic cycle. During the resting phase, when plasma levels of androgens were low, the testis exclusively contained proliferating spermatogonia expressing Aqp1ab, whereas Aqp10b and -9b were localized in Sertoli and Leydig cells, respectively. At the onset of spermatogenesis and during spermiation, the increase of androgen plasma levels correlated with the additional appearance of Aqp0a and -7 in Sertoli cells, Aqp0a in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, Aqp1ab, -7 and -10b from spermatogonia to spermatozoa, and Aqp1aa and -8b in spermatids and spermatozoa. Short-term in vitro incubation of testis explants indicated that most aquaporins in Sertoli cells and early germ cells were upregulated by rFsh and/or rLh through androgen-dependent pathways, although Aqp1ab in proliferating spermatogonia was also activated by estrogens. However, expression of Aqp9b in Leydig cells, and of Aqp1aa and -7 in spermatocytes and spermatids, was also directly stimulated by rLh. These results reveal a complex gonadotropic control of aquaporin expression during seabream germ cell development, apparently involving both androgen-dependent and independent pathways, which may assure the fine tuning

  11. Organ specific Gst-pi expression of the metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Taku; Asamoto, Makoto; Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Naomi; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2012-04-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer, particularly to the bone, is a major issue for treatment of this malignancy. We previously reported that an androgen-independent variant had higher expression of glutathione S-transferase pi (Gst-pi) compared with a parent androgen-dependent transplantable rat prostate carcinoma which was established from the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP). A new cell line, PCai1, was established from the androgen-independent tumor and investigated its metastatic potential in nude mice. The tumorigenesis of PCai1 cells in vivo was studied by subcutaneous transplantations into nude mice. The growth in the microenvironment of the prostate was studied by orthotopic transplantation of PCai1 cells into nude mice. The metastatic potential of PCai1 cells was studied by tail vein injections. Effects of Gst-pi knocked down were analysis in PCai1 cells. PCai1 frequently formed metastatic lesions in the lung and lymph nodes after orthotopic implantation in the prostate. Intravenous injections of PCai1, metastasis to lung and bone were obvious. PCai1 had strong expression for Gst-pi, therefore we tried knocked down Gst-pi. Gst-pi-siRNA in vitro significantly suppressed cell proliferation rate. In addition, high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were recognized in the Gst-pi knockout. Gst-pi expression of the prostate cancers are dependent on metastatic site, and that Gst-pi has an important role in adapting prostate cancer for growth and metastasis involving an alteration of ROS signals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Regional difference in sebum production by androgen susceptibility in human facial skin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Joon; Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Dae Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Hyeong Rae; Lee, Young; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Young Ho; Shi, Ge; Lee, Jeung Hoon; Im, Myung

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important hormones that influence sebum production from the sebaceous glands. Human facial skin can be categorized as T- and U-zones, which are areas with high and low levels of sebum secretion, respectively. This study was performed to investigate whether there are topographical differences in androgen receptor (AR) expression related to regional variations in facial sebum secretion. The results of in vivo analysis indicated a statistically significant increase in AR expression in the sebaceous gland T-zones compared with the U-zones. In vitro experiments using human primary sebocytes also yielded similar results, with higher levels of AR protein and mRNA expression in T-zones. The results of this study suggested that differences in androgen susceptibility may be an important factor influencing regional differences in sebum production in human facial skin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Inhibitory effect of Genipin on uncoupling protein-2 and energy metabolism of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yao, Mao-liang; Gu, Jiang; Zhang, Yong-chun; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-hui; Yang, Qing-tao; Liu, Miao; Xia, Jian-feng

    2015-11-01

    To explore whether the inhibitory effect of Genipin on uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) in mitochondria is involved in energy metabolism of androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells. PC3 prostate cancer cells were cultured and treated with Genipin at the concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 μmol/L for 48 hours. Then the proliferation of the cells was detected by MTT assay, the expression of UCP-2 mRNA determined by RT-PCR, and the content of intracellular pyruvic acid (PA) and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the mitochondria measured by visible spectrophotometry. With the increased concentration of Genipin, the proliferative activity of the PC-3 cells, the expression level of UCP-2 mRNA, the content of intracellular PA and the activity of SDH in the cells were all decreased, namely, with the enhanced inhibitory effect of Genipin on UCP-2, a trend of reduction was observed in the proliferation of the cells, intracellular PA content, and SDH activity in the mitochondria. Genipin is involved in the energy metabolism of androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells by reducing the content of intracellular PA and the activity of SDH in the mitochondria, which may be associated with its inhibitory effect on UCP-2.

  14. Deletion of the Androgen Receptor in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Elevates Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Reveals Independent Effects on Visceral Fat Mass and on Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Kerry J.; Smith, Lee B.; Hunger, Nicole I.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is epidemic in obese ageing males with type 2 diabetes, but the direction of causality remains unclear. Testosterone-deficient males and global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice are insulin resistant with increased fat, but it is unclear whether AR signaling in adipose tissue mediates body fat redistribution and alters glucose homoeostasis. To investigate this, mice with selective knockdown of AR in adipocytes (fARKO) were generated. Male fARKO mice on normal diet had reduced perigonadal fat but were hyperinsulinemic and by age 12 months, were insulin deficient in the absence of obesity. On high-fat diet, fARKO mice had impaired compensatory insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity. Adipokine screening in fARKO mice revealed a selective increase in plasma and intra-adipose retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that preceded obesity. AR activation in murine 3T3 adipocytes downregulated RBP4 mRNA. We conclude that AR signaling in adipocytes not only protects against high-fat diet–induced visceral obesity but also regulates insulin action and glucose homeostasis, independently of adiposity. Androgen deficiency in adipocytes in mice resembles human type 2 diabetes, with early insulin resistance and evolving insulin deficiency. PMID:22415878

  15. Sexual dimorphism in human and canine spinal cord: role of early androgen.

    PubMed

    Forger, N G; Breedlove, S M

    1986-10-01

    Onuf's nucleus, located in the sacral spinal cord of dogs, cats, and primates, innervates perineal muscles involved in copulatory behavior. A sexual dimorphism in Onuf's nucleus was found in humans and dogs: males have significantly more motoneurons in this nucleus than do females. Prenatal androgen treatment of female dogs eliminated the dimorphism. In the homologous nucleus in rats, a similar effect of androgen has been shown to involve sparing of motoneurons from cell death. These results establish a morphological sex difference in a human central nervous system region of known function; well-studied animal models suggest explanations of the development of this dimorphism.

  16. MicroRNA Targets of Human Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    A large number of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk of prostate cancer . Among them are androgens, dietary factors ...our understanding with respect to molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways and intrinsic factors which contribute to the development of prostate cancer ...ribonuclease which function to process precursor- microRNAs (pre- miRNAs ) to mature miRNA (Denli et al. 2004; Sohn et al. 2007; Mueller et al. 2010). miRNAs are

  17. Metabolic action of prolactin in regressing prostate: independent of androgen action

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.; Assimos, D.; Lee, C.; Grayhack, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of the observed synergistic effect of prolactin and androgen on the lateral lobe of the rat prostate is not established. The observation that prolactin alone delayed the rate of loss of weight, protein, and DNA of the lateral lobe in castrated rats has led us to question the assumption that the effect of prolactin is produced by a modification of recognized androgen-induced intracellular changes. The present study was conducted to explore whether or not the sites of prolactin action in the rat prostate coincided with those recognized as the androgen effect. Two anterior pituitaries from female donors were grafted under the right renal capsule of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days later, bilateral orchiectomy and unilateral nephrectomy were performed in these rats. In one half of the animals, the kidney bearing the pituitary grafts was removed. In the other half, the contralateral kidney was removed. Seven days following the orchiectomy-nephrectomy, animals bearing the pituitary grafts had a higher level of serum prolactin (93 +/- 7 ng/ml, mean +/- SE) than in those without the graft (26 +/- 3 ng/ml). This condition of hyperprolactinemia was associated with the delay of castration-induced regression in the lateral prostate. The rate of protein degradation, as judged by the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tissue following a single i.v. pulse of /sup 3/H-leucine 24 hr before orchiectomy-nephrectomy, was significantly slower in the lateral prostate in graft-bearing animals than in those without grafts.

  18. Identification of androgen receptors in normal human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, D.S.; Eriksen, E.F.; Keeting, P.E.; Riggs, B.L.; Spelsberg, T.C. ); Wilson, E.M.; Lubahn, D.B.; French, F.S. )

    1989-02-01

    The sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, are major regulators of bone metabolism. However, whether these hormones act on bone cells through direct or indirect mechanisms has remained unclear. A nuclear binding assay recently used to demonstrate estrogen receptors in bone was used to identify specific nuclear binding of a tritiated synthetic androgen, ({sup 3}H)R1881 (methyltrienolone), in 21 of 25 (84%) human osteoblast-like cell strains and a concentration of bound steroid receptors of 821 {plus minus} 140 molecules per cell nucleus. Binding was saturable and steroid-specific. Androgen receptor gene expression in osteoblasts was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Relative concentrations of androgen and estrogen receptors were compared by measuring specific nuclear estrogen binding. Nuclear binding of ({sup 3}H)estradiol was observed in 27 of 30 (90%) cell strains; the concentration of bound estradiol receptor was 1537 {plus minus} 221 molecules per cell nucleus. The concentrations of nuclear binding sites were similar in males and females for both ({sup 3}H)R1881 and ({sup 3}H)estradiol. The authors conclude that both androgens and estrogens act directly on human bone cells through their respective receptor-mediated mechanisms.

  19. Small molecule screening reveals a transcription-independent pro-survival function of androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Narizhneva, Natalia V.; Tararova, Natalia D.; Ryabokon, Petro; Shyshynova, Inna; Prokvolit, Anatoly; Komarov, Pavel G.; Purmal, Andrei A.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Gurova, Katerina V.

    2010-01-01

    In prostate cancer (PCa) patients, initial responsiveness to androgen deprivation therapy is frequently followed by relapse due to development of treatment-resistant androgen-independent PCa. This is typically associated with acquisition of mutations in AR that allow activity as a transcription factor in the absence of ligand, indicating that androgen-independent PCa remains dependent on AR function. Our strategy to effectively target AR in androgen-independent PCa involved using a cell-based readout to isolate small molecules that inhibit AR transactivation function through mechanisms other than modulation of ligand binding. A number of the identified inhibitors were toxic to AR-expressing PCa cells regardless of their androgen dependence. Among these, some only suppressed PCa cell growth (ARTIS), while others induced cell death (ARTIK). ARTIK, but not ARTIS, compounds caused disappearance of AR protein from treated cells. siRNA against AR behaved like ARTIK compounds, while a dominant negative AR mutant that prevents AR-mediated transactivation but does not eliminate the protein showed only a growth suppressive effect. These observations reveal a transcription-independent function of AR that is essential for PCa cell viability and, therefore, is an ideal target for anti-PCa treatment. Indeed, several of the identified AR inhibitors demonstrated in vivo efficacy in mouse models of PCa and are candidates for pharmacologic optimization. PMID:19946220

  20. A Novel Strategy to Inhibit Hedgehog Signaling and Control Growth of Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    challenge. Infect Immun, 2005. 73(5): p. 2967-73. 3. Srinivasan, S., et al., Inhibiting TNF- mediated signaling: a novel therapeutic paradigm for androgen...p65 antibody followed by EMSA. This assay showed a strong super shift to a higher molecular weight band in case of both anti-p50 and anti-p65... antibodies , suggesting that the observed NF-kB band consisted of these two subunits. FIGURE 7 Quinazoline drugs are often kinase inhibitors. For example

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent stimulation of amphiregulin expression in androgen-stimulated human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, I; Bailey, J; Hitzemann, K; Pittelkow, M R; Maihle, N J

    1994-01-01

    Amphiregulin is a heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that binds to the EGF receptor (EGF-R) with high affinity. In this study, we report a role for amphiregulin in androgen-stimulated regulation of prostate cancer cell growth. Androgen is known to enhance EGF-R expression in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line, and it has been suggested that androgenic stimuli may regulate proliferation, in part, through autocrine mechanisms involving the EGF-R. In this study, we demonstrate that LNCaP cells express amphiregulin mRNA and peptide and that this expression is elevated by androgenic stimulation. We also show that ligand-dependent EGF-R stimulation induces amphiregulin expression and that androgenic effects on amphiregulin synthesis are mediated through this EGF-R pathway. Parallel studies using the estrogen-responsive breast carcinoma cell line, MCF-7, suggest that regulation of amphiregulin by estrogen may also be mediated via an EGF-R pathway. In addition, heparin treatment of LNCaP cells inhibits androgen-stimulated cell growth further suggesting that amphiregulin can mediate androgen-stimulated LNCaP proliferation. Together, these results implicate an androgen-regulated autocrine loop composed of amphiregulin and its receptor in prostate cancer cell growth and suggest that the mechanism of steroid hormone regulation of amphiregulin synthesis may occur through androgen upregulation of the EGF-R and subsequent receptor-dependent pathways. Images PMID:8049525

  2. Androgen-independent LNCaP cells are a subline of LNCaP cells with a more aggressive phenotype and androgen suppresses their growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pan; Duan, Xiuzhi; Cheng, Yue; Liu, Chunhua; Chen, Yuhua; Liu, Weiwei; Yin, Binbin; Wang, Xuchu; Tao, Zhihua

    2017-09-07

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT, surgical or chemical castration) is the mainstay treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa); however, patients ineluctably relapse despite extremely low androgen levels. This evolution of PCa indicates its lethal progression. In this study, to mimic the traits of clinical PCa progression in vitro, we investigated the alterations in the cell biological characteristics in androgen-independent LNCaP cells (LNCaP-AI cells) compared with LNCaP cells. We also examined the effects of androgen on LNCaP and LNCaP-AI cell proliferation, androgen receptor (AR) expression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion. Furthermore, AR was silenced in the LNCaP and LNCaP-AI cells to detect the roles taht AR plays in cell growth, apoptosis and PSA secretion. We found that prolonged androgen ablation increased the LNCaP-AI cell growth rate and cell invasiveness, and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the LNCaP-AI cells. Moreover, despite the fact that the LNCaP and LNCaP-AI cells expressed equal amounts of AR protein, androgen induced a greater secretion of PSA in the LNCaP-AI cells than in the LNCaP cells. The proliferation of the LNCaP-AI cells was not dependent on, but was suppressed by androgen, which led to arrest at the G1 phase. Conversely, androgen significantly increased LNCaP cell proliferation by promoting the G1-S transition. Moreover, the silencing of AR suppressed LNCaP and LNCaP-AI cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase rather than promoting apoptosis, and reduced PSA secretion. On the whole, our data suggest that LNCaP-AI cells have a more more aggressive phenotype compared with the LNCaP cells; AR remains a critical factor in the LNCaP-AI cells, and androgen suppresses LNCaP-AI cell growth by blocking the cell cycle at the G1 phase.

  3. Evaluation of urinary excretion of androgens conjugated to cysteine in human pregnancy by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Garrostas, Lorena; Segura, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J; Ventura, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the maternal excretion of steroids during pregnancy are not restricted to the production of progesterone and estriol by the fetoplacental unit. Although there is a lack of longitudinal data on urinary androgen concentrations during pregnancy, some studies revealed that modifications in the excretions of androgens might be significant. Recently, several testosterone metabolites excreted as cysteine conjugates have been reported in human urine. We conducted a longitudinal study on androgens conjugated with cysteine and major androgens and estrogens excreted as glucuronides in three pregnant women by mass spectrometric techniques. The urinary concentrations obtained in samples weekly collected during each of the three trimesters and samples collected before pregnancy were compared. Results showed a significant increase in urinary estrogens and norandrosterone and a moderate decrease in the urinary concentrations for most of the androgens. The most significant exception to this behavior was the rise observed for epitestosterone glucuronide when comparing basal levels with the first trimester. Cysteinyl conjugates of testosterone metabolites showed a different behavior. Whereas 4,6-androstanedione remained almost constant through the three trimesters, and Δ(6)-testosterone decreased as the majority of androgens, the excretion profile of 1,4-androstanedione notably increased, reaching a maximum at the third trimester. Alterations in the steroid profile are used in doping control analysis for the screening of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. In this study, the main parameters proposed for doping control have been determined for basal samples and samples collected in the first trimester and they have been compared. In spite of the limited number of cases, significant variations have been found in all pregnancies studied. These alterations have to be taken into consideration if anabolic steroids are included into the Athlete Biological Passport

  4. Targeting androgen receptor/Src complex impairs the aggressive phenotype of human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Castoria, Gabriella; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Hayashi, Ryo; Arra, Claudio; Appella, Ettore; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Antimo

    2013-01-01

    Hormones and growth factors influence the proliferation and invasiveness of human mesenchymal tumors. The highly aggressive human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line harbors classical androgen receptor (AR) that responds to androgens triggering cell migration in the absence of significant mitogenesis. As occurs in many human cancer cells, HT1080 cells also express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report that the pure anti-androgen Casodex inhibits the growth of HT1080 cell xenografts in immune-depressed mice, revealing a novel role of AR in fibrosarcoma progression. In HT1080 cultured cells EGF, but not androgens, robustly increases DNA synthesis. Casodex abolishes the EGF mitogenic effect, implying a crosstalk between EGFR and AR. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk has been analyzed using an AR-derived small peptide, S1, which prevents AR/Src tyrosine kinase association and androgen-dependent Src activation. Present findings show that in HT1080 cells EGF induces AR/Src Association, and the S1 peptide abolishes both the assembly of this complex and Src activation. The S1 peptide inhibits EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, cell matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and invasiveness of HT1080 cells. Both Casodex and S1 peptide also prevent DNA synthesis and migration triggered by EGF in various human cancer-derived cells (prostate, breast, colon and pancreas) that express AR. This study shows that targeting the AR domain involved in AR/Src association impairs EGF signaling in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The EGF-elicited processes inhibited by the peptide (DNA synthesis, MMP-9 secretion and invasiveness) cooperate in increasing the aggressive phenotype of HT1080 cells. Therefore, AR represents a new potential therapeutic target in human fibrosarcoma, as supported by Casodex inhibition of HT1080 cell xenografts. The extension of these findings in various human cancer-derived cell lines highlights the conservation of this process across divergent cancer

  5. Androgen-STAT3 activation may contribute to gender disparity in human simply renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Xu, Yun-Fei; Feng, Yuan; Zhai, Wei; Che, Jian-Ping; Xia, Sheng-Qiang; Wang, Guang-Chun; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Simple renal cysts (SRC) are a common urological disease mostly in elderly, however the male-to-female ratio was 2.81. Androgen receptor (AR) activation was initially proposed as a vital signaling pathway in prostate cancer and consequent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-AR complex led an important putative mechanism by which prostate cells are sensitized with growth factor signals. However, in SRC disease, no related study emerged. 30 patients with SRC and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Puncture biopsy was performed to acquire cyst-adjacent kidney tissue and normal kidney tissues were from healthy kidney donor who received living-related donor nephrectomy. The expression of STAT3 and androgen receptor was determined by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The in-vitro effect of androgen on human HK-2 (an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney) cells' STAT3 expression was analyzed as well. Activated STAT3 was strongly expressed in tubular epithelial cells from kidneys of SRC patients, while it was barely found in normal kidneys. Meanwhile, the androgen receptor positive cyst epithelial cells and adjacent normal renal tubule cells were observed in kidneys from SRC patients, however, AR was weakly expressed in normal healthy male kidneys, statistically significant differences existed. In-vitro experiment demonstrated that when treated with exogenous added androgen, the expression level of STAT3 in HK-2 cells was significantly elevated. Our data raised the possible novel evidence that androgen-STAT3 activation might contribute to gender disparity in human SRC disease and clarification the esoteric mechanisms will provide us attractive therapy target for cystic kidney disease.

  6. Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Sun, Yin; Rao, Qun; Xu, Hua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-10-13

    Mutational inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor plays key roles in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mutated VHL-mediated VEGF induction has become the main target for the current RCC therapy. Here we identified a signal pathway of VEGF induction by androgen receptor (AR)/miRNA-145 as a new target to suppress RCC progression. Mechanism dissection revealed that AR might function through binding to the androgen receptor element (ARE) located on the promoter region of miRNA-145 to suppress p53's ability to induce expression of miRNA-145 that normally suppresses expression of HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1. Suppressing AR with AR-shRNA or introducing exogenous miRNA-145 mimic can attenuate RCC progression independent of VHL status. MiR-145 mimic in preclinical RCC orthotopic xenograft mouse model revealed its efficacy in suppression of RCC progression. These results together identified signals by AR-suppressed miRNA-145 as a key player in the RCC progression via regulating HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1 expression levels. Blockade of the newly identified signal by AR inhibition or miRNA-145 mimics has promising therapeutic benefit to suppress RCC progression.

  7. Androgen receptor (AR) suppresses miRNA-145 to promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression independent of VHL status

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Sun, Yin; Rao, Qun; Xu, Hua; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    Mutational inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor plays key roles in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and mutated VHL-mediated VEGF induction has become the main target for the current RCC therapy. Here we identified a signal pathway of VEGF induction by androgen receptor (AR)/miRNA-145 as a new target to suppress RCC progression. Mechanism dissection revealed that AR might function through binding to the androgen receptor element (ARE) located on the promoter region of miRNA-145 to suppress p53's ability to induce expression of miRNA-145 that normally suppresses expression of HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1. Suppressing AR with AR-shRNA or introducing exogenous miRNA-145 mimic can attenuate RCC progression independent of VHL status. MiR-145 mimic in preclinical RCC orthotopic xenograft mouse model revealed its efficacy in suppression of RCC progression. These results together identified signals by AR-suppressed miRNA-145 as a key player in the RCC progression via regulating HIF2α/VEGF/MMP9/CCND1 expression levels. Blockade of the newly identified signal by AR inhibition or miRNA-145 mimics has promising therapeutic benefit to suppress RCC progression. PMID:26304926

  8. TPL2/COT/MAP3K8 (TPL2) Activation Promotes Androgen Depletion-Independent (ADI) Prostate Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Joseph H.; Bhatia, Ayesha; Toth, Zsolt; Oh, Soohwan; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Melamed, Jonathan; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Jung, Jae U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its initial positive response to hormone ablation therapy, prostate cancers invariably recur in more aggressive, treatment resistant forms. The lack of our understanding of underlying genetic alterations for the transition from androgen-dependent (AD) to ADI prostate cancer growth hampers our ability to develop target-driven therapeutic strategies for the efficient treatment of ADI prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings By screening a library of activated human kinases, we have identified TPL2, encoding a serine/threonine kinase, as driving ADI prostate cancer growth. TPL2 activation by over-expressing either wild-type or a constitutively activated form of TPL2 induced ADI growth, whereas the suppression of TPL2 expression and its kinase activity in ADI prostate cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation under androgen-depleted conditions. Most importantly, TPL2 is upregulated in ADI prostate cancers of both the Pten deletion mouse model and the clinical prostate cancer specimens. Conclusions/Significance Together these data suggest that TPL2 kinase plays a critical role in the promotion of ADI prostate cancer progression. Furthermore, the suppression of TPL2 diminishes ADI prostate cancer growth and a high frequency of TPL2 overexpression in human ADI prostate cancer samples validates TPL2 as a target for the treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:21267413

  9. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  10. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  11. Long non-coding RNA LOC283070 mediates the transition of LNCaP cells into androgen-independent cells possibly via CAMK1D

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lina; Lin, Yani; Meng, Hui; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Li, Chaoyang; Zhang, Pengju; Cui, Fuai; Chen, Weiwen; Jiang, Anli

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study is to investigate the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer and its underlying mechanism. Methods: We established an androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (AIPC) cell line LNCaP-AI from androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma (ADPC) cell line LNCaP. Different expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs between LNCaP and LNCaP-AI cells were investigated using microarray analysis. The expression of RNAs was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels were measured using Western blotting. MTT assay was used to test cell viability. Tumor formation assay was performed in nude mice to detect tumor growth in vivo. Flow cytometry was performed to detect cell cycles. Transwell assay was employed to test cell migration and invasion. Results: According to bioinformatics prediction, lncRNA LOC283070 could possibly play an important role in the transition of LNCaP cells into LNCaP-AI cells. LOC283070 was up-regulated in LNCaP-AI cells and frequently up-regulated in AIPC cell lines. Overexpression of LOC283070 in LNCaP cells accelerated cell proliferation and migration, even under androgen-independent circumstances. Knockdown of LOC283070 inhibited LNCaP-AI cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, overexpression of LOC283070 promoted tumor growth in vivo in both normal mice and castrated mice. CAMK1D overexpression had similar effect with LOC283070, and CAMK1D knockdown fully abrogated the effect of LOC283070 overexpression on the transition of LNCaP cells into androgen-independent cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that overexpression of LOC283070 mediates the transition of LNCaP cells into androgen-independent LNCaP-AI cells possibly via CAMK1D. PMID:28077997

  12. RECOMBINANT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) BINDING ACROSS VERTEBRATE SPECIES: COMPARISON OF BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN, RAINBOW TROUT AND FATHEAD MINNOW AR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify androgen mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) androgen receptors (AR). Although the amino acid sequences of receptors from nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the mammalian receptors, it is uncertain ...

  13. RECOMBINANT ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) BINDING ACROSS VERTEBRATE SPECIES: COMPARISON OF BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS TO HUMAN, RAINBOW TROUT AND FATHEAD MINNOW AR.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro screening assays designed to identify androgen mimics or antagonists typically use mammalian (rat, human) androgen receptors (AR). Although the amino acid sequences of receptors from nonmammalian vertebrates are not identical to the mammalian receptors, it is uncertain ...

  14. Androgens induce prolactin production by human endometrial stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, S; Kanzaki, H; Inoue, T; Imai, K; Higuchi, T; Hatayama, H; Kariya, M; Mori, T

    1994-01-01

    Although there is a significant quantity of androgens in the endometrium, the function of these hormones has not been clarified, except for being estrogen precursors. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) were cultured in the presence of testosterone (T) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Following culture, prolactin (PRL), a biochemical marker of stromal cell differentiation (decidualization) which is produced by ESC, was examined. T induced PRL production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, as reported previously for progesterone (P) stimulation. In addition, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, which cannot be converted to estrogens, similarly induced PRL production. T in combination with P enhanced PRL production in cultured ESC significantly more than either P or T stimulation alone. A specific androgen receptor blocker, flutamide, when added to cultures containing T, inhibited PRL production in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect the production of PRL induced by P. These results indicate that in vitro PRL production by human ESC is induced not only by P, but also by androgens through specific receptors and further suggest that androgens play an important role in human endometrial differentiation.

  15. Supraphysiological androgen levels induce cellular senescence in human prostate cancer cells through the Src-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Julia; Hessenkemper, Wiebke; Bartsch, Sophie; Manvelyan, Marina; Huettner, Soeren S; Liehr, Thomas; Esmaeili, Mohsen; Foller, Susan; Petersen, Iver; Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Baniahmad, Aria

    2014-09-12

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality of men in Western countries. The androgen receptor (AR) and AR-agonists (androgens) are required for the development and progression of the normal prostate as well as PCa. However, it is discussed that in addition to their tumor promoting activity, androgens may also exhibit tumor suppressive effects. A biphasic growth response to androgens a growth-promoting and -inhibition has been observed that suggests that administration of supraphysiological androgen levels mediates growth reduction in AR expressing PCa cells. Detection of senescence markers, three dimensional interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-iFISH), qRT-PCR, Western blotting, detection of GFP fusions, prostatectomy, ex vivo culturing. Here, we describe that supraphysiological levels of androgens induce cell cycle arrest and markers of cellular senescence in human PCa cells, which may in part explain the growth inhibitory role of androgens. The expression of the senescence associated beta galactosidase is observed by treatment with the natural androgen DHT or the less metabolized synthetic androgen R1881. The induction of senescence marker was detected in human PCa cell lines as well as in human primary PCa tissue derived from prostatectomy treated ex vivo. Using interphase FISH (iFISH) suggests that the androgen-induced cellular senescence is associated with localizing the genomic E2F1 locus to senescence associated heterochromatic foci. Analysis of different signaling pathways in LNCaP cells suggest that the p16-Rb-E2F1 pathway is essential for the induction of cellular senescence since treatment with siRNA directed against p16 reduces the level of androgen-induced cellular senescence. Based on the rapid induction of androgen-mediated cellular senescence we identified the Src-PI3K-Akt-signaling pathway and autophagy being in part involved in androgen regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that AR-agonists at

  16. Androgen responsive adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus 18.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Webber, M M; Kleinman, H K; Wartinger, D D; Rhim, J S

    1997-06-01

    Prostate cancer and benign tumors of the prostate are the two most common neoplastic diseases in men in the United States, however, research on their causes and treatment has been slow because of the difficulty in obtaining fresh samples of human tissue and a lack of well characterized cell lines which exhibit growth and differentiation characteristics of normal prostatic epithelium. Non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial cells from a white male donor were immortalized with human papillomavirus 18 which resulted in the establishment of the RWPE-1 cell line. Cells from the RWPE-1 cell line were further transformed by v-Ki-ras to establish the RWPE-2 cell line. The objectives of this study were to: (1) establish the prostatic epithelial origin and androgen responsiveness of RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cell lines; (2) examine their response to growth factors; and (3) establish the malignant characteristics of the RWPE-2 cell line. Immunoperoxidase staining showed that both RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cells express cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are characteristic of luminal prostatic epithelial cells, but they also coexpress basal cell cytokeratins. These cell lines show growth stimulation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in response to the synthetic androgen mibolerone, which establishes their prostatic epithelial origin. Both cell lines also show a dose-dependent growth stimulation by EGF and bFGF and growth inhibition when exposed to TGF-beta, however, the transformed RWPE-2 cells are less responsive. RWPE-1 cells neither grow in agar nor form tumors when injected into nude mice with or without Matrigel. However, RWPE-2 cells form colonies in agar and tumors in nude mice. In the in vitro invasion assay, RWPE-1 cells are not invasive whereas RWPE-2 cells are invasive. Nuclear expression of p53 and Rb proteins was heterogeneous but detectable by immunostaining in both cell lines. The RWPE-1 cells, which show many normal cell

  17. Rapid bursts of androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene duplication occurred independently in diverse mammals

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The draft mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence revealed an unexpected proliferation of gene duplicates encoding a family of secretoglobin proteins including the androgen-binding protein (ABP) α, β and γ subunits. Further investigation of 14 α-like (Abpa) and 13 β- or γ-like (Abpbg) undisrupted gene sequences revealed a rich diversity of developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression. Despite these studies, our understanding of the evolution of this gene family remains incomplete. Questions arise from imperfections in the initial mouse genome assembly and a dearth of information about the gene family structure in other rodents and mammals. Results Here, we interrogate the latest 'finished' mouse (Mus musculus) genome sequence assembly to show that the Abp gene repertoire is, in fact, twice as large as reported previously, with 30 Abpa and 34 Abpbg genes and pseudogenes. All of these have arisen since the last common ancestor with rat (Rattus norvegicus). We then demonstrate, by sequencing homologs from species within the Mus genus, that this burst of gene duplication occurred very recently, within the past seven million years. Finally, we survey Abp orthologs in genomes from across the mammalian clade and show that bursts of Abp gene duplications are not specific to the murid rodents; they also occurred recently in the lagomorph (rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus) and ruminant (cattle, Bos taurus) lineages, although not in other mammalian taxa. Conclusion We conclude that Abp genes have undergone repeated bursts of gene duplication and adaptive sequence diversification driven by these genes' participation in chemosensation and/or sexual identification. PMID:18269759

  18. Retinoic acid receptor beta and angiopoietin-like protein 1 are involved in the regulation of human androgen biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Udhane, Sameer S.; Pandey, Amit V.; Hofer, Gaby; Mullis, Primus E.; Flück, Christa E.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for sexual development and reproduction. However, androgen regulation in health and disease is poorly understood. We showed that human adrenocortical H295R cells grown under starvation conditions acquire a hyperandrogenic steroid profile with changes in steroid metabolizing enzymes HSD3B2 and CYP17A1 essential for androgen production. Here we studied the regulatory mechanisms underlying androgen production in starved H295R cells. Microarray expression profiling of normal versus starved H295R cells revealed fourteen differentially expressed genes; HSD3B2, HSD3B1, CYP21A2, RARB, ASS1, CFI, ASCL1 and ENC1 play a role in steroid and energy metabolism and ANGPTL1, PLK2, DUSP6, DUSP10 and FREM2 are involved in signal transduction. We discovered two new gene networks around RARB and ANGPTL1, and show how they regulate androgen biosynthesis. Transcription factor RARB stimulated the promoters of genes involved in androgen production (StAR, CYP17A1 and HSD3B2) and enhanced androstenedione production. For HSD3B2 regulation RARB worked in cooperation with Nur77. Secretory protein ANGPTL1 modulated CYP17A1 and DUSP6 expression by inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. By contrast, our studies revealed no evidence for hormones or cell cycle involvement in regulating androgen biosynthesis. In summary, these studies establish a firm role for RARB and ANGPTL1 in the regulation of androgen production in H295R cells. PMID:25970467

  19. Differential display RT PCR of total RNA from human foreskin fibroblasts for investigation of androgen-dependent gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Nitsche, E.M.; Moquin, A.; Adams, P.S.

    1996-05-03

    Male sexual differentiation is a process that involves androgen action via the androgen receptor. Defects in the androgen receptor, many resulting from point mutations in the androgen receptor gene, lead to varying degrees of impaired masculinization in chromosomally male individuals. To date no specific androgen regulated morphogens involved in this process have been identified and no marker genes are known that would help to predict further virilization in infants with partial androgen insensitivity. In the present study we first show data on androgen regulated gene expression investigated by differential display reverse transcription PCR (dd RT PCR) on total RNA from human neonatal genital skin fibroblasts cultured in the presence or absence of 100 nM testosterone. Using three different primer combinations, 54 cDNAs appeared to be regulated by androgens. Most of these sequences show the characteristics of expressed mRNAs but showed no homology to sequences in the database. However 15 clones with significant homology to previously cloned sequences were identified. Seven cDNAs appear to be induced by androgen withdrawal. Of these, five are similar to ETS (expression tagged sequences) from unknown genes; the other two show significant homology to the cDNAs of ubiquitin and human guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP-2). In addition, we have identified 8 cDNA clones which show homologies to other sequences in the database and appear to be upregulated in the presence of testosterone. Three differential expressed sequences show significant homology to the cDNAs of L-plastin and one to the cDNA of testican. This latter gene codes for a proteoglycan involved in cell social behavior and therefore of special interest in this context. The results of this study are of interest in further investigation of normal and disturbed androgen-dependent gene expression. 49 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Targeting Androgen Receptor/Src Complex Impairs the Aggressive Phenotype of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Donato, Marzia; Hayashi, Ryo; Arra, Claudio; Appella, Ettore; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Migliaccio, Antimo

    2013-01-01

    Background Hormones and growth factors influence the proliferation and invasiveness of human mesenchymal tumors. The highly aggressive human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line harbors classical androgen receptor (AR) that responds to androgens triggering cell migration in the absence of significant mitogenesis. As occurs in many human cancer cells, HT1080 cells also express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Experimental Findings: We report that the pure anti-androgen Casodex inhibits the growth of HT1080 cell xenografts in immune-depressed mice, revealing a novel role of AR in fibrosarcoma progression. In HT1080 cultured cells EGF, but not androgens, robustly increases DNA synthesis. Casodex abolishes the EGF mitogenic effect, implying a crosstalk between EGFR and AR. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk has been analyzed using an AR-derived small peptide, S1, which prevents AR/Src tyrosine kinase association and androgen-dependent Src activation. Present findings show that in HT1080 cells EGF induces AR/Src Association, and the S1 peptide abolishes both the assembly of this complex and Src activation. The S1 peptide inhibits EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, cell matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and invasiveness of HT1080 cells. Both Casodex and S1 peptide also prevent DNA synthesis and migration triggered by EGF in various human cancer-derived cells (prostate, breast, colon and pancreas) that express AR. Conclusion This study shows that targeting the AR domain involved in AR/Src association impairs EGF signaling in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. The EGF-elicited processes inhibited by the peptide (DNA synthesis, MMP-9 secretion and invasiveness) cooperate in increasing the aggressive phenotype of HT1080 cells. Therefore, AR represents a new potential therapeutic target in human fibrosarcoma, as supported by Casodex inhibition of HT1080 cell xenografts. The extension of these findings in various human cancer-derived cell lines highlights the

  1. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    For each Q tract allele, we have currently obtained at least 30 experimental and 30 control mice . Some have reached their time points and tissues...overexpression of ETV1). Experimental mice have been generated and prostates are being microdissected as animals reach their time points. Initial...TITLE: Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice : A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Diane M

  2. A potential regulatory loop between Lin28B:miR‑212 in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Borrego-Diaz, Emma; Powers, Benjamin C; Azizov, Vugar; Lovell, Scott; Reyes, Ruben; Chapman, Bradley; Tawfik, Ossama; McGregor, Douglas; Diaz, Francisco J; Wang, Xinkun; Veldhuizen, Peter Van

    2014-12-01

    Lin28 is a family of RNA binding proteins and microRNA regulators. Two members of this family have been identified: Lin28A and Lin28B, which are encoded by genes localized in different chromosomes but share a high degree of sequence identity. The role of Lin28B in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is not well understood. Lin28B is expressed in all grades of prostatic carcinomas and prostate cancer cell lines, but not in normal prostate tissue. In this study we found that Lin28B co-localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the DU145 AIPC. The expression of Lin28B protein positively correlated with the expression of the c-Myc protein in the prostate cancer cell lines and silencing of Lin28B also correlated with a lower expression of the c-Myc protein, but not with the downregulation of c-Myc messenger RNA (mRNA) in the DU145 AIPC cells. We hypothesized that Lin28B regul-ates the expression of c-Myc protein by altering intermediate c-Myc suppressors. Therefore, a microRNA profile of DU145 cells was performed after Lin28B siRNA silencing. Nineteen microRNAs were upregulated and eleven microRNAs were downregulated. The most upregulated microRNAs were miR-212 and miR-2278. Prior reports have found that miR-212 is suppressed in prostate cancer. We then ran TargetScan software to find potential target mRNAs of miR-212 and miR-2278, and it predicted Lin28B mRNA as a potential target of miR-212, but not miR-2278. TargetScan also predicted that c-Myc mRNA is not a potential target of miR-212 or miR-2278. These observations suggest that Lin28B:miR-212 may work as a regulatory loop in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Furthermore, we report a predictive 2-fold symmetric model generated by the superposition of the Lin28A structure onto the I-TASSER model of Lin28B. This structural model of Lin28B suggests that it shows unique microRNA binding characteristics. Thus, if Lin28B were to bind miRNAs in a manner similar to Lin28A, conformational changes would be

  3. A potential regulatory loop between Lin28B:miR-212 in androgen-independent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    BORREGO-DIAZ, EMMA; POWERS, BENJAMIN C.; AZIZOV, VUGAR; LOVELL, SCOTT; REYES, RUBEN; CHAPMAN, BRADLEY; TAWFIK, OSSAMA; McGREGOR, DOUGLAS; DIAZ, FRANCISCO J.; WANG, XINKUN; VAN VELDHUIZEN, PETER

    2014-01-01

    Lin28 is a family of RNA binding proteins and microRNA regulators. Two members of this family have been identified: Lin28A and Lin28B, which are encoded by genes localized in different chromosomes but share a high degree of sequence identity. The role of Lin28B in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is not well understood. Lin28B is expressed in all grades of prostatic carcinomas and prostate cancer cell lines, but not in normal prostate tissue. In this study we found that Lin28B co-localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the DU145 AIPC. The expression of Lin28B protein positively correlated with the expression of the c-Myc protein in the prostate cancer cell lines and silencing of Lin28B also correlated with a lower expression of the c-Myc protein, but not with the downregulation of c-Myc messenger RNA (mRNA) in the DU145 AIPC cells. We hypothesized that Lin28B regulates the expression of c-Myc protein by altering intermediate c-Myc suppressors. Therefore, a microRNA profile of DU145 cells was performed after Lin28B siRNA silencing. Nineteen microRNAs were upregulated and eleven microRNAs were downregulated. The most upregulated microRNAs were miR-212 and miR-2278. Prior reports have found that miR-212 is suppressed in prostate cancer. We then ran TargetScan software to find potential target mRNAs of miR-212 and miR-2278, and it predicted Lin28B mRNA as a potential target of miR-212, but not miR-2278. TargetScan also predicted that c-Myc mRNA is not a potential target of miR-212 or miR-2278. These observations suggest that Lin28B:miR-212 may work as a regulatory loop in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Furthermore, we report a predictive 2-fold symmetric model generated by the superposition of the Lin28A structure onto the I-TASSER model of Lin28B. This structural model of Lin28B suggests that it shows unique microRNA binding characteristics. Thus, if Lin28B were to bind miRNAs in a manner similar to Lin28A, conformational changes would be necessary

  4. Synthesis of 17β-N-arylcarbamoylandrost-4-en-3-one derivatives and their anti-proliferative effect on human androgen-sensitive LNCaP cell line.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Benítez, Francisco; Cabeza, Marisa; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Alvarez-Manrique, Berenice; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2016-10-04

    In this study, we report the synthesis and anti-proliferative effect of a set of eight androst-4-ene-3-one derivatives with different arylcarbamoyl groups at C-17. The novel compounds were prepared from commercially available 3β-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one and evaluated against the androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cell line. The cancerous cells were exposed to 50 μM of each compound and the proliferating agent testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The most potent compounds from this assay were further tested against the androgen-insensitive PC3 cell line. We also demonstrate the activity of these compounds on rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells for comparison. Both 17β-N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamoyl]androst-4-ene-3-one (6f) and 17β-N-(1,3-thiazol-2-ylcarbamoyl)androst-4-ene-3-one (6g) exhibited a higher growth inhibitory effect than commercially available drugs finasteride, flutamide and ketoconazole on LNCaP cells in the presence and absence of androgens. In addition, 6f and 6g demonstrated high potency on PC3 cells suggesting an androgen-independent anti-proliferative effect. Moreover, the novel compounds showed a small effect on rat mononuclear cells, an indication of low toxicity.

  5. Enobosarm (GTx-024) Modulates Adult Skeletal Muscle Mass Independently of the Androgen Receptor in the Satellite Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Saunders, Philippa T K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Androgens increase skeletal muscle mass, but their clinical use is hampered by a lack of tissue selectivity and subsequent side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators elicit muscle-anabolic effects while only sparingly affecting reproductive tissues. The selective androgen receptor modulator, GTx-024 (enobosarm), is being investigated for cancer cachexia, sarcopenia, and muscle wasting diseases. Here we investigate the role of muscle androgen receptor (AR) in the anabolic effect of GTx-024. In mice lacking AR in the satellite cell lineage (satARKO), the weight of the androgen-sensitive levator ani muscle was lower but was decreased further upon orchidectomy. GTx-024 was as effective as DHT in restoring levator ani weights to sham levels. Expression of the muscle-specific, androgen-responsive genes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and myostatin was decreased by orchidectomy and restored by GTx-024 and DHT in control mice, whereas the expression was low and unaffected by androgen status in satARKO. In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1Ea expression was not different between satARKO and control muscle, decreased upon castration, and was restored by DHT and GTx-024 in both genotypes. These data indicate that GTx-024 does not selectively modulate AR in the satellite cell lineage and that cells outside this lineage remain androgen responsive in satARKO muscle. Indeed, residual AR-positive cells were present in satARKO muscle, coexpressing the fibroblast-lineage marker vimentin. AR positive, muscle-resident fibroblasts could therefore be involved in the indirect effects of androgens on muscle. In conclusion, both DHT and GTx-024 target AR pathways in the satellite cell lineage, but cells outside this lineage also contribute to the anabolic effects of androgens.

  6. Combination of curcumin and bicalutamide enhanced the growth inhibition of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through SAPK/JNK and MEK/ERK1/2-mediated targeting NF-κB/p65 and MUC1-C.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xiang, SongTao; Zhang, QiouHong; Wu, JingJing; Tang, Qing; Zhou, JianFu; Yang, LiJun; Chen, ZhiQiang; Hann, Swei Sunny

    2015-05-15

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men. The mucin 1 (MUC1) heterodimeric oncoprotein is overexpressed in human prostate cancers with aggressive pathologic and clinical features, resulting in a poor outcome. However, the functional role for MUC1 C-terminal domain (MUC1-C) in androgen-independent prostate cancer occurrence and development has remained unclear. Cell viability was measured by MTT assays. Western blot analysis was performed to measure the phosphorylation and protein expression of SAPK/JNK and ERK1/2, and MUC1-C, NF-κB subunit p65 and p50. Exogenous expression of MUC1-C, NF-κB subunit p65 was carried out by transient and electroporated transfection assays. We showed that curcumin inhibited the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and a synergy was observed in the presence of curcumin and bicalutamide, the androgen receptor antagonist. To further explore the potential mechanism underlining this, we found that curcumin increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK, which was enhanced by bicalutamide. In addition, curcumin reduced the protein expression of MUC1-C and NF-κB subunit p65, which were abrogated in the presence of the inhibitors of MEK/ERK1/2 (PD98059) and SAPK/JNK (SP60015). A further reduction was observed in the combination of curcumin with bicalutamide. Moreover, while exogenous expression of MUC1-C had little effect on curcumin-reduced p65, the overexpression of p65 reversed the effect of curcumin on MUC1-C protein expression suggesting that p65 is upstream of MUC1-C. Intriguingly, we showed that exogenous expression of MUC1-C feedback diminished the effect of curcumin on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK, and antagonized the effect of curcumin on cell growth. Our results show that curcumin inhibits the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through ERK1/2- and SAPK/JNK-mediated inhibition of p65, followed by reducing expression of MUC1-C protein. More importantly, there are

  7. Psoralidin, An Herbal Molecule Inhibits PI3K Mediated Akt Signaling In Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer (AIPC) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Koduru, Srinivas; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jürgen; Kyprianou, Natasha; Damodaran, Chendil

    2008-01-01

    The protein kinase Akt plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival in many cancers, including prostate cancer. Due to its kinase activity, it serves as a molecular conduit for inhibiting apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis in most cell types. In most of the prostate tumors, Akt signaling is constitutively activated due to the deletion or mutation of the tumor suppressor PTEN, which negatively regulates PI3K through lipid phosphatase activity. Recently, we identified a natural compound, psoralidin, which inhibits Akt phosphorylation and its consequent activation in androgen independent prostate cancer cells (AIPC). Furthermore, ectopic expression of Akt renders AIPC cells resistant chemotherapy; however, psoralidin overcomes Akt-mediated resistance and induces apoptosis in AIPC cells. While dissecting the molecular events, both upstream and downstream of Akt, we found that psoralidin inhibits PI3 kinase activation and transcriptionally represses the activation of NF-κB and its target genes (Bcl-2, Survivin, and Bcl-xL, etc.), which results in the inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 and DU-145 cells. Interestingly, psoralidin selectively targets cancer cells, without causing any toxicity to normal prostate epithelial cells. In vivo xenograft assays substantiate these in vitro findings, and show psoralidin inhibits prostate tumor growth in nude mice. Our findings are of therapeutic significance in the management of prostate cancer patients with advanced or metastatic disease, as they provide new directions for the development of a phyotochemical-based platform for prevention and treatment strategies for AIPC. PMID:19223576

  8. High-Content Screening Identifies Src Family Kinases as Potential Regulators of AR-V7 Expression and Androgen-Independent Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Szafran, Adam T; Stephan, Cliff; Bolt, Michael; Mancini, Maureen G; Marcelli, Marco; Mancini, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    AR-V7 is an androgen receptor (AR) splice variant that lacks the ligand-binding domain and is isolated from prostate cancer cell lines. Increased expression of AR-V7 is associated with the transition from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to more advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Due to the loss of the ligand-binding domain, AR-V7 is not responsive to traditional AR-targeted therapies, and the mechanisms that regulate AR-V7 are still incompletely understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore existing classes of small molecules that may regulate AR-V7 expression and intracellular localization and their potential therapeutic role in CRPC. We used AR high-content analysis (AR-HCA) to characterize the effects of a focused library of well-characterized clinical compounds on AR-V7 expression at the single-cell level in PC3 prostate cancer cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AR-V7 (GFP-AR-V7:PC3). In parallel, an orthogonal AR-HCA screen of a small interfering (si)RNA library targeting 635 protein kinases was performed in GFP-AR-V7:PC3. The effect of the Src-Abl inhibitor PD 180970 was further characterized using cell-proliferation assays, quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis in multiple hormone-sensitive and CRPC cell lines. Compounds that tended to target Akt, Abl, and Src family kinases (SFKs) decreased overall AR-V7 expression, nuclear translocation, absolute nuclear level, and/or altered nuclear distribution. We identified 20 protein kinases that, when knocked down, either decreased nuclear GFP-AR-V7 levels or altered AR-V7 nuclear distribution, a set that included the SFKs Src and Fyn. The Src-Abl dual kinase inhibitor PD180970 decreased expression of AR-V7 by greater than 46% and decreased ligand-independent transcription of AR target genes in the 22RV1 human prostate carcinoma cell line. Further, PD180970 inhibited androgen-independent cell proliferation in endogenous-AR-V7-expressing prostate cancer cell lines and also

  9. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  10. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  11. Substitution of synthetic chimpanzee androgen receptor for human androgen receptor in competitive binding and transcriptional activation assays for EDC screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of receptor-mediated endocrine modulators across species is of increasing concern. In attempts to address these concerns we are developing androgen and estrogen receptor binding assays using recombinant hormone receptors from a number of species across differ...

  12. Dependency on Src-Family Kinases for Recurrence of Androgen-Independent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    described in previous Progress Reports) have included: 1 ) characterization of expression of the individual SFK isoforms , and genes involved in...caveolin- 1 mediated transmission of growth factor initiated extra-cellular signals, in primary cultures of human prostate endothelial cells isolated from...homeostasis in the primary prostate tissue xenograft model; and 3) characterization of the effect of lentivirus- mediated expression of shRNAs specific for

  13. Androgen-sensitive microsomal signaling networks coupled to the proliferation and differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Harryl D; Hsiao, Jordy J; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi V; Eng, Jimmy K; Wright, Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of androgen-mediated cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and cell differentiation, contributes to the development of early-stage androgen-dependent prostate cancers. Large-scale mRNA profiling experiments have paved the way in identifying androgen-regulated gene networks that control the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Despite these extensive research efforts, it remains to be determined whether all androgen-mediated mRNA changes faithfully translate into changes in protein abundance that influence prostate tumorigenesis. Here, we report on a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics analysis that identified known androgen signaling pathways and also novel, androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins and protein networks that had not been discovered by gene network studies in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins encoded components of the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further bioinformatic analyses showed most of the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated protein networks play roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Functional validation experiments showed that the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and I-kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) modulated the expression of prostate epithelial and neuronal markers, attenuated proliferation through an androgen receptor-dependent mechanism, and co-regulated androgen receptor-mediated transcription in LNCaP cells. Further biochemical analyses showed that the increased proliferation in JAK2 knockdown cells was mediated by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as determined by increased phosphorylation of several downstream targets (p70 S6 kinase

  14. Androgen-Sensitive Microsomal Signaling Networks Coupled to the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Harryl D.; Hsiao, Jordy J.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Eng, Jimmy K.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the disruption of androgen-mediated cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and cell differentiation, contributes to the development of early-stage androgen-dependent prostate cancers. Large-scale mRNA profiling experiments have paved the way in identifying androgen-regulated gene networks that control the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Despite these extensive research efforts, it remains to be determined whether all androgen-mediated mRNA changes faithfully translate into changes in protein abundance that influence prostate tumorigenesis. Here, we report on a mass spectrometry–based quantitative proteomics analysis that identified known androgen signaling pathways and also novel, androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins and protein networks that had not been discovered by gene network studies in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins encoded components of the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Further bioinformatic analyses showed most of the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated protein networks play roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Functional validation experiments showed that the androgen-sensitive microsome-associated proteins Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and I-kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) modulated the expression of prostate epithelial and neuronal markers, attenuated proliferation through an androgen receptor–dependent mechanism, and co-regulated androgen receptor–mediated transcription in LNCaP cells. Further biochemical analyses showed that the increased proliferation in JAK2 knockdown cells was mediated by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), as determined by increased phosphorylation of several downstream targets (p70 S6

  15. Endometase in Androgen-Repressed Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia from multiple patients were significantly higher than those in prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and normal prostate glandular...prostate cancer cell invasion. 3. We showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were significantly...inhibitors of MMP-26 block prostate cancer invasion. We have showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were

  16. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-03-06

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O{sub 2}, 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17{beta}-oestradiol and 17{beta},16{alpha}-oestriol, respectively. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme's androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors.

  17. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-08

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O(2), 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16alpha-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17beta-oestradiol and 17beta,16alpha-oestriol, respectively. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme's androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors.

  18. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens1–3. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a front-line therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer3,4. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O2, 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16α-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17β-oestradiol and 17β,16α-oestriol, respectively1–3. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme’s androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors. PMID:19129847

  19. The environmental endocrine disruptor p-nitrophenol interacts with FKBP51, a positive regulator of androgen receptor and inhibits androgen receptor signaling in human cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tao, Xuanyu; Chen, Zhi-Peng; Han, Jian-Ting; Jia, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Ning; Li, Xiangkai; Wang, Zhiping; He, Yong-Xing

    2016-04-15

    The compound p-nitrophenol, which shows the anti-androgenic activity, can easily become anthropogenic pollutants and pose a threat to the environment and human health. Previous work indicates that the anti-androgenic mechanism of p-nitrophenol is complex and may involve several components in the AR signaling pathway, but the molecular details of how p-nitrophenol inhibits AR signaling are still not quite clear. Here, we characterized p-nitrophenol binds to the FK1 domain of an AR positive regulator FKBP51 with micromolar affinity and structural analysis of FK1 domain in complex with p-nitrophenol revealed that p-nitrophenol occupies a hydrophobic FK1 pocket that is vital for AR activity enhancement. Molecular dynamics simulation indicated that p-nitrophenol is stably bound to the FK1 pocket and the hotspot residues that involved p-nitrophenol binding are mainly hydrophobic and overlap with the AR interaction site. Furthermore, we showed that p-nitrophenol inhibits the androgen-dependent growth of human prostate cancer cells, possibly through down-regulating the expression levels of AR activated downstream genes. Taken together, our data suggests that p-nitrophenol suppresses the AR signaling pathway at least in part by blocking the interaction between AR and its positive regulator FKBP51. We believe that our findings could provide new guidelines for assessing the potential health effects of p-nitrophenol.

  20. The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with CAIS was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with CAIS and control women but CAIS women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory.

  1. Disorders of androgen action.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Charles; Lumbroso, Serge; Paris, Françoise; Jeandel, Claire; Terouanne, B; Belon, Charles; Audran, F; Poujol, N; Georget, V; Gobinet, J; Jalaguier, S; Auzou, G; Nicolas, J C

    2002-08-01

    Disorders of androgen action are the main cause of male pseudohermaphroditism and include 5alphaR deficiency and androgen receptor defects. 5alphaR deficiency is characterized by female genitalia with some degree of masculinization, clitoromegaly, and severely bifid scrotum corresponding to the so-called pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias. At the onset of puberty, increased muscle mass, development of pubic hair, and phallic growth are associated with the acquisition of male gender identity. Normal or increased levels of testosterone and an elevated testosterone-to-dihydrotestosterone ratio after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation testing suggest 5alphareductase deficiency, and the diagnosis can be ascertained by identifying the mutation in the 5alphaR-2 gene. Whatever the patient's age at diagnosis, psychological evaluation with 5alphaRD is vital. Androgen receptor defects encompass two clinical expressions: the complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndromes. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome should be suspected at birth in the presence of inguinal hernia in a girl without genital ambiguity. At puberty, the sign of alert is primary amenorrhea with normal female phenotype and harmonious mammary development but no pubic hair growth. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome covers a wide spectrum of undervirilized phenotypes ranging from clitoromegaly at birth to infertile men. In all cases, complementary investigations should include plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone as well as androgen-binding capacity in cultured genital skin fibroblasts. Diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the androgen receptor gene mutation. Although patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are raised as females, patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome should be managed according to age at diagnosis, response to treatment with exogenous androgens, and the presence of an androgen gene mutation. Gonadectomy in complete androgen

  2. A naturally occurring mutation in the human androgen receptor of a subject with complete androgen insensitivity confers binding and transactivation by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Bonagura, Thomas W; Deng, Min; Brown, Terry R

    2007-01-15

    The clinical phenotype of complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS) was associated with a mutation in the human androgen receptor (hAR) gene encoding the amino acid substitution, M745I, in the hAR protein. Transcriptional activation of hAR(M745I) by the synthetic androgen, methyltrienolone (R1881), was reduced compared to wild-type (wt) hAR. The transcriptional co-activator, androgen receptor associated protein 70 (ARA70), failed to enhance transactivation of hAR(M745I) at lower concentrations of R1881 (0.01-0.1 nM), whereas the p160 co-activators, SRC-1 and TIF2, stimulated activity. Transcriptional activity of hAR(M745I) was stimulated by 1 or 10 nM R1881 and activity was further enhanced by co-expression of ARA70 similar to that of the hAR(wt). Transcriptional activity of hAR(wt) was minimally stimulated by estradiol (E2) without or with co-expression of ARA70, whereas 10 or 100 nM E2 increased transactivation by hAR(M745I) of the androgen-responsive MMTV-luciferase reporter gene by 10-fold and activity was further enhanced by ARA70. Increasing concentrations of E2 competed more effectively for binding of R1881 to hAR(M745I) than to hAR(wt), indicative of the preferential binding of E2 to the mutant hAR. Partial tryptic digestion of hAR wt and M745I revealed that activation of the mutant protein was reduced in the presence of R1881. By contrast, tryptic digestion showed that the mutant hAR was activated by the binding of E2. In conclusion, the clinical phenotype of CAIS resulted from a hAR gene mutation encoding hAR(M745I) with reduced binding and transactivation by androgens, but the novel properties of enhanced affinity for and increased transactivation by estradiol.

  3. Enhanced killing of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells using inositol hexakisphosphate in combination with proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diallo, J-S; Betton, B; Parent, N; Péant, B; Lessard, L; Le Page, C; Bertrand, R; Mes-Masson, A-M; Saad, F

    2008-11-18

    Effective treatments for androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPCa) are lacking. To address this, emerging therapeutics such as proteasome inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is an orally non-toxic phytochemical that exhibits antitumour activity against several types of cancer including PCa. We have previously shown that treatment of PC3 cells with IP6 induces the transcription of a subset of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive and pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family genes. In this study, we report that although NF-kappaB subunits p50/p65 translocate to the nucleus of PC3 cells in response to IP6, inhibition of NF-kappaB-mediated transcription using non-degradable inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)-alpha does not modulate IP6 sensitivity. Treatment with IP6 also leads to increased protein levels of PUMA, BIK/NBK and NOXA between 4 and 8 h of treatment and decreased levels of MCL-1 and BCL-2 after 24 h. Although blocking transcription using actinomycin D does not modulate PC3 cell sensitivity to IP6, inhibition of protein translation using cycloheximide has a significant protective effect. In contrast, blocking proteasome-mediated protein degradation using MG-132 significantly enhances the ability of IP6 to reduce cellular metabolic activity in both PC3 and DU145 AIPCa cell lines. This effect of combined treatment on mitochondrial depolarisation is particularly striking and is also reproduced by another proteasome inhibitor (ALLN). The enhanced effect of combined MG132/IP6 treatment is almost completely inhibited by cycloheximide and correlates with changes in BCL-2 family protein levels. Altogether these results suggest a role for BCL-2 family proteins in mediating the combined effect of IP6 and proteasome inhibitors and warrant further pre-clinical studies for the treatment of AIPCa.

  4. Enhanced killing of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells using inositol hexakisphosphate in combination with proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, J-S; Betton, B; Parent, N; Péant, B; Lessard, L; Le Page, C; Bertrand, R; Mes-Masson, A-M; Saad, F

    2008-01-01

    Effective treatments for androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPCa) are lacking. To address this, emerging therapeutics such as proteasome inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is an orally non-toxic phytochemical that exhibits antitumour activity against several types of cancer including PCa. We have previously shown that treatment of PC3 cells with IP6 induces the transcription of a subset of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-responsive and pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family genes. In this study, we report that although NF-κB subunits p50/p65 translocate to the nucleus of PC3 cells in response to IP6, inhibition of NF-κB-mediated transcription using non-degradable inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α does not modulate IP6 sensitivity. Treatment with IP6 also leads to increased protein levels of PUMA, BIK/NBK and NOXA between 4 and 8 h of treatment and decreased levels of MCL-1 and BCL-2 after 24 h. Although blocking transcription using actinomycin D does not modulate PC3 cell sensitivity to IP6, inhibition of protein translation using cycloheximide has a significant protective effect. In contrast, blocking proteasome-mediated protein degradation using MG-132 significantly enhances the ability of IP6 to reduce cellular metabolic activity in both PC3 and DU145 AIPCa cell lines. This effect of combined treatment on mitochondrial depolarisation is particularly striking and is also reproduced by another proteasome inhibitor (ALLN). The enhanced effect of combined MG132/IP6 treatment is almost completely inhibited by cycloheximide and correlates with changes in BCL-2 family protein levels. Altogether these results suggest a role for BCL-2 family proteins in mediating the combined effect of IP6 and proteasome inhibitors and warrant further pre-clinical studies for the treatment of AIPCa. PMID:18941459

  5. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  6. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4’-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7 derived cells at 100 μM – 1 pM concentrations. Only 4’-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4’-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100 fold different concentrations, i.e. 1 μM and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2’PCB 3, 4’PCB 3, 4PCB 39, 4PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3’PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4’PCB 3 sulfate (para-para’ substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3’PCB 3, 4PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4’HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2’PCB 3 and 3’PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen at

  7. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene stimulates androgen independence in prostate cancer cells through combinatorial activation of mutant androgen receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Shah, Supriya; Hess-Wilson, Janet K; Webb, Siobhan; Daly, Hannah; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia; Kim, Jae; Boldison, Joanne; Daaka, Yehia; Knudsen, Karen E

    2008-09-01

    Therapy resistance represents a major clinical challenge in disseminated prostate cancer for which only palliative treatment is available. One phenotype of therapy-resistant tumors is the expression of somatic, gain-of-function mutations of the androgen receptor (AR). Such mutant receptors can use noncanonical endogenous ligands (e.g., estrogen) as agonists, thereby promoting recurrent tumor formation. Additionally, selected AR mutants are sensitized to the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) bisphenol A, present in the environment. Herein, screening of additional EDCs revealed that multiple tumor-derived AR mutants (including T877A, H874Y, L701H, and V715M) are sensitized to activation by the pesticide 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), thus indicating that this agent may impinge on AR signaling in cancer cells. Further investigation showed that DDE induced mutant AR recruitment to the prostate-specific antigen regulatory region, concomitant with an enhancement of target gene expression, and androgen-independent proliferation. By contrast, neither AR activation nor altered cellular proliferation was observed in cells expressing wild-type AR. Activation of signal transduction pathways was also observed based on rapid phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, although only MAPK activation was associated with DDE-induced cellular proliferation. Functional analyses showed that both mutant AR and MAPK pathways contribute to the proliferative action of DDE, as evidenced through selective abrogation of each pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to environmentally relevant doses of EDCs can promote androgen-independent cellular proliferation in tumor cells expressing mutant AR and that DDE uses both mutant AR and MAPK pathways to exert its mitogenic activity.

  8. Androgen-Induced Cell Migration: Role of Androgen Receptor/Filamin A Association

    PubMed Central

    Castoria, Gabriella; D'Amato, Loredana; Ciociola, Alessandra; Giovannelli, Pia; Giraldi, Tiziana; Sepe, Leandra; Paolella, Giovanni; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgen receptor (AR) controls male morphogenesis, gametogenesis and prostate growth as well as development of prostate cancer. These findings support a role for AR in cell migration and invasiveness. However, the molecular mechanism involved in AR-mediated cell migration still remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Mouse embryo NIH3T3 fibroblasts and highly metastatic human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells harbor low levels of transcriptionally incompetent AR. We now report that, through extra nuclear action, AR triggers migration of both cell types upon stimulation with physiological concentrations of the androgen R1881. We analyzed the initial events leading to androgen-induced cell migration and observed that challenging NIH3T3 cells with 10 nM R1881 rapidly induces interaction of AR with filamin A (FlnA) at cytoskeleton. AR/FlnA complex recruits integrin beta 1, thus activating its dependent cascade. Silencing of AR, FlnA and integrin beta 1 shows that this ternary complex controls focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Rac, thereby driving cell migration. FAK-null fibroblasts migrate poorly and Rac inhibition by EHT impairs motility of androgen-treated NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, FAK and Rac activation by androgens are independent of each other. Findings in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells strengthen the role of Rac in androgen signaling. The Rac inhibitor significantly impairs androgen-induced migration in these cells. A mutant AR, deleted of the sequence interacting with FlnA, fails to mediate FAK activation and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in androgen-stimulated cells, further reinforcing the role of AR/FlnA interaction in androgen-mediated motility. Conclusions/Significance The present report, for the first time, indicates that the extra nuclear AR/FlnA/integrin beta 1 complex is the key by which androgen activates signaling leading to cell migration. Assembly of this ternary complex may control organ development and prostate cancer

  9. Independence and dependence in human causal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Bob

    2014-07-01

    Causal graphical models (CGMs) are a popular formalism used to model human causal reasoning and learning. The key property of CGMs is the causal Markov condition, which stipulates patterns of independence and dependence among causally related variables. Five experiments found that while adult's causal inferences exhibited aspects of veridical causal reasoning, they also exhibited a small but tenacious tendency to violate the Markov condition. They also failed to exhibit robust discounting in which the presence of one cause as an explanation of an effect makes the presence of another less likely. Instead, subjects often reasoned "associatively," that is, assumed that the presence of one variable implied the presence of other, causally related variables, even those that were (according to the Markov condition) conditionally independent. This tendency was unaffected by manipulations (e.g., response deadlines) known to influence fast and intuitive reasoning processes, suggesting that an associative response to a causal reasoning question is sometimes the product of careful and deliberate thinking. That about 60% of the erroneous associative inferences were made by about a quarter of the subjects suggests the presence of substantial individual differences in this tendency. There was also evidence that inferences were influenced by subjects' assumptions about factors that disable causal relations and their use of a conjunctive reasoning strategy. Theories that strive to provide high fidelity accounts of human causal reasoning will need to relax the independence constraints imposed by CGMs.

  10. Novel Stably Transfected Human Reporter Cell Line AIZ-AR as a Tool for an Assessment of Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bartonkova, Iveta; Novotna, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor plays multiple physiological and pathological roles in human organism. In the current paper, we describe construction and characterization of a novel stably transfected human reporter cell line AIZ-AR for assessment of transcriptional activity of human androgen receptor. Cell line AIZ-AR is derived from human prostate carcinoma epithelial cell line 22Rv1 that was transfected with reporter plasmid containing 3 copies of androgen response regions (ARRs) followed by a single copy of androgen response element (ARE) from the promoter region of human prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene. AIZ-AR cells remained fully functional for more than 60 days and over 25 passages in the culture and even after cryopreservation. Time-course analyses showed that AIZ-AR cells allow detection of AR ligands as soon as after 8 hours of the treatment. We performed dose-response analyses with 23 steroids in 96-well plate format. We observed activation of AR by androgens, but not by estrogens and mineralocorticoids. Some glucocorticoids and progesterone also induced luciferase, but their potencies were 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker as compared to androgens. Taken together, we have developed a rapid, sensitive, selective, high-throughput and reproducible tool for detection of human AR ligands, with potential use in pharmacological and environmental applications. PMID:25811655

  11. Feed-forward inhibition of androgen receptor activity by glucocorticoid action in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Sean M; He, Bin; Newberg, Justin Y; Ochsner, Scott A; Loose, David S; Lanz, Rainer B; McKenna, Neil J; Buehrer, Benjamin M; McGuire, Sean E; Marcelli, Marco; Mancini, Michael A

    2012-09-21

    We compared transcriptomes of terminally differentiated mouse 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes to identify cell-specific differences. Gene expression and high content analysis (HCA) data identified the androgen receptor (AR) as both expressed and functional, exclusively during early human adipocyte differentiation. The AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibited human adipocyte maturation by downregulation of adipocyte marker genes, but not in 3T3-L1. It is interesting that AR induction corresponded with dexamethasone activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR); however, when exposed to the differentiation cocktail required for adipocyte maturation, AR adopted an antagonist conformation and was transcriptionally repressed. To further explore effectors within the cocktail, we applied an image-based support vector machine (SVM) classification scheme to show that adipocyte differentiation components inhibit AR action. The results demonstrate human adipocyte differentiation, via GR activation, upregulates AR but also inhibits AR transcriptional activity.

  12. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans.

  13. Identification of androgen receptor variants in testis from humans and other vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Laurentino, S S; Pinto, P I S; Tomás, J; Cavaco, J E; Sousa, M; Barros, A; Power, D M; Canário, A V M; Socorro, S

    2013-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The existence of alternatively spliced variants is well recognised for several members of this superfamily, most of them having functional importance. For example, several testicular oestrogen receptor variants have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of spermatogenesis. However, information on AR variants is mostly related to cancer and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) cases. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of AR variants in the testis from humans and other vertebrates. Four AR variants [ARΔ2(Stop) , ARΔ2(23Stop) , ARΔ3 and ARΔ4(120)] were identified in human testis. ARΔ2(Stop) and ARΔ3, with exon 2 or 3 deleted, respectively, were also expressed in human liver, lung, kidney and heart. In addition, ARΔ2(Stop) was expressed in rat and gilthead seabream testis, while an ARΔ3 was detected in African clawed frog testis. This is the first report revealing the existence of AR variants in the testis of evolutionarily distant vertebrate species and in nonpathological tissues. These data suggest the functional importance of these novel AR forms and demonstrate a complexity in AR signalling that is not exclusive of pathological conditions.

  14. Human IgE-independent systemic anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Finkelman, Fred D; Khodoun, Marat V; Strait, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapidly developing, life-threatening, generalized or systemic allergic reaction that is classically elicited by antigen crosslinking of antigen-specific IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI on mast cells and basophils. This initiates signals that induce cellular degranulation with release and secretion of vasoactive mediators, enzymes, and cytokines. However, IgE-independent mechanisms of anaphylaxis have been clearly demonstrated in experimental animals. These include IgG-dependent anaphylaxis, which involves the triggering of mediator release by IgG/antigen complex crosslinking of FcγRs on macrophages, basophils, and neutrophils; anaphylaxis mediated by binding of the complement-derived peptides C3a and C5a to their receptors on mast cells, basophils, and other myeloid cells; and direct activation of mast cells by drugs that interact with receptors on these cells. Here we review the mechanisms involved in these IgE-independent forms of anaphylaxis and the clinical evidence for their human relevance. We conclude that this evidence supports the existence of all 3 IgE-independent mechanisms as important causes of human disease, although practical and ethical considerations preclude their demonstration to the degree of certainty possible with animal models. Furthermore, we cite evidence that different clinical situations can suggest different mechanisms as having a primal role in anaphylaxis and that IgE-dependent and distinct IgE-independent mechanisms can act together to increase anaphylaxis severity. As specific agents become available that can interfere with mechanisms involved in the different types of anaphylaxis, recognition of specific types of anaphylaxis is likely to become important for optimal prophylaxis and therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Human skin: an independent peripheral endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2000-01-01

    factor-binding proteins. Therefore, the human skin fulfils all requirements for being the largest, independent peripheral endocrine organ.

  16. A Novel, Essential Control for Clonality Analysis with Human Androgen Receptor Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Heuver, Leonie H.; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Raymakers, Reinier A.; de Witte, Theo; Jansen, Joop H.

    2002-01-01

    The most widely used technique for determining clonality based on X-chromosome inactivation is the human androgen receptor gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The reliability of this assay depends critically on the digestion of DNA before PCR with the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII. We have developed a novel method for quantitatively monitoring the HpaII digestion in individual samples. Using real-time quantitative PCR we measured the efficiency of HpaII digestion by measuring the amplification of a gene that escapes X-chromosome inactivation (XE169) before and after digestion. This method was tested in blood samples from 30 individuals: 2 healthy donors and 28 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. We found a lack of XE169 DNA reduction after digestion in the granulocytes of two myelodysplastic syndrome patients leading to a false polyclonal X-chromosome inactivation pattern. In all other samples a significant reduction of XE169 DNA was observed after HpaII digestion. The median reduction was 220-fold, ranging from a 9.0-fold to a 57,000-fold reduction. Also paraffin-embedded malignant tissue was investigated from two samples of patients with mantle cell lymphoma and two samples of patients with colon carcinoma. In three of these cases inefficient HpaII digestion led to inaccurate X-chromosome inactivation pattern ratios. We conclude that monitoring the efficiency of the HpaII digestion in a human androgen receptor gene PCR setting is both necessary and feasible. PMID:12213708

  17. X-ray structure of human aromatase reveals an androgen-specific active site.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2010-02-28

    Aromatase is a unique cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens for the synthesis of estrogens. All human estrogens are synthesized via this enzymatic aromatization pathway. Aromatase inhibitors thus constitute a frontline therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Despite decades of intense investigation, this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has eluded all structure determination efforts. We have determined the crystal structure of the highly active aromatase purified from human placenta, in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione. The structure shows the binding mode of androstenedione in the catalytically active oxidized high-spin ferric state of the enzyme. Hydrogen bond-forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains that complement the puckering of the steroid backbone provide the molecular basis for the exclusive androgenic specificity of aromatase. Locations of catalytic residues and water molecules shed new light on the mechanism of the aromatization step. The structure also suggests a membrane integration model indicative of the passage of steroids through the lipid bilayer.

  18. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Cabral, D F; Santos, A; Ribeiro, M L; Mesquita, J C; Carvalho-Salles, A B; Hackel, C

    2004-12-01

    The human androgen receptor (AR) gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T) in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  19. X-ray Structure of Human Aromatase Reveals An Androgen-Specific Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase is a unique cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens for the synthesis of estrogens. All human estrogens are synthesized via this enzymatic aromatization pathway. Aromatase inhibitors thus constitute a frontline therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Despite decades of intense investigation, this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has eluded all structure determination efforts. We have determined the crystal structure of the highly active aromatase purified from human placenta, in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione. The structure shows the binding mode of androstenedione in the catalytically active oxidized high-spin ferric state of the enzyme. Hydrogen bond forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains that complement the puckering of the steroid backbone provide the molecular basis for the exclusive androgenic specificity of aromatase. Locations of catalytic residues and water molecules shed new light on the mechanism of the aromatization step. The structure also suggests a membrane integration model indicative of the passage of steroids through the lipid bilayer. PMID:19808095

  20. OTEX, an androgen-regulated human member of the paired-like class of homeobox genes.

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Christoph; Weiss, Bertram; Schleuning, Wolf-Dieter; Haendler, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    paired genes emerged early in evolution and code for homeobox transcription factors, having fundamental roles in various biological processes. We identified a novel human member of the paired-like class, which we named OTEX. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that OTEX belonged to the recently defined PEPP subfamily of paired-like homeobox genes. It was organized into three introns and, like the other PEPP genes, it was mapped to chromosome X. Its transcripts were detected mainly in the ovary, testis and epididymis, but also in the prostate and mammary gland. In the PC-3/ARwt prostate cell line, OTEX expression was stimulated dramatically following androgen treatment. Immunofluorescence studies revealed an exclusively nuclear localization of the OTEX protein. Mutation of the RARCRRHQRE amino acid sequence present at the C-terminus of the OTEX homeodomain resulted in a mainly cytoplasmic localization, indicating that this motif harboured the nuclear localization signal. No inherent transactivation function was seen for OTEX using the one-hybrid assay, and no homodimer formation was observed in the two-hybrid assay, suggesting that additional partners were needed for this activity. Taken together, the data show that OTEX represents a novel, androgen-regulated, paired-like homeobox protein, with possibly an important role in human reproduction. PMID:11980563

  1. Androgen receptor promotes sex-independent angiogenesis in response to ischemia and is required for activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Sumiko; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Sumitomo-Ueda, Yuka; Uemoto, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Kazue; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Sakari, Matomo; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Akaike, Masashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Sata, Masataka; Walsh, Kenneth; Kato, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoandrogenemia is associated with an increased risk of ischemic diseases. Since actions of androgens are exerted through androgen receptor (AR) activation, we studied hind limb ischemia in AR knockout (KO) mice to elucidate the role of AR in response to ischemia. Methods and Results Both male and female ARKO mice exhibited impaired blood flow recovery, more cellular apoptosis and a higher incidence of autoamputation after ischemia. In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis studies, AR-deficient vascular endothelial cells showed reduced angiogenic capability. In ischemic limbs of ARKO mice, reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt protein kinase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were observed despite a robust increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gene expression. In in vitro studies, siRNA-mediated ablation of AR in vascular endothelial cells blunted VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. Immunoprecipitation experiments documented an association between AR and kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR) that promoted the recruitment of downstream signaling components. Conclusion These results document a physiological role of AR in gender-independent angiogenic potency and provide evidence for a novel cross-talk between androgen/AR signaling and VEGF/KDR signaling pathways. PMID:23723256

  2. Inhibition of androgen receptor binding by natural and synthetic steroids in cultured human genital skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Breiner, M; Romalo, G; Schweikert, H U

    1986-08-15

    The ability of various natural and synthetic steroids (some of which are widely used in clinical practice) to compete with dihydrotestosterone receptor binding in human genital skin fibroblasts was studied. Binding was assessed in fibroblast monolayers after incubation for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 2 nM 3H-dihydrotestosterone in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of the steroid to be tested. Inhibition constants (Ki) were determined as the concentration of competitor-required for 50% inhibition of 3H-dihydrotestosterone binding. In addition, relative binding activity (RBA) of each test compound was calculated. Each competitor was tested in at least two different cell strains. The concentrations of unlabeled methyltrienolone (a synthetic nonmetabolizable androgen) and dihydrotestosterone for 50% inhibition of 3H-dihydrotestosterone binding were in the same order of magnitude, namely, 2 nM (2.2 respectively, 2.4 nM), whereas the affinity of testosterone was approximately one-fifth that of dihydrotestosterone. Other potent competitors for dihydrotestosterone binding were three progestins (norgestrel, gestoden, and medroxyprogesterone acetate) which have Ki values similar to testosterone. An order of magnitude lower Ki values (around 10(-7) M) were found for the androgen 17 alpha-propylmesterolone, the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate, and the progestin norethisterone acetate. Binding affinities of all other steroids to the androgen receptor were markedly lower and showed the following order of potency: estrogens (estradiol, ethinyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol) greater than glucocorticoids as well as aromatase inhibitors and potassium canrenoate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Gonadal and adrenal androgen deficiencies as independent predictors of increased cardiovascular mortality in men with type II diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ponikowska, Beata; Jankowska, Ewa A; Maj, Jolanta; Wegrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Biel, Bartosz; Reczuch, Krzysztof; Borodulin-Nadzieja, Ludmila; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2010-09-03

    Age-related decline in circulating androgens in men is associated with poor cardiovascular (CV) outcome. Men with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop androgen deficiency. We studied the prevalence and prognostic consequences of deficiencies in circulating total and free testosterone (TT, FT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in type II DM men with coronary artery disease (CAD). We examined 153 diabetic men with stable CAD (age: 65±9 years). Serum levels of FT were estimated (eFT) from TT and sex hormone binding globulin levels. TT, eFT and DHEAS deficiencies (serum levels≤the 10th percentile of healthy peers) were found in 22%, 33% and 77% of DM men with CAD, being more frequent than in healthy peers (all p<0.001). During follow-up (median: 19 months), there were 43 (28%) CV deaths. We identified 4 independent predictors of CV mortality: testosterone (TT, eFT) and DHEAS deficiencies, high plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (≥2661 pg/mL, upper quartile), high serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (≥6.58 mg/L, upper quartile) (all p<0.01). There was a graded relation between the number of risk factors and increased CV mortality: hazard risk (95% confidence interval) for 1, 2, 3-4 vs. no risk factors, respectively: 5.9 (0.8-45.6), p=0.09, 9.2 (1.2-69.2), 63.0 (8.0-498.7), p<0.0001 (χ(2)=42.23, p<0.0001). In diabetic men with stable CAD, testosterone and DHEAS deficiencies are common and related to high CV mortality. Whether an androgen substitution would improve prognosis in androgen deficient men with type II diabetes and stable CAD, requires further studies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quercetin regulates insulin like growth factor signaling and induces intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in androgen independent prostate cancer cells (PC-3).

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Banudevi, Sivanantham; Gunadharini, Nandagopal Dharmalingam; Sharmila, Govindaraj; Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2010-11-01

    Progression of prostate cancer is facilitated by growth factors that activate critical signaling cascades thereby promote prostate cancer cell growth, survival, and migration. To investigate the effect of quercetin on insulin-like growth factor signaling and apoptosis in androgen independent prostate cancer cells (PC-3), IGF-IR, PI-3K, p-Akt, Akt, cyclin D1, Bad, cytochrome c, PARP, caspases-9 and 10 protein levels were assessed by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial membrane potency was detected by rhodamine-123 staining. Quercetin induced caspase-3 activity assay was performed for activation of apoptosis. Further, RT-PCR was also performed for Bad, IGF-I, II, IR, and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression. Quercetin significantly increases the proapoptotic mRNA levels of Bad, IGFBP-3 and protein levels of Bad, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-10, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 activity in PC-3 cells. IGF-IRβ, PI3K, p-Akt, and cyclin D1 protein expression and mRNA levels of IGF-I, II and IGF-IR were decreased significantly. Further, treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and quercetin showed decreased p-Akt levels. Apoptosis is confirmed by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in quercetin treated PC-3 cells. This study suggests that quercetin decreases the survival of androgen independent prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) system components, signaling molecules and induces apoptosis, which could be very useful for the androgen independent prostate cancer treatment.

  5. Agonist and antagonist switch DNA motifs recognized by human androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Lan, Xun; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Wu, Dayong; Liu, Xiangtao; Ye, Zhenqing; Wang, Liguo; Sunkel, Benjamin; Grenade, Cassandra; Chen, Junsheng; Zynger, Debra L; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Jiaoti; Nephew, Kenneth P; Huang, Tim H-M; Lin, Shili; Clinton, Steven K; Li, Wei; Jin, Victor X; Wang, Qianben

    2015-01-01

    Human transcription factors recognize specific DNA sequence motifs to regulate transcription. It is unknown whether a single transcription factor is able to bind to distinctly different motifs on chromatin, and if so, what determines the usage of specific motifs. By using a motif-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) approach, we find that agonist-liganded human androgen receptor (AR) and antagonist-liganded AR bind to two distinctly different motifs, leading to distinct transcriptional outcomes in prostate cancer cells. Further analysis on clinical prostate tissues reveals that the binding of AR to these two distinct motifs is involved in prostate carcinogenesis. Together, these results suggest that unique ligands may switch DNA motifs recognized by ligand-dependent transcription factors in vivo. Our findings also provide a broad mechanistic foundation for understanding ligand-specific induction of gene expression profiles. PMID:25535248

  6. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET Imaging of Response to Androgen Receptor Inhibition: First Human Experience.

    PubMed

    Hope, Thomas A; Truillet, Charles; Ehman, Eric C; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Aggarwal, Rahul; Ryan, Charles J; Carroll, Peter R; Small, Eric J; Evans, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) uptake imaged using (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET in a mouse xenograft model and in a patient with castration-sensitive prostate cancer. We imaged 3 groups of 4 mice bearing LNCaP-AR xenografts before and 7 d after treatment with ARN-509, orchiectomy, or control vehicle. Additionally, we imaged one patient with castration-sensitive prostate cancer before and 4 wk after treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Uptake on pre- and posttreatment imaging was measured and compared. PSMA uptake increased 1.5- to 2.0-fold in the xenograft mouse model after treatment with both orchiectomy and ARN-509 but not with vehicle. Patient imaging demonstrated a 7-fold increase in PSMA uptake after the initiation of ADT. Thirteen of 22 lesions in the imaged patient were visualized on PSMA PET only after treatment with ADT. Inhibition of the AR can increase PSMA expression in prostate cancer metastases and increase the number of lesions visualized using PSMA PET. The effect seen in cell and animal models can be recapitulated in humans. A better understanding of the temporal changes in PSMA expression is needed to leverage this effect for both improved diagnosis and improved therapy. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  7. Androgenic biomarker prof|ling in human matrices and cell culture samples using high throughput, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilton, John H; Titus, Mark A; Efstathiou, Eleni; Fetterly, Gerald J; Mohler, James L

    2014-05-01

    BACKGROUND. A high throughput, high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with triple quadrupole mass spectral detection (LC/MS/MS) was validated for the measurement of 5 endogenous androgens in human plasma and serum and applied to various in vivo and in vitro study samples to pursue a better understanding of the interrelationship of the androgen axis, intracrine metabolism, and castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CaP). A Shimadzu HPLC system interfaced with a Sciex QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization was used with in line column-switching. Samples were liquid/liquid extracted and chromatographed on a Luna C18(2) column at 60°C with a biphasic gradient using a 15-min run time. The method was validated for five androgens in human plasma and serum, and applied to four sets of samples. Plasma (n=188) and bone marrow aspirate (n=129) samples from patients with CaP, who received abiraterone acetate plus prednisone for up to 945 days(135 weeks), had undetectable androgens after 8 weeks of treatment. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) concentrations were higher in African Americans than Caucasian Americans with newly diagnosed CaP. Analysis of prostate tumor tissue homogenates demonstrated reproducible testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations with a minimal sample size of 1.0–2.0 mg of tissue. Finally, cell pellet and media samples from the LNCaP C4-2 cell line showed conversion of T to DHT. The proposed LC/MS/MS method was validated for quantitation of five endogenous androgens in human plasma and serum, and effectively profiles androgens in clinical specimens and cell culture samples.

  8. Identification of androgen receptor protein and 5α-reductase mRNA in human ocular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, E.; Wickham, L; da Silveira, L. A; Krenzer, K.; Yu, F.; Toda, I.; Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Androgens have been reported to influence the structural organisation, functional activity, and/or pathological features of many ocular tissues. In addition, these hormones have been proposed as a topical therapy for such conditions as dry eye syndromes, corneal wound healing, and high intraocular pressure. To advance our understanding of androgen action in the eye, the purpose of the present study was twofold: firstly, to determine whether tissues of the anterior and posterior segments contain androgen receptor protein, which might make them susceptible to hormone effects following topical application; and, secondly, to examine whether these tissues contain the mRNA for types 1 and/or 2 5α-reductase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to the very potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone.
METHODS—Human ocular tissues and cells were obtained and processed for histochemical and molecular biological procedures. Androgen receptor protein was identified by utilising specific immunoperoxidase techniques. The analysis of type 1 and type 2 5α-reductase mRNAs was performed by the use of RT-PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA sequence analysis. All immunohistochemical evaluations and PCR amplifications included positive and negative controls.
RESULTS—These findings show that androgen receptor protein exists in the human lacrimal gland, meibomian gland, cornea, bulbar and forniceal conjunctivae, lens epithelial cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells. In addition, our results demonstrate that the mRNAs for types 1 and 2 5α-reductase occur in the human lacrimal gland, meibomian gland, bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and RPE cells.
CONCLUSION—These combined results indicate that multiple ocular tissues may be target sites for androgen action.

 PMID:10611104

  9. Biological implications of estrogen and androgen effects on androgen receptor and its mRNA levels in human uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, J; Nishigaki, M; Hori, M; Ichigo, S; Itoh, T; Tamaya, T

    1995-06-01

    It has been shown that some effects of testosterone are different from those of its 5 alpha-reduced metabolite, dihydrotestosterone. Briefly, activities of testosterone might be related to cellular differentiation, whereas dihydrotestosterone acts on cellular proliferation. The number of testosterone binding sites in the uterine endometrium was increased by estradiol dipropionate, and this increase was down-regulated by testosterone cypionate. Dihydrotestosterone-specific binding sites in the endometrium were not modulated by estradiol dipropionate and testosterone cypionate. The dissociation constants of the binding sites for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were not altered by these steroids. Estradiol dipropionate with or without testosterone cypionate induced androgen receptor mRNA expression in the endometrium. In conclusion, testosterone might predominantly affect cellular differentiation in the endometrium.

  10. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Congcong; Dienhart, Jason A.; Bolton, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS), TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2) were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1) were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins, such that

  11. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Lina; Kempegowda, Punith; Arlt, Wiebke

    2017-01-01

    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Androgens induce adipose tissue dysfunction, with effects on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and fat mass expansion, while anabolic effects on skeletal muscle may confer metabolic benefits. We hypothesise that serum androgen concentrations observed in female androgen excess and male hypogonadism are metabolically disadvantageous, promoting adipose and liver lipid accumulation, central fat mass expansion and insulin resistance. PMID:28566439

  12. Calmodulin independence of human duodenal adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J A; Griffin, M; Mireylees, S E; Long, R G

    1991-01-01

    The calmodulin and calcium dependence of human adenylate cyclase from the second part of the duodenum was assessed in washed particulate preparations of biopsy specimens by investigating (a) the concentration dependent effects of free [Ca2+] on enzyme activity, (b) the effects of exogenous calmodulin on enzyme activity in ethylene glycol bis (b-aminoethyl ether)N,N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) washed particulate preparations, and (c) the effects of calmodulin antagonists on enzyme activity. Both basal (IC50 = 193.75 (57.5) nmol/l (mean (SEM)) and NaF stimulated (IC50 = 188.0 (44.0) nmol/l) adenylate cyclase activity was strongly inhibited by free [Ca2+] greater than 90 nmol/l. Free [Ca2+] less than 90 nmol/l had no effect on adenylate cyclase activity. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by 50% at 2.5 mmol/l EGTA. This inhibition could not be reversed by free Ca2+. The addition of exogenous calmodulin to EGTA (5 mmol/l) washed particulate preparations failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. Trifluoperazine and N-(8-aminohexyl)-5-IODO-1-naphthalene-sulphonamide (IODO 8) did not significantly inhibit basal and NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity when measured at concentrations of up to 100 mumol/l. These results suggest that human duodenal adenylate cyclase activity is calmodulin independent but is affected by changes in free [Ca2+]. PMID:1752461

  13. Androgens in pregnancy: roles in parturition.

    PubMed

    Makieva, Sofia; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    in myometrial relaxation via non-genomic, AR-independent pathways critical for the pregnancy reaching term. Understanding of the molecular events leading to myometrial relaxation is an important step towards development of novel targeted tocolytic drugs. The increase in androgen levels throughout gestation is likely to be important for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and initiation of parturition. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms of androgen action on cervical remodelling and myometrial contractility is needed. The insights gained may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to manage pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  14. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shihua; Sprenger, Cynthia C.T.; Vessella, Robert L.; Haugk, Kathleen; Soriano, Kathryn; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Page, Stephanie T.; Coleman, Ilsa M.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Sun, Huiying; Nelson, Peter S.; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully understood. Here we have identified what we believe to be a novel human AR splice variant in which exons 5, 6, and 7 are deleted (ARv567es) and demonstrated that this variant can contribute to cancer progression in human prostate cancer xenograft models in mice following castration. We determined that, in human prostate cancer cell lines, ARv567es functioned as a constitutively active receptor, increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl), and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. In human xenografts, human prostate cancer cells transfected with ARv567es cDNA formed tumors that were resistant to castration. Furthermore, the ratio of ARv567es to ARfl expression within the xenografts positively correlated with resistance to castration. Importantly, we also detected ARv567es frequently in human prostate cancer metastases. In summary, these data indicate that constitutively active AR splice variants can contribute to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancers and may serve as biomarkers for patients who are likely to suffer from early recurrence and are candidates for therapies directly targeting the AR rather than ligand. PMID:20644256

  15. Androgens and hair growth.

    PubMed

    Randall, Valerie Anne

    2008-01-01

    Hair's importance in human communication means that abnormalities like excess hair in hirsutism or hair loss in alopecia cause psychological distress. Androgens are the main regulator of human hair follicles, changing small vellus follicles producing tiny, virtually invisible hairs into larger intermediate and terminal follicles making bigger, pigmented hairs. The response to androgens varies with the body site as it is specific to the hair follicle itself. Normally around puberty, androgens stimulate axillary and pubic hair in both sexes, plus the beard, etc. in men, while later they may also inhibit scalp hair growth causing androgenetic alopecia. Androgens act within the follicle to alter the mesenchyme-epithelial cell interactions, changing the length of time the hair is growing, the dermal papilla size and dermal papilla cell, keratinocyte and melanocyte activity. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of androgen action in follicles should improve therapies for poorly controlled hair disorders like hirsutism and alopecia.

  16. The efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus thalidomide vs. docetaxel alone in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Qiu, Xianxin; Wang, Rixiong; Xie, Xianhe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was taken to investigate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus thalidomide vs. docetaxel alone for treating androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Data were collected from different databases independently by three researchers according to the pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total three studies were finally included, indicating that docetaxel plus thalidomide exhibited better survival prognosis and greater prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline than docetaxel alone. There were no significant differences of hematologic toxicities in two regimens, while the frequency of non-hematologic toxicities was higher in patients with docetaxel plus thalidomide. Briefly, the available evidence indicates potential survival advantage in docetaxel plus thalidomide over docetaxel alone. PMID:24769540

  17. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Myles C; Astapova, Inna; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Balk, Steven P

    2007-09-01

    The mechanisms by which androgen receptor (AR) antagonists inhibit AR activity, and how their antagonist activity may be abrogated in prostate cancer that progresses after androgen deprivation therapy, are not clear. Recent studies show that AR antagonists (including the clinically used drug bicalutamide) can enhance AR recruitment of corepressor proteins [nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT)] and that loss of corepressors may enhance agonist activity and be a mechanism of antagonist failure. We first show that the agonist activities of weak androgens and an AR antagonist (cyproterone acetate) are still dependent on the AR NH(2)/COOH-terminal interaction and are enhanced by steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1, whereas the bicalutamide-liganded AR did not undergo a detectable NH(2)/COOH-terminal interaction and was not coactivated by SRC-1. However, both the isolated AR NH(2) terminus and the bicalutamide-liganded AR could interact with the SRC-1 glutamine-rich domain that mediates AR NH(2)-terminal binding. To determine whether bicalutamide agonist activity was being suppressed by NCoR recruitment, we used small interfering RNA to deplete NCoR in CV1 cells and both NCoR and SMRT in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Depletion of these corepressors enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated AR activity on a reporter gene and on the endogenous AR-regulated PSA gene in LNCaP cells but did not reveal any detectable bicalutamide agonist activity. Taken together, these results indicate that bicalutamide lacks agonist activity and functions as an AR antagonist due to ineffective recruitment of coactivator proteins and that enhanced coactivator recruitment, rather than loss of corepressors, may be a mechanism contributing to bicalutamide resistance.

  18. Androgen resistance.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Deeb, Asma

    2006-12-01

    Androgen resistance causes the androgen insensitivity syndrome in its variant forms and is a paradigm of clinical syndromes associated with hormone resistance. In its complete form, the syndrome causes XY sex reversal and a female phenotype. Partial resistance to androgens is a common cause of ambiguous genitalia of the newborn, but a similar phenotype may result from several other conditions, including defects in testis determination and androgen biosynthesis. The biological actions of androgens are mediated by a single intracellular androgen receptor encoded by a gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene result in varying degrees of androgen receptor dysfunction and phenotypes that often show poor concordance with the genotype. Functional characterization and three-dimensional modelling of novel mutant receptors has been informative in understanding the mechanism of androgen action. Management issues in syndromes of androgen insensitivity include decisions on sex assignment, timing of gonadectomy in relation to tumour risk, and genetic and psychological counselling.

  19. Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate-specific transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Dubbink, H J; Verkaik, N S; Faber, P W; Trapman, J; Schröder, F H; Romijn, J C

    1996-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TGases) are calcium-dependent enzymes catalysing the post-translational cross-linking of proteins. In the prostate at least two TGases are present, the ubiquitously expressed tissue-type TGase (TGC), and a prostate-restricted TGase (TGP). This paper deals with the molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human prostate TGase (hTGP). For this purpose we have screened a human prostate cDNA library with a probe from the active-site region of TGC. The largest isolated cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 684 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 77 kDa as confirmed by in vitro transcription-translation and subsequent SDS/PAGE. The hTGP gene was tissue-specifically expressed in the prostate, yielding an mRNA of approx. 3.5 kb. Furthermore, a 3-fold androgen-induced upregulation of hTGP mRNA expression has been demonstrated in the recently developed human prostate cancer cell line, PC346C. Other well established human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, showed no detectable hTGP mRNA expression on a Northern bolt. The gene coding for prostate TGase was assigned to chromosome 3. PMID:8645175

  20. Androgens in women are essentially made from DHEA in each peripheral tissue according to intracrinology.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand; Martel, Céline; Bélanger, Alain; Pelletier, Georges

    2017-04-01

    The objective is to review how the cell-specific amounts of intracellular androgens are all made in women from circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in each peripheral tissue, independently from the rest of the body. Following 500 million years of evolution, approximately three dozen cell-specific intracrine enzymes have been engineered in human peripheral tissues whereby the inactive sex steroid precursor DHEA mainly of adrenal origin is transformed into the appropriate minute intracellular amounts of androgens. These intracellular androgens are inactivated in the same cells, with no biologically significant release of active androgens in the circulation. The best estimate is that approximately 50% as much androgens are synthesized in women, compared to men of the same age. The problem with DHEA, however, the exclusive source of androgens in women of all ages, is that DHEA secretion has already decreased by an average of 60% at time of menopause and continues to decrease thereafter. The human-specific and highly sophisticated mechanisms of intracrinology permit each cell to control androgen availability according to its own needs independently from the remaining of the body. Such a mechanism is completely different from classical endocrinology well understood in men where testosterone of testicular origin is transported through the blood and has indiscriminate access to the androgen receptor (AR) in all AR-containing cells of the body. In men, both the endocrine and intracrine mechanisms are in operation while, in women, only the intracrine mechanisms responsible for intracellular formation from DHEA provide androgens.

  1. The Role of miRNAs in the Progression of Prostate Cancer from Androgen-Dependent to Androgen-Independent Stages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor family, member 2 1.41/1.24 EDEM1 ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like 1 1.23/1.24...myeloid leukemia . PLAGL2 can bind and activate human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) gene promoter. PLAGL2 controls the stability of Pirh2, an E3...myelogenous leukemia . TRIB2 is a repressor of FOXO that contributes to the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells. IGF1R Insulin-like growth

  2. Retinoids regulate the formation and degradation of gap junctions in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Linda; Katoch, Parul; Johnson, Kristen E; Batra, Surinder K; Mehta, Parmender P

    2012-01-01

    The retinoids, the natural or synthetic derivatives of Vitamin A (retinol), are essential for the normal development of prostate and have been shown to modulate prostate cancer progression in vivo as well as to modulate growth of several prostate cancer cell lines. 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid are the two most important metabolites of retinol. Gap junctions, formed of proteins called connexins, are ensembles of intercellular channels that permit the exchange of small growth regulatory molecules between adjoining cells. Gap junctional communication is instrumental in the control of cell growth. We examined the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid on the formation and degradation of gap junctions as well as on junctional communication in an androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, which expressed retrovirally introduced connexin32, a connexin expressed by the luminal cells and well-differentiated cells of prostate tumors. Our results showed that 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans retinoic acid enhanced the assembly of connexin32 into gap junctions. Our results further showed that 9-cis-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinoic acid prevented androgen-regulated degradation of gap junctions, post-translationally, independent of androgen receptor mediated signaling. Finally, our findings showed that formation of gap junctions sensitized connexin32-expressing LNCaP cells to the growth modifying effects of 9-cis-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinoic acid and androgens. Thus, the effects of retinoids and androgens on growth and the formation and degradation of gap junctions and their function might be related to their ability to modulate prostate growth and cancer.

  3. Androgens inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α-induced cell adhesion and promote tube formation of human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Lin, Feng-Yen; Wu, Yi-No; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2012-06-01

    Endothelial cells contribute to the function and integrity of the vascular wall, and a functional aberration may lead to atherogenesis. There is increasing evidence on the atheroprotective role of androgens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the androgens-testosterone and dihydrotestosterone-and estradiol on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) function. We found by MTT assay that testosterone is not cytotoxic and enhances HCAEC proliferation. The effect of testosterone (10-50 nM), dihydrotestosterone (5-50 nM), and estradiol (0.1-0.4 nM) on the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HCAECs was determined at different time points (12-96 h) by assessing their binding with human monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), was determined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone attenuated cell adhesion and the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, androgen treatment for a longer duration inhibited cell migration, as demonstrated by wound-healing assay, and promoted tube formation on a Matrigel. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) increased, whereas that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) decreased following the 96-h steroid treatment of TNF-α-stimulated HCAECs. Our findings suggest that androgens modulate endothelial cell functions by suppressing the inflammatory process and enhancing wound-healing and regenerative angiogenesis, possibly through an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism.

  4. Antivascular Effects of Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation for Prostate Cancer: An In Vivo Human Study Using Susceptibility and Relaxivity Dynamic MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzi, Roberto; Padhani, Anwar R.; Taylor, N. Jane; Collins, David J.; D'Arcy, James A.; Stirling, J. James; Saunders, Michele I.; Hoskin, Peter J.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The antivascular effects of androgen deprivation have been investigated in animal models; however, there has been minimal investigation in human prostate cancer. This study tested the hypothesis that androgen deprivation causes significant reductions in human prostate tumor blood flow and the induction of hypoxia at a magnitude and in a time scale relevant to the neoadjuvant setting before radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients were examined, each with five multi-parameter magnetic resonance imaging scans: two scans before the commencement of androgen suppression, one scan after 1 month of hormone treatment, and two further scans after 3 months of therapy. Quantitative parametric maps of the prostate informing on relative blood flow (rBF), relative blood volume (rBV), vascular permeability (transfer constant [K{sup trans}]), leakage space (v{sub e}) and blood oxygenation (intrinsic relaxivity [R{sub 2}*]) were calculated. Results: Tumor blood volume and blood flow decreased by 83% and 79%, respectively, in the first month (p < 0.0001), with 74% of patients showing significant changes. The proportion of individual patients who achieved significant changes in T1 kinetic parameter values after 3 months of androgen deprivation for tumor measurements was 68% for K{sup trans} and 53% for v{sub e} By 3 months, significant increases in R{sub 2}* had occurred in prostate tumor, with a rise of 41.1% (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Androgen deprivation induces profound vascular collapse within 1 month of starting treatment. Increased R{sub 2}* in regions of prostate cancer and a decrease in blood volume suggest a reduction in tumor oxygenation.

  5. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans can produce human and equine metabolites of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    PubMed

    Rydevik, Axel; Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a group of substances that have potential to be used as doping agents in sports. Being a relatively new group not available on the open market means that no reference materials are commercially available for the main metabolites. In the presented study, the in vitro metabolism of SARMs by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated with the purpose of finding out if it can produce relevant human and equine metabolites. 2. Three different SARMs, S1, S4 and S24, were incubated for 5 days with C. elegans. The samples were analysed both with and without sample pretreatment using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. 3. All the important phase I and some phase II metabolites from human and horse were formed by the fungus. They were formed through reactions such as hydroxylation, deacetylation, O-dephenylation, nitro-reduction, acetylation and sulfonation. 4. The study showed that the fungus produced relevant metabolites of the SARMs and thus can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. Furthermore, it has the potential to be used for future production of reference material.

  6. The human kidney is a progesterone-metabolizing and androgen-producing organ.

    PubMed

    Quinkler, M; Bumke-Vogt, C; Meyer, B; Bähr, V; Oelkers, W; Diederich, S

    2003-06-01

    Progesterone (P) is a potent antagonist of the human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in vitro. We have previously demonstrated effective downstream metabolism of P in the kidney. This mechanism potentially protects the MR from P action. Here, we have investigated the expression and functional activity of steroidogenic enzymes in human kidney. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of 5 alpha-reductase type 1, 5 beta-reductase, aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) 1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) type 2, and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17). The presence of 3 beta-HSD type 2 and P450c17 indicated that conversion of pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to androstenedione may take place effectively in kidney. To investigate this further, we incubated kidney subcellular fractions with radiolabeled pregnenolone. This resulted in efficient formation of DHEA from pregnenolone, indicating both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities exerted by P450c17. Radiolabeled DHEA was converted via androstenedione, androstenediol, and testosterone, indicating both 3 beta-HSD type 2 activity and 17 beta-HSD activity. In addition, the conversion of testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was detectable, indicating 5 alpha-reductase activity. In conclusion, we verified the expression and functional activity of several enzymes involved in downstream metabolism of P and androgen synthesis in human kidney. These findings may be critical to the understanding of water balance during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and of sex differences in hypertension.

  7. Studies on phenolic steriods in human subjects. XXI. renal metabolism, conjugation and excretion of four androgens: a comparison with estriol.

    PubMed

    Kirdani, R; Barua, N R; Sandberg, A A

    1977-06-01

    The present study was conducted in order to ascertain whether the human kidney can conjugate androgens to an extent similar to that of estriol (E3). Differently labeled androgens (testosterone, DHT and androstenedione) were injected simultaneously into a peripheral vein and the renal artery. The excretion of the radioactivity in the early urine collections served as an index of the ability of the kidney to conjugate and/or metabolize the various steroids administered. It was shown that the human kidney can conjugate testosterone to some extent as the 17-glucuronide of DHT, but to a much lesser degree that E3. Androstenedione was not conjugated by the kidney and the excretion DHT was paradoxically lower following its renal artery administration than following its peripheral injection. We interpret the latter to indicate that some kidney cells may contain receptors with very high affinity for DHT, thus leading to the lower excretion observed. The administration of androstenediol (into the renal artery) and E3 (peripherally) indicated that the diol was not conjugated as readily as E3. The results point to the ability of the kidney to conjugate testosterone to some extent; however, in no case was it able to conjugate an androgen with the same facility as it does E3.

  8. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cerne, Jasmina Z.; Munsell, Mark F.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J.; Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  9. SOCIAL STATUS AND SEX INDEPENDENTLY INFLUENCE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE EUSOCIAL NAKED MOLE-RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Goldman, Bruce D.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2009-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the pre-optic area demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species. PMID:18455726

  10. The Androgen Receptor Regulates PPARγ Expression and Activity in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Olokpa, Emuejevoke; Bolden, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand‐activated transcription factor that regulates growth and differentiation within normal prostate and prostate cancers. However the factors that control PPARγ within the prostate cancers have not been characterized. The goal of this study was to examine whether the androgen receptor (AR) regulates PPARγ expression and function within human prostate cancer cells. qRT‐PCR and Western blot analyses revealed nanomolar concentrations of the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) decrease PPARγ mRNA and protein within the castration‐resistant, AR‐positive C4‐2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cell lines. The AR antagonists bicalutamide and enzalutamide blocked the ability of DHT to reduce PPARγ levels. In addition, siRNA mediated knockdown of AR increased PPARγ protein levels and ligand‐induced PPARγ transcriptional activity within the C4‐2 cell line. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors that interfere with AR function increased the level of basal PPARγ and prevented the DHT‐mediated suppression of PPARγ. These data suggest that AR normally functions to suppress PPARγ expression within AR‐positive prostate cancer cells. To determine whether increases in AR protein would influence PPARγ expression and activity, we used lipofectamine‐based transfections to overexpress AR within the AR‐null PC‐3 cells. The addition of AR to PC‐3 cells did not significantly alter PPARγ protein levels. However, the ability of the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone to induce activation of a PPARγ‐driven luciferase reporter and induce expression of FABP4 was suppressed in AR‐positive PC‐3 cells. Together, these data indicate AR serves as a key modulator of PPARγ expression and function within prostate tumors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2664–2672, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945682

  11. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  12. Androgen Receptor (AR) Suppresses Normal Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Proliferation via AR/β-catenin/TCF-4 Complex Inhibition of c-MYC Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Lizamma; van der Schoor, Freek; Dalrymple, Susan L.; Isaacs, John T.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Physiologic testosterone continuously stimulates prostate stromal cell secretion of paracrine growth factors (PGFs), which if unopposed would induce hyperplastic overgrowth of normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). METHODS Lentiviral shRNA stable knock down of c-MYC, β-catenin, or TCF-4 completely inhibits normal (i.e., non-transformed) human PrECs growth. c-MYC enhancer driven reporter expression and growth is inhibited by two chemically distinct molecules, which prevent β-catenin signaling either by blocking TCF-4 binding (i.e., toxoflavin) or by stimulating degradation (i.e., AVX939). Recombinant DKK1 protein at a dose, which inhibits activation of canonical Wnt signaling does not inhibit PrEC growth. Nuclear β-catenin translocation and PrEC growth is prevented by both lack of PGFs or Akt inhibitor-I. Growth inhibition induced by lack of PGFs, toxoflavin, or Akt inhibitor-I is overcome by constitutive c-MYC transcription. RESULTS In the presence of continuous PGF signaling, PrEC hyperplasia is prevented by androgen binding to AR suppressing c-MYC transcription, resulting in G0 arrest/terminal differentiation independent of Rb, p21, p27, FoxP3, or down regulation of growth factors receptors and instead involves androgen-induced formation of AR/β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes, which suppress c-MYC transcription. Such suppression does not occur when AR is mutated in its zinc-finger binding domain. DISCUSSION Proliferation of non-transformed human PrECs is dependent upon c-MYC transcription via formation/binding of β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes at both 5′ and 3′ c-MYC enhancers stimulated by Wnt-independent, PGF induced Akt signaling. In the presence of continuous PGF signaling, PrEC hyperplasia is prevented by androgen-induced formation of AR/β-catenin/TCF-4 complexes, which retains binding to 3′ c-MYC enhancer, but now suppresses c-MYC transcription. PMID:24913829

  13. Development of androgen- and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, Edwin; Jansen, Hendrina J; Riteco, Jacoba A C; Brouwer, Abraham; van der Burg, Bart

    2005-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERalpha (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell lines derived from the human U2-OS osteosarcoma cell line, all using highly selective reporter constructs based with a basal promoter element linked to multimerized response elements, allowing efficient and specific measurement of compounds interfering with androgen, estrogen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors. The AR CALUX bioassay contains the human androgen receptor and a luciferase reporter construct containing three androgen-responsive elements coupled to a minimal TATA promoter. This cell line was characterized by its stable expression of AR protein, its highly selective response to low levels of different natural and synthetic androgens, and its insignificant response to other nuclear hormone receptor ligands such as estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids. The EC50 of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was found to be 0.13 nM, consistent with the high affinity of this ligand to the human AR. Flutamide, cyproterone acetate, and the environmental contaminants vinclozolin, DDT, methoxychlor, its metabolite HPTE, and penta-BFR showed clear antagonistic activity in the AR CALUX bioassay, competitively inhibiting DHT-mediated transactivation. The established AR CALUX bioassay proved to excel in terms of easy cell line maintenance, high fold induction range (typical 30 times over solvent control), low minimal detection limit (3.6 pM), and high androgen selectivity. Potential applications such as testing the androgenic or estrogenic activity of pure chemicals and pharmaceuticals and complex mixtures (environmental, food, feed, and clinical) are discussed.

  14. Elevated hypothalamic aromatization at the onset of precocious puberty in transgenic female mice hypersecreting human chorionic gonadotropin: effect of androgens.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Betina; Ratner, Laura D; Scerbo, María J; Di Giorgio, Noelia P; Poutanen, Matti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Calandra, Ricardo S; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A R; Cambiasso, María J; Rulli, Susana B

    2014-06-05

    Transgenic female mice overexpressing the α- and β- subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGαβ+) exhibited precocious puberty, as evidenced by early vaginal opening. Chronically elevated hCG in 21-day-old hCGαβ+ females stimulated gonadal androgen production, which exerted negative feedback over the endogenous gonadotropin synthesis, and activated the hypothalamic GnRH pulsatility and gene expression. Transgenic females also exhibited elevated hypothalamic aromatization in the preoptic area (POA), which is the sexually-differentiated area that controls the LH surge in adulthood. Ovariectomy at 14 days of age was unable to rescue this phenotype. However, the blockade of androgen action by flutamide from postnatal day 6 onwards reduced the aromatase levels in the POA of hCGαβ+ females. Our results suggest that early exposure of females to androgen action during a critical period between postnatal days 6-14 induces sex-specific organizational changes of the brain, which affect the aromatase expression in the POA at the onset of precocious puberty.

  15. Competitive binding comparison of endocrine-disrupting compounds to recombinant androgen receptor from fathead minnow, rainbow trout, and human.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Vickie S; Cardon, Mary C; Gray, L Earl; Hartig, Phillip C

    2007-09-01

    Typically, in vitro hazard assessments for the identification of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), including those outlined in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Tier 1 Screening protocols, utilize mammalian receptors. Evidence, however, exists that fish sex steroid hormone receptors differ from mammalian receptors both structurally and in their binding affinities for some steroids and environmental chemicals. Most of the binding studies to date have been conducted using cytosolic preparations from various tissues. In the present study, we compare competitive binding of a set of compounds to full-length recombinant rainbow trout androgen receptor alpha (rtAR), fathead minnow androgen receptor (fhAR), and human androgen receptor (hAR), each expressed in COS cells. Saturation binding and subsequent Scatchard analysis using [3H]R1881, a high-affinity synthetic androgen, revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.11 nM for the rtAR, 1.8 nM for the fhAR, and 0.84 nM for the hAR. Compounds, including endogenous and synthetic steroids, known mammalian antiandrogens, and environmental compounds, were tested for competitive binding to each of the three receptors. Overall, agreement existed across receptors as to binding versus nonbinding for all compounds tested in this study. Minor differences, however, were found in the relative order of binding of the compounds to the individual receptors. Studies such as these will facilitate the identification of EDCs that may differentially affect specific species and aid in the development and support of future risk assessment protocols.

  16. Soy Isoflavones Exert Differential Effects on Androgen Responsive Genes in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Lori; Handayani, Renita; Cui, Yuehua; Medrano, Theresa; Samedi, Von; Baker, Henry; Szabo, Nancy J.; Rosser, Charles J.; Goodison, Steve; Shiverick, Kathleen T.

    2007-01-01

    The high consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated to a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer. This study characterized the effects of a soy-derived isoflavone concentrate (ISF) on growth and gene expression profiles in the LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line. ISF caused a dose-dependent decrease in viability (P<0.05) and DNA synthesis (P<0.01), as well as an accumulation of cells in G2/M, and G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle compared with controls. Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A), we determined that ISF upregulated 80 genes and downregulated 33 genes (P<0.05) involving androgen-regulated genes and pathways controlling cell cycle, metabolism, and intracellular trafficking. Changes in the expression of the genes of interest, identified by microarrays, were validated by Western immunoblot, Northern blot, and luciferase reporter assays. Prostate-specific antigen, homeobox protein NKX3, and cyclin B mRNA were significantly reduced, whereas mRNA was significantly upregulated for p21CIP1, a major cell cycle inhibitory protein, and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis pathway genes. ISF also significantly increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 and FOXO3A/FKHRL1, a forkhead transcription factor. A differential pattern of androgen-regulated genes was apparent with genes involved in prostate cancer progression being downregulated by ISF, whereas metabolism genes were upregulated. In summary, we found that ISF inhibits the growth of LNCaP cells through the modulation of cell cycle progression and the differential expression of androgen-regulated genes. Thus, ISF treatment serves to identify new therapeutic targets designed to prevent proliferation of malignant prostate cells. PMID:17374662

  17. Disposition and metabolism of LY2452473, a selective androgen receptor modulator, in humans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Rehmel, Jessica Fayer; Cassidy, Kenneth; Hadden, Chad; Campanale, Kristina; Patel, Nita; Johnson, Jason

    2012-12-01

    The disposition and metabolism of isopropyl N-[(2S)-7-cyano-4-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]indol-2-yl]carbamate (LY2452473; a selective androgen receptor modulator) in humans was characterized after a single 15-mg (100 μCi) oral dose of [¹⁴C]LY2452473 to six healthy male subjects. LY2452473 was absorbed rapidly (time to reach maximum plasma concentration for both LY2452473 and total radioactivity was 2-3 h) and cleared slowly (plasma terminal t(½) of 27 h for LY2452473 and 51 h for the total radioactivity). LY2452473 and metabolites S5 (acetylamine) and S12 (hydroxylation on the cyclopentene) were major circulating entities in plasma, accounting for approximately 42, 21, and 35% of the total radioactivity exposure, respectively, as calculated from relative area under the concentration versus time curves from zero to 48 h derived from the plasma radiochromatograms. The radioactive dose was almost completely recovered after 312 h with 47.9% of the dose eliminated in urine and 46.6% in feces. Minimal LY2452473 was detected in excreta, indicating that metabolic clearance was the main route of elimination. Multiple metabolic pathways were observed with no single metabolic pathway accounting for more than 30% of the dose in excreta. Metabolite S10 (a diol across the cyclopenta-indole linkage) was the largest excretory metabolite (approximately 14% of the dose). S10 displayed interesting chemical and chromatographic properties, undergoing conversion to the corresponding epoxide under acidic conditions and conversion back to the diol under neutral conditions. An in vitro phenotyping approach indicated that CYP3A4 was the largest contributor to LY2452473 depletion.

  18. Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S.; Smith, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182–1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous “antiangiogenic” agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

  19. Androgens act synergistically to enhance estrogen-induced upregulation of human tissue kallikreins 10, 11, and 14 in breast cancer cells via a membrane bound androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-04-01

    The regulation of gene expression by steroid hormones plays an important role in the normal development and function of many organs, as well as in the pathogenesis of endocrine-related cancers, especially breast cancer. However, clinical data suggest that combined testosterone and estrogen treatments on post-menopausal women increase the risk of breast cancer. Experiments have shown that many, if not all kallikreins are under steroid hormone regulation in breast cancer cell lines. Their implication as prognostic and diagnostic markers has also been well-documented. Thus, we investigated the effect of combined hormone stimulation with androgens and 17beta-estradiol on the ductal caricinoma cell line BT474. This cell line has been shown to be sensitive to both, androgens (secreting PSA) and estrogens (secreting a number of kallikreins including KLK10, 11, and KLK14). We found that PSA expression was downregulated upon combined hormone stimulation, confirming reports that estrogen can antagonize and block the activity of the androgen receptor. Upon analysis of estrogen-sensitive kallikreins 10, 11, and 14, all showed to be synergistically enhanced in their expression three- to fourfold, upon joint hormone treatment versus individual hormone stimulation. The enhancement is dependent upon the action of androgens as treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist cyproterone actetate normalized the expression of KLK10, 11, and KLK14 to estrogen-stimulation levels. The synergistic effects between estrogens and androgens on estrogen-sensitive genes may have implications on the role of the kallikreins in associated risk of breast cancer and progression.

  20. Vitamin D3 regulates the formation and degradation of gap junctions in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Linda; Katoch, Parul; Ray, Anuttoma; Mitra, Shalini; Chakraborty, Souvik; Lin, Ming-Fong; Mehta, Parmender P

    2014-01-01

    1α-25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (1-25D), an active hormonal form of Vitamin D3, is a well-known chemopreventive and pro-differentiating agent. It has been shown to inhibit the growth of several prostate cancer cell lines. Gap junctions, formed of proteins called connexins (Cx), are ensembles of cell-cell channels, which permit the exchange of small growth regulatory molecules between adjoining cells. Cell-cell communication mediated by gap junctional channels is an important homeostatic control mechanism for regulating cell growth and differentiation. We have investigated the effect of 1-25D on the formation and degradation of gap junctions in an androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, which expresses retrovirally-introduced Cx32. Connexin32 is expressed by the luminal and well-differentiated cells of normal prostate and prostate tumors. Our results document that 1-25D enhances the expression of Cx32 and its subsequent assembly into gap junctions. Our results further show that 1-25D prevents androgen-regulated degradation of Cx32, post-translationally, independent of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling. Finally, our findings document that formation of gap junctions sensitizes Cx32-expressing LNCaP cells to the growth inhibitory effects of 1-25D and alters their morphology. These findings suggest that the growth-inhibitory effects of 1-25D in LNCaP cells may be related to its ability to modulate the assembly of Cx32 into gap junctions.

  1. Androgen ablation augments human HLA2.1-restricted T cell responses to PSA self antigen in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Arredouani, Mohamed S.; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie S.; Hollenbeck, Brent K.; Escara-Wilke, June; Leander, Karen R.; Defeo-Jones, Deborah; Hwang, Clara; Sanda, MartinG.

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in targeting human prostate tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) for prostate cancer immunotherapy as an alternative to other therapeutic modalities. However, immunologic tolerance to TAA poses a significant obstacle to effective, TAA-targeted immunotherapy. We sought to investigate whether androgen deprivation would result in circumventing immune tolerance to prostate TAA by impacting CD8 cell responses. Methods To this end, we generated a transgenic mouse that expresses the human prostate specific antigen (PSA) specifically in the prostate, and crossed it to the HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse. Results Our PSA transgenic mouse showed restricted expression of PSA in the prostate and detectable circulating PSA levels. Additionally, PSA expression was androgen-dependent with reduced PSA expression in the prostate within one week of castration, and undetectable PSA by day 42 after castration as evaluated by ELISA. Castration of the PSA/A2.1 hybrid mouse prior to immunization with a PSA-expressing recombinant vaccinia virus resulted in a significant augmentation of PSA-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes. Conclusions This humanized hybrid mouse model provides a well defined system to gain additional insight into the mechanisms of immune tolerance to PSA and to test novel strategies aiming at circumventing immune tolerance to PSA and other TAA for targeted prostate cancer immunotherapy. PMID:20209643

  2. Inhibition of androgen metabolism and binding by a liposterolic extract of "Serenoa repens B" in human foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sultan, C; Terraza, A; Devillier, C; Carilla, E; Briley, M; Loire, C; Descomps, B

    1984-01-01

    We previously suggested [Steroids 33, (1979) 3; Steroids 37, (1981) 6] that cultured genital skin fibroblasts should prove useful for screening of potential antiandrogens in human and living target cells. "Serenoa repens" lipidic extract (S.R.E.) was recently reported (Br. J. Pharmacol., in press) to inhibit androgen action in animals. The present investigation was designed to study the antiandrogenicity of this compound in human cells: we therefore analyzed the effects of S.R.E. on the intracellular conversion of testosterone (T) to 5 alpha-reduced derivatives, and we investigated interaction of S.R.E. with the intracellular androgen-receptor complex. Since the chemical structure of the active component of S.R.E. is still unknown, results are expressed in U/ml (one unit is defined as the amount of S.R.E. required to inhibit 50% of the specific binding (IC50) of [3H]1881 to rat prostate cytosol). S.R.E. at different dilutions (5.7 to 28.6 U/ml) is added to culture media containing [3H]T or [3H]dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and incubated at 37 degrees C with cultured fibroblasts. 28.6 U/ml S.R.E. significantly alters the formation of DHT and strongly inhibits 3 ketosteroid reductase mediated conversion of DHT to 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol, characterized radiochemically by thin-layer chromatography. S.R.E. is a good competitor for the whole cell androgen receptor: 7.1 U/ml S.R.E. gives 50% inhibition of the binding of 2 X 10(-9) M [3H]DHT to its receptor. Competitive binding assays after cell fractionation indicate that S.R.E. is less potent in nuclear than in cytosol receptors. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the radioactive cell lysate of fibroblasts demonstrates that 28.6 U/ml S.R.E. abolishes 70% of the 3.6 S receptor-complex radioactive peak. The present studies show that S.R.E. inhibits 5 alpha-reductase, 3-ketosteroid reductase and receptor binding of androgens in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts. As the search for the ideal antiandrogen

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE IN VITRO METABOLISM OF SELECTIVE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR USING HUMAN, RAT, AND DOG LIVER ENZYME PREPARATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Wu, Zengru; Bohl, Casey E.; Yang, Jun; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Compound S4 [S-3-(4-acetylamino-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide] is a novel nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulator that demonstrates tissue-selective androgenic and anabolic effects. The purpose of this in vitro study was to identify the phase I metabolites, potential species differences in metabolism, and the cytochromes P450 (P450s) involved in the phase I metabolism of S4 using 14C-S4, recombinant P450s, and other liver enzyme preparations from human, rat, and dog. The major phase I metabolism pathways of S4 in humans were identified as deacetylation of the B-ring acetamide group, hydrolysis of the amide bond, reduction of the A-ring nitro group, and oxidation of the aromatic rings, with deacetylation being the predominant pathway observed with most of the enzyme preparations tested. Among the major human P450 enzymes tested, CYP3A4 appeared to be one of the major phase I enzymes that could be responsible for the phase I metabolism of S4 [Km = 16.1 μM, Vmax = 1.6 pmol/(pmol · min)] in humans and mainly catalyzed the deacetylation, hydrolysis, and oxidation of S4. In humans, the cytosolic enzymes mainly catalyzed the hydrolysis reaction, whereas the microsomal enzymes primarily catalyzed the deacetylation reactions. Similar phase I metabolic profiles were observed in rats and dogs as well, except that the amide bond hydrolysis seemed to occur more rapidly in rats. In summary, these results showed that the major phase I reaction of S4 in human, rat, and dog is acetamide group deacetylation. PMID:16272404

  4. Bombesin-conjugated nanoparticles improve the cytotoxic efficacy of docetaxel against gastrin-releasing but androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Hitesh; Pooja, Deep; Singh, Mayank K; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Adams, David J; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Bombesin (BBN)-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles to target docetaxel (DTX) to prostate cancer cells that overexpress gastrin-releasing peptides receptors. In vitro cytotoxicity, uptake of nanoparticles and inhibition of cell migration were assessed against human prostate cancer cells. Preclinical pharmacokinetic and tissue-distribution studies of nanoparticles were performed in Balb/c mice and results compared with the marketed formulation Taxotere(®). BBN-conjugated DTX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited higher cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell migration and colony formation than non-targeted nanoparticles or DTX alone. More BBN-conjugated nanoparticles were taken up at a faster rate than unconjugated nanoparticles. In vivo, this drug delivery improved pharmacokinetics of DTX by increasing mean residence time and decreasing clearance. This study provides an alternate approach for polysorbate-free delivery of DTX, with improved in vivo performance.

  5. ICRAC controls the rapid androgen response in human primary prostate epithelial cells and is altered in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holzmann, Christian; Kilch, Tatiana; Kappel, Sven; Armbrüster, Andrea; Jung, Volker; Stöckle, Michael; Bogeski, Ivan; Schwarz, Eva C.; Peinelt, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Labelled 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding experiments have shown that expression levels of (yet unidentified) membrane androgen receptors (mAR) are elevated in prostate cancer and correlate with a negative prognosis. However, activation of these receptors which mediate a rapid androgen response can counteract several cancer hallmark functions such as unlimited proliferation, enhanced migration, adhesion and invasion and the inability to induce apoptosis. Here, we investigate the downstream signaling pathways of mAR and identify rapid DHT induced activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from non-tumorous tissue. Consequently, down-regulation of Orai1, the main molecular component of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels results in an almost complete loss of DHT induced SOCE. We demonstrate that this DHT induced Ca2+ influx via Orai1 is important for rapid androgen triggered prostate specific antigen (PSA) release. We furthermore identified alterations of the molecular components of CRAC channels in prostate cancer. Three lines of evidence indicate that prostate cancer cells down-regulate expression of the Orai1 homolog Orai3: First, Orai3 mRNA expression levels are significantly reduced in tumorous tissue when compared to non-tumorous tissue from prostate cancer patients. Second, mRNA expression levels of Orai3 are decreased in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 when compared to hPEC from healthy tissue. Third, the pharmacological profile of CRAC channels in prostate cancer cell lines and hPEC differ and siRNA based knock-down experiments indicate changed Orai3 levels are underlying the altered pharmacological profile. The cancer-specific composition and pharmacology of CRAC channels identifies CRAC channels as putative targets in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:24240085

  6. Inflammation, Prostate Cancer and Negative Regulation of Androgen Receptor Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    activity, 2) microRNA -mediated regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation. My data establish that the human AR level is negatively regulated by... cancer , scanning of the cancer microRNA array shows that miR-454 is up regulated in androgen-independent C4-2 cells and overexpression of miR-454...TERMS Androgen receptor, prostate cancer , TNF-α, NF-κB, microRNA 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  7. Cyclin D1 silencing suppresses tumorigenicity, impairs DNA double strand break repair and thus radiosensitizes androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Marampon, Francesco; Gravina, Giovanni; Ju, Xiaoming; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Casimiro, Mathew C; Pompili, Simona; Festuccia, Claudio; Colapietro, Alessandro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Pestell, Richard G

    2016-02-02

    Patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) have higher biochemical failure rates following radiation therapy (RT). Cyclin D1 deregulated expression in PCa is associated with a more aggressive disease: however its role in radioresistance has not been determined. Cyclin D1 levels in the androgen-independent PC3 and 22Rv1 PCa cells were stably inhibited by infecting with cyclin D1-shRNA. Tumorigenicity and radiosensitivity were investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental assays. Cyclin D1 silencing interfered with PCa oncogenic phenotype by inducing growth arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and reducing soft agar colony formation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor formation and neo-angiogenesis in vivo. Depletion of cyclin D1 significantly radiosensitizes PCa cells by increasing the RT-induced DNA damages by affecting the NHEJ and HR pathways responsible of the DNA double-strand break repair. Following treatment of cells with RT the abundance of a biomarker of DNA damage, γ-H2AX, was dramatically increased in sh-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. Concordant with these observations DNA-PKcs-activation and RAD51-accumulation, part of the DNA double-strand break repair machinery, were reduced in shRNA-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. We further demonstrate the physical interaction between CCND1 with activated-ATM, -DNA-PKcs and RAD51 is enhanced by RT. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing experiments indicated DNA-PKcs and RAD51 are downstream targets of CCND1-mediated PCa cells radioresistance. In summary, these observations suggest that CCND1 is a key mediator of PCa radioresistance and could represent a potential target for radioresistant hormone-resistant PCa.

  8. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  9. Cyclin D1 silencing suppresses tumorigenicity, impairs DNA double strand break repair and thus radiosensitizes androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiaoming; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Pompili, Simona; Festuccia, Claudio; Colapietro, Alessandro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Pestell, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) have higher biochemical failure rates following radiation therapy (RT). Cyclin D1 deregulated expression in PCa is associated with a more aggressive disease: however its role in radioresistance has not been determined. Cyclin D1 levels in the androgen-independent PC3 and 22Rv1 PCa cells were stably inhibited by infecting with cyclin D1-shRNA. Tumorigenicity and radiosensitivity were investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental assays. Cyclin D1 silencing interfered with PCa oncogenic phenotype by inducing growth arrest in the G1 phase of cell cycle and reducing soft agar colony formation, migration, invasion in vitro and tumor formation and neo-angiogenesis in vivo. Depletion of cyclin D1 significantly radiosensitizes PCa cells by increasing the RT-induced DNA damages by affecting the NHEJ and HR pathways responsible of the DNA double-strand break repair. Following treatment of cells with RT the abundance of a biomarker of DNA damage, γ-H2AX, was dramatically increased in sh-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. Concordant with these observations DNA-PKcs-activation and RAD51-accumulation, part of the DNA double-strand break repair machinery, were reduced in shRNA-cyclin D1 treated cells compared to shRNA control. We further demonstrate the physical interaction between CCND1 with activated-ATM, -DNA-PKcs and RAD51 is enhanced by RT. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing experiments indicated DNA-PKcs and RAD51 are downstream targets of CCND1-mediated PCa cells radioresistance. In summary, these observations suggest that CCND1 is a key mediator of PCa radioresistance and could represent a potential target for radioresistant hormone-resistant PCa. PMID:26689991

  10. Phase II trial of high-dose, intermittent calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3) and dexamethasone in androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Potter, Douglas M; Muindi, Josephia; Brufsky, Adam; Johnson, Candace S

    2006-05-15

    Data suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The combination of high-dose, intermittent calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3) plus dexamethasone was studied based on evidence that dexamethasone potentiates the antitumor effects of calcitriol and ameliorates hypercalcemia. Oral calcitriol was administered weekly, Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday (MTW), at a dose of 8 microg, for 1 month, at a dose of 10 microg every MTW for 1 month, and at a dose of 12 microg every MTW thereafter. Dexamethasone at a dose of 4 mg was administered each Sunday, and MTW weekly. Calcium and creatinine were determined weekly and radiographs of the urinary tract were performed every 3 months. All patients were considered evaluable for toxicity. Forty-three men with androgen-independent prostate cancer were entered; 37 received at least 1 month of calcitriol given at a dose of 12 microg every day x 3 per week. The majority of patients had bone metastases and rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. All had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Eight patients (19%) experienced partial responses by PSA criterion (PSA decline of > or =50%, persisting for > or = 28 days). Subjective clinical improvement occurred in some patients. Toxicity was minimal: urinary tract stones in 2 patients; and a readily reversible, CTC (v.3.0) Grade <2 creatinine increase in 4 patients. Throughout the study only 4 patients ever had a serum calcium level >11.0 mg/dL and no patient had a calcium level >12.0 mg/dL. The response rate reported in the current study (19%) was not found to be clearly higher than expected with dexamethasone alone. High-dose intermittent calcitriol plus dexamethasone appears to be safe, feasible, and has antitumor activity. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society

  11. Androgen receptor and NFkB expression in human normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes in vitro and in experimental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Agapova, Olga A; Kaufman, Paul L; Hernandez, M Rosario

    2006-06-01

    For several decades, clinical and experimental observations suggested a relationship between steroids and glaucoma; however, the possibility that androgens are also involved in the glaucomatous changes in the optic nerve heads (ONH) has not been explored. Our previous findings that glaucomatous ONH astrocytes synthesize androgen-metabolising enzymes and overproduce a neuroactive androgen, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol (3alpha-diol) led us to propose that ONH astrocytes are androgen target cells. Androgens modulate different cellular processes through androgen receptor (AR). NFkB is a transcription factor that positively regulates AR transcription. Here, we analysed AR and NFkB expression in normal and glaucomatous ONH astrocytes in vitro, and in vivo in a monkey model of experimental glaucoma (ExpG) by quantitative real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that in vitro human glaucomatous ONH astrocytes express AR mRNA and protein at higher levels than normal astrocytes and that in vivo ONH astrocytes from eyes with ExpG showed increased nuclear and cytoplasmic AR immunostaining compared to control eyes. In the retina, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) demonstrated cytoplasmic staining both in control and in ExpG eyes. NFkB mRNA expression was higher in glaucomatous ONH astrocytes than in normal and more nuclear NFkB protein was detected in glaucomatous ONH astrocytes. In vivo immunopositive NFkB nuclear staining of ONH astrocytes in ONH and in RGC in retina was detected both in control and in ExpG eyes. We conclude that in addition to our published data, increase of AR and NFkB expression in glaucomatous ONH astrocytes provides strong evidence that androgens play a significant role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  12. Inverse relationships between cell proliferation and basal or androgen-stimulated apolipoprotein D secretion in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, K; Simard, J; Haagensen, D E; Labrie, F

    1994-11-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the biphasic action of androgens on LNCaP cell proliferation is opposite to their effect on apolipoprotein D (apo-D) secretion, the stimulation of apo-D secretion being associated with a steroid-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. To further characterize the control of apo-D expression in LNCaP cells, we studied basal as well as androgen-induced apo-D secretion in slowly proliferating, low-passage (LP; 20-29th) and rapidly proliferating high-passage (HP; 111-117th) cell cultures. For comparison, the androgen-induced stimulation of prostate specific antigen secretion was also investigated in LP and HP cell cultures. In the absence of androgens, basal cell proliferation of HP cells was significantly higher than that of LP cells, whereas apo-D secretion was higher in LP cells than in HP cells. Furthermore, the biphasic action of dihydrotestosterone and of the synthetic androgenic compound R1881 on apo-D release and cell proliferation was observed in both LP and HP cells. The stimulation of apo-D secretion was inversely related to that of cell proliferation and influenced by cell density. The inhibition of basal and androgen-induced cell proliferation by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine was also associated with an increase in apo-D secretion. The amount of PSA released and the sensitivity of its response to R1881 were increased in LP cells compared with HP cells. The present study thus demonstrates, for the first time, that apo-D secretion is inversely correlated to cell proliferation and cell density in the absence as well as in the presence of androgens in both LP and HP LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. This finding suggests that apo-D expression can be modulated not only by steroid hormones, but also by other factors involved in the control of cell proliferation.

  13. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Asra; Hanif, Farha; Hanif, Shumaila Muhammad; Abdullah, Farhan Essa; Shamim, Muhammad Shahid

    2008-07-01

    The incidence of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) is about 1 in 20,000. People with CAIS are normal appearing females, despite the presence of testes and a 46, XY chromosome constitution. We came across a case in which a 17 years old girl presented with the complaint of inguinal hernia and amenorrhea. Subsequent investigations were done revealing absence of female internal genitalia and the presence of abdominal mass, possibly testes. Syndrome has been linked to mutations in AR, the gene for the human Androgen Receptor, located at Xq11-12 leading to the insensitivity of the receptor to testosterone. Gonadectomy was performed and life long Hormone replacement therapy was advised.

  14. Update on androgenicity.

    PubMed

    Thorneycroft, I H

    1999-02-01

    The development of a new generation of progestins deemed less androgenic than their earlier counterparts has led to a number of misconceptions regarding their possible benefits in combination oral contraceptives. All combination oral contraceptives are beneficial for treating such androgenic conditions as acne and hirsutism. The only expressed androgenic effect of some first- and second-generation combined oral contraceptives are changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. However, the overall effect of today's low-dose oral contraceptives is largely lipid neutral, and human and monkey studies have shown that oral contraceptive use is associated with reduced, not increased, atherosclerosis rates. Myocardial infarction rates are not increased among oral contraceptive users, except among those who are heavy smokers.

  15. Mutations in the amino-terminal domain of the human androgen receptor may be associated with partial androgen insensitivity and impaired transactivation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P-M; Werner, R; Struve, D; Hauffa, B P; Schroeder, C; Hiort, O

    2005-09-01

    The majority of genetic variations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene are point mutations leading to impairment of the DNA- or hormone-binding domains. The N-terminus encoded by the first exon of the AR-gene usually harbors disruptive mutations associated with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) while missense mutations related with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) are seemingly rare. We present a 46,XY male with scrotal hypospadias in whom we detected a S432 F point mutation within the N-terminus. Transient transfections of an AR expression plasmid carrying the S432 F mutation using Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells revealed a significant partial reduction in transactivation of the co-transfected androgen responsive (ARE) (2)TATA luciferase reporter gene thus confirming PAIS. In two further 46, XY patients with slight to moderate virilization defects, we detected an S411 N mutation, and a 9 base pair deletion leading to the loss of amino acids 409 to 411 (L-A-S), respectively. These mutations did not compromise AR-function under the chosen experimental settings. The S432 F-patient supports particular significance of the AR-N-terminus for mild forms of AIS while the functional role of the two further mutations remains unclear. The N-terminus is a species-specific AR-domain possibly also involved in contributing to target tissue selectivity of AR-actions via mediating co-regulator interactions. Therefore, mild molecular defects of the AR-N-terminus may not necessarily inhibit general transactivation properties using currently established reporter gene models.

  16. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghotbaddini, Maryam; Powell, Joann B.

    2015-01-01

    The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR) expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models. PMID:26154658

  17. Suppression of rat and human androgen biosynthetic enzymes by apigenin: Possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiudi; Wang, Guimin; Li, Xiaoheng; Liu, Jianpeng; Hong, Tingting; Zhu, Qiqi; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavone. It has recently been used as a chemopreventive agent. It may also have some beneficial effects to treat prostate cancer by inhibiting androgen production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the steroidogenesis of rat immature Leydig cells and some human testosterone biosynthetic enzyme activities. Rat immature Leydig cells were incubated for 3h with 100μM apigenin without (basal) or with 1ng/ml luteinizing hormone (LH), 10mM 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8BR), and 20μM of the following steroid substrates: 22R-hydroxychloesterol (22R), pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), and androstenedione (D4). The medium levels of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (DIOL), the primary androgen produced by rat immature Leydig cells, were measured. Apigenin significantly inhibited basal, 8BR, 22R, PREG, P4, and D4 stimulated DIOL production in rat immature Leydig cells. Further study showed that apigenin inhibited rat 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 11.41±0.7, 8.98±0.10, and 9.37±0.07μM, respectively. Apigenin inhibited human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 2.17±0.04 and 1.31±0.09μM, respectively. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of rat and human steroidogenic enzymes, being possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Targeting the Binding Function 3 (BF3) Site of the Human Androgen Receptor Through Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lack, Nathan A.; Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Tavassoli, Peyman; Han, Frank Q.; Chan, Ka Hong; Feau, Clementine; LeBlanc, Eric; Guns, Emma Tomlinson; Guy, R. Kiplin; Rennie, Paul S.; Cherkasov, Artem

    2013-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the best studied drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are a number of drugs that target the AR, they all work through the same mechanism of action and are prone to the development of drug resistance. There is a large unmet need for novel AR inhibitors which work through alternative mechanism(s). Recent studies have identified a novel site on the AR called Binding Function 3 (BF3) that is involved into AR transcriptional activity. In order to identify inhibitors that target the BF3 site, we have conducted a large-scale in-silico screen followed by experimental evaluation. A number of compounds were identified that effectively inhibited the AR transcriptional activity with no obvious cytotoxicity. The mechanism of action of these compounds was validated by biochemical assays and x-ray crystallography. These findings lay a foundation for the development of alternative or supplementary therapies capable of combating prostate cancer even in its anti-androgen resistant forms. PMID:22047606

  19. Reinforcing aspects of androgens.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I

    2004-11-15

    Are androgens reinforcing? Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, often with negative long-term health consequences. As a result, in 1991, testosterone was declared a controlled substance. Recently, Brower [K.J. Brower, Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 4 (2002) 377-387.] proposed a two-stage model of AAS dependence. Users initiate steroid use for their anabolic effects on muscle growth. With continued exposure, dependence on the psychoactive effects of AAS develops. However, it is difficult in humans to separate direct psychoactive effects of AAS from the user's psychological dependence on the anabolic effects of AAS. Thus, studies in laboratory animals are useful to explore androgen reinforcement. Testosterone induces a conditioned place preference in rats and mice, and is voluntarily consumed through oral, intravenous, and intracerebroventricular self-administration in hamsters. Active, gonad-intact male and female hamsters will deliver 1 microg/microl testosterone into the lateral ventricles. Indeed, some individuals self-administer testosterone intracerebroventricularly to the point of death. Male rats develop a conditioned place preference to testosterone injections into the nucleus accumbens, an effect blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists. These data suggest that androgen reinforcement is mediated by the brain. Moreover, testosterone appears to act through the mesolimbic dopamine system, a common substrate for drugs of abuse. Nonetheless, androgen reinforcement is not comparable to that of cocaine or heroin. Instead, testosterone resembles other mild reinforcers, such as caffeine, nicotine, or benzodiazepines. The potential for androgen addiction remains to be determined.

  20. Androgen regulation of the human FERM domain encoding gene EHM2 in a cell model of steroid-induced differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Pandey, Ritu; Way, Jeffrey F.; Sroka, Thomas C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Kunz, Susan; Cress, Anne E.; Mount, David W.; Miesfeld, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a cell model to investigate steroid control of differentiation using a subline of HT1080 cells (HT-AR1) that have been engineered to express the human androgen receptor. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment of HT-AR1 cells induced growth arrest and cytoskeletal reorganization that was associated with the expression of fibronectin and the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. Expression profiling analysis identified the human FERM domain-encoding gene EHM2 as uniquely induced in HT-AR1 cells as compared to 16 other FERM domain containing genes. Since FERM domain proteins control cytoskeletal functions in differentiating cells, and the human EHM2 gene has not been characterized, we investigated EHM2 steroid-regulation, genomic organization, and sequence conservation. We found that DHT, but not dexamethasone, induced the expression of a 3.8 kb transcript in HT-AR1 cells encoding a 504 amino acid protein, and moreover, that human brain tissue contains a 5.8 kb transcript encoding a 913 amino acid isoform. Construction of an unrooted phylogenetic tree using 98 FERM domain proteins revealed that the human EHM2 gene is a member of a distinct subfamily consisting of nine members, all of which contain a highly conserved 325 amino acid FERM domain. PMID:14521927

  1. Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum.

    PubMed

    Tamae, Daniel; Byrns, Michael; Marck, Brett; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Nelson, Peter S; Lange, Paul; Lin, Daniel; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Balk, Steven; Ellis, William; True, Larry; Vessella, Robert; Montgomery, Bruce; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2013-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in males in the United States. The disease is androgen driven and the use of orchiectomy or chemical castration, known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been employed for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for over 70 years. Agents such as GnRH agonists and non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists are routinely used in the clinic, but eventually relapse occurs due to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer. With the appreciation that androgen signaling still persists in these patients and the development of new therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide that further suppresses androgen synthesis or signaling, there is a renewed need for sensitive and specific methods to quantify androgen precursor and metabolite levels to assess drug efficacy. We describe the development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of serum keto-androgens and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates using Girard-T oxime derivatives. The method is robust down to 0.2-4pg on column, depending on the androgen metabolite quantified, and can also quantify dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in only 1μL of serum. The clinical utility of this method was demonstrated by analyzing serum androgens from patients enrolled in a clinical trial assessing combinations of pharmacological agents to maximally suppress gonadal and adrenal androgens (Targeted Androgen Pathway Suppression, TAPS clinical trial). The method was validated by correlating the results obtained with a hydroxylamine derivatization procedure coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring that was conducted in an independent laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of keto-androgens in human serum✩, ✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Tamae, Daniel; Byrns, Michael; Marck, Brett; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Nelson, Peter S.; Lange, Paul; Lin, Daniel; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Balk, Steven; Ellis, William; True, Larry; Vessella, Robert; Montgomery, Bruce; Blair, Ian A.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in males in the United States. The disease is androgen driven and the use of orchiectomy or chemical castration, known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been employed for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer for over 70 years. Agents such as GnRH agonists and non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists are routinely used in the clinic, but eventually relapse occurs due to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer. With the appreciation that androgen signaling still persists in these patients and the development of new therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide that further suppresses androgen synthesis or signaling, there is a renewed need for sensitive and specific methods to quantify androgen precursor and metabolite levels to assess drug efficacy. We describe the development, validation and application of a stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SID-LC/ESI/SRM/MS) method for quantification of serum keto-androgens and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates using Girard-T oxime derivatives. The method is robust down to 0.2–4 pg on column, depending on the androgen metabolite quantified, and can also quantify dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in only 1 μL of serum. The clinical utility of this method was demonstrated by analyzing serum androgens from patients enrolled in a clinical trial assessing combinations of pharmacological agents to maximally suppress gonadal and adrenal androgens (Targeted Androgen Pathway Suppression, TAPS clinical trial). The method was validated by correlating the results obtained with a hydroxylamine derivatization procedure coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring that was conducted in an independent laboratory. PMID:23851165

  3. Differential levels of human leukocyte antigen-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 and androgen receptor expressions in untreated prostate cancer cells: the robustness of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shigenori; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Harada, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo; Noguchi, Masanori

    2007-08-01

    Tumors are highly robust and maintain their proliferative potential against a wide range of both host-defense mechanisms and anticancer therapies. One of the approaches to overcome cancer robustness could be combined therapy in which each modality imposes independent selective pressures against the acquired mutation of cancer. To develop such a therapy, it is crucial to understand the magnitude of acquired mutations. In this study, we investigated the levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1), and androgen receptor (AR) expressions in untreated prostate cancers harvested by radical prostatectomy. The mean percentages of cancer cells expressing HLA-class I, MDR and AR among the 10 cancer samples were 41, 35 and 74%, respectively. In addition, double-staining of HLA and MDR revealed the four definite populations (HLA+/MDR+, HLA+/MDR-, HLA-/MDR+ and HLA-/MDR-) in cancer tissues from the majority of cancer patients tested, and the mean percentages of cells expressing these combinations were 13, 29, 22 and 38%, respectively. Similar results were obtained by double-staining of HLA and AR, except for 2 cases in which HLA-/AR+ cancer cells predominated. These results indicated that untreated prostate cancer cells acquired a wide range of genomic mutations, which may have been caused by internal host pressure to eliminate malignant cells, and would provide evidence of the robustness of untreated prostate cancer.

  4. Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Margaret E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four planes of development and the periods of creation and crystallization within each plane. Identifies the type of independence that should be achieved by the end of the first two planes of development. Maintains that it is through individual work on the environment that one achieves independence. (KB)

  5. Androgen Control of Cell Proliferation and Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kunz, Susan; Davis, Kelli; Roberts, Jordan; Martin, Greg; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Sroka, Thomas C.; Cress, Anne E.; Miesfeld, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We recently generated an HT-1080-derived cell line called HT-AR1 that responds to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment by undergoing cell growth arrest in association with cytoskeletal reorganization and induction of neuroendocrine-like cell differentiation. In this report, we show that DHT induces a dose-dependent increase in G0/G1 growth-arrested cells using physiological levels of hormone. The arrested cells increase in cell size and contain a dramatic redistribution of desmoplakin, keratin 5, and chromogranin A proteins. DHT-induced cytoskeletal changes were also apparent from time lapse video microscopy that showed that androgen treatment resulted in the rapid appearance of neuronal-like membrane extensions. Expression profiling analysis using RNA isolated from DHT-treated HT-AR1 cells revealed that androgen receptor activation leads to the coordinate expression of numerous cell signaling genes including RhoB, PTGF-β, caveolin-2, Egr-1, myosin 1B, and EHM2. Because RhoB has been shown to have a role in tumor suppression and neuronal differentiation in other cell types, we investigated RhoB signaling functions in the HT-AR1 steroid response. We found that steroid induction of RhoB was DHT-specific and that newly synthesized RhoB protein was post-translationally modified and localized to endocytic vesicles. Moreover, treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor reduced DHT-dependent growth arrest, suggesting that prenylated RhoB might function to inhibit HT-AR1 cell proliferation. This was directly shown by transfecting HT-AR1 cells with RhoB coding sequences containing activating or dominant negative mutations. PMID:14576147

  6. A Novel Mutation in Human Androgen Receptor Gene Causing Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in a Patient Presenting with Gynecomastia at Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Koçyiğit, Cemil; Sarıtaş, Serdar; Çatlı, Gönül; Onay, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) typically presents with micropenis, perineoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with descending or undescending testes and gynecomastia at puberty. It is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. However, AR gene mutations are found in less than a third of PAIS cases. A 16-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of gynecomastia and sparse facial hair. Family history revealed male relatives from maternal side with similar clinical phenotype. His external genitalia were phenotypically male with pubic hair Tanner stage IV, penoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with bilateral atrophic testes. He had elevated gonadotropins with a normal testosterone level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Due to the family history suggesting a disorder of X-linked trait, PAIS was considered and molecular analysis of AR gene was performed. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel hemizygous mutation p.T576I (c.1727C>T) in the AR gene. The diagnosis of PAIS is based upon clinical phenotype and laboratory findings and can be confirmed by detection of a defect in the AR gene. An accurate approach including a detailed family history suggesting an X-linked trait is an important clue for a quick diagnosis. PMID:27087292

  7. A Novel Mutation in Human Androgen Receptor Gene Causing Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in a Patient Presenting with Gynecomastia at Puberty.

    PubMed

    Koçyiğit, Cemil; Sarıtaş, Serdar; Çatlı, Gönül; Onay, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-06-05

    Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) typically presents with micropenis, perineoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with descending or undescending testes and gynecomastia at puberty. It is an X-linked recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. However, AR gene mutations are found in less than a third of PAIS cases. A 16-year-old boy was admitted with complaints of gynecomastia and sparse facial hair. Family history revealed male relatives from maternal side with similar clinical phenotype. His external genitalia were phenotypically male with pubic hair Tanner stage IV, penoscrotal hypospadias, and a bifid scrotum with bilateral atrophic testes. He had elevated gonadotropins with a normal testosterone level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Due to the family history suggesting a disorder of X-linked trait, PAIS was considered and molecular analysis of AR gene was performed. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel hemizygous mutation p.T576I (c.1727C>T) in the AR gene. The diagnosis of PAIS is based upon clinical phenotype and laboratory findings and can be confirmed by detection of a defect in the AR gene. An accurate approach including a detailed family history suggesting an X-linked trait is an important clue for a quick diagnosis.

  8. A Novel Androgen Receptor Splice Variant Is Upregulated during Prostate Cancer Progression and Promotes Androgen-depletion-resistant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiyong; Yang, Xi; Sun, Feng; Jiang, Richeng; Linn, Douglas E.; Chen, Hege; Chen, Hegang; Kong, Xiangtian; Melamed, Jonathan; Tepper, Clifford G.; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Brodie, Angela M. H.; Edwards, Joanne; Qiu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to incurable androgen-ablation resistant prostate cancer (PCA). We have identified three novel AR splice variants lacking the ligand binding domain (designated as AR3, AR4 and AR5) in hormone insensitive PCA cells. AR3, one of the major splice variants expressed in human prostate tissues, is constitutively active and its transcriptional activity is not regulated by androgens or antiandrogens. Immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays containing 429 human prostate tissue samples shows that AR3 is significantly upregulated during PCA progression and AR3 expression level is correlated with the risk of tumor recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Overexpression of AR3 confers ablation-independent growth of PCA cells while specific knock-down of AR3 expression (without altering AR level) in hormone resistant PCA cells attenuates their growth under androgen-depleted conditions in both cell culture and xenograft models, suggesting an indispensable role of AR3 in ablation-independent growth of PCA cells. Furthermore, AR3 may play a distinct yet essential role in ablation-independent growth through regulating a unique set of genes including AKT1, which are not regulated by the prototype AR. Our data suggest that aberrant expression of AR splice variants may be a novel mechanism underlying ablation-independence during PCA progression and AR3 may serve as a prognostic marker to predict patient outcome in response to hormonal therapy. Given that these novel AR splice variants are not inhibited by currently available anti-androgen drugs, development of new drugs targeting these AR isoforms may potentially be effective for treatment of ablation-resistant PCA. PMID:19244107

  9. The immunophilin ligands cyclosporin A and FK506 suppress prostate cancer cell growth by androgen receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, Sumudra; Warrier, Manya; Tillekeratne, Manoranjani P M; Shou, Weinian; Sanchez, Edwin R

    2007-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) contributes to growth of prostate cancer even under conditions of androgen ablation. Thus, new strategies to target AR activity are needed. The AR interacts with the immunophilin FK506-binding protein 52 (FKBP52), and studies in the FKBP52 knockout mouse have shown that this protein is essential to AR activity in the prostate. Therefore, we tested whether the immunophilin ligand FK506 affected AR activity in prostate cancer cell lines. We also tested the hypothesis that the AR interacts with another immunophilin, cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40), and is regulated by its cognate ligand cyclosporin A (CsA). We show that levels of FKBP52, FKBP51, Cyp40, and a related co-chaperone PP5 were much higher in prostate cancer cells lines [(LNCaP), PC-3, and DU145] compared with primary prostate cells, and that the AR of LNCaP cells can interact with Cyp40. In the absence of androgen, CsA caused inhibition of cell growth in the AR-positive LNCaP and AR-negative PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Interestingly, FK506 only inhibited LNCaP cells, suggesting a dependence on the AR for this effect. Both CsA and FK506 inhibited growth without inducing apoptosis. In LNCaP cells, CsA completely blocked androgen-stimulated growth, whereas FK506 was partially effective. Further studies in LNCaP cells revealed that CsA and FK506 were able to block or attenuate several stages of AR signaling, including hormone binding, nuclear translocation, and activity at several AR-responsive reporter and endogenous genes. These findings provide the first evidence that CsA and FK506 can negatively modulate proliferation of prostate cells in vitro. Immunophilins may now serve as new targets to disrupt AR-mediated prostate cancer growth.

  10. The Immunophilin Ligands Cyclosporin A and FK506 Suppress Prostate Cancer Cell Growth by Androgen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    PERIYASAMY, SUMUDRA; WARRIER, MANYA; TILLEKERATNE, MANORANJANI P. M.; SHOU, WEINIAN; SANCHEZ, EDWIN R.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) contributes to growth of prostate cancer even under conditions of androgen ablation. Thus, new strategies to target AR activity are needed. AR interacts with the immunophilin FK506-binding protein 52 (FKBP52), and studies in the FKBP52 KO mouse have shown this protein is essential to AR activity in the prostate. We therefore tested whether the immunophilin ligand FK506 affected AR activity in prostate cancer cell lines. We also tested the hypothesis that AR interacts with another immunophilin Cyp40 and is regulated by its cognate ligand cyclosporin A (CsA). We show that levels of FKBP52, FKBP51, Cyp40 and a related co-chaperone PP5 were much higher in prostate cancer cells lines (LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145) compared to primary prostate cells, and that the AR of LNCaP cells can interact with Cyp40. In the absence of androgen, CsA caused inhibition of cell growth in the AR-positive LNCaP and AR-negative PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Interestingly, FK506 only inhibited LNCaP cells, suggesting a dependence on AR for this effect. Both CsA and FK506 inhibited growth without inducing apoptosis. In LNCaP cells, CsA completely blocked androgen-stimulated growth, whereas FK506 was partially effective. Further studies in LNCaP cells revealed that CsA and FK506 were able to block or attenuate several stages of AR signaling, including hormone binding, nuclear translocation and activity at several AR-responsive reporter and endogenous genes. These findings provide the first evidence that CsA and FK506 can negatively modulate proliferation of prostate cells in vitro. Immunophilins may now serve as new targets to disrupt AR-mediated prostate cancer growth. PMID:17615153

  11. Retinoic acid and androgen receptors combine to achieve tissue specific control of human prostatic transglutaminase expression: a novel regulatory network with broader significance

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Gonzalez, Guillermo C.; Droop, Alastair P.; Rippon, Helen J.; Tiemann, Katrin; Pellacani, Davide; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2012-01-01

    In the human prostate, expression of prostate-specific genes is known to be directly regulated by the androgen–induced stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR). However, less is known about the expression control of the prostate-restricted TGM4 (hTGP) gene. In the present study we demonstrate that the regulation of the hTGP gene depends mainly on retinoic acid (RA). We provide evidence that the retinoic acid receptor gamma (RAR-G) plays a major role in the regulation of the hTGP gene and that presence of the AR, but not its transcriptional transactivation activity, is critical for hTGP transcription. RA and androgen responsive elements (RARE and ARE) were mapped to the hTGP promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which also indicated that the active ARE and RARE sites were adjacent, suggesting that the antagonistic effect of androgen and RA is related to the relative position of binding sites. Publicly available AR and RAR ChIP-seq data was used to find gene potentially regulated by AR and RAR. Four of these genes (CDCA7L, CDK6, BTG1 and SAMD3) were tested for RAR and AR binding and two of them (CDCA7L and CDK6) proved to be antagonistically regulated by androgens and RA confirming that this regulation is not particular of hTGP. PMID:22362749

  12. Nuclear Export Signal of Androgen Receptor (NESAR) Regulation of Androgen Receptor Level in Human Prostate Cell Lines via Ubiquitination and Proteasome-Dependent Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yanqing; Wang, Dan; Dar, Javid A.; Singh, Prabhpreet; Graham, Lara; Liu, Weijun; Ai, Junkui; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in prostate development and carcinogenesis. Increased expression and/or stability of AR is associated with sensitization of prostate cancer cells to low levels of androgens, leading to castration resistance. Hence, understanding the mechanisms regulating AR protein stability is clinically relevant and may lead to new approaches to prevent and/or treat prostate cancer. Using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, and pulse chase assay, we showed that nuclear export signal (NES)AR, a nuclear export signal in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of AR, can significantly enhance the degradation of fusion protein constructs in PC3 prostate cancer cells. The half-life of GFP-NESAR was less than 3 h, which was 10 times shorter than that of green fluorescent protein (GFP) control. Further analysis showed that NESAR can signal for polyubiquitination and that degradation of NESAR-containing fusion proteins can be blocked by proteasome inhibitor MG132. Ubiquitination of GFP-AR or GFP-LBD was suppressed in the presence of dihydrotestosterone, which is known to suppress NESAR while inducing nuclear localization signal 2 in AR or LBD, suggesting that the export activity of NESAR is required for NESAR-mediated polyubiquitination. Treatment with MG132 also induced aggresome formation of NESAR-containing fusion proteins in perinuclear regions of the transfected PC3 cells, indicating a role for NESAR in inducing unfolded protein responses. The above observations suggest that NESAR plays a key role in AR ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation in prostate cancer cells. PMID:23041672

  13. Stable isotope methodology in the pharmacokinetic studies of androgenic steroids in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, Y.; Baba, S. )

    1990-04-01

    The use of stable isotopically labeled steroids combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has found a broad application in pharmacologic studies. Initially, stable isotopically labeled steroids served as the ideal analytic internal standard for GC/MS analysis; however, their in vivo use has expanded and has proven to be a powerful pharmacokinetic tool. We have successfully used stable isotope methodology to study the pharmacokinetic/bioavailability of androgens. The primary advantage of the technique is that endogenous and exogenous steroids with the same basic structure can be differentiated by using stable isotopically labeled analogs. The method was used to examine the pharmacokinetics of testosterone and testosterone propionate, and to clarify the influence of endogenous testosterone. Another advantage of the isotope methods is that steroidal drugs can be administered concomitantly in two formulations (e.g., solution and solid dosage). A single set of blood samples serves to describe the time course of the formulations being compared. This stable isotope coadministration technique was used to estimate the relative bioavailability of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone. 35 references.

  14. Structure of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human androgen receptor in complex with a selective modulator LGD2226

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-qin; Li, He; Liang, Kai-ni; Miner, Jeffrey N.; Hong, Mei; Kallel, E. Adam; Oeveren, Arjan van; Zhi, Lin; Jiang, Tao

    2006-11-01

    Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of androgen receptor in complex with LGD2226. The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible steroid hormone receptor that mediates androgen action, determining male sexual phenotypes and promoting spermatogenesis. As the androgens play a dominant role in male sexual development and function, steroidal androgen agonists have been used clinically for some years. However, there is a risk of potential side effects and most steroidal androgens cannot be dosed orally, which limits the use of these substances. 1,2-Dihydro-6-N,N-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) amino-4-trifluoromethyl-2-quinolinone (LGD2226) is a synthetic nonsteroidal ligand and a novel selective AR modulator. The crystal structure of the complex of LGD2226 with the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR LBD) at 2.1 Å was solved and compared with the structure of the AR LBD–R1881 complex. It is hoped that this will aid in further explaining the selectivity of LGD2226 observed in in vitro and in vivo assays and in developing more selective and effective therapeutic agents.

  15. Isolation and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry of androgen sulfoconjugates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Kohler, Isabelle; Rudaz, Serge; Martel, Sophie; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Saugy, Martial; Saudan, Christophe

    2008-07-04

    Together with steroid glucuronides, sulfoconjugates may be used as markers of steroid administration as well as endogenous steroid production. A fast and sensitive analytical procedure has been developed for the simultaneous separation, determination and quantification of sulfate and glucuronide derivatives of testosterone (T), epitestosterone (E), androsterone (A), etiocholanolone (Etio) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in human urine. First, a weak anion-exchange solid-phase extraction support (SPE Oasis WAX) was used for complete and rapid separation of sulfates and glucuronides in two extracts after loading of urine sample (2 mL). Then sulfates were analyzed directly by high-performance liquid chromatography-ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization in negative mode. Chromatographic separation of the targeted sulfoconjugates was achieved using a Waters XBridge C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 microm) with gradient elution. Assay validation demonstrated good performance for instance for T sulfate (TS) and E sulfate (ES) in terms of trueness (89-107%), repeatability (3.4-22%) and intermediate precision (5.8-22%) over the range of 2-200 ng/mL (corresponding to 1.5-147 ng/mL as free steroids). Results obtained on biological samples demonstrated the suitability of this analytical strategy for direct measurement of androgen sulfoconjugates and glucuroconjugates in human urine.

  16. AKT regulates androgen receptor-dependent growth and PSA expression in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Margarita; Wang, Yu; Bedolla, Roble; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Kreisberg, Jeffrey I; Ghosh, Paramita M

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent prostate cancer (PC) is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy, which, despite initial success, eventually fails due to the development of androgen-independent PC. Androgen deprivation stimulates a significant increase in the phosphorylation (activation) of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase, which regulates cell growth and survival. Hence, we asked whether the increase in Akt phosphorylation contributes to the development of androgen independence. Akt regulates transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR), and our data show that Akt-stimulated AR transcriptional activity is dependent on androgen-binding to the AR. PC proliferation has both androgen-sensitive and insensitive components. The androgen sensitive component is Akt-dependent, while the androgen-insensitive is not. However, Akt-induced cell survival is largely AR independent, suggesting that the cell stimulates Akt phosphorylation when subjected to androgen deprivation as an alternate pathway to maintain survival.

  17. Circulating Palmitoleate Strongly and Independently Predicts Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Norbert; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Celebi, Nora; Staiger, Harald; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Cegan, Alexander; Elcnerova, Michaela; Schleicher, Erwin; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We investigated whether palmitoleate, which prevents insulin resistance in mice, predicts insulin sensitivity in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The fasting fatty acid pattern in the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) fraction was determined in 100 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity was estimated during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 9 months of lifestyle intervention and measured during the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (n = 79). RESULTS Circulating palmitoleate (OGTT:F ratio = 8.2, P = 0.005; clamp:F ratio = 7.8, P = 0.007) but not total FFAs (OGTT:F ratio = 0.6, P = 0.42; clamp:F ratio = 0.7, P = 0.40) correlated positively with insulin sensitivity, independently of age, sex, and adiposity. High baseline palmitoleate predicted a larger increase in insulin sensitivity. For 1-SD increase in palmitoleate, the odds ratio for being in the highest versus the lowest tertile of adjusted change in insulin sensitivity was 2.35 (95% CI 1.16–5.35). CONCLUSIONS Circulating palmitoleate strongly and independently predicts insulin sensitivity, suggesting that it plays an important role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in humans. PMID:19889804

  18. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lubahn, D.B.; Simental, J.A.; Higgs, H.N.; Wilson, E.M.; French, F.S. ); Brown, T.R.; Migeon, C.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. The authors have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46, XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development.

  19. Membrane androgen receptor characteristics of human ZIP9 (SLC39A) zinc transporter in prostate cancer cells: Androgen-specific activation and involvement of an inhibitory G protein in zinc and MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2017-05-15

    Characteristics of novel human membrane androgen receptor (mAR), ZIP9 (SLC39A9), were investigated in ZIP9-transfected PC-3 cells (PC3-ZIP9). Ligand blot analysis showed plasma membrane [(3)H]-T binding corresponds to the position of ZIP9 on Western blots which suggests ZIP9 can bind [(3)H]-T alone, without a protein partner. Progesterone antagonized testosterone actions, blocking increases in zinc, Erk phosphorylation and apoptosis, further evidence that ZIP9 is specifically activated by androgens. Pre-treatment with GTPγS and pertussis toxin decreased plasma membrane [(3)H]-T binding and blocked testosterone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation and intracellular zinc, indicating ZIP9 is coupled to an inhibitory G protein (Gi) that mediates both MAP kinase and zinc signaling. Testosterone treatment of nuclei and mitochondria which express ZIP9 decreased their zinc contents, suggesting ZIP9 also regulates free zinc through releasing it from these intracellular organelles. The results show ZIP9 is a specific Gi coupled-mAR mediating testosterone-induced MAP kinase and zinc signaling in PC3-ZIP9 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lubahn, D B; Brown, T R; Simental, J A; Higgs, H N; Migeon, C J; Wilson, E M; French, F S

    1989-12-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. We have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46,XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development.

  1. Sequence of the intron/exon junctions of the coding region of the human androgen receptor gene and identification of a point mutation in a family with complete androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, D B; Brown, T R; Simental, J A; Higgs, H N; Migeon, C J; Wilson, E M; French, F S

    1989-01-01

    Androgens act through a receptor protein (AR) to mediate sex differentiation and development of the male phenotype. We have isolated the eight exons in the amino acid coding region of the AR gene from a human X chromosome library. Nucleotide sequences of the AR gene intron/exon boundaries were determined for use in designing synthetic oligonucleotide primers to bracket coding exons for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. Genomic DNA was amplified from 46,XY phenotypic female siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. AR binding affinity for dihydrotestosterone in the affected siblings was lower than in normal males, but the binding capacity was normal. Sequence analysis of amplified exons demonstrated within the AR steroid-binding domain (exon G) a single guanine to adenine mutation, resulting in replacement of valine with methionine at amino acid residue 866. As expected, the carrier mother had both normal and mutant AR genes. Thus, a single point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the AR gene correlated with the expression of an AR protein ineffective in stimulating male sexual development. Images PMID:2594783

  2. Interactions of androgens, green tea catechins and the antiandrogen flutamide with the external glucose-binding site of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Naftalin, Richard J; Afzal, Iram; Cunningham, Philip; Halai, Mansur; Ross, Clare; Salleh, Naguib; Milligan, Stuart R

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of androgens, the antiandrogen flutamide and green tea catechins on glucose transport inhibition in human erythrocytes. These effects may relate to the antidiabetogenic effects of green tea. Testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-3-acetate inhibit glucose exit from human erythrocytes with half-maximal inhibitions (Ki) of 39.2±8.9, 29.6±3.7, 48.1±10.2 and 4.8±0.98 μM, respectively. The antiandrogen flutamide competitively relieves these inhibitions and of phloretin. Dehydrotestosterone has no effect on glucose transport, indicating the differences between androgen interaction with GLUT1 and human androgen receptor (hAR). Green tea catechins also inhibit glucose exit from erythrocytes. Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) has a Ki ECG of 0.14±0.01 μM, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) has a Ki EGCG of 0.97±0.13 μM. Flutamide reverses these effects. Androgen-screening tests show that the green tea catechins do not act genomically. The high affinities of ECG and EGCG for GLUT1 indicate that this might be their physiological site of action. There are sequence homologies between GLUT1 and the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of hAR containing the amino-acid triads Arg 126, Thr 30 and Asn 288, and Arg 126, Thr 30 and Asn 29, with similar 3D topology to the polar groups binding 3-keto and 17-β OH steroid groups in hAR LBD. These triads are appropriately sited for competitive inhibition of glucose import at the external opening of the hydrophilic pore traversing GLUT1. PMID:12970085

  3. A Signaling Network Controlling Androgenic Repression of c-Fos Protein in Prostate Adenocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Eswar; Song, Kyung; Corum, Sarah L.; Bane, Kara L.; Wang, Hui; Kao, Hung-Ying; Danielpour, David

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Fos controls many important cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. c-Fos expression is rapidly elevated in the prostate upon castration-mediated androgen withdrawal through an undefined mechanism. Here we show that androgens (5α-dihydrotestosterone and R1881) suppress c-Fos protein and mRNA expression induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or EGF in human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. Such suppression transpires through a transcriptional mechanism, predominantly at the proximal serum response element of the c-fos promoter. We show that androgen signaling suppresses TPA-induced c-Fos expression through repressing a PKC/MEK/ERK/ELK-1 signaling pathway. Moreover, our results support the hypothesis that p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKCδ are involved in the androgenic regulation of c-Fos through controlling MEK/ERK. Stable silencing of c-Fos and PKCδ with shRNAs suggests that R1881 promotes cell death induced by low-dose TPA through a mechanism that is dependent on both PKCδ and loss of c-Fos expression. Reciprocally, loss of either PKCδ or c-Fos activates p38MAPK while suppressing the activation of ERK1/2. We also provide the first demonstration that R1881 permits cell death induced by low-dose TPA in the LNCaP androgen-dependent PCa cell line and that TPA-induced cell death is independent of exogenous androgen in the castration-resistant variants of LNCaP, C4-2 and C4-2B. Acquisition of androgen-independent killing by TPA correlates with activation of p38MAPK, suppression of ERK1/2, and loss of c-Fos. These results provide new insights into androgenic control of c-Fos and use of PKC inhibitors in PCa therapy. PMID:26786102

  4. Discovery of small-molecule inhibitors selectively targeting the DNA-binding domain of the human androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifang; Ban, Fuqiang; Dalal, Kush; Leblanc, Eric; Frewin, Kate; Ma, Dennis; Adomat, Hans; Rennie, Paul S; Cherkasov, Artem

    2014-08-14

    The human androgen receptor (AR) is considered as a master regulator in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). As resistance to clinically used anti-AR drugs remains a major challenge for the treatment of advanced PCa, there is a pressing need for new anti-AR therapeutic avenues. In this study, we identified a binding site on the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the receptor and utilized virtual screening to discover a set of micromolar hits for the target. Through further exploration of the most potent hit (1), a structural analogue (6) was identified demonstrating 10-fold improved anti-AR potency. Further optimization resulted in a more potent synthetic analogue (25) with anti-AR potency comparable to a newly FDA-approved drug Enzalutamide. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the developed inhibitors do interact with the intended target site. Importantly, the AR DBD inhibitors could effectively inhibit the growth of Enzalutamide-resistant cells as well as block the transcriptional activity of constitutively active AR splice variants, such as V7.

  5. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanisms from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    03- catenin in lipogenesis can be assigned. In addition to being highly expressed in adipose tissue, both PPAR8 and PPARy are thought to serve...ProliferationPrlfato? a) Androgen Dependent PrCa b) Androgen Independent PrCa Figure 3 a) ER TR VDR VDR Wnt -*P-cat - *lo AR Wn Ic AR: RAR, RAR, RXR RXR* PPAR8 PPARy ...97) Tcf-4 PPARy Activation Increased PPAR7 detected in colonic cancer cells (85) Table 11. Nuclear Receptor Modulation of Wnt//J-catenin/Tcf

  6. Human sex hormone-binding globulin binding affinities of 125 structurally diverse chemicals and comparison with their binding to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, and α-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Branham, William S; Ng, Hui Wen; Moland, Carrie L; Dial, Stacey L; Fang, Hong; Perkins, Roger; Sheehan, Daniel; Tong, Weida

    2015-02-01

    One endocrine disruption mechanism is through binding to nuclear receptors such as the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) in target cells. The concentration of a chemical in serum is important for its entry into the target cells to bind the receptors, which is regulated by the serum proteins. Human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the major transport protein in serum that can bind androgens and estrogens and thus change a chemical's availability to enter the target cells. Sequestration of an androgen or estrogen in the serum can alter the chemical elicited AR- and ER-mediated responses. To better understand the chemical-induced endocrine activity, we developed a competitive binding assay using human pregnancy plasma and measured the binding to the human SHBG for 125 structurally diverse chemicals, most of which were known to bind AR and ER. Eighty seven chemicals were able to bind the human SHBG in the assay, whereas 38 chemicals were nonbinders. Binding data for human SHBG are compared with that for rat α-fetoprotein, ER and AR. Knowing the binding profiles between serum and nuclear receptors will improve assessment of a chemical's potential for endocrine disruption. The SHBG binding data reported here represent the largest data set of structurally diverse chemicals tested for human SHBG binding. Utilization of the SHBG binding data with AR and ER binding data could enable better evaluation of endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals through AR- and ER-mediated responses since sequestration in serum could be considered. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    infertile . Below is the modified procedure; animal approval has been obtained from the U of M’s UCUCA and from the DOD MRMC Animal Use Committee...and promoter-specific differential activation by transfected 12Q, 21Q and 48Q AR cDNAs in the presence of low or no hormone , and b) ligand...independent differential activation elicited by co-expression of a constitutively active growth factor, in low or no hormone . To test central signal

  8. Calpain-Dependent Proteolysis of the Androgen Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    and Potential Therapeutic Target in Prostate Tumors. Cancer Research 69, 9001- 5 ). A review on the mechanisms leading to androgen independence was...were higher in Rv1, indicating there neuroendocrine nature. The most significant 5 pathway differences between R1 and Rv1 cells both in the presence...Androgen Receptor Cleavage as a Mechanism of Androgen Independence and Potential Therapeutic Target in Prostate Tumors. Cancer Research 69, 9001- 5

  9. Differential splicing of human androgen receptor pre-mRNA in X-linked reifenstein syndrome, because of a deletion involving a putative branch site

    SciTech Connect

    Ris-Stalpers, C.; Verleun-Mooijman, M.C.T.; Blaeij, T.J.P. de; Brinkmann, A.O.; Degenhart, H.J.; Trapman, J. )

    1994-04-01

    The analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, mRNA, and protein in a subject with X-linked Reifenstein syndrome (partial androgen insensitivity) is reported. The presence of two mature AR transcripts in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient is established, and, by reverse transcriptase-PCR and RNase transcription analysis, the wild-type transcript and a transcript in which exon 3 sequences are absent without disruption of the translational reading frame are identified. Sequencing and hybridization analysis show a deletion of >6 kb in intron 2 of the human AR gene, starting 18 bp upstream of exon 3. The deletion includes the putative branch-point sequence (BPS) but not the acceptor splice site on the intron 2/exon 3 boundary. The deletion of the putative intron 2 BPS results in 90% inhibition of wild-type splicing. The mutant transcript encodes an AR protein lacking the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain. Western/immunoblotting analysis is used to show that the mutant AR protein is expressed in genital skin fibroblasts of the patient. The residual 10% wild-type transcript can be the result of the use of a cryptic BPS located 63 bp upstream of the intron 2/exon 3 boundary of the mutant AR gene. The mutated AR protein has no transcription-activating potential and does not influence the transactivating properties of the wild-type AR, as tested in cotransfection studies. It is concluded that the partial androgen-insensitivity syndrome of this patient is the consequence of the limited amount of wild-type AR protein expressed in androgen target cells, resulting from the deletion of the intron 2 putative BPS. 42 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Human α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) epithelial prostate stem cells express low levels of active androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Stuart C; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Wilson, Laura; Coffey, Kelly; Ryan-Munden, Claudia A; Pal, Deepali; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Heer, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation and progression. We re-examined the expression patterns of AR within adult prostate epithelial differentiation using an optimised sensitive and specific approach examining transcript, protein and AR regulated gene expression. Highly enriched populations were isolated consisting of stem (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE)), transiently amplifying (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE)) and terminally differentiated (α(2)β(1)(LOW) CD133(-VE)) cells. AR transcript and protein expression was confirmed in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) and CD133(-VE) progenitor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that median (±SD) fraction of cells expressing AR were 77% (±6%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells and 68% (±12%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE) transiently amplifying cells. However, 3-fold lower levels of total AR protein expression (peak and median immunofluorescence) were present in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells compared with differentiated cells. This finding was confirmed with dual immunostaining of prostate sections for AR and CD133, which again demonstrated low levels of AR within basal CD133(+VE) cells. Activity of the AR was confirmed in prostate progenitor cells by the expression of low levels of the AR regulated genes PSA, KLK2 and TMPRSS2. The confirmation of AR expression in prostate progenitor cells allows integration of the cancer stem cell theory with the established models of prostate cancer initiation based on a functional AR. Further study of specific AR functions in prostate stem and differentiated cells may highlight novel mechanisms of prostate homeostasis and insights into tumourigenesis.

  11. Androgen synthesis in the gonadotropin-suppressed human testes can be markedly suppressed by ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Roth, M Y; Nya-Ngatchou, J J S; Lin, K; Page, S T; Anawalt, B D; Matsumoto, A M; Marck, B T; Bremner, W J; Amory, J K

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of intratesticular testosterone (IT-T) required for human spermatogenesis is unknown because spermatogenesis can persist despite the markedly reduced IT-T concentrations observed with LH suppression. Methods to lower IT-T further are needed to determine the relationship between IT-T and spermatogenesis. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of inhibiting the synthesis and metabolism of testosterone (T) on IT-T in gonadotropin-suppressed human testes. Forty normal men participated in a blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial at an academic center. INTERVENTION/OUTCOME MEASURES: All men were first administered the GnRH antagonist acyline to suppress LH. Forty-eight hours after acyline administration, subjects were randomly assigned to placebo, ketoconazole (to inhibit T synthesis) at 400 or 800 mg, dutasteride (to inhibit T metabolism) 2.5 mg, or anastrazole (to inhibit T metabolism) 1 mg, daily for 7 days (n = 8/group). Intratesticular steroid concentrations were measured 48 hours after acyline administration alone and again after 7 days of combination treatment. After 7 days of combination treatment, the median IT-T (25th, 75th percentile) in the placebo group was 14 (8.0, 21.2) ng/mL. IT-T was reduced to 3.7 (2.5, 7.1) ng/mL in the ketoconazole 400 mg group and 1.7 (0.8, 4.0) ng/mL in the ketoconazole 800 mg group (P < .001 vs placebo for both comparisons). IT-T concentrations in the dutasteride and anastrazole groups were similar to placebo. Combining inhibition of steroidogenesis with gonadotropin suppression lowers IT-T more than gonadotropin suppression alone. This combination might be useful to determine the minimum IT-T concentration necessary for human spermatogenesis, information essential for developing male hormonal contraceptives.

  12. Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Manfred; Brauer, Silke; Weiss, Gunter; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Underhill, Peter A.; Stoneking, Mark

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the origins and relationships of Australian and Melanesian populations, 611 males from 18 populations from Australia, Melanesia, and eastern/southeastern Asia were typed for eight single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and seven short tandem-repeat loci on the Y chromosome. A unique haplotype, DYS390.1del/RPS4Y711T, was found at a frequency of 53%–69% in Australian populations, whereas the major haplotypes found in Melanesian populations (M4G/M5T/M9G and DYS390.3del/RPS4Y711T) are absent from the Australian populations. The Y-chromosome data thus indicate independent histories for Australians and Melanesians, a finding that is in agreement with evidence from mtDNA but that contradicts some analyses of autosomal loci, which show a close relationship between Australian and Melanesian (specifically, highland Papua New Guinean) populations. Since the Australian and New Guinean landmasses were connected when first colonized by humans ⩾50,000 years ago but separated some 8,000 years ago, a possible way to reconcile all the genetic data is to infer that the Y-chromosome and mtDNA results reflect the past 8,000 years of independent history for Australia and New Guinea, whereas the autosomal loci reflect the long preceding period of common origin and shared history. Two Y-chromosome haplotypes (M119C/M9G and M122C/M9G) that originated in eastern/southeastern Asia are present in coastal and island Melanesia but are rare or absent in both Australia and highland Papua New Guinea. This distribution, along with demographic analyses indicating that population expansions for both haplotypes began ∼4,000–6,000 years ago, suggests that these haplotypes were brought to Melanesia by the Austronesian expansion. Most of the populations in this study were previously typed for mtDNA SNPs; population differentiation is greater for the Y chromosome than for mtDNA and is significantly correlated with geographic distance, a finding in agreement with results of

  13. Cytochrome P450 17A1 inhibitor abiraterone attenuates cellular growth of prostate cancer cells independently from androgen receptor signaling by modulation of oncogenic and apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Grossebrummel, Hannah; Peter, Tilmann; Mandelkow, Robert; Weiss, Martin; Muzzio, Damian; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Jensen, Federico; Knabbe, Cornelius; Zygmunt, Marek; Burchardt, Martin; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-02-01

    Abiraterone provides significant survival advantages in prostate cancer (PC), however, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of abiraterone is still limited. Therefore, the abiraterone impact on androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP and AR-negative PC-3 cells was assessed by cellular and molecular analyses. The present study demonstrated, that abiraterone treatment significantly decreased cell growth, AR expression, and AR activity of AR-positive LNCaP cells. Notably, AR-negative PC-3 cells exhibited comparable reductions in cellular proliferation, associated with DNA fragmentation and pro-apoptotic modulation of p21, caspase-3, survivin, and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Our observations suggest that the attenuation of AR signaling is not the only rationale to explain the abiraterone anticancer activity. Abiraterone efficacy may play a more global role in PC progression control than originally hypothesized. In this regard, abiraterone is not only a promising drug for treatment of AR-negative PC stages, even more, abiraterone may represent an alternative for treatment of other malignancies besides prostate cancer.

  14. Androgens and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, W M; Gorski, R A; Lippe, B M; Green, R

    1982-04-01

    Sexual behavior in humans may be classified according to gender role, gender identity, and gender orientation. Sexually dimorphic behavior in humans is generally felt to be determined by postnatal socialization. Recent work in laboratory animals shows that sexual behavior is a function of circulating steroid hormones, particularly androgens. Testosterone given during a critical period in prenatal or immediate postnatal life causes permanent organizational effects on brain structure and function in laboratory animals. Studies in human patients with testicular feminization, 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or prenatal steroid hormone exposure, provide clinical examples of possible effects of prenatal hormone action in the brain as opposed to postnatal socialization. However, these studies do not permit a clear assessment of the role played by either prenatal steroid hormones or postnatal socialization factors in the ultimate expression of sexual behavior in humans.

  15. Combined effects of terazosin and genistein on a metastatic, hormone-independent human prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kee-Lung; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Li-Wen; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Hu, Yu-Chen; Chih, Tsai-Tung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Su, Shu-Jem

    2009-04-08

    Metastatic prostate cancer progresses from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent. Terazosin, a long-acting selective alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in an alpha1-adrenoreceptor-independent manner, while genistein, a major soy isoflavone, inhibits the growth of several types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a combination of terazosin and genistein using a metastatic, hormone-independent prostatic cancer cell line, DU-145. Terazosin or genistein treatment inhibited the growth of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas had no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells. Addition of 1 microg/ml of terazosin, which was inactive alone, augmented the growth inhibitory effect of 5 microg/ml of genistein. Co-treatment with terazosin resulted in the genistein-induced arrest of DU-145 cells in G2/M phase being overridden and an increase in apoptotic cells, as evidenced by procaspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. The combination also caused a greater decrease in the levels of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bcl-XL, and of VEGF165 and VEGF121 than genistein alone. In conclusion, the terazosin/genistein combination was more effective in inhibiting cell growth and VEGF expression as well as inducing apoptosis of the metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, than either alone. The doses used in this study are in lower and nontoxic anticancer dosage range, suggesting this combination has potential for therapeutic use.

  16. Androgen regulates ADAMTS15 gene expression in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, Chidi N; Adeniji, Olajumoke O; Chandrasekharan, Shankar; Hamdy, Freddie C; Buttle, David J

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a major cause of mortality, largely as a consequence of metastases and transformation to androgen-independent growth. Metalloproteinases are implicated in cancer progression. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) are expressed in prostate cancer cells, with ADAMTS-1 and ADAMTS-15 being the most abundant. ADAMTS-15 but not ADAMTS-1 expression was downregulated by androgen in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, possibly through androgen response elements associated with the gene. ADAMTS-15 expression is predictive for survival in breast cancer, and the situation may be similar in prostate cancer, as androgen independence is usually due to aberrant signaling through its receptor.

  17. Androgenic and Estrogenic Response of Green Mussel Extracts from Singapore’s Coastal Environment Using a Human Cell-Based Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore’s coastal waters. P. viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore’s coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β) using a reporter gene bio-assay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r = 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  18. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Davies, John D; Bunch, Trevor I; Pasterski, Vickie; Mastroyannopoulou, Kiki; MacDougall, Jane

    2012-10-20

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome in its complete form is a disorder of hormone resistance characterised by a female phenotype in an individual with an XY karyotype and testes producing age-appropriate normal concentrations of androgens. Pathogenesis is the result of mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor gene, which encodes for the ligand-activated androgen receptor--a transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This Seminar describes the clinical manifestations of androgen insensitivity syndrome from infancy to adulthood, reviews the mechanism of androgen action, and shows examples of how mutations of the androgen receptor gene cause the syndrome. Management of androgen insensitivity syndrome should be undertaken by a multidisciplinary team and include gonadectomy to avoid gonad tumours in later life, appropriate sex-hormone replacement at puberty and beyond, and an emphasis on openness in disclosure.

  19. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Morales-Martinez, Felipe Arturo; Rodríguez-Guajardo, René; González-Saldivar, Gloria; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo G.; Alvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; Lavalle-Gonzalez, Fernando Javier; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL) when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL) (P = 0.0001 and 0.001), respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r = 0.78; P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.74;  P ≤ 0.001, and r = 0.71;  P ≤ 0.001), respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P = 0.001) and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P = 0.0002 and 0.009). Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction. PMID:25505909

  20. Regulation of progesterone-binding breast cyst protein GCDFP-24 secretion by estrogens and androgens in human breast cancer cells: a new marker of steroid action in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Simard, J; Dauvois, S; Haagensen, D E; Lévesque, C; Mérand, Y; Labrie, F

    1990-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that androgens are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation under both basal and estrogen-induced incubation conditions, while they suppress expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for the antagonism between androgens and estrogens in breast cancer and to obtain a new tumor marker for the actions of these two steroids, we have investigated the effects of androgens and estrogens on expression of the major protein found in human breast gross cystic disease fluid, namely GCDFP-24. This study was performed in ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. After a 9-day incubation period, physiological concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol stimulated proliferation of ZR-75-1 and MCF-7 cells by 2- to 3.5-fold while simultaneously exerting a marked 70-90% inhibition of GCDFP-24 secretion. The estrogenic effects on GCDFP-24 secretion and cell proliferation were both competitively blocked by simultaneous incubation with the new steroidal pure antiestrogen EM-139. On the other hand, a maximal concentration (10 nM) of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone decreased by 50% the proliferation of ZR-75-1 cells; the half-maximal inhibitory effect was exerted at 0.01 nM. The androgen exerted a 3- to 4-fold stimulatory effect on GCDFP-24 secretion at an EC50 value of 0.01 nM. The effect of dihydrotestosterone on these parameters was competitively blocked by simultaneous incubation with the pure antiandrogen OH-flutamide. The present data show that the effects of estrogens and androgens in ZR-75-1 cells on GCDFP-24 secretion and cell growth are opposite. Similarly, in MCF-7 cells, estrogens stimulate cell growth, while GCDFP-24 secretion is inhibited. The present data also suggest that GCDFP-24 could well be a good biochemical marker for monitoring the response to androgenic and antiestrogenic compounds in the therapy of advanced breast cancer.

  1. The antiandrogen bicalutamide activates the androgen receptor (AR) with a mutation in codon 741 through the mitogen activated protein kinase (MARK) pathway in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Tomoaki; Miyake, Hideaki; Kumano, Masafumi; Sakai, Iori; Fujisawa, Masato

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of antiandrogen on the activation of mutated androgen receptor (AR) and its signaling pathway in prostate cancer. We transfected the AR gene with a point mutation at codon 741 (tryptophan to leucine; W741L) into human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 cells lacking the expression of AR, and established PC3 cells overexpressing mutant type AR (PC3/W741L). Changes in the phenotype in these cells were compared to those in PC3 cells transfected with wild- type AR (PC3/Wild) and control vector alone (PC3/Co). There was no significant differences in the growth among PC3/Co, PC3/Wild and PC3/W741L cells. A transactivation assay using these cells showed that bicalutamide activated W741L mutant type AR, but not wild-type AR, while hydroxyflutamide failed to activate either type of ARs. Treatment with specific inhibitors of the MAPK or STST3 pathway (UO126 or AG490, respectively), in contrast to treatment with the Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002, significantly inhibited the dihydrotestosterone-induced activation of both wild-type and mutant ARs; however, activation of W741L mutant AR by bicalutamide was significantly inhibited by treatment with UO126, in contrast to treatment with AG490 or LY294002. Furthermore, treatment of PC3/W741L with bicalutamide, in contrast to treatment with hydroxyflutamide, resulted in significant upregulation of phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK. These findings suggest that the MAPK pathway might be involved in the activation of the AR with a point mutation at codon 741 induced by treatment with the antiandrogen bicalutamide.

  2. Magnolol causes alterations in the cell cycle in androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Brendan T; McDougall, Luke; Catalli, Adriana; Hurta, Robert A R

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in the Western world, affects many men worldwide. This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on the behavior of 2 androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, in vitro. Magnolol, in a 24-h exposure at 40 and 80 μM, was found to be cytotoxic to cells. Magnolol also affected cell cycle progression of DU145 and PC3 cells, resulting in alterations to the cell cycle and subsequently decreasing the proportion of cells entering the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. Protein expression levels of pRBp107 decreased and pRBp130 protein expression levels increased in response to magnolol exposure, whereas p16(INK4a), p21, and p27 protein expression levels were apparently unchanged post 24-h exposure. Magnolol exposure at 6 h did increase p27 protein expression levels. This study has demonstrated that magnolol can alter the behavior of androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggests that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  3. Non-genomic Actions of Androgens

    PubMed Central

    Foradori, C. D.; Weiser, M. J.; Handa, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work in the endocrine and neuroendocrine fields has viewed androgen receptors (AR) as a transcription factor activated by testosterone or one of its many metabolites. The bound androgen receptor acts as transcription factor and binds to specific DNA response elements in target gene promoters, causing activation or repression of transcription and subsequently protein synthesis. Over the past two decades evidence has begun to accumulate to implicate androgens, dependent or independent of the AR, in rapid actions at the cellular and organism level. Androgen’s rapid time course of action; effects in the absence or inhibition of the cellular machinery necessary for transcription/translation; and/or the effects of androgens not able to translocate to the nucleus suggest a method of androgen action not initially dependent on genomic mechcanisms (i.e. non-genomic in nature). In the present paper the non-genomic effects of androgens are reviewed, along with a discussion of the possible role non-genomic androgen actions have on animal physiology and behavior. PMID:18093638

  4. Androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Cynthia A; Chang, Chawnshang

    2004-04-01

    The normal development and maintenance of the prostate is dependent on androgen acting through the androgen receptor (AR). AR remains important in the development and progression of prostate cancer. AR expression is maintained throughout prostate cancer progression, and the majority of androgen-independent or hormone refractory prostate cancers express AR. Mutation of AR, especially mutations that result in a relaxation of AR ligand specificity, may contribute to the progression of prostate cancer and the failure of endocrine therapy by allowing AR transcriptional activation in response to antiandrogens or other endogenous hormones. Similarly, alterations in the relative expression of AR coregulators have been found to occur with prostate cancer progression and may contribute to differences in AR ligand specificity or transcriptional activity. Prostate cancer progression is also associated with increased growth factor production and an altered response to growth factors by prostate cancer cells. The kinase signal transduction cascades initiated by mitogenic growth factors modulate the transcriptional activity of AR and the interaction between AR and AR coactivators. The inhibition of AR activity through mechanisms in addition to androgen ablation, such as modulation of signal transduction pathways, may delay prostate cancer progression.

  5. Human nutritional supplements in the horse. Dehydroepiandrosterone versus androstenedione: comparative effects on the androgen profile and consequences for doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Dehennin, L; Bonnaire, Y; Plou, P

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione are weak androgens, which need conversion to more potent testosterone in order to enhance anabolic action. Consequences of oral dosing at 1 mg/kg on the urinary and plasma androgen profile of mare and gelding have been evaluated with an analytical method involving conjugate fractionation and selective hydrolysis, group separation, and quantitation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring of trimethylsilyl ethers. Peak levels of testosterone total conjugates in urine (range 300-6000 microg/L) were attained a few hours after dosing. Renal clearance was fast, so the testosterone detection period lasted only 20 to 33 h, the longest time being generated by androstenedione. The urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratio for detection of exogenous testosterone in the mare was inoperative after DHEA administration because there was a concomitant increase of epitestosterone, which thereby acted as a masking agent. Androstanediols and androstenediols, as well as some 17-ketosteroids, were additional markers. A transient increase of circulating free testosterone has been evidenced, and this would support possible anabolic/androgenic action by supplementation with DHEA and androstenedione along the oral route.

  6. A novel mutation F826L in the human androgen receptor in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome; increased NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction and TIF2 co-activation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hao Yun; Hoogerbrugge, Jos W; Pang, Kar Lok; van Leeuwen, Marije; van Royen, Martin E; Molier, Michel; Berrevoets, Cor A; Dooijes, Dennis; Dubbink, Hendrikus Jan; van de Wijngaart, Dennis J; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Trapman, Jan; Kleijer, Wim J; Drop, Stenvert L S; Grootegoed, J Anton; Brinkmann, Albert O

    2008-09-24

    A novel mutation F826L located within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR) was investigated. This mutation was found in a boy with severe penoscrotal hypospadias (classified as 46,XY DSD). The AR mutant F826L appeared to be indistinguishable from the wild-type AR, with respect to ligand binding affinity, transcriptional activation of MMTV-luciferase and ARE2-TATA-luciferase reporter genes, protein level in genital skin fibroblasts (GSFs), and sub-cellular distribution in transfected cells. However, an at least two-fold higher NH2-/COOH-terminal domain interaction was found in luciferase and GST pull-down assays. A two-fold increase was also observed for TIF2 (transcription intermediary factor 2) co-activation of the AR F826L COOH-terminal domain. This increase could not be explained by a higher stability of the mutant protein, which was within wild-type range. Repression of transactivation by the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) was not affected by the AR F826L mutation. The observed properties of AR F826L would be in agreement with an increased activity rather than with a partial defective AR transcriptional activation. It is concluded that the penoscrotal hypospadias in the present case is caused by an as yet unknown mechanism, which still may involve the mutant AR.

  7. Differential gene-expression patterns in genital fibroblasts of normal males and 46,XY females with androgen insensitivity syndrome: evidence for early programming involving the androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Hiort, Olaf; Demeter, Janos; Brown, Patrick O; Brooks, James D

    2003-01-01

    Background Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) comprises a range of phenotypes from male infertility to complete feminization. Most individuals with AIS carry germline mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) that interfere with or ablate its function. As genital fibroblasts retain expression of the AR in vitro, we used genital skin fibroblasts from normal males and 46,XY females with complete AIS due to known AR mutations to gain insights into the role of the AR in human genital differentiation. Results Using DNA microarrays representing 32,968 different genes, we identified 404 transcripts with significant differences in transcription levels between genital skin fibroblasts cultured from normal and AIS-affected individuals. Gene-cluster analyses uncovered coordinated expression of genes involved in key processes of morphogenesis. On the basis of animal studies and human genetic syndromes, several of these genes are known to have specific roles in genital differentiation. Remarkably, genital fibroblasts from both normal and AIS-affected individuals showed no transcriptional response to dihydrotestosterone treatment despite expression of the AR. Conclusions The results suggest that in addition to differences in the anatomic origin of the cells, androgen signaling during prenatal development contributes to setting long-lasting, androgen-independent transcriptional programs in genital fibroblasts. Our findings have broad implications in understanding the establishment and the stability of sexual dimorphism in human genital development. PMID:12801411

  8. Understanding androgen action in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michael W; House, Philip J; Tomlinson, Jeremy W

    2014-09-01

    Androgens play an important role in regulation of body fat distribution in humans. They exert direct effects on adipocyte differentiation in a depot-specific manner, via the androgen receptor (AR), leading to modulation of adipocyte size and fat compartment expansion. Androgens also impact directly on key adipocyte functions including insulin signalling, lipid metabolism, fatty acid uptake and adipokine production. Androgen excess and deficiency have implications for metabolic health in both males and females, and these metabolic effects may be mediated through adipose tissue via effects on fat distribution, adipocyte function and lipolysis. Research into the field of androgen metabolism in human and animal adipose tissue has produced inconsistent results; it is important to take into account the sex-, depot- and organism-specific effects of androgens in fat. In general, studies point towards a stimulatory effect on lipolysis, with impairment of adipocyte differentiation, insulin signalling and adipokine generation. Observed effects are frequently gender-specific. Adipose tissue is an important organ of pre-receptor androgen metabolism, through which local androgen availability is rigorously controlled. Adipose androgen exposure is tightly controlled by isoenzymes of AKR1C, 5α-reductase and others, but regulation of the balance between generation and irreversible inactivation remains poorly understood. In particular, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are crucial in the regulation of local androgen bioavailability within adipose tissue. These isoforms control the balance between activation of androstenedione (A) to testosterone (T) by the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (17β-HSD) of AKR1C3, or inactivation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol by the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) activity of AKR1C2. Most studies suggest that androgen inactivation is the predominant reaction in fat, particularly in the abdominal subcutaneous (SC

  9. Androgen therapy in women.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2006-01-01

    Androgens in women either derive from direct ovarian production or from peripheral conversion of the adrenal sex steroid precursor, dehydroepiandrosterone, towards active androgens. Therefore, loss of adrenal or ovarian function, caused by Addison's disease or consequent to bilateral oophorectomy, results in severe androgen deficiency, clinically often associated with a loss of libido and energy. Importantly, physiological menopause does not necessarily lead to androgen deficiency, as androgen synthesis in the ovaries may persist despite the decline in estrogen production. However, the definition of female androgen deficiency, as recently provided by the Princeton consensus statement, is not precise enough and may lead to over-diagnosis due to the high prevalence of its diagnostic criteria: androgen levels below or within the lower quartile of the normal range and concurrent sexual dysfunction. Importantly, physiological menopause is not necessarily associated with androgen deficiency and therefore does not routinely require androgen therapy. Current replacement options include transdermal testosterone administration or dehydroepiandrosterone treatment, both of which have been shown to result in significant improvements, in particular in libido and mood, while effects on body composition and muscular function are not well documented. It is important to keep in mind that the number of randomized controlled trials is still limited and that currently none of the available preparations is officially approved for use in women. Currently, androgen replacement should be reserved for women with severe androgen deficiency due to an established cause and matching clinical signs and symptoms.

  10. Characterisation of the affinity of different anabolics and synthetic hormones to the human androgen receptor, human sex hormone binding globulin and to the bovine progestin receptor.

    PubMed

    Bauer, E R; Daxenberger, A; Petri, T; Sauerwein, H; Meyer, H H

    2000-12-01

    For the steroidal growth promoters trenbolone acetate (TBA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) neither the complete spectrum of biological activities nor the potential endocrine disrupting activity of their excreted metabolites in the environment is fully understood. The potency of these substances in [3H]dihydrotestosterone ([3H]-DHT) displacement from the recombinant human androgen receptor (rhAR) and from human sex-hormone binding globulin (hSHBG) was evaluated. In addition, the potency for [3H]-ORG2058 displacement from the bovine uterine progestin receptor (bPR) was tested. For comparison, different anabolics and synthetic hormones were also tested for their binding affinities. For 17beta-trenbolone (17beta-TbOH), the active compound after TBA administration, an affinity the rhAR similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and a slightly higher affinity to the bPR than progesterone were demonstrated. The affinity of the two major metabolites, 17alpha-trenbolone and trendione, was reduced to less than 5% of the 17beta-TbOH-value. The affinity of these three compounds and of MGA to the hSHBG was much lower compared with DHT. MGA showed a 5.3-fold higher affinity than progesterone to the bPR but only a weak affinity to the rhAR. The major MGA metabolites have an affinity to the bPR between 85% and 28% of the affinity of progesterone. In consequence, MGA and TBA metabolites may be hormonally active substances, which will be present in edible tissues and in manure. We conclude that detailed investigations on biodegradation, distribution and bio-efficacy of these substances are necessary.

  11. Interleukin 7 independent development of human B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Prieyl, J A; LeBien, T W

    1996-01-01

    Mammalian hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) commitment and differentiation into lymphoid lineage cells proceed through a series of developmentally restricted progenitor compartments. A complete understanding of this process, and how it differs from HSC commitment and differentiation into cells of the myeloid/erythroid lineages, requires the development of model systems that support HSC commitment to the lymphoid lineages. We now describe a human bone marrow stromal cell culture that preferentially supports commitment and differentiation of human HSC to CD19+ B-lineage cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorterpurified CD34++/lineage-cells were isolated from fetal bone marrow and cultured on human fetal bone marrow stromal cells in serum-free conditions containing no exogenous cytokines. Over a period of 3 weeks, CD34++/lineage- cells underwent commitment, differentiation, and expansion into the B lineage. Progressive changes included: loss of CD34, acquisition of and graded increases in the level of cell surface CD19, and appearance of immature B cells expressing mu/kappa or mu/lambda cell surface Ig receptors. The tempo and phenotype of B-cell development was not influenced by the addition of IL-7 (10 ng/ml), or by the addition of goat anti-IL-7 neutralizing antibody. These results indicate a profound difference between mouse and human in the requirement for IL-7 in normal B-cell development, and provide an experimental system to identify and characterize human bone marrow stromal cell-derived molecules crucial for human B lymphopoiesis. PMID:8816803

  12. Androgens and women's health.

    PubMed

    Redmond, G P

    1998-01-01

    Androgenic disorders are those conditions in women characterized by excessive androgen action. They are the most common endocrinopathy of women, affecting from 10% to 20%. Signs are: persistent acne, hirsutism and androgenic alopecia, which is the female equivalent of male pattern baldness. A subgroup, those traditionally labeled as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), additionally have anovulation, as well as menstrual abnormalities and, often, obesity. Although women with androgenic disorders usually present themselves for help with the skin or menstrual changes, there are other important implications regarding their health. Women with PCOS have varying degrees of insulin resistance, and an increased incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus, as well as unfavorable lipid patterns. The presence of these risk factors is suggested by upper segment obesity, darkening of the skin, and the other skin changes that make up acanthosis nigricans. Diagnosis involves measurement of circulating androgens (of which free testosterone is most important), together with prolactin and FSH when menstrual dysfunction is present. Many women with androgenic skin changes have normal serum androgen levels, suggesting increased end organ sensitivity to androgens. Others have hyperandrogenism (of ovarian or adrenal origin). Treatment is usually successful in controlling acne, reducing hirsutism and stabilizing, or partially reversing, androgenic alopecia. Pharmacological approaches involve suppressing androgen levels, for example, the use of an appropriate oral contraceptive, or antagonizing androgen action with several medications that have this activity. Unfortunately, most women with androgenic disorders are frustrated in their efforts to obtain medical help. Understanding androgenic disorders will enable the physician to significantly help the majority of women with these conditions.

  13. Androgens in pregnancy: roles in parturition

    PubMed Central

    Makieva, Sofia; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    potential roles for androgens in myometrial relaxation via non-genomic, AR-independent pathways critical for the pregnancy reaching term. Understanding of the molecular events leading to myometrial relaxation is an important step towards development of novel targeted tocolytic drugs. CONCLUSIONS The increase in androgen levels throughout gestation is likely to be important for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and initiation of parturition. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms of androgen action on cervical remodelling and myometrial contractility is needed. The insights gained may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to manage pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. PMID:24643344

  14. Human skin cells support thymus-independent T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rachael A.; Yamanaka, Kei-ichi; Bai, Mei; Dowgiert, Rebecca; Kupper, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    Thymic tissue has previously been considered a requirement for the generation of a functional and diverse population of human T cells. We report that fibroblasts and keratinocytes from human skin arrayed on a synthetic 3-dimensional matrix support the development of functional human T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells in the absence of thymic tissue. Newly generated T cells contained T cell receptor excision circles, possessed a diverse T cell repertoire, and were functionally mature and tolerant to self MHC, indicating successful completion of positive and negative selection. Skin cell cultures expressed the AIRE, Foxn1, and Hoxa3 transcription factors and a panel of autoantigens. Skin and bone marrow biopsies can thus be used to generate de novo functional and diverse T cell populations for potential therapeutic use in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:16224538

  15. Stat3 enhances the growth of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in intact and castrated male nude mice.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Fernando; Lee, Soo Ok; Lou, Wei; Xiao, Xiao; Pflug, Beth R; Nelson, Joel B; Gao, Allen C

    2002-07-01

    Prostate cancer frequently progresses from an initial androgen dependence to androgen independence, rendering the only effective androgen ablation therapy useless. The mechanism underlying the androgen-independent progression is unknown. Stat3, a member of the family of signal transducers and activators of transcription, is activated in numerous cancers, including prostate. This study is to investigate the role of Stat3 activation in the growth of prostate cancer cells. A constitutively active Stat3 was ectopically expressed in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells and resulting stable clones expressing activated Stat3 were isolated. The effect of Stat3 activation on LNCaP cell growth in response to androgen in vitro and in vivo was examined. We show that the levels of activated Stat3 are associated with the progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Activation of Stat3 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells results in enhancement of tumor growth in both intact and castrated male nude mice and enhances androgen receptor-mediated prostate specific antigen expression. These findings demonstrate that intracellular signaling mediated by Stat3 can enhance the growth of androgen-sensitive human LNCaP prostate cancer cells in both intact and castrated male nude mice. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Anxiety Independently Contributes to Elevated Inflammation in Humans with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Gary L.; Kalil, Graziela Z.; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa; Holwerda, Seth W.; Persons, Jane; Moser, David J.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious and depressive states are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a proinflammatory phenotype, although the latter appears to be at least partially explained by adiposity. We hypothesized that depression and anxiety would be associated with elevated inflammation independent of adiposity in persons with obesity at high risk of CVD. Methods We explored the relation between baseline anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and baseline serum c-reactive protein (CRP) in a cross-sectional sample of 100 participants [mean (SD) age 57.8 (7.7) years; 64% female] with obesity [mean (SD) body mass index, BMI 37.3 (5.5) kg/m2] enrolled in a clinical trial for pharmacological weight loss interventions. Results BAI, but not BDI-II, scores were significantly correlated with CRP (rho=0.28, p=0.005). BMI was also highly correlated with CRP (rho=0.42, p<0.0001). In multivariate models, the relation between anxiety and CRP remained significant (p=0.038), independent of BMI, age and sex. Conclusion Anxiety, but not depression, is associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity beyond that attributable to higher BMI. Further study is warranted to assess whether anxiety represents a potential therapeutic target to mitigate corresponding CVD risk associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity. PMID:28000423

  17. Androgens Upregulate Cdc25C Protein by Inhibiting Its Proteasomal and Lysosomal Degradation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ahmad, Humera; Kumar, Satyendra; Alam, Syed Mahfuzul; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2013-01-01

    Cdc25C is a cell cycle protein of the dual specificity phosphatase family essential for activating the cdk1/Cyclin B1 complex in cells entering into mitosis. Since altered cell cycle is a hallmark of human cancers, we investigated androgen regulation of Cdc25C protein in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including androgen-sensitive (AS) LNCaP C-33 cells and androgen-independent (AI) LNCaP C-81 as well as PC-3 cells. In the regular culture condition containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), Cdc25C protein levels were similar in these PCa cells. In a steroid-reduced condition, Cdc25C protein was greatly decreased in AS C-33 cells but not AI C-81 or PC-3 cells. In androgen-treated C-33 cells, the Cdc25C protein level was greatly elevated, following a dose- and a time-dependent manner, correlating with increased cell proliferation. This androgen effect was blocked by Casodex, an androgen receptor blocker. Nevertheless, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth stimulator of PCa cells, could only increase Cdc25C protein level by about 1.5-fold. Altered expression of Cdc25C in C-33 cells and PC-3 cells by cDNA and/or shRNA transfection is associated with the corresponding changes of cell growth and Cyclin B1 protein level. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide could only partially block androgen-induced Cdc25C protein level. Treatments with both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors resulted in elevated Cdc25C protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens reduced the ubiquitination of Cdc25C proteins. These results show for the first time that Cdc25C protein plays a role in regulating PCa cell growth, and androgen treatments, but not EGF, greatly increase Cdc25C protein levels in AS PCa cells, which is in part by decreasing its degradation. These results can lead to advanced PCa therapy via up-regulating the degradation pathways of Cdc25C protein. PMID:23637932

  18. Androgens upregulate Cdc25C protein by inhibiting its proteasomal and lysosomal degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Li; Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ahmad, Humera; Kumar, Satyendra; Alam, Syed Mahfuzul; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2013-01-01

    Cdc25C is a cell cycle protein of the dual specificity phosphatase family essential for activating the cdk1/Cyclin B1 complex in cells entering into mitosis. Since altered cell cycle is a hallmark of human cancers, we investigated androgen regulation of Cdc25C protein in human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, including androgen-sensitive (AS) LNCaP C-33 cells and androgen-independent (AI) LNCaP C-81 as well as PC-3 cells. In the regular culture condition containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), Cdc25C protein levels were similar in these PCa cells. In a steroid-reduced condition, Cdc25C protein was greatly decreased in AS C-33 cells but not AI C-81 or PC-3 cells. In androgen-treated C-33 cells, the Cdc25C protein level was greatly elevated, following a dose- and a time-dependent manner, correlating with increased cell proliferation. This androgen effect was blocked by Casodex, an androgen receptor blocker. Nevertheless, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth stimulator of PCa cells, could only increase Cdc25C protein level by about 1.5-fold. Altered expression of Cdc25C in C-33 cells and PC-3 cells by cDNA and/or shRNA transfection is associated with the corresponding changes of cell growth and Cyclin B1 protein level. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide could only partially block androgen-induced Cdc25C protein level. Treatments with both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors resulted in elevated Cdc25C protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed that androgens reduced the ubiquitination of Cdc25C proteins. These results show for the first time that Cdc25C protein plays a role in regulating PCa cell growth, and androgen treatments, but not EGF, greatly increase Cdc25C protein levels in AS PCa cells, which is in part by decreasing its degradation. These results can lead to advanced PCa therapy via up-regulating the degradation pathways of Cdc25C protein.

  19. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-11-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  20. High-free androgen index is associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, independent of obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cai, J; Wu, C H; Zhang, Y; Wang, Y Y; Xu, W D; Lin, T C; Li, S X; Wang, L H; Zheng, J; Sun, Y; Liu, W; Tao, T

    2017-09-01

    Central obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are common conditions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, few studies have addressed the association between hyperandrogenism (HA) and NAFLD. We aimed to determine whether variations in the free androgen index (FAI) might be associated with NAFLD prevalence. A cross-sectional study was performed including 400 Chinese women with PCOS and 100 age, and body mass index (BMI)-matched women. The anthropometric and serum biochemical parameters related to sex steroids, glucose and lipid profiles were examined. Liver fat content (LFC) was measured by quantitative ultrasound. The prevalence of NAFLD was 56.23% in PCOS patients and 38% in controls (P=0.001), and this prevalence increased with FAI quartile independently of obesity and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The FAI level increased from non-NAFLD group to NAFLD group. The FAI was positively associated with the metabolic parameters LFC, BMI, waist circumference, alanine aminotransferases, aspartate, triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and was negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Moreover, in multivariate logistic regression analysis BMI, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), FAI, LFC and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with NAFLD. The cut-off values of FAI, LFC, BMI and hsCRP to predict NAFLD were 9.86%, 17.19%, 24.38% and 0.72%, respectively. The area under the curve for predicting NAFLD in PCOS patients showed comparable sensitivity and specificity between BMI and a new index combining FAI with hsCRP. A higher FAI level is associated with increased LFC and NAFLD prevalence independent of obesity and IR.

  1. Clinical outcomes of anti-androgen withdrawal and subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy for advanced prostate cancer following failure of initial maximum androgen blockade.

    PubMed

    Momozono, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Hideaki; Tei, Hiromoto; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the significance of anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) who relapsed after initial maximum androgen blockade (MAB). The present study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 272 consecutive advanced PC patients undergoing anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide following the failure of initial MAB using bicalutamide. With the exception of 41 patients (15.1%) who did not undergo anti-androgen withdrawal due to the characteristics of PC suggesting aggressive diseases, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declined from the baseline value in 83 patients (35.9%), including 18 (7.8%) with PSA decline >50%, but not in the remaining 148 (64.1%). No significant difference in the overall survival (OS) or cancer-specific survival (CSS) among the three groups was observed based on the response to anti-androgen withdrawal. Following the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide, PSA decline was observed in 185 patients (68.0%), including 103 (37.9%) who achieved a PSA reduction of >50%; however, the PSA level continued to elevate in the remaining 87 (32.0%). Furthermore, of the numerous factors examined, only the duration of the initial MAB therapy was shown to be significantly correlated with the PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy. Multivariate analysis of several factors identified revealed that only PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy was an independent predictor of CSS and OS. If initial MAB is effective, the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy may be considered; however, anti-androgen withdrawal should be omitted, irrespective of the characteristics of advanced PC.

  2. Anxiety independently contributes to elevated inflammation in humans with obesity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Gary L; Kalil, Graziela Z; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa; Holwerda, Seth W; Persons, Jane; Moser, David J; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2017-02-01

    Anxious and depressive states are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a proinflammatory phenotype, although the latter appears to be at least partially explained by adiposity. It was hypothesized that depression and anxiety would be associated with elevated inflammation independent of adiposity in persons with obesity at high risk of CVD. This study explored the relation between baseline anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II and baseline serum c-reactive protein (CRP) in a cross-sectional sample of 100 participants [mean (SD) age 57.8 (7.7) years; 64% female] with obesity [mean (SD) body mass index, BMI 37.3 (5.5) kg/m(2) ] enrolled in a clinical trial for pharmacological weight loss. Beck Anxiety Inventory, but not Beck Depression Inventory-II, scores were significantly correlated with CRP (ρ = 0.28, P = 0.005). BMI was also highly correlated with CRP (ρ = 0.42, P < 0.0001). In multivariate models, the relation between anxiety and CRP remained significant (P = 0.038), independent of BMI, age, and sex. Anxiety, but not depression, was associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity beyond that attributable to higher BMI. Further study is warranted to assess whether anxiety represents a potential therapeutic target to mitigate corresponding CVD risk associated with elevated inflammation in persons with obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Boots on Mars: Earth Independent Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Josephine; Gill, Tracy R.; Ellis, Kim Gina

    2017-01-01

    This package is for the conduct of a workshop during the International Space University Space Studies Program in the summer of 2017 being held in Cork, Ireland. It gives publicly available information on NASA and international plans to move beyond low Earth orbit to Mars and discusses challenges and capabilities. This information will provide the participants a basic level of insight to develop a response on their perceived obstacles to a future vision of humans on Mars.

  4. Inositol Hexaphosphate Inhibits Growth and Induces G1 Arrest and Apoptotic Death of Androgen-Dependent Human Prostate Carcinoma LNCaP Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Chapla; Dhanalakshmi, Sivanandhan; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US male population. One approach to control this malignancy is its preventive intervention by dietary agents. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a dietary constituent, has shown promising efficacy against various cancers; however, limited studies have been performed with IP6 against PCA. Here, we investigated the growth-inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of IP6 in androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. IP6 treatment of cells resulted in a strong growth inhibition and an increase in G1 cell population. In mechanistic studies, IP6 resulted in an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 levels, together with a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and cyclin D1 protein levels. An increase in CDKI levels by IP6 also led to a concomitant increase in their interactions with CDK2 and CDK4, together with a strong decrease in the kinase activity of both CDKs. Downstream in CDKI-CDK-cyclin cascade, consistent with its inhibitory effect on CDK kinase activity, IP6 treatment of cells increased hypophosphorylated levels of retinoblastoma (Rb) with a decrease in Rb phosphorylation at serine 780, 807, and 811 sites, and caused a moderate to strong decrease in the levels of transcription factors E2F1, E2F4, and E2F5. In other studies, IP6 caused a dose- and a time-dependent apoptotic death of LNCaP cells, and a decrease in Bcl2 levels, causing a strong increase in Bax versus Bcl2 ratio, as well as an inhibition of constitutively active AKT phosphorylation. Taken together, these molecular alterations provide an insight into IP6-caused growth inhibition, G1 arrest, and apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Because early clinical PCA growth is an androgen-dependent response, the results of the present study employing androgen-dependent LNCaP cells suggest that IP6 has

  5. Developmental androgenization programs metabolic dysfunction in adult mice: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2014-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports a developmental origin for the metabolic syndrome in the context of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in which the fetal environment programs both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities that will occur in adulthood. To explore the role of developmental androgen excess in programming metabolic dysfunction in adulthood, we reported a mouse model system in which neonates were androgenized with testosterone. We compared female mice with neonatal exposure to testosterone (NTF) with control females (CF), control males (CM), and male mice with neonatal testosterone exposure (NTM). NTF develop many of the features of metabolic syndrome observed in women with PCOS. These features include increased food intake and lean mass, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, decreased osteocalcin activity, insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, and hypertension. NTF also develop a novel form of leptin resistance independent of STAT3. In contrast, littermate NTM develop a phenotype of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with decreased lean mass and food intake. These NTM mice exhibit subcutaneous adiposity without cardiometabolic alterations. We discuss the relevance of this mouse model of developmental androgenization to the metabolic syndrome and its clinical implications to human metabolic diseases.

  6. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Salivary Gland Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Watson, Philip A.; Ho, Alan L.; Morris, Luc G. T.

    2017-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers comprise a small subset of human malignancies, and are classified into multiple subtypes that exhibit diverse histology, molecular biology and clinical presentation. Local disease is potentially curable with surgery, which may be combined with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, metastatic or unresectable tumors rarely respond to chemotherapy and carry a poorer prognosis. Recent molecular studies have shown evidence of androgen receptor signaling in several types of salivary gland cancer, mainly salivary duct carcinoma. Successful treatment with anti-androgen therapy in other androgen receptor-positive malignancies such as prostate and breast cancer has inspired researchers to investigate this treatment in salivary gland cancer as well. In this review, we describe the prevalence, biology, and therapeutic implications of androgen receptor signaling in salivary gland cancer. PMID:28208703

  7. Adolescent androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent androgenic alopecia is pattern hair loss occurring in boys and girls younger than 18 years, whereas early-onset androgenic alopecia refers to pattern hair loss before 35 years of age. A number of studies published in the last decade have helped to elucidate the prevalence of adolescent androgenic alopecia, have clarified the genetic as well as physiologic mechanisms underlying hair loss, and have revealed the associated psychologic and systemic morbidities. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent androgenic alopecia.

  8. Hormone control and expression of androgen receptor coregulator MAGE-11 in human endometrium during the window of receptivity to embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suxia; Grossman, Gail; Yuan, Lingwen; Lessey, Bruce A; French, Frank S; Young, Steven L; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2008-02-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the male and female reproductive tracts whose activity is modulated by coregulator binding. We recently identified melanoma antigen gene protein-11 (MAGE-11) of the MAGEA gene family that functions as an AR coregulator by binding the AR N-terminal FXXLF motif. Here we report that MAGE-11 is expressed in a temporal fashion in endometrium of normally cycling women. Highest levels of MAGE-11 mRNA and protein occur in the mid-secretory stage, coincident with the window of uterine receptivity to embryo implantation. Studies in human endometrial cell lines together with the hormone profile of the menstrual cycle and pattern of estrogen receptor-alpha expression in cycling endometrium suggest the rise in MAGE-11 mRNA results from down-regulation by estradiol during the proliferative phase and up-regulation by cyclic AMP signaling in the early and mid-secretory stage. In agreement with its coregulatory function, MAGE-11 localizes with AR in glandular epithelial cell nuclei in the mid-secretory stage. The increase in AR protein in the mid-secretory endometrium without an increase in AR mRNA suggests MAGE-11 stabilizes AR in glandular epithelial cell nuclei. This was supported by expression studies at low androgen levels indicating AR stabilization by MAGE-11 dependent on the AR N-terminal transactivation domain. The results suggest that MAGE-11 functions as a coregulator that increases AR transcriptional activity during the establishment of uterine receptivity in the human female.

  9. Differential Efficacy of Combined Therapy With Radiation and AEE788 in High and Low EGFR-Expressing Androgen-Independent Prostate Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Huamani, Jessica; Willey, Christopher; Thotala, Dinesh; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Reyzer, Michelle; Leavitt, Lauren; Jones, Cameron; Fleishcher, Arthur; Caprioli, Richard; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Kim, Dong Wook Nathan

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of combining radiation (XRT) with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, AEE788, in prostate cancer models with different levels of EGFR expression. Methods and Materials: Immunoblotting was performed for EGFR, phosphorylated-EGFR, and phosphorylated-AKT in prostate cancer cells. Clonogenic assays were performed on DU145, PC-3, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with XRT {+-} AEE788. Tumor xenografts were established for DU145 and PC-3 on hind limbs of athymic nude mice assigned to four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) AEE788, (3) XRT, and (4) AEE788 + XRT. Tumor blood flow and growth measurements were performed using immunohistochemistry and imaging. Results: AEE788 effectively decreased phosphorylated-EGFR and phosphorylated-AKT levels in DU145 and PC-3 cells. Clonogenic assays showed no radiosensitization for DU145 and PC-3 colonies treated with AEE788 + XRT. However, AEE788 caused decreased proliferation in DU145 cells. AEE788 showed a radiosensitization effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and increased apoptosis susceptibility. Concurrent AEE788 + XRT compared with either alone led to significant tumor growth delay in DU145 tumors. Conversely, PC-3 tumors derived no added benefit from combined-modality therapy. In DU145 tumors, a significant decrease in tumor blood flow with combination therapy was shown by using power Doppler sonography and tumor blood vessel destruction on immunohistochemistry. Maldi-spectrometry (MS) imaging showed that AEE788 is bioavailable and heterogeneously distributed in DU145 tumors undergoing therapy. Conclusions: AEE788 + XRT showed efficacy in vitro/in vivo with DU145-based cell models, whereas PC-3-based models were adequately treated with XRT alone without added benefit from combination therapy. These findings correlated with differences in EGFR expression and showed effects on both tumor cell

  10. 6-(3,4-Dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-yl)-N-(6-methoxypyridine-2-yl) nicotinamide-26 (DIMN-26) decreases cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis and downregulation of androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Eun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Leem, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Soo-Dong; Cho, Won-Jea; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2016-12-25

    Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex. DIMN-26 also induced apoptosis in LNCap-LN3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In addition, DIMN-26 caused the dephosphorylation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bad protein and induced the loss of mitochondria membrane potential, consequently releasing cytochrome c into the cytosol of the cell. Furthermore, overexpression of AKT protein significantly reduced DIMN-26-induced PARP-1 cleavage and p-Bad decrease and cdc2 activation. In addition, DIMN-26 inhibited the 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced cell growth and proliferation and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these findings, DIMN-26 significantly inhibited the DHT-induced expression of AR-response genes (ARGs), such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AR, β2-microglobulin (B2M), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DIMN-26 plays a therapeutic role not only in induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis but also in suppression of androgen receptor signaling in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

  11. A G577R mutation in the human AR P box results in selective decreases in DNA binding and in partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D; Steinberg, S V; Rouault, E; Chagnon, S; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M; Mader, S

    2001-10-01

    We have characterized a novel mutation of the human AR, G577R, associated with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. G577 is the first amino acid of the P box, a region crucial for the selectivity of receptor/DNA interaction. Although the equivalent amino acid in the GR (also Gly) is not involved in DNA interaction, the residue at the same position in the ER (Glu) interacts with the two central base pairs in the PuGGTCA motif. Using a panel of 16 palindromic probes that differ in these base pairs (PuGNNCA) in gel shift experiments with either the AR DNA-binding domain or the full length receptor, we observed that the G577R mutation does not induce binding to probes that are not recognized by the wild-type AR. However, binding to the four PuGNACA elements recognized by the wild-type AR was affected to different degrees, resulting in an altered selectivity of DNA response element recognition. In particular, AR-G577R did not interact with PuGGACA palindromes. Modeling of the complex between mutant AR and PuGNACA motifs indicates that the destabilizing effect of the mutation is attributable to a steric clash between the C beta of Arg at position 1 of the P box and the methyl group of the second thymine residue in the TGTTCPy arm of the palindrome. In addition, the Arg side chain can interact with G or T at the next position (PuGCACA and PuGAACA elements, respectively). The presence of C is not favorable, however, because of incompatible charges, abrogating binding to the PuGGACA element. Transactivation of several natural or synthetic promoters containing PuGGACA motifs was drastically reduced by the G577R mutation. These data suggest that androgen target genes may be differentially affected by the G577R mutation, the first natural mutation characterized that alters the selectivity of the AR/DNA interaction. This type of mutation may thus contribute to the diversity of phenotypes associated with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.

  12. Adenosine induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell lines, LNcap-FGC-10, DU-145, and PC3.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Mahmoud; Karami-Tehrani, Fatemeh; Panjehpour, Mojtaba; Salami, Siamak; Fallahian, Faranak

    2012-03-01

    Adenosine has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in the several cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. The present study was designed to understand the mechanism underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis in the DU-145, PC3, and LNcap-FGC10 human prostate cancer cells. To observe cell viability and proliferation, MTT assay, cell counting, and BrdU assay were carried out in DU-145, PC3, and LNcap-FGC10 cells. Apoptosis was assessed with the analysis of cell cycle, Hoechst 33258 staining, propidium iodide and annexin-V staining, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) measurement, caspase-3 activity assay, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression. Moreover, the expression of adenosine receptors and the effects of adenosine receptor (A(1) , A(2a) , and A(3) ) antagonists were examined. Adenosine significantly reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in DU-145, PC3, and LNcap-FGC10 cell lines. Adenosine induced arrest in the cell-cycle progression in G0/G1 phase through Cdk4/cyclinD1-mediated pathway. Adenosine induced apoptosis, which was determined by morphological changes and increased sub-G1 population. Furthermore, increase of ROS, loss of MMP, activation of caspase-3, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression was observed. A(1) , A(2a) , A(2b) , and A(3) adenosine receptors mRNA are expressed in the cell lines. Moreover, adenosine-induced apoptosis was inhibited by MRS1220, A(3) adenosine receptor antagonist. Our results suggest that adenosine induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway and is related to the adenosine receptors. These data might suggest that adenosine could be used as an agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Inhibitor of p52 NF-κB subunit and androgen receptor (AR) interaction reduces growth of human prostate cancer cells by abrogating nuclear translocation of p52 and phosphorylated ARser81

    PubMed Central

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Church, Dawn R.; Schreiber, Cynthia L.; Weichmann, Ashley M.; Basu, Hirak S.; Wilding, George

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that androgen receptor (AR) activation and signaling plays a key role in growth and progression in all stages of prostate cancer, even under low androgen levels or in the absence of androgen in the castration-resistant prostate cancer. Sustained activation of AR under androgen-deprived conditions may be due to its interaction with co-activators, such as p52 NF-κB subunit, and/or an increase in its stability by phosphorylation that delays its degradation. Here we identified a specific inhibitor of AR/p52 interaction, AR/p52-02, via a high throughput screen based on the reconstitution of Gaussia Luciferase. We found that AR/p52-02 markedly inhibited growth of both castration-resistant C4-2 (IC50 ∼6 μM) and parental androgen-dependent LNCaP (IC50 ∼4 μM) human prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. Growth inhibition was associated with significantly reduced nuclear p52 levels and DNA binding activity, as well as decreased phosphorylation of AR at serine 81, increased AR ubiquitination, and decreased AR transcriptional activity as indicated by decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels in both cell lines. AR/p52-02 also caused a reduction in levels of p21WAF/CIP1, which is a direct AR targeted gene in that its expression correlates with androgen stimulation and mitogenic proliferation in prostate cancer under physiologic levels of androgen, likely by disrupting the AR signaling axis. The reduced level of cyclinD1 reported previously for this compound may be due to the reduction in nuclear presence and activity of p52, which directly regulates cyclinD1 expression, as well as the reduction in p21WAF/CIP1, since p21WAF/CIP1 is reported to stabilize nuclear cyclinD1 in prostate cancer. Overall, the data suggest that specifically inhibiting the interaction of AR with p52 and blocking activity of p52 and pARser81 may be an effective means of reducing castration-resistant prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:26622945

  14. Inhibitor of p52 NF-κB subunit and androgen receptor (AR) interaction reduces growth of human prostate cancer cells by abrogating nuclear translocation of p52 and phosphorylated AR(ser81).

    PubMed

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Church, Dawn R; Schreiber, Cynthia L; Weichmann, Ashley M; Basu, Hirak S; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that androgen receptor (AR) activation and signaling plays a key role in growth and progression in all stages of prostate cancer, even under low androgen levels or in the absence of androgen in the castration-resistant prostate cancer. Sustained activation of AR under androgen-deprived conditions may be due to its interaction with co-activators, such as p52 NF-κB subunit, and/or an increase in its stability by phosphorylation that delays its degradation. Here we identified a specific inhibitor of AR/p52 interaction, AR/p52-02, via a high throughput screen based on the reconstitution of Gaussia Luciferase. We found that AR/p52-02 markedly inhibited growth of both castration-resistant C4-2 (IC50 ∼6 μM) and parental androgen-dependent LNCaP (IC50 ∼4 μM) human prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. Growth inhibition was associated with significantly reduced nuclear p52 levels and DNA binding activity, as well as decreased phosphorylation of AR at serine 81, increased AR ubiquitination, and decreased AR transcriptional activity as indicated by decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels in both cell lines. AR/p52-02 also caused a reduction in levels of p21(WAF/CIP1), which is a direct AR targeted gene in that its expression correlates with androgen stimulation and mitogenic proliferation in prostate cancer under physiologic levels of androgen, likely by disrupting the AR signaling axis. The reduced level of cyclinD1 reported previously for this compound may be due to the reduction in nuclear presence and activity of p52, which directly regulates cyclinD1 expression, as well as the reduction in p21(WAF/CIP1), since p21(WAF/CIP1) is reported to stabilize nuclear cyclinD1 in prostate cancer. Overall, the data suggest that specifically inhibiting the interaction of AR with p52 and blocking activity of p52 and pARser81 may be an effective means of reducing castration-resistant prostate cancer cell growth.

  15. Prolonged treatment with bicalutamide induces androgen receptor overexpression and androgen hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Hiromitsu; Ishikura, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Miho; Nishimoto, Ayako; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Aoki, Yuko

    2010-05-15

    Various hormone refractory prostate cancer cell models have been established with androgen depletion and have helped to clarify the mechanism for the transition into androgen-depletion independent status. However, the mechanism of bicalutamide resistance remains unclear because few cell models have been generated. We generated a bicalutamide-resistant subline, LNCaP-BC2, from LNCaP after prolonged treatment with bicalutamide. Androgen and/or bicalutamide responsiveness for proliferation and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion were examined in vitro and in vivo. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in xenografted tumors were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation and amplification and AR and pAR(210) expression were determined. LNCaP-BC2 did not grow in an androgen-depleted medium and proliferation was stimulated in a tenfold lower concentration of androgen than that of LNCaP. LNCaP-BC2 grew in castrated male mice, and the DHT level in grafted LNCaP-BC2 tumors was 7.7-fold lower than in LNCaP tumors. Bicalutamide stimulated LNCaP-BC2 proliferation and PSA secretion in vitro and the antitumor activity of bicalutamide against LNCaP-BC2 was weaker than that of LNCaP in vivo. Additional AR mutation and AR gene amplification were not detected in LNCaP-BC2, but AR and pAR(210) expression and PSA secretion in LNCaP-BC2 were higher than in LNCaP. Bicalutamide-resistant LNCaP-BC2 exhibited AR overexpression and hypersensitivity to low levels of androgen. Our data suggests that AR overexpression is a significant mechanism of bicalutamide resistance similar to resistance from chronic androgen depletion. In addition, pAR(210) overexpression could be a potential mechanism for hypersensitivity to low androgen in LNCaP-BC2.

  16. The value of integrating pre-clinical data to predict nausea and vomiting risk in humans as illustrated by AZD3514, a novel androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Grant, Claire; Ewart, Lorna; Muthas, Daniel; Deavall, Damian; Smith, Simon A; Clack, Glen; Newham, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are components of a complex mechanism that signals food avoidance and protection of the body against the absorption of ingested toxins. This response can also be triggered by pharmaceuticals. Predicting clinical nausea and vomiting liability for pharmaceutical agents based on pre-clinical data can be problematic as no single animal model is a universal predictor. Moreover, efforts to improve models are hampered by the lack of translational animal and human data in the public domain. AZD3514 is a novel, orally-administered compound that inhibits androgen receptor signaling and down-regulates androgen receptor expression. Here we have explored the utility of integrating data from several pre-clinical models to predict nausea and vomiting in the clinic. Single and repeat doses of AZD3514 resulted in emesis, salivation and gastrointestinal disturbances in the dog, and inhibited gastric emptying in rats after a single dose. AZD3514, at clinically relevant exposures, induced dose-responsive "pica" behaviour in rats after single and multiple daily doses, and induced retching and vomiting behaviour in ferrets after a single dose. We compare these data with the clinical manifestation of nausea and vomiting encountered in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving AZD3514. Our data reveal a striking relationship between the pre-clinical observations described and the experience of nausea and vomiting in the clinic. In conclusion, the emetic nature of AZD3514 was predicted across a range of pre-clinical models, and the approach presented provides a valuable framework for predicition of clinical nausea and vomiting.

  17. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    PubMed

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  18. Postnatal penile growth concurrent with mini-puberty predicts later sex-typed play behavior: Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Thankamony, Ajay; Hines, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    The masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on human neurobehavioral development are well established. Also, the early postnatal surge of androgens in male infants, or mini-puberty, has been well documented and is known to influence physiological development, including penile growth. However, neurobehavioral effects of androgen exposure during mini-puberty are largely unknown. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate possible neurobehavioral consequences of mini-puberty by relating penile growth in the early postnatal period to subsequent behavior. Using multiple linear regression, we demonstrated that penile growth between birth and three months postnatal, concurrent with mini-puberty, significantly predicted increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior assessed using the Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) in 81 healthy boys at 3 to 4years of age. When we controlled for other potential influences on masculine/feminine behavior and/or penile growth, including variance in androgen exposure prenatally and body growth postnally, the predictive value of penile growth in the early postnatal period persisted. More specifically, prenatal androgen exposure, reflected in the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), and early postnatal androgen exposure, reflected in penile growth from birth to 3months, were significant predictors of increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior, with each accounting for unique variance. Our findings suggest that independent associations of PSAI with AGD at birth and with penile growth during mini-puberty reflect prenatal and early postnatal androgen exposures respectively. Thus, we provide a novel and readily available approach for assessing effects of early androgen exposures, as well as novel evidence that early postnatal aes human neurobehavioral development.

  19. Methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites near the polymorphic CAG repeat in the human androgen-receptor gene correlates with X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R C; Zoghbi, H Y; Moseley, A B; Rosenblatt, H M; Belmont, J W

    1992-01-01

    The human androgen-receptor gene (HUMARA; GenBank) contains a highly polymorphic trinucleotide repeat in the first exon. We have found that the methylation of HpaII and HhaI sites less than 100 bp away from this polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) correlates with X inactivation. The close proximity of the restriction-enzyme sites to the STR allows the development of a PCR assay that distinguishes between the maternal and paternal alleles and identifies their methylation status. The accuracy of this assay was tested on (a) DNA from hamster/human hybrid cell lines containing either an active or inactive human X chromosome; (b) DNA from normal males and females; and (c) DNA from females showing nonrandom patterns of X inactivation. Data obtained using this assay correlated substantially with those obtained using the PGK, HPRT, and M27 beta probes, which detect X inactivation patterns by Southern blot analysis. In order to demonstrate one application of this assay, we examined X inactivation patterns in the B lymphocytes of potential and obligate carriers of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1281384

  20. Stilbene Induced Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Dimerization: Implications for AR and ARΔLBD-Signalling in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, Wolfgang; Luedeke, Manuel; Azoitei, Anca; Zengerling, Friedemann; Herweg, Alexander; Genze, Felicitas; Schrader, Mark G.; Schrader, Andres J.; Cronauer, Marcus V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD) are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens. Methodology In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV) and (E)-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl)-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS) on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay. Results The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo. Conclusion RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors. PMID:24887556

  1. Expression, purification and primary crystallographic study of human androgen receptor in complex with DNA and coactivator motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Ludidi, Phumzile L.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-10-24

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a DNA-binding and hormone-activated transcription factor that plays critical roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer. The transcriptional function of AR is modulated by intermolecular interactions with DNA elements and coactivator proteins, as well as intramolecular interactions between AR domains; thus, the structural information from the full-length AR or a multi-domain fragment is essential for understanding the molecular basis of AR functions. Here we report the expression and purification of full-length AR protein and of a fragment containing its DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains connected by the hinge region in the presence of its natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone. Crystals of ligand-bound full-length AR and of the AR fragment in complex with DNA elements and coactivator motifs have been obtained and diffracted to low resolutions. These results help establish a foundation for pursuing further crystallographic studies of an AR/DNA complex.

  2. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  3. Comparative genetics. Systematic discovery of cap-independent translation sequences in human and viral genomes.

    PubMed

    Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Elias-Kirma, Shani; Nir, Ronit; Gritsenko, Alexey A; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Yakhini, Zohar; Weinberger, Adina; Segal, Eran

    2016-01-15

    To investigate gene specificity at the level of translation in both the human genome and viruses, we devised a high-throughput bicistronic assay to quantify cap-independent translation. We uncovered thousands of novel cap-independent translation sequences, and we provide insights on the landscape of translational regulation in both humans and viruses. We find extensive translational elements in the 3' untranslated region of human transcripts and the polyprotein region of uncapped RNA viruses. Through the characterization of regulatory elements underlying cap-independent translation activity, we identify potential mechanisms of secondary structure, short sequence motif, and base pairing with the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Furthermore, we systematically map the 18S rRNA regions for which reverse complementarity enhances translation. Thus, we make available insights into the mechanisms of translational control in humans and viruses.

  4. Nuclear exclusion of the androgen receptor by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Rimler, Avi; Culig, Zoran; Lupowitz, Zippora; Zisapel, Nava

    2002-05-01

    Androgen receptors (AR) play a crucial role in androgen-mediated processes and prostate cancer progression. The pineal hormone melatonin attenuates the androgen-dependent growth of benign and cancer prostate epithelial cells in vitro and may reverse clinical resistance to androgen ablation therapy in patients progressing on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Where along the AR cascade does melatonin act remains to be determined. The effects of melatonin on AR localization, level and activity were assessed using androgen-insensitive prostate carcinoma PC3 cells stably transfected with a wild-type AR-expressing vector (PC3-AR).AR was localized to the PC3-AR cell nucleus in the absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Melatonin caused a robust exclusion of the AR from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B prevented this process. The exclusion was selective since melatonin had no such effect on the nuclear localization of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) in these cells. Melatonin also caused nuclear exclusion of the AR in the presence of DHT. In addition, it attenuated androgen induced reporter gene activity in PC3 cells co-transfected with the human AR and AR reporter plasmids. Elevated androgen concentrations counteracted melatonin's effects. Melatonin did not decrease AR level or androgen binding in the cells. The nuclear localization of the AR is a hallmark of its cellular activity. These data point to AR nuclear exclusion as a possible mechanism to attenuate androgen responses in target tissues.

  5. Androgen therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Jacques

    2003-11-01

    The physiological role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) is poorly understood. It depends in a large part on their transformation into testosterone and estradiol. The capacity of DHEA as a neurosteroid, the recent discovery of putative specific DHEA receptors on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, the steady decrease of DHEA production from the 40s on, together with certain human epidemiologic data as well as various beneficial effects of DHA supplementation in rodents have suggested the possibility that this steroid is involved in cognitive and memory, metabolic and vascular, immune and sexual functions and in their aging. However, epidemiologic studies are conflicting, and no well-designed clinical trials have definitely substantiated the role of DHEA in these functions in humans, or the utility and safety of DHEA supplementation. However, beneficial effects seem plausible in women with several conditions according to the results of double-blind placebo-controlled trials: the dose of 30 to 50 mg seems beneficial to the mood, sense of well being and sexual desire and activity of women with adrenal insufficiency. The only long-term trial of supplementation devoted to women over 60 reported significant increases in bone mineral density and, in the 70-79-year-old subgroup, in sexual desire, arousal, activity and satisfaction. The dose of 200 mg also proved to decrease disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lastly, high DHEA doses have improved mood in various groups of patients of any age and gender with depressive symptoms. The use of DHEA therapy may also be discussed in women of any age when a trial of androgen supplementation seems justified because of the existence of an inhibited sexual desire or a sexual arousal disorder associated with documented androgen deficiency. The rather weak conversion of DHEA into testosterone protects from the risk of overdosing associated with testosterone preparations. However, it must

  6. Pyridine analogues of curcumin exhibit high activity for inhibiting CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell growth and androgen receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, DAI-YING; ZHAO, SU-QING; DU, ZHI-YUN; ZHENG, XI; ZHANG, KUN

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations required for curcumin to exert its anticancer activity (IC50, 20 µM) are difficult to achieve in the blood plasma of patients, due to the low bioavailability of the compound. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to the development of curcumin analogues that exhibit stronger anticancer activity and a lower IC50 than curcumin. The present study investigated twelve pyridine analogues of curcumin, labeled as groups AN, BN, EN and FN, to determine their effects in CWR-22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on testosterone (TT)-induced androgen receptor (AR) activity was determined by performing an AR-linked luciferase assay and by TT-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen. The results of the current study suggested that the FN group of analogues had the strongest inhibitory effect of growth on CWR-22Rv1 cultured cells, and were the most potent inhibitor of AR activity compared with curcumin, and the AN, BN and EN analogues. Thus, the results of the present study indicate the inhibition of the AR pathways as a potential mechanism for the anticancer effect of curcumin analogues in human prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin analogues with pyridine as a distal ring and tetrahydrothiopyran-4-one as a linker may be good candidates for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer, by targeting the AR signaling pathway. PMID:27313760

  7. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Brouwer, Abraham; Hedegaard, Morten; Loft, Steffen; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Besselink, Harrie; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2010-05-01

    In utero exposure to environmental dioxin-like, estrogen and androgen compounds can cause adverse health effects. Little is known about potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens and androgens during fetal development in humans. Therefore we explored the potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens, androgens using chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(R) bioassays in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section from 98 healthy pregnancies. The dioxin-like activity was also determined after placental transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion system. Similar dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood (37 versus 33pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids, P>0.05) was detected and it demonstrates transplacental transfer. Increased dioxin-like activity in the perfused placenta tissue after ex vivo TCDD perfusions (from 17 to 280pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids) suggest that accumulation in the placenta prevents immediate transplacental transfer of TCDD. Androgenic activity were also similar in the paired mother-newborns (0.10 versus 0.18ng CALUX(R)-AEQ/mL plasma), whereas cord blood plasma estrogenic activity was higher than maternal levels (22.6 versus 18.5ng CALUX(R)-EEQ/mL plasma). In cord blood plasma androgenic activity was strongly positively associated with maternal levels (Rs=0.8, P<0.001) whereas dioxin-like and estrogenic activities were modestly associated with maternal levels (Rsindependently of other recorded factors (Rs=0.4, P<0.003). This study demonstrated interactions in vivo between dioxin-like, estrogenic and androgenic exposures during fetal development of humans.

  8. Clostridium scindens: a human gut microbe with a high potential to convert glucocorticoids into androgens[S

    PubMed Central

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Alves, João M. P.; Zhou, Biao; Kobayashi, Akiko; Iida, Takashi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Tanabe, Genzoh; Serrano, Myrna; De Guzman, Ainee; Cooper, Patsy; Buck, Gregory A.; Hylemon, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium scindens American Type Culture Collection 35704 is capable of converting primary bile acids to toxic secondary bile acids, as well as converting glucocorticoids to androgens by side-chain cleavage. The molecular structure of the side-chain cleavage product of cortisol produced by C. scindens was determined to be 11β-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (11β-OHA) by high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Using RNA-Seq technology, we identified a cortisol-inducible (∼1,000-fold) operon (desABCD) encoding at least one enzyme involved in anaerobic side-chain cleavage. The desC gene was cloned, overexpressed, purified, and found to encode a 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH). This operon also encodes a putative “transketolase” (desAB) hypothesized to have steroid-17,20-desmolase/oxidase activity, and a possible corticosteroid transporter (desD). RNA-Seq data suggests that the two-carbon side chain of glucocorticords may feed into the pentose-phosphate pathway and are used as a carbon source. The 20α-HSDH is hypothesized to function as a metabolic “rheostat” controlling rates of side-chain cleavage. Phylogenetic analysis suggests this operon is rare in nature and the desC gene evolved from a gene encoding threonine dehydrogenase. The physiological effect of 11β-OHAD on the host or other gut microbes is currently unknown. PMID:23772041

  9. Nrdp1-mediated regulation of ErbB3 expression by the androgen receptor in androgen-dependent but not castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liqun; Siddiqui, Salma; Bose, Swagata; Mooso, Benjamin; Asuncion, Alfredo; Bedolla, Roble G.; Vinall, Ruth; Tepper, Clifford G.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Shi, XuBao; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Siddiqui, Javed; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Mehra, Rohit; deVere White, Ralph W.; Carraway, Kermit L.; Ghosh, Paramita M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) are initially susceptible to androgen withdrawal (AW), but ultimately develop resistance to this therapy (castration-resistant PCa, CRPC). Here we show that AW can promote CRPC development by increasing the levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ErbB3 in androgen-dependent PCa, resulting in AW-resistant cell cycle progression and increased androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity. CRPC cell lines and human prostate cancer tissue overexpressed ErbB3, whereas downregulation of ErbB3 prevented CRPC cell growth. Investigation of the mechanism by which AW augments ErbB3, using normal prostate derived pRNS-1-1 cells, and androgen-dependent PCa lines LNCaP, PC346C and CWR22 mouse xenografts, revealed that the AR suppresses ErbB3 protein levels, while AW relieves this suppression, demonstrating for the first time negative regulation of ErbB3 by AR. We show that AR activation promotes ErbB3 degradation in androgen-dependent cells, and that this effect is mediated by AR-dependent transcriptional upregulation of Nrdp1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets ErbB3 for degradation but whose role in PCa has not been previously examined. Therefore, AW decreases Nrdp1 expression, promoting ErbB3 protein accumulation, and leading to AR-independent proliferation. However, in CRPC sublines of LNCaP and CWR22 which strongly overexpress the AR, ErbB3 levels remain elevated due to constitutive suppression of Nrdp1, which prevents AR regulation of Nrdp1. Our observations point to a model of CRPC development where progression of PCa to castration-resistance is associated with the inability of AR to transcriptionally regulate Nrdp1, and predict that inhibition of ErbB3 during AW may impair CRPC development. PMID:20587519

  10. Nrdp1-mediated regulation of ErbB3 expression by the androgen receptor in androgen-dependent but not castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqun; Siddiqui, Salma; Bose, Swagata; Mooso, Benjamin; Asuncion, Alfredo; Bedolla, Roble G; Vinall, Ruth; Tepper, Clifford G; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Shi, Xubao; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Siddiqui, Javed; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Mehra, Rohit; Devere White, Ralph W; Carraway, Kermit L; Ghosh, Paramita M

    2010-07-15

    Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) are initially susceptible to androgen withdrawal (AW), but ultimately develop resistance to this therapy (castration-resistant PCa, CRPC). Here, we show that AW can promote CRPC development by increasing the levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3 in androgen-dependent PCa, resulting in AW-resistant cell cycle progression and increased androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity. CRPC cell lines and human PCa tissue overexpressed ErbB3, whereas downregulation of ErbB3 prevented CRPC cell growth. Investigation of the mechanism by which AW augments ErbB3, using normal prostate-derived pRNS-1-1 cells, and androgen-dependent PCa lines LNCaP, PC346C, and CWR22 mouse xenografts, revealed that the AR suppresses ErbB3 protein levels, whereas AW relieves this suppression, showing for the first time the negative regulation of ErbB3 by AR. We show that AR activation promotes ErbB3 degradation in androgen-dependent cells, and that this effect is mediated by AR-dependent transcriptional upregulation of neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets ErbB3 for degradation but whose role in PCa has not been previously examined. Therefore, AW decreases Nrdp1 expression, promoting ErbB3 protein accumulation, and leading to AR-independent proliferation. However, in CRPC sublines of LNCaP and CWR22, which strongly overexpress the AR, ErbB3 levels remain elevated due to constitutive suppression of Nrdp1, which prevents AR regulation of Nrdp1. Our observations point to a model of CRPC development in which progression of PCa to castration resistance is associated with the inability of AR to transcriptionally regulate Nrdp1, and predict that inhibition of ErbB3 during AW may impair CRPC development.

  11. Sex bias in CNS autoimmune disease mediated by androgen control of autoimmune regulator

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Bakhru, Pearl; Conley, Bridget; Nelson, Jennifer S.; Free, Meghan; Martin, Aaron; Starmer, Joshua; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Su, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Male gender is protective against multiple sclerosis and other T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. This protection may be due, in part, to higher androgen levels in males. Androgen binds to the androgen receptor (AR) to regulate gene expression, but how androgen protects against autoimmunity is not well understood. Autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity by promoting self-antigen expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells, such that developing T cells that recognize these self-antigens within the thymus undergo clonal deletion. Here we show that androgen upregulates Aire-mediated thymic tolerance to protect against autoimmunity. Androgen recruits AR to Aire promoter regions, with consequent enhancement of Aire transcription. In mice and humans, thymic Aire expression is higher in males compared with females. Androgen administration and male gender protect against autoimmunity in a multiple sclerosis mouse model in an Aire-dependent manner. Thus, androgen control of an intrathymic Aire-mediated tolerance mechanism contributes to gender differences in autoimmunity. PMID:27072778

  12. Androgens induce sebaceous differentiation in sebocyte cells expressing a stable functional androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Barrault, Christine; Garnier, Julien; Pedretti, Nathalie; Cordier-Dirikoc, Sevda; Ratineau, Emeline; Deguercy, Alain; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Androgens act through non-genomic and androgen receptor (AR)-dependent genomic mechanisms. AR is expressed in the sebaceous gland and the importance of androgens in the sebaceous function is well established. However, the in vitro models used to date have failed to evidence a clear genomic effect (e.g., modification of gene expression profile) of androgens on human sebocyte cells. In order to study the impact of active androgens in sebocytes, we constructed a stable human sebocyte cell line derived from SEBO662 [17] constitutively expressing a fully functional AR. In these SEBO662 AR+ cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced AR nuclear translocation and the strong modulation of a set of transcripts (RASD1, GREB1...) known to be androgen-sensitive in other androgenic cells and tissues. Moreover, we observed that DHT precociously down-regulated markers for immature follicular cells (KRT15, TNC) and for hair lineage (KRT75, FST) and up-regulated the expression of genes potentially related to sebocyte differentiation (MUC1/EMA, AQP3, FADS2). These effects were fully confirmed at the protein level. In addition, DHT-stimulated SEBO662 AR+, cultured in a low-calcium defined keratinocyte medium without serum or any complement, neosynthesize lipids, including sebum lipids, and store increased amounts of triglycerides in lipid droplets. DHT also induces morphological changes, increases cell size, and treatments over 7 days lead to a time-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic DNA-fragmented cells. Taken together, these results show for the first time that active androgens alone can engage immature sebocytes in a clear lipogenic differentiation process (Graphical abstract). These effects depend on the expression of a functional AR in these cells. This model should be of interest for revisiting the mechanisms of the sebaceous function in vitro and for the design of relevant pharmacological models for drug or compound testing.

  13. An androgen response element driven reporter assay for the detection of androgen receptor activity in prostate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hellem, Margrete Reime; Olsen, Jan Roger; Hua, Yaping; Marvyin, Kristo; Qu, Yi; Lin, Biaoyang; Ke, Xisong; Øyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl-Henning

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor plays a key role in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as is evident from the efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy, AR is also the most frequently mutated gene, in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR has therefore become an even more attractive therapeutic target in aggressive and disseminated prostate cancer. To investigate mechanisms of AR and AR target gene activation in different subpopulations of prostate cancer cells, a toolkit of AR expressor and androgen response element (ARE) reporter vectors were developed. Three ARE reporter vectors were constructed with different ARE consensus sequences in promoters linked to either fluorescence or luciferase reporter genes in lentiviral vector backbones. Cell lines transduced with the different vectors expressed the reporters in an androgen-dependent way according to fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and multi-well fluorescent and luminescence assays. Interestingly, the background reporter activity in androgen-depleted medium was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to the prostate transit amplifying epithelial cell lines, EP156T-AR and 957E/hTERT-AR with exogenous AR. The androgen-induced signal to background was much higher in the latter benign prostate cells than in LNCaP cells. Androgen-independent nuclear localization of AR was seen in LNCaP cells and reduced ARE-signaling was seen following treatment with abiraterone, an androgen synthesis inhibitor. The ARE reporter activity was significantly stronger when stimulated by androgens than by β-estradiol, progesterone and dexamethasone in all tested cell types. Finally, no androgen-induced ARE reporter activity was observed in tumorigenic mesenchymal progeny cells of EP156T cells following epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This underscores the observation that expression of the classical luminal differentiation transcriptome is restricted in mesenchymal type cells with

  14. Naïve and Robust: Class-Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning.

    PubMed

    Jarecki, Jana B; Meder, Björn; Nelson, Jonathan D

    2017-06-02

    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model (the dependence-independence structure and category learning model, DISC-LM) that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether or not independence holds, and adapts its behavior accordingly. Theoretical results from two simulation studies demonstrate that classification behavior can appear to start simple, yet adapt effectively to unexpected task structures. Two experiments-designed using optimal experimental design principles-were conducted with human learners. Classification decisions of the majority of participants were best accounted for by a version of the model with very high initial prior belief in class-conditional independence, before adapting to the true environmental structure. Class-conditional independence may be a strong and useful default assumption in category learning tasks. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mongan, Nigel P; Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Bunch, Trevor; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2015-08-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) results from androgen receptor dysfunction and is a common cause of disorder of sex development. The AIS phenotype largely depends on the degree of residual androgen receptor (AR) activity. This review describes the molecular action of androgens and the range of androgen receptor gene mutations, essential knowledge to understand the pathogenesis of the complete and partial forms of this syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for clinical management from infancy through to adulthood. Hormone replacement therapy is needed following gonadectomy. Patients who choose to retain the gonads are at risk of developing germ cell tumors for which sensitive circulating tumor markers may soon become available. Whilst the contribution of AR dysfunction to complete AIS is well understood, the involvement of the AR and associated proteins as contributors to partial AIS is an area of active research. Disorders of sex development such as AIS which are related to AR dysfunction offer a breadth of manifestations for the clinician to manage and opportunities for further research on the mechanism of androgen action.

  16. Do androgens influence hair growth by altering the paracrine factors secreted by dermal papilla cells?

    PubMed

    Randall, V A; Hibberts, N A; Thornton, M J; Merrick, A E; Hamada, K; Kato, S; Jenner, T J; de Oliveira, I; Messenger, A G

    2001-01-01

    Androgens regulate many aspects of human hair growth in both sexes. After puberty they transform tiny vellus follicles in many areas, e.g. the face, to terminal ones producing long, thick, pigmented hairs. In genetically predisposed individuals, androgens also cause the reverse transformation of terminal scalp follicles into vellus ones, causing balding. In the current hypothesis for androgen action, androgens control most follicular cells indirectly acting via the mesenchyme-derived dermal papilla which regulates many aspects of follicular activity. In this model androgens binding to androgen receptors in dermal papilla cells alter their production of regulatory molecules which influence other follicular components; these molecules may be soluble paracrine factors and/or extracellular matrix proteins. This hypothesis is supported by immunohistochemical localisation of androgen receptors in dermal papilla cell nuclei and the demonstrations that androgen receptor content and testosterone metabolism patterns of cultured dermal papilla cells from various body sites reflect hair growth in androgen-insensitivity syndromes. The next question is whether androgens alter the paracrine factors secreted by dermal papilla cells. Cultured dermal papilla cells do release soluble, proteinaceous factors into their media which stimulate the growth of keratinocytes and other dermal papilla cells. This mitogenic potential can cross species from humans to rodents. Importantly, testosterone in vitro stimulates the mitogenic potential of beard cells, but in contrast inhibits production by balding scalp cells reflecting their in vivo androgenic responses. Since androgens in vitro do alter the secretion of paracrine factors the current focus lies in identifying specific factors produced, e.g. IGF-I and stem cell factor (SCF), using ELISA and RT-PCR, and comparing their expression in cells from follicles with varying responses to androgens in vivo or under androgen stimulation in vitro

  17. Ligand Activation of the Androgen Receptor Downregulates E-Cadherin-Mediated Cell Adhesion and Promotes Apoptosis of Prostatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Joanna; Chaudhary, Khurram S; Abel, Paul D; Stubbs, Andrew P; Romanska, Hanna M; Mitchell, Stephen E; Stamp, Gordon W H; Lalani, El-Nasir

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Androgen independence is the major cause of endocrine therapy failure in advanced prostate cancer (PC). To examine the effects of human androgen receptor (AR) expression on growth of human PC cells, transfection of full-length AR cDNA in an androgen-insensitive human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line (DU145) was performed. Transcriptional activity of AR was confirmed by the MMTV luciferase assay and AR expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry. Two stable transfectant cell lines expressing functional AR were established and passaged over 60 times. Under standard culture conditions, AR expression in transfected cells was predominantly cytoplasmic. Exposure to dihydrotestosterone (DHT; 60 pM-10 nM) resulted in a rapid (maximal at 30 minutes) translocation of AR to the nucleus. Treatment with DHT (5 nM) caused a significant reduction in cell-cell adhesion and aggregation accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin expression. This was associated with up to 40% inhibition of proliferation and approximately two-fold increase in apoptosis. These results suggest that gene transfer-mediated AR expression in DU145 cells confers sensitivity to DHT, modulates cell-cell adhesion through E-cadherin, and suppresses cell growth by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis. This provides a model for studies of AR-regulated cell signalling and identification of novel androgen-regulated genes in PC. PMID:14511406

  18. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25 μM of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0 ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples.

  19. Rat androgen-binding protein: evidence for identical subunits and amino acid sequence homology with human sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Joseph, D R; Hall, S H; French, F S

    1987-01-01

    The cDNA for rat androgen-binding protein (ABP) was previously isolated from a bacteriophage lambda gt11 rat testis cDNA library and its identity was confirmed by epitope selection. Hybrid-arrested translation studies have now demonstrated the identity of the isolates. The nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA encodes a 403-amino acid precursor (Mr = 44,539), which agrees in size with the cell-free translation product (Mr = 45,000) of ABP mRNA. Putative sites of N-glycosylation and signal peptide cleavage were identified. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of rat ABP with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of human sex hormone-binding globulin revealed that 17 of 25 residues are identical. On the basis of the predicted amino acid sequence the molecular weight of the primary translation product, lacking the signal peptide, was 41,183. Hybridization analyses indicated that the two subunits of ABP are coded for by a single gene and a single mRNA species. Our results suggest that ABP consists of two subunits with identical primary sequences and that differences in post-translational processing result in the production of 47,000 and 41,000 molecular weight monomers.

  20. Illicit Use of Androgens and Other Hormones: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Recent findings Androgens and other appearance- and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Summary Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public-health concern. PMID:22450858

  1. Illicit use of androgens and other hormones: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-06-01

    To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Androgens and other appearance-enhancing and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, and clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public health concern.

  2. Kinetic processivity of the two-step oxidations of progesterone and pregnenolone to androgens by human cytochrome P450 17A1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eric; Guengerich, F Peter

    2017-08-11

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 17A1 plays a critical role in steroid metabolism, catalyzing both the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent 17α,20-lyase reactions to form dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (Andro), respectively, critical for generating glucocorticoids and androgens. Human P450 17A1 reaction rates examined are enhanced by the accessory protein cytochrome b5 (b5), but the exact role of b5 in P450 17A1-catalyzed reactions is unclear as are several details of these reactions. Here, we examined in detail the processivity of the 17α-hydroxylation and lyase steps. b5 did not enhance reaction rates by decreasing the koff rates of any of the steroids. Steroid binding to P450 17A1 was more complex than a simple two-state system. Pre-steady-state experiments indicated lag phases for Andro production from progesterone and for DHEA from pregnenolone, indicating a distributive character of the enzyme. However, we observed processivity in pregnenolone/DHEA pulse-chase experiments. (S)-Orteronel was three times more inhibitory toward the conversion of 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to DHEA than toward the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone. IC50 values for (S)-orteronel were identical for blocking DHEA formation from pregnenolone and for 17α-hydroxylation, suggestive of processivity. Global kinetic modeling helped assign sets of rate constants for individual or groups of reactions, indicating that human P450 17A1 is an inherently distributive enzyme but that some processivity is present, i.e. some of the 17α-OH pregnenolone formed from pregnenolone did not dissociate from P450 17A1 before conversion to DHEA. Our results also suggest multiple conformations of P450 17A1, as previously proposed on the basis of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Androgens and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone is the major gonadal sex steroid produced by the testes in men. Testosterone is also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries in women. The adrenal glands produce the weaker androgens dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione. These androgens collectively affect skeletal homeostasis throughout life in both men and women, particularly at puberty and during adult life. Because testosterone can be metabolized to estradiol by the aromatase enzyme, there has been controversy as to which gonadal sex steroid has the greater skeletal effect. The current evidence suggests that estradiol plays a greater role in maintenance of skeletal health than testosterone, but that androgens also have direct beneficial effects on bone. Supraphysiological levels of testosterone likely have similar effects on bone as lower levels via direct interaction with androgen receptors, as well as effects mediated by estrogen receptors after aromatization to estradiol. Whether high doses of synthetic, non-aromatizable androgens may, in fact, be detrimental to bone due to suppression of endogenous testosterone (and estrogen) levels is a potential concern that warrants further study. PMID:18992761

  4. Development of a novel cell based androgen screening model

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Carmela; Rege, Juilee; Turcu, Adina; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Robins, Diane M; Rainey, William E

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the majority of androgen effects on target cells. The DNA cis-regulatory elements that respond to AR share sequence similarity with cis-regulatory elements for glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and progesterone receptors (GR, MR and PR respectively). As a result, many of the current AR screening models are complicated by inaccurate activation of reporters by one of these receptor pathways. Identification of more selective androgen testing systems would be beneficial for clinical, pharmacological and toxicologic screening of AR activators. The present study describes the development of a selective androgen-responsive reporter cell line that expresses AR but does not express GR, MR and PR. CV1 cells were stably transduced to express human AR and an androgen-responsive gaussia luciferase gene. Clonal populations of AR expressing cells were isolated. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and western analysis confirmed stable integration of AR in the most responsive clonal line which was named ‘CV1-ARluc’. Stimulation of CV1AR-luc with androgenic ligands (testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone) for 18 h caused an increase in luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Other steroid hormones including aldosterone, cortisol, and progesterone did not stimulate luciferase response. The CV1-ARluc also increased luciferase activity when treated with human serum extracts. In conclusion, the CV1-ARluc cells provide a novel model system for screening of new AR agonists and antagonists and can determine the androgenic activity of human serum samples. PMID:26581480

  5. Androgen receptor in the Mongolian gerbil ventral prostate: evaluation during different phases of postnatal development and following androgen blockage.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Renato S; Scarano, Wellerson R; Campos, Silvana G P; Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-12-01

    The normal growth, differentiation and maintenance of the morphofunctional integrity of the prostate gland are dependent on the interaction of constant levels of androgens with their receptors. The need to study the responses to hormones under several conditions and the effect of their blockage is due to the fact that the human prostate is the site of a great number of age-related diseases, and the ones with a major medical importance are prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which can both be treated with androgen suppression. Seventy-five male gerbils were divided, randomly, into 3 groups of 25 animals each, where each group corresponded to one phase of postnatal development. In each phase, it was possible to morphologically and stereologically analyze the compartments of prostatic ventral lobe, as well as to immunohistochemically analyze the degree of expression of androgen receptors (ARs) after the androgen blockage therapies. In addition, it was possible to establish the hormonal dosage of serum testosterone levels given the comparative approach of the expression of androgen receptors. There is a pattern of AR distribution in the prostatic ventral lobe throughout postnatal development, in which the younger the animal is the higher, the interaction of circulating androgens that stimulate the AR expression in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. The androgen blockage therapies decreased AR expression in the prostatic compartments, but the androgen reposition after these blockages was not sufficient to recover the glandular structure or stimulate the AR expression up to normal physiological conditions. Both the regulation and distribution of androgen receptors along the gerbil prostatic tissues are complex mechanisms that are likely to be genetically regulated by androgens prenatally or by other factors that are still unknown. This rodent species seems to be a valuable model in the attempt to improve the understanding of the

  6. Differential effects of androgenic and anti-androgenic progestins on fusiform and frontal gray matter volume and face recognition performance.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Kerschbaum, Hubert

    2015-01-30

    Effects of oral hormonal contraceptives (OC) on human brain structure and behavior have only recently become a focus of research. Two explorative reports observed larger regional gray matter (GM) volumes in OC users within the prefrontal cortex, ACC and fusiform gyri, as well as parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus and cerebellum. These studies did however not control for the androgenicity of the progestin compound of OC, did not take into consideration how long OC users had been on their OC, and did not control for age differences between the OC group and the naturally cycling group. We compared 20 naturally cycling women during their early follicular cycle phase to 18 users of OC containing androgenic progestins and 22 users of OC containing anti-androgenic progestins. When controlling for age, we found that in users of anti-androgenic progestins relative GM volumes within the bilateral fusiform gyri, fusiform face area (FFA), parahippocampal place area (PPA) and cerebellum, were significantly larger than in naturally cycling women, while in users of androgenic progestins, relative as well as absolute volumes within the bilateral middle and superior frontal gyri were significantly smaller compared to naturally cycling women. These morphological changes were related to performance in a face recognition task. Face recognition performance was significantly better in users of anti-androgenic progestins compared to the other groups and significantly related to absolute as well as relative GM volumes in the FFA and PPA. Total GM volume, as well as absolute GM volumes within the bilateral fusiform gyri, FFA, hippocampus, parahippocampus, PPA, middle frontal gyri and ACC were significantly larger, the longer the duration of OC use, particularly in users of androgenic progestins. Morphological differences between active and inactive pill phase were observed in users of androgenic progestins. These findings suggest differential effects of androgenic and anti-androgenic

  7. Molecular Alterations in Primary Prostate Cancer After Androgen Ablation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Best, Carolyn J. M.; Gillespie, John W.; Yi, Yajun; Chandramouli, G.V. R.; Perlmutter, Mark A.; Gathright, Yvonne; Erickson, Heidi S.; Georgevich, Lauren; Tangrea, Michael A.; Duray, Paul H.; González, Sergio; Velasco, Alfredo; Linehan, W. Marston; Matusik, Robert J.; Price, Douglas K.; Figg, William D.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Chuaqui, Rodrigo F.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE After an initial response to androgen ablation, most prostate tumors recur, ultimately progressing to highly aggressive androgen independent (AI) cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying progression are not well known, in part due to the rarity of AI samples from primary and metastatic sites. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We compared the gene expression profiles of ten AI primary prostate tumor biopsies with ten primary, untreated androgen-dependent (AD) tumors. Samples were laser capture microdissected, the RNA was amplified, and gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Gene Chips. Differential expression was examined with principle component analysis (PCA) and Student t testing. Analysis of gene ontology was performed with Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) and gene expression data were integrated with genomic alterations with DIfferential Gene locus MAPping (DIGMAP). RESULTS Unsupervised PCA showed that the AD and AI tumors segregated from one another. After filtering the data, 239 differentially expressed genes were identified. Two main gene ontologies were found discordant between AI and AD tumors: macromolecule biosynthesis was down-regulated and cell adhesion up-regulated in AI tumors. Other differentially expressed genes were related to IL-6 signaling, as well as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and hormone response. The DIGMAP analysis identified nine regions of potential chromosomal deletion in the AI tumors including 1p36, 3p21, 6p21, 8p21, 11p15, 11q12, 12q23, 16q12, and 16q21. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these data identify several unique characteristics of AI prostate cancer that may hold potential for the development of targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:16203770

  8. Independent effects of motivation and spatial attention in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Mareike; Rossi, Valentina; Vanlessen, Naomi; Grass, Annika; Schacht, Annekathrin; Pourtois, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Motivation and attention constitute major determinants of human perception and action. Nonetheless, it remains a matter of debate whether motivation effects on the visual cortex depend on the spatial attention system, or rely on independent pathways. This study investigated the impact of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human primary and extrastriate visual cortex by employing a factorial manipulation of the two factors in a cued pattern discrimination task. During stimulus presentation, we recorded event-related potentials and pupillary responses. Motivational relevance increased the amplitudes of the C1 component at ∼70 ms after stimulus onset. This modulation occurred independently of spatial attention effects, which were evident at the P1 level. Furthermore, motivation and spatial attention had independent effects on preparatory activation as measured by the contingent negative variation; and pupil data showed increased activation in response to incentive targets. Taken together, these findings suggest independent pathways for the influence of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human visual cortex.

  9. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan Arwel; Werner, Ralf; Bunch, Trevor; Hiort, Olaf

    2012-10-01

    The androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) fall within the generic category of 46,XY DSD (disorder of sex development) and present as phenotypes associated with complete or partial resistance to the action of androgens. Three categories are recognized: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS). The androgen receptor (AR) is encoded by an 8 exon gene on the X chromosome long arm. More than 800 mutations in the AR gene have been reported in AIS patients (www.androgendb.mcgill.ca/). They are distributed throughout the gene with a preponderance located in the ligand binding domain. The most severe mutations are generally associated with a CAIS phenotype, but the correlation is less defined in PAIS. CAIS presents typically as primary amenorrhoea in an adolescent female and less commonly in infancy with bilateral inguinal/labial swellings due to testes. The differential diagnosis in CAIS is limited, whereas in PAIS, numerous other causes of DSD can also produce the typical phenotype of micropenis, severe hypospadias and bifid scrotum. Management issues in CAIS involve timing of gonadectomy, appropriate hormone replacement therapy and assessment of the need for vaginal dilation or rarely, vaginal surgery. The risk of gonadal germ cell tumor is low during childhood and adolescence but increases in later adulthood. Expert psychological counseling is mandatory to manage the disconnect between chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex and to choreograph the evolving process of disclosure from late childhood through to maturity. It is implicit that management in AIS requires a multidisciplinary team and engagement with patient advocacy groups.

  10. The Stress Response Mediator ATF3 Represses Androgen Signaling by Binding the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Ming; Cui, Hongmei; Chen, Mengqian; Buttyan, Ralph; Hayward, Simon W.; Hai, Tsonwin; Wang, Zhengxin

    2012-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a common mediator of cellular stress response signaling and is often aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer. We report here that ATF3 can directly bind the androgen receptor (AR) and consequently repress AR-mediated gene expression. The ATF3-AR interaction requires the leucine zipper domain of ATF3 that independently binds the DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains of AR, and the interaction prevents AR from binding to cis-acting elements required for expression of androgen-dependent genes while inhibiting the AR N- and C-terminal interaction. The functional consequences of the loss of ATF3 expression include increased transcription of androgen-dependent genes in prostate cancer cells that correlates with increased ability to grow in low-androgen-containing medium and increased proliferative activity of the prostate epithelium in ATF3 knockout mice that is associated with prostatic hyperplasia. Our results thus demonstrate that ATF3 is a novel repressor of androgen signaling that can inhibit AR functions, allowing prostate cells to restore homeostasis and maintain integrity in the face of a broad spectrum of intrinsic and environmental insults. PMID:22665497

  11. Targeting the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Terence W; Ryan, Charles J

    2012-11-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling is critical to the growth and survival of prostate cancer. Although medical castration and antiandrogen therapy can decrease AR activity and lower PSA, castration resistance eventually develops. Recent work exploring the molecular structure and evolution of AR in response to hormonal therapies has revealed novel mechanisms of progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and yielded new targets for drug development. This review focuses on understanding the mechanisms of persistent AR signaling in the castrate environment, and highlights new therapies either currently available or in clinical trials, including androgen synthesis inhibitors and novel direct AR inhibitors.

  12. Measurement of androgens.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Testosterone is the major androgen measured in clinical and research investigations of both men and women. Nevertheless, many other androgens have an important role in the investigation of andrenal and gonadal physiology and pathology. Commercial assays are generally used in clinical laboratories but these have poor precision at low concentrations and poor sensitivity. Extraction assays, described in this chapter, can be much more sensitive and precise. There is interest in measuring free steriods and a steady-state gel filtration method used in the author's laboratory is described. Methods are also provided for the measurement of steroids in saliva and hair.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Androgen Receptor Conformation and Interactions in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Interestingly, however, the dependence of AR transport in the androgen - insensitive LNCaP-C4-2 cells still follows the same dose response to DHT... insensitivity of the LNCaP-C4-2 model would have to originate from true androgen -independence rather than from a heightened response to lower levels...for the intramolecular AF fold. The remaining mutations therefore were not introduced. If the dimerization studies in the androgen - insensitive cell

  14. Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series.

    PubMed

    Shwan, Nzar A A; Louzada, Sandra; Yang, Fengtang; Armour, John A L

    2017-05-01

    The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation (CNV) of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of CNV has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. We use fiber-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to define unexpected complexity in the accompanying rearrangements. These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. PKCα activation down-regulates ATM and radio-sensitizes androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Kang, Ji-Hye; Lerman, Gabriel; Fuks, Zvi; Kolesnick, Richard; Marquez, Victor E.; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that treatment of human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and CWR22-Rv1 with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known protein kinase C (PKC) activator, decreases ATM protein levels, thus de-repressing the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and promoting apoptosis as well as radio-sensitizing these cells.1 Here we show that PKCα mediates the TPA effect on ATM expression, since ATM suppression and apoptosis induced by either TPA or diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone), both inducing PKCα activation,2 are abrogated in LNCaP cells following transfection of a kinase-dead PKCα mutant (KD-PKCα). Similarly, KD-PKCα blocks the apoptotic response elicited by combination of TPA and radiation, whereas expression of constitutively active PKCα is sufficient to sensitize cells to radiation alone, without a need to pre-treat the cells with TPA. These findings identify CS activation as a downstream event of PKCα activity in LNCaP cells. Similar results were obtained in CWR22-Rv1 cells with DAG-lactone treatment. Using the LNCaP orthotopic prostate model it is shown that treatment with TPA or DAG-lactone induces significant reduction in tumor ATM levels coupled with tumor growth delay. Furthermore, while fractionated radiation alone produces significant tumor growth delay, pretreatment with TPA or DAG-lactone significantly potentiates tumor cure. These findings support a model in which activation of PKCα downregulates ATM, thus relieving CS repression by ATM and enhancing apoptosis via ceramide generation. This model may provide a basis for the design of new therapies in prostate cancer. PMID:19029835

  16. Pharmacological studies on androgen suppression in therapy of prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sandow, J; von Rechenberg, W; Engelbart, K

    1988-01-01

    In hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, androgens can be suppressed into the castrate range by LHRH agonists. Testosterone secretion is blocked at two levels: testicular androgens and adrenal androgens. In humans, the contribution of testicular androgens is about 95%, whereas in the rat, the adrenal androgen secretion is negligible. Pharmacological studies were performed on the suppressive effect of the LHRH agonist, buserelin on androgen-dependent organs in adult rats. The reduction in pituitary and testicular binding capacity was monitored during treatment by injection, or by long-term infusion. Marked differences in suppressive mechanisms activated by the different regimens were observed. Changes in testicular steroid biosynthesis were analysed by incubation of testes after treatment with HCG, measuring the spectrum of C21/C19-steroids in incubation media. In particular, the levels of intraprostatic androgens were determined during treatment with daily buserelin injections, or with sustained release formulations of buserelin. The tissue content of testosterone and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were both markedly lowered. In castrate rats, stimulation of adrenal function by ACTH infusion had no effect on the prostate weight or intratesticular T/DHT content. Combination therapy during the initial phase of treatment by an androgen receptor blocker (cyproterone acetate) and buserelin (infusion or implants) was more effective to suppress prostate weight and intra-prostatic T/DHT content than therapy with the single compounds alone. Spermatogenesis and fertility were suppressed after prolonged treatment periods of 6-12 months; the testicular atrophy was not reversible in these long-term injection studies. Similar studies in dogs and monkeys have shown a different result: inhibition of spermatogenesis was fully reversible. It is concluded that studies on the mechanism of androgen suppression by LHRH agonists and the effects on androgen dependent organs provide

  17. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  18. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  19. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A

    2015-09-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study , we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA – mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  1. Independent component feature-based human activity recognition via Linear Discriminant Analysis and Hidden Markov Model.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md; Lee, J J; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    In proactive computing, human activity recognition from image sequences is an active research area. This paper presents a novel approach of human activity recognition based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of Independent Component (IC) features from shape information. With extracted features, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is applied for training and recognition. The recognition performance using LDA of IC features has been compared to other approaches including Principle Component Analysis (PCA), LDA of PC, and ICA. The preliminary results show much improved performance in the recognition rate with our proposed method.

  2. Androgen replacement for women.

    PubMed Central

    Basson, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a postmenopausal syndrome comprising specific changes in sexual desire and response associated with low free testosterone exists. To determine whether this syndrome is ameliorated by testosterone replacement. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Literature documenting that replacement of physiological levels of testosterone is beneficial and safe is scant. Only one randomized prospective blinded study examines sexual outcome in detail. MAIN MESSAGE: Testosterone is an important metabolic and sex hormone produced by the ovary throughout life. The variable reduction in ovarian testosterone production coincident with menopause is sometimes associated with a syndrome of specific changes in sexual desire and sexual response. Estrogen deficiency also impairs sexual response, but its replacement will not improve and might exacerbate sexual symptoms from androgen loss. Diagnosis of androgen deficiency is clinical, based on accurate assessment of a woman's sexual status before and after menopause and only confirmed (rather than diagnosed) by a low level of free testosterone. Partial androgen replacement restores much of the sexual response and facilitates sexual desire that is triggered by external cues. Avoiding supraphysiological levels of testosterone lessens risk of masculinization. Avoiding alkylated testosterone lessens hepatic or lipid impairment. CONCLUSION: Further prospective randomized studies of replacement of physiological levels of testosterone in women with androgen deficiency syndrome are needed, using formulations of testosterone available in Canada. The consistency of sexual changes, the associated personal and relationship distress, together with our clinical experience of the gratifying response to physiological replacement, make further studies urgently needed. PMID:10509222

  3. Estradiol suppresses tissue androgens and prostate cancer growth in castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Estrogens suppress tumor growth in prostate cancer which progresses despite anorchid serum androgen levels, termed castration resistant prostate cancers (CRPC), although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that estrogen inhibits CRPC in anorchid animals by suppressing tumoral androgens, an effect independent of the estrogen receptor. Methods The human CRPC xenograft LuCaP 35V was implanted into orchiectomized male SCID mice and established tumors were treated with placebo, 17β-estradiol or 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Effects of 17β-estradiol on tumor growth were evaluated and tissue testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) evaluated by mass spectrometry. Results Treatment of LuCaP 35V with 17β-estradiol slowed tumor growth compared to controls (tumor volume at day 21: 785 ± 81 mm3 vs. 1195 ± 84 mm3, p = 0.002). Survival was also significantly improved in animals treated with 17β-estradiol (p = 0.03). The addition of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 did not significantly change survival or growth. 17β-estradiol in the presence and absence of ICI 182,780 suppressed tumor testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as assayed by mass spectrometry. Tissue androgens in placebo treated LuCaP 35V xenografts were; T = 0.71 ± 0.28 pg/mg and DHT = 1.73 ± 0.36 pg/mg. In 17β-estradiol treated LuCaP35V xenografts the tissue androgens were, T = 0.20 ± 0.10 pg/mg and DHT = 0.15 ± 0.15 pg/mg, (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Levels of T and DHT in control liver tissue were < 0.2 pg/mg. Conclusions CRPC in anorchid animals maintains tumoral androgen levels despite castration. 17β-estradiol significantly suppressed tumor T and DHT and inhibits growth of CRPC in an estrogen receptor independent manner. The ability to manipulate tumoral androgens will be critical in the development and testing of agents targeting CRPC through tissue steroidogenesis. PMID:20509933

  4. Androgen receptor and prostate cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Muratori, Monica; Carloni, Vinicio; Zecchi, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2003-02-01

    Evidence indicates that androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have a lower malignant potential. We previously demonstrated that expression of androgen receptor (AR) by transfection of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 decreases invasion and adhesion of these cells through modulation of alpha6beta4 expression. Treatment with the androgen further reduced adhesion and invasion of the cells without, however, modifying alpha6beta4. Here we investigated whether the androgen has a direct effect on alpha6beta4-EGF receptor (EGFR) interaction and signalling leading to invasion of these cells. Immunoconfocal microscopy demonstrated that in control cells (PC3-Neo), alpha6beta4 and EGFR colocalize and redistribute in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). In PC3-AR cells colocalization and redistribution between the two molecules was reduced and abolished by pre-treatment with R1881. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4 in response to EGF was reduced in PC3-AR cells compared to PC3-Neo. Immunoconfocal and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated colocalization at membrane level and co-immunoprecipitation of EGFR and AR, indicating an interaction between the two proteins. PI3K activity, a key signalling pathway for invasion of these cells, was decreased in PC3-AR cells in response to EGF and further reduced by treatment with R1881. EGFR internalization was strongly reduced in PC3-AR compared with PC3-Neo cells and was reduced by treatment with R1881. In conclusion, the expression of AR by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR--alpha6beta4 interaction and signalling leading to invasion through a mechanism involving an interaction between the classic AR and EGFR.

  5. Phosphorylation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 by p38α Selectively Increases 17,20 Lyase Activity and Androgen Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Miller, Walter L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17, a steroidogenic enzyme encoded by the CYP17A1 gene, catalyzes the steroid 17α-hydroxylation needed for glucocorticoid synthesis, which may or may not be followed by 17,20 lyase activity needed for sex steroid synthesis. Whether or not P450c17 catalyzes 17,20 lyase activity is determined by three post-translational mechanisms influencing availability of reducing equivalents donated by P450 oxidoreductase (POR). These are increased amounts of POR, the allosteric action of cytochrome b5 to promote POR-P450c17 interaction, and Ser/Thr phosphorylation of P450c17, which also appears to promote POR-P450c17 interaction. The kinase(s) that phosphorylates P450c17 is unknown. In a series of kinase inhibition experiments, the pyridinyl imidazole drugs SB202190 and SB203580 inhibited 17,20 lyase but not 17α-hydroxylase activity in human adrenocortical HCI-H295A cells, suggesting an action on p38α or p38β. Co-transfection of non-steroidogenic COS-1 cells with P450c17 and p38 expression vectors showed that p38α, but not p38β, conferred 17,20 lyase activity on P450c17. Antiserum to P450c17 co-immunoprecipitated P450c17 and both p38 isoforms; however, knockdown of p38α, but not knockdown of p38β, inhibited 17,20 lyase activity in NCI-H295A cells. Bacterially expressed human P450c17 was phosphorylated by p38α in vitro at a non-canonical site, conferring increased 17,20 lyase activity. This phosphorylation increased the maximum velocity, but not the Michaelis constant, of the 17,20 lyase reaction. p38α phosphorylates P450c17 in a fashion that confers increased 17,20 lyase activity, implying that the production of adrenal androgens (adrenarche) is a regulated event. PMID:23836902

  6. Androgen antagonists in androgen target tissues.

    PubMed

    Tindall, D J; Chang, C H; Lobl, T J; Cunningham, G R

    1984-01-01

    Most antiandrogens appear to act by binding to the androgen receptor and competitively inhibiting the binding of testosterone and cihydrotestosterone to the receptor. Focusing on those compounds which appear to inhibit androgen receptor mediated responses, this review discusses the chemistry of those antiandrogens which have been studied to the extent that their mechanism of action is at least partially understood, outlines the mechanism of androgen action as it is currently understood and suggests how antiandrogens might fit in with this mechanism, indicates the major metabolites of several important antiandrogens, and discusses the clinical applications of several antiandrogens. Cyproterone acetate has been studied extensively as a potential male contraceptive. Although it was recognized that 100 mg of cyproterone acetate per day inhibited spermatogenesis, that dose also reduced libido and potency. Following the administration of 10 or 20 mg of cyproterone acetate per day to 15 males for 26 weeks, the following observations were made: the number of motile sperm was reduced; the quality of their motion was impaired; and the ability of the sperm to penetrate cervical mucus was decreased. Sperm density was also suppressed, but neither it nor sperm motility were inhibited to the extent necessary for contraception. Antiandrogens have been demonstrated to be beneficial in treating 5 clinical syndromes or diseases: acne, seborrhea, hirsutism with or without menstrual abnormalities; precocious puberty; benign prostatic hypertrophy; cancer of the prostate; and sexual deviates. Since 3 of these conditions are very common, effective and safe treatment would have a large market. At this time, antiandrogens are widely used in Europe for treatment of seborrhea, acne, and hirsutism and a large Veterans Administration Cooperative Study in the US was approved but has not yet been funded to compare antiandrogens with other treatments for cancer of the prostate. Studies to assess

  7. Human handling and presentation of a novel object evoke independent dimensions of fear in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Richard, S; Land, N; Saint-Dizier, H; Leterrier, C; Faure, J M

    2010-09-01

    Fear is a concept comprising several dimensions, but the nature of these dimensions and the relationships between them remain elusive. To investigate these dimensions in birds, we have used two genetic lines of quail divergently selected on tonic immobility duration, a behavioural index of fear. These two lines differ in their behavioural response to some, but not all, fear-inducing situations. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of human intervention in the differentiation between the two lines. To do this, fear responses towards a novel object were compared between lines in three conditions: (1) in the home cage without any human intervention, (2) in the home cage after human handling and (3) after placement in a novel environment by human handling. Fear behaviour differed between lines after human handling, with or without placement in a novel environment, but presentation of a novel object in the home cage without any human intervention induced similar fear responses in the two lines of quail. These results lead us to suggest that in quail, human intervention evokes a dimension of fear that differs from that evoked by sudden presentation of a novel object, in that these two dimensions may be selected independently. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human memory B cells originate from three distinct germinal center-dependent and -independent maturation pathways.

    PubMed

    Berkowska, Magdalena A; Driessen, Gertjan J A; Bikos, Vasilis; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Cerutti, Andrea; He, Bing; Biermann, Katharina; Lange, Johan F; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van Zelm, Menno C

    2011-08-25

    Multiple distinct memory B-cell subsets have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear how their phenotypic diversity corresponds to the type of responses from which they originate. Especially, the contribution of germinal center-independent responses in humans remains controversial. We defined 6 memory B-cell subsets based on their antigen-experienced phenotype and differential expression of CD27 and IgH isotypes. Molecular characterization of their replication history, Ig somatic hypermutation, and class-switch profiles demonstrated their origin from 3 different pathways. CD27⁻IgG⁺ and CD27⁺IgM⁺ B cells are derived from primary germinal center reactions, and CD27⁺IgA⁺ and CD27⁺IgG⁺ B cells are from consecutive germinal center responses (pathway 1). In contrast, natural effector and CD27⁻IgA⁺ memory B cells have limited proliferation and are also present in CD40L-deficient patients, reflecting a germinal center-independent origin. Natural effector cells at least in part originate from systemic responses in the splenic marginal zone (pathway 2). CD27⁻IgA⁺ cells share low replication history and dominant Igλ and IgA2 use with gut lamina propria IgA+ B cells, suggesting their common origin from local germinal center-independent responses (pathway 3). Our findings shed light on human germinal center-dependent and -independent B-cell memory formation and provide new opportunities to study these processes in immunologic diseases.

  9. Augmentation of human monocyte opsonin-independent phagocytosis by fragments of human plasma fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Czop, J K; Kadish, J L; Austen, K F

    1981-06-01

    Human plasma fibronectin isolated by gelatin-affinity chromatography increases in a dose-dependent fashion the number of human monocytes that ingest particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway in a fully synthetic medium. The fibronectin effect is selective for these particulate activators, does not extend to particles whose ingestion is dependent upon opsonization with IgG, and is not observed with pretreatment of the monocytes. Affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody to plasma fibronectin of 440,000 daltons reveals that only 12-53% of the protein in a phagocytically active gelatin-affinity-purified fibronectin preparations is bound to the antibody. The protein eluted after affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibody of active preparations, which represented 10-43% of the protein applied, exhibits a 2- to 10-fold increment of activity per microgram of protein above the starting gelatin-affinity-purified material. Thus, the activity that augments the percent of human monocytes ingesting particulate activators of the alternative pathway is antigenically defined as plasma fibronectin. Preparations containing only intact 440,000-dalton fibronectin are also bound to and eluted from the monoclonal antibody, but they fail to augment phagocytosis. When inactive 440,000-dalton plasma fibronectin is subjected to limited trypsin cleavage, phagocytosis-enhancing activity develops that is bound to and elutes from the affinity column prepared with monoclonal antibody, thereby indicating that the enhancing activity of plasma fibronectin resides in cleavage fragments.

  10. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  11. Identification of a novel androgen receptor agonist (or “androgen mimic”) of environmental concern: spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that acts as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in humans to treat certain conditions such as hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss. The drug is also used to treat hypertension as a diuretic. With this commo...

  12. Prostate Cell Specific Regulation of Androgen Receptor Phosphorylation in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    the AR-P-S213 antigen was present in epithelial cells of the urogenital sinus when endogenous androgen levels are high, but absent at a later stage...of development when endogenous androgen levels are low. Immunoreactivity is evident in differentiated cells lining the lumen of the urogenital sinus ...sion in human prostate development. Sections of early (15-wk) and late (21 wk) urogenital sinus were stained using CREB and pCREB (S133) antibodies

  13. Effects of Androgen Ablation on Anti-Tumor Immunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Eradication of established tumors by vaccination with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles delivering human papillomavirus 16 E7...Androgen Ablation (AA) constitutes the most common therapy for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. While initially effective at reducing tumor burden...most patients recur with androgen insensitive disease. There exists a clear need to augment the clinical efficacy of hormone-based therapies , and

  14. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  15. Isolation of human Leydig cell mesenchymal precursors from patients with the androgen insensitivity syndrome: testosterone production and response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in culture.

    PubMed

    Chemes, H; Cigorraga, S; Bergadá, C; Schteingart, H; Rey, R; Pellizzari, E

    1992-05-01

    Mature Leydig cells, the main source of testicular testosterone in mammals, arise from immature mesenchymal precursors through an LH-dependent differentiation process. In order to study the steroidogenic potential of these precursors, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells were obtained from the testicular interstitium of two patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. After double digestion with collagenase and separation of the suspensions in a Percoll density gradient, the cells were cultured in Ham's F12 medium: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (1:1) supplemented with antibiotics, transferrin, insulin, hydrocortisone, and vitamin E with or without 1 IU of hCG/ml. At 11 days in culture, samples were removed for morphological characterization and determination of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (3 beta-HSD). Testosterone concentration was determined by RIA in the culture medium at different intervals. Cultured cells were mesenchymal in appearance, elongated in shape, with numerous processes running in different directions. No mature Leydig cells were present. In basal conditions, the percentages of 3 beta-HSD-positive cells at 11 days on patients 1 and 2 were 33% and 28%, respectively, and the testosterone concentrations in the culture media were 4.8 and 8.4 ng.10(6) cells.24 h, respectively. In cultures stimulated with hCG, there was an increase of histochemical reactivity (47% and 42% in patients 1 and 2, respectively) and in the amount of testosterone secreted (10.2 and 12.0 ng.10(6) cells, respectively). Electron microscopic studies of cultures grown in the absence of hCG demonstrated a homogenous population of poorly differentiated, fibroblastic-type mesenchymal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. AZD3514, an oral selective androgen receptor down-regulator in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer - results of two parallel first-in-human phase I studies.

    PubMed

    Omlin, A; Jones, R J; van der Noll, R; Satoh, T; Niwakawa, M; Smith, S A; Graham, J; Ong, M; Finkelman, R D; Schellens, J H M; Zivi, A; Crespo, M; Riisnaes, R; Nava-Rodrigues, D; Malone, M D; Dive, C; Sloane, R; Moore, D; Alumkal, J J; Dymond, A; Dickinson, P A; Ranson, M; Clack, G; de Bono, J; Elliott, T

    2015-06-01

    AZD3514 is a first-in-class, orally bio-available, androgen-dependent and -independent androgen receptor inhibitor and selective androgen-receptor down-regulator (SARD). In study 1 and 2, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients (pts) were initially recruited into a once daily (QD) oral schedule (A). In study 1, pharmacokinetic assessments led to twice daily (BID) dosing (schedule B) to increase exposure. Study 2 explored a once daily schedule. In study 1, 49 pts were treated with escalating doses of AZD3514 (A 35 pts, B 14 pts). Starting doses were 100 mg (A) and 1000 mg (B). The AZD3514 formulation was switched from capsules to tablets at 1000 mg QD. 2000 mg BID was considered non-tolerable due to grade (G) 2 toxicities (nausea [N], vomiting [V]). No adverse events (AEs) met the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition. Thirteen pts received AZD3514 in study 2, with starting doses of 250 mg QD. The most frequent drug-related AEs were N: G1/2 in 55/70 pts (79 %); G3 in 1 pt (1.4 %); & V: G1/2 in 34/70 pts (49 %) & G3 in 1 pt (1.4 %). PSA declines (≥50 %) were documented in 9/70 patients (13 %). Objective soft tissue responses per RECIST1.1 were observed in 4/24 (17 %) pts in study 1. AZD3514 has moderate anti-tumour activity in pts with advanced CRPC but with significant levels of nausea and vomiting. However, anti-tumour activity as judged by significant PSA declines, objective responses and durable disease stabilisations, provides the rationale for future development of SARD compounds.

  17. Molecular insight into the differential anti-androgenic activity of resveratrol and its natural analogs: In Silico approach to understand biological actions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Androgen receptor reactivation during the androgen-independent stage of prostate cancer is mediated by numerous mechanisms including expression of AR mutants and splice variants that become non-responsive to con...

  18. Independent Verification and Validation of Complex User Interfaces: A Human Factors Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea; Chmielewski, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has identified and evaluated a potential automated software interface inspection tool capable of assessing the degree to which space-related critical and high-risk software system user interfaces meet objective human factors standards across each NASA program and project. Testing consisted of two distinct phases. Phase 1 compared analysis times and similarity of results for the automated tool and for human-computer interface (HCI) experts. In Phase 2, HCI experts critiqued the prototype tool's user interface. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a more fully developed version of the tool will be a promising complement to a human factors-oriented independent verification and validation (IV&V) process.

  19. Retinoid-independent motor neurogenesis from human embryonic stem cells reveals a medial columnar ground state

    PubMed Central

    Patani, R.; Hollins, A. J.; Wishart, T. M.; Puddifoot, C. A.; Álvarez, S.; de Lera, A. R.; Wyllie, D. J. A.; Compston, D. A. S.; Pedersen, R. A.; Gillingwater, T. H.; Hardingham, G. E.; Allen, N. D.; Chandran, S.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in neurobiology is to understand mechanisms underlying human neuronal diversification. Motor neurons (MNs) represent a diverse collection of neuronal subtypes, displaying differential vulnerability in different human neurodegenerative diseases. The ability to manipulate cell subtype diversification is critical to establish accurate, clinically relevant in vitro disease models. Retinoid signalling contributes to caudal precursor specification and subsequent MN subtype diversification. Here we investigate the necessity for retinoic acid in motor neurogenesis from human embryonic stem cells. We show that activin/nodal signalling inhibition, followed by sonic hedgehog agonist treatment, is sufficient for MN precursor specification, which occurs even in the presence of retinoid pathway antagonists. Importantly, precursors mature into HB9/ChAT-expressing functional MNs. Furthermore, retinoid-independent motor neurogenesis results in a ground state biased to caudal, medial motor columnar identities from which a greater retinoid-dependent diversity of MNs, including those of lateral motor columns, can be selectively derived in vitro. PMID:21364553

  20. Oncolytic targeting of androgen-sensitive prostate tumor by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): consequences of deficient interferon-dependent antiviral defense

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer treatment utilizes viruses for selective infection and death of cancer cells without any adverse effect on normal cells. We previously reported that the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a novel oncolytic virus against androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. The present study extends the result to androgen-dependent prostate cancer, and explores the underlying mechanism that triggers RSV-induced oncolysis of prostate cancer cells. Methods The oncolytic effect of RSV on androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells and on androgen-independent RM1 murine prostate cancer cells was studied in vitro in culture and in vivo in a xenograft or allograft tumor model. In vitro, cell viability, infectivity and apoptosis were monitored by MTT assay, viral plaque assay and annexin V staining, respectively. In vivo studies involved virus administration to prostate tumors grown in immune compromised nude mice and in syngeneic immune competent C57BL/6J mice. Anti-tumorogenic oncolytic activity was monitored by measuring tumor volume, imaging bioluminescent tumors in live animals and performing histopathological analysis and TUNEL assay with tumors Results We show that RSV imposes a potent oncolytic effect on LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RSV infectivity was markedly higher in LNCaP cells compared to the non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 human prostate cells. The enhanced viral burden led to LNCaP cell apoptosis and growth inhibition of LNCaP xenograft tumors in nude mice. A functional host immune response did not interfere with RSV-induced oncolysis, since growth of xenograft tumors in syngeneic C57BL/6J mice from murine RM1 cells was inhibited upon RSV administration. LNCaP cells failed to activate the type-I interferon (IFNα/β)-induced transcription factor STAT-1, which is required for antiviral gene expression, although these cells could produce IFN in response to RSV infection. The essential role of IFN in

  1. Evidence for the biosynthesis of DHEA from cholesterol by first-trimester human placental tissue: source of androgens.

    PubMed

    Loganath, A; Peh, K L; Wong, P C

    2002-03-01

    With a view to establishing whether first-trimester human placentas possess the ability to synthesize DHEA from cholesterol, homogenates of this tissue obtained from two groups of women undergoing elective termination of normally progressing pregnancy between 10 - 12 weeks gestation (n = 5, age 23 - 29 years and n = 5, age 21 - 27 years) were incubated separately with [26-(14)C]cholesterol for the generation of [14C]isocaproic acid + pregnenolone and [7n-3H]pregnenolone for the biosynthesis of [3H]DHEA. Controls consisted of homogenates heated in a boiling water bath for 10 min. Using the reverse-isotope dilution analysis, desmolase efficiency expressed as mean specific activity of [14C]isocaproic acid varied from 282 to 725 dpm/mmol, while that of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and steroid C-17,20-lyase, catalyzed conversion of [7n-3H]pregnenolone to [3H]DHEA varied from 3498 to 26 258 dpm/mmol. The corresponding efficiencies of enzymicconversion varied between 5.8 x 10( -2) and 1.5 x 10( -1) % for [14C]isocaproic acid, but between 5.5 x 10( -2) and 4.1 x 10( -1) % for [3H]DHEA. No such metabolite was evident in the controls of heat-denatured homogenates. These are the first study results to demonstrate that early placentas are capable of converting cholesterol to pregnenolone to DHEA, contrary to the widely held concept of DHEA production by fetal and maternal adrenal glands. This finding has important physiological implications and could provide a new dimension to the concept of fetoplacental steroidogenesis.

  2. Antibody-Independent Function of Human B Cells Contributes to Antifungal T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Rezk, Ayman; Li, Hulun; Gommerman, Jennifer L; Prat, Alexandre; Bar-Or, Amit

    2017-04-15

    Fungal infections (e.g., Candida albicans) can manifest as serious medical illnesses, especially in the elderly and immune-compromised hosts. T cells are important for Candida control. Whether and how B cells are involved in antifungal immunity has been less clear. Although patients with agammaglobulinemia exhibit normal antifungal immunity, increased fungal infections are reported following B cell-depleting therapy, together pointing to Ab-independent roles of B cells in controlling such infections. To test how human B cells may contribute to fungal-associated human T cell responses, we developed a novel Ag-specific human T cell/B cell in vitro coculture system and found that human B cells could induce C. albicans-associated, MHC class II-restricted responses of naive T cells. Activated B cells significantly enhanced C. albicans-mediated Th1 and Th17 T cell responses, which were both strongly induced by CD80/CD86 costimulation. IL-6(+)GM-CSF(+) B cells were the major responding B cell subpopulation to C. albicans and provided efficient costimulatory signals to the T cells. In vivo B cell depletion in humans resulted in reduced C. albicans-associated T responses. Of note, the decreased Th17, but not Th1, responses could be reversed by soluble factors from B cells prior to depletion, in an IL-6-dependent manner. Taken together, our results implicate an Ab-independent cytokine-defined B cell role in human antifungal T cell responses. These findings may be particularly relevant given the prospects of chronic B cell depletion therapy use in lymphoma and autoimmune disease, as patients age and are exposed to serial combination therapies.

  3. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with thermolability in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Kenji; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ohe, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroki; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2006-01-01

    We report case of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in a 12-year-old boy referred to our clinic complaining of bilateral gynecomastia and left undescended testicle. Laparoscopy for undescended testicle and bilateral mastectomy were performed, and the left testicle was absent. When skin fibroblasts of the scrotum obtained during surgery were cultured to analyse the androgen receptors, a slight thermolability was observed. Genomic examination of the androgen receptor gene could not detect any mutations.

  4. RNA editing of androgen receptor gene transcripts in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Harryl D; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi; Fitzgerald, Latricia D; Trimmer, James S; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wright, Michael E

    2008-10-31

    Reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway represents a critical step in the growth and survival of androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (CaP). In this study we show the DU145 and PC3 AI human CaP cell lines respond to androgens and require AR expression for optimal proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, AR gene transcripts in DU145 and PC3 cells harbored a large number of single base pair nucleotide transitions that resulted in missense mutations in selected AR codons. The most notable lesion detected in AR gene transcripts included the oncogenic codon 877T-->A gain-of-function mutation. Surprisingly, AR gene transcript nucleotide transitions were not genome-encoded substitutions, but instead the mutations co-localized to putative A-to-I, U-to-C, C-to-U, and G-to-A RNA editing sites, suggesting the lesions were mediated through RNA editing mechanisms. Higher levels of mRNA encoding the A-to-I RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADARB1 were observed in DU145 and PC3 cells relative to the androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 human CaP cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of AR gene transcript A-to-I editing detected in DU145 and PC3 cells. Our results suggest that AR gene transcripts are targeted by different RNA editing enzymes in DU145 and PC3 cells. Thus RNA editing of AR gene transcripts may contribute to the etiology of hormone-refractory phenotypes in advanced stage AI CaP.

  5. Enantiomer selective glucuronidation of the non-steroidal pure anti-androgen bicalutamide by human liver and kidney: role of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Laurent; Campeau, Anne-Sophie; Caron, Sarah; Morin, Frédéric-Alexandre; Meunier, Kim; Trottier, Jocelyn; Caron, Patrick; Verreault, Mélanie; Barbier, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Bicalutamide (Casodex(®) ) is a non-steroidal pure anti-androgen used in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. It is a racemate drug, and its activity resides in the (R)-enantiomer, with little in the (S)-enantiomer. A major metabolic pathway for bicalutamide is glucuronidation catalysed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. While (S)bicalutamide is directly glucuronidated, (R)bicalutamide requires hydroxylation prior to glucuronidation. The contribution of human tissues and UGT isoforms in the metabolism of these enantiomers has not been extensively investigated. In this study, both (R) and/or (S)bicalutamide were converted into glucuronide (-G) derivatives after incubation of pure and racemic solutions with microsomal extracts from human liver and kidney. Intestinal microsomes exhibited only low reactivity with these substrates. Km values of liver and kidney samples for (S)bicalutamide glucuronidation were similar, and lower than values obtained with the (R)-enantiomer. Among the 16 human UGTs tested, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were able to form both (S) and (R)bicalutamide-G from pure or racemic substrates. UGT2B7 was also able to form (R)bicalutamide-G. Kinetic parameters of the recombinant UGT2B7, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 enzymes support a predominant role of the UGT1A9 isoform in bicalutamide metabolism. Accordingly, (S)bicalutamide inhibited the ability of human liver and kidney microsomes to glucuronidate the UGT1A9 probe substrate, propofol. In conclusion, the present study provides the first comprehensive analysis of in vitro bicalutamide glucuronidation by human tissues and UGTs and identifies UGT1A9 as a major contributor for (R) and (S) glucuronidation in the human liver and kidney.

  6. Enantiomer selective glucuronidation of the non-steroidal pure anti-androgen bicalutamide by human liver and kidney: role of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A9 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Laurent; Campeau, Anne-Sophie; Caron, Sarah; Morin, Frédéric-Alexandre; Meunier, Kim; Trottier, Jocelyn; Caron, Patrick; Verreault, Mélanie; Barbier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Bicalutamide (Casodex®) is a non-steroidal pure anti-androgen used in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. It is a racemate drug and its activity resides in the (R)-enantiomer, with little in the (S)-enantiomer. A major metabolic pathway for bicalutamide is glucuronidation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. While (S)bicalutamide is directly glucuronidated, (R)bicalutamide requires hydroxylation prior to glucuronidation. The contribution of human tissues and UGT isoforms in the metabolism of these enantiomers has not been extensively investigated. In this study, both (R) and/or (S)bicalutamide were converted into glucuronide (-G) derivatives following incubation of pure and racemic solutions with microsomal extracts from human liver and kidney. Intestinal microsomes exhibited only low reactivity with these substrates. Km values of liver and kidney samples for (S)bicalutamide glucuronidation were similar, and lower than values obtained with the (R)-enantiomer. Among the 16 human UGTs tested, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were able to form both (S) and (R)bicalutamide-G from pure or racemic substrates. UGT2B7 was also able to form (R)bicalutamide-G. Kinetic parameters of the recombinant UGT2B7, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 enzymes support a predominant role of the UGT1A9 isoform in bicalutamide metabolism. Accordingly, (S)bicalutamide inhibited the ability of human liver and kidney microsomes to glucuronidate the UGT1A9 probe substrate, propofol. In conclusion, the present study provides the first comprehensive analysis of in vitro bicalutamide glucuronidation by human tissues and UGTs, and identifies UGT1A9 as a major contributor for (R) and (S) glucuronidation in the human liver and kidney. PMID:23527766

  7. S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity in the rat epididymis: ontogeny and androgenic control.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, M A; Calandra, R S

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the occurrence of high levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) activity in the rat epididymis, and its ontogeny and androgenic control. As early as 15 days of age, SAMDC activity exists, although a peak of activity is observed at 25 days. Bilateral orchidectomy resulted in a decline of epididymal SAMDC activity. However, an androgen-independent fraction, accounting for 34% of total activity, appears to exist in the epididymis. In 45-day-old orchidectomized rats, SAMDC activity was stimulated by testosterone treatment in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment of 45-day-old intact animals with a high dose of the androgen failed to modify SAMDC activity, indicating that, at this age, the enzyme is maximally stimulated by endogenous androgens. The observed effect of testosterone on castrated rats was completely abolished by concomitant treatment with the antiandrogen flutamide. This compound was ineffective on the androgen-insensitive fraction. To assess the contribution of circulating and luminal androgens to the maintenance of epididymal SAMDC, rats were unilaterally orchidectomized and activity was determined in both epididymides after 7 days. The SAMDC activity was identical in epididymides from both sides, suggesting circulating androgens suffice to maintain normal levels of activity. It was concluded that androgens regulate epididymal SAMDC activity, although an androgen-independent fraction appears to exist.

  8. Metabolic syndrome, androgens, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increases in androgen levels. In men, reductions in androgen levels are associated with inflammation, and androgen supplements reduce inflammation. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. This review discusses the possibility that the effects of androgens on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae may differ between males and females.

  9. Intrinsic hand muscles and digit independence on the preferred and non-preferred hands of humans.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Karen T; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2006-09-01

    Although the superior dexterity of one hand is an almost ubiquitous human experience, it is unclear which characteristics of the motor system controlling the preferred hand produce this superior dexterity. Between-species studies show that greater dexterity is associated with a motor system that permits more independent movements of the digits. If between-hand dexterity differences are mediated by the same mechanism as between-species dexterity differences, then there should be asymmetries within the corticospinal tracts of humans that would result in between-hand independence differences. The evidence for asymmetries in the corticospinal tracts is sparse, and if an asymmetry does exist, it appears to be limited to the control of intrinsic hand muscles. We wondered, therefore, whether there might be a difference in the degree of independent control on the two hands during performance of a task that primarily uses intrinsic hand muscles. We examined digit individuation when subjects produced abduction or adduction forces with a single digit in isolation. Consistent with previous studies in which forces or movements in single digits were generated primarily by extrinsic hand muscles, we found no difference between the individuation of the digits on the preferred and non-preferred hands. We suggest that whereas independence differences underlie large dexterity differences between species, they do not underlie the more subtle dexterity differences between the preferred and non-preferred hands. Instead, the neural substrate for handedness might be asymmetrical connectivity within M1, with more profuse connections within the dominant than non-dominant M1 imparting a greater potential for excitatory and inhibitory interactions between movement representations which might then result in the more efficient coordination of hand and arm movements of the preferred hand.

  10. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ohka, Seii; Nihei, Coh-ichi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Nomoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by circulating poliovirus (PV) via the blood–brain barrier (BBB). After the virus enters the CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155)-transgenic (Tg) mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. We will implicate an involvement of a new possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB based on our recent findings. PMID:22529845

  11. Human, insect and nematode caspases kill Saccharomyces cerevisiae independently of YCA1 and Aif1p.

    PubMed

    Puryer, M A; Hawkins, C J

    2006-04-01

    This study characterised the impact of active metazoan apoptotic proteases (caspases) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability. Expression of active caspase-3 or caspase-8 in yeast ruptured plasma and nuclear membranes and dramatically impaired clonogenic survival, but did not damage DNA. Deletion of the proposed yeast apoptosis regulators YCA1 or Aif1p did not affect the ability of human, insect or nematode caspases to kill yeast. These data indicate that expression of active metazoan caspases causes irreversible damage to yeast membranes and organelles, in a manner independent of YCA1 and Aif1p.

  12. Crosstalk between RON and androgen receptor signaling in the development of castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Batth, Izhar; Yun, Huiyoung; Hussain, Suleman; Meng, Peng; Osumulski, Powel; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Bedolla, Roble; Profit, Amanda; Reddick, Robert; Kumar, Addanki

    2016-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the fatal form of prostate cancer. Although reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) occurs following androgen deprivation, the precise mechanism involved is unclear. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, RON alters mechanical properties of cells to influence epithelial to mesenchymal transition and functions as a transcription factor to differentially regulate AR signaling. RON inhibits AR activation and subset of AR-regulated transcripts in androgen responsive LNCaP cells. However in C4-2B, a castrate-resistant sub-line of LNCaP and AR-negative androgen independent DU145 cells, RON activates subset of AR-regulated transcripts. Expression of AR in PC-3 cells leads to activation of RON under androgen deprivation but not under androgen proficient conditions implicating a role for RON in androgen independence. Consistently, RON expression is significantly elevated in castrate resistant prostate tumors. Taken together our results suggest that RON activation could aid in promoting androgen independence and that inhibition of RON in combination with AR antagonist(s) merits serious consideration as a therapeutic option during hormone deprivation therapy. PMID:26872377

  13. Crosstalk between RON and androgen receptor signaling in the development of castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Batth, Izhar; Yun, Huiyoung; Hussain, Suleman; Meng, Peng; Osmulski, Pawel; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Bedolla, Roble; Profit, Amanda; Reddick, Robert; Kumar, Addanki

    2016-03-22

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the fatal form of prostate cancer. Although reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) occurs following androgen deprivation, the precise mechanism involved is unclear. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, RON alters mechanical properties of cells to influence epithelial to mesenchymal transition and functions as a transcription factor to differentially regulate AR signaling. RON inhibits AR activation and subset of AR-regulated transcripts in androgen responsive LNCaP cells. However in C4-2B, a castrate-resistant sub-line of LNCaP and AR-negative androgen independent DU145 cells, RON activates subset of AR-regulated transcripts. Expression of AR in PC-3 cells leads to activation of RON under androgen deprivation but not under androgen proficient conditions implicating a role for RON in androgen independence. Consistently, RON expression is significantly elevated in castrate resistant prostate tumors. Taken together our results suggest that RON activation could aid in promoting androgen independence and that inhibition of RON in combination with AR antagonist(s) merits serious consideration as a therapeutic option during hormone deprivation therapy.

  14. Novel Insights into Molecular Indicators of Response and Resistance to Modern Androgen-Axis Therapies in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.

    2016-01-01

    While androgen ablation remains a mainstay for advanced prostate cancer therapy, nearly all patients will inevitably develop disease escape with time. Upon the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer, other androgen-axis-targeted treatments may be added in an effort to starve the disease of its androgen signaling. Nevertheless, additional androgen-pathway resistance usually develops to these novel hormonal therapies. In this review, we will discuss the resistance mechanisms to modern androgen-axis modulators and how these alterations can influence a patient's response to novel hormonal therapy. We conceptualize these resistance pathways as three broad categories: (1) reactivation of androgen/AR-signaling, (2) AR bypass pathways, and (3) androgen/AR-independent mechanisms. We highlight examples of each, as well as potential therapeutic approaches to overcome these resistance mechanisms. PMID:26902623

  15. Does field independence predict visuo-spatial abilities underpinning human navigation? Behavioural evidence.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Di Marco, Mariangela; Pizzamiglio, Luigi; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2016-10-01

    Field independence (FI) has been defined as the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field, rather than embedded in the field. It has been proposed to represent a relatively stable pattern in individuals' predisposition towards information processing. In the present study, we assessed the effect of FI on skills underpinning human navigation. Fifty Healthy individuals took part in this study. FI has been assessed by using the group embedded figures test (GEFT). Participants were also asked to perform several visuo-spatial orientation tasks, including the perspective taking/spatial orientation test (PTSOT), the mental rotation task (MRT) and the vividness task, as well as the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, a self-reported questionnaire, which has been found to predict environmental spatial orientation ability. We found that performances on the GEFT significantly predicted performances on the PTSOT and the MRT. This result supports the idea that FI predicts human navigation.

  16. Zebra finches exhibit speaker-independent phonetic perception of human speech

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Gill, Arike; Van Heijningen, Caroline A. A.; Beckers, Gabriel J. L.; ten Cate, Carel

    2010-01-01

    Humans readily distinguish spoken words that closely resemble each other in acoustic structure, irrespective of audible differences between individual voices or sex of the speakers. There is an ongoing debate about whether the ability to form phonetic categories that underlie such distinctions indicates the presence of uniquely evolved, speech-linked perceptual abilities, or is based on more general ones shared with other species. We demonstrate that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) can discriminate and categorize monosyllabic words that differ in their vowel and transfer this categorization to the same words spoken by novel speakers independent of the sex of the voices. Our analysis indicates that the birds, like humans, use intrinsic and extrinsic speaker normalization to make the categorization. This finding shows that there is no need to invoke special mechanisms, evolved together with language, to explain this feature of speech perception. PMID:19955157

  17. Preliminary results of a new proposal for objective human independent striae measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, S.; Hartmann, P.; Petzold, U.; Lempa, C.

    2017-06-01

    Optical glasses with certain inner quality e.g. low striae content are essential for good optical systems. A stria is a small local change in the refractive index inside the glass resulting in a wave front distortion that can cause blurring of the image. During the production process of optical glass, striae are observed by measuring it with the so-called shadow graph method. This simple measurement displays a stria as a shadow on an observation screen. A human operator evaluates the contrast by comparing it with references. The new proposed approach uses a digital camera and image processing to measure human independent the stria level. A first repeatability measurement shows wave front deviation (maximum deviation, peak-topeak) of less than +/- 8 nm.

  18. Androgen stimulates endothelial cell proliferation via an androgen receptor/VEGF/cyclin A-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingjing; Hong, Yuan; Weng, Chunyan; Tan, Chen; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidences support that androgen displays beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions although the mechanism of androgen actions remains to be elucidated. Modulation of endothelial cell growth and function is a potential mechanism of androgen actions. We demonstrated in the present study that androgens [dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone], but not 17β-estradiol, produced a time- and dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) as evident by increases in viable cell number and DNA biosynthesis. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis showed that DHT induced androgen receptor (AR), cyclin A, cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of casodex, a specific AR antagonist, or transfection of a specific AR siRNA blocked DHT-induced cell proliferation and target gene expression, indicating that the DHT effects are mediated via AR. Moreover, coadministration of SU5416 to block VEGF receptors, or transfection of a specific VEGF-A siRNA to knockdown VEGF expression, produced a dose-dependent blockade of DHT induction of cell proliferation and cyclin A gene expression. Interestingly, roscovitine, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, also blocked the DHT stimulation of cell proliferation with a selective inhibition of DHT-induced VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that androgens acting on AR stimulate cell proliferation through upregulation of VEGF-A, cyclin A, and cyclin D1 in HAECs, which may be beneficial to cardiovascular functions since endothelial cell proliferation could assist the repair of endothelial injury/damage in cardiovascular system. PMID:21257919

  19. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Major enzymes controlling the androgenic pressure in the developing lung.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Yves; Provost, Pierre R

    2013-09-01

    A sex difference is observed in the incidence and morbidity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the neonate and in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The involvement of androgens is well evidenced in RDS and it is suspected in BPD. Interestingly, the developing lung is not an inert tissue just exposed to circulating androgens, but is rather an active androgen metabolizing tissue, expressing enzymes involved in both androgen synthesis and inactivation. The present review focuses on the major enzymes involved in androgen metabolism within the developing lung. Testosterone synthesis and inactivation by AKR1C3/Akr1c6 (human/mouse 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) type 5) and HSD17B2 (17β-HSD type 2), respectively, play an important role in the developing lung. Akr1c14 (3α-HSD) shows a strong increase in expression according to developmental time. The canalicular stage of lung development corresponding to the surge of surfactant lipid synthesis, which is linked to RDS, as well as saccularization/alveolarization, which are linked to BPD, are covered by this review for the mouse and human species. The androgen metabolizing enzymes expressed within the developing lung can become potential pharmaceutical targets in the objective of accelerating lung maturation by specific treatments. The classic deleterious effects of androgens on lung maturation and the surge of surfactant synthesis in males are well known. Conversely, androgens also have positive impacts on the development of both male and female lungs. Steroidogenic enzymes are key regulators of these positive effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

  1. Androgen Induces a Switch from Cytoplasmic Retention to Nuclear Import of the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Llewellyn, Ryan; Kesler, Cristina T.; Kelley, Joshua B.; Spencer, Adam; Snow, Chelsi J.; Shank, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has critical functions as a transcription factor in both normal and cancer cells, but the specific mechanisms that regulate its nuclear localization are not well defined. We found that an AR mutation commonly reported in prostate cancer generates an androgen-independent gain of function for nuclear import. The substitution, Thr877Ala, is within the ligand-binding domain, but the nuclear import gain of function is mediated by the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) spanning the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and hinge region. Bipartite NLS activity depends on the structure provided by the DBD, and protein interactions with the bipartite NLS are repressed by the hinge region. The bipartite NLS is recognized by importin 7, a nuclear import receptor for several proteins. Importin 7 binding to AR, however, inhibits import by shielding the bipartite NLS. Androgen binding relieves the inhibition by inducing a switch that promotes exchange of importin 7 for karyopherin alpha import receptors. Importin 7 contributes to the regulation of AR import by restraining import until androgen is detected in the cytoplasm. PMID:24100013

  2. Cap-independent translation by DAP5 controls cell fate decisions in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoffe, Yael; David, Maya; Kalaora, Rinat; Povodovski, Lital; Friedlander, Gilgi; Feldmesser, Ester; Ainbinder, Elena; Saada, Ann; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation. The latter involved improper cellular organization, lack of cavitation, and enhanced mislocalized apoptosis. RNA sequencing of polysome-associated mRNAs identified candidates with reduced translation efficiency in DAP5-depleted hESCs. These were enriched in mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative respiration, a pathway essential for differentiation, the significance of which was confirmed by the aberrant mitochondrial morphology and decreased oxidative respiratory activity in DAP5 knockdown cells. Further analysis identified the chromatin modifier HMGN3 as a cap-independent DAP5 translation target whose knockdown resulted in defective differentiation. Thus, DAP5-mediated translation of a specific set of proteins is critical for the transition from pluripotency to differentiation, highlighting the importance of cap-independent translation in stem cell fate decisions. PMID:27664238

  3. AT7867 Inhibits Human Colorectal Cancer Cells via AKT-Dependent and AKT-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chen; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Shibing; Li, Xiangcheng

    2017-01-01

    AKT is often hyper-activated in human colorectal cancers (CRC). This current study evaluated the potential anti-CRC activity by AT7867, a novel AKT and p70S6K1 (S6K1) dual inhibitor. We showed that AT7867 inhibited survival and proliferation of established (HT-29, HCT116 and DLD-1 lines) and primary human CRC cells. Meanwhile, it provoked caspase-dependent apoptosis in the CRC cells. Molecularly, AT7867 blocked AKT-S6K1 activation in CRC cells. Restoring AKT-S6K1 activation, via expression of a constitutively-active AKT1 (“ca-AKT1”), only partially attenuated AT7867-induced HT-29 cell death. Further studies demonstrated that AT7867 inhibited sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity to promote pro-apoptotic ceramide production in HT-29 cells. Such effects by AT7867 were independent of AKT inhibition. AT7867-indued ceramide production and subsequent HT-29 cell apoptosis were attenuated by co-treatment of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), but were potentiated with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor PDMP. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of AT7867 inhibited HT-29 xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. AKT activation was also inhibited in AT7867-treated HT-29 tumors. Together, the preclinical results suggest that AT7867 inhibits CRC cells via AKT-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:28081222

  4. Anaerobiosis increases resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to O2-independent antimicrobial proteins from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, S G; Shafer, W M; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA19 to the O2-independent antimicrobial systems of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Acid extracts of polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules (crude granule extracts) and a purified granule protein (57 kilodaltons) were, at low concentrations, bactericidal for gonococci under aerobic conditions that permitted growth. However, they were less effective under anaerobic conditions that imposed bacteriostasis. We found that adding sodium nitrite to reduced growth media permitted the growth of strain FA19 in an anaerobic environment. Under these conditions with nitrite, anaerobic cultures of strain FA19 were no more resistant to the crude granule extract and the 57-kilodalton protein than aerobic cultures. In contrast, Salmonella typhimurium SL-1004, a facultative anaerobe, was readily killed by both the crude granule extract and the 57-kilodalton antimicrobial protein regardless of the presence or absence of free molecular oxygen. This is the first demonstration that an isolated antimicrobial protein from polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules is active against bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Our results also indicated that the efficacy of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte O2-independent killing of N. gonorrhoeae may, in part, be inhibited by bacteriostatic conditions imposed by hypoxia. Images PMID:3917976

  5. Independent evolution of bitter-taste sensitivity in humans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wooding, Stephen; Bufe, Bernd; Grassi, Christina; Howard, Michael T; Stone, Anne C; Vazquez, Maribel; Dunn, Diane M; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Weiss, Robert B; Bamshad, Michael J

    2006-04-13

    It was reported over 65 years ago that chimpanzees, like humans, vary in taste sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). This was suggested to be the result of a shared balanced polymorphism, defining the first, and now classic, example of the effects of balancing selection in great apes. In humans, variable PTC sensitivity is largely controlled by the segregation of two common alleles at the TAS2R38 locus, which encode receptor variants with different ligand affinities. Here we show that PTC taste sensitivity in chimpanzees is also controlled by two common alleles of TAS2R38; however, neither of these alleles is shared with humans. Instead, a mutation of the initiation codon results in the use of an alternative downstream start codon and production of a truncated receptor variant that fails to respond to PTC in vitro. Association testing of PTC sensitivity in a cohort of captive chimpanzees confirmed that chimpanzee TAS2R38 genotype accurately predicts taster status in vivo. Therefore, although Fisher et al.'s observations were accurate, their explanation was wrong. Humans and chimpanzees share variable taste sensitivity to bitter compounds mediated by PTC receptor variants, but the molecular basis of this variation has arisen twice, independently, in the two species.

  6. Independent or integrated processing of interaural time and level differences in human auditory cortex?

    PubMed

    Altmann, Christian F; Terada, Satoshi; Kashino, Makio; Goto, Kazuhiro; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Furukawa, Shigeto

    2014-06-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal plane is mainly determined by interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD). Both cues result in an estimate of sound source location and in many real-life situations these two cues are roughly congruent. When stimulating listeners with headphones it is possible to counterbalance the two cues, so called ITD/ILD trading. This phenomenon speaks for integrated ITD/ILD processing at the behavioral level. However, it is unclear at what stages of the auditory processing stream ITD and ILD cues are integrated to provide a unified percept of sound lateralization. Therefore, we set out to test with human electroencephalography for integrated versus independent ITD/ILD processing at the level of preattentive cortical processing by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) to changes in sound lateralization. We presented a series of diotic standards (perceived at a midline position) that were interrupted by deviants that entailed either a change in a) ITD only, b) ILD only, c) congruent ITD and ILD, or d) counterbalanced ITD/ILD (ITD/ILD trading). The sound stimuli were either i) pure tones with a frequency of 500 Hz, or ii) amplitude modulated tones with a carrier frequency of 4000 Hz and a modulation frequency of 125 Hz. We observed significant MMN for the ITD/ILD traded deviants in case of the 500 Hz pure tones, and for the 4000 Hz amplitude-modulated tone. This speaks for independent processing of ITD and ILD at the level of the MMN within auditory cortex. However, the combined ITD/ILD cues elicited smaller MMN than the sum of the MMN induced in response to ITD and ILD cues presented in isolation for 500 Hz, but not 4000 Hz, suggesting independent processing for the higher frequency only. Thus, the two markers for independent processing - additivity and cue-conflict - resulted in contradicting conclusions with a dissociation between the lower (500 Hz) and higher frequency (4000 Hz) bands.

  7. Neuroendocrine Transdifferentiation in Human Prostate Cancer Cells: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Marianna; Paris, Debora; Iannotti, Fabio A; Melck, Dominique; Verde, Roberta; Mazzarella, Enrico; Motta, Andrea; Ligresti, Alessia

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is highly sensitive to hormone therapy because androgens are essential for prostate cancer cell growth. However, with the nearly invariable progression of this disease to androgen independence, endocrine therapy ultimately fails to control prostate cancer in most patients. Androgen-independent acquisition may involve neuroendocrine transdifferentiation, but there is little knowledge about this process, which is presently controversial. In this study, we investigated this question in a novel model of human androgen-dependent LNCaP cells cultured for long periods in hormone-deprived conditions. Strikingly, characterization of the neuroendocrine phenotype by transcriptomic, metabolomic, and other statistically integrated analyses showed how hormone-deprived LNCaP cells could transdifferentiate to a nonmalignantneuroendocrine phenotype. Notably, conditioned media from neuroendocrine-like cells affected LNCaP cell proliferation. Predictive in silico models illustrated how after an initial period, when LNCaP cell survival was compromised by an arising population of neuroendocrine-like cells, a sudden trend reversal occurred in which the neuroendocrine-like cells functioned to sustain the remaining androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Our findings provide direct biologic and molecular support for the concept that neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cell populations influences the progression to androgen independence.

  8. Functional cyclic AMP response element in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) promoter modulates epidermal growth factor receptor pathway- or androgen withdrawal-mediated BCRP/ABCG2 transcription in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Natarajan, Karthika; Safren, Lowell; Hamburger, Anne W.; Hussain, Arif; Ross, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) in the human BCRP promoter that is functional in human cancer cell lines of multiple lineages. 8Br-cAMP increased the activity of a BCRP promoter reporter construct and BCRP mRNA in human carcinoma cells. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway also led to an increase in BCRP promoter reporter activity and to phosphorylation of the c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) via two major downstream EGFR signaling pathways: the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK and CREB, while simultaneously enhancing BCRP mRNA and functional protein expression. EGF-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and BCRP induction were diminished by inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or RAS/MAPK signaling. CREB silencing using RNA interference reduced basal levels of BCRP mRNA and diminished the induction of BCRP by EGF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that a putative CRE site on the BCRP promoter bound phospho-CREB; point mutation of the CRE site abolished EGF-induced stimulation of BCRP promoter reporter activity. Furthermore, the CREB co-activator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator (CRTC2), is also involved in CREB-mediated BCRP transcription: androgen depletion of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells increased both CREB phosphorylation and CRTC2 nuclear translocation, and enhanced BCRP expression. Silencing CREB or CRTC2 reduced basal BCRP expression and BCRP induction under androgen-depletion conditions. This novel CRE site plays a central role in mediating BCRP gene expression in multiple human cancer cell lines following activation of a variety of signaling pathways. PMID:25615818

  9. A new dawn for androgens: Novel lessons from 11-oxygenated C19 steroids.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Elzette; Arlt, Wiebke; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz

    2017-02-05

    The abundant adrenal C19 steroid 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) has been written off as a dead-end product of adrenal steroidogenesis. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that 11OHA4 is the precursor to the potent androgenic 11-oxygenated steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone, that bind and activate the human androgen receptor similarly to testosterone and DHT. The significance of this discovery becomes apparent when considering androgen dependent diseases such as castration resistant prostate cancer and diseases associated with androgen excess, e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. In this review we describe the production and metabolism of 11-oxygenated steroids. We subsequently discuss their androgenic activity and highlight the putative role of these androgens in disease states.

  10. Hematological changes during androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Mathis; Zajac, Jeffrey D

    2012-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with a plethora of adverse effects, consistent with the androgen dependency of multiple reproductive and somatic tissues. One such tissue is the hemopoietic system, and one of the most predictable consequences of ADT is the development of anemia. Although anemia caused by ADT is rarely severe, ADT is often given to frail, elderly men with increased susceptibility to anemia due to multiple other causes. ADT-associated anemia may contribute to fatigue and reduced quality of life (QoL) in such men, although this requires further study. While anemia is an independent risk factor of mortality in men with prostate cancer, it is not known whether treatment of ADT-associated anemia alters clinically important outcomes, or whether treatment affects mortality. Awareness of the phenomenon of ADT-induced anemia should avoid unnecessary work-up in mild cases of normocytic normochromic anemia. However, assessment and treatment of more severe anemia may be required. This should be determined on an individual basis. In contrast to the well-described actions of ADT on erythropoiesis, its effect on other hemopoietic lineages has been less well elucidated. While preclinical studies have found roles for androgens in maturation and differentiated function of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets, the implications of these findings for men with prostate cancer receiving ADT require further studies.

  11. Androgen receptor profiling predicts prostate cancer outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stelloo, Suzan; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van der Poel, Henk G; de Jong, Jeroen; van Leenders, Geert JLH; Jenster, Guido; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Bergman, Andries M; Zwart, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent malignancy in men. Biomarkers for outcome prediction are urgently needed, so that high-risk patients could be monitored more closely postoperatively. To identify prognostic markers and to determine causal players in prostate cancer progression, we assessed changes in chromatin state during tumor development and progression. Based on this, we assessed genomewide androgen receptor/chromatin binding and identified a distinct androgen receptor/chromatin binding profile between primary prostate cancers and tumors with an acquired resistance to therapy. These differential androgen receptor/chromatin interactions dictated expression of a distinct gene signature with strong prognostic potential. Further refinement of the signature provided us with a concise list of nine genes that hallmark prostate cancer outcome in multiple independent validation series. In this report, we identified a novel gene expression signature for prostate cancer outcome through generation of multilevel genomic data on chromatin accessibility and transcriptional regulation and integration with publically available transcriptomic and clinical datastreams. By combining existing technologies, we propose a novel pipeline for biomarker discovery that is easily implementable in other fields of oncology. PMID:26412853

  12. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  13. Benefits of intermittent/continuous androgen deprivation in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    MURESANU, HORIA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims In 1941 Huggins described the effect of castration on prostate cancer. gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) analogues were introduced in 1985. Complete androgen blockade (association of GNRH analogue with antiandrogen) was introduced by Fernand Labrie to achieve suppression of suprarenal testosterone. Long time androgen deprivation lead to androgen independence of the prostate cancer cell. Our principal aim was to demonstrate longer survival rates on prostate cancer patients with intermittent androgen deprivation. Methods 82 patients in the Urology Department of Vasile Goldis West University Arad were included into two groups, with continuous and intermittent androgen deprivation. Treatment efficiency was assessed by the level of testosterone and PSA. Adverse events (AE) and serious adverse events were reported according to Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Results Evolution towards castrate resistant prostate cancer: 12.5% from the intermittent androgen deprivation group and 23.8% from the continuous androgen deprivation group Mortality rate: 15% of patients from the intermittent androgen deprivation group; 19% of patients from the continuous androgen deprivation group Conclusions Better quality of life (Qol) in periods without treatment due to testosteron recovery; Less AE’s and metabolic syndrome (MS) related complications; Better survival and longer time of disease control and Cost reduction. PMID:27547063

  14. Improved androgen specificity of AR-EcoScreen by CRISPR based glucocorticoid receptor knockout.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Nick; Andringa, Dave; de Leeuw, Willem-Jan; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Mitsuru; Houtman, Corine J; de Boer, Jacob; Kool, Jeroen; Lamoree, Marja H; Hamers, Timo

    2017-08-11

    The AR-EcoScreen is a widely used reporter assay for the detection of androgens and anti-androgens. Endogenous expression of glucocorticoid receptors and their affinity for the androgen responsive element that drives reporter expression, however, makes the reporter cells sensitive to interference by glucocorticoids and less specific for (anti-)androgens. To create a glucocorticoid insensitive derivative of the AR-EcoScreen, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to develop glucocorticoid receptor knockout mutants by targeting various sites in the glucocorticoid gene. Two mutant cell lines were further characterized and validated against the unmodified AR-EcoScreen with a set of 19 environmentally relevant chemicals and a series of environmental passive sampler extracts with (anti-)androgenic activity. Sequencing of the targeted sites revealed premature stop codons following frame-shift mutations, leading to an absence of functional glucocorticoid receptor expression. The introduced mutations rendered cell lines insensitive to glucocorticoid activation and caused no significant difference in the responsiveness towards (anti-)androgens, compared to the unmodified AR-EcoScreen cells, allowing the selective, GR-independent, determination of (anti-)androgenicity in environmental passive sampler extracts. The increase in selectivity for (anti-)androgens improves reliability of the AR-EcoScreen and will provide higher accuracy in determining (anti-)androgenic potential when applied in toxicity screening and environmental monitoring of both single compounds and mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Light-independent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection through Bioguided Fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not. Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (...

  16. Discordant measures of androgen-binding kinetics in two mutant androgen receptors causing mild or partial androgen insensitivity, respectively.

    PubMed

    Shkolny, D L; Beitel, L K; Ginsberg, J; Pekeles, G; Arbour, L; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M A

    1999-02-01

    We have characterized two different mutations of the human androgen receptor (hAR) found in two unrelated subjects with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS): in one, the external genitalia were ambiguous (partial, PAIS); in the other, they were male, but small (mild, MAIS). Single base substitutions have been found in both individuals: E772A in the PAIS subject, and R871G in the MAIS patient. In COS-1 cells transfected with the E772A and R871G hARs, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for mibolerone (MB) and methyltrienolone are normal. Nonetheless, the mutant hAR from the PAIS subject (E772A) has elevated nonequilibrium dissociation rate constants (k(diss)) for both androgens. In contrast, the MAIS subject's hAR (R871G) has k(diss) values that are apparently normal for MB and methyltrienolone; in addition, the R871G hAR's ability to bind MB resists thermal stress better than the hAR from the PAIS subject. The E772A and R871G hARs, therefore, confer the same pattern of discordant androgen-binding parameters in transfected COS-1 cells as observed previously in the subjects' genital skin fibroblasts. This proves their pathogenicity and correlates with the relative severity of the clinical phenotype. In COS-1 cells transfected with an androgen-responsive reporter gene, trans-activation was 50% of normal in cells containing either mutant hAR. However, mutant hAR-MB binding is unstable during prolonged incubation with MB, whereas normal hAR-MB binding increases. Thus, normal equilibrium dissociation constants alone, as determined by Scatchard analysis, may not be indicative of normal hAR function. An increased k(diss) despite a normal Kd for a given androgen suggests that it not only has increased egress from a mutant ligand-binding pocket, but also increased access to it. This hypothesis has certain implications in terms of the three-dimensional model of the ligand-binding domain of the nuclear receptor superfamily.

  17. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sappino, André-Pascal; Buser, Raphaële; Lesne, Laurence; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Belin, Dominique; Mandriota, Stefano J

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µ m, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. These effects were preceded by an increase of DNA synthesis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and senescence in proliferating cultures. AlCl(3) also induced DSBs and senescence in proliferating primary human mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, it had no similar effects on human keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and was not detectably mutagenic in bacteria. MCF-10A cells morphologically transformed by long-term exposure to AlCl(3) display strong upregulation of the p53/p21(Waf1) pathway, a key mediator of growth arrest and senescence. These results suggest that aluminium is not generically mutagenic, but similar to an activated oncogene, it induces proliferation stress, DSBs and senescence in normal mammary epithelial cells; and that long-term exposure to AlCl(3) generates and selects for cells able to bypass p53/p21(Waf1) -mediated cellular senescence. Our observations do not formally identify aluminium as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its widespread use in underarm cosmetics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Functional cyclic AMP response element in the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) promoter modulates epidermal growth factor receptor pathway- or androgen withdrawal-mediated BCRP/ABCG2 transcription in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Natarajan, Karthika; Safren, Lowell; Hamburger, Anne W; Hussain, Arif; Ross, Douglas D

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorylated cyclic-AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (p-CREB) is a downstream effector of a variety of important signaling pathways. We investigated whether the human BCRP promoter contains a functional cAMP response element (CRE). 8Br-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased the activity of a BCRP promoter reporter construct and BCRP mRNA in human carcinoma cells. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway activation also led to an increase in p-CREB and in BCRP promoter reporter activity via two major downstream EGFR signaling pathways: the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT, ERK and CREB, while simultaneously enhancing BCRP mRNA and functional protein expression. EGF-stimulated CREB phosphorylation and BCRP induction were diminished by inhibition of EGFR, PI3K/AKT or RAS/MAPK signaling. CREB silencing using RNA interference reduced basal levels of BCRP mRNA and diminished the induction of BCRP by EGF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that a putative CRE site on the BCRP promoter bound p-CREB by a point mutation of the CRE site abolished EGF-induced stimulation of BCRP promoter reporter activity. Furthermore, the CREB co-activator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional co-activator (CRTC2), is involved in CREB-mediated BCRP transcription: androgen depletion of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells increased both CREB phosphorylation and CRTC2 nuclear translocation, and enhanced BCRP expression. Silencing CREB or CRTC2 reduced basal BCRP expression and BCRP induction under androgen-depletion conditions. This novel CRE site plays a central role in mediating BCRP gene expression in several human cancer cell lines following activation of multiple cancer-relevant signaling pathways.

  19. Food components and contaminants as (anti)androgenic molecules.

    PubMed

    Marcoccia, Daniele; Pellegrini, Marco; Fiocchetti, Marco; Lorenzetti, Stefano; Marino, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual differentiation during development, sperm production beginning from puberty, and maintenance of prostate homeostasis. Several substances present in the environment, now classified as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), strongly interfere with androgen actions in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues. EDCs are a heterogeneous group of xenobiotics which include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants, plasticizers, additives, agrochemicals, pharmaceutical agents, and polyphenols of plant origin. These compounds are even present in the food as components (polyphenols) or food/water contaminants (pesticides, plasticizers used as food packaging) rendering the diet as the main route of exposure to EDCs for humans. Although huge amount of literature reports the (anti)estrogenic effects of different EDCs, relatively scarce information is available on the (anti)androgenic effects of EDCs. Here, the effects and mechanism of action of phytochemicals and pesticides and plasticizers as possible modulators of AR activities will be reviewed taking into account that insight derived from principles of endocrinology are required to estimate EDC consequences on endocrine deregulation and disease.

  20. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  1. Fishery-Independent Data Reveal Negative Effect of Human Population Density on Caribbean Predatory Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Stallings, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. Conclusions/Significance Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable. PMID:19421312

  2. Allele-Independent Turnover of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class Ia Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Prevosto, Claudia; Usmani, M. Farooq; McDonald, Sarah; Gumienny, Aleksandra M.; Key, Tim; Goodman, Reyna S.; Gaston, J. S. Hill; Deery, Michael J.; Busch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) glycoproteins present cytosolic peptides to CD8+ T cells and regulate NK cell activity. Their heavy chains (HC) are expressed from up to three MHC gene loci (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A, -B, and -C in humans), whose extensive polymorphism maps predominantly to the antigen-binding groove, diversifying the bound peptide repertoire. Codominant expression of MHCI alleles is thus functionally critical, but how it is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the effect of polymorphism on the turnover rates of MHCI molecules in cell lines with functional MHCI peptide loading pathways and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Proteins were labeled biosynthetically with heavy water (2H2O), folded MHCI molecules immunoprecipitated, and tryptic digests analysed by mass spectrometry. MHCI-derived peptides were assigned to specific alleles and isotypes, and turnover rates quantified by 2H incorporation, after correcting for cell growth. MHCI turnover half-lives ranged from undetectable to a few hours, depending on cell type, activation state, donor, and MHCI isotype. However, in all settings, the turnover half-lives of alleles of the same isotype were similar. Thus, MHCI protein turnover rates appear to be allele-independent in normal human cells. We propose that this is an important feature enabling the normal function and codominant expression of MHCI alleles. PMID:27529174

  3. Human mast cells costimulate T cells through a CD28-independent interaction.

    PubMed

    Suurmond, Jolien; Dorjée, Annemarie L; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells are innate immune cells usually residing in peripheral tissues, where they are likely to activate T-cell responses. Similar to other myeloid immune cells, mast cells can function as antigen-presenting cells. However, little is known about the capacity of human mast cells to costimulate CD4(+) T cells. Here, we studied the T-cell stimulatory potential of human mast cells. Peripheral blood derived mast cells were generated and cocultured with isolated CD4(+) T cells. In the presence of T-cell receptor triggering using anti-CD3, mast cells promoted strong proliferation of T cells, which was two- to fivefold stronger than the "T-cell promoting capacity" of monocytes. The interplay between mast cells and T cells was dependent on cell-cell contact, suggesting that costimulatory molecules on the mast cell surface are responsible for the effect. However, in contrast to monocytes, the T-cell costimulation by mast cells was independent of the classical costimulatory molecule CD28, or that of OX40L, ICOSL, or LIGHT. Our data show that mast cells can costimulate human CD4(+) T cells to induce strong T-cell proliferation, but that therapies aiming at disrupting the interaction of CD28 and B7 molecules do not inhibit mast cell mediated T-cell activation.

  4. Neisseria cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by type IV pilus-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wörmann, Mirka E.; Horien, Corey L.; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Guangyu; Aho, Ellen; Tang, Christoph M.

    2016-01-01

    In pathogenic Neisseria species the type IV pili (Tfp) are of primary importance in host–pathogen interactions. Tfp mediate initial bacterial attachment to cell surfaces and formation of microcolonies via pilus–pilus interactions. Based on genome analysis, many non-pathogenic Neisseria species are predicted to express Tfp, but aside from studies on Neisseria elongata, relatively little is known about the formation and function of pili in these organisms. Here, we have analysed pilin expression and the role of Tfp in Neisseria cinerea. This non-pathogenic species shares a close taxonomic relationship to the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and also colonizes the human oropharyngeal cavity. Through analysis of non-pathogenic Neisseria genomes we identified two genes with homology to pilE, which encodes the major pilin of N. meningitidis. We show which of the two genes is required for Tfp expression in N. cinerea and that Tfp in this species are required for DNA competence, similar to other Neisseria. However, in contrast to the meningococcus, deletion of the pilin gene did not impact the association of N. cinerea to human epithelial cells, demonstrating that N. cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Tfp-independent mechanisms. PMID:26813911

  5. Human telomerase acts as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nilesh K; Reyes, Aurelio; Green, Paula; Caron, Matthieu J; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gordon, Donna M; Holt, Ian J; Santos, Janine Hertzog

    2012-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is localized to mitochondria, as well as the nucleus, but details about its biology and function in the organelle remain largely unknown. Here we show, using multiple approaches, that mammalian TERT is mitochondrial, co-purifying with mitochondrial nucleoids and tRNAs. We demonstrate the canonical nuclear RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR)] is not present in human mitochondria and not required for the mitochondrial effects of telomerase, which nevertheless rely on reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Using RNA immunoprecipitations from whole cell and in organello, we show that hTERT binds various mitochondrial RNAs, suggesting that RT activity in the organelle is reconstituted with mitochondrial RNAs. In support of this conclusion, TERT drives first strand cDNA synthesis in vitro in the absence of hTR. Finally, we demonstrate that absence of hTERT specifically in mitochondria with maintenance of its nuclear function negatively impacts the organelle. Our data indicate that mitochondrial hTERT works as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase, and highlight that nuclear and mitochondrial telomerases have different cellular functions. The implications of these findings to both the mitochondrial and telomerase fields are discussed.

  6. Agarol, an ergosterol derivative from Agaricus blazei, induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takamitsu; Kawai, Junya; Ouchi, Kenji; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Osima, Yoshiteru; Hidemi, Rikiishi

    2016-04-01

    Agaricus blazei (A. blazei) is a mushroom with many biological effects and active ingredients. We purified a tumoricidal substance from A. blazei, an ergosterol derivative, and named it 'Agarol'. Cytotoxic effects of Agarol were determined by the MTT assay using A549, MKN45, HSC-3, and HSC-4 human carcinoma cell lines treated with Agarol. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondria membrane potential (∆ψm) were also determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to quantify the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Agarol predominantly induced apoptosis in two p53-wild cell lines (A549 and MKN45) compared to the other p53-mutant cell lines (HSC-3 and HSC-4). Further mechanistic studies revealed that induction of apoptosis is associated with increased generation of ROS, reduced ∆ψm, release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to the cytosol, upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Caspase-3 activities did not increase, and z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor, did not inhibit the Agarol-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that Agarol induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human carcinoma cells through a mitochondrial pathway. The in vivo anticancer activity of Agarol was confirmed in a xenograft murine model. This study suggests a molecular mechanism by which Agarol induces apoptosis in human carcinoma cells and indicates the potential use of Agarol as an anticancer agent.

  7. Human telomerase acts as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nilesh K.; Reyes, Aurelio; Green, Paula; Caron, Matthieu J.; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Gordon, Donna M.; Holt, Ian J.; Santos, Janine Hertzog

    2012-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is localized to mitochondria, as well as the nucleus, but details about its biology and function in the organelle remain largely unknown. Here we show, using multiple approaches, that mammalian TERT is mitochondrial, co-purifying with mitochondrial nucleoids and tRNAs. We demonstrate the canonical nuclear RNA [human telomerase RNA (hTR)] is not present in human mitochondria and not required for the mitochondrial effects of telomerase, which nevertheless rely on reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Using RNA immunoprecipitations from whole cell and in organello, we show that hTERT binds various mitochondrial RNAs, suggesting that RT activity in the organelle is reconstituted with mitochondrial RNAs. In support of this conclusion, TERT drives first strand cDNA synthesis in vitro in the absence of hTR. Finally, we demonstrate that absence of hTERT specifically in mitochondria with maintenance of its nuclear function negatively impacts the organelle. Our data indicate that mitochondrial hTERT works as a hTR-independent reverse transcriptase, and highlight that nuclear and mitochondrial telomerases have different cellular functions. The implications of these findings to both the mitochondrial and telomerase fields are discussed. PMID:21937513

  8. ICAM-1-independent adhesion of neutrophils to phorbol ester-stimulated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Celi, A; Cianchetti, S; Petruzzelli, S; Carnevali, S; Baliva, F; Giuntini, C

    1999-09-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is the only inducible adhesion receptor for neutrophils identified in bronchial epithelial cells. We stimulated human airway epithelial cells with various agonists to evaluate whether ICAM-1-independent adhesion mechanisms could be elicited. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation of cells of the alveolar cell line A549 caused a rapid, significant increase in neutrophil adhesion from 11 +/- 3 to 49 +/- 7% (SE). A significant increase from 17 +/- 4 to 39 +/- 6% was also observed for neutrophil adhesion to PMA-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells in primary culture. Although ICAM-1 expression was upregulated by PMA at late time points, it was not affected at 10 min when neutrophil adhesion was already clearly enhanced. Antibodies to ICAM-1 had no effect on neutrophil adhesion. In contrast, antibodies to the leukocyte integrin beta-chain CD18 totally inhibited the adhesion of neutrophils to PMA-stimulated epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that PMA stimulation of human airway epithelial cells causes an increase in neutrophil adhesion that is not dependent on ICAM-1 upregulation.

  9. Indomethacin increases susceptibility to injury in human gastric cells independent of PG synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kokoska, E R; Smith, G S; Deshpande, Y; Wolff, A B; Miller, T A

    1998-10-01

    Indomethacin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used to indirectly deduce the possible role of PGs in a process being studied. The objective of this study was to determine if indomethacin, at concentrations comparable to plasma and tissue levels obtained in humans taking therapeutic doses, predisposes human gastric cells to injury through inhibition of PGs or acts through an alternate mechanism. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in this damaging process was also assessed. Indomethacin pretreatment, although by itself nondamaging, was associated with elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and an increased cellular permeability, an effect that was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, indomethacin pretreatment significantly predisposed AGS cells to injury induced by two dissimilar agents (deoxycholate and A-23187), both of which are associated with intracellular Ca2+ accumulation. The addition of exogenous PGs did not reverse the predisposition to injury induced by indomethacin. The observed effects of indomethacin were dependent on concentration and not on ability to inhibit PG synthesis. Similar effects were not observed with equipotent concentrations of ibuprofen or aspirin. Finally, the exacerbation of deoxycholate-induced injury induced by indomethacin was not observed when extracellular Ca2+ was removed. Indomethacin, by disturbing intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, predisposes human gastric cells to injury through mechanisms independent of PG synthesis. The current study suggests that data resulting from studies employing only indomethacin as a PG synthesis inhibitor should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Neisseria cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by type IV pilus-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wörmann, Mirka E; Horien, Corey L; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Guangyu; Aho, Ellen; Tang, Christoph M; Exley, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    In pathogenic Neisseria species the type IV pili (Tfp) are of primary importance in host-pathogen interactions. Tfp mediate initial bacterial attachment to cell surfaces and formation of microcolonies via pilus-pilus interactions. Based on genome analysis, many non-pathogenic Neisseria species are predicted to express Tfp, but aside from studies on Neisseria elongata, relatively little is known about the formation and function of pili in these organisms. Here, we have analysed pilin expression and the role of Tfp in Neisseria cinerea. This non-pathogenic species shares a close taxonomic relationship to the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and also colonizes the human oropharyngeal cavity. Through analysis of non-pathogenic Neisseria genomes we identified two genes with homology to pilE, which encodes the major pilin of N. meningitidis. We show which of the two genes is required for Tfp expression in N. cinerea and that Tfp in this species are required for DNA competence, similar to other Neisseria. However, in contrast to the meningococcus, deletion of the pilin gene did not impact the association of N. cinerea to human epithelial cells, demonstrating that N. cinerea isolates can adhere to human epithelial cells by Tfp-independent mechanisms.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Hima; Upadya, Gatha M

    2016-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (<35 years) androgenic alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.00. Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4%) patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4%) controls (P = 0.021). Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.

  12. Biologic agents as adjunctive therapy for prostate cancer: a rationale for use with androgen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eric C; Cambio, Angelo J; Yang, Joy C; Lara, Primo N; Evans, Christopher P

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of prostate cancer emphasizes the need for improved therapeutic options, particularly for metastatic disease. Current treatment includes medical or surgical castration, which initially induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells, but ultimately an androgen-independent subpopulation emerges. In addition to a transient therapeutic effect, androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) can initiate biochemical events that may contribute to the development of and progression to an androgen-independent state. This transition involves multiple signal transduction pathways that are accompanied by many biochemical changes resulting from ADT. These molecular events themselves are therapeutic targets and serve as a rationale for adjunctive treatment at the time of ADT.

  13. A clinical data validated mathematical model of prostate cancer growth under intermittent androgen suppression therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portz, Travis; Kuang, Yang; Nagy, John D.

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is commonly treated by a form of hormone therapy called androgen suppression. This form of treatment, while successful at reducing the cancer cell population, adversely affects quality of life and typically leads to a recurrence of the cancer in an androgen-independent form. Intermittent androgen suppression aims to alleviate some of these adverse affects by cycling the patient on and off treatment. Clinical studies have suggested that intermittent therapy is capable of maintaining androgen dependence over multiple treatment cycles while increasing quality of life during off-treatment periods. This paper presents a mathematical model of prostate cancer to study the dynamics of androgen suppression therapy and the production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a clinical marker for prostate cancer. Preliminary models were based on the assumption of an androgen-independent (AI) cell population with constant net growth rate. These models gave poor accuracy when fitting clinical data during simulation. The final model presented hypothesizes an AI population with increased sensitivity to low levels of androgen. It also hypothesizes that PSA production is heavily dependent on androgen. The high level of accuracy in fitting clinical data with this model appears to confirm these hypotheses, which are also consistent with biological evidence.

  14. Smoking and Female Sex: Independent Predictors of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stiffening

    PubMed Central

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Hadassa Campos; Vaquero, André Ramos; Martelini, André Ricardo; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2015-01-01

    Aims Recent evidence shows the rigidity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) contributes to vascular mechanics. Arterial rigidity is an independent cardiovascular risk factor whose associated modifications in VSMC viscoelasticity have never been investigated. This study’s objective was to evaluate if the arterial rigidity risk factors aging, African ancestry, female sex, smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with VMSC stiffening in an experimental model using a human derived vascular smooth muscle primary cell line repository. Methods Eighty patients subjected to coronary artery bypass surgery were enrolled. VSMCs were extracted from internal thoracic artery fragments and mechanically evaluated using Optical Magnetic Twisting Cytometry assay. The obtained mechanical variables were correlated with the clinical variables: age, gender, African ancestry, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results The mechanical variables Gr, G’r and G”r had a normal distribution, demonstrating an inter-individual variability of VSMC viscoelasticity, which has never been reported before. Female sex and smoking were independently associated with VSMC stiffening: Gr (apparent cell stiffness) p = 0.022 and p = 0.018, R2 0.164; G’r (elastic modulus) p = 0.019 and p = 0.009, R2 0.184 and G”r (dissipative modulus) p = 0.011 and p = 0.66, R2 0.141. Conclusion Female sex and smoking are independent predictors of VSMC stiffening. This pro-rigidity effect represents an important element for understanding the vascular rigidity observed in post-menopausal females and smokers, as well as a potential therapeutic target to be explored in the future. There is a significant inter-individual variation of VSMC viscoelasticity, which is slightly modulated by clinical variables and probably relies on molecular factors. PMID:26661469