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Sample records for human beta-2 adrenergic

  1. Human cardiac beta1- or beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation and the negative chronotropic effect of low-dose pirenzepine.

    PubMed

    Jakubetz, J; Schmuck, S; Wochatz, G; Ruhland, B; Poller, U; Radke, J; Brodde, O E

    2000-05-01

    The M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine in low doses (<1 mg intravenously) decreases heart rate. We investigated whether these effects of pirenzepine differ in volunteers with activated cardiac beta1-adrenergic receptors versus activated cardiac beta2-adrenergic receptors. In 17 male volunteers (25 +/- 1 years) we studied effects of pirenzepine infusion (0.5 mg intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion of 0.15 microg/kg/min) on heart rate and heart rate-corrected duration of electromechanical systole (QS2c, as a measure of inotropism) that had been stimulated by activation of cardiac beta1-adrenergic receptors (bicycle exercise in the supine position for 60 minutes at 25 W) or cardiac beta2-adrenergic receptors (continuous intravenous infusion of 100 ng/kg/min terbutaline). Bicycle exercise and terbutaline infusion significantly increased heart rate and shortened QS2c. When pirenzepine was infused 20 minutes after the beginning of the exercise or terbutaline infusion, heart rate decreased in both settings by approximately the same extent (approximately -10 to -14 beats/min), although exercise and terbutaline infusion continued; however, QS2c was not affected. Pirenzepine (0.05 to 1 mg intravenous bolus)-induced decrease in heart rate was abolished after 6 days of transdermal scopolamine treatment of volunteers. Low-dose pirenzepine decreased heart rate by muscarinic receptor stimulation, because this was blocked by scopolamine. Moreover, low-dose pirenzepine did not differentiate between cardiac beta1- or beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation; however, low-dose pirenzepine did not affect cardiac contractility as measured by QS2c. Low-dose pirenzepine therefore exerted a unique pattern of action in the human heart: it decreased heart rate (basal and beta1- and/or beta2-adrenergic receptor-stimulated) without affecting contractility.

  2. Regulation of cyclic AMP formation in cultures of human foetal astrocytes by beta 2-adrenergic and adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Woods, M D; Freshney, R I; Ball, S G; Vaughan, P F

    1989-09-01

    Two cell cultures, NEP2 and NEM2, isolated from human foetal brain have been maintained through several passages and found to express some properties of astrocytes. Both cell cultures contain adenylate cyclase stimulated by catecholamines with a potency order of isoprenaline greater than adrenaline greater than salbutamol much greater than noradrenaline, which is consistent with the presence of beta 2-adrenergic receptors. This study reports that the beta 2-adrenergic-selective antagonist ICI 118,551 is approximately 1,000 times more potent at inhibiting isoprenaline stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in both NEP2 and NEM2 than the beta 1-adrenergic-selective antagonist practolol. This observation confirms the presence of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in these cell cultures. The formation of cAMP in NEP2 is also stimulated by 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine (NECA) more potently than by either adenosine or N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (L-PIA), which suggests that this foetal astrocyte expresses adenosine A2 receptors. Furthermore, L-PIA and NECA inhibit isoprenaline stimulation of cAMP formation, a result suggesting the presence of adenosine A1 receptors on NEP2. The presence of A1 receptors is confirmed by the observation that the A1-selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine reverses the inhibition of isoprenaline stimulation of cAMP formation by L-PIA and NECA. Additional evidence that NEP2 expresses adenosine receptors linked to the adenylate cyclase-inhibitory GTP-binding protein is provided by the finding that pretreatment of these cells with pertussis toxin reverses the adenosine inhibition of cAMP formation stimulated by either isoprenaline or forskolin.

  3. Beta2-adrenergic signaling affects the phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cells through EMT modulation.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Francesca; Angelini, Francesco; Siciliano, Camilla; Tasciotti, Julia; Mangino, Giorgio; De Falco, Elena; Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Frati, Giacomo; Chimenti, Isotta

    2017-01-15

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). β2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between β2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the biological response of CSs to β2-adrenergic stimuli, focusing on EMT modulation in the 3D culture system of CSs. We treated human CSs and CS-derived cells (CDCs) with the β2-blocker butoxamine (BUT), using either untreated or β2 agonist (clenbuterol) treated CDCs as control. BUT-treated CS-forming cells displayed increased migration capacity and a significant increase in their CS-forming ability, consistently associated with increased expression of EMT-related genes, such as Snai1. Moreover, long-term BUT-treated CDCs contained a lower percentage of CD90+ cells, and this feature has been previously correlated with higher cardiogenic and therapeutic potential of the CDCs population. In addition, long-term BUT-treated CDCs had an increased ratio of collagen-III/collagen-I gene expression levels, and showed decreased release of inflammatory cytokines, overall supporting a less fibrosis-prone phenotype. In conclusion, β2 adrenergic receptor block positively affected the stemness vs commitment balance within CSs through the modulation of type1-EMT (so called "developmental"). These results further highlight type-1 EMT to be a key process affecting the features of resident cardiac progenitor cells, and mediating their response to the microenvironment.

  4. Involvement of tyrosine residues located in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor in agonist-induced down-regulation of the receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Bonin, H; Hnatowich, M; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Bouvier, M

    1990-01-01

    Chronic exposure of various cell types to adrenergic agonists leads to a decrease in cell surface beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) number. Sequestration of the receptor away from the cell surface as well as a down-regulation of the total number of cellular receptors are believed to contribute to this agonist-mediated regulation of receptor number. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not well characterized. Recently, tyrosine residues located in the cytoplasmic tails of several membrane receptors, such as the low density lipoprotein and mannose-6-phosphate receptors, have been suggested as playing an important role in the agonist-induced internalization of these receptors. Accordingly, we assessed the potential role of two tyrosine residues in the carboxyl tail of the human beta 2AR in agonist-induced sequestration and down-regulation of the receptor. Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 of the human beta 2AR were replaced with alanine residues by site-directed mutagenesis and both wild-type and mutant beta 2AR were stably expressed in transformed Chinese hamster fibroblasts. The mutation dramatically decreased the ability of the beta 2AR to undergo isoproterenol-induced down-regulation. However, the substitution of Tyr-350 and Tyr-354 did not affect agonist-induced sequestration of the receptor. These results suggest that tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of human beta 2AR are crucial determinants involved in its down-regulation. PMID:2164220

  5. Beta2-adrenergic receptor activation delays wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Grahn, Jennifer C; Liu, Wei; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2006-01-01

    Keratinocytes migrate directionally into the wound bed to initiate re-epithelialization, necessary for wound closure and restoration of barrier function. They solely express the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) subtype of beta-ARs and can also synthesize beta-AR agonists generating a hormonal mediator network in the skin. Emerging studies from our laboratory demonstrate that beta-AR agonists decrease keratinocyte migration via a protein phosphatase (PP) 2A-dependent mechanism. Here we have extended our investigations to observe the effects of beta2-AR activation on keratinocyte polarization, migration, and ERK phosphorylation at the wound edge, cytoskeletal organization, phospho-ERK intracellular localization, proliferation, human skin wound re-epithelialization, wound-induced ERK phosphorylation, and murine skin wound healing. We demonstrate that in keratinocytes, beta2-AR activation is anti-motogenic and anti-mitogenic with both mechanisms being PP2A dependent. beta2-AR activation dramatically alters the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and prevents localization of phospho-ERK to the lamellipodial edge and its colocalization with vinculin. Finally, we demonstrate a beta2-AR-mediated delay in re-epithelialization and decrease in wound-induced epidermal ERK phosphorylation in human skin wounds and a delay in re-epithelialization in murine tail-clip wounds. Our work uncovers novel keratinocyte biology and a previously unrecognized role for the adrenergic hormonal mediator network in the wound repair process.

  6. The effect of exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation on glutathionylation and function of the Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Juel, Carsten; Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Potassium and sodium displacements across the skeletal muscle membrane during exercise may cause fatigue and are in part controlled by the Na,K-ATPase. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase is therefore important for muscle functioning. We investigated the effect of oxidative stress (glutathionylation) on Na,K-ATPase activity. Ten male subjects performed three bouts of 4-min submaximal exercise followed by intense exercise to exhaustion with and without beta2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest (Control samples) and at exhaustion. In vitro glutathionylation reduced (P < 0.05) maximal Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Na,K-ATPase α subunits, purified by immunoprecipitation and tested by glutathione (GSH) antibodies, had a basal glutathionylation in Control samples and no further glutathionylation with exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation. Immunoprecipitation with an anti-GSH antibody and subsequent immunodetection with β1 antibodies showed approximately 20% glutathionylation in Control samples and further glutathionylation after exercise (to 32%) and beta2-adrenergic stimulation (to 38%, P < 0.05). Combining exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation raised the β1 glutathionylation to 45% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both α and β1 subunits of the Na,K-ATPase were glutathionylated in Control samples, which indicates that the maximal Na,K-ATPase activity is overestimated if based on protein density only. β1 subunits are further glutathionylated by exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation. Our data suggest that glutathionylation contributes to the complex regulation of Na,K-ATPase function in human skeletal muscle. Glutathionylation of the Na,K-ATPase may explain reductions in maximal Na,K-ATPase activity after exercise, which may be involved in muscle fatigue. PMID:26296772

  7. The effect of exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation on glutathionylation and function of the Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Juel, Carsten; Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Potassium and sodium displacements across the skeletal muscle membrane during exercise may cause fatigue and are in part controlled by the Na,K-ATPase. Regulation of the Na,K-ATPase is therefore important for muscle functioning. We investigated the effect of oxidative stress (glutathionylation) on Na,K-ATPase activity. Ten male subjects performed three bouts of 4-min submaximal exercise followed by intense exercise to exhaustion with and without beta2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest (Control samples) and at exhaustion. In vitro glutathionylation reduced (P < 0.05) maximal Na,K-ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Na,K-ATPase α subunits, purified by immunoprecipitation and tested by glutathione (GSH) antibodies, had a basal glutathionylation in Control samples and no further glutathionylation with exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation. Immunoprecipitation with an anti-GSH antibody and subsequent immunodetection with β1 antibodies showed approximately 20% glutathionylation in Control samples and further glutathionylation after exercise (to 32%) and beta2-adrenergic stimulation (to 38%, P < 0.05). Combining exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation raised the β1 glutathionylation to 45% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, both α and β1 subunits of the Na,K-ATPase were glutathionylated in Control samples, which indicates that the maximal Na,K-ATPase activity is overestimated if based on protein density only. β1 subunits are further glutathionylated by exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation. Our data suggest that glutathionylation contributes to the complex regulation of Na,K-ATPase function in human skeletal muscle. Glutathionylation of the Na,K-ATPase may explain reductions in maximal Na,K-ATPase activity after exercise, which may be involved in muscle fatigue.

  8. Monitoring the human beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenergic receptors expression and purification in Pichia pastoris using the fluorescence properties of the enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Talmont, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The three beta adrenergic receptor subtypes, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-, were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. These receptors were N-terminally fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the fluorescent properties of EGFP were used: (1) to select the recombinant strains, (2) to monitor the expression of the fluorescent receptors, and (3) to monitor the purification of the receptors by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We demonstrate here that Pichia pastoris can be an alternative host to express and purify milligram amounts of human beta adrenergic receptors.

  9. Hypoxia induced changes in lung fluid balance in humans is associated with beta-2 adrenergic receptor density on lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Micah W; Taylor, Bryan J; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Johnson, Bruce D; Snyder, Eric M

    2012-08-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β(2)AR) in lung fluid clearance. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between β(2)AR density on lymphocytes and indices of lung water in healthy humans exposed to ≈ 17 h of hypoxia (FIO2 = 12.5% in a hypoxia tent). Thirteen adults (mean ± SEM; age=31 ± 3 years, BMI=24 ± 1 kg/m(2), VO2 Peak = 40 ± 2 ml/kg/min ) participated. Pulmonary function, CT derived lung tissue volume (V(tis)-tissue, blood and water), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (D(CO)) and nitric oxide (D(NO)), alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)), pulmonary capillary blood volume (V(c)) and lung water (CT V(tis)-V(c)) were assessed before and after ≈ 17 h normobaric hypoxia (FIO2 = 12.5%). β(2)AR density on lymphocytes was measured via radioligand binding. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac output (Q), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and blood pressure (BP) were also assessed. After 17 h hypoxia, SaO2 decreased from 97 ± 1 (normoxia) to 82 ± 4% and RVSP increased from 14 ± 3 (normoxia) to 29 ± 2 mmHg (p<0.05) with little change in Q or BP. V(c) and D(M) both increased with hypoxia with a small increase in D(M)/V(c) ratio (p>0.05). CT V(tis) decreased and lung water was estimated to decline 7 ± 13%, respectively. β(2)AR density averaged 1497 ± 187 receptors/lymphocyte and increased 21 ± 34% with hypoxia (range -31 to +86%). The post-hypoxia increase in β(2)AR density was significantly related to the reduction in lung water (r=-0.64, p<0.05), with the subjects with the greatest increase in density demonstrating the largest decline in lung water. Lung water decreases with 17 h normobaric hypoxia are associated with changes in beta adrenergic receptor density on lymphocytes in healthy adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoxia Induced Changes in Lung Fluid Balance in Humans is Associated with Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Density on Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Micah W.; Taylor, Bryan J.; Hulsebus, Minelle L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated an important role for beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2AR) in lung fluid clearance. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between β2AR density on lymphocytes and indices of lung water in healthy humans exposed to ~17hr of hypoxia (FIO2 12.5% in a hypoxia tent). Methods Thirteen adults (mean±SEM; age=31±3yr, BMI=24±1 kg/m2, VO2Peak=40±2 ml/kg/min) participated. Pulmonary function, CT derived lung tissue volume (Vtis-tissue, blood & water), lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DCO) and nitric oxide (DNO), alveolar-capillary conductance (DM), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and lung water (CT Vtis − Vc) were assessed before and after ~17hr normobaric hypoxia (FIO2 12.5%). β2AR density on lymphocytes was measured via radioligand binding. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac output (Q), right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and blood pressure (BP) were also assessed. Results After 17hr hypoxia, SaO2 decreased from 97±1 (normoxia) to 82±4% and RVSP increased from 15±9 (normoxia) to 28±4mmHg (p<0.05) with little change in Q or BP. Vc and DM both increased with hypoxia with a small increase in DM/Vc ratio (p>0.05). CT Vtis decreased and lung water was estimated to decline 7±13%, respectively. β2AR density averaged 1497±187 receptors/lymphocyte and increased 21±34% with hypoxia (range −31 to +86%). The post-hypoxia increase in β2AR density was significantly related to the reduction in lung water (r=−0.64, p<0.05), with the subjects with the greatest increase in density demonstrating the largest decline in lung water. Conclusions Lung water decreases with 17hr normobaric hypoxia are associated with changes in beta adrenergic receptor density on lymphocytes in healthy adults. PMID:22772314

  11. Combination of roflumilast with a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist inhibits proinflammatory and profibrotic mediator release from human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Small airway narrowing is an important pathology which impacts lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The accumulation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts contribute to inflammation, remodeling and fibrosis by production and release of mediators such as cytokines, profibrotic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. This study investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast, combined with the long acting β2 adrenergic agonist indacaterol, both approved therapeutics for COPD, on fibroblast functions that contribute to inflammation and airway fibrosis. Methods The effects of roflumilast and indacaterol treatment were characterized on transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)-treated normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). NHLF were evaluated for expression of the profibrotic mediators endothelin-1 (ET-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin (FN) secretion. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was used to induce secretion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from NHLF and drug inhibition was assessed. Results Evaluation of roflumilast (1-10 μM) showed no significant inhibition alone on TGFβ1-induced ET-1 and CTGF mRNA transcripts, ET-1 and FN protein production, alpha smooth muscle expression, or TNF-α-induced secretion of CXCL10, CCL5 and GM-CSF. A concentration-dependent inhibition of ET-1 and CTGF was shown with indacaterol treatment, and a submaximal concentration was chosen for combination studies. When indacaterol (0.1 nM) was added to roflumilast, significant inhibition was seen on all inflammatory and fibrotic mediators evaluated, which was superior to the inhibition seen with either drug alone. Roflumilast plus indacaterol combination treatment resulted in significantly elevated phosphorylation of the

  12. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  13. Human-specific SNP in obesity genes, adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.

  14. PP2A activation by beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists: novel regulatory mechanism of keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Chen, Jin; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2003-06-20

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell migration is important for devising novel therapies to control metastasis or enhance wound healing. Previously, we demonstrated that beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) activation in keratinocytes inhibited their migration by decreasing the phosphorylation of a critical promigratory signaling component, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). Here we demonstrate that beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration is mediated by the activation of the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A. Pretreating human keratinocytes with the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid, prevented the beta2-AR-induced inhibition of migration, either as isolated cells or as a confluent sheet of cells repairing an in vitro "wound" and also prevented the beta2-AR-induced reduction in ERK phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with human corneal epithelial cells. In keratinocytes, immunoprecipitation studies revealed that beta2-AR activation resulted in the rapid association of beta2-AR with PP2A as well as a 37% increase in association of PP2A with ERK2. Finally, beta2-AR activation resulted in a rapid and transient 2-fold increase in PP2A activity. Thus, we provide the first evidence that beta2-AR activation in keratinocytes modulates migration via a novel pathway utilizing PP2A to alter the promigratory signaling cascade. Exploiting this pathway may result in novel therapeutic approaches for control of epithelial cell migration.

  15. Beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling mediates corneal epithelial wound repair.

    PubMed

    Ghoghawala, Shahed Y; Mannis, Mark J; Pullar, Christine E; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2008-05-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists are frequently prescribed ophthalmic drugs, yet previous investigations into how catecholamines affect corneal wound healing have yielded conflicting With the use of an integrated pharmacologic and genetic approach, the authors investigated how the beta-AR impacts corneal epithelial healing. Migratory rates of cultured adult murine corneal epithelial (AMCE) cells and in vivo corneal wound healing were examined in beta2-AR(+/+) and beta2-AR(-/-) mice. Signaling pathways were evaluated by immunoblotting. results. The beta-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased AMCE cell migratory speed to 70% of untreated controls, and this was correlated with a 0.60-fold decrease in levels of activated phospho-ERK (P-ERK). Treatment with the beta-AR antagonist (timolol) increased speed 33% and increased P-ERK 2.4-fold (P < 0.05). The same treatment protocols had no effect on AMCE cells derived from beta2-AR(-/-) mice; all treatment groups showed statistically equivalent migratory speeds and ERK phosphorylation. In beta2-AR(+/+) animals, the beta-AR agonist (isoproterenol) delayed the rate of in vivo corneal wound healing by 79%, whereas beta-AR antagonist (timolol) treatment increased the rate of healing by 16% (P < 0.05) compared with saline-treated controls. In contrast, in the beta2-AR(-/-) mice, all treatment groups demonstrated equivalent rates of wound healing. Additionally, murine corneal epithelial cell expressed the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and detectable levels of epinephrine (184.5 pg/mg protein). The authors provide evidence of an endogenous autocrine catecholamine signaling pathway dependent on an intact beta2-AR for the modulation of corneal epithelial wound repair.

  16. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  17. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  18. Biochemical and immunochemical analysis of avian beta 1 and mammalian beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chapot, M P; Cervantes, P; Kaveri, S; Durieu-Trautmann, O; Delavier-Klutchko, C; Emorine, L; Couraud, P O; Strosberg, A D

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the molecular properties of avian beta 1-adrenergic receptor and human beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The turkey erythrocytes beta 1-receptor has been solubilized in active form by digitonin and has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography followed by electroelution from polyacrylamide gel. The photoactivable ligand, iodocyanopindololdiazirine, labels specifically a major 45 kDa and minor 55 kDa polypeptide in turkey erythrocytes, whereas in A431, it labels two polypeptides of molecular weights 65 kDa and 55 kDa. Both types of receptors are N- and possibly O-glycosylated but the turkey beta 1 receptor has only complex carbohydrates whereas the human beta 2 receptor has in addition oligo mannosidic polysaccharidic moiety. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors. Polyclonal antibodies were found to mimic beta-adrenergic agonists by stimulating adenylate cyclase upon binding to the receptors. The monoclonal antibodies precipitated both intact and affinity labeled receptors which they also revealed on immunoblots.

  19. Beta 2-adrenergic stimulation causes detachment of natural killer cells from cultured endothelium.

    PubMed

    Benschop, R J; Oostveen, F G; Heijnen, C J; Ballieux, R E

    1993-12-01

    Physical exercise, mental stress, or infusion of beta-adrenergic agonists result in an increase in the number of natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral circulation. In view of the specific migration pattern of NK cells in vivo, it has been suggested that these cells may be released from the marginating pool in blood vessels. In the present report, the in vitro effect of catecholamines on the adhesion of NK cells to unstimulated human endothelial cells (EC) was characterized. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were allowed to adhere to monolayers of EC, after which the adherent lymphocyte fraction was analyzed phenotypically by flow cytometry. NK cells were found to adhere preferentially to EC, a process that was reversed by the addition of various adrenergic agonists. Catecholamines selectively affected adhesion of NK cells and had no effect on T cell adhesion to EC, as was determined by the use of purified cell populations. Detachment of NK cells from EC could be achieved by short incubations (5 min) with epinephrine (EPI) and was concentration-dependent, with an ED50 of 2 x 10(-10)M. Using a panel of alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists, we show that the detachment of NK cells is mediated via beta 2-adrenergic receptors. In line with the lower affinity for beta 2-adrenergic receptors, norepinephrine was less effective than EPI in inducing detachment of NK cells from EC. Direct activation of adenylate-cyclase with forskolin gave similar results as observed with EPI, indicating that signaling through cAMP is necessary to induce detachment of NK cells from EC. The results of the present study lend support to the hypothesis that catecholamines, via beta 2-adrenergic receptors, can induce recruitment of NK cells from the marginating pool to the circulating pool, by changing the adhesive interactions between NK cells and EC.

  20. Pharmacogenetics of beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists in asthma management.

    PubMed

    Ortega, V E

    2014-07-01

    Beta2 (β2) adrenergic receptor agonists (beta agonists) are a commonly prescribed treatment for asthma despite the small increase in risk for life-threatening adverse responses associated with long-acting beta agonist (LABA). The concern for life-threatening adverse effects associated with LABA and the inter-individual variability of therapeutic responsiveness to LABA-containing combination therapies provide the rationale for pharmacogenetic studies of beta agonists. These studies primarily evaluated genes within the β2-adrenergic receptor and related pathways; however, recent genome-wide studies have identified novel loci for beta agonist response. Recent studies have identified a role for rare genetic variants in determining beta agonist response and, potentially, the risk for rare, adverse responses to LABA. Before genomics research can be applied to the development of genetic profiles for personalized medicine, it will be necessary to continue adapting to the analysis of an increasing volume of genetic data in larger cohorts with a combination of analytical methods and in vitro studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mechanism regulating proasthmatic effects of prolonged homologous beta2-adrenergic receptor desensitization in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nino, Gustavo; Hu, Aihua; Grunstein, Judith S; Grunstein, Michael M

    2009-10-01

    Use of long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) agonists to treat asthma incurs an increased risk of asthma morbidity with impaired bronchodilation and heightened bronchoconstriction, reflecting the adverse effects of prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. Since phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) regulates ASM relaxation and contractility, we examined whether the changes in ASM function induced by prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization are attributed to altered expression and action of PDE4. Cultured human ASM cells and isolated rabbit ASM tissues exposed for 24 h to the long-acting beta2AR agonist salmeterol exhibited impaired acute beta2AR-mediated cAMP accumulation and relaxation, respectively, together with ASM constrictor hyperresponsiveness. These proasthmatic-like changes in ASM function were associated with upregulated PDE4 activity due to enhanced expression of the PDE4D5 isoform and were prevented by pretreating the ASM preparations with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram or with inhibitors of either PKA or ERK1/2 signaling. Extended studies using gene silencing and pharmacological approaches demonstrated that: 1) the mechanism underlying upregulated PDE4D5 expression following prolonged beta2AR agonist exposure involves PKA-dependent activation of G(i) protein signaling via its betagamma-subunits, which elicits downstream activation of ERK1/2 and its induction of PDE4D5 transcription; and 2) the induction of PDE4 activity and consequent changes in ASM responsiveness are prevented by pretreating the beta2AR agonist-exposed ASM preparations with inhibitors of G(i)-betagamma signaling. Collectively, these findings identify that the proasthmatic changes in ASM function resulting from prolonged homologous beta2AR desensitization are attributed to upregulated PDE4 expression induced by G(i)-betagamma-mediated cross-talk between the PKA and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with whisker barrels in rat somatosensory cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, P.; Kaufmann, D.; Hand, P.J.; Wolfe, B.B. )

    1990-07-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with whisker barrels in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array.

  3. Mediating delta-opioid-initiated heart protection via the beta2-adrenergic receptor: role of the intrinsic cardiac adrenergic cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-He; Wang, Hui-Qun; Roeske, William R; Birnbaum, Yochai; Wu, Yewen; Yang, Ning-Ping; Lin, Yu; Ye, Yumei; McAdoo, David J; Hughes, Michael G; Lick, Scott D; Boor, Paul J; Lui, Charles Y; Uretsky, Barry F

    2007-07-01

    Stimulation of cardiac beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) or delta-opioid receptor (DOR) exerts a similar degree of cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia in experimental models. We hypothesized that delta-opioid-initiated cardioprotection is mediated by the intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell via enhanced epinephrine release. Using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods, we detected in situ tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and TH immunoreactivity that was colocalized with DOR immunoreactivity in ICA cells in human and rat hearts. Western blot analysis detected DOR protein in ICA cells isolated from rat ventricular myocytes. The physiology of DOR expression was examined by determining changes of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients in isolated rat ICA cells using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Exposing the selective delta-opioid agonist D-[Pen(2,5)]enkephalin (DPDPE) to ICA cells increased [Ca(2+)](i) transients in a concentration-dependent manner. Such an effect was abolished by the Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine. HPLC-electrochemical detection demonstrated a 2.4-fold increase in epinephrine release from ICA cells following DPDPE application. The significance of the ICA cell and its epinephrine release in delta-opioid-initiated cardioprotection was demonstrated in the rat myocardial infarction model and ICA cell-ventricular myocyte coculture. DPDPE administered before coronary artery occlusion or simulated ischemia-reperfusion reduced left ventricular infarct size by 54 +/- 15% or myocyte death by 26 +/- 4%, respectively. beta(2)-AR blockade markedly attenuated delta-opioid-initiated infarct size-limiting effect and abolished delta-opioid-initiated myocyte survival protection in rat ICA cell-myocyte coculture. Furthermore, delta-opioid agonist exerted no myocyte survival protection in the absence of cocultured ICA cells during ischemia-reperfusion. We conclude that delta-opioid-initiated myocardial infarct size

  4. Dynamic behavior of fully solvated beta2-adrenergic receptor, embedded in the membrane with bound agonist or antagonist.

    PubMed

    Spijker, Peter; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Freddolino, Peter L; Hilbers, Peter A J; Goddard, William A

    2006-03-28

    Recently we predicted the 3D structure of the human beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and of the binding site of several agonists and antagonists to beta2AR. These predictions (MembStruk and HierDock) included no explicit water and only a few lipid molecules. Here we include explicit H(2)O and an infinite lipid bilayer membrane in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three systems: apo-beta2AR, epinephrine-bound beta2AR, and butoxamine-bound beta2AR (epinephrine is an endogenous agonist, and butoxamine is a beta2AR selective antagonist). The predicted structures for apo-beta2AR and butoxamine-beta2AR are stable in MD, but in epinephrine-beta2AR, extracellular water trickles into the binding pocket to mediate hydrogen bonding between the catechol of epinephrine and Ser-204 on helix 5. The epinephrine-beta2AR structure shows dynamic flexibility with small, piston-like movements of helices 3 and 6 and transient interhelical hydrogen bonding between Ser-165 on transmembrane 4 and Ser-207 on transmembrane 5. These couplings and motions may play a role in protein activation. The apo-beta2AR shows less dynamic flexibility, whereas the antagonist-beta2AR structure is quite rigid. This MD validation of the structure predictions for G protein-coupled receptors in explicit lipid and water suggests that these methods can be trusted for studying the mechanism of activation and the design of subtype-specific agonists and antagonists.

  5. Beta 2-adrenergic agonist as adjunct therapy to levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Schwartzman, R J; Nukes, T A; Grothusen, J R; Hooker, M D

    1994-08-01

    We studied the effect of the beta 2-adrenergic agonist albuterol on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving chronic levodopa treatment. The albuterol-treated patients demonstrated reduced parkinsonian symptoms and an increased ability to tap their index finger between two points 20 cm apart, and were able to perform a "walk test" in 70% of their control time. Three patients currently on chronic albuterol therapy still show amelioration of their parkinsonian symptoms, and two have reduced their daily levodopa dose. This study suggests that beta 2-adrenergic agonists as adjunct therapy to levodopa may be beneficial in PD.

  6. Light-driven activation of beta 2-adrenergic receptor signaling by a chimeric rhodopsin containing the beta 2-adrenergic receptor cytoplasmic loops.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Myoung; Hwa, John; Garriga, Pere; Reeves, Philip J; RajBhandary, Uttam L; Khorana, H Gobind

    2005-02-22

    Structure-function studies of rhodopsin indicate that both intradiscal and transmembrane (TM) domains are required for retinal binding and subsequent light-induced structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain. Further, a hypothesis involving a common mechanism for activation of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) has been proposed. To test this hypothesis, chimeric receptors were required in which the cytoplasmic domains of rhodopsin were replaced with those of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR). Their preparation required identification of the boundaries between the TM domain of rhodopsin and the cytoplasmic domain of the beta(2)-AR necessary for formation of the rhodopsin chromophore and its activation by light and subsequent optimal activation of beta(2)-AR signaling. Chimeric receptors were constructed in which the cytoplasmic loops of rhodopsin were replaced one at a time and in combination. In these replacements, size of the third cytoplasmic (EF) loop critically determined the extent of chromophore formation, its stability, and subsequent signal transduction specificity. All the EF loop replacements showed significant decreases in transducin activation, while only minor effects were observed by replacements of the CD and AB loops. Light-dependent activation of beta(2)-AR leading to Galphas signaling was observed only for the EF2 chimera, and its activation was further enhanced by replacements of the other loops. The results demonstrate coupling between light-induced conformational changes occurring in the transmembrane domain of rhodopsin and the cytoplasmic domain of the beta(2)-AR.

  7. Expression of beta2-adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zheng Jun; Liu, Ke; Liang, De Feng

    2009-04-01

    It has been speculated that chemokines and neurotransmitters might be involved in the organ-specific development of metastases because cancer metastasis is similar to the regulation of migratory activity in leukocytes. Here, we aimed to examine the expression of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to investigate its correlation with tumor development and metastasis. Expression of beta(2)-AR was examined in 65 cases of OSCC specimens, 10 cases of normal oral mucosa, and two cell lines using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR. The differences in beta(2)-AR expression between various groups were evaluated using SPSS 13.0 Statistical Software. Cell proliferation assays were assayed by beta-adrenergic receptors agonists (norepinephrine) and antagonists (propranolol). Norepinephrine-mediated cell migration was assayed in Matrigel-coated chemotaxis chamber. beta(2)-AR was highly expressed on OSCC compared to normal controls. In OSCC, positive beta(2)-AR expression was significantly correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), age (P = 0.003), tumor size (P = 0.001) and clinical stage (P = 0.001), but not with gender. RT-PCR and Western blot also confirmed positive beta(2)-AR expression in OSCC and TCa8113 cell line, and negative beta(2)-AR expression in normal oral mucosa and ACC cell line. beta-adrenoreceptor agonist (norepinephrine) was a potent mitogen for TCa8113 and ACC cell lines, and completely inhibited by the selective antagonist of beta-adrenergic receptors (propranolol). Norepinephrine induced migratory activity of OSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Increased expression of beta(2)-AR may play an important role in the formation and metastasis of OSCC.

  8. Pressure overload causes cardiac hypertrophy in beta1-adrenergic and beta2-adrenergic receptor double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Palazzesi, Sergio; Musumeci, Marco; Catalano, Liviana; Patrizio, Mario; Stati, Tonino; Michienzi, Simona; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Luigi; Marano, Giuseppe

    2006-03-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy arises as an adaptive response to increased afterload. Studies in knockout mice have shown that catecholamines, but not alpha1-adrenergic receptors, are necessary for such an adaptation to occur. However, whether beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload is not known at this time. Pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic banding in beta1-adrenergic and beta2-adrenergic receptor double knockout (DbetaKO) mice, in which the predominant cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes are lacking. Chronic pressure overload for 4 weeks induced cardiac hypertrophy in both DbetaKO and wild-type mice. There were no significant differences between banded mice in left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, in the left ventricular wall thickness, in the cardiomyocyte size or in the expression levels of the load-sensitive cardiac genes such as ANF and beta-MHC. Additionally, the left ventricular systolic pressure, an index of afterload, and cardiac contractility, evaluated as dp/dtmax, the maximal slope of systolic pressure increment, and Ees, end-systolic elastance, were increased at a similar level in both wild-type and DbetaKO banded mice, and were significantly greater than in sham controls. Despite chronic activation of the cardiac beta-adrenergic system being sufficient to induce a pathological hypertrophy, we show that beta1-adrenergic and beta2-adrenergic receptors are not an obligatory component of the signaling pathway that links the increased afterload to the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. The Principles of Ligand Specificity on beta-2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Filipek, Slawomir; Yuan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are recognized as one of the largest families of membrane proteins. Despite sharing a characteristic seven-transmembrane topology, G protein-coupled receptors regulate a wide range of cellular signaling pathways in response to various physical and chemical stimuli, and prevail as an important target for drug discovery. Notably, the recent progress in crystallographic methods led to a breakthrough in elucidating the structures of membrane proteins. The structures of β2-adrenergic receptor bound with a variety of ligands provide atomic details of the binding modes of agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. In this study, we selected four representative molecules from each functional class of ligands and investigated their impacts on β2-adrenergic receptor through a total of 12 × 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. From the obtained trajectories, we generated molecular fingerprints exemplifying propensities of protein-ligand interactions. For each functional class of compounds, we characterized and compared the fluctuation of the protein backbone, the volumes in the intracellular pockets, the water densities in the receptors, the domain interaction networks as well as the movements of transmembrane helices. We discovered that each class of ligands exhibits a distinct mode of interactions with mainly TM5 and TM6, altering the shape and eventually the state of the receptor. Our findings provide insightful prospective into GPCR targeted structure-based drug discoveries. PMID:27703221

  10. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Choi, Hee-Jung; Yao, Xiao-Jie; Weis, William I; Stevens, Raymond C; Kobilka, Brian K

    2007-11-23

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context of the reported high-resolution structure of beta2AR-T4L provides insights into inverse-agonist binding and the structural changes required to accommodate catecholamine agonists. Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a conformational pathway from the ligand-binding pocket to regions that interact with G proteins.

  11. Cardiovascular and metabolic alterations in mice lacking both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, D K; Chruscinski, A; Schauble, E H; Bernstein, D; Kobilka, B K

    1999-06-11

    The activation state of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) in vivo is an important determinant of hemodynamic status, cardiac performance, and metabolic rate. In order to achieve homeostasis in vivo, the cellular signals generated by beta-AR activation are integrated with signals from a number of other distinct receptors and signaling pathways. We have utilized genetic knockout models to test directly the role of beta1- and/or beta2-AR expression on these homeostatic control mechanisms. Despite total absence of beta1- and beta2-ARs, the predominant cardiovascular beta-adrenergic subtypes, basal heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate do not differ from wild type controls. However, stimulation of beta-AR function by beta-AR agonists or exercise reveals significant impairments in chronotropic range, vascular reactivity, and metabolic rate. Surprisingly, the blunted chronotropic and metabolic response to exercise seen in beta1/beta2-AR double knockouts fails to impact maximal exercise capacity. Integrating the results from single beta1- and beta2-AR knockouts as well as the beta1-/beta2-AR double knock-out suggest that in the mouse, beta-AR stimulation of cardiac inotropy and chronotropy is mediated almost exclusively by the beta1-AR, whereas vascular relaxation and metabolic rate are controlled by all three beta-ARs (beta1-, beta2-, and beta3-AR). Compensatory alterations in cardiac muscarinic receptor density and vascular beta3-AR responsiveness are also observed in beta1-/beta2-AR double knockouts. In addition to its ability to define beta-AR subtype-specific functions, this genetic approach is also useful in identifying adaptive alterations that serve to maintain critical physiological setpoints such as heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate when cellular signaling mechanisms are perturbed.

  12. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms: pharmacogenetic response to bronchodilator among African American asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hui-Ju; Shaikh, Nishat; Kho, Jennifer Y; Battle, Natalie; Naqvi, Mariam; Navarro, Daniel; Matallana, Henry; Lilly, Craig M; Eng, Celeste S; Kumar, Gunjan; Thyne, Shannon; Watson, H George; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael; Choudhry, Shweta; Burchard, Esteban G

    2006-06-01

    Beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with various asthma-related traits in different racial/ethnic populations. However, it is unknown whether beta2AR genetic variants are associated with asthma in African Americans. In this study, we have examined whether there is association between beta2AR genetic variants and asthma in African Americans. We have recruited 264 African American asthmatic subjects and 176 matched healthy controls participating in the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes and Environments (SAGE). We genotyped seven known and recently identified beta2AR SNP variants, then tested genotype and haplotype association of asthma-related traits with the beta2AR SNPs in our African American cohort with adjustment of confounding effect due to admixture background and environmental risk factors. We found a significant association of the SNP -47 (Arg-19Cys) polymorphism with DeltaFEF(25-75), a measure of bronchodilator drug responsiveness, in African American asthmatics after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.001). We did not observe association of the SNP +46 (Arg16Gly) variant with asthma disease diagnosis and asthma-related phenotypes. In contrast to previous results between the Arg16Gly variant and traits related to bronchodilator responsiveness, our results indicate that the Arg-19Cys polymorphism in beta upstream peptide may play an important role in bronchodilator drug responsiveness in African American subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of investigating genetic risk factors for asthma in different populations.

  13. Protecting the myocardium: a role for the beta2 adrenergic receptor in the heart.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew J; Zhu, Weizhong; Chow, Amy; Agrawal, Rani; Kosek, Jon; Xiao, Rui Ping; Kobilka, Brian

    2004-04-01

    The sympathetic nervous system enhances cardiac muscle function by activating beta adrenergic receptors (betaARs). Recent studies suggest that chronic betaAR stimulation is detrimental, however, and that it may play a role in the clinical deterioration of patients with congestive heart failure. To examine the impact of chronic beta1AR and beta2AR subtype stimulation individually, we studied the cardiovascular effects of catecholamine infusions in betaAR subtype knockout mice (beta1KO, beta2KO). Prospective, randomized, experimental study. Animal research laboratory. beta1KO and beta2KO mice and wild-type controls. The animals were subjected to 2 wks of continuous infusion of the betaAR agonist isoproterenol. Analyses of cardiac function and structure were performed during and 3 days after completion of the infusions. Functional studies included graded exercise treadmill testing, in vivo assessments of left ventricular function using Mikro-Tip catheter transducers, right ventricular pressure measurements, and analyses of organ weight to body weight ratios. Structural studies included heart weight measurements, assessments of myocyte ultrastructure using electron microscopy, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-dUTP nick-end labeling staining to quantitate myocyte apoptosis. We found that isoproterenol-treated beta2KO mice experienced greater mortality rates (p =.001, chi-square test using Fisher's exact method) and increased myocyte apoptosis at 3- and 7-day time points (p =.04 and p =.0007, respectively, two-way analysis of variance). The results of this study suggest that in vivo beta2AR activation is antiapoptotic and contributes to myocardial protection.

  14. Prolactin induces regional vasoconstriction through the beta2-adrenergic and nitric oxide mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Claudio; Grossini, Elena; Mary, David A S G; Uberti, Francesca; Ghigo, Ezio; Ribichini, Flavio; Surico, Nicola; Vacca, Giovanni

    2007-08-01

    Prolactin has been associated with many effects and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, although little is known about its vascular effects. The present study was designed to determine the primary effect of prolactin on regional vascular beds and the mechanisms involved. In 37 anesthetized pigs, the infusion of 0.17 mug/kg min of prolactin at constant heart rate and arterial pressure decreased coronary, mesenteric, renal, and iliac blood flow. This response was graded in further five pigs by increasing the infused dose of the hormone between 0.017 and 1 mug/kg min. In 22 of the 37 pigs, blockade of cholinergic receptors (five pigs) and of alpha-adrenoceptors (five pigs) did not affect the prolactin-induced vascular response, which was abolished by blockade of beta(2)-adrenoceptors (five pigs) and by blockade of vascular nitric oxide (NO) synthase (seven pigs). In 15 of the 37 pigs the increases in measured blood flows caused by iv infusion of isoproterenol (five pigs) and by intraarterial administration of acetylcholine (five pigs) and of sodium nitroprusside (five pigs) were significantly reduced by infusion of prolactin. Moreover, the treatment of porcine aortic endothelial cells by prolactin caused a reduction of NO production and of the phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p38, which was prevented by the concomitant treatment by the beta(2)-adrenergic agonist albuterol. The present study showed that iv infusion of prolactin primarily caused coronary, mesenteric, renal, and iliac vasoconstriction. These effects were brought about by the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect related to the NO intracellular pathway.

  15. The beta 2-adrenergic receptor activates pro-migratory and pro-proliferative pathways in dermal fibroblasts via divergent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2006-02-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are required for skin wound repair; they migrate into the wound bed, proliferate, synthesize extracellular matrix components and contract the wound. Although fibroblasts express beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-AR) and cutaneous keratinocytes can synthesize beta-AR agonists (catecholamines), the functional significance of this hormonal mediator network in the skin has not been addressed. Emerging studies from our laboratory demonstrate that beta2-AR activation modulates keratinocyte migration, essential for wound re-epithelialization. Here we describe an investigation of the effects of beta2-AR activation on the dermal component of wound healing. We examined beta2-AR-mediated regulation of biological processes in dermal fibroblasts that are critical for wound repair: migration, proliferation, contractile ability and cytoskeletal conformation. We provide evidence for the activation of at least two divergent beta2-AR-mediated signaling pathways in dermal fibroblasts, a Src-dependent pro-migratory pathway, transduced through the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and a PKA-dependent pro-proliferative pathway. beta2-AR activation attenuates collagen gel contraction and alters the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion distribution through PKA-dependent mechanisms. Our work uncovers a previously unrecognized role for the adrenergic hormonal mediator network in the cutaneous wound repair process. Exploiting these divergent beta2-AR agonist responses in cutaneous cells may generate novel therapeutic approaches for the control of wound healing.

  16. beta2 adrenergic agonists in acute lung injury? The heart of the matter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae W

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive research into its pathophysiology, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remains a devastating syndrome with mortality approaching 40%. Pharmacologic therapies that reduce the severity of lung injury in vivo and in vitro have not yet been translated to effective clinical treatment options, and innovative therapies are needed. Recently, the use of beta2 adrenergic agonists as potential therapy has gained considerable interest due to their ability to increase the resolution of pulmonary edema. However, the results of clinical trials of beta agonist therapy for ALI/ARDS have been conflicting in terms of benefit. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Briot and colleagues present evidence that may help clarify the inconsistent results. The authors demonstrate that, in oleic acid lung injury in dogs, the inotropic effect of beta agonists may recruit damaged pulmonary capillaries, leading to increased lung endothelial permeability.

  17. Translational control of beta2-adrenergic receptor mRNA by T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-related protein.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Joseph, Kusumam; Subramaniam, Kothandharaman; Raymond, John R; Tholanikunnel, Baby G

    2005-01-21

    Cellular expression of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) is suppressed at the translational level by 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences. To test the possible role of 3'-UTR-binding proteins in translational suppression of beta(2)-AR mRNA, we expressed the full-length 3'-UTR or the adenylate/uridylate-rich (A+U-rich element (ARE)) RNA from the 3'-UTR sequences of beta(2)-AR in cell lines that endogenously express this receptor. Reversal of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor translational repression by retroviral expression of 3'-UTR sequences suggested that ARE RNA-binding proteins are involved in translational suppression of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor expression. Using a 20-nucleotide ARE RNA from the receptor 3'-UTR as an affinity ligand, we purified the proteins that bind to these sequences. T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-related protein (TIAR) was one of the strongly bound proteins identified by this method. UV-catalyzed cross-linking experiments using in vitro transcribed 3'-UTR RNA and glutathione S-transferase-TIAR demonstrated multiple binding sites for this protein on beta(2)-AR 3'-UTR sequences. The distal 340-nucleotide region of the 3'-UTR was identified as a target RNA motif for TIAR binding by both RNA gel shift analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments. Overexpression of TIAR resulted in suppression of receptor protein synthesis and a significant shift in endogenously expressed beta(2)-AR mRNA toward low molecular weight fractions in sucrose gradient polysome fractionation. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for translational control of beta(2)-AR mRNA by TIAR.

  18. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data.

  19. Acute wounding alters the beta2-adrenergic signaling and catecholamine synthetic pathways in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Biao; Griffiths, Elizabeth; Vu, Shirley M; Lev-Tov, Hadar A; Dahle, Sara; Chigbrow, Marianne; La, Thi Dinh; Mashburn, Chelcy; Peavy, Thomas R; Rivkah Isseroff, R

    2014-08-01

    Keratinocyte migration is critical for wound re-epithelialization. Previous studies showed that epinephrine activates the beta2-adrenergic receptor (B2AR), impairing keratinocyte migration. Here, we investigated the keratinocyte catecholamine synthetic pathway in response to acute trauma. Cultured keratinocytes were scratch wounded and expression levels of the B2AR and catecholamine synthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase were assayed. The binding affinity of the B2AR was measured. Wounding downregulated B2AR, tyrosine hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase expression, but pre-exposure to timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, delayed this effect. In wounded keratinocytes, B2AR-binding affinity remained depressed even after its expression returned to prewounding levels. Keratinocyte-derived norepinephrine increased after wounding. Norepinephrine impaired keratinocyte migration; this effect was abrogated with B2AR-selective antagonist ICI-118,551 but not with B1AR-selective antagonist bisoprolol. Finally, for clinical relevance, we determined that norepinephrine was present in freshly wounded skin, thus providing a potential mechanism for impaired healing by local B2AR activation in wound-edge keratinocytes. Taken together, the data show that keratinocytes modulate catecholamine synthetic enzymes and release norepinephrine after scratch wounding. Norepinephrine appears to be a stress-related mediator that impairs keratinocyte migration through activation of the B2AR. Future therapeutic strategies evaluating modulation of norepinephrine-related effects in the wound are warranted.

  20. Functional receptor coupling to Gi is a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Tepe, N M; Liggett, S B

    2000-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) couples to Gs activating adenylyl cyclase (AC) and increasing cAMP. Such signaling undergoes desensitization with continued agonist exposure. Beta2AR also couple to Gi after receptor phosphorylation by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A, but the efficiency of such coupling is not known. Given the PKA dependence of beta2AR-Gi coupling, we explored whether this may be a mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization. HEK293 cells were transfected to express beta2AR or beta2AR and Gialpha2, and then treated with vehicle or the agonist isoproterenol to evoke agonist-promoted beta2AR desensitization. Membrane AC activities showed that Gialpha2 overexpression decreased basal levels, but the fold-stimulation of the AC over basal by agonist was not altered. However, with treatment of the cells with isoproterenol prior to membrane preparation, a marked decrease in agonist-stimulated AC was observed with the cells overexpressing Gialpha2. In the absence of such overexpression, beta2AR desensitization was 23+/-7%, while with 5-fold Gialpha2 overexpression desensitization was 58+/-5% (p<0.01, n=4). The effect of Gi on desensitization was receptor-specific, in that forskolin responses were not altered by G(i)alpha2 overexpression. Thus, acquired beta2AR coupling to Gi is an important mechanism of agonist-promoted desensitization, and pathologic conditions that increase Gi levels contribute to beta2AR dysfunction.

  1. Nanoscale organization of beta2-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Taylor, Rod; Johnston, Linda J; Pezacki, John Paul

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of beta(2)AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress beta(2)AR-GFP and beta(2)AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use beta(2)AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for beta(2)AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on beta(2)AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  2. Epistatic interaction between beta2-adrenergic receptor and neuropeptide Y genes influences LDL-cholesterol in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Maciej; Charchar, Fadi J; Lacka, Beata; Pesonen, Ullamari; Wang, William Y S; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Dominiczak, Anna F

    2004-11-01

    Beta2-adrenergic receptor gene and neuropeptide Y gene may potentially influence lipid metabolism and overall energy balance. Therefore, we examined associations of these genes with lipid fractions and obesity-related phenotypes in hypertensive subjects. A total of 638 white individuals from 212 Polish families with clustering of essential hypertension were phenotyped for cardiovascular risk determinants. Each subject was genotyped for functional polymorphisms of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) and neuropeptide Y (Leu7Pro). Of 3 common haplotypes of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene, Arg16Gln27 was overtransmitted to offspring with elevated levels of total cholesterol (Z=2.2; P=0.026) and LDL-cholesterol (Z=3.2; P=0.002). Individually, Leu7Pro was not associated with any of the metabolic phenotypes in family-based tests or case-control analyses. However, in the presence of Arg allele of Arg16Gly and Gln allele of Gln27Glu, homozygosity for Leu variant of the Leu7Pro polymorphism was associated with 2.1-increased odds ratio (confidence interval, 1.10 to 3.81; P=0.024) of elevated LDL in hypertensive subjects, independent of age, gender, body mass index, adjusted blood pressures, antihypertensive therapy, and use of nonselective beta-blockers and diuretics. Consistently, there was a significant multilocus association among variants of Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Leu7Pro in hypertensive probands with elevated LDL (cases; P=0.028) but not in hypertensive subjects with normal LDL (controls). This study revealed an association of LDL-cholesterol with beta2-adrenergic receptor gene haplotype and provided evidence for epistatic interaction between beta2-adrenergic receptor gene and neuropeptide Y gene in determination of LDL-cholesterol in patients with essential hypertension.

  3. Effects of in utero and childhood tobacco smoke exposure and beta2-adrenergic receptor genotype on childhood asthma and wheezing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Salam, Muhammad T; Islam, Talat; Wenten, Madé; Gauderman, W James; Gilliland, Frank D

    2008-07-01

    Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene and asthma and wheeze have been inconsistent. Recent studies indicated that tobacco smoke affects beta2-adrenergic receptor gene expression and associations of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene variants with asthma in adults. We aimed to investigate the joint effects of in utero and childhood secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and 2 well-characterized functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Arg16Gly and Glu27Gln) of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene on asthma and wheezing in 3128 non-Hispanic and Hispanic white children of the Children's Health Study. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the independent and joint effects of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms and in utero and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on asthma and wheeze outcomes. Exposures to in utero maternal smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke were associated with wheezing. Children who were homozygous for the Arg16 allele and were exposed to maternal smoking in utero were at a threefold increased risk for lifetime wheeze compared with children who were unexposed and had at least 1 Gly16 allele. We found similar joint effects of secondhand tobacco smoke and Arg16Gly with wheezing. The risk for lifetime, current, and nocturnal wheeze increased with the number of smokers at home among Arg16 homozygous children. The results were consistent in 2 cohorts of children recruited in 1993 and 1996. Diplotype-based analyses were consistent with the single-nucleotide polymorphism-specific results. No associations were found for Glu27Gln. Both in utero and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke were associated with an increased risk for wheeze in children, and the risks were greater for children with the Arg16Arg genotype or 2 copies of the Arg16-Gln27 diplotype. Exposures to smoking need to be taken into account when evaluating the effects of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene

  4. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  5. Beta2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms as Systemic Determinants of Healthy Aging in an Evolutionary Context

    PubMed Central

    Kulminski, Alexander M.; Culminskaya, Irina V.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Land, Kenneth C.; Yashin, Anatoli I.

    2010-01-01

    The Gln27Glu polymorphism but not the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial infarction (MI), intermittent claudication (IC), and overall/healthy longevity in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. The Gln27Gln genotype increases risks of cancer, MI and IC, whereas the Glu27 allele or, equivalently, the Gly16Glu27 haplotype tends to be protective against these diseases. Genetic associations with longevity are of opposite nature at young-old and oldest-old ages highlighting the phenomenon of antagonistic pleiotropy. The mechanism of antagonistic pleiotropy is associated with an evolutionary-driven advantage of carriers of a derived Gln27 allele at younger ages and their survival disadvantage at older ages as a result of increased risks of cancer, MI and IC. The ADRB2 gene can play an important systemic role in healthy aging in evolutionary context that warrants exploration in other populations. PMID:20399803

  6. Src regulates sequence-dependent beta-2 adrenergic receptor recycling via cortactin phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of internalized signaling receptors, which has direct functional consequences, is subject to multiple sequence and biochemical requirements. Why signaling receptors recycle via a specialized pathway, unlike many other proteins that recycle by bulk, is a fundamental unanswered question. Here we show that these specialized pathways allow selective control of signaling receptor recycling by heterologous signaling. Using assays to visualize receptor recycling in living cells, we show that the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, is regulated by Src family kinases. The target of Src is cortactin, an essential factor for B2AR sorting into specialized recycling microdomains on the endosome. Phosphorylation of a single cortactin residue, Y466, regulates the rate of fission of B2AR recycling vesicles from these microdomains, and, therefore, the rate of delivery of B2AR to the cell surface. Together, our results indicate that actin-stabilized microdomains that mediate signaling receptor recycling can serve as a functional point of convergence for crosstalk between signaling pathways. PMID:25077552

  7. Src regulates sequence-dependent beta-2 adrenergic receptor recycling via cortactin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2014-11-01

    The recycling of internalized signaling receptors, which has direct functional consequences, is subject to multiple sequence and biochemical requirements. Why signaling receptors recycle via a specialized pathway, unlike many other proteins that recycle by bulk, is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that these specialized pathways allow selective control of signaling receptor recycling by heterologous signaling. Using assays to visualize receptor recycling in living cells, we show that the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, is regulated by Src family kinases. The target of Src is cortactin, an essential factor for B2AR sorting into specialized recycling microdomains on the endosome. Phosphorylation of a single cortactin residue, Y466, regulates the rate of fission of B2AR recycling vesicles from these microdomains and, therefore, the rate of delivery of B2AR to the cell surface. Together, our results indicate that actin-stabilized microdomains that mediate signaling receptor recycling can serve as a functional point of convergence for crosstalk between signaling pathways.

  8. The lipolytic effect of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor activation in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, C A; Kendall, M J; Maxwell, S; Hughes, B

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of activation beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors on the process of lipolysis in human volunteers. Ten male subjects underwent a single-blind randomized cross-over trial using infusions of terbutaline (a specific beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), xamoterol (a partial beta 1-agonist with beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activity) and saline (placebo control). The effect of these infusions on plasma potassium, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) (total and individual) and insulin levels was studied. 2. Terbutaline infusion induced a significant rise in plasma glucose and a fall in plasma potassium in keeping with its beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulant properties. Xamoterol infusion had no significant effect on these values. Terbutaline infusion caused a greater rise in total and individual FFA than xamoterol, but both effects were significantly different from placebo. 3. The possible reasons for these results and their implications on the beta-adrenergic control of lipolysis are discussed. PMID:8383517

  9. Binding of amyloid beta peptide to beta2 adrenergic receptor induces PKA-dependent AMPA receptor hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Govindaiah, G; Liu, Ruijie; De Arcangelis, Vania; Cox, Charles L; Xiang, Yang K

    2010-09-01

    Progressive decrease in neuronal function is an established feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide induces acute increase in spontaneous synaptic activity accompanied by neurotoxicity, and Abeta induces excitotoxic neuronal death by increasing calcium influx mediated by hyperactive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors. An in vivo study has revealed subpopulations of hyperactive neurons near Abeta plaques in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can be normalized by an AMPA receptor antagonist. In the present study, we aim to determine whether soluble Abeta acutely induces hyperactivity of AMPA receptors by a mechanism involving beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR). We found that the soluble Abeta binds to beta(2)AR, and the extracellular N terminus of beta(2)AR is critical for the binding. The binding is required to induce G-protein/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which controls PKA-dependent phosphorylation of GluR1 and beta(2)AR, and AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). beta(2)AR and GluR1 also form a complex comprising postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), PKA and its anchor AKAP150, and protein phosphotase 2A (PP2A). Both the third intracellular (i3) loop and C terminus of beta(2)AR are required for the beta(2)AR/AMPA receptor complex. Abeta acutely induces PKA phosphorylation of GluR1 in the complex without affecting the association between two receptors. The present study reveals that non-neurotransmitter Abeta has a binding capacity to beta(2)AR and induces PKA-dependent hyperactivity in AMPA receptors.

  10. Beta-2- Adrenergic Receptor Genotype and Other Variables that Contribute to Labor Pain and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Reitman, Elena; Conell-Price, Jessamyn; Evansmilth, Jennifer; Olson, Luke; Drosinos, Sofia; Jasper, Nancy; Randolph, Paula; Smiley, Richard; Shafer, Steven; Flood, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Background Beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activity influences labor and its genotype affects the incidence of preterm delivery. We determined the effect of β2AR genotype on term labor progress and pain. Methods We prospectively enrolled 150 nulliparous parturients in the third trimester and obtained sensory thresholds, demographic information and DNA. Cervical dilation, pain scores and labor management data were extracted with associated times. The association of genetic and demographic factors with labor was tested with mixed effects models. Results Parturients who express Gln at the 27 position of the β2AR had slower labor (P<0.03). They progressedfrom 1–10cm dilation in approximately 21 hours compared to 14 hours in otherpatients. Asian ethnicity, previously associated with slower labor, is highly associated with this polymorphism (P<0.0001). Heavier and Black patients had slower latent labor (P<0.01, 0.01) and neuraxial analgesia was associated with slower labor progress (P<0.0001). It could take up to 36 hours for the heaviest and the Black parturients to transition from 1cm cervical dilation to active labor; however once the active phase began, labor rate was the same as other patients’. Conclusion We detected a strong association between β2AR genotype and slower labor. Asian ethnicity may be a proxy for β2AR genotype. Black and heavy women have slower latent labor. These results confirm many of the associations found when this mathematical model was applied to a large retrospectivecohort, further validating this approach to description and analysis of labor progress. PMID:21394004

  11. beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling and desensitization elucidated by quantitative modeling of real time cAMP dynamics.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; DiPilato, Lisa M; Yildirim, Necmettin; Elston, Timothy C; Zhang, Jin; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2008-02-01

    G protein-coupled receptor signaling is dynamically regulated by multiple feedback mechanisms, which rapidly attenuate signals elicited by ligand stimulation, causing desensitization. The individual contributions of these mechanisms, however, are poorly understood. Here, we use an improved fluorescent biosensor for cAMP to measure second messenger dynamics stimulated by endogenous beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) in living cells. beta(2)AR stimulation with isoproterenol results in a transient pulse of cAMP, reaching a maximal concentration of approximately 10 microm and persisting for less than 5 min. We investigated the contributions of cAMP-dependent kinase, G protein-coupled receptor kinases, and beta-arrestin to the regulation of beta(2)AR signal kinetics by using small molecule inhibitors, small interfering RNAs, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We found that the cAMP response is restricted in duration by two distinct mechanisms in HEK-293 cells: G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK6)-mediated receptor phosphorylation leading to beta-arrestin mediated receptor inactivation and cAMP-dependent kinase-mediated induction of cAMP metabolism by phosphodiesterases. A mathematical model of beta(2)AR signal kinetics, fit to these data, revealed that direct receptor inactivation by cAMP-dependent kinase is insignificant but that GRK6/beta-arrestin-mediated inactivation is rapid and profound, occurring with a half-time of 70 s. This quantitative system analysis represents an important advance toward quantifying mechanisms contributing to the physiological regulation of receptor signaling.

  12. Effect of targeted deletions of beta1- and beta2-adrenergic-receptor subtypes on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Phillip M; Lin, Chu-Chuan; Powers, Jennifer; Kobilka, Brian K; Dubin, Anne M; Bernstein, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) play a major role in regulating heart rate (HR) and contractility in the intact cardiovascular system. Three subtypes (beta1, beta2, and beta3) are expressed in heart tissue, and the role of each subtype in regulating cardiac function has previously been determined by using both pharmacological and gene-targeting approaches. However, previous studies have only examined the role of beta-ARs in the macrolevel regulation of HR. We employed three knockout (KO) mouse lines, beta1-KO, beta2-KO, and beta1/beta2 double KO (DL-KO), to examine the role that beta-AR subtypes play in HR variability (HRV) and in the sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs into HR control. Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) in frequency domain methods of ECG spectral analysis was used to resolve HRV into high- and low-frequency (HF and LF) powers. Resting HR (in beats/min) was decreased in beta1-KO [488 (SD 27)] and DL-KO [495 (SD 12)] mice compared with wild-type [WT; 638 (SD 30)] or beta2-KO [656 (SD 51)] (P < 0.0005) mice. Mice lacking beta1-ARs (beta1-KO and DL-KO) had increased HRV (as illustrated by the standard deviation of normal R-R intervals) and increased normalized HF and LF powers compared with mice with intact beta1-ARs (WT and beta2-KO). These results demonstrate the differential role of beta-AR subtypes in regulating autonomic signaling.

  13. [Adrenergic beta-2 receptors and cyclic AMP in lymphocytes and their relationship to uterine contractility].

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U

    1994-01-01

    It is especially in the long-term application where the pharmacodynamics of the betamimetics determine their effectiveness. According to the time and dosis, there is a decrease in the density and function of the beta 2-adrenoceptors (desensitization). Clinically, this means a loss of effectiveness. This study investigated whether in the course of a normal pregnancy (n = 22) there is a change in the effectiveness of the betamimetics, as expressed by a change in the number of beta 2-adrenoceptors or their function. The results show a 50% decrease in the number of beta 2-adrenoceptors to the 36th gestational week and an increase to initial values after delivery. A similar pattern is found for the function of the beta 2-adrenoceptors (cyclic AMP). The implications for the uterus might be that, with advancing pregnancy, it becomes less prone to relaxation and that the betaadrenergic system, as a mechanism supporting prepare the way for delivery at term, becomes less significant. For tocolysis with betamimetics, the decrease of the beta 2-adrenoceptor density means that, with increasing gestational age, the responsiveness of the uterus to betamimetics decreases.

  14. Delayed internalization and lack of recycling in a beta2-adrenergic receptor fused to the G protein alpha-subunit.

    PubMed

    Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Batassa, Enrico M; Casella, Ida; Serafino, Annalucia; Floridi, Aristide; Passananti, Claudio; Molinari, Paola; Mattei, Elisabetta

    2008-10-07

    Chimeric proteins obtained by the fusion of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sequence to the N-terminus of the G protein alpha-subunit have been extensively used to investigate several aspects of GPCR signalling. Although both the receptor and the G protein generally maintain a fully functional state in such polypeptides, original observations made using a chimera between the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and Galphas indicated that the fusion to the alpha-subunit resulted in a marked reduction of receptor desensitization and down-regulation. To further investigate this phenomenon, we have compared the rates of internalization and recycling between wild-type and Galphas-fused beta2AR. The rate of agonist-induced internalization, measured as the disappearance of cell surface immunofluorescence in HEK293 cells permanently expressing N-terminus tagged receptors, was reduced three-fold by receptor-G protein fusion. However, both fused and non-fused receptors translocated to the same endocytic compartment, as determined by dual-label confocal analysis of cells co-expressing both proteins and transferrin co-localization. Receptor recycling, determined as the reversion of surface immunofluorescence following the addition of antagonist to cells that were previously exposed to agonist, markedly differed between wild-type and fused receptors. While most of the internalized beta2AR returned rapidly to the plasma membrane, beta2AR-Galphas did not recycle, and the observed slow recovery for the fusion protein immunofluorescence was entirely accounted for by protein synthesis. The covalent linkage between beta2AR and Galphas does not appear to alter the initial endocytic translocation of the two proteins, although there is reduced efficiency. It does, however, completely disrupt the process of receptor and G protein recycling. We conclude that the physical separation between receptor and Galpha is not necessary for the transit to early endosomes, but is an essential

  15. Modification of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor to engineer a receptor-effector complex for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Small, K M; Brown, K M; Forbes, S L; Liggett, S B

    2001-08-24

    Depressed G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling has been implicated as a component of the pathophysiology of a number of complex diseases including heart failure and asthma, and augmentation or restoration of signaling by various means has been shown to improve organ function. Because some properties of native GPCRs are disadvantageous for ectopic therapeutic expression, we utilized the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) as a scaffold to construct a highly modified therapeutic receptor-effector complex (TREC) suitable for gene therapy. Altogether, 19 modifications were made to the receptor. The ligand-binding site was re-engineered in TM-3 so that a beta-hydroxylmethyl side chain acts as a proton donor for the binding of a novel ligand. In addition, sites critical for agonist-promoted down-regulation in the amino terminus and for phosphorylation by GPCR kinases, and protein kinases A and C, in the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl terminus of the receptor were altered. These modifications of the receptor resulted in depressed agonist-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (26.8 +/- 2.1 versus 41.4 +/- 8 pmol/min/mg for wild-type beta(2)AR). This was fully restored by fusing the carboxyl terminus of the modified receptor to G alpha(s) (43.3 +/- 2.7 pmol/min/mg). The fully modified fused receptor was not activated by beta-agonists but rather by a nonbiogenic amine agonist that itself failed to activate the wild-type beta(2)AR. This two-way selectivity thus provides targeted activation based on physiologic status. Furthermore, the TREC did not display tachyphylaxis to prolonged agonist exposure (desensitization was 1 +/- 5% versus 55 +/- 4% for wild-type beta(2)AR). Thus, despite extensive alterations in regions of conformational lability, the beta(2)AR can be tailored to have optimal signaling characteristics for gene therapy. As a general paradigm, TRECs for enhancement of other G-protein signaling appear to be feasible for modification of other

  16. Observation of "ionic lock" formation in molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Stefano; Neri, Marilisa; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2009-06-09

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of integral membrane proteins involved in signal transduction pathways, making them appealing drug targets for a wide spectrum of diseases. The recently crystallized structures of two engineered adrenergic receptors have opened new avenues for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of GPCRs. Taking the two crystal structures as a starting point, we carried out submicrosecond molecular dynamics simulations of wild-type beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptors in a lipid bilayer under physiological conditions. These simulations give access to structural and dynamic properties of the receptors in pseudo in vivo conditions. For both systems the overall fold properties of the transmembrane region as well as the binding pocket remain close to the crystal structure of the engineered systems, thus suggesting that the ligand binding mode is not affected by the introduced modifications. Both simulations indicate the presence of one or two internal water molecules absent in both crystal structures and essential for the stabilization of the binding pocket at the interface between transmembrane helices III, IV, and V. The different interactions arising from the substitution of Tyr308 in beta(2)AR into Phe325 in beta(1)AR induce different conformations of the homologous Asn(6.55) inside the binding pockets of the two receptors, suggesting a possible origin of receptor specificity in agonist binding. The equilibrated structures of both receptors recover all of the previously suggested features of inactive GPCRs including formation of a salt bridge between the cytoplasmatic moieties of helices III and VI ("ionic lock") that is absent in the crystal structures.

  17. Beta 2-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in rat bronchiolar epithelium: potentiation by isosmotic cell shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Shiima-Kinoshita, Chisa; Min, Kyong-Yob; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Mori, Hiroshi; Nakahari, Takashi

    2004-01-15

    Single bronchiolar ciliary cells were isolated from rat lungs. The beta(2)-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was studied using video-optical microscopy. Terbutaline (a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner, and it also decreased the volume of the ciliary cells. These terbutaline actions were inhibited by a PKA inhibitor (H-89) and mimicked by forskolin, IBMX and DBcAMP. Ion transport inhibitors were used to isosmotically manipulate the volume of the terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells. Amiloride (1 microM) and bumetanide (20 microM) potentiated cell shrinkage and the CBF increase, and they shifted the terbutaline dose-response curve to the lower-concentration side. Quinidine (500 microM), in contrast, increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase. Moreover, a KCl solution containing amiloride (1 microM) and strophanthidin (100 microM) increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase, and then the subsequent removal of either amiloride or strophanthidin decreased cell volume and further increased CBF. NPPB (10 microM) or glybenclamide (200 microM) had no effect on the action of terbutaline. Thus, in terbutaline-stimulated ciliary cells, cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase; in contrast, cell swelling suppresses it. However, the results of direct manupulation of cell volume by applying osmotic stresses (hyperosmotic shrinkage or hyposmotic swelling) were the opposite of the findings of the isosmotic experiments: hyposmotic cell swelling enhanced the CBF increase, while isosmotic swelling suppressed it. These results suggest that isosmotic and non-isosmotic volume changes in terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells may trigger different signalling pathways. In conclusion, terbutaline increases CBF and decreases the volume of rat bronchiolar ciliary cells via cAMP accumulation under isosmotic conditions, and the isosmotic cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase by increasing c

  18. Involvement of central beta2-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A2 receptors in the pressor effect of anandamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, B; Zakrzeska, A; Kurz, C M; Göthert, M; Kwolek, G; Wielgat, P; Braszko, J J; Schlicker, E

    2010-04-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) injection of the endocannabinoid anandamide induces triphasic cardiovascular responses, including a pressor effect mediated via unknown central and peripheral mechanism(s). The aim of the present study was to determine the central mechanism(s) responsible for the pressor response to anandamide. For this purpose, the influence of antagonists at thromboxane A(2) TP (sulotroban, daltroban, SQ 29548), NMDA (MK-801) and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (ICI 118551) on the pressor effect induced by i.v. and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered anandamide was examined in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Anandamide (1.5-3 micromol/kg, i.v.) or its stable analogue methanandamide (0.75 micromol/kg, i.v.) increased blood pressure by 25%. Anandamide (0.03 mumol per animal i.c.v.) caused a pure pressor effect (by 20%) but only in the presence of antagonists of CB(1) and TRPV1 receptors. The effects of cannabinoids (i.v. or i.c.v.) were diminished by i.v. daltroban, sulotroban (10 mumol/kg each), and/or SQ 29548 (1 mumol/kg). The effect of anandamide i.v. was reduced by SQ 29548 (0.02 mumol per animal i.c.v.) and by the thromboxane A(2) synthesis inhibitor furegrelate i.c.v. (1.8 micromol per animal). ICI 118551, MK-801 (1 micromol/kg i.v. each), and bilateral adrenalectomy diminished the effect of anandamide i.c.v. Sulotroban (i.v.) failed to affect the response to anandamide (i.v.) in pithed rats, and anandamide and methanandamide did not bind to TP receptors in rat platelets. The present study suggests that central beta(2)-adrenergic, NMDA and thromboxane A(2) receptors are involved in the anandamide-induced adrenal secretion of catecholamines and their pressor effect in urethane-anaesthetized rats.

  19. A molecular dynamics approach to receptor mapping: application to the 5HT3 and beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gouldson, P R; Winn, P J; Reynolds, C A

    1995-09-29

    A molecular dynamics-based approach to receptor mapping is proposed, based on the method of Rizzi (Rizzi, J. P.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1990, 33, 2721). In Rizzi's method, the interaction energy between a series of drug molecules and probe atoms (which mimic functional groups on the receptor, such as hydrogen bond donors) was calculated. These interactions were calculated on a three-dimensional grid within a molecular mechanics parameters, were placed at these minima. The distances between the dummy atom sites were monitored during molecular dynamics simulations and plotted as distance distribution functions. Important distances within the receptor became apparent, as drugs with a common mode of binding share similar peaks in the distance distribution functions. In the case of specific 5HT3 ligands, the important donor--acceptor distance within the receptor has a range of ca. 7.9--8.9 A. In the case of specific beta 2-adrenergic ligands, the important donor--acceptor distances within the receptor lie between ca. 7--9 A and between 8 and 10 A. These distances distribution functions were used to assess three different models of the beta 2-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor. The comparison of the distance distribution functions for the simulation with the actual donor--acceptor distances in the receptor models suggested that two of the three receptor models were much more consistent with the receptor-mapping studies. These receptor-mapping studies gave support for the use of rhodopsin, rather than the bacteriorhodopsin template, for modeling G-protein-coupled receptors but also sounded a warning that agreement with binding data from site-directed mutagenesis experiments does not necessarily validate a receptor model.

  20. A functional SNP upstream of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with obesity in Oceanic populations.

    PubMed

    Naka, I; Hikami, K; Nakayama, K; Koga, M; Nishida, N; Kimura, R; Furusawa, T; Natsuhara, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakazawa, M; Ataka, Y; Ishida, T; Inaoka, T; Iwamoto, S; Matsumura, Y; Ohtsuka, R; Tsuchiya, N; Ohashi, J

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with obesity was examined in 694 adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands. A screening for variation in 16 Oceanic subjects detected 17 SNPs in the entire region of ADRB2, of which nine SNPs including two non-synonymous ones, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu), were further genotyped for all subjects. The rs34623097-A allele, at a SNP located upstream of ADRB2, showed the strongest association with risk for obesity in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and population (P=5.6 × 10(-4), odds ratio [OR]=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-4.2). The 27Glu was also significantly associated with obesity in the single-point association analysis (P=0.013, OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.4); however, this association was no longer significant after adjustment for rs34623097 since these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rs34623097-A, led to a 1.6 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (P=0.0019). A luciferase reporter assay indicated that rs34623097-A reduced the transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter gene by approximately 10% compared with rs34623097-G. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs34623097 modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. An evolutionary analysis implies that a G>A mutation at rs34623097 occurred in the Neandertal genome and then the rs34623097-A allele flowed into the ancestors of present-day humans. The present results suggest that rs34623097-A, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations.

  1. A functional SNP upstream of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with obesity in Oceanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Naka, I; Hikami, K; Nakayama, K; Koga, M; Nishida, N; Kimura, R; Furusawa, T; Natsuhara, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakazawa, M; Ataka, Y; Ishida, T; Inaoka, T; Iwamoto, S; Matsumura, Y; Ohtsuka, R; Tsuchiya, N; Ohashi, J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with obesity was examined in 694 adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands. RESULTS: A screening for variation in 16 Oceanic subjects detected 17 SNPs in the entire region of ADRB2, of which nine SNPs including two non-synonymous ones, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu), were further genotyped for all subjects. The rs34623097-A allele, at a SNP located upstream of ADRB2, showed the strongest association with risk for obesity in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and population (P=5.6 × 10−4, odds ratio [OR]=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5–4.2). The 27Glu was also significantly associated with obesity in the single-point association analysis (P=0.013, OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2–3.4); however, this association was no longer significant after adjustment for rs34623097 since these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rs34623097-A, led to a 1.6 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (P=0.0019). A luciferase reporter assay indicated that rs34623097-A reduced the transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter gene by approximately 10% compared with rs34623097-G. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs34623097 modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. An evolutionary analysis implies that a G>A mutation at rs34623097 occurred in the Neandertal genome and then the rs34623097-A allele flowed into the ancestors of present-day humans. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that rs34623097-A, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations. PMID:23229733

  2. Multiple conformational states in retrospective virtual screening - homology models vs. crystal structures: beta-2 adrenergic receptor case study.

    PubMed

    Mordalski, Stefan; Witek, Jagna; Smusz, Sabina; Rataj, Krzysztof; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing active from inactive compounds is one of the crucial problems of molecular docking, especially in the context of virtual screening experiments. The randomization of poses and the natural flexibility of the protein make this discrimination even harder. Some of the recent approaches to post-docking analysis use an ensemble of receptor models to mimic this naturally occurring conformational diversity. However, the optimal number of receptor conformations is yet to be determined. In this study, we compare the results of a retrospective screening of beta-2 adrenergic receptor ligands performed on both the ensemble of receptor conformations extracted from ten available crystal structures and an equal number of homology models. Additional analysis was also performed for homology models with up to 20 receptor conformations considered. The docking results were encoded into the Structural Interaction Fingerprints and were automatically analyzed by support vector machine. The use of homology models in such virtual screening application was proved to be superior in comparison to crystal structures. Additionally, increasing the number of receptor conformational states led to enhanced effectiveness of active vs. inactive compounds discrimination. For virtual screening purposes, the use of homology models was found to be most beneficial, even in the presence of crystallographic data regarding the conformational space of the receptor. The results also showed that increasing the number of receptors considered improves the effectiveness of identifying active compounds by machine learning methods. Graphical abstractComparison of machine learning results obtained for various number of beta-2 AR homology models and crystal structures.

  3. Can Specific Protein-Lipid Interactions Stabilize an Active State of the Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Herce, Henry D.; Pomès, Régis; García, Angel E.

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are eukaryotic membrane proteins with broad biological and pharmacological relevance. Like all membrane-embedded proteins, their location and orientation are influenced by lipids, which can also impact protein function via specific interactions. Extensive simulations totaling 0.25 ms reveal a process in which phospholipids from the membrane’s cytosolic leaflet enter the empty G-protein binding site of an activated β2 adrenergic receptor and form salt-bridge interactions that inhibit ionic lock formation and prolong active-state residency. Simulations of the receptor embedded in an anionic membrane show increased lipid binding, providing a molecular mechanism for the experimental observation that anionic lipids can enhance receptor activity. Conservation of the arginine component of the ionic lock among Rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors suggests that intracellular lipid ingression between receptor helices H6 and H7 may be a general mechanism for active-state stabilization. PMID:26488656

  4. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor activation delays dermal fibroblast-mediated contraction of collagen gels via a cAMP-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2005-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts actively contribute to wound healing by migrating to the wound, synthesizing extracellular matrices, and generating mechanical forces within the wound to initiate wound contraction. Fibroblast-seeded collagen gels provide an in vitro model to study wound contraction. The authors are evaluating the role of the adrenergic signaling system in cutaneous wound repair and recently found that beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) activation markedly decreases keratinocyte migration, an essential step in wound reepithelialization. Because the beta2-ARs are also expressed on dermal fibroblasts, a study was initiated to determine the effects of beta-adrenergic agonists on dermal fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. A beta-agonist (isoproterenol) delayed gel contraction in a dose-dependent manner. A beta2-AR specific antagonist (ICI 118,551) prevented the delay, indicating that the beta2-AR alone mediated the delay. The active cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analog also delayed collagen gel contraction, whereas an inactive cAMP analog partially prevented the delay, suggesting that the mechanism for beta-AR agonist-mediated delay was partly cAMP-dependent. Identifying and characterizing agents that modulate wound contraction improves understanding of the wound healing process and could result in novel therapeutic strategies for preventing unwanted wound contraction in burn and trauma patients.

  5. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor activation enhances neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Gao-shang; Wang, Yang-yang; Yasheng, Amina; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been pursued as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling and prevents the memory impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers. Here, we hypothesized that β2-adrenoceptor activation would enhance neurogenesis and ameliorate memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of β2-adrenoceptor activation on neurogenesis and memory in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice using the agonist clenbuterol (intraperitoneal injection, 2 mg/kg). We found that β2-adrenoceptor activation enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis, ameliorated memory deficits, and increased dendritic branching and the density of dendritic spines. These effects were associated with the upregulation of postsynaptic density 95, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, β2-adrenoceptor activation decreased cerebral amyloid plaques by decreasing APP phosphorylation at Thr668. These findings suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation enhances neurogenesis and ameliorates memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. PMID:27904493

  6. Prognostic significance of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Carvalho, André Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to investigate the correlations between expression level and clinical characteristics, outcome, and patient prognosis. A total of 106 OSCC patients underwent surgical treatment at the A.C. Camargo Cancer Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed for clinicopathological data, treatment, tumor outcome, prognosis and immunohistochemical expression of β2-AR. The β2-AR expression was statistically analyzed relative to clinicopathological variables and survival using the Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model. Most OSCC (72.6%) exhibited malignant cells with strong cytoplasmatic and membranous β2-AR expression. β2-AR expression was significantly associated with alcohol (p = 0.021), simultaneous consumption of alcohol and tobacco (p = 0.014) and T stage (p = 0.07). In addition, OSCC patients who exhibited strong β2-AR expression demonstrated a higher rate of overall survival (p = 0.001) and cancer specific survival (p = 0.004) compared to patients with weak/negative β2-AR expression. The Cox regression model demonstrated that strong β2-AR expression was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OSCC patients. These results suggest that the strong malignant cell β2-AR expression is a favorable prognostic factor for OSCC patients and could be used as a target for new anti-neoplastic pharmacological strategies.

  7. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter T.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; O’Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I.; Sikkel, Markus B.; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Harding, Sian E.; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors. PMID:24345421

  8. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter T; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; O'Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Sikkel, Markus B; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A; Lyon, Alexander R; Harding, Sian E; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors.

  9. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation of rabbit femoral artery by beta(2)-adrenergic stimulation or cyclic AMP elevation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Li, J; Gao, L; Ferro, A

    2000-03-01

    Some studies suggest that beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation is in part mediated through nitric oxide (NO) release. We wished to determine the contribution of the L-arginine / NO system to vasodilatation in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoprenaline or cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) elevation with forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP in vivo, using a rabbit femoral artery constant perfusion model. Baseline femoral artery pressure was similar in rabbits receiving isoprenaline, forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Isoprenaline, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP each decreased femoral artery pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The doses (mol kg(-1)) of isoprenaline, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP which decreased pressure by 10% from baseline, expressed as a negative logarithm (-log ED(10)) were: 10.0+/-0.2, 9.5+/-0.1 and 4.9+/-0.1 respectively (P<0.0001 for each). Use of beta-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonists showed that the vascular response to isoprenaline was purely due to stimulation of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor subtype. Injection of 1 micromol kg(-1) N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) did not alter baseline pressure. However, it abolished the pressure response to isoprenaline (P<0.0001), and significantly attenuated the pressure responses to forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP: -log ED(10) values for forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, in the presence of L-NAME, were 7.9+/-0.1 and 3.5+/-0.3 respectively (P<0.0001 for each, as compared with values in the absence of L-NAME). These results indicate that beta(2)-adrenergic stimulation and cylic AMP elevation activate the L-arginine/NO system in rabbit femoral artery in vivo, and that NO generation contributes importantly to the changes in vascular tone induced by agents which modulate beta-adrenoceptors or cyclic AMP.

  10. Analysis of full and partial agonists binding to beta2-adrenergic receptor suggests a role of transmembrane helix V in agonist-specific conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Reynolds, Kimberly A; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Roth, Christopher B; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    The 2.4 A crystal structure of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) in complex with the high-affinity inverse agonist (-)-carazolol provides a detailed structural framework for the analysis of ligand recognition by adrenergic receptors. Insights into agonist binding and the corresponding conformational changes triggering G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation mechanism are of special interest. Here we show that while the carazolol pocket captured in the beta(2)AR crystal structure accommodates (-)-isoproterenol and other agonists without steric clashes, a finite movement of the flexible extracellular part of TM-V helix (TM-Ve) obtained by receptor optimization in the presence of docked ligand can further improve the calculated binding affinities for agonist compounds. Tilting of TM-Ve towards the receptor axis provides a more complete description of polar receptor-ligand interactions for full and partial agonists, by enabling optimal engagement of agonists with two experimentally identified anchor sites, formed by Asp113/Asn312 and Ser203/Ser204/Ser207 side chains. Further, receptor models incorporating a flexible TM-V backbone allow reliable prediction of binding affinities for a set of diverse ligands, suggesting potential utility of this approach to design of effective and subtype-specific agonists for adrenergic receptors. Systematic differences in capacity of partial, full and inverse agonists to induce TM-V helix tilt in the beta(2)AR model suggest potential role of TM-V as a conformational "rheostat" involved in the whole spectrum of beta(2)AR responses to small molecule signals.

  11. The interaction of signal transduction pathways in FRTL5 thyroid follicular cells: Studies with stable expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzaki, S.; Cone, R.D.; Frazier, A.L.; Moses, A.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Multiple signal transduction pathways interact in FRTL5 cells to promote thyroid follicular cell differentiated function and cell proliferation. In these cells, TSH is a tissue-specific mitogen that promotes DNA synthesis primarily through activation of adenylate cyclase. To further test the role of adenylate cyclase in regulating cell growth and differentiated function we have introduced into FRTL5 the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (BAR) complementary DNA and have studied the ability of isoproterenol, alone and in combination with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), to stimulate cAMP accumulation, iodide transport, (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA, and cell growth. Wild-type FRTL5 were infected with a PLJ retroviral construct containing the BAR in either a sense (FRTL BAR) or antisense (FRTL RBAR) orientation, and cell populations were selected on the basis of resistance to the antibiotic geneticin. FRTL BAR expressed approximately 1.3 x 10(5) high affinity binding sites per cell for the beta 2-specific ligand, CGP-12177, while neither FRTL5 wild-type nor RBAR cells demonstrated any specific binding. FRTL BAR had significantly higher levels of intracellular cAMP, (3H)thymidine incorporation, and iodide uptake in the absence of added isoproterenol than FRTL RBAR or wild-type cells. In FRTL BAR, but not RBAR cells, isoproterenol stimulated a dose-dependent accumulation of cAMP, iodide uptake, (3H)thymidine incorporation, and cell growth. FRTL BAR and RBAR cells were equally responsive to TSH and to IGF-I. Isoproterenol enhanced the ability of IGF-I to stimulate (3H)thymidine incorporation in BAR but not RBAR cells. Isoproterenol partially inhibited the ability of TSH to stimulate cAMP generation and DNA synthesis.

  12. Influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor on the presence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in adolescents✰

    PubMed Central

    Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; Furtado-Alle, Lupe; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Milano, Gerusa Einsfeld; Lazarotto, Leilane; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Leite, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents. PMID:26684442

  13. The beta2 adrenergic receptor Gln27Glu polymorphism affects insulin resistance in patients with heart failure: possible modulation by choice of beta blocker.

    PubMed

    Vardeny, Orly; Detry, Michelle A; Moran, John J M; Johnson, Maryl R; Sweitzer, Nancy K

    2008-12-01

    Insulin resistance is prevalent in heart failure (HF) patients, and beta2 adrenergic receptors (beta2-AR) are involved in glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that beta2-AR Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms affect insulin resistance in HF patients, and we explored if effects of beta2-AR polymorphisms on glucose handling are modified by choice of beta blocker. We studied 30 nondiabetic adults with HF and a history of systolic dysfunction; 15 were receiving metoprolol succinate, and 15 were receiving carvedilol. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance, and we determined beta2-AR genotypes at codons 27 and 16. The cohort was insulin resistant with a mean HOMA-IR score of 3.4 (95% CI, 2.3 to 4.5; normal value, 1.0). Patients with the Glu27Glu genotype exhibited higher insulin and HOMA-IR compared to individuals carrying a Gln allele (P = 0.019). Patients taking carvedilol demonstrated lower insulin resistance if also carrying a wild-type allele at codon 27 (fasting insulin, 9.8 +/- 10.5 versus 20.5 +/- 2.1 for variant, P = 0.072; HOMA-IR, 2.4 +/- 2.7 versus 5.1 +/- 0.6, P = 0.074); those on metoprolol succinate had high insulin resistance irrespective of genotype. The beta2-AR Glu27Glu genotype may be associated with higher insulin concentrations and insulin resistance in patients with HF. Future studies are needed to confirm whether treatment with carvedilol may be associated with decreased insulin and insulin resistance in beta2-AR codon 27 Gln carriers.

  14. The role of beta 2-adrenergic vascular receptors in the peripheral vasodilation caused by 17 beta-estradiol in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Grossini, E; Mary, D A; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    1999-01-01

    It has been previously shown in anesthetized pigs that intravenous infusion of 2 microg/h of 17beta-estradiol primarily dilated renal, iliac and coronary circulations, while higher doses of the hormone were required to cause vasodilation also in the mesenteric vascular bed. In the same experimental model, a tonic beta2-adrenoceptor mediated vasodilation, which could be argued to attenuate the vasodilator effect of 17beta-estradiol, has been described. The present study was planned to investigate the role of beta2-adrenergic receptors in the hemodynamic responses of renal and mesenteric vascular beds to 17beta-estradiol. Changes in flow caused by intravenous infusion of 2 microg/h of the hormone at constant heart rate and aortic blood pressure in the left renal and superior mesenteric arteries were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In six pigs, infusion of 17beta-estradiol caused an increase in renal blood flow, which averaged 12.1% of the control values, without affecting mesenteric blood flow. In the same pigs, after hemodynamic variables had returned to the baseline values, blockade of beta2-adrenergic receptors with butoxamine caused an increase in aortic blood pressure and an increase in renal and mesenteric resistance. The subsequent infusion of 17beta-estradiol elicited increases in renal and mesenteric blood flow which respectively averaged 19.6% and 12.8%. Therefore, the present study in anesthetized pigs have shown that the vasodilator responses of the renal and mesenteric circulations to 17beta-estradiol were attenuated and even masked by a tonic beta2-adrenoceptor mediated vasodilation. This indicates that some vasodilator effects elicited by normally used replacement doses of the hormone may not be apparent.

  15. Molecular definition of human beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) by cDNA cloning and inter-species differences of beta 2-GPI in alternation of anticardiolipin binding.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, E; Igarashi, M; Igarashi, Y; Nagae, H; Ichikawa, K; Yasuda, T; Koike, T

    1991-12-01

    Human beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) is involved in cardiolipin (CL) binding of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined the inter-species differences of beta 2-GPI in alternation of CL binding of aCL. beta 2-GPI preparations were obtained from human, bovine, and rat sera by sequential CL--polyacrylamide affinity, DEAE--cellulose, and anti-human IgG-conjugated Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography, and they had apparent molecular weights of 50, 53, and 55 kDa respectively. Human beta 2-GPI not only enhanced CL binding by aCL in SLE but also depressed it by those in syphilis. Either bovine and rat beta 2-GPI exerted no or quite small inhibition of the binding of syphilitic aCL compared with human beta 2-GPI whereas all three species of beta 2-GPI generated binding of aCL in SLE to a similar degree. Further, a complete cDNA clone, p beta 2-GPI, was isolated from a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, and its nucleotide sequence was analyzed. The sequences of bovine and rat counterpart molecules (beta 2-GPI) are highly homologous to that of the deduced sequence, and their corresponding regions are 84.0 and 82.5% identical to the complete domain and to the amino acid sequence 53-326 of human beta 2-GPI respectively. One of major differences appears at position 154 in human beta 2-GPI, and might be associated with the inhibitory effect on the binding of syphilitic aCL. The sequencing analysis of these beta 2-GPI proteins might provide leads to functional sites of domains which would be associated with such serological phenomena.

  16. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor variants are associated with subcutaneous fat accumulation in response to long-term overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, O; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    2001-11-01

    The effects of alpha-2A (A2A)-, beta-2 (B2)- and beta-3 (B3)-adrenergic receptor (ADR) gene polymorphisms on adiposity, fat distribution and plasma insulin and leptin changes in response to long-term overfeeding were explored. Twenty four men (mean (+/-s.d.) age 21+/-2 y) who constituted 12 pairs of identical twins ate a 4.2 MJ/day energy surplus, 6 days a week, for a period of 100 days. Total body fat was assessed by hydrodensitometry and total subcutaneous fat by the sum of eight skinfolds. Abdominal fat areas were measured by computerized tomography (CT). Plasma glucose and insulin during fasting and in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were assayed. The insulin and glucose areas were computed using the trapezoidal method. Plasma leptin was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ADR polymorphisms were identified by PCR or Southern blot technique. The ADRB2 Gln27Gln genotype (n=10) was associated with a larger gain (percentage change) in weight (P<0.001) and total subcutaneous (P<0.005) fat than the Glu27Glu/Gln27Glu genotype (n=14). In addition, overfeeding induced greater increases in the insulin areas under the curve during the OGTT and the fasting plasma level of leptin (P<0.01 and <0.03, respectively) among Gln27Gln than in the Glu27Glu/Gln27Glu subjects. The body composition and metabolic changes among the ADRB2 BanI 3.7/3.4 kb subjects (n=10) were similar to those of Gln27Gln subjects. ADRA2A DraI (n=4) 6.3/6.3 kb subjects experienced a decrease (-8%) while 6.7/6.3 kb subjects (n=20) registered an increase (+10%; P=0.017) of OGTT glucose area after the 100-day caloric surplus. The four carriers of the ADRB3 variant (Trp64Arg) experienced the same magnitude of changes as the 20 homozygotes for the Trp allele. In general, comparisons based on the 24 subjects considered as unrelated men and the mean values for each of the 12 pairs yielded similar results. The ADRB2 Gln27Gln subjects gained more weight and total subcutaneous

  17. Beta2-adrenergic agonist-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps skeletal muscle does not modulate disease severity in the rodent meniscectomy model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tonge, D P; Jones, S W; Parr, T; Bardsley, R; Doherty, M; Maciewicz, R A

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether beta2-adrenergic agonist-induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps skeletal muscle can modulate the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) in the rodent meniscectomy (MNX) model. Male Lewis rats were subcutaneously administered with 1.5 mg/kg/day clenbuterol hydrochloride (n=15) or saline vehicle (n=20) for 14 days. Following pre-treatment, five animals from each group were sacrificed to assess the immediate effects of clenbuterol. The remaining animals underwent either invasive knee surgery (clenbuterol pre-treated n=10; saline pre-treated n=10) or a sham control surgical procedure (saline pre-treated n=5). During disease initiation and progression, weight bearing was assessed by hindlimb loading. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein isoforms were quantified by silver stained SDS PAGE. OA severity was graded by assessment of toluidine blue stained step coronal sections of the total knee joint. Clenbuterol treatment resulted in an increase in total bodyweight, growth rate and in quadriceps skeletal muscle mass. Meniscal surgery resulted in the development of OA-like lesions, changes to weight bearing, and changes in MHC protein expression in the quadriceps. Clenbuterol-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy had no effect on either weight bearing or articular pathology following MNX surgery. Our data reveal that clenbuterol-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is unable to mimic the beneficial clinical effects of increased musculature derived through targeted strength training in humans, in a rodent model of MNX-induced OA. In addition we observed fibre-type switching to "slow twitch" in the quadriceps muscle during the induction of OA that warrants further investigation as to its relationship to joint stability. 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blockade of beta 1- but not of beta 2-adrenergic receptors replicates propranolol's suppression of the cerebral spread of an engram in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Flexner, J B; Flexner, L B; Church, A C; Rainbow, T C; Brunswick, D J

    1985-01-01

    Bitemporal injections of puromycin that primarily affect the hippocampal-entorhinal area induce amnesia of aversive maze-learning in mice for 3 days after training but are ineffective 6 or more days after training. At these later times, additional puromycin sites covering widespread forebrain areas are necessary to induce amnesia, a result that we attribute to the cerebral spread of the engram during the 6-day period. We have reported that blockade of about 60% of cerebral beta-adrenergic receptors by a single, subcutaneous injection of (-)-propranolol, a nonselective beta-receptor antagonist, inhibited engram spread for 60-90 days, at which time engram spread spontaneously occurred. In the present experiments using single doses of antagonists that appeared to block 60% of beta 2- or beta 1-adrenergic receptors, it was found that the selective beta 2 antagonist ICI 118,551 was without effect on engram spread, whereas the selective beta 1 antagonist betaxolol inhibited the spread for at least 3 months. Propranolol's effect consequently appears to be accounted for by its blockade of beta 1 receptors. PMID:2865730

  19. Correlation of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Tumor-Free Surgical Margin and at the Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Lauand, Gustavo Amaral; Assao, Agnes; Suárez-Peñaranda, José-Manuel; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García-García, Abel; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor is expressed by neoplastic cells and is correlated with a wide spectrum of tumor cell mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Objectives. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in tumor-free surgical margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and at the invasive front. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with OSCC, confirmed by biopsy, were selected for the study. The clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up were obtained from medical records and their association with β2-AR expression was verified by the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. To verify the correlation of β2-AR expression in tumor-free surgical margins and at the invasive front of OSCCs, Pearson's correlation coefficient test was applied. Results. The expression of β2-AR presented a statistically significant correlation between the tumor-free surgical margins and the invasive front of OSCC (r = 0.383; p = 0.002). The immunohistochemical distribution of β2-AR at the invasive front of OSCC was also statistically significant associated with alcohol (p = 0.038), simultaneous alcohol and tobacco consumption (p = 0.010), and T stage (p = 0.014). Conclusions. The correlation of β2-AR expression in OSCC and tumor-free surgical margins suggests a role of this receptor in tumor progression and its expression in normal oral epithelium seems to be constitutive. PMID:27042179

  20. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase specificity for beta-arrestin recruitment to the beta2-adrenergic receptor revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Ren, Xiu-Rong; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2006-07-21

    The small family of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) regulate cell signaling by phosphorylating heptahelical receptors, thereby promoting receptor interaction with beta-arrestins. This switches a receptor from G-protein activation to G-protein desensitization, receptor internalization, and beta-arrestin-dependent signal activation. However, the specificity of GRKs for recruiting beta-arrestins to specific receptors has not been elucidated. Here we use the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR), the archetypal nonvisual heptahelical receptor, as a model to test functional GRK specificity. We monitor endogenous GRK activity with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay in live cells by measuring kinetics of the interaction between the beta(2)AR and beta-arrestins. We show that beta(2)AR phosphorylation is required for high affinity beta-arrestin binding, and we use small interfering RNA silencing to show that HEK-293 and U2-OS cells use different subsets of their expressed GRKs to promote beta-arrestin recruitment, with significant GRK redundancy evident in both cell types. Surprisingly, the GRK specificity for beta-arrestin recruitment does not correlate with that for bulk receptor phosphorylation, indicating that beta-arrestin recruitment is specific for a subset of receptor phosphorylations on specific sites. Moreover, multiple members of the GRK family are able to phosphorylate the beta(2)AR and induce beta-arrestin recruitment, with their relative contributions largely determined by their relative expression levels. Because GRK isoforms vary in their regulation, this partially redundant system ensures beta-arrestin recruitment while providing the opportunity for tissue-specific regulation of the rate of beta-arrestin recruitment.

  1. Selective inhibition of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP generation by activation of the P2Y(2) receptor in mouse pineal gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, B C; Kim, J S; Namgung, U; Han, S; Kim, K T

    2001-06-01

    Rhythmic noradrenergic signaling from the hypothalamic clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the pineal gland causes an increase in intracellular cAMP which regulates the circadian fluctuation of melatonin synthesis. The activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled P2Y(2) receptors upon treatment with ATP and UTP exclusively inhibited the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production in mouse pineal gland tumor cells. However, the activation of other PLC-coupled receptors including P2Y(1) and bombesin receptors had little or no effect on the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production. Also, ATP did not inhibit cAMP production caused by forskolin, prostaglandin E(2), or the adenosine analog NECA. These results suggest a selective coupling between signalings of P2Y(2) and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. The binding of [(3)H]CGP12177 to beta(2)-adrenergic receptors was not effected by the presence of ATP or UTP. Ionomycin decreased the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate slightly potentiated the isoproterenol response. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+), however, had little effect on the ATP-induced inhibition of cAMP production, while it completely reversed the ionomycin-induced inhibition. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin almost completely blocked the inhibitory effect of nucleotides. Pertussis toxin also inhibited the nucleotide-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production by 30-40%, suggesting that the ATP-mediated inhibition of the cAMP generation and the partial activation of PLC are mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-protein. We conclude that one of the functions of P2Y(2) receptors on the pineal gland is the selective inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathways via the inhibitory G-proteins.

  2. [Treatment of glaucoma with beta receptor blockers. Significance of adrenergic receptors of the beta-2 subtype for their effect on intraocular pressure].

    PubMed

    Noack, E

    1988-01-01

    After 20 years of extensive practical experience in the management of glaucoma, beta-adrenergic blocking agents have gained a continuously increasing importance. The reason is a combination of effective reduction of intraocular pressure even during chronic treatment and few adverse effects. For many years, substantial effort has been focussed on the elucidation of the cellular mechanism inducing the intracellular pressure reduction. In this respect, mainly three different hypotheses have been controversially discussed: beta-blockers reduce aqueous humor formation (1) by an unspecific membrane-stabilizing process, (2) by impeding the local circulation of the ciliary body or (3) by specifically blocking adrenergic beta-receptors intimately involved in the regulation of aqueous humor production. Recently, substantial progress has been achieved by different working groups getting highly purified melanin-depleted fractions of ciliary epithelia which allow accurate receptor-ligand binding studies. The most important results, which all favor the explanation that the mechanism of action is due to specific inhibition of adrenergic receptors of the beta-2-subtype, are presented here. The consequences which result for the development of more specific pharmacologic agents in the future are discussed.

  3. Expression profiling of skeletal muscle following acute and chronic beta2-adrenergic stimulation: implications for hypertrophy, metabolism and circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Pearen, Michael A; Ryall, James G; Lynch, Gordon S; Muscat, George Eo

    2009-09-23

    Systemic administration of beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of beta-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of beta(1-3)-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to diet induced obesity. However, the molecular pathways and gene expression changes that initiate and maintain these phenotypic modulations are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differential changes in gene expression in murine skeletal muscle associated with systemic (acute and chronic) administration of the beta(2)-AR agonist formoterol. Skeletal muscle gene expression (from murine tibialis anterior) was profiled at both 1 and 4 hours following systemic administration of the beta(2)-AR agonist formoterol, using Illumina 46K mouse BeadArrays. Illumina expression profiling revealed significant expression changes in genes associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy, myoblast differentiation, metabolism, circadian rhythm, transcription, histones, and oxidative stress. Differentially expressed genes relevant to the regulation of muscle mass and metabolism (in the context of the hypertrophic phenotype) were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR to examine gene expression in response to both acute (1-24 h) and chronic administration (1-28 days) of formoterol at multiple timepoints. In terms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, attenuation of myostatin signaling (including differential expression of myostatin, activin receptor IIB, phospho-Smad3 etc) was observed following acute and chronic administration of formoterol. Acute (but not chronic) administration of formoterol also significantly induced the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism, including hexokinase 2, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 1, and uncoupling protein 3. Interestingly, formoterol administration also appeared to

  4. Alpha-hederin, but not hederacoside C and hederagenin from Hedera helix, affects the binding behavior, dynamics, and regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Anne; Prenner, Lars; Sorkalla, Thomas; Wolf, Anne; Jakobs, Daniel; Runkel, Frank; Häberlein, Hanns

    2009-04-21

    Hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin are saponins of dry extracts obtained from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.). Internalization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-GFP fusion proteins after stimulation with 1 microM terbutaline was inhibited by preincubation of stably transfected HEK293 cells with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h, whereas neither hederacoside C nor hederagenin (1 microM each) influenced this receptor regulation. After incubation of A549 cells with 5 nM Alexa532-NA, two different diffusion time constants were found for beta(2)AR-Alexa532-NA complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Evaluation of the autocorrelation curve revealed diffusion time constants: tau(bound1) = 1.4 +/- 1.1 ms (n = 6) found for receptor-ligand complexes with unrestricted lateral mobility, and tau(bound2) = 34.7 +/- 14.1 ms (n = 6) for receptor-ligand complexes with hindered mobility. The distribution of diffusion time constants was 24.3 +/- 2.5% for tau(bound1) and 8.7 +/- 4.3% for tau(bound2) (n = 6). A549 cells pretreated with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h showed dose-dependent alterations in this distribution with 37.1 +/- 5.5% for tau(bound1) and 4.1 +/- 1.1% for tau(bound2). Simultaneously, the level of Alexa532-NA binding was significantly increased from 33.0 +/- 6.8 to 41.2 +/- 4.6%. In saturation experiments, alpha-hederin did not influence the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor density (B(max)), whereas the K(D) value for Alexa532-NA binding decreased from 36.1 +/- 9.2 to 24.3 +/- 11.1 nM. Pretreatment of HASM cells with alpha-hederin (1 microM, 24 h) revealed an increased intracellular cAMP level of 13.5 +/- 7.0% under stimulating conditions. Remarkably, structure-related saponins like hederacoside C and hederagenin did not influence either the binding behavior of beta(2)AR or the intracellular cAMP level.

  5. [Asthma therapy by the general practitioner--new approaches and progress. Why inhaled steroids and delayed action beta-2 adrenergic drugs should be combined early on].

    PubMed

    Petro, W

    1999-08-26

    Early treatment with high-dose inhaled steroids can significantly improve the prognosis of asthma. Inhaled steroids used to treat inflammation of the mucosa, and hyperreactivity may be reduced only under careful surveillance. Hig-dose initial treatment must be followed by low-dose maintenance therapy. The best therapeutic results are obtained with a combination of inhaled steroids and long-acting beta-2-adrenergic agents. Careful titration of the dose and therapeutic effects is a major task for the family doctor. Bronchial inflammation and reactivity are dependent on external factors, and are rarely stable. The most important therapeutic basis is, therefore, continuous management involving both the patient and the family doctor. The patient should be provided with relevant information on his/her disease and its treatment. A prerequisite for the effective management of asthma is the provision of individual peak-flow-adjusted and emergency plans.

  6. The forgotten serine. A critical role for Ser-2035.42 in ligand binding to and activation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Liapakis, G; Ballesteros, J A; Papachristou, S; Chan, W C; Chen, X; Javitch, J A

    2000-12-01

    Previous work in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor demonstrated critical interactions between Ser-204 and Ser-207 in the fifth membrane-spanning segment and the meta-OH and para-OH, respectively, of catecholamine agonists (Strader, C. D., Candelore, M. R., Hill, W. S., Sigal, I. S., and Dixon, R. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13572-13578). Using the substituted cysteine accessibility method in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, we have found that in addition to Ser-204 and Ser-207, Ser-203 is also accessible on the surface of the binding-site crevice and is occluded by bound agonist. Mutation of Ser-203 to Ala, Val, or Cys reduced the binding affinity and adenylyl cyclase-activating potency of agonists containing a meta-OH, whereas their affinities and potencies were largely preserved by mutation of Ser-203 to Thr, which maintained an OH at this position. Thus both Ser-203 and Ser-204 appear to interact with the meta-OH of catecholamines, perhaps through a bifurcated H bond. Furthermore, the removal of the OH at position 203 led to a significant loss of affinity of antagonists with nitrogen in their heterocyclic ring structure. The greatest effect was seen with pindolol, a partial agonist, suggesting that a H bond between the heterocyclic ring and Ser-203 may play a role in partial agonism. In contrast, the affinities of antagonists such as propranolol or alprenolol, which have cyclic structures without H-bonding capability, were unaltered after mutation of Ser-203.

  7. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Results: Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher total cholesterol was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). Conclusions: The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. PMID:26409918

  8. The C523A beta2 adrenergic receptor polymorphism associates with markers of asthma severity in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lima, John J; Holbrook, Janet T; Wang, Jianwei; Sylvester, James E; Blake, Kathryn V; Blumenthal, Malcolm N; Castro, Mario; Hanania, Nicholas; Wise, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Our goal was to explore associations between ss2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and markers of asthma severity in African American and Caucasian patients with asthma. Polymorphisms at loci -1023, -654, -47, 46, 79, 491, and 523 were genotyped and haplotypes were imputed in 143 African Americans and 336 Caucasians. C523A genotype associated with percentage of African Americans (but not of Caucasians) having an asthma exacerbation: AA, AC, and CC genotypes were 17, 29, and 40%, respectively (p = 0.018). Symptom scores, pulmonary function, and rescue inhaler use paralleled exacerbation prevalence. We conclude the 523 A allele modifies asthma severity in African Americans.

  9. Effect of training on beta1 beta2 beta3 adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Julie; Rannou-Bekono, Françoise; Marchais, Jérome; Berthon, Phanélie-Marie; Delamarche, Paul; Carré, François

    2004-06-01

    Physical training is known to alter several cardiovascular parameters. These adaptations are for a great part linked to an alteration of the myocardial responses to its autonomic nervous regulation. To further explain the parasympathetic and catecholamine effects, we hypothesized that endurance training could modify rat myocardial beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenoreceptors (AR) and M2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (AchR) densities. Two groups of adults female Wistar rats were studied: controls (C) (N = 7) and trained (T) (N = 9). An 8-wk treadmill training protocol was performed, 5 d x wk and of 1 h x d. At the end of the training session, left ventricle and atria muscle were isolated and weighed. Then, quantification of beta1, beta2, beta3 AR and M2 AchR was performed using Western blot analysis. M2 AchR densities were not modified in left ventricle or in atria by training (respectively, 100 +/- 22%, C vs 101 +/- 14%, T and 100 +/- 23%, C vs 119 +/- 30%, T). Concerning the left ventricle beta AR isoforms, beta1AR density was decreased in T (80 +/- 10% T vs 100 +/- 14% C, P = 0.01), beta2AR was unaltered (102 +/- 12%, T vs 100 +/- 17%, C), and beta3 AR density was increased in T (139 +/- 38% T vs 100 +/- 15% C; P < 0.05). Our results show for the first time that in female rats an 8-wk treadmill training protocol alters specifically the left ventricle beta AR isoforms densities but not the M2 AchR one. These results could explain some of the beneficial cardiovascular adaptations of the physically trained heart.

  10. Changes in beta-2 adrenergic receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha-2 subunit in the rat vestibular nerve after labyrinthectomy.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Tadashi; Horii, Arata; Uno, Atsuhiko; Imai, Takao; Okazaki, Suzuyo; Kamakura, Takefumi; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Inohara, Hidenori

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, to elucidate the role of vestibular ganglion (VG) after the unilateral labyrinthine damage, we examined quantitative changes in mRNA expression of beta-adrenergic receptors (bARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha catalytic subunits (aAMPKs) in VG after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) in rats. Using the real-time PCR method, beta2 AR mRNA expression in bilateral VG and AMPK alpha2 mRNA expression in the ipsilateral VG were significantly up-regulated with the maximum increase at the postoperative 7 day and 1 day, respectively. The up-regulation of beta2 AR in bilateral VG was long-lasting until 28 days after UL and that of AMPK alpha2 in the ipsilateral VG was just transient within 7 days after UL. These mRNA changes were supported by immunohistochemical data. According to previous reports, both of bARs and aAMPKs could regulate mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA expression in several kinds of tissues and therefore might have thermogenic neurotransmission and antioxidant neuroprotective roles in neuronal tissues. UL requires not only long-lasting response of VG for central vestibular neuro-plasticity around 2-4 weeks but rapid response of VG against apoptosis of peripheral vestibular epithelia-neuronal synapses. The present findings suggest that beta2 AR in bilateral VG and AMPK alpha2 in the ipsilateral VG might play important signaling roles after the unilateral labyrinthine damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  11. [Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness].

    PubMed

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher TC was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the ADBR2 gene to the development of obesity and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects.

  13. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  14. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Falkay, G.; Kovacs, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using {sup 3}H-prazosin and {sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogeneous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycemia of newborns after treatment of premature labor with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.

  15. Identification of high affinity bioactive Salbutamol conformer directed against mutated (Thr164Ile) beta 2 adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Tiwari, Geet; Akka, Jyothy; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Alvala, Mallika; Gutlapalli, Venkata Ravi; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Mundluru, Hema Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Salbutamol forms an important and widely administered β2 agonist prescribed in the symptomatic treatment of bronchial asthma. Unfortunately, a subset of patients show refractoriness to it owing to ADRB2 gene variant (rs 1800888). The variant substitutes Thr to Ile at the position 164 in the β2 adrenergic receptor leading to sub-optimal binding of agonists. The present study aims to associate the Salbutamol response with the variant and select the bioactive conformer of Sabutamol with optimal binding affinity against mutated receptor by in silico approaches. To assess bronchodilator response spirometry was performed before and 15 min after Salbutamol (200 mcg) inhalation. Responders to Salbutamol were categorized if percentage reversibility was greater than or equal to 12%, while those showing FEV₁ reversibility less than 12% were classified as non-responders. Among the 344 subjects screened, 238 were responders and 106 were non-responders. The frequency of mutant allele "T" was significantly higher in case of non-responders (p < 0.05). In silico process involved generation of Salbutamol conformer ensembles supported by systematic search algorithm. 4369 conformers were generated of which only 1882 were considered bioactive conformers (threshold RMSD≤1 in reference to normalized structure of salbutamol). All the bioactive conformers were evaluated for the binding affinity against (Thr164 Ile) receptor through MolDock aided docking algorithm. One of the bioactive conformer (P.E. = -57.0038, RMSD = 0.6) demonstrated 1.54 folds greater affinity than the normal Salbutamol in the mutated receptor. The conformer identified in the present study may be put to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies in future ahead.

  16. Arrestin interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Direct binding studies of wild type and mutant arrestins with rhodopsin, beta 2-adrenergic, and m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, V V; Dion, S B; Onorato, J J; Ptasienski, J; Kim, C M; Sterne-Marr, R; Hosey, M M; Benovic, J L

    1995-01-13

    Arrestins play an important role in quenching signal transduction initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. To explore the specificity of arrestin-receptor interaction, we have characterized the ability of various wild-type arrestins to bind to rhodopsin, the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR), and the m2 muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m2 mAChR). Visual arrestin was found to be the most selective arrestin since it discriminated best between the three different receptors tested (highest binding to rhodopsin) as well as between the phosphorylation and activation state of the receptor (> 10-fold higher binding to the phosphorylated light-activated form of rhodopsin compared to any other form of rhodopsin). While beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 were also found to preferentially bind to the phosphorylated activated form of a given receptor, they only modestly discriminated among the three receptors tested. To explore the structural characteristics important in arrestin function, we constructed a series of truncated and chimeric arrestins. Analysis of the binding characteristics of the various mutant arrestins suggests a common molecular mechanism involved in determining receptor binding selectivity. Structural elements that contribute to arrestin binding include: 1) a C-terminal acidic region that serves a regulatory role in controlling arrestin binding selectivity toward the phosphorylated and activated form of a receptor, without directly participating in receptor interaction; 2) a basic N-terminal domain that directly participates in receptor interaction and appears to serve a regulatory role via intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal acidic region; and 3) two centrally localized domains that are directly involved in determining receptor binding specificity and selectivity. A comparative structure-function model of all arrestins and a kinetic model of beta-arrestin and arrestin 3 interaction with receptors are proposed.

  17. Difference between adrenergic beta 1- and beta 2-blocking effects on isoproterenol-induced Ca spike suppression in guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed

    Kimura, I; Katoh, H; Kimura, M

    1983-12-01

    Ca spike suppressions induced by isoproterenol (IsP) and a beta 2-agonist, 5-hydroxymethyl-6-hydroxy-2-isopropylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene -1-ol (AA497), were investigated in the presence of butoxamine or practolol. The relaxations were isotonically recorded, and the Ca spike frequency was recorded using the single sucrose gap method. IsP-induced relaxation was not inhibited by butoxamine (Butox, 0.16 microM), but was inhibited by practolol (Prac, 0.188 microM). In 24 mM K+-Krebs' solution, AA497 caused relaxation in a lower dose range and suppressed to a small extent the Ca spike frequency in a higher dose range, as was observed for IsP-induced curves of log dose-spike frequency and log dose-relaxation. In normal K+-Krebs' solution, both IsP and AA497 greatly suppressed the Ca spike frequency. IsP (1.21 microM)-induced suppression of the Ca spike frequency was blocked by Prac (113 microM), and it was blocked by Butox (96 microM) to a greater extent. AA497-induced suppression of the spikes was not blocked by Prac (37.6 microM), but completely blocked by Butox (32 microM). These selective inhibitory effects of butoxamine on AA497-induced and IsP-induced Ca spike suppression demonstrate that in the adrenergic beta-receptor-mediated process in taenia coli, beta 2-mechanisms are more closely related to the Ca spike suppression than the beta 1-mechanisms are.

  18. Adrenergic Polymorphism and the Human Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Fangwen; Zhang, Lian; Wessel, Jennifer; Zhang, Kuixing; Wen, Gen; Kennedy, Brian P.; Rana, Brinda K.; Das, Madhusudan; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Smith, Douglas W.; Cadman, Peter E.; Salem, Rany M.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Taupenot, Laurent; Ziegler, Michael G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. Does common genetic variation at human TH alter autonomic activity and predispose to cardiovascular disease? We undertook systematic polymorphism discovery at the TH locus, and then tested variants for contributions to sympathetic function and blood pressure. We resequenced 80 ethnically diverse individuals across the TH locus. One hundred seventy-two twin pairs were evaluated for sympathetic traits, including catecholamine production and environmental (cold) stress responses. To evaluate hypertension, we genotyped subjects selected from the most extreme diastolic blood pressure percentiles in the population. Human TH promoter haplotype/reporter plasmids were transfected into chromaffin cells. Forty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one tetranucleotide repeat were discovered, but coding region polymorphism did not account for common phenotypic variation. A block of linkage disequilibrium spanned four common variants in the proximal promoter. Catecholamine secretory traits were significantly heritable, as were stress-induced blood pressure changes. In the TH promoter, significant associations were found for urinary catecholamine excretion, as well as blood pressure response to stress. TH promoter haplotype #2 (TGGG) showed pleiotropy, increasing both norepinephrine excretion and blood pressure during stress. In hypertension, a case–control study (1266 subjects, 53% women) established the effect of C-824T in determination of blood pressure. We conclude that human catecholamine secretory traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination (pleiotropy) with autonomic activity and finally with blood pressure in the population. Catecholamine secretion is influenced by genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway encoding catecholamine synthesis, especially at the classically rate-limiting step, TH. The results suggest novel pathophysiological links between a key

  19. Are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in skeletal muscle wasting during experimental cancer cachexia? Role of beta2-adrenergic agonists.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Gemma; Busquets, Sílvia; Ametller, Elisabet; Olivan, Mireia; Almendro, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Cibely Cristine Fontes; Figueras, Maite; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Argilés, Josep M

    2007-07-01

    Implantation of the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma to rats resulted in a decrease in muscle weight 7 days after the inoculation of the tumor. These changes were associated with increases in the mRNA content for both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPAR delta in skeletal muscle. The increase in gene expression for these transcription factors was related to increases in the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation, and oxidation. Tumor burden also resulted in increases in PPAR gamma coactivator-1 alpha gene expression and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. All these changes in lipid metabolism genes suggest that a metabolic shift occurs in skeletal muscle of tumor-bearing rats toward a more oxidative phenotype. Formoterol treatment to tumor-bearing rats resulted in an amelioration of all the changes observed as a result of tumor burden. Administration of this beta(2)-adrenergic agonist also resulted in a decrease in mRNA content of muscle PPAR alpha, PPAR delta, and PPAR gamma, as well as in mRNA levels of many of the genes involved in both lipid and mitochondrial metabolism. All these results suggest an involvement of the different PPARs as transcription factors related with muscle wasting and also indicate that a possible mode of action of the anticachectic compound formoterol may involve a normalization of the levels of these transcription factors.

  20. Beta2-microglobulin causes abnormal phosphatidylserine exposure in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Barbara; Bucci, Sonia; Sirolli, Vittorio; Merlini, Giampaolo; Del Boccio, Piero; Di Rienzo, Marianna; Felaco, Paolo; Amoroso, Luigi; Sacchetta, Paolo; Di Ilio, Carmine; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea; Bonomini, Mario

    2011-03-01

    The exposure of the aminophospholipid phosphatidylserine on the external leaflet of red blood cell plasma membrane can have several pathophysiological consequences with particular regard to the processes of cell phagocytosis, haemostasis and cell-cell interaction. A significant increase in phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes has been reported in chronic haemodialysis patients and found to be strongly influenced by the uraemic milieu. To identify uraemic compound(s) enhancing phosphatidylserine externalization in erythrocytes, we fractionated by chromatographic methods the ultrafiltrate obtained during dialysis, and examined by flow cytometry the effect of the resulting fractions on phosphatidylserine exposure in human red cells. Chromatographic procedures disclosed a homogeneous fraction able to increase erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure. The inducer of such externalization was identified by monodimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry investigations as beta2-microglobulin. To confirm the beta2-microglobulin effect and to examine the influence of protein glycation (as it occurs in uraemia) on phosphatidylserine erythrocyte exposure, erythrocytes from normal subjects were incubated with recombinant beta2-microglobulin (showing no glycation sites at mass analysis), commercial beta2-microglobulin (8 glycation sites), or with in vitro glycated recombinant beta2-microglobulin (showing multiple glycation sites). Elevated concentrations of beta2-microglobulin (corresponding to plasma levels reached in dialysis patients) increased slightly but significantly the protein's ability to externalize phosphatidylserine on human erythrocytes. Such an effect was markedly enhanced by glycated forms of the protein. Beta2-microglobulin is recognized as a surrogate marker of middle-molecule uraemic toxins and represents a key component of dialysis-associated amyloidosis. Our study adds further evidence to the potential pathophysiologic consequences of beta2

  1. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors: identification of the beta-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, D.N.; Leung, R.; Goldfien, A.; Roberts, J.M.

    1982-02-15

    The radioactive beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binds to particulate preparations of human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor. The binding of DHA is rapid (attaining equilibrium in 12 minutes), readily reversible (half time = 16 minutes), high affinity (K/sub D/ = 0.50 nM), low capacity (Bmax = 70 fmoles/mg of protein), and stereoselective ((-)-propranolol is 100 times as potent as (+) -propranolol in inhibiting DHA binding). Adrenergic agonists competed for DHA binding sites in a manner compatible with beta-adrenergic interactions and mirrored ..beta../sub 2/ pharmacologic potencies: isoproterenol > epinephrine >> norepinephrine. Studies in which zinterol, a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, competed for DHA binding sites in human myometrial particulate indicated that at least 87% of the beta-adrenergic receptors present are ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Binding of DHA to human myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors provides a tool which may be used in the examination of gonadal hormonal modification of adrenergic response in human uterus as well as in the analysis of beta-adrenergic agents as potentially useful tocolytic agents.

  2. Genetic variation in the beta2-adrenergic receptor but not catecholamine-O-methyltransferase predisposes to chronic pain: results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Lynne J; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Reid, David M; Strachan, David P; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2010-04-01

    More than 1 in 10 adults in the general population experience chronic widespread body pain (CWP), which lies at one end of a continuous spectrum of pain ranging in both severity and duration. Neuroendocrine factors can modify the effect of known psychological and psychosocial risk factors for progression along the spectrum of pain and development of CWP, and genetic variants that affect neuroendocrine and neural processing potentially affect susceptibility to chronic pain development. We have examined variants across genes encoding the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) - key neuroendocrine signalling factors - in a large population-based sample to determine whether these may be involved in pain progression and CWP development. A nested association study was conducted using individuals from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study who had been assessed for pain status. Genotypes were available for nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ADRB2 and 11 SNPs across COMT. ADRB2 SNPs rs12654778 and rs1042713 were associated either with CWP alone (p=0.02 for both) or with position along pain spectrum (pain status; p=0.04). Common functional ADRB2 haplotype combinations were also associated with pain status (p(model)=0.002) and, further, with both extent and duration of pain (p(model)=0.003 and p(model)=0.002, respectively). There were no associations of either CWP or pain status with COMT genotypes or haplotypes. These results are the first to suggest that functional ADRB2 variants are involved in regulating pain status at a population level. A role for COMT in chronic pain development was not identified, though could not be excluded.

  3. Molten globule precursor states are conformationally correlated to amyloid fibrils of human beta-2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Skora, Lukasz; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2010-07-14

    Misfolding intermediates play a key role in defining aberrant protein aggregation and amyloid formation in more than 15 different human diseases. However, their experimental characterization is challenging due to the transient nature and conformational heterogeneity of the involved states. Here, we demonstrate that direct carbon-detected NMR experiments allow observation, assignment, and structural analysis of molten globule amyloid intermediates that are severely broadened by conformational exchange. The method is used to characterize the structure and dynamics of partially unfolded intermediates of the 99-residue protein beta-2-microglobulin, which is the major component of insoluble aggregates occurring in dialysis-related amyloidosis. Comparison of the conformational properties of the molten globule-like intermediates with levels of deuterium incorporation into amyloid fibrils of beta-2-microglobulin revealed a close relationship between the conformational properties of the metastable intermediates and the beta-sheet-rich insoluble aggregates of beta-2-microglobulin.

  4. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, M. . E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H.; Noll, M.; Jones, D.B.

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  5. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms and the risk of asthma: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Si-Qiao; Chen, Xiao-Li; Deng, Jing-Min; Wei, Xuan; Gong, Chen; Chen, Zhang-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Bo

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms and asthma risk. However, the results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis that focused on the association between asthma and all ADRB2 polymorphisms with at least three case-control studies was thus performed. A literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wangfang databases was conducted. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of associations. Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile, and Arg19Cys single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in 46 case-control studies. The results showed that not all of the SNPs were associated with asthma in the overall population. Significant associations were found for the Arg16Gly polymorphism in the South American population via dominant model comparison (OR = 1.754, 95% CI = 1.179-2.609, I2 = 16.9%, studies  = 2, case  = 314, control  = 237) in an analysis stratified by ethnicity. For the Gln27Glu polymorphism, a protective association was found in children via recessive model comparison (OR = 0.566, 95% CI = 0.417-0.769, I2 = 0.0%, studies  = 11, case  = 1693, control  =  502) and homozygote genotype comparison (OR = 0.610, 95% CI = 0.434-0.856, I2 = 0.0%, studies  = 11, case  = 1693, control  = 1502), and in adults via dominant model comparison (OR = 0.864, 95% CI = 0.768-0.971, I2 = 46.9%, n = 18, case  = 3160, control  = 3433). None of the ADRB2 gene polymorphisms were reproducibly associated with a risk of asthma across ethnic groups in the general population.

  6. Muscle protein waste in tumor-bearing rats is effectively antagonized by a beta 2-adrenergic agonist (clenbuterol). Role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Costelli, P; García-Martínez, C; Llovera, M; Carbó, N; López-Soriano, F J; Agell, N; Tessitore, L; Baccino, F M; Argilés, J M

    1995-01-01

    Tissue protein hypercatabolism (TPH) is a most important feature in cancer cachexia, particularly with regard to the skeletal muscle. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a very suitable model system for studying the mechanisms involved in the processes that lead to tissue depletion, since it induces in the host a rapid and progressive muscle waste mainly due to TPH (Tessitore, L., G. Bonelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1987. Biochem. J. 241:153-159). Detectable plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with marked perturbations in the hormonal homeostasis have been shown to concur in forcing metabolism into a catabolic setting (Tessitore, L., P. Costelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1993. Br. J. Cancer. 67:15-23). The present study was directed to investigate if beta 2-adrenergic agonists, which are known to favor skeletal muscle hypertrophy, could effectively antagonize the enhanced muscle protein breakdown in this cancer cachexia model. One such agent, i.e., clenbuterol, indeed largely prevented skeletal muscle waste in AH-130-bearing rats by restoring protein degradative rates close to control values. This normalization of protein breakdown rates was achieved through a decrease of the hyperactivation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory (Llovera, M., C. García-Martínez, N. Agell, M. Marzábal, F. J. López-Soriano, and J. M. Argilés. 1994. FEBS (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 338:311-318). By contrast, the drug did not exert any measurable effect on various parenchymal organs, nor did it modify the plasma level of corticosterone and insulin, which were increased and decreased, respectively, in the tumor hosts. The present data give new insights into the mechanisms by which clenbuterol exerts its preventive effect on muscle protein waste and seem to warrant the implementation of experimental protocols involving the use of clenbuterol or alike drugs in the treatment of pathological states involving

  7. [Profile of pharmacological actions of NAB 365 (clenbuterol), a novel broncholytic agent with selective activity on adrenergic beta2-receptors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, G

    1976-01-01

    Effects of 4-amino-alpha-[(tert.-butylamino)methyl]-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol hydrochloride (clenbuterol, NAB 365) on the adrenergic beta-receptors were investigated and compared with those of isoproterenol and salbutamol. The beta2-mimetic activity of clenbuterol on the smooth muscle of bronchi, uterus and vessels after i.v. injection corresponds to that of salbutamol in all laboratory animals. When given subcutaneously or as an aerosol clenbuterol is even somewhat more effective than isoproterenol. Clenbuterol differs from the known beta-mimetic drugs in its much longer duration of action. Therefore the integral of activity of single doses of clenbuterol, which are equally effective in the period of their maximal action, is remarkably greater than that of the other beta-mimetic substances. Clenbuterol differs from known beta-mimetic drugs used as bronchodilators in its efficacy after oral administration and in its mode of action on the heart. In the isolated auricle of the rabbit it has proved to be a weak partial agonist. In conscious rabbits, anesthetised guinea-pigs, dogs and cats the maximum of tachycardia obtainable by clenbuterol is lower than that of salbutamol. The higher degree of tachycardia in conscious dogs provoked by clenbuterol is a result of a reflex reaction to the vasodilation analogous to that of salbutamol. In higher doses clenbuterol shows beta1-blocking properties. Like other beta-blocking agents it owns qualities of a local-anesthetic and prolongs refractory period of the heart of guinea-pigs. In contrast to other beta-mimetic substances, clenbuterol causes only slight mobilization of heart muscle glycogen by doses higher than those which have broncholytic effects. The lipolytic and lactacidemia inducing activity of clenbuterol in rabbits corresponds to that of isoproterenol. The blood sugar is only slightly increased by clenbuterol as well as by other beta-mimetic agents. Degree and duration of action of clenbuterol and the other

  8. Human {beta}2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wewer, U.M.; Durkin, M.E.; Albrechtsen, R.

    1994-11-15

    Overlapping cDNA clones that encode the full-length human laminin {beta}2 chain, formerly called the S chain, were isolated. The cDNA of 5680 nt contains a 5391-nt open reading frame encoding 1797 amino acids. At the amino terminus is a 32-amino-acid signal peptide that is followed by the mature {beta}2 chain polypeptide of 1765 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 192,389 Da. The human {beta}2 chain is predicted to have all of the seven structural domains typical of the {beta} chains of laminin, including the short cysteine-rich {alpha} region. The amino acid sequence of human {beta}2 chain showed 86.1% sequence identity to the rat {beta}2 chain, 50.0% to human {beta}1 chain, and 36.3% to the human {beta}3 chain. The greatest sequence identity was in domains VI, V, and III. The sequence of a 24-amino-acid peptide fragment isolated from the {beta}2 chain of laminin purified from human amniotic basement membrane matched the sequence predicted from the cDNA, confirming that the cDNA encodes human {beta}2 laminin. The cDNA was used to assign the gene (LAMB2) to human chromosome 3p21 by in situ hybridization. It is not linked to genes for human laminin chains {alpha}1, {beta}1, and {gamma}1 or other known laminin genes. Immunostaining showed that the {beta}2 chain is localized to the smooth muscle basement membranes of the arteries, while the homologous {beta}1 chain is confined to the subendothelial basement membranes. The {beta}2 chain was found in the basement membranes of ovarian carcinomas but not colon carcinomas. These results indicate that the expression of the {beta}2 chain gene is tightly regulated in normal human tissues and in disease. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  10. Characterization of the Human Platelet α-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R. Wayne; Cooper, Barry; Handin, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Human platelets aggregate and undergo a release reaction when incubated with catecholamines. Indirect evidence indicates that these events are mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. We used [3H]dihydroergocryptine, an α-adrenergic antagonist, to identify binding sites on platelets that have the characteristics of α-adrenergic receptors. Catecholamines compete for the binding sites in a stereo-specific manner with the potency series of (−) epinephrine > (−) norepinephrine > (±) phenylephrine > (−) isoproterenol. The dissociation constant (Kd) of (−) epinephrine is 0.34 μM. Binding is saturable using a platelet particulate fraction but not with intact platelets. There are 0.130 pmol binding sites per milligram protein in fresh platelet membranes. This number represents approximately 100 binding sites per platelet. The Kd for [3H]-dihydroergocryptine was 0.003−0.01 μM. The α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (Kd = 0.0069 μM) was much more potent than the β-adrenergic antagonist (±) propranolol (Kd = 27 μM) in competing for the binding sites. The binding data were correlated with catecholamine-induced platelet aggregation and inhibition of basal and prostaglandin E1-stimulated adenylate cyclase. (−) Epinephrine was more potent than (−) norepinephrine in producing aggregation whereas (−) isoproterenol was ineffective. The threshold dose for inducing aggregation by (−) epinephrine was 0.46 μM. Phentolamine and dihydroergocyrptine blocked this response, whereas (±) propranolol had no effect. (−) Epinephrine and (−) norepinephrine inhibited basal and prostaglandin E1-stimulated adenylate cyclase in a dose-related manner. The concentration of (−) epinephrine inhibiting adenylate cyclase 50% was 0.7 μM. This inhibition was also blocked by phentolamine and dihydroergocryptine but not by (±) propranolol. The specificity of binding and the close correlation with α-adrenergic receptor-mediated biochemical and physiological responses

  11. Stress-induced changes in the expression of monocytic beta2-integrins: the impact of arousal of negative affect and adrenergic responses to the Anger Recall Interview.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Lewis, James G; Achanzar, Karen; Zimmerman, Eugene; Young, Kenneth H; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular endothelium is one of the earliest steps in the development of atherosclerosis. This leukocyte-to-endothelium interaction is mediated in part by beta2-integrins, a group of cell adhesion molecules that bind to endothelial ligands. Given the significance of this interaction to atherogenesis, we examined the effects of stress, operationalized as the arousal of negative affect (NA) and cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to the Anger Recall Interview (ARI), on the expression of LFA-1 (CD11a), Mac-1 (CD11b) and p150/95 (CD11c) on circulating monocytes (CD14+). Subjects were 173 healthy, nonsmoking men and women (60% men, 40% minorities, aged 18-49 year). Arousal of NA, cardiovascular responses (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), circulating catecholamines (epinephrine [Epi], norepinephrine [Ne]) and beta2-integrin (CD11/CD18) expression were determined prior to and following the ARI. The principal findings were that the ARI, on average, induced a decrease in monocyte expression of beta2-integrins. However, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise status, and baseline level of beta2-integrin expression, those individuals who showed the largest increases in NA, Ne and DBP during the ARI showed an increase in monocyte beta2-integrin expression. Thus, heightened psychological and physiological stress responses induced phenotypic changes in monocytic expression of beta2-integrins that are consistent with the role of monocytes/macrophages in vascular inflammation and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  12. Cloning and characterization of the human beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) gene promoter: roles of the atypical TATA box and hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha in regulating beta2-GPI promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Chiang, An-Na

    2004-01-01

    Beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) is a plasma glycoprotein primarily synthesized in the liver. The interindividual variability of beta2-GPI expression in subjects with various metabolic syndromes and disease states suggests that it may have clinical importance. However, the regulation of beta2-GPI gene expression has not been clarified. To gain more insight into the control of beta2-GPI gene expression, we cloned the 4.1-kb 5'-flanking region and characterized the proximal promoter of the beta2- GPI gene in this study. Cis -acting elements required for beta2-GPI promoter activity were identified with transient transfection assays in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 and in non-hepatic HeLa cells. Serial deletion analyses of the beta2-GPI 5'-flanking sequence revealed that the region from -197 to +7 had strong promoter activity in hepatoma cells but not in HeLa cells. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of putative cis -elements within this region showing an atypical TATA box and a HNF-1 (hepatic nuclear factor-1) element were both essential for the beta2-GPI promoter activity. Subsequent gel mobility shift assays confirmed the interaction of HNF-1alpha with the HNF-1 site residing downstream of the TATA box. Co-transfection of beta2-GPI promoter-luciferase vector with HNF-1alpha expression vector in Huh7 and HNF-1-deficient HeLa cells demonstrated the transactivation effect of HNF-1alpha on beta2-GPI promoter activity. In addition, overexpression of HNF-1alpha enhanced the endogenous beta2-GPI expression. These results suggest that the atypical TATA box and HNF-1 cis-element are critical for beta2-GPI transcription and HNF-1alpha may play an important role in cell-specific regulation of beta2-GPI gene expression. PMID:14984368

  13. Genetic variations of human serum beta 2-glycoprotein I demonstrated by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Cleve, H

    1988-07-01

    Human serum beta 2-glycoprotein I was analyzed by isoelectric focusing followed by immunoprinting or immunoblotting with monospecific antiserum. Isoelectric focusing revealed a heterogeneous pattern consisting of 4 major and 4-5 minor bands with isoelectric points of the major bands between pH 5.4 and 6.2. Comparative analysis of sera from more than 400 healthy blood donors showed individual variations of band patterns: six different phenotypes were observed. A family study of 44 families with a total of 129 children demonstrated the genetic control of this variation. Presumably, three alleles, called B2G*1, B2G*2, and B2G*3, determine six phenotypes: B2G 1, 2, 3, 1-2, 1-3 and 2-3. The phenotype 3, however, has not been found in this study. An additional phenotype, noted in one serum specimen, was tentatively classified as B2G 2-4. The distribution of phenotypes and alleles in two populations, from Munich and from Tyrol, has been examined and the frequencies are presented. This genetic polymorphism appears not to be associated with inherited quantitative variations of beta 2-glycoprotein I found earlier. The inherited variations can still be recognized after treatment of sera with neuraminidase and with endoglycosidase F, although the banding pattern is altered and shifted towards the cathode. The genetic polymorphism can, therefore, not be ascribed to variations residing in the carbohydrate side chains.

  14. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  15. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors during pregnancy: identification of the alpha-adrenergic receptor by (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.M.; Hayashida, D.; Roberts, J.M.

    1985-07-15

    The radioactive alpha-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binds to particulate preparations of term pregnant human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha-receptor). (/sup 3/H) Dihydroergocryptine binds with high affinity (KD = 2 nmol/L and low capacity (receptor concentration = 100 fmol/mg of protein). Adrenergic agonists compete for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites stereo-selectively ((-)-norepinephrine is 100 times as potent as (+)-norepinephrine) and in a manner compatible with alpha-adrenergic potencies (epinephrine approximately equal to norepinephrine much greater than isoproterenol). Studies in which prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, and yohimbine, and alpha 2-antagonist, competed for (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding sites in human myometrium indicated that approximately 70% are alpha 2-receptors and that 30% are alpha 1-receptors. (/sup 3/H) dihydroergocryptine binding to human myometrial membrane particulate provides an important tool with which to study the molecular mechanisms of uterine alpha-adrenergic response.

  16. Determination of a novel haplotype of beta2-adrenergic receptor in the Japanese population by the combination of the electronic microchip assay using the NanoChip system with allele-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuyo; Sugiyama, Masahide; Tanoue, Akito; Hirasawa, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2002-01-01

    The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (B2AR) is a G protein-coupled cell surface receptor that is the key target for the beta(2)-agonist drugs used for bronchodelation in asthma and chromic obstructive pulmonary disease. To detect four SNPs with amino acid variations in the B2AR gene, we used the electronic microchip assay (NanoChip system), DHPLC and sequencing. Genomic DNA samples were obtained from the blood of 84 Japanese healthy volunteers. In sum, the agreement rates of the first data set with the final agreement data (allele calls) were 99.7% (328/329), 99.2% (243/245) and 96.7% (325/336). The percentages of no allele designation (ND) were 2.06% (7/336), 2.75% (7/252), and 0.00% (0/336) for the NanoChip system, DHPLC, and sequencing, respectively. As a result of SNP genotyping, we found three samples that might have a novel haplotype. Furthermore we identified the novel haplotype by a simple technique combining the NanoChip system and allele-specific PCR. These results indicated that NanoChip system was the useful method for clinical SNP genotyping and/or haplotyping because of its accuracy, simplicity and versatility.

  17. Development of beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in baboon brain: an autoradiographic study using (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol

    SciTech Connect

    Slesinger, P.A.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Singer, H.S.; Walker, L.C.; Casanova, M.F.; Price, D.L.; Coyle, J.T.

    1988-07-15

    (125I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) autoradiography was used to investigate the temporal development and distribution of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in brains of baboons at ages embryonic day 100 (E100), full-term gestation (El80), and 3 years. In all brain regions examined, with the exception of the hippocampus, binding to beta 1 receptors exceeded that to beta 2 receptors. The highest densities of beta 1 receptors were found in the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex; intermediate receptor densities were observed in most nuclei of thalamus, and the lowest concentrations were in the hippocampus. At E100, beta receptors were identified in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus. During maturation, the number of beta 1 receptors declined in cortical areas but increased in the head of the caudate and putamen. Significant differences in the developmental distribution of beta receptors during development were also detected: at E100 and E180 beta 1 receptors appeared as patches in the caudate and putamen, but by 3 years of age they were more homogeneously distributed in both regions; changes also occurred in the distribution of binding within cortical layers. Autoradiograms of (125I)ICYP and (3H)mazindol binding show overlapping patches of labeling in the E180 striatum, suggesting a possible developmental association between beta receptors and dopamine high-affinity uptake carrier sites. This study demonstrates that noradrenergic receptors in the primate forebrain undergo significant developmental reorganization with regional variations.

  18. The beta2-microglobulin mRNA in human Daudi cells has a mutated initiation codon but is still inducible by interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, F; Berissi, H; Weissenbach, J; Maroteaux, L; Fellous, M; Revel, M

    1983-01-01

    The human Burkitt lymphoma cell line Daudi does not synthesize beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and lacks the cell surface histocompatibility antigens. The cells, however, contain RNA hybridizing to a cloned human beta2m cDNA probe. cDNA from this Daudi beta2m RNA, was cloned and sequenced. By comparison with cDNA prepared from Ramos cells, which synthesized microglobulin, we determined the sequence of the 20 amino acid long leader peptide of pre-beta2m and show that in Daudi cells the initiator ATG has been mutated to ATC. Although Daudi beta2m RNA cannot be translated, interferon induces the beta2m RNA in Daudi cells as well as in normal human cells. Images Fig. 1. PMID:11894933

  19. The human thoracic duct is functionally innervated by adrenergic nerves.

    PubMed

    Telinius, Niklas; Baandrup, Ulrik; Rumessen, Jüri; Pilegaard, Hans; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs

    2014-01-15

    Lymphatic vessels from animals have been shown to be innervated. While morphological studies have confirmed human lymphatic vessels are innervated, functional studies supporting this are lacking. The present study demonstrates a functional innervation of the human thoracic duct (TD) that is predominantly adrenergic. TDs harvested from 51 patients undergoing esophageal and cardia cancer surgery were either fixed for structural investigations or maintained in vitro for the functional assessment of innervation by isometric force measurements and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry suggested scarce diffuse distribution of nerves in the entire vessel wall, but nerve-mediated contractions could be induced with EFS and were sensitive to the muscarinic receptor blocker atropine and the α-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine. The combination of phentolamine and atropine resulted in a near-complete abolishment of EFS-induced contractions. The presence of sympathetic nerves was further confirmed by contractions induced by the sympathomimetic and catecholamine-releasing agent tyramine. Reactivity to the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, substance P, neuropeptide Y, acetylcholine, and methacholine was demonstrated by exogenous application to human TD ring segments. Norepinephrine provided the most consistent responses, whereas responses to the other agonists varied. We conclude that the human TD is functionally innervated with both cholinergic and adrenergic components, with the latter of the two dominating.

  20. Prothrombinase activity of human platelets is inhibited by beta 2-glycoprotein-I.

    PubMed

    Nimpf, J; Bevers, E M; Bomans, P H; Till, U; Wurm, H; Kostner, G M; Zwaal, R F

    1986-10-29

    In the present paper the influence of beta 2-glycoprotein-I, also known as apolipoprotein H, upon the prothrombinase activity of platelets and phospholipid vesicles was investigated. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. The prothrombinase activity of resting, non-activated platelets, lysed platelets and vesicles composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine at different molar ratios is inhibited by beta 2-glycoprotein-I in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of glycoprotein which produces marked inhibition is within the physiological plasma concentration range of beta 2-glycoprotein-I. 2. The time dependence of this inhibition is a relatively slow process, which is not fully expressed before 1 h of incubation. 3. The effect of the glycoprotein is not due to a direct interaction with the components of the prothrombinase complex, i.e. factors Xa, Va, Ca2+ or prothrombin, nor is the inhibitory action abolished by increasing concentrations of coagulation factors Xa and Va. This suggests that beta 2-glycoprotein-I causes a reduction of the prothrombinase binding sites of these coagulation factors to platelets or phospholipid vesicles. 4. The prothrombinase activity of platelets stimulated with ionophore A23187 or with collagen plus thrombin is also inhibited by beta 2-glycoprotein-I in a manner similar to that observed for phospholipid vesicles or for lysed platelets. These findings suggest a regulatory role for beta 2-glycoprotein-I in the pathway of blood coagulation.

  1. Studies on the protein composition of human serum very low density lipoproteins: demonstration of the beta 2-glycoprotein-I.

    PubMed

    Polz, E; Kostner, G M; Holasek, A

    1979-08-01

    Human serum VLDL isolated by polyanion precipitation and ultracentrifugation have been delipidated with ethanal/diethyl ether. By electrophoresis in 10% polyacrylamide gels containing 8M urea, we found a protein which comigrated with apolipoprotein E. This protein was purified by column chromatography and turned out to be identical with beta 2-glycoprotein-I, the serum factor which is necessary for the precipitation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins with sodium decyl sulfate or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Upon analytical isoelectric focusing, beta 2-glycoprotein-I gave four major bands in the pH region 5.7--6.6. All four bands gave an immunochemical reaction of identity with a monospecific antiserum. From its unique amino acid composition we conclude that beta 2-glycoprotein-I is distinct from all apolipoproteins described previously in the literature.

  2. Tissue distribution of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chain during embryonic and fetal human development.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Matthias; Miosge, Nicolai; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2010-04-01

    Laminins are the major glycoproteins present in all basement membranes. Previously, we showed that perlecan is present during human development. Although an overview of mRNA-expression of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains in various developing fetal organs is already available, a systematic localization of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains on the protein level during embryonic and fetal human development is missing. Therefore, we studied the immunohistochemical expression and tissue distribution of the laminin beta1 and beta2 chains in various developing embryonic and fetal human organs between gestational weeks 8 and 12. The laminin beta1 chain was ubiquitously expressed in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, blood vessels, liver, kidney, skin, pancreas, intestine, heart and skeletal system. Furthermore, the laminin beta2 chain was present in the basement membrane zones of the brain, ganglia, skin, heart and skeletal system. The findings of this study support and expand upon the theory that these two laminin chains are important during human development.

  3. Stoichiometry and pharmacology of two human alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor types.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Mirko; Bermudez, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the most abundant nAChR subtype in the brain, where it forms the high-affinity binding site for nicotine. The alpha4beta2 nAChR belongs to a gene family of ligand-gated ion channels that also includes muscle nAChRs, GABAA receptors, and glycine receptors and that assembles into pentameric structures. alpha4 and beta2 nAChR subunits expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes assemble into a mixture of high- and low-affinity functional receptors, giving rise to biphasic ACh concentration-response curves (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001). High- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 nAChRs differ significantly in their functional and pharmacological properties (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003) and result from the assembly of alpha4 and beta2 subunits into two distinct stoichiometric arrangements: (alpha4)2(beta2)3(high-affinity subtype) and (alpha4)3(beta2)2 (low-affinity subtype) (Nelson et al., 2003). In this study we have examined the functional and pharmacological properties of high- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 receptors using two-electrode voltage clamp procedures on Xenopus oocytes transfected with high (1:10) or low (10:1) ratios of alpha4/beta2 cDNAs, which yield high (1:10)- or low (10:1)- affinity receptors with monophasic ACh concentration- response curves. Furthermore, to determine the stoichiometry of high- and low-affinity receptors expressed heterologously by Xenopus oocytes, we have determined the stoichiometry of high- and low-affinity alpha4beta2 receptors by mutating a highly conserved hydrophobic residue in the middle (position 9') of the pore-lining domain, which increases agonist potency in a manner that allows predictions on subunit composition (Cooper et al., 1991; Revah et al., 1991; Labarca et al., 1995; Boorman et al., 2000).

  4. Adrenergic Signaling in Human Oral Keratinocytes and Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Steenhuis, P.; Huntley, R.E.; Gurenko, Z.; Yin, L.; Dale, B.A.; Fazel, N.; Isseroff, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Catecholamines are present in saliva, but their influence on oral epithelium is not understood. Because psychological stress increases salivary catecholamines and impairs oral mucosal wound healing, we sought to determine if epithelial adrenergic signaling could link these two findings. We found that cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK) express the α2B- and β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs). Exposure of HOK to either epinephrine or the β-AR agonist, isoproterenol, reduced migratory speed and decreased in vitro scratch wound healing. Incubation with the β-AR antagonist timolol reversed the catecholamine-induced effects, indicating that the observed response is mediated by β-AR. Epinephrine treatment decreased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2 and p38; these decreases were also reversed with timolol. Cultured HOK express enzymes of the epinephrine synthetic pathway, and generate epinephrine. These findings demonstrate that stress-induced elevations of salivary catecholamines signal through MAPK pathways, and result in impaired oral keratinocyte migration required for healing. PMID:21127260

  5. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors on human lymphocyte subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Pochet, R; Delespesse, G; Gausset, P W; Collet, H

    1979-01-01

    A technique is described allowing the quantification and the characterization of specific beta-adrenergic receptors in intact living human lymphocytes. 125I-Iodohydroxybenzylpindolol, a potent beta-adrenergic antagonist was used to label specific binding sites on unfractionated lymphoid cells and on purified subpopulations of T (F1 and F2) and B cells. F1 and F2 were obtained by filtration through nylon wool column as previously described (Delespesse et al., 1976), they differ in their response to mitogens, and in their interactions with adherent cells and B cells. 125I-HYP binding to unfractionated lymphocytes was a saturable, stereospecific and rapid process with a dissociation constant of 2.5 10(-10) M and a binding capacity of 400--600 sites/cell. Bindings on unfractionated lymphocytes, purified B cells and T cells of the F2 fraction were similar. No detectable binding was noted on T cells from the F1 fraction. Enriched T cells obtained by a rosetting technique displayed 200 receptors/cell. PMID:43789

  6. Molecular mimicry between the immunodominant ribosomal protein P0 of Trypanosoma cruzi and a functional epitope on the human beta 1- adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Sera from chagasic patients possess antibodies recognizing the carboxy- terminal part of the ribosomal P0 protein of Trypanosoma cruzi and the second extracellular loop of the human beta 1-adrenergic receptor. Comparison of both peptides showed that they contain a pentapeptide with very high homology (AESEE in P0 and AESDE in the human beta 1- adrenergic receptor). Using a competitive immunoenzyme assay, recognition of the peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop (H26R) was inhibited by both P0-14i (AAAESEEEDDDDDF) and P0-beta (AESEE). Concomitantly, recognition of P0-beta was inhibited with the H26R peptide. Recognition of P0 in Western blots was inhibited by P0- 14i, P0-beta, and H26R, but not by a peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor or by an unrelated peptide. Autoantibodies affinity purified with the immobilized H26R peptide were shown to exert a positive chronotropic effect in vitro on cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats. This effect was blocked by both the specific beta 1 blocker bisoprolol and the peptide P0-beta. These results unambiguously prove that T. cruzi is able to induce a functional autoimmune response against the cardiovascular human beta 1-adrenergic receptor through a molecular mimicry mechanism. PMID:7790824

  7. Molecular mimicry between the immunodominant ribosomal protein P0 of Trypanosoma cruzi and a functional epitope on the human beta 1-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, I; Levin, M J; Wallukat, G; Elies, R; Lebesgue, D; Chiale, P; Elizari, M; Rosenbaum, M; Hoebeke, J

    1995-07-01

    Sera from chagasic patients possess antibodies recognizing the carboxy-terminal part of the ribosomal P0 protein of Trypanosoma cruzi and the second extracellular loop of the human beta 1-adrenergic receptor. Comparison of both peptides showed that they contain a pentapeptide with very high homology (AESEE in P0 and AESDE in the human beta 1-adrenergic receptor). Using a competitive immunoenzyme assay, recognition of the peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop (H26R) was inhibited by both P0-14i (AAAESEEEDDDDDF) and P0-beta (AESEE). Concomitantly, recognition of P0-beta was inhibited with the H26R peptide. Recognition of P0 in Western blots was inhibited by P0-14i, P0-beta, and H26R, but not by a peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor or by an unrelated peptide. Autoantibodies affinity purified with the immobilized H26R peptide were shown to exert a positive chronotropic effect in vitro on cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats. This effect was blocked by both the specific beta 1 blocker bisoprolol and the peptide P0-beta. These results unambiguously prove that T. cruzi is able to induce a functional autoimmune response against the cardiovascular human beta 1-adrenergic receptor through a molecular mimicry mechanism.

  8. [Influence of ASODN to the human tenon's fibroblasts in expressing CTGF induced by transforming growth factor beta2].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yu-Hong; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Ming-Chang

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the effect of connective tissue growth factor's antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN) on the growth of human tenon' s capsule fibroblasts (HTF) induced by transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) in vitro. It was a experimental study. HTF was collected from glaucoma patients and cultured. The 5-6 passage was used for experiments. The HTF induced by TGF-beta2 was divided into the following groups: N group: normal HTF; T group: HTF induced by TGF-beta2; A group: CTGF ASODN antisense:5'-TACTGGCGGCGGTCAT-3' encapsulated with liposome; S group: sense 5'-ATGACCGCCGCCAGTA-3' encapsulated with liposome; D group: HTF encapsulated with liposome only. The activity of HTF treated by different concentrations of liposome was detected using methylthianolyldiphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MT) colorimetry. The expression of CTGF was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry assays. The expression of fibronectin (Fn) was examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry assays. Liposome-ASODN (A group) significantly (F=15.25, 204.88, 19.73, 90.00; P <0.05) inhibit the expression of CTGF and Fn in HTF induced by TGF-beta2 compared with S and D group. However, Liposome alone (T group) has no significant impact in HTF growth compared with T group (t = 0.90, 2.32, 0.75, 2.11; P > 0.05). CTGF-ASODN inhibits the CTGF and Fn expression of HTF induced by TGF-beta2, which may delay the formation of scar in glaucoma filtering surgery.

  9. Beta2 toxin is not involved in in vitro cell cytotoxicity caused by human and porcine cpb2-harbouring Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Allaart, Janneke G; van Asten, Alphons J A M; Vernooij, Johannes C M; Gröne, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    Clostridium perfringens is a common cause of intestinal disease in animals and humans. Its pathogenicity is attributed to the toxins it can produce, including the beta2 toxin. The presence of cpb2, the gene encoding the beta2 toxin, has been associated with diarrhoea in neonatal piglets and humans. However, the exact role of the beta2 toxin in the development of diarrhoea is still unknown. In this study we investigated the level of cytotoxicity to porcine IPI-21 and human Caco-2 cell-lines caused by porcine and human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens and the significance of the beta2 toxin for the induction of cell cytotoxicity. Supernatants of porcine cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains were cytotoxic to both cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity caused by supernatant of human cpb2-harbouring C. perfringens strains was variable among strains. However, removal of the beta2 toxin by anti-beta2 toxin antibodies or degradation of the beta2 toxin by trypsin did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of any of the supernatants. These data suggest that beta2 toxin does not play a role in the development of cell cytotoxicity in in vitro experiments. In vivo studies are necessary to definitely define the role of beta2 toxin in the development of cell cytotoxicity and subsequent diarrhoea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dephosphorylation of human cyclin-dependent kinases by protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta 2 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Kaldis, P; Solomon, M J

    2000-11-03

    We previously reported that the activating phosphorylation on cyclin-dependent kinases in yeast (Cdc28p) and in humans (Cdk2) is removed by type 2C protein phosphatases. In this study, we characterize this PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract and determine that it is due to PP2C beta 2, a novel PP2C beta isoform, and to PP2C alpha. PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 co-purified with Mg(2+)-dependent Cdk2/Cdk6 phosphatase activity in DEAE-Sepharose, Superdex-200, and Mono Q chromatographies. Moreover, purified recombinant PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 proteins efficiently dephosphorylated monomeric Cdk2/Cdk6 in vitro. The dephosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdk6 by PP2C isoforms was inhibited by the binding of cyclins. We found that the PP2C-like activity in HeLa cell extract, partially purified HeLa PP2C alpha and PP2C beta 2 isoforms, and the recombinant PP2Cs exhibited a comparable substrate preference for a phosphothreonine containing substrate, consistent with the conservation of threonine residues at the site of activating phosphorylation in CDKs.

  11. Cigarette smoking, carrier state of A or G allele of 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene, and the risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Zak, Iwnoa; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Krauze, Jolanta

    2008-04-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disorder which results from the interactions between a number of genetic and non-genetic factors. Beta-adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors which activate adenylyl cyclase by coupling to G proteins. The 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have been associated with altered response to sympathetic stimulation. To assess the relationship between 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of the ADRB2 gene and CAD as well as the associations between these polymorphic variants and traditional risk factors, e.g. cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and overweight or obesity, in determining the risk of CAD. The study population consisted of 207 individuals (white Polish Caucasians aged 20-55 years): 98 patients with angiographically documented CAD (with more than 50% diameter stenosis of at least one of the major coronary vessels) and 109 blood donors with no signs of CAD. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed by means of PCR-RFLP. The genotype frequencies of both analysed genes in the studied groups were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We observed higher frequency of the 46A allele in CAD patients than in controls. We also found a tendency to higher prevalence of 46A allele carriers (subjects with genotypes AA+AG) in the CAD group compared to the control group. We did not find any differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of 79C>G polymorphism between patients and controls. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking and overweight were independent risk factors of CAD in patients. We found a synergistic effect between carrier state of the 46A allele or 79G allele and smoking, which influences the CAD risk. The 46A allele carriers who smoke as well as carriers of the 79G allele who smoke were much more frequent in the CAD group than in controls. The incidence of 46A allele carriers with hypercholesterolaemia is also higher in

  12. Interaction of human TNF and beta2-microglobulin with Tanapox virus-encoded TNF inhibitor, TPV-2L.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masmudur M; Jeng, David; Singh, Rajkumari; Coughlin, Jake; Essani, Karim; McFadden, Grant

    2009-04-10

    Tanapox virus (TPV) encodes and expresses a secreted TNF-binding protein, TPV-2L or gp38, that displays inhibitory properties against TNF from diverse mammalian species, including human, monkey, canine and rabbit. TPV-2L also has sequence similarity with the MHC-class I heavy chain and interacts differently with human TNF as compared to the known cellular TNF receptors or any of the known virus-encoded TNF receptor homologs derived from many poxviruses. In order to determine the TNF binding region in TPV-2L, various TPV-2L C-terminal truncations and internal deletions were created and the muteins were expressed using recombinant baculovirus vectors. C-terminal deletions from TPV-2L resulted in reduced binding affinity for human TNF and specific mutants of TNF that discriminate between TNF-R1 and TNF-R2. However, deletion of C-terminal 42 amino acid residues totally abolished the binding of human TNF and its mutants. Removal of any of the predicted internal domains resulted in a mutant TPV-2L protein incapable of binding to human TNF. Deletion of C-terminal residues also affected the ability of TPV-2L to block TNF-induced cellular cytotoxicity. In addition to TNF, TPV-2L can also form complexes with human beta2-microglobulin to form a novel macromolecular complex. In summary, the TPV-2L protein is a bona fide MHC-1 heavy chain family member that binds and inhibits human TNF in a fashion very distinct from other known poxvirus-encoded TNF inhibitors, and also can form a novel complex with the human MHC-1 light chain, beta2-microglobulin.

  13. Engagement of beta2 integrins recruits 14-3-3 proteins to c-Cbl in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Melander, Fredrik; Andersson, Tommy; Dib, Karim

    2004-05-14

    We found that engagement of beta2 integrins on human neutrophils triggered both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Pretreatment of the neutrophils with the broad range protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X blocked the serine but not the tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl. Moreover, the Src kinase inhibitor PP1 prevented the beta2 integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of c-Cbl but not the simultaneous serine phosphorylation. These results indicate that Src family kinases and PKC can separately modulate the properties of c-Cbl. Indeed, tyrosine kinase-dependent phosphorylation of c-Cbl regulated the ubiquitin ligase activity of that protein, whereas PKC-dependent phosphorylation of c-Cbl had no such effect. Instead, c-Cbl that underwent PKC-induced serine phosphorylation associated with the scaffolding and anti-apoptotic 14-3-3 proteins. Consequently, c-Cbl can independently target proteins for degradation or intracellular localization and may initiate an anti-apoptotic signal in neutrophils.

  14. NEURON SPECIFIC α-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CEREBELLUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGING CEREBELLAR ROLES IN NEUROLOGIC DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    SCHAMBRA, U. B.; MACKENSEN, G. B.; STAFFORD-SMITH, M.; HAINES, D. E.; SCHWINN, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent data suggest novel functional roles for cerebellar involvement in a number of neurologic diseases. Function of cerebellar neurons is known to be modulated by norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors. The distribution of adrenergic receptor subtypes has been described in experimental animals, but corroboration of such studies in the human cerebellum, necessary for drug treatment, is still lacking. In the present work we studied cell-specific localizations of α1 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α1a, α1b, α1d), and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype mRNA (α2a, α2b, α2c) by in situ hybridization on cryostat sections of human cerebellum (cortical layers and dentate nucleus). We observed unique neuron-specific α1 adrenergic receptor and α2 adrenergic receptor subtype distribution in human cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex expresses mRNA encoding all six α adrenergic receptor subtypes, whereas dentate nucleus neurons express all subtype mRNAs, except α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA. All Purkinje cells label strongly for α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Additionally, Purkinje cells of the anterior lobe vermis (lobules I to V) and uvula/tonsil (lobules IX/HIX) express α1a and α2c subtypes, and Purkinje cells in the ansiform lobule (lobule HVII) and uvula/tonsil express α1b and α2c adrenergic receptor subtypes. Basket cells show a strong signal for α1a, moderate signal for α2a and light label for α2b adrenergic receptor mRNA. In stellate cells, besides a strong label of α2a adrenergic receptor mRNA in all and moderate label of α2b message in select stellate cells, the inner stellate cells are also moderately positive for α1b adrenergic receptor mRNA. Granule and Golgi cells express high levels of α2a and α2b adrenergic receptor mRNAs. These data contribute new information regarding specific location of adrenergic receptor subtypes in human cerebellar neurons. We discuss our observations in terms of possible modulatory roles of adrenergic

  15. Expression of two human beta-adrenergic receptors in Escherichia coli: functional interaction with two forms of the stimulatory G protein.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Marullo, S; Schütz, W; Strosberg, A D

    1991-01-01

    When expressed in Escherichia coli, the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors retain their ligand binding specificity. Their functional integrity was investigated by analyzing receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein coupling by using two splice variants of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein Gs synthesized in E. coli (rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L) and the beta gamma subunits of G protein purified from bovine brain. In competition binding experiments with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol and (-)-isoproterenol, rGs alpha-S.beta gamma and rGs alpha-L.beta gamma reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding with comparable affinities, whereas rGs alpha PT, a mutant of rGs alpha-L with an altered carboxyl terminus, and a recombinant subtype of the alpha subunit of the inhibitory G protein, rGi alpha-1, were approximately 20- and approximately 200-fold less potent, respectively. A comparison of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expressed in E. coli with the beta 2-receptor in S49 murine lymphoma cyc- cell membranes revealed a similar affinity of rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L for the recombinant and native receptors. After stable incorporation of rGs alpha-S.beta gamma into E. coli membranes, receptor-G protein coupling was also verified by determining the isoproterenol-mediated acceleration of the rate for guanine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding. These results show that (i) receptor-G protein coupling can be reconstituted in E. coli using recombinant components and that (ii) such an approach may be more generally used to evaluate coupling preferences between defined molecular species of receptors and G-protein subunits. PMID:1656450

  16. Removal of the N-terminal hexapeptide from human beta2-microglobulin facilitates protein aggregation and fibril formation.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, G.; Michelutti, R.; Verdone, G.; Viglino, P.; Hernández, H.; Robinson, C. V.; Amoresano, A.; Dal Piaz, F.; Monti, M.; Pucci, P.; Mangione, P.; Stoppini, M.; Merlini, G.; Ferri, G.; Bellotti, V.

    2000-01-01

    The solution structure and stability of N-terminally truncated beta2-microglobulin (deltaN6beta2-m), the major modification in ex vivo fibrils, have been investigated by a variety of biophysical techniques. The results show that deltaN6beta2-m has a free energy of stabilization that is reduced by 2.5 kcal/mol compared to the intact protein. Hydrogen exchange of a mixture of the truncated and full-length proteins at microM concentrations at pH 6.5 monitored by electrospray mass spectrometry reveals that deltaN6beta2-m is significantly less protected than its wild-type counterpart. Analysis of deltaN6beta2-m by NMR shows that this loss of protection occurs in beta strands I, III, and part of II. At mM concentration gel filtration analysis shows that deltaN6beta2-m forms a series of oligomers, including trimers and tetramers, and NMR analysis indicates that strand V is involved in intermolecular interactions that stabilize this association. The truncated species of beta2-microglobulin was found to have a higher tendency to self-associate than the intact molecule, and unlike wild-type protein, is able to form amyloid fibrils at physiological pH. Limited proteolysis experiments and analysis by mass spectrometry support the conformational modifications identified by NMR and suggest that deltaN6beta2-m could be a key intermediate of a proteolytic pathway of beta2-microglobulin. Overall, the data suggest that removal of the six residues from the N-terminus of beta2-microglobulin has a major effect on the stability of the overall fold. Part of the tertiary structure is preserved substantially by the disulfide bridge between Cys25 and Cys80, but the pairing between beta-strands far removed from this constrain is greatly perturbed. PMID:10850793

  17. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, R.M. Columbia Univ College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY ); Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with {sup 32}PO{sub 4} in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the {beta}-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M{sub r} 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the {alpha}-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined {alpha} and {beta} agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the {alpha}-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes.

  18. Induction of phospholipid-binding antibodies in mice and rabbits by immunization with human beta 2 glycoprotein 1 or anticardiolipin antibodies alone.

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, S S; Harris, E N

    1993-01-01

    Anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are autoantibodies present in high concentrations in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a disorder of recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy loss. What induces aCL antibodies is uncertain, but a recent report suggested that immunization of mice with beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (beta 2 GP1) in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) resulted in aCL antibody production in the recipient mice. Since this observation might explain how autoantibodies might be induced by poor immunogens, such as phospholipids, we decided to explore the question further. In our first series of experiments, we found that aCL antibodies were induced in mice by beta 2GP1 mixed with adjuvants that did not contain lipids (Adju-Prime or aluminium hydroxide). This excluded the possibility that antibody induction occurred because beta 2GP1 formed complexes with lipids in FCA. We also found that aCL antibodies always appeared before anti-beta 2GP1 antibodies, excluding the possibility that aCL antibodies were directed to beta 2GP1 or were induced by formation of anti-idiotypic antibodies (to anti-beta 2GP1). In experiments, we found that immunization of mice with human IgG antibodies from patients with the APS (IgG-APS), also induced aCL antibodies. Immunization with pure bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not induce aCL antibodies. We propose that aCL antibodies are induced by proteins with high avidity for phospholipids. These proteins may be bound to phospholipids when introduced, or may bind circulating phospholipids, so transforming phospholipid molecules into immunogens. Similar mechanisms might explain autoantibody induction to other poor immunogens. PMID:8348755

  19. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  20. Mechanism of increased alpha adrenergic vasoconstriction in human essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, B; Panis, R; Hinderliter, A; Schork, N; Julius, S

    1987-01-01

    Multiple components of vascular alpha adrenergic responsiveness were investigated in twenty-four men with mild hypertension and eighteen age- and weight-matched normotensive controls. Arterial plasma norepinephrine (paNE), an index of sympathetic drive, was increased in hypertensives compared to normotensives (mean +/- SE), 199 +/- 24 vs. 134 +/- 11 pg/ml, P less than 0.02. The effective concentration of intra-arterial (iaNE) increasing forearm vascular resistance (FAVR) 30% (NE-EC30, an index of vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity) was similar in normotensives and hypertensives, 9 +/- 1 vs. 13 +/- 3 ng/100 ml per min, respectively, P greater than 0.3. The phentolamine induced reduction in FAVR, an index of vascular alpha-tone, was greater in hypertensives, -21.3 +/- 1.8 vs. normotensives, -14.9 +/- 1.2 U, P less than 0.02. We interpret these data as evidence for normal vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to norepinephrine in mild hypertensives. Consequently, the increased sympathetic drive in mild hypertensives explains the elevated vascular alpha-tone. Although vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to iaNE was normal, the FAVR responses at high doses (reactivity) were greater in hypertensives to regional infusion of both NE and angiotensin II. This "nonspecific" enhancement of vascular reactivity is probably explained by structural vascular changes in hypertensives. PMID:3040806

  1. Mivazerol, a novel compound with high specificity for alpha 2 adrenergic receptors: binding studies on different human and rat membrane preparations.

    PubMed

    Noyer, M; de Laveleye, F; Vauquelin, G; Gobert, J; Wülfert, E

    1994-03-01

    Mivazerol, 3-[1(H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]-2-hydroxybenzamide hydrochloride, a new potential anti-ischemic drug designed by UCB S.A. Pharma Sector, has been studied in binding experiments on adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic, muscarinic and idazoxan binding sites. Our results indicate that this compound displays high affinity and marked specificity for alpha 2 adrenoceptors. Mivazerol displaced the binding of the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist [3H]RX 821002 to the alpha 2A adrenoceptors in human frontal cortex membranes with an apparent Ki value of 37 nM. The competition curve was shallow (nH = 0.55), suggesting that this compound acts as an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist. Mivazerol was also a potent competitor for [3H]RX 821002 binding to human platelet membranes (containing alpha 2A adrenoceptors) and rat kidney membranes (75% of the alpha 2 adrenoceptors of the alpha 2B subtype), indicating that this compound is not alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtype selective. Equilibrium dissociation constants for alpha 1 adrenoceptors (displacement of [3H]prazosin) and 5-HT1A receptors (displacement of [3H]rauwolscine) were respectively about 120 times (Ki = 4.4 microM) and 14 times (Ki = 530 nM) higher than that for the alpha 2 adrenoceptors. Equilibrium dissociation constants were approximately 1000 times higher for all other receptors tested in this study; namely beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoceptors, D1- and D2-dopamine receptors, M1-, M2- and M3-muscarinic receptors, 5-HT2 receptors and non-adrenergic idazoxan binding sites.

  2. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3.

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Y J; Kim, S J; Danielpour, D; O'Reilly, M A; Kim, K Y; Myers, C E; Trepel, J B

    1992-01-01

    The standard therapy for advanced prostate cancer is androgen ablation. Despite transitory responses, hormonally treated patients ultimately relapse with androgen-independent disease that is resistant to further hormonal manipulation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines. We report here that elevation of intracellular cAMP markedly inhibits the growth of the hormone-refractory cell line PC-3. To examine the mechanism of cAMP action in PC-3 cells, we tested the effect of the cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2-cAMP) on the regulation of the potent negative growth factor transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Bt2-cAMP selectively induced the secretion of TGF-beta 2 and not TGF-beta 1 by PC-3 cells. This TGF-beta 2 was shown to be bioactive by using the CCL-64 mink lung cell assay. TGF-beta 1 was not activated despite being present at 3-fold higher concentrations than TGF-beta 2. Northern analysis showed that Bt2-cAMP induced an increase in the five characteristic TGF-beta 2 transcripts and had no effect on the level of TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 3 transcripts. TGF-beta 2 induction was only weakly enhanced by cycloheximide and was completely inhibited by actinomycin D. These data show that Bt2-cAMP induces the expression of active TGF-beta 2 by PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells, suggesting a new approach to the treatment of prostate cancer and a new molecular mechanism of cAMP action. Images PMID:1373503

  3. Contribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors of human atrium and ventricle to the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline as assessed with (-)-atenolol.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, H.; Schönell, H.; Kaumann, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. (-)-Atenolol was used as a tool to assess the function of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in human heart. Right atrial and left ventricular preparations from patients undergoing open heart surgery were set up to contract isometrically. Membrane particles were prepared for beta-adrenoceptor labelling with [3H]-(-)-bupranolol and adenylate cyclase assays. 2. The positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline were antagonized to a similar extent by (-)-atenolol in atrial and ventricular preparations. (-)-Atenolol consistently antagonized the effects of (-)-adrenaline to a lesser extent than those of (-)-noradrenaline in atrial preparations. In ventricular preparations (-)-atenolol antagonized the effects of low concentrations of (-)-adrenaline to a lesser extent than those of high concentrations. 3. pKB values (M) of (-)-atenolol, estimated with non-linear analysis from the blockade of the positive inotropic effects of the catecholamines, were 7.4 for beta 1-adrenoceptors and 6.0 for beta 2-adrenoceptors. 4. (-)-Atenolol inhibited the binding of [3H]-(-)-bupranolol to ventricular beta 1-adrenoceptors with a pKD (M) of 5.9 and to ventricular beta 2-adrenoceptors with a pKD of 4.6. 5. (-)-Atenolol inhibited the catecholamine-induced adenylate cyclase stimulation in the atrium and ventricle with pKB values of 5.8-6.4 for beta 1- and pKB values of 4.7-5.7 for beta 2-adrenoceptors. The binding and cyclase assays suggest a partial affinity loss for (-)-atenolol inherent to membrane preparations. 6. beta 1-Adrenoceptors mediate the maximum positive inotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline in both the atrium and ventricle of man. beta 2-Adrenoceptors appear to be capable of mediating maximal positive inotropic effects of (-)-adrenaline in atrium. In contrast, ventricular beta 2-adrenoceptors mediated only submaximal effects of (-)-adrenaline. PMID:2851354

  4. β2-Adrenergic receptor regulation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic

    PubMed Central

    de Coupade, Catherine; Gear, Robert W; Dazin, Paul F; Sroussi, Herve Y; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2004-01-01

    While the mechanisms underlying the marked sexual dimorphism in inflammatory diseases are not well understood, the sexually dimorphic sympathoadrenal axis profoundly affects the inflammatory response. We tested whether adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic, since neutrophils provide the first line of defense in the inflammatory response. There was a marked sexual dimorphism in β2-adrenergic receptor binding, using the specific β2-adrenergic receptor ligand, [3H]-dihydroalprenolol, with almost three times more binding sites on neutrophils from females (20,878±2470) compared to males (7331±3179). There was also a marked sexual dimorphism in the effects of isoprenaline, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, which increased nondirected locomotion (chemokinesis) in neutrophils obtained from females, while having no effect on neutrophils from males. Isoprenaline stimulated the release of a chemotactic factor from neutrophils obtained from females, but not from males. This chemotactic factor acts on the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) chemokine receptor, since an anti-CXCR2 antibody and the selective nonpeptide CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, inhibited chemotaxis produced by this factor. While interleukin- (IL-) 8 is a principal CXCR2 ligand, isoprenaline did not produce an increase in IL-8 release from neutrophils. IL-8-induced chemotaxis was inhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by isoprenaline, which also stimulated release of a mediator from neutrophils that induced chemotaxis, that was inhibited by anti-CXCR2 antibodies. These findings indicate an important role for adrenergic receptors in the modulation of neutrophil trafficking, which could contribute to sex-differences in the inflammatory response. PMID:15477226

  5. Beta2-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Suppresses TLR9-Dependent IFNA1 Secretion in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weisheit, Christina; Knüfermann, Pascal; Baumgarten, Georg; Hoeft, Andreas; Poth, Jens M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction IFNA1 (interferon alpha) is a key cytokine regulating the activity of numerous immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as natural interferon-producing cells play critical roles as sensors of pathogens and link innate to adaptive immunity. CpG motifs within DNA sequences activating toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) are the main stimuli eliciting IFNA1 secretion from pDCs. Adrenergic substances are capable of differentially modulating the response from various immune cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine how adrenoceptor stimulation influences TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion from human pDCs. Methods PBMCs generated from human whole blood and pDCs enriched from buffy coats were stimulated with LPS and CpG-ODN 2336 in the presence or absence of epinephrine and different adrenoceptor antagonists. Secretion of TNF and IFNA1 was measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to determine efficacy of pDC enrichment and adrenoceptor expression of PBMC subsets. The influence of modified IFNA1 secretion on NK cell activity was evaluated using a colorimetric tumor cell lysis assay. Results TLR9-induced IFNA1 secretion as well as TLR4-induced TNF secretion from PBMCs was dose-dependently attenuated by coincubation with epinephrine. Combination with different specific adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that this effect was mediated by the adrenoceptor β2 (ADRB2). Since flow cytometric analysis could exclude the presence of ADRB2 on pDCs, highly enriched pDCs lacked any visible impact of adrenoceptor stimulation on TLR9-induced IFNA1 release. Combination of pDCs with PBMCs restored the effect, even when they were separated by a permeable membrane. Suppression of TLR9-mediated IFNA1 secretion from PBMCs by adrenoceptor stimulation reduced the lytic activity of NK cells on K562 tumor cells. Conclusion We provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of the interrelation between immune responses and pharmacological agents widely used in clinical practice

  6. The Beta-2-Adrenoreceptor Agonists, Formoterol and Indacaterol, but Not Salbutamol, Effectively Suppress the Reactivity of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ronald; Theron, Annette J.; Steel, Helen C.; Durandt, Chrisna; Tintinger, Gregory R.; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of beta-2 agonists remains contentious possibly due to differences in their molecular structures and agonist activities. The current study has compared the effects of 3 different categories of β2-agonists, namely, salbutamol (short-acting), formoterol (long-acting) and indacaterol (ultra-long-acting), at concentrations of 1–1000 nM, with human blood neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were activated with either N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 µM) or platelet-activating factor (PAF, 200 nM) in the absence and presence of the β2-agonists followed by measurement of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4, release of elastase, and expression of the β2-integrin, CR3, using a combination of chemiluminescence, ELISA, colorimetric, and flow cytometric procedures respectively. These were correlated with alterations in the concentrations of intracellular cyclic-AMP and cytosolic Ca2+. At the concentrations tested, formoterol and indacaterol caused equivalent, significant (P < 0.05 at 1–10 nM) dose-related inhibition of all of the pro-inflammatory activities tested, while salbutamol was much less effective (P < 0.05 at 100 nM and higher). Suppression of neutrophil reactivity was accompanied by elevations in intracellular cAMP and accelerated clearance of Ca2+ from the cytosol of activated neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that β2-agonists vary with respect to their suppressive effects on activated neutrophils. PMID:24733958

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilka, B.K.; Matsui, H.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Francke, U.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Regan, J.W.

    1987-10-30

    The gene for the human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor has been cloned with oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the purified receptor. The identity of this gene has been confirmed by the binding of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic ligands to the cloned receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to the recently cloned human ..beta../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors; however, similarities to the muscarinic cholinergic receptors are also evident. Two related genes have been identified by low stringency Southern blot analysis. These genes may represent additional ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  8. Beta-adrenergic receptors are different in subpopulations of human circulating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Landmann, R M; Bürgisser, E; Wesp, M; Bühler, F R

    1984-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes (MNL) were isolated from blood of 11 healthy blood donors. Lymphocyte subsets were sorted in a Cytofluorograf after direct (B cells) or indirect immunofluorescence labeling with monoclonal antibodies directed against the phenotypes of T-, T helper (Th)- and T suppressor (Ts) cells. The sorted cells were incubated with (+/-)125iodocyanopindolol ([125I]CYP) for the determination of beta-adrenergic receptors. Beta-adrenergic receptors on B cells were increased two-fold (3700 sites/cell, p less than 0.004) and had a lower affinity (dissociation constant KD 40pM, p less than 0.03) when compared with T cells (1400 sites/cell, KD 17pM). Receptors on Th- and Ts cells showed a similar binding capacity, but Ts cells had a slightly higher [125I]CYP binding affinity (KD 13 pM) than Th cells (KD 27 pM, p less than 0.02). The different densities and affinities of beta-adrenergic receptors in human lymphocyte subsets, as assessed by antagonist binding should be considered in the interpretation of receptor alterations of unfractionated MNL, which may occur simultaneously to changes of the blood leucocyte distribution.

  9. Contribution of β-adrenergic receptors to exercise-induced bronchodilatation in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Andrea; Torchio, Roberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Terzi, Alberto; Rolfo, Fabrizio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Gulotta, Carlo; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2012-10-15

    Exercise in healthy subjects is usually associated with progressive bronchodilatation. Though the decrease in vagal tone is deemed to be the main underlying mechanism, activation of bronchial β(2)-receptors may constitute an additional cause. To examine the contribution of β(2)-adrenergic receptors to bronchodilatation during exercise in healthy humans, we studied 15 healthy male volunteers during maximum exercise test at control conditions and after a non-selective β-adrenergic blocker (carvedilol 12.5mg twice a day until heart rate decreased at least by 10beats/min) and inhaled β(2)-agonist (albuterol 400μg). Airway caliber was estimated from the partial flow at 40% of control forced vital capacity (V˙(part40)) and its changes during exercise from the slope of linear regression analysis of V˙(part40) values against the corresponding minute ventilation during maximal exercise until exhaustion. At control, V˙(part40) increased progressively and significantly with exercise. After albuterol, resting V˙(part40) was significantly larger than at control increased but did not further increase during exercise. After carvedilol, V˙(part40) was similar to control but its increase with exercise was significantly attenuated. These findings suggest that β(2)-adrenergic system plays a major role in exercise-induced bronchodilation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of halothane on the human beta-adrenergic receptor of lymphocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, J.; Nivoche, Y.; Nimier, M.; Rocchiccioli, C.; Luscombe, F.; Henzel, D.; Loiseau, A.; Desmonts, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The effects of halothane on beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist interaction were studied using the membranes of human lymphocytes as a model. Membrane preparations of lymphocytes were obtained from blood samples withdrawn from seven healthy young volunteers. Beta-receptor studies were performed using (-)/sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol (/sup 125/ICP) binding. Non-specific binding was determined in the presence of (-)isoproterenol. Beta-receptor density (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (KD) for /sup 125/ICP were determined from saturation curves. Beta-receptor affinity for agonists evaluated by the IC50 (the concentration of isoproterenol required to inhibit 50% of specific /sup 125/ICP binding) and the dissociation constant (KL) for isoproterenol was established from competition curves. The effect of halothane 1%, in an air oxygen mixture (oxygen fraction: 0.3) administered by tonometry during ligand membrane incubation, on beta-adrenergic receptor, was compared to that of control experiments not exposed to halothane. Halothane produced a moderate but significant decrease of Bmax (-10%) and a significant increase in non-specific binding (+30%), while KD, IC50, and KL were unchanged. The authors conclude that halothane, in vitro, decreases beta-adrenergic receptor density. This effect could be mediated by an alteration of the receptor in the membrane due to action of halothane on the lipid phase of the membrane.

  11. Adrenergic Receptors in Individual Ventricular Myocytes: The Beta-1 and Alpha-1B Are in All Cells, the Alpha-1A Is in a Subpopulation, and the Beta-2 and Beta-3 Are Mostly Absent.

    PubMed

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Flynn, James M; Cowley, Patrick M; Swigart, Philip M; Montgomery, Megan D; Thai, Kevin; Nair, Divya; Gupta, Rumita; Deng, David X; Hosoda, Chihiro; Melov, Simon; Baker, Anthony J; Simpson, Paul C

    2017-03-31

    It is unknown whether every ventricular myocyte expresses all 5 of the cardiac adrenergic receptors (ARs), β1, β2, β3, α1A, and α1B. The β1 and β2 are thought to be the dominant myocyte ARs. Quantify the 5 cardiac ARs in individual ventricular myocytes. We studied ventricular myocytes from wild-type mice, mice with α1A and α1B knockin reporters, and β1 and β2 knockout mice. Using individual isolated cells, we measured knockin reporters, mRNAs, signaling (phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospholamban), and contraction. We found that the β1 and α1B were present in all myocytes. The α1A was present in 60%, with high levels in 20%. The β2 and β3 were detected in only ≈5% of myocytes, mostly in different cells. In intact heart, 30% of total β-ARs were β2 and 20% were β3, both mainly in nonmyocytes. The dominant ventricular myocyte ARs present in all cells are the β1 and α1B. The β2 and β3 are mostly absent in myocytes but are abundant in nonmyocytes. The α1A is in just over half of cells, but only 20% have high levels. Four distinct myocyte AR phenotypes are defined: 30% of cells with β1 and α1B only; 60% that also have the α1A; and 5% each that also have the β2 or β3. The results raise cautions in experimental design, such as receptor overexpression in myocytes that do not express the AR normally. The data suggest new paradigms in cardiac adrenergic signaling mechanisms. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. beta-Adrenergic modulation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel in isolated human ventricular myocytes. Alteration in channel response to beta-adrenergic stimulation in failing human hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Koumi, S; Backer, C L; Arentzen, C E; Sato, R

    1995-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic modulation of the inwardly-rectifying K+ channel (IK1) was examined in isolated human ventricular myocytes using patch-clamp techniques. Isoproterenol (ISO) reversibly depolarized the resting membrane potential and prolonged the action potential duration. Under the whole-cell C1- -free condition, ISO applied via the bath solution reversibly inhibited macroscopic IdK1. The reversal potential of the ISO-sensitive current was shifted by approximately 60 mV per 10-fold change in the external K+ concentration and was sensitive to Ba2+. The ISO-induced inhibition of IK1 was mimicked by forskolin and dibutyrl cAMP, and was prevented by including a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor (PKI) in the pipette solution. In single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches, bath applied ISO could suppress IK1 channels by decreasing open state probability. Bath application of the purified catalytic sub-unit of PKA to inside-out patches also inhibited IK1 and the inhibition could be antagonized by alkaline phosphatase. When beta-adrenergic modulation of IK1 was compared between ventricular myocytes isolated from the failing and the nonfailing heart, channel response to ISO and PKA was significantly reduced in myocytes from the failing heart. Although ISO inhibited IK1 in a concentration-dependent fashion in both groups, a half-maximal concentration was greater in failing (0.12 microM) than in nonfailing hearts (0.023 microM). These results suggest that IK1 in human ventricular myocytes can be inhibited by a PKA-mediated phosphorylation and the modulation is significantly reduced in ventricular myocytes from the failing heart compared to the nonfailing heart. Images PMID:8675658

  13. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in human developing teeth: immunolocalization according to the odontogenesis phases.

    PubMed

    Sassá Benedete, Ana Paula; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Kamibeppu, Leonardo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional growth factor that has several biological effects in vivo, including control of cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, lineage determination, motility, adhesion, apoptosis, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and TGF-beta plays an important role in regulating tissue repair and regeneration. Our study analyzed the participation of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in the different stages of morphogenesis and differentiation of human developing dental organ using immunohistochemistry. The maxillae and mandibles of 10 human embryos ranging from 8 to 23 weeks of gestation were employed, according to the approval of the ethical committee. Our study revealed that the TGF-beta subunits-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-were present in the various stages of tooth development, but the expression varied according to the differentiation stage, tissue, and TGF-beta subunit. Our results indicated that TGF-beta 1 is closely related to differentiation of enamel organ and initiation of matrix secretion, TGF-beta 2 to cellular differentiation, and TGF-beta 3 to mineral maturation matrix.

  14. The interaction between salmeterol and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists with higher efficacy on guinea-pig trachea and human bronchus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Källström, B L; Sjöberg, J; Waldeck, B

    1994-01-01

    1. In guinea-pig tracheal preparations precontracted with 1 mumol l-1 carbachol, formoterol, procaterol, fenoterol, salmefamol, salbutamol and terbutaline (in that order of potency) caused a concentration-dependent and almost complete, relaxation. However, under these conditions, the maximum relaxation by salmeterol was approximately 30% of the maximum attainable relaxation. 2. We have therefore explored the ability of salmeterol to inhibit the relaxant response to beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists of different chemical structure and relatively higher efficacy in smooth muscle preparations from guinea-pig trachea and human bronchus. 3. With 1 mumol l-1 salmeterol in the organ bath, the concentration-effect curves for the other agonists were shifted to the right in a variable way by 1.8-2.8 log units, fenoterol and salbutamol being the extremes. 4. When 20 mumol l-1 sulfonterol, another low efficacy beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, was substituted for salmeterol, the difference in the magnitude of the rightward shift between fenoterol and salbutamol was eliminated. 5. In the human bronchus, formoterol and terbutaline had a higher apparent efficacy than salmeterol. With 1 mumol l-1 salmeterol in the organ bath, the concentration-effect curve for formoterol was shifted 2.7 log units to the right. 6. Salmeterol inhibits, competitively, relaxant responses to beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists with higher efficacy. The degree of inhibition seems to be dependent on the agonist used. This contrasts with results obtained with sulfonterol and suggests that salmeterol interacts with the beta 2-adrenoceptor in a complex way. PMID:7858856

  15. Heterogeneous responses of human limbs to infused adrenergic agonists: a gravitational effect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike quadrupeds, the legs of humans are regularly exposed to elevated pressures relative to the arms. We hypothesized that this "dependent hypertension" would be associated with altered adrenergic responsiveness. Isoproterenol (0.75-24 ng x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) and phenylephrine (0.025-0.8 microg x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) were infused incrementally in the brachial and femoral arteries of 12 normal volunteers; changes in limb blood flow were quantified by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Compared with the forearm, baseline calf vascular resistance was greater (38.8 +/- 2.5 vs. 26.9 +/- 2.0 mmHg x 100 ml x min x ml-1; P < 0.001) and maximal conductance was lower (46.1 +/- 11.9 vs. 59.4 +/- 13.4 ml x ml-1 x min-1 x mmHg-1; P < 0.03). Vascular conductance did not differ between the two limbs during isoproterenol infusions, whereas decreases in vascular conductance were greater in the calf than the forearm during phenylephrine infusions (P < 0.001). With responses normalized to maximal conductance, the half-maximal response for phenylephrine was significantly less for the calf than the forearm (P < 0.001), whereas the half-maximal response for isoproterenol did not differ between limbs. We conclude that alpha1- but not beta-adrenergic-receptor responsiveness in human limbs is nonuniform. The relatively greater response to alpha1-adrenergic-receptor stimulation in the calf may represent an adaptive mechanism that limits blood pooling and capillary filtration in the legs during standing.

  16. Arrhythmogenic Remodeling of β2 versus β1 Adrenergic Signaling in the Human Failing Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Di; Holzem, Katherine; Kang, Chaoyi; Xiao, Mengqian; Hwang, Hye Jin; Ewald, Gregory A.; Yamada, Kathryn A.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arrhythmia is the major cause of death in patients with heart failure, for which β-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockers are a mainstay therapy. But the role of β-adrenergic signaling in electrophysiology and arrhythmias has never been studied in human ventricles. Methods and Results We used optical imaging of action potentials (AP) and [Ca2+]i transients (CaT) to compare the β1- and β2-adrenergic responses in left ventricular wedge preparations of human donor and failing hearts. β1-stimulation significantly increased conduction velocity (CV), shortened AP duration (APD), CaT duration (CaD) in donor but not failing hearts, due to desensitization of β1-AR in heart failure. In contrast, β2-stimulation increased CV in both donor and failing hearts but shortened APD only in failing hearts. β2-stimulation also affected transmural heterogeneity in APD but not in CaD. Both β1- and β2-stimulation augmented the vulnerability and frequency of ectopic activity and enhanced substrates for ventricular tachycardia in failing, but not donor, hearts. Both β1- and β2-stimulation enhanced Purkinje fiber automaticity, while only β2-stimulation promoted Ca-mediated premature ventricular contractions in heart failure. Conclusions During end-stage heart failure, β2-stimulation creates arrhythmogenic substrates via CV regulation and transmurally heterogeneous repolarization. β2-stimulation is, therefore, more arrhythmogenic than β1-stimulation. In particular, β2-stimulation increases the transmural difference between CaD and APD, which facilitates the formation of delayed afterdepolarizations. PMID:25673629

  17. Heterogeneous responses of human limbs to infused adrenergic agonists: a gravitational effect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike quadrupeds, the legs of humans are regularly exposed to elevated pressures relative to the arms. We hypothesized that this "dependent hypertension" would be associated with altered adrenergic responsiveness. Isoproterenol (0.75-24 ng x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) and phenylephrine (0.025-0.8 microg x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) were infused incrementally in the brachial and femoral arteries of 12 normal volunteers; changes in limb blood flow were quantified by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Compared with the forearm, baseline calf vascular resistance was greater (38.8 +/- 2.5 vs. 26.9 +/- 2.0 mmHg x 100 ml x min x ml-1; P < 0.001) and maximal conductance was lower (46.1 +/- 11.9 vs. 59.4 +/- 13.4 ml x ml-1 x min-1 x mmHg-1; P < 0.03). Vascular conductance did not differ between the two limbs during isoproterenol infusions, whereas decreases in vascular conductance were greater in the calf than the forearm during phenylephrine infusions (P < 0.001). With responses normalized to maximal conductance, the half-maximal response for phenylephrine was significantly less for the calf than the forearm (P < 0.001), whereas the half-maximal response for isoproterenol did not differ between limbs. We conclude that alpha1- but not beta-adrenergic-receptor responsiveness in human limbs is nonuniform. The relatively greater response to alpha1-adrenergic-receptor stimulation in the calf may represent an adaptive mechanism that limits blood pooling and capillary filtration in the legs during standing.

  18. Mild metabolic acidosis impairs the β-adrenergic response in isolated human failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pronounced extracellular acidosis reduces both cardiac contractility and the β-adrenergic response. In the past, this was shown in some studies using animal models. However, few data exist regarding how the human end-stage failing myocardium, in which compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, reacts to acute mild metabolic acidosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mild metabolic acidosis on contractility and the β-adrenergic response of isolated trabeculae from human end-stage failing hearts. Methods Intact isometrically twitching trabeculae isolated from patients with end-stage heart failure were exposed to mild metabolic acidosis (pH 7.20). Trabeculae were stimulated at increasing frequencies and finally exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0 to 1 × 10-6 M). Results A mild metabolic acidosis caused a depression in twitch-force amplitude of 26% (12.1 ± 1.9 to 9.0 ± 1.5 mN/mm2; n = 12; P < 0.01) as compared with pH 7.40. Force-frequency relation measurements yielded no further significant differences of twitch force. At the maximal isoproterenol concentration, the force amplitude was comparable in each of the two groups (pH 7.40 versus pH 7.20). However, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) was significantly increased in the acidosis group, with an EC50 of 5.834 × 10-8 M (confidence interval (CI), 3.48 × 10-8 to 9.779 × 10-8; n = 9), compared with the control group, which had an EC50 of 1.056 × 10-8 M (CI, 2.626 × 10-9 to 4.243 × 10-8; n = 10; P < 0.05), indicating an impaired β-adrenergic force response. Conclusions Our data show that mild metabolic acidosis reduces cardiac contractility and significantly impairs the β-adrenergic force response in human failing myocardium. Thus, our results could contribute to the still-controversial discussion about the therapy regimen of acidosis in patients with critical heart failure. PMID:22889236

  19. Effect Of α2-Adrenergic Agonists And Antagonists On Cytokine Release From Human Lung Macrophages Cultured In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, O.; Staiano, R.I.; De Robertis, E.; Conti, G.; Di Crescenzo, V.; Loffredo, S.; Marone, G.; Marinosci, G. Zito; Cataldi, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The most trusted hypothesis to explain how α2-adrenergic agonists may preserve pulmonary functions in critically ill patients is that they directly act on macrophages by interfering with an autocrine/paracrine adrenergic system that controls cytokine release through locally synthetized noradrenaline and α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors. We tested this hypothesis in primary cultures of resident macrophages from human lung (HLMs). HLMs were isolated by centrifugation on percoll gradients from macroscopically healthy human lung tissue obtained from four different patients at the time of lung resection for cancer. HLMs from these patients showed a significant expression of α2A, α2B and α2C adrenoreceptors both at the mRNA and at the protein level. To evaluate whether α2 adrenoreceptors controlled cytokine release from HMLs, we measured IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α concentrations in the culture medium in basal conditions and after preincubation with several α2-adrenergic agonists or antagonists. Neither the pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic agonists clonidine, medetomidine or dexdemetomidine or with the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine caused significant changes in the response of any of these cytokines to LPS. These results show that, different from what reported in rodents, clonidine and dexdemetomidine do not directly suppress cytokine release from human pulmonary macrophages. This suggests that alternative mechanisms such as effects on immune cells activation or the modulation of autonomic neurotransmission could be responsible for the beneficial effects of these drugs on lung function in critical patients. PMID:27896229

  20. Cloning of the cDNA for the human. beta. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Frielle, T.; Collins, S.; Daniel, K.W.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Kobilka, B.K.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a human placenta lambdagt11 library has led to the isolation of the cDNA for the human ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 1/AR). Used as the probe was the human genomic clone termed G-21. This clone, which contains an intronless gene for a putative receptor, was previously isolated by virtue of its cross hybridization with the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR). The 2.4-kilobase cDNA for the human ..beta../sub 1/AR encodes a protein of 477 amino acid residues that is 69% homologous with the avian ..beta..AR but only 54% homologous with the human ..beta../sub 2/AR. This suggests that the avian gene encoding ..beta..AR and the human gene encoding ..beta../sub 1/AR evolved from a common ancestral gene. RNA blot analysis indicates a message of 2.5 kilobases in rat tissues, with a pattern of tissue distribution consistent with ..beta../sub 1/AR binding. This pattern is quite distinct from the pattern obtained when the ..beta../sub 2/AR cDNA is used as a probe. Expression of receptor protein in Xenopus laevis oocytes conveys adenylate cyclase responsiveness to catecholamines with a typical ..beta../sub 1/AR specificity. This contrasts with the typical ..beta../sub 2/ subtype specificity observed when the human ..beta../sub 2/AR cDNA is expressed in this system. Mammalian ..beta../sub 1/AR and ..beta../sub 2/AR are thus products of distinct genes, both of which are apparently related to the putative G-21 receptor.

  1. Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and autonomic nervous system function in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Koichiro; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Aoki, Norihiko; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Tsuda, Kinsuke

    2006-09-01

    Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors for catecholamines. They are essential components of the sympathetic nervous system, organized within the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls various physiological functions, including energy homeostasis and metabolism of glucose and lipids. An impairment of ANS function in metabolism is considered to be one of the pathological states associated with human obesity and related metabolic diseases; thus, alterations in AR function might be implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Several studies have suggested an association between obesity phenotypes and some AR polymorphisms. In vitro and human clinical studies indicate that some of these polymorphisms have functional and pathophysiological significance, including the linkage to ANS function. This review summarizes present knowledge of AR polymorphisms related to human obesity, and their association with ANS function.

  2. β1- and β2-adrenergic stimulation-induced electrogenic transport by human endolymphatic sac epithelium and its clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2017-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic structure of the inner ear connected to the cochlea and vestibule, which plays a role in regulating ion homeostasis in inner ear fluid. Disruption of ion homeostasis can cause inner ear disorders with hearing loss and dizziness, such as Meniere’s disease. Herein, we found, for the first time, functional evidence for the involvement of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in apical electrogenic ion transport by human ES epithelium by using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods, which were dependent on K+ and Cl− ion transport. The apical electrogenic transport was absent or very weak in ES epithelia of patients with Meniere’s disease. These results suggested that adrenergic stimulation via β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in the human ES was involved in regulation of inner ear fluid ion homeostasis and impairment of this response could be a pathological mechanism of Meniere’s disease. PMID:28165045

  3. The inhibitory effect of phenylpropanoid glycosides and iridoid glucosides on free radical production and beta2 integrin expression in human leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lie-Chwen; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chang, Shiou; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Wang, Wen-Yen; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2006-01-01

    Rapid production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulation of beta2 integrin by leucocytes are two important inflammatory responses in human leucocytes. To evaluate whether three phenylpropanoid glycosides (acteoside, crenatoside, and rossicaside B) and two iridoid glucosides (boschnaloside and 8-epideoxyloganic acid) identified from two medicinal plants with similar indications (Orobanche caerulescens and Boschniakia rossica) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, their effects on N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-activated peripheral human neutrophils (PMNs) and mononuclear cells were examined. Pretreatment with 1-50 microM phenylpropanoid glycoside concentration-dependently diminished PMA- and fMLP-induced ROS production with IC50 values of approximately 6.8-23.9 and 3.0-8.8 muM, respectively. Iridoid glucoside was less effective than phenylpropanoid glycoside with an IC50 value of approximately 8.9-28.4 microM in PMA-activated PMNs and 19.1-21.1 microM in fMLP-activated mononuclear cells. Phenylpropanoid glycosides also effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) and displayed potent free radical-scavenging activity, but did not interfere with pan-protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Furthermore, all compounds, except rossicaside B, significantly inhibited PMA- and fMLP-induced Mac-1 (a beta2 integrin) upregulation at 50 microM but not that of fMLP-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. These drugs had no significant cytotoxicity as compared with the vehicle control. Our data suggested that inhibition of ROS production, possibly through modulation of NOX activity and/or the radical scavenging effect, and beta2 integrin expression in leucocytes indicated that these compounds had the potential to serve as anti-inflammatory agents during oxidative stress.

  4. Role of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins in the adhesion of human CD34hi stem cells to bone marrow stroma.

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, J; Hemler, M E; Greenberger, J S; Anklesaria, P

    1992-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell interaction with elements of the underlying stroma is essential for sustained normal hematopoiesis. Here we have determined that adhesion receptors in the integrin family play a role in promoting adhesion of human hematopoietic stem cells to cultured human marrow stromal cells. Enriched CD34hi progenitor cells expressed VLA-4, VLA-5, and at least one or more beta 2 integrins. Homogeneous marrow stromal cell monolayers capable of supporting proliferation of cocultivated CD34hi cells expressed VCAM-1 and fibronectin (ligands for VLA-4 and VLA-5) as well as ICAM-1 (ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1). Adhesion-blocking experiments indicated that VLA-4/VCAM-1, VLA-5/fibronectin, and beta 2-integrin/ICAM-1 pathways all are important for CD34hi cell attachment to stromal cells. Consistent with this suggestion, IL-1 stimulation of stromal cells caused both increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and increased attachment by CD34hi bone marrow cells. In addition, CD34hi cells utilized VLA-4 to adhere to purified VCAM-1 and employed VLA-5 (and to a lesser extent VLA-4) to adhere to purified fibronectin. Together these results suggest that CD34hi stem cells may utilize multiple integrin-mediated adhesion pathways to localize within specialized microenvironmental niches created by marrow stromal cells. Images PMID:1379610

  5. Simultaneous determination of beta2-agonists in human urine by fast-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: method validation and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Di Corcia, Daniele; Morra, Veronica; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco

    2010-04-01

    A fast screening protocol was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 15 beta(2)-agonists in human urine (bambuterol, cimbuterol, clenbuterol, fenoterol, formoterol, isoproterenol, mapenterol, metaproterenol, procaterol, ractopamine, ritodrine, salbutamol, salmeterol, terbutaline, tulobuterol). The overall sample processing includes deconjugation with enzyme hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, followed by derivatization of the extract and detection of beta(2)-agonists trimethylsilyl-derivatives by fast-gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (fast-GC/EI-MS). Sample extraction and derivatization were optimized with the purpose of improving recoveries and reaction yields for a variety of analytes with different structures simultaneously, while keeping the procedure simple and reliable. Validation parameters were determined for each analyte under investigation, including selectivity, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision, extraction recoveries and signal to noise ratio (S/N) at the lowest calibration level. Fast-GC/MS sequences, based on the use of short columns, high carrier-gas velocity and fast temperature ramping, allow considerable reduction of the analysis time (7 min), while maintaining adequate chromatographic resolution. The overall GC cycle time was less than 9 min, allowing a processing rate of 6 samples/h. High MS-sampling rate, using a benchtop quadrupole mass analyzer, resulted in accurate peak shape definition under both scan and selected ion monitoring modes, and high sensitivity in the latter mode. The method was successfully tested on real samples arising from clinical treatments. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  7. Selectivity of dobutamine for adrenergic receptor subtypes: in vitro analysis by radioligand binding.

    PubMed

    Williams, R S; Bishop, T

    1981-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses elicited by dobutamine are distinctly different from those produced by other adrenergic or dopaminergic agonists. To test the hypothesis that dobutamine could have differential affinities for adrenergic receptor subtypes, and that such subtype selectivity could be related to its relatively unique pharmacologic properties, we assessed the ability of dobutamine to displace adrenergic radioligands from membrane receptors in a number of tissues of previously characterized adrenergic receptor subtype. For beta adrenergic receptors identified by (-) [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol (DHA), dobutamine had significantly greater affinity for the beta(1) subtype (K(D) = 2.5 muM in rat heart and 2.6 muM in turkey erythrocyte) than for the beta(2) subtype (K(D) = 14.8 muM in frog heart and 25.4 muM in rat lung) (P < 0.001). For alpha adrenergic receptors, dobutamine had markedly greater affinity for the alpha(1)-subtype identified by [(3)H]prazosin (K(D) = 0.09 muM in rat heart and 0.14 muM in rabbit uterus) than for the alpha(2)-subtype identified by [(3)H]dihydroergocryptine (DHE) (K(D) = 9.3 muM in human platelet) or by [(3)H]yohimbine (K(D) = 5.7 muM in rabbit uterus) (P < 0.001). Like other beta(1)-agonists, in the absence of guanine nucleotide, dobutamine competition curves for DHA binding in rat heart demonstrated two classes of binding sites, with one site of significantly higher affinity (K(D) = 0.5 muM, P = 0.008) than the single class of binding sites (K(D) = 5.2 muM) identified in the presence of guanine nucleotide. However, unlike beta(2)- or alpha(2)-agonists, dobutamine displacement of DHA binding in rat lung or of DHE binding in human platelets demonstrated only a single class of binding sites, and guanine nucleotide had only minimal effects. We conclude that dobutamine is selective for beta(1) as opposed to beta(2), and for alpha(1) as opposed to alpha(2) adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, guanine nucleotide effects on dobutamine binding

  8. Modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during exercise and exogenous ATP infusions in ageing humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S; Crecelius, Anne R; Voyles, Wyatt F; Dinenno, Frank A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The ability to modulate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle is impaired with age. In young adults, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to blunt sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness similar to exercise. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction to exogenous ATP is impaired in ageing humans. We measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) and calculated vascular conductance (FVC) to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and dexmedetomidine (α2-agonist) during rhythmic handgrip exercise (15% MVC), a control non-exercise vasodilator condition (adenosine), and ATP infusion in seven older (64 ± 3 years) and seven young (22 ± 1 years) healthy adults. Forearm hyperaemia was matched across all vasodilatating conditions. During adenosine, forearm vasoconstrictor responses to direct α1-stimulation were lower in older compared with young adults (ΔFVC =−25 ± 3%vs.−41 ± 5%; P < 0.05), whereas the responses to α2-stimulation were not different (−35 ± 6%vs.−44 ± 8%; NS). During exercise, α1-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly blunted compared with adenosine in both young (−9 ± 2%vs.−41 ± 5%) and older adults (−15 ± 2%vs.−25 ± 3%); however, the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (32 ± 13 vs. 74 ± 8%; P < 0.05). Similarly, α2-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise was significantly blunted in both young (−15 ± 4%vs.−44 ± 8%) and older adults (−26 ± 3%vs.−35 ± 6%), however the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (19 ± 8%vs. 60 ± 10%; P < 0.05). During ATP, both α1- and α2-mediated vasoconstriction was nearly abolished in young and older adults (ΔFVC ∼−5%), and the magnitude of sympatholysis was similar in both age groups (∼85–90%). Our findings indicate that the ability to modulate postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during

  9. Structure of the gene for human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with ..beta../sub 2/AR properties. Southern blot analyses with ..beta../sub 2/AR-specific probes show that a single ..beta../sub 2/AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the ..beta../sub 2/AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

  10. Molecular determinants of the human α2C-adrenergic receptor temperature-sensitive intracellular traffic.

    PubMed

    Filipeanu, Catalin M; Pullikuth, Ashok K; Guidry, Jessie J

    2015-05-01

    The human α2C-adrenergic receptor (α2C-AR) is localized intracellularly at physiologic temperature. Decreasing the environmental temperature strongly stimulates the receptor transport to the cell surface. In contrast, rat and mouse α2C-AR plasma membrane levels are less sensitive to decrease in temperature, whereas the opossum α2C-AR cell surface levels are not changed in these conditions. Structural analysis demonstrated that human α2C-AR has a high number of arginine residues in the third intracellular loop and in the C-terminus, organized as putative RXR motifs. Although these motifs do not affect the receptor subcellular localization at 37°C, deletion of the arginine clusters significantly enhanced receptor plasma membrane levels at reduced temperature. We found that this exaggerated transport of the human receptor is mediated by two functional arginine clusters, one in the third intracellular loop and one in the C-terminus. This effect is mediated by interactions with COPI vesicles, but not by 14-3-3 proteins. In rat α2C-AR, the arginine cluster from the third intracellular loop is shifted to the left due to three missing residues. Reinsertion of these residues in the rat α2C-AR restored the same temperature sensitivity as in the human receptor. Proteomic and coimmunoprecipitation experiments identified pontin as a molecule having stronger interactions with human α2C-AR compared with rat α2C-AR. Inhibition of pontin activity enhanced human receptor plasma membrane levels and signaling at 37°C. Our results demonstrate that human α2C-AR has a unique temperature-sensitive traffic pattern within the G protein-coupled receptor class due to interactions with different molecular chaperones, mediated in part by strict spatial localization of specific arginine residues. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Molecular Determinants of the Human α2C-Adrenergic Receptor Temperature-Sensitive Intracellular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Pullikuth, Ashok K.; Guidry, Jessie J.

    2015-01-01

    The human α2C-adrenergic receptor (α2C-AR) is localized intracellularly at physiologic temperature. Decreasing the environmental temperature strongly stimulates the receptor transport to the cell surface. In contrast, rat and mouse α2C-AR plasma membrane levels are less sensitive to decrease in temperature, whereas the opossum α2C-AR cell surface levels are not changed in these conditions. Structural analysis demonstrated that human α2C-AR has a high number of arginine residues in the third intracellular loop and in the C-terminus, organized as putative RXR motifs. Although these motifs do not affect the receptor subcellular localization at 37°C, deletion of the arginine clusters significantly enhanced receptor plasma membrane levels at reduced temperature. We found that this exaggerated transport of the human receptor is mediated by two functional arginine clusters, one in the third intracellular loop and one in the C-terminus. This effect is mediated by interactions with COPI vesicles, but not by 14-3-3 proteins. In rat α2C-AR, the arginine cluster from the third intracellular loop is shifted to the left due to three missing residues. Reinsertion of these residues in the rat α2C-AR restored the same temperature sensitivity as in the human receptor. Proteomic and coimmunoprecipitation experiments identified pontin as a molecule having stronger interactions with human α2C-AR compared with rat α2C-AR. Inhibition of pontin activity enhanced human receptor plasma membrane levels and signaling at 37°C. Our results demonstrate that human α2C-AR has a unique temperature-sensitive traffic pattern within the G protein–coupled receptor class due to interactions with different molecular chaperones, mediated in part by strict spatial localization of specific arginine residues. PMID:25680754

  12. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  13. Discovery and Verification of Osteopontin and Beta-2-microglobulin as Promising Markers for Staging Human African Trypanosomiasis*

    PubMed Central

    Tiberti, Natalia; Hainard, Alexandre; Lejon, Veerle; Robin, Xavier; Ngoyi, Dieudonné Mumba; Turck, Natacha; Matovu, Enock; Enyaru, John; Ndung'u, Joseph Mathu; Scherl, Alexander; Dayon, Loïc; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a parasitic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, transmitted to humans through the bite of a tsetse fly. The first or hemolymphatic stage of the disease is associated with presence of parasites in the bloodstream, lymphatic system, and body tissues. If patients are left untreated, parasites cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain parenchyma, giving rise to the second or meningoencephalitic stage. Stage determination is a crucial step in guiding the choice of treatment, as drugs used for S2 are potentially dangerous. Current staging methods, based on counting white blood cells and demonstrating trypanosomes in cerebrospinal fluid, lack specificity and/or sensitivity. In the present study, we used several proteomic strategies to discover new markers with potential for staging human African trypanosomiasis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The stage was determined following the guidelines of the national control program. The proteome of the samples was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (n = 9), and by sixplex tandem mass tag (TMT) isobaric labeling (n = 6) quantitative mass spectrometry. Overall, 73 proteins were overexpressed in patients presenting the second stage of the disease. Two of these, osteopontin and β-2-microglobulin, were confirmed to be potential markers for staging human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) by Western blot and ELISA. The two proteins significantly discriminated between S1 and S2 patients with high sensitivity (68% and 78%, respectively) for 100% specificity, and a combination of both improved the sensitivity to 91%. The levels of osteopontin and β-2-microglobulin in CSF of S2 patients (μg/ml range), as well as the fold increased concentration in S2 compared with S1 (3.8 and 5.5 respectively) make the two markers good

  14. Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in hyperplastic human prostate: identification and characterization using (/sup 3/H) rauwolscine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine ((/sup 3/H)Ra), a selective ligand for the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor, was used to identify and characterize alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in prostate glands of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)Ra to prostatic tissue homogenates was rapid and readily reversible by addition of excess unlabelled phentolamine. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments demonstrates a single, saturable class of high affinity binding sites (Bmax = 0.31 +/- 0.04 fmol./microgram. DNA, Kd = 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM.). The relative potency of alpha adrenergic drugs (clonidine, alpha-methylnorepinephrine and prazosin) in competing for (/sup 3/H)Ra binding sites was consistent with the order predicted for an alpha 2 subtype. The role of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in normal prostatic function and in men with bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH requires further investigation.

  15. Adrenergic Stress Protection of Human iPS Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes by Fast Kv7.1 Recycling.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Ilaria; Fehrmann, Edda; Frank, Stefan; Müller, Frank U; Greber, Boris; Seebohm, Guiscard

    2017-01-01

    The fight-or-flight response (FFR), a physiological acute stress reaction, involves positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on heart muscle cells mediated through β-adrenoceptor activation. Increased systolic calcium is required to enable stronger heart contractions whereas elevated potassium currents are to limit the duration of the action potentials and prevent arrhythmia. The latter effect is accomplished by an increased functional activity of the Kv7.1 channel encoded by KCNQ1. Current knowledge, however, does not sufficiently explain the full extent of rapid Kv7.1 activation and may hence be incomplete. Using inducible genetic KCNQ1 complementation in KCNQ1-deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), we here reinvestigate the functional role of Kv7.1 in adapting human CMs to adrenergic stress. Under baseline conditions, Kv7.1 was barely detectable at the plasma membrane of hiPSC-CMs, yet it fully protected these from adrenergic stress-induced beat-to-beat variability of repolarization and torsade des pointes-like arrhythmia. Furthermore, isoprenaline treatment increased field potential durations specifically in KCNQ1-deficient CMs to cause these adverse macroscopic effects. Mechanistically, we find that the protective action by Kv7.1 resides in a rapid translocation of channel proteins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, induced by adrenergic signaling. Gene silencing experiments targeting RAB GTPases, mediators of intracellular vesicle trafficking, showed that fast Kv7.1 recycling under acute stress conditions is RAB4A-dependent.Our data reveal a key mechanism underlying the rapid adaptation of human cardiomyocytes to adrenergic stress. These findings moreover aid to the understanding of disease pathology in long QT syndrome and bear important implications for safety pharmacological screening.

  16. [Beta-adrenergic receptor blocker poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, migraine headache, thyrotoxicosis, and glaucoma. beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agents are competitive antagonist at beta(1), beta(2), or both types of adrenergic receptors. Overdoses of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are uncommon, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review article discusses the properties of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, presents the doses of these drugs causing toxicity and doses, after ingestion of which, referral to an emergency department is recommended. Clinical presentation of overdose (the cardiovascular, neurologic manifestations, pulmonary and other complications), diagnosis, and treatment (gastrointestinal decontamination; the usage of atropine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, insulin; indications for cardiac pacing, extracorporeal procedures of drug removal, etc.) are analyzed. In addition, this article focuses on clinical course and prognosis of beta-blocker overdose.

  17. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  18. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatory signalling modulates α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle of humans.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Christopher M; Kirby, Brett S; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2016-12-15

    'Functional sympatholysis' describes the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction, and is critical to ensure proper blood flow and oxygen delivery to metabolically active skeletal muscle. The signalling mechanism responsible for sympatholysis in healthy humans is unknown. Evidence from animal models has identified endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) as a potential mechanism capable of attenuating sympathetic vasoconstriction. In this study, increasing endothelium-dependent signalling during exercise significantly enhanced the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction in humans. This is the first study in humans to identify endothelium-dependent regulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle, and specifically supports a role for EDH-like vasodilatory signalling. Impaired functional sympatholysis is a common feature of cardiovascular ageing, hypertension and heart failure, and thus identifying fundamental mechanisms responsible for sympatholysis is clinically relevant. Stimulation of α-adrenoceptors elicits vasoconstriction in resting skeletal muscle that is blunted during exercise in an intensity-dependent manner. In humans, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that stimulating endothelium-dependent vasodilatory signalling will enhance the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction. Changes in forearm vascular conductance (FVC; Doppler ultrasound, brachial intra-arterial pressure via catheter) to local intra-arterial infusion of phenylephrine (PE; α1 -adrenoceptor agonist) were calculated during (1) infusion of the endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside, SNP), or potassium chloride (KCl) at rest; (2) mild or moderate intensity handgrip exercise; and (3) combined mild exercise

  19. Identification of beta-adrenergic receptors on cultured human fibroblast IMR-90 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-03-05

    Fibroblast cultures derived from normal human tissue undergo a finite number of population doublings when serial subcultivated in vitro. IMR-90 cells derived from human embryonic lung tissue undergo approximately 60 population doublings. Beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) characteristics and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were assessed in IMR-90 cells at various population doublings (PDL). Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-Iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 452 +/- 35 sites/cell and a dissociation constant of 18.7 +/- 1.3 pM. There were no changes in BAR density between PDL 32 to PDL 46. Binding was both stereospecific and specific. Competition with epinephrine was 7.4 times more potent than with norepinephrine, suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Competition with isoproterenol (Hill plots) indicated an apparent K/sub d/ of 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10/sup -8/ M. Competition curves were resolved into high and low affinity binding sites yielding K/sub d/-high = 3.6 +/- 1.3 nM and k/sub d/-low = 1.6 +/- 0.7 x 10/sup -7/ M with 49.9 +/- 6.6% of the receptors in the high affinity state at PDL 31 to PDL 37. Cultures demonstrate isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a concentration of 1 x 10/sup -6/ M producing half-maximal stimulation and a maximum stimulation of 2 pmol cAMP/mg/min. Forskolin-stimulated was 10 pmol/cAMP/mg/min at PDL 46.

  20. Evidence that the human cutaneous venoarteriolar response is not mediated by adrenergic mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Yen, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response causes vasoconstriction to skin and muscle via local mechanisms secondary to venous congestion. The purpose of this project was to investigate whether this response occurs through alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. In supine individuals, forearm skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry over sites following local administration of terazosin (alpha(1)-antagonist), yohimbine (alpha(2)-antagonist), phentolamine (non-selective alpha-antagonist) and bretylium tosylate (inhibits neurotransmission of adrenergic nerves) via intradermal microdialysis or intradermal injection. In addition, skin blood flow was monitored over an area of forearm skin that was locally anaesthetized via application of EMLA (2.5 % lidocaine (lignocaine) and 2.5 % prilocaine) cream. Skin blood flow was also monitored over adjacent sites that received the vehicle for the specified drug. Each trial was performed on a minimum of seven subjects and on separate days. The venoarteriolar response was engaged by lowering the subject's arm from heart level such that the sites of skin blood flow measurement were 34 +/- 1 cm below the heart. The arm remained in this position for 2 min. Selective and non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism and presynaptic inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission did not abolish the venoarteriolar response. However, local anaesthesia blocked the venoarteriolar response without altering alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction. These data suggest that the venoarteriolar response does not occur through adrenergic mechanisms as previously reported. Rather, the venoarteriolar response may due to myogenic mechanisms associated with changes in vascular pressure or is mediated by a non-adrenergic, but neurally mediated, local mechanism.

  1. Evidence that the human cutaneous venoarteriolar response is not mediated by adrenergic mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Yen, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response causes vasoconstriction to skin and muscle via local mechanisms secondary to venous congestion. The purpose of this project was to investigate whether this response occurs through alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. In supine individuals, forearm skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry over sites following local administration of terazosin (alpha(1)-antagonist), yohimbine (alpha(2)-antagonist), phentolamine (non-selective alpha-antagonist) and bretylium tosylate (inhibits neurotransmission of adrenergic nerves) via intradermal microdialysis or intradermal injection. In addition, skin blood flow was monitored over an area of forearm skin that was locally anaesthetized via application of EMLA (2.5 % lidocaine (lignocaine) and 2.5 % prilocaine) cream. Skin blood flow was also monitored over adjacent sites that received the vehicle for the specified drug. Each trial was performed on a minimum of seven subjects and on separate days. The venoarteriolar response was engaged by lowering the subject's arm from heart level such that the sites of skin blood flow measurement were 34 +/- 1 cm below the heart. The arm remained in this position for 2 min. Selective and non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism and presynaptic inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission did not abolish the venoarteriolar response. However, local anaesthesia blocked the venoarteriolar response without altering alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction. These data suggest that the venoarteriolar response does not occur through adrenergic mechanisms as previously reported. Rather, the venoarteriolar response may due to myogenic mechanisms associated with changes in vascular pressure or is mediated by a non-adrenergic, but neurally mediated, local mechanism.

  2. α1-Adrenergic receptor control of the cerebral vasculature in humans at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Saxena, Ashwini; Eubank, Wendy L; Hoxha, Besim; Raven, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that pharmacological blockade of α(1)-adrenoreceptors (by prazosin), at rest and during steady-state dynamic exercise, would impair cerebral autoregulation and result in cerebral vasodilatation in healthy humans. In 10 subjects, beat-to-beat mean arterial pressure and mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity were determined at rest and during low (Ex90) and moderate workload (Ex130) on an upright bicycle ergometer without and with prazosin. Plasma noradrenaline concentrations increased significantly from rest to Ex130 during control conditions (from 1.8 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.3 pmol (ml plasma)(-1)). In the control conditions, the transfer function gain between mean arterial pressure and mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity in the low-frequency range was decreased at Ex90 (P = 0.035) and Ex130 (P = 0.027) from rest. A significant increase in critical closing pressure (CCP) was also observed in the control conditions from rest to Ex90 to Ex130 (from 18 ± 3 to 24 ± 4 to 31 ± 4 mmHg). An average of 74 ± 2% blockade of blood pressure response was achieved with oral prazosin. Following blockade, plasma noradrenaline concentrations further increased at rest and during Ex130 from the control value (from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 4.4 ± 0.5 pmol (ml plasma)(-1)). Prazosin also resulted in an increase in low-frequency gain (P < 0.003) compared with the control conditions. Prazosin blockade abolished the increases in CCP during Ex130 and increased the cerebrovascular conductance index (P = 0.018). These data indicate that in the control conditions a strengthening of cerebral autoregulation occurred with moderate dynamic exercise that is associated with an increase in CCP as a result of the exercise-mediated augmentation of sympathetic activity. Given that α(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade attenuated the increase in dynamic cerebral autoregulation and CCP, we conclude that increases in sympathetic activity have a role in establishing cerebral vascular

  3. Inhibition of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in exercising human thigh muscles

    PubMed Central

    Wray, D Walter; Fadel, Paul J; Smith, Michael L; Raven, Peter; Sander, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying metabolic inhibition of sympathetic responses within exercising skeletal muscle remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to test whether α2-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was more sensitive to metabolic inhibition than α1-vasoconstriction during dynamic knee-extensor exercise. We studied healthy volunteers using two protocols: (1) wide dose ranges of the α-adrenoreceptor agonists phenylephrine (PE, α1 selective) and BHT-933 (BHT, α2 selective) were administered intra-arterially at rest and during 27 W knee-extensor exercise (n = 13); (2) flow-adjusted doses of PE (0.3 μg kg−1 l−1) and BHT (15 μg kg−1 l−1) were administered at rest and during ramped exercise (7 W to 37 W; n= 10). Ultrasound Doppler and thermodilution techniques provided direct measurements of femoral blood flow (FBF). PE (0.8 μg kg−1) and BHT (40 μg kg−1) produced comparable maximal reductions in FBF at rest (−58 ± 6 versus−64 ± 4%). Despite increasing the doses, PE (1.6 μg kg−1 min−1) and BHT (80 μg kg−1 min−1) caused significantly smaller changes in FBF during 27 W exercise (−13 ± 4 versus−3 ± 5%). During ramped exercise, significant vasoconstriction at lower intensities (7 and 17 W) was seen following PE (−16 ± 5 and −16 ± 4%), but not BHT (−2 ± 4 and −4 ± 5%). At the highest intensity (37 W), FBF was not significantly changed by either drug. Collectively, these data demonstrate metabolic inhibition of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in large postural muscles of healthy humans. Both α1- and α2-adrenoreceptor agonists produce comparable vasoconstriction in the resting leg, and dynamic thigh exercise attenuates α1- and α2-mediated vasoconstriction similarly. However, α2-mediated vasoconstriction appears more sensitive to metabolic inhibition, because α2 is completely inhibited even at low workloads, whereas α1 becomes progressively inhibited with increasing workloads. PMID

  4. Beta-2-agonists of third generation.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carlos, A G; Palma-Carlos, G S

    1986-04-01

    Beta-adrenergic agents have been used for a long time in the treatment of asthma. For the purpose of bronchodilation the better results would be attained with the increase in Beta-2-selectivity. From the newer Beta-agonists the mot currently used are TERBUTALINE, FENOTEROL, SALBUTAMOL, CLEMBUTEROL, TOLBUTEROL, CARBUTEROL, PROCATEROL, RIMITEROL and REPROTEROL, this last combining in its molecule the structure of a beta-agonist with a Xanthine group. These agents could be used in different ways, by mouth, injection and inhalation (with a exception of Clembuterol which is effective only by oral route). The authors have, some years ago, comparatively studied the bronchodilating effect of Salbutamol and Fenoterol including 18 patients. The main increase of PFR was slightly higher after FENOTEROL but this difference was not significant. The authors have studied REPROTEROL by inhalation and oral routes in 11 asthmatic patients. After inhalation of 400 mcg of REPROTEROL the bronchodilator effect was comparable to others inhaled bronchodilators. However they could not confirm that REPROTEROL acts also as a Xanthine and only traces of Theophylline have been detected in blood of subjects taking it. These data seem to indicate that REPROTEROL do not release Theophylline in the body or only release a Xanthine like compound not detected by "EMIT" of high pressure liquid chromatography.

  5. GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism is not associated with sensitivity to β1-adrenergic blockade in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kurnik, Daniel; Cunningham, Andrew J; Sofowora, Gbenga G; Kohli, Utkarsh; Li, Chun; Friedman, Eitan A; Muszkat, Mordechai; Menon, Usha B; Wood, Alastair JJ; Stein, C Michael

    2010-01-01

    Aims A common, functionally significant polymorphism in GRK5 (Gln41Leu) encodes a gain-of-function enzyme that enhances desensitization of the β1-adrenergic receptor. GRK5 Leu41 has been postulated to confer endogenous ‘genetic β-blockade’ and contribute to an attenuated response to β-blockers in black subjects. The effects of this GRK5 variant on sensitivity to a β-blocker have not been studied in humans. We hypothesized that the GRK5 Gln41Leu variant contributes to interindividual variability in response to β-blockade and to the ethnic difference in sensitivity between black and Caucasian individuals. Materials & methods We measured the heart rate at rest and during a graded incremental exercise in 154 healthy subjects (85 white and 69 black) before and after an oral administration of 25 mg atenolol. We determined the genotypes of GRK5 (Gln41Leu), β1-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1 Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly) genotypes and plasma atenolol concentrations. The effects of genotype and covariates on sensitivity to atenolol, measured as the reduction in exercise-induced tachycardia, were determined using multiple regression analyses. Results The minor allele frequency of GRK5 Leu41 was 32.6% in blacks and 0% in whites. Black individuals were less sensitive to atenolol than white individuals (p ≤ 0.011) but this was not explained by the GRK5 genotype. The GRK5 genotype had no effect on resting heart rate before (p = 0.61) and after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, atenolol concentrations, BMI and ADRB1 genotypes (p = 0.81). The decrease in heart rate after atenolol administration did not differ significantly according to the GRK5 genotype at rest or after exercise, before (all p > 0.14) and after statistical adjustment for covariates (all p > 0.17). Conclusion The GRK5 Gln41Leu polymorphism does not affect sensitivity to the β1-adrenergic blocker, atenolol, during acute physiological adrenergic stimulation, nor does it contribute to the ethnic differences in

  6. Selective blockade and recovery of cell surface alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. Studies with the irreversible antagonist benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Strickland, W.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors are present on human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells, both on the cell surface and in a sequestered compartment. In the current study we show that benextramine, a hydrophilic irreversible antagonist, can be used to investigate alpha 2-adrenergic receptor compartmentation in these cells. In membranes prepared from HEL cells, benextramine competed for all alpha 2-adrenergic receptors ( (/sup 3/H)yohimbine sites). In intact cells, at 4 degrees, benextramine exhibited a biphasic competition curve for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, with EC50 values of approximately 10 microM and greater than 1 mM for the high and low affinity components, respectively. We propose that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors preferentially blocked by benextramine are those on the surface of the cell, whereas those with low affinity are sequestered receptors because: 1) only epinephrine-accessible sites are removed by prior treatment of cells with benextramine, 2) a preparation enriched with surface membranes is also enriched in receptors with a high affinity for benextramine; and 3) after blockade of cell surface receptors (54 +/- 6% of total sites, n = 7) by benextramine, the ability of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonists epinephrine and UK-14,304 to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation is lost. The latter result implies that only cell surface and not sequestered receptors are functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase. The return of receptors from the sequestered compartment to the cell surface and the recovery of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor function were measured after HEL cells were treated with benextramine (50 microM for 1 hr at 4 degrees). The recovery of receptor binding (t1/2 = 25 min) was somewhat slower than the recovery of function (t1/2 approximately 8 min).

  7. Antimicrobial actions of the human epididymis 2 (HE2) protein isoforms, HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2

    PubMed Central

    Yenugu, Suresh; Hamil, Katherine G; French, Frank S; Hall, Susan H

    2004-01-01

    Background The HE2 gene encodes a group of isoforms with similarities to the antimicrobial beta-defensins. We demonstrated earlier that the antimicrobial activity of HE2 proteins and peptides is salt resistant and structure dependent and involves permeabilization of bacterial membranes. In this study, we further characterize the antimicrobial properties of HE2 peptides in terms of the structural changes induced in E. coli and the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Methods E. coli treated with 50 micro g/ml of HE2alpha, HE2beta1 or HE2beta2 peptides for 30 and 60 min were visualized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the impact of these peptides on bacterial internal and external structure. The effects of HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 on E. coli macromolecular synthesis was assayed by incubating the bacteria with 2, 10 and 25 micro g/ml of the individual peptides for 0–60 min and measuring the incorporation of the radioactive precursors [methyl-3H]thymidine, [5-3H]uridine and L-[4,5-3H(N)]leucine into DNA, RNA and protein. Statistical analyses using Student's t-test were performed using Sigma Plot software. Values shown are Mean ± S.D. Results E. coli treated with HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 peptides as visualized by transmission electron microscopy showed extensive damage characterized by membrane blebbing, thickening of the membrane, highly granulated cytoplasm and appearance of vacuoles in contrast to the smooth and continuous membrane structure of the untreated bacteria. Similarly, bacteria observed by scanning electron microscopy after treating with HE2alpha, HE2beta1 or HE2beta2 peptides exhibited membrane blebbing and wrinkling, leakage of cellular contents, especially at the dividing septa, and external accumulation of fibrous materials. In addition, HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 peptides inhibited E. coli DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Conclusions The morphological changes observed in E. coli treated with

  8. Interaction of desipramine and amitriptyline with adrenergic mechanisms in the human iris in vivo.

    PubMed

    Szabadi, E; Gaszner, P; Bradshaw, C M

    1981-01-01

    Mydriatic responses of the pupil were evoked by locally instilled noradrenaline and methoxamine in eight healthy volunteers. The effects of three single oral doses (25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg) of amitriptyline and desipramine were compared on the mydriatic responses. Both antidepressants potentiated the mydriasis evoked by noradrenaline; desipramine appeared to be approximately four times more potent than amitriptyline. Both antidepressants antagonised the mydriasis evoked by noradrenaline; desipramine appeared to be approximately four times more potent than amitriptyline. Both antidepressants antagonised the mydriasis evoked by methoxamine, amitriptyline being approximately twice as potent as desipramine. It is suggested that the potentiation of the response to noradrenaline may reflect the blockade of the uptake of noradrenaline into adrenergic nerve terminals, whereas the antagonism of the response to methoxamine may reflect the blockade of postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors by the antidepressants. It is argued that the interaction of the antidepressants with adrenergic mechanisms could explain why amitriptyline, a potent anticholinergic agent, causes no significant change in resting pupil diameter, while desipramine, a relatively weaker anticholinergic agent, produces a significant mydriasis.

  9. Iontophoretic beta-adrenergic stimulation of human sweat glands: possible assay for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Reddy, M M; Quinton, P M

    2008-08-01

    With the advent of numerous candidate drugs for therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is an urgent need for easily interpretable assays for testing their therapeutic value. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) abolished beta-adrenergic but not cholinergic sweating in CF. Therefore, the beta-adrenergic response of the sweat gland may serve both as an in vivo diagnostic tool for CF and as a quantitative assay for testing the efficacy of new drugs designed to restore CFTR function in CF. Hence, with the objective of defining optimal conditions for stimulating beta-adrenergic sweating, we have investigated the components and pharmacology of sweat secretion using cell cultures and intact sweat glands. We studied the electrical responses and ionic mechanisms involved in beta-adrenergic and cholinergic sweating. We also tested the efficacy of different beta-adrenergic agonists. Our results indicated that in normal subjects the cholinergic secretory response is mediated by activation of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) conductance as well as K(+) conductances. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic secretory response is mediated exclusively by activation of a cAMP-dependent CFTR Cl(-) conductance without a concurrent activation of a K(+) conductance. Thus, the electrochemical driving forces generated by beta-adrenergic agonists are significantly smaller compared with those generated by cholinergic agonists, which in turn reflects in smaller beta-adrenergic secretory responses compared with cholinergic secretory responses. Furthermore, the beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproprenaline and salbutamol, induced sweat secretion only when applied in combination with an adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin) or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, aminophylline or theophylline). We surmise that to obtain consistent beta-adrenergic sweat responses, levels of intracellular cAMP above that achievable with a beta-adrenergic agonist alone are

  10. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  11. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Gubler, H P; Engel, G; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

  12. Ligand-specific interactions modulate kinetic, energetic and mechanical properties of the human β2 adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zocher, Michael; Fung, Juan J; Kobilka, Brian K; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of versatile proteins that transduce signals across membranes. Extracellular stimuli induce inter- and intramolecular interactions that change the functional state of GPCRs and activate intracellular messenger molecules. How these interactions are established and how they modulate the functional state of GPCRs remains to be understood. We used dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate how ligand-binding modulates the energy landscape of the human β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Five different ligands representing either agonists, inverse agonists or neutral antagonists established a complex network of interactions that tuned the kinetic, energetic and mechanical properties of functionally important structural regions of β2AR. These interactions were specific to the efficacy profile of the ligands investigated and suggest that the functional modulation of GPCRs follows structurally well-defined interaction patterns. PMID:22748765

  13. Amino acid sequences and structures of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Welinder, K G; Jespersen, H M; Walther-Rasmussen, J; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulins have been determined by analyses of tryptic, V8-proteolytic and cyanogen bromide fragments, and by N-terminal sequencing. Mass spectrometric analysis of chicken beta 2-microglobulin supports the sequence-derived Mr of 11,048. The higher apparent Mr obtained for the avian beta 2-microglobulins as compared to human beta 2-microglobulin by SDS-PAGE is not understood. Chicken and turkey beta 2-microglobulin consist of 98 residues and deviate at seven positions: 60, 66, 74-76, 78 and 82. The chicken and turkey sequences are identical to human beta 2-microglobulin at 46 and 47 positions, respectively, and to bovine beta 2-microglobulin at 47 positions, i.e. there is about 47% identity between avian and mammalian beta 2-microglobulins. The known X-ray crystallographic structures of bovine beta 2-microglobulin and human HLA-A2 complex suggest that the seven chicken to turkey differences are exposed to solvent in the avian MHC class I complex. The key residues of beta 2-microglobulin involved in alpha chain contacts within the MHC class I molecule are highly conserved between chicken and man. This explains that heterologous human beta 2-microglobulin can substitute the chicken beta 2-microglobulin in exchange studies with B-F (chicken MHC class I molecule), and suggests that the MHC class I structure is conserved over long evolutionary distances.

  14. Genetic Variation Within Adrenergic Pathways Determines In Vivo Effects of Presynaptic Stimulation in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Maple M.; Nguyen, Carie; Mehtani, Parag; Salem, Rany M.; Perez, Brandon; Thomas, Brenda; Das, Madhusudan; Schork, Nicholas J.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Ziegler, Michael G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Catecholamines govern stress blood pressure responses. Catecholaminergic responses may be partially genetic and contribute to the complex heritability of hypertension. Methods and Results To evaluate catecholaminergic responses without systemic counterregulation, we infused graded concentrations of tyramine, an indirect presynaptic norepinephrine releaser, into dorsal hand veins of 49 normotensive men and women of 5 ethnicities. Vascular responses were coupled to common (minor allele frequency >10%) single-nucleotide polymorphisms at adrenergic target loci within presynaptic pathways. Significance was set at P<0.003 after Bonferroni correction. Generalized analysis of molecular variance (GAMOVA) was performed to determine whether genetic admixture contributed to results. Venoconstriction progressed to 47% with increasing concentrations of tyramine (0.129 to 25.8 mmol/L; P<0.001). Family history of hypertension (P<0.001) and female sex (P=0.02) predicted blunted tyramine responses. Two genetic loci significantly predicted vascular response: chromogranin B, which encodes a protein that catalyzes catecholamine vesicle formation (CHGB, exon 4, Glu348Glu; P=0.002), and cytochrome b-561 (CYB561, intron 1, C719G; P<0.001), an electron shuttle for catecholamine synthesis. Stepwise regression suggested important effects for the CHGB locus, with polymorphisms for the vacuolar-ATPase β-subunit (ATP6V1B1, exon 1, Ile30Thr) and flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3, exon 3, Lys158Glu, P=0.002). GAMOVA did not show a significant relationship between overall genetic profile and hand-vein constriction (P=0.29), which indicates that population stratification did not contribute to this phenotype. Conclusions Locally infused tyramine produced dose-dependent pressor responses, predicted by family history of hypertension, sex, and genetic variants at loci, particularly CHGB, that encode the biosynthesis, storage, and metabolism of catecholamines. Such variants may

  15. The effect of stereochemistry on the thermodynamic characteristics of the binding of fenoterol stereoisomers to the beta(2)-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Toll, Lawrence; Jimenez, Lucita; Woo, Anthony Yiu-Ho; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Wainer, Irving W

    2010-06-01

    The binding thermodynamics of the stereoisomers of fenoterol, (R,R')-, (S,S')-, (R,S')-, and (S,R')-fenoterol, to the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) have been determined. The experiments utilized membranes obtained from HEK cells stably transfected with cDNA encoding human beta(2)-AR. Competitive displacement studies using [(3)H]CGP-12177 as the marker ligand were conducted at 4, 15, 25, 30 and 37 degrees C, the binding affinities calculated and the standard enthalpic (DeltaH degrees ) and standard entropic (DeltaS degrees ) contribution to the standard free energy change (DeltaG degrees ) associated with the binding process determined through the construction of van't Hoff plots. The results indicate that the binding of (S,S')- and (S,R')-fenoterol were predominately enthalpy-driven processes while the binding of (R,R')- and (R,S')-fenoterol were entropy-driven. All of the fenoterol stereoisomers are full agonists of the beta(2)-AR, and, therefore, the results of this study are inconsistent with the previously described "thermodynamic agonist-antagonist discrimination", in which the binding of an agonist to the beta-AR is entropy-driven and the binding of an antagonist is enthalpy-driven. In addition, the data demonstrate that the chirality of the carbon atom containing the beta-hydroxyl group of the fenoterol molecule (the beta-OH carbon) is a key factor in the determination of whether the binding process will be enthalpy-driven or entropy-driven. When the configuration at the beta-OH carbon is S the binding process is enthalpy-driven while the R configuration produces an entropy-driven process.

  16. Additive competitive interaction of verapamil and quinidine at alpha-adrenergic receptors of isolated cardiac guinea pig myocytes and human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.; Noack, E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical work has questioned the safety of a combined therapy of oral quinidine and intravenenous verapamil, because some patients were reported to react with severe hypotension probably due to drug interactions with vascular alpha-adrenergic receptors. In order to obtain further quantitative information on the underlying mechanism, the authors used the radioligands (/sup 3/H)-prazosin and (/sup 3/H)-yohimbine to perform binding studies on intact cells, with predominantly alpha-1 (isolated myocytes) or alpha-2 subtypes (human platelets) of adrenergic receptors. Their studies confirm that both verapamil and quinidine possess a distinct alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking activity and do not discriminate between the alpha-1 and alpha-2 subtype. Their interaction was competitive and in the presence of both drugs inhibition of radioligand binding was additive. The alpha-adrenergic blockade by verapamil was stereospecific as D-verapamil increased the dissociation constant of the radioligand to a much lesser degree than L-verapamil. The calcium channel blocker nitrendipine, a 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative, did not show any competition up to concentrations of 10 ..mu..mol/l. 26 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  17. Studies of the stimulation and desensitization of beta adrenergic receptors in the human lymphocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lymphocytes, were employed in radioligand binding studies of beta-adrenergic receptor density and affinity for agonists and in studies of isoproterenol stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Studies of isoproterenol stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity demonstrated a role for extracellular calcium ions but not for extracellular magnesium ions in this process. Responses were diminished by chelation or by removal of extracellular calcium, as well as by lanthanum ion which competes with calcium for membrane binding sites. Initial studies using /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (/sup 3/H-DHA) indicated that 40% of cell surface beta receptors are lost during exposure of lymphocytes to isoproterenol and that the remaining receptors have a reduced affinity for beta agonists. Results from studies with /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol (/sup 125/ICYP) are consistent with the view that beta receptors lost from the cell surface during isoproterenol treatment are present in a internal compartment of the cell. In mild asthmatic patients receiving a three week regimen of oral terbutaline a 40% reduction in the total receptor population was observed, suggesting that degradation of internalized receptors had occurred.

  18. In Vitro Effects of Beta-2 Agonists on Skeletal Muscle Differentiation, Hypertrophy, and Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Beta-2 agonists are widely used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for their effect on airway smooth muscle relaxation. They also act on skeletal muscle, although their reported ergogenic effect is controversial. Aim To evaluate the in vitro effects of short-acting and long-acting beta-2 agonists on adrenergic receptor (ADR) expression, hypertrophy, and atrophy markers, in a skeletal muscle cell line. Methods The C2C12 cell line was used as a model of skeletal muscle differentiation. ADR messenger RNA expression was evaluated in proliferating myoblasts, committed cells, and differentiated myotubes, in basal conditions and after treatment with 10-6 M clenbuterol, salbutamol, salmeterol, and formoterol. Effect of beta-2 agonists on gene and protein expression of hypertrophy and atrophy markers was assessed in differentiated myotubes. Results Our study shows that beta-2 ADR messenger RNA was expressed and progressively increased during cell differentiation. Beta-2 agonist treatment did not affect its expression. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy markers (fast and slow myosin, myogenin) were not modulated by any of the beta-2 agonists evaluated. However, clenbuterol induced a significant, dose-dependent downregulation of skeletal muscle atrophy genes (atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and cathepsin L). Conclusions The reported ergogenic effect of beta-2 agonists, if any, should be considered as drug-specific and not class-specific and that of clenbuterol is mediated by the inhibition of the atrophic pathway. PMID:23283108

  19. Levobetaxolol (Betaxon) and other beta-adrenergic antagonists: preclinical pharmacology, IOP-lowering activity and sites of action in human eyes.

    PubMed

    Sharif, N A; Xu, S X; Crider, J Y; McLaughlin, M; Davis, T L

    2001-08-01

    The pharmacological characteristics of levobetaxolol, a single active isomer of betaxolol, were determined and compared with activities of other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Levobetaxolol (43-fold beta1-selective) exhibited a higher affinity at cloned human beta1 (Ki = 0.76 nM) than at beta2 (Ki = 32.6 nM) receptors, while dextrobetaxolol was much weaker at both receptors. Levobetaxolol potently antagonized functional activities at cloned human beta1 and beta2 receptors, and also at guinea pig atrial beta1, tracheal beta2 and rat colonic beta3 receptors (IC50s = 33.2 nM, 2970 nM and 709 nM, respectively). Thus, levobetaxolol was 89-times beta1-selective (vs beta2). Levobetaxolol (Ki = 16.4 nM) was more potent than dextrobetaxolol (Ki = 2.97 microM) at inhibiting isoproterenol-induced cAMP production in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Levobunolol and (l)-timolol had high affinities at beta1 and beta2 receptors but were considerably less beta1-selective than levobetaxolol. Levo-, dextro- and racemic-betaxolol exhibited little or no affinity, except at sigma sites and Ca2+-channels (IC50s > 1 microM), at 89 other receptor/ligand binding sites. Levobetaxolol exhibited a micromolar affinity for L-type Ca2+-channels. In conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys, levobetaxolol was more potent than dextrobetaxolol, reducing intraocular pressure by 25.9+/-3.2% at a dose of 150 microg/eye (n = 15-30). Quantitative [3H]-levobetaxolol autoradiography revealed high levels of binding to human ciliary processes, iris, choroid/retina, and ciliary muscles. In conclusion, levobetaxolol is a potent, high affinity and beta1-selective IOP-lowering beta-adrenoceptor antagonist.

  20. Mapping of a functional autoimmune epitope on the beta 1-adrenergic receptor in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Y; Marullo, S; Hoyer, S; Waagstein, F; Andersson, B; Vahlne, A; Guillet, J G; Strosberg, A D; Hjalmarson, A; Hoebeke, J

    1990-01-01

    The presence and properties of serum autoantibodies against beta-adrenergic receptors in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were studied using synthetic peptides derived from the predicted sequences of the human beta-adrenergic receptors. Peptides corresponding to the sequences of the second extracellular loop of the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors were used as antigens in an enzyme immunoassay to screen sera from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 42), ischemic heart disease (n = 17), or healthy blood donors (n = 34). The sera of thirteen dilated cardiomyopathy patients, none of the ischemic heart disease patients, and four of the healthy controls monospecifically recognized the beta 1-peptide. Only affinity-purified antibodies of these patients had a inhibitory effect on radioligand binding to the beta 1 receptor of C6 rat glioma cells. They recognized the receptor protein by immunoblot and bound in situ to human myocardial tissue. We conclude that a subgroup of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy have in their sera autoantibodies specifically directed against the second extracellular loop of the beta 1-adrenergic receptor. These antibodies could serve as a marker of an autoimmune response with physiological and/or pathological implications. Images PMID:1700798

  1. A Myocardial Slice Culture Model Reveals Alpha-1A-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. Croft; Singh, Abhishek; Cowley, Patrick; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Montgomery, Megan D.; Swigart, Philip M.; De Marco, Teresa; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Translation of preclinical findings could benefit from a simple, reproducible, high throughput human model to study myocardial signaling. Alpha-1A-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are expressed at very low levels in the human heart, and it is unknown if they function. Objectives To develop a high throughput human myocardial slice culture model, and to test the hypothesis that alpha-1A- ARs are functional in the human heart. Methods Cores of LV free wall 8 mm diameter were taken from 52 hearts (18 failing and 34 nonfailing). Slices 250 μm thick were cut with a Krumdieck apparatus and cultured using a rotating incubation unit. Results About 60 slices were cut from each LV core, and a typical study could use 96 slices. Myocyte morphology was maintained, and diffusion into the slice center was rapid. Slice viability was stable for at least 3 days in culture by ATP and MTT assays. The beta-AR agonist isoproterenol stimulated phospholamban phosphorylation, and the alpha-1A-AR agonist A61603 stimulated ERK phosphorylation, with nanomolar EC50 values in slices from both failing and nonfailing hearts. Strips cut from the slices were used to quantify activation of contraction by isoproterenol, A61603, and phenylephrine. The slices supported transduction by adenovirus. Conclusions We have developed a simple, high throughput LV myocardial slice culture model to study signaling in the human heart. This model can be useful for translational studies, and we show for the first time that the alpha-1A-AR is functional in signaling and contraction in the human heart. PMID:27453955

  2. Adrenergic and myogenic regulation of viscoelasticity in the vascular bed of the human forearm.

    PubMed

    Frances, M F; Goswami, R; Rachinsky, M; Craen, R; Kiviniemi, A M; Fleischhauer, A; Steinback, C D; Zamir, M; Shoemaker, J K

    2011-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the compliance (C) and viscoelasticity (K) of the forearm vascular bed are controlled by myogenic and/or α-adrenergic receptor (αAR) activation. Heart rate (HR) and waveforms of brachial artery blood pressure (Finometer) and forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were measured in baseline conditions and during infusion of noradrenaline (NA; αAR agonist), with and without phentolamine (αAR antagonist; n = 10; 6 men and 4 women). These baseline and αAR-agonist-based measures were repeated when the arm was positioned above or below the heart to modify the myogenic stimulus. A lumped Windkessel model was used to quantify the values of forearm C and K in each set of conditions. Baseline forearm C was inversely, and K directly, related to the myogenic load (P < 0.001). Compared with saline infusion, C was increased, but K was unaffected, with phentolanine, but only in the 'above' position. Compliance was reduced (P < 0.001) and K increased (P = 0.06) with NA infusion (main effects of NA) across arm positions; phentolamine minimized these NA-induced changes in C and K for both arm positions. Examination of conditions with and without NA infusion at similar forearm intravascular pressures indicated that the NA-induced changes in C and K were due largely to the concurrent changes in blood pressure. Therefore, within the range of arm positions used, it was concluded that vascular stiffness and vessel wall viscoelastic properties are acutely affected by myogenic stimuli. Additionally, forearm vascular compliance is sensitive to baseline levels of αAR activation when transmural pressure is low.

  3. Exercise intensity-dependent contribution of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasodilatation in hypoxic humans.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Brad W; Pike, Tasha L; Martin, Elizabeth A; Curry, Timothy B; Ceridon, Maile L; Joyner, Michael J

    2008-02-15

    We previously reported that hypoxia-mediated reductions in alpha-adrenoceptor sensitivity do not explain the augmented vasodilatation during hypoxic exercise, suggesting an enhanced vasodilator signal. We hypothesized that beta-adrenoceptor activation contributes to augmented hypoxic exercise vasodilatation. Fourteen subjects (age: 29 +/- 2 years) breathed hypoxic gas to titrate arterial O(2) saturation (pulse oximetry) to 80%, while remaining normocapnic via a rebreath system. Brachial artery and antecubital vein catheters were placed in the exercising arm. Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, baseline and incremental forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) was performed during control (saline), alpha-adrenoceptor inhibition (phentolamine), and combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor inhibition (phentolomine/propranolol). Forearm blood flow (FBF), heart rate, blood pressure, minute ventilation, and end-tidal CO(2) were determined. Hypoxia increased heart rate (P < 0.05) and minute ventilation (P < 0.05) at rest and exercise under all drug infusions, whereas mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Arterial adrenaline (P < 0.05) and venous noradrenaline (P < 0.05) were higher with hypoxia during all drug infusions. The change (Delta) in FBF during 10% hypoxic exercise was greater with phentolamine (Delta306 +/- 43 ml min(-1)) vs. saline (Delta169 +/- 30 ml min(-1)) or combined phentolamine/propranolol (Delta213 +/- 25 ml min(-1); P < 0.05 for both). During 20% hypoxic exercise, DeltaFBF was greater with phentalomine (Delta466 +/- 57 ml min(-1); P < 0.05) vs. saline (Delta346 +/- 40 ml min(-1)) but was similar to combined phentolamine/propranolol (Delta450 +/- 43 ml min(-1)). Thus, in the absence of overlying vasoconstriction, the contribution of beta-adrenergic mechanisms to the augmented hypoxic vasodilatation is dependent on exercise intensity.

  4. α1-Adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the impact of reducing extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Morgan, R Garrett; Gifford, Jayson R; Park, Song-Young; Symons, J David; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Graded exercise results not only in the modulation of adrenergic mediated smooth muscle tone and a preferential increase in blood flow to the active skeletal muscle termed 'functional sympatholysis', but is also paralleled by metabolically induced reductions in pH. We therefore sought to determine whether pH attenuates α(1)-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in human feed arteries. Feed arteries (560 ± 31 μm i.d.) were harvested from 24 humans (55 ± 4 years old) and studied using the isometric tension technique. Vessel function was assessed using KCl, phenylephrine (PE), ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration-response curves to characterize non-receptor-mediated and receptor-mediated vasocontraction, as well as endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, respectively. All concentration-response curves were obtained from (originally contiguous) vessel rings in separate baths with a pH of 7.4, 7.1, 6.8 or 6.5. Reduction of the pH, via HCl, reduced maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (pH 7.4 = 85 ± 19, pH 7.1 = 57 ± 16, pH 6.8 = 34 ± 15 and pH 6.5 = 16 ± 5% KCl(max)), which was partly due to reduced smooth muscle function, as assessed by KCl (pH 7.4 = 88 ± 13, pH 7.1 = 67 ± 8, pH 6.8 = 67 ± 9 and pH 6.5 = 58 ± 8% KCl(max)). Graded acidosis had no effect on maximal vasorelaxation. In summary, these data reveal that reductions in extracellular pH attenuate α(1)-mediated vasocontraction, which is partly explained by reduced smooth muscle function, although vasorelaxation in response to ACh and SNP remained intact. These findings support the concept that local acidosis is likely to contribute to functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia by opposing sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction while not impacting vasodilatation.

  5. Adrenergic stimulation alters the expression of inflammasome components and interleukins in primary human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    HORSTMANN, JOHANN-PHILIPP; MARZI, INGO; RELJA, BORNA

    2016-01-01

    Prior to their release, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are cleaved to their bioactive forms by a multiprotein complex known as an inflammasome, which is comprised of a number of elements that are subject to nuclear factor-κB-dependent transcription. Catecholamines have been indicated to exert an enhancing effect on the IL-1β release. The aim of the present study was to determine whether alterations in inflammasome gene expression may be responsible for the modified IL-1β and IL-18 secretion following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and catecholamine co-stimulation. Monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of 21 healthy volunteers using CD14+ microbeads. Following stimulation with LPS (2 µg/ml) and/or phenylephrine (PE; 10 µM) for 24 h, the supernatants were subjected to ELISA to evaluate the ex vivo protein expression levels of IL-1β and IL-18. In addition, the gene expression levels of inflammasome components associated with the cleavage of IL-1β and IL-18, including NLRP1, NLRP3, caspase-1 and PYCARD were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that LPS significantly increased IL-1β expression compared with the unstimulated control samples. Co-stimulation with LPS + PE significantly enhanced IL-1β expression compared with LPS alone. Furthermore, IL-18 expression was significantly reduced by LPS and LPS + PE co-stimulation. The gene expression levels of IL-18, NLRP1, caspase-1 and PYCARD were comparable in the LPS- and LPS + PE-stimulated cells. LPS significantly induced the expression levels of IL-1β and NLRP3, and to a lesser degree, the expression of NLRP1, compared with the control. By contrast, PE markedly induced the expression levels of IL-18 and NLRP1, while LPS reduced the gene expression of IL-18. In conclusion, adrenergic stimulation suppressed NLRP3 expression and enhanced NLRP1 expression, indicating that NLRP3 may regulate IL-1β secretion and NLRP1 may regulate the release of IL-18. PMID:26889257

  6. Adrenergic mechanisms contribute to the late phase of hypoglycemic glucose counterregulation in humans by stimulating lipolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, C G; De Feo, P; Porcellati, F; Perriello, G; Torlone, E; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G B

    1992-01-01

    mediated) account for at least approximately 50% of the adrenergic contribution to increased HGO, and approximately 85% of suppressed Rd. PMID:1602007

  7. Pharmacogenetic characterization of indacaterol, a novel beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Sayers, I; Hawley, J; Stewart, C E; Billington, C K; Henry, A; Leighton-Davies, J R; Charlton, S J; Hall, I P

    2009-09-01

    Indacaterol is a novel beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative pharmacology of indacaterol in recombinant cells expressing the common polymorphic variants of the human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and in human primary airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Chinese hamster ovarian-K1 cell lines expressing high and low levels of the common human beta(2)-adrenoceptor variants were generated [Gly16-Glu27-Val34-Thr164(GEVT), RQVT, GQVT] and also the rare GQVI variant. Human primary ASM cells were isolated from explants of trachealis muscle. Adenosine-3',5'-cyclic-monophosphate production was used as an outcome measure. In both the low- and high-expression recombinant GEVT 'wild type' cell lines indacaterol is a high-efficacy agonist. Salmeterol and formoterol were identified as low- and high-efficacy agonists, respectively, and showed similar potencies to indacaterol irrespective of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor genotype. The I164 variant cell line was associated with a reduced capacity to generate adenosine-3',5'-cyclic-monophosphate in response to beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. In the human primary ASM cells indacaterol gave a maximal response intermediate between that of salmeterol and formoterol. These data demonstrate that indacaterol is a high-efficacy agonist in recombinant cell systems but acts with lower efficacy in human primary ASM cells. No marked genotype-dependent effects were observed for common variants; however, changes in I164 receptor activity were identified, which were dependent on the level of expression of beta(2)-adrenoceptors.

  8. Molecular Insights into the Dynamics of Pharmacogenetically Important N-Terminal Variants of the Human β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Durba; Joshi, Manali

    2014-01-01

    The human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is expressed in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Upon activation by agonists, β2AR causes bronchodilation and relief in asthma patients. The N-terminal polymorphism of β2AR at the 16th position, Arg16Gly, has warranted a lot of attention since it is linked to variations in response to albuterol (agonist) treatment. Although the β2AR is one of the well-studied GPCRs, the N-terminus which harbors this mutation, is absent in all available experimental structures. The goal of this work was to study the molecular level differences between the N-terminal variants using structural modeling and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations reveal that the N-terminal region of the Arg variant shows greater dynamics than the Gly variant, leading to differential placement. Further, the position and dynamics of the N-terminal region, further, affects the ligand binding-site accessibility. Interestingly, long-range effects are also seen at the ligand binding site, which is marginally larger in the Gly as compared to the Arg variant resulting in the preferential docking of albuterol to the Gly variant. This study thus reveals key differences between the variants providing a molecular framework towards understanding the variable drug response in asthma patients. PMID:25501358

  9. Detection of circulating immune complexes of human IgA and beta 2 glycoprotein I in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Flores, José A; Serrano, Manuel; Pérez, Dolores; Lora, David; Paz-Artal, Estela; Morales, José M; Serrano, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) have a hypercoagulable condition associated with the presence of antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL). Consensus antibodies for diagnosis are lupus anticoagulant, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (B2GPI) and anticardiolipin (IgG or IgM). Circulating immunocomplexes (CIC) of B2GPI associated with IgM or IgG were reported. Isolated IgA aB2GPI antibodies have achieved high diagnostic value although specific CIC of B2GPI bounded to IgA (B2A-CIC) has still not been described. CIC detection assays are mainly based on interaction with complement and are not appropriate to detect B2A-CIC because IgA does not fix complement using the classical pathway. Sera from healthy blood donors (N= 247) and from patients with thrombosis background and isolate positive for IgA aB2GPI (N = 68) were studied in a case-control study. Two methods were applied, these being a capture ELISA to quantify specific B2A-CIC and quantification of total IgA anti-B2GPI after dissociating CIC. B2A-CIC values in APS-patients were 19.27 ± 2.6 AU vs 6.1 ± 0.4 AU in blood donors (p < 0.001). There were 36.4% B2A-CIC positive patients (cutoff 21 AU) versus 5.5% in blood donors (p < 0.001). Dissociated IgA aB2GPI levels (total IgA aB2GPI) were 146.8 ± 10.8 IU/mL in patients vs. 22.4 IU/mL in controls (p < 0.001). B2A-CIC was independent of B2GPI and autoantibodies IgA aB2GPI serum levels. B2A-CIC can be identified and quantified in an easy and reproducible manner using two complement-independent methods. The use of these tests in prospective studies will allow better understanding of the prognosis and outcome of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Plasma beta-2-microglobulin in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Giordano, N; Loi, F; D'Amato, S; Castagna, M L; Frati, E; Marcolongo, R

    1984-09-30

    The beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) is a low molecular weight protein, recognized on the cellular membranes of numerous nucleated cells and strictly correlated to the antigens of Major Histocompatibility Complex. Many authors have demonstrated an increase of the plasmatic beta 2m in different inflammatory diseases and, particularly in rheumatic ones, as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Reiter's syndrome, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus. We have also investigated the behaviour of the plasmatic beta 2m in 52 RA patients and in 17 healthy subjects. The beta 2m was measured in serum, by radioimmunoassay. We have demonstrated that the plasmatic beta 2m has moderately increased in the serum of RA patients, even if there is not a significant difference when compared to the normal subjects.

  11. The alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists, benoxathian and prazosin, induce apoptosis and a switch towards megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Robert; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Haas, Helga S; Leitinger, Gerd; Schauenstein, Konrad; Sadjak, Anton

    2009-10-01

    The erythroleukemia cell lines K562 and human erythroleukemia (HEL) are established models to study erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation in vitro. In this study, we show that the alpha1-adrenergic antagonists, benoxathian and prazosin, inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in K562 and HEL cells. Furthermore, both tested substances induced the expression of the megakaryocytic marker CD41a, whereas the expression of the erythroid marker glycophorin-a was decreased or unchanged. Even though the expression of differentiation markers was similar after benoxathian and prazosin treatment in both cell lines, endomitosis of erythroleukemia cells was observed only after prazosin treatment. So far, benoxathian and prazosin are the first described extracellular ligands, which cause megakaryocytic differentiation in K562 and HEL cells. In summary, these results indicate a possible role of alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling in the regulation of erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation, even though the receptor dependence of the observed effects needs further investigation.

  12. Differential effects of adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems on human short- and long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Francoise S; Joober, Ridha; Beaulieu, Serge; Lupien, Soriia J

    2004-04-01

    The effects of adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems on emotional memory were measured in 64 young men. Placebo, propranolol (40 or 80 mg; beta blocker), or metyiapone (corticosteroid synthesis inhibitor) was administered before the viewing of a story composed of emotional and neutral segments. Short- and long-term declarative memory for the story was assessed. Propranolol 40 mg had no effects on declarative memory. Propranolol 80 mg impaired short- and long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing material. Metyrapone did not impair short-term declarative memory but impaired long-term declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material. Results demonstrate that adrenergic and corticosteroid hormonal systems differentially affect declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material, and suggest that interactions between adrenal hormonal systems modulate emotionally arousing declarative memory in humans.

  13. The novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist [3H]mivazerol binds to non-adrenergic binding sites in human striatum membranes that are distinct from imidazoline receptors.

    PubMed

    Flamez, A; Gillard, M; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Noyer, M

    1997-07-01

    The alpha 2 adrenergic agonist [3H]mivazerol labelled two populations of binding sites in membranes from the human striatum. Forty per cent of the sites labelled by 3 nM [3H]mivazerol corresponded to alpha 2 adrenergic receptors as they displayed a high affinity for (-)-adrenaline and for rauwolscine. The remaining binding was displaced by mivazerol with a pIC50 of 6.5 +/- 0.1. These sites displayed higher affinity for dexmedetomidine (pIC50 = 7.1 +/- 0.1), but much lower affinity for clonidine (pIC50 < 5.0) and for idazoxan (pIC50 = 5.1 +/- 0.1). Mivazerol also showed low affinity for the [3H]clonidine-labelled I1 imidazoline receptors and for the [3H]idazoxan-labelled I2 receptors (pIC50 = 5.1 and 3.9, respectively). These results suggest that the non-adrenergic [3H]mivazerol binding sites are distinct from the imidazoline receptors in the human striatum.

  14. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2013-07-15

    The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.

  15. Beta-adrenergic effect of antibodies from chagasic patients and normal human lymphocytes on isolated rat atria

    PubMed Central

    Sterin-Borda, Leonor; Fink, Susana; Diez, C.; Cossio, Patricio; De E. De Bracco, María M.

    1982-01-01

    It was previously shown that fresh sera from chagasic patients that contained antibodies reacting with the plasma membrane of striated muscle and endothelial cells (EVI(+) serum) could act in co-operation with complement as a partial beta-agonist increasing the frequency of contraction of isolated rat atria. This activity was absent in EVI(-) chagasic serum or normal human serum and was lost upon heat-inactivation of EVI(+) serum. Also, IgG purified from EVI(+) serum was virtually devoid of activity. In this report we demonstrate that normal human lymphocytes can collaborate with EVI(+) IgG or heat-inactivated EVI(+) sera and induce both positive ino- and chronotropic effects on isolated rat atria. Depletion of phagocytic mononuclear cells from the effector cell population did not alter its activity, whereas blockade of the receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG with heat-aggregated IgG abrogated the effect. After fractionation of the T and non-T cell populations by sedimentation of E rosette forming cells the activity was present in the non-T cell fraction. The mechanism triggered involved a beta-adrenergic reaction that could be blocked by 10-7 M (-)-propanolol and not by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (10-6 M indomethacin and 1·8 × 10-4 M acetyl salicylic acid) or an anti-histamine drug (10-6 M pyrilamine). Since positive EVI reactivity and myocardial lympho-mononuclear cell infiltrates are frequent in patients with chronic Chagas' cardiomyo-pathy, the possibility that they could interact influencing the rhythm and contractile activity of the heart should be taken into account. PMID:6819907

  16. Heat Shock–Related Protein 20 Peptide Decreases Human Airway Constriction Downstream of β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Banathy, Alex; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Goleniewska, Kasia; Boyd, Kelly L.; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2016-01-01

    Severe bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists is a challenging aspect of asthma therapy, and novel therapeutics are needed. β-agonist–induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation is associated with increases in the phosphorylation of the small heat shock–related protein (HSP) 20. We hypothesized that a transducible phosphopeptide mimetic of HSP20 (P20 peptide) causes relaxation of human ASM (HASM) by interacting with target(s) downstream of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) pathway. The effect of the P20 peptide on ASM contractility was determined in human and porcine ASM using a muscle bath. The effect of the P20 peptide on filamentous actin dynamics and migration was examined in intact porcine ASM and cultured primary HASM cells. The efficacy of the P20 peptide in vivo on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was determined in an ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge murine model of allergic airway inflammation. P20 peptide caused dose-dependent relaxation of carbachol-precontracted ASM and blocked carbachol-induced contraction. The β2AR inhibitor, (±)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride (ICI 118,551), abrogated isoproterenol but not P20 peptide–mediated relaxation. The P20 peptide decreased filamentous actin levels in intact ASM, disrupted stress fibers, and inhibited platelet-derived growth factor–induced migration of HASM cells. The P20 peptide treatment reduced methacholine-induced AHR in OVA mice without affecting the inflammatory response. These results suggest that the P20 peptide decreased airway constriction and disrupted stress fibers through regulation of the actin cytoskeleton downstream of β2AR. Thus, the P20 peptide may be a potential therapeutic for asthma refractory to β-agonists. PMID:26909644

  17. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of (125Iodo)cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels.

  18. Role of Alveolar β2-Adrenergic Receptors on Lung Fluid Clearance and Exercise Ventilation in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Paolillo, Stefania; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Contini, Mauro; Iorio, Annamaria; Bovis, Francesca; Antonelli, Andrea; Torchio, Roberto; Gulotta, Carlo; Locatelli, Alessandro; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background In experimental conditions alveolar fluid clearance is controlled by alveolar β2-adrenergic receptors. We hypothesized that if this occurs in humans, then non-selective β-blockers should reduce the membrane diffusing capacity (DM), an index of lung interstitial fluid homeostasis. Moreover, we wondered whether this effect is potentiated by saline solution infusion, an intervention expected to cause interstitial lung edema. Since fluid retention within the lungs might trigger excessive ventilation during exercise, we also hypothesized that after the β2-blockade ventilation increased in excess to CO2 output and this was further enhanced by interstitial edema. Methods and Results 22 healthy males took part in the study. On day 1, spirometry, lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO) including its subcomponents DM and capillary volume (VCap), and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed. On day 2, these tests were repeated after rapid 25 ml/kg saline infusion. Then, in random order 11 subjects were assigned to oral treatment with Carvedilol (CARV) and 11 to Bisoprolol (BISOPR). When heart rate fell at least by 10 beats·min−1, the tests were repeated before (day 3) and after saline infusion (day 4). CARV but not BISOPR, decreased DM (−13±7%, p = 0.001) and increased VCap (+20±22%, p = 0.016) and VE/VCO2 slope (+12±8%, p<0.01). These changes further increased after saline: −18±13% for DM (p<0.01), +44±28% for VCap (p<0.001), and +20±10% for VE/VCO2 slope (p<0.001). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that in humans in vivo the β2-alveolar receptors contribute to control alveolar fluid clearance and that interstitial lung fluid may trigger exercise hyperventilation. PMID:23613962

  19. Coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves in the inferior hypogastric plexus: anatomical and immunohistochemical study with 3D reconstruction in human male fetus.

    PubMed

    Alsaid, Bayan; Bessede, Thomas; Karam, Ibrahim; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Uhl, Jean-Francois; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Delmas, Vincent

    2009-05-01

    Classic anatomical methods have failed to determine the precise location, origin and nature of nerve fibres in the inferior hypogastric plexus (IHP). The purpose of this study was to identify the location and nature (adrenergic and/or cholinergic) of IHP nerve fibres and to provide a three-dimensional (3D) representation of pelvic nerves and their relationship to other anatomical structures. Serial transverse sections of the pelvic portion of two human male fetuses (16 and 17 weeks' gestation) were studied histologically and immunohistochemically, digitized and reconstructed three-dimensionally. 3D reconstruction allowed a 'computer-assisted dissection', identifying the precise location and distribution of the pelvic nerve elements. Proximal (supra-levator) and distal (infra-levator) communications between the pudendal nerve and IHP were observed. By determining the nature of the nerve fibres using immunostaining, we were able to demonstrate that the hypogastric nerves and pelvic splanchnic nerves, which are classically considered purely sympathetic and parasympathetic, respectively, contain both adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres. The pelvic autonomic nervous system is more complex than previously thought, as adrenergic and cholinergic fibres were found to co-exist in both 'sympathetic' and 'parasympathetic' nerves. This study is the first step to a 3D cartography of neurotransmitter distribution which could help in the selection of molecules to be used in the treatment of incontinence, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders.

  20. Standardization of immunoassays for antiphospholipid antibodies with beta 2GPI and role of other phospholipid cofactors.

    PubMed

    Amiral, J; Larrivaz, I; Cluzeau, D; Adam, M

    1994-01-01

    Presence of beta 2 Glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI), in addition to phospholipids, is an absolute requirement for binding APA. This binding is frequently observed with beta 2GPI coated alone, however many APA react only with beta 2GPI complexed to phospholipids, but not with phospholipids alone. We demonstrate that a subgroup of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to human beta 2GPI binds to this protein only when it is coated on a solid surface, but not if it is in solution. In addition, beta 2GPI present in goat serum is strongly fixed by the coated phospholipids and the complexes formed bind as well APA as the rabbit antibodies to beta 2GPI. The diluent used for testing APA, has a strong incidence on APA's reactivity as it can be a source of beta 2GPI. Antibody binding to beta 2GPI, Prothrombin, Protein S, and Annexin V, coated in the presence or in the absence of phospholipids, was tested in 55 patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. The strongest binding of antibodies was observed in 39 plasma to a mixture of phospholipids and purified human beta 2GPI, however 17 samples also presented a significant reactivity to beta 2GPI alone. Nine plasmas contained antibodies to Prothrombin, 4 to Protein S, 3 to Annexin V, and 1 to Protein C. We conclude that most of the APA are directed to a complex of beta 2GPI and phospholipids although in some patients antibodies to beta 2GPI alone or to other phospholipid binding proteins are present.

  1. Induction of cross clade reactive specific antibodies in mice by conjugates of HGP-30 (peptide analog of HIV-1(SF2) p17) and peptide segments of human beta-2-microglobulin or MHC II beta chain.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, D H; Lloyd, J P; Heisey, D; Winship, M D; Siwek, M; Talor, E; Sarin, P S

    2001-09-14

    HGP-30, a 30 amino acid synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved region of HIV-1(SF2) p17 (aa86-115), has previously been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses when conjugated to KLH and adsorbed to alum. However, the free HGP-30 peptide is not immunogenic in animals. In order to improve the immunogenicity of HGP-30, peptide conjugates consisting of a modified HGP-30 sequence (m-HGP-30/aa82-111) and a peptide segment, residues 38-50, of the MHC I accessory molecule, human beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M), referred to as Peptide J, or a peptide from the MHC II beta chain (peptide G) were evaluated in mice. The effects of carriers and adjuvants on serum antibody titers, specificities to various HIV-1 clade peptides similar to HGP-30 and isotype patterns were examined. Peptides J or especially G conjugated to modified-HGP-30 (LEAPS 102 and LEAPS 101, respectively) generated comparable or better immune responses to modified HGP-30 than KLH conjugates as judged by the induction of: (1) similar antibody titers; (2) broader HIV clade antigen binding; and (3) antibody isotype response patterns indicative of a TH1 pathway (i.e. increased amounts of IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies). The ISA 51 and MPL(R)-SE adjuvants induced higher antibody responses than alum, with the ISA 51 being more potent. Immune responses to LEAPS 102, as compared to LEAPS 101, were weaker and slower to develop as determined by antibody titers and cross clade reactivity of the antibodies induced. Compared to KLH conjugates which induced significant anti-KLH antibody titers, minimal antibody responses were observed to peptide G, the more immunogenic conjugate, and peptide J. These results suggest that modified HGP-30 L.E.A.P.S. constructs may be useful as HIV vaccine candidates for preferential induction of TH1 directed cell mediated immune responses.

  2. Daytime Unresponsiveness of the Human and Syrian Hamster Pineal to Adrenergic Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    et al., 1981; Li et al., 1988). Experimental animals have also been variably resistent to induction of changes in the melatonin rhythm if the light... melatonin content in burned rats and hamsters is essentially normal (Vaughan et al., 1985). Acute adverse stimuli, such as insulin -induced hyoglycemia...or excreted melatonin in humans during the day by a variety of influences (including naps, psychological stress, exercise, insulin hypoglycemia, and

  3. Aberrant α-Adrenergic Hypertrophic Response in Cardiomyocytes from Human Induced Pluripotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Földes, Gabor; Matsa, Elena; Kriston-Vizi, János; Leja, Thomas; Amisten, Stefan; Kolker, Ljudmila; Kodagoda, Thusharika; Dolatshad, Nazanin F.; Mioulane, Maxime; Vauchez, Karine; Arányi, Tamás; Ketteler, Robin; Schneider, Michael D.; Denning, Chris; Harding, Sian E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) represent new models for drug discovery. Although hypertrophy is a high-priority target, we found that hiPSC-CMs were systematically unresponsive to hypertrophic signals such as the α-adrenoceptor (αAR) agonist phenylephrine (PE) compared to hESC-CMs. We investigated signaling at multiple levels to understand the underlying mechanism of this differential responsiveness. The expression of the normal α1AR gene, ADRA1A, was reversibly silenced during differentiation, accompanied by ADRA1B upregulation in either cell type. ADRA1B signaling was intact in hESC-CMs, but not in hiPSC-CMs. We observed an increased tonic activity of inhibitory kinase pathways in hiPSC-CMs, and inhibition of antihypertrophic kinases revealed hypertrophic increases. There is tonic suppression of cell growth in hiPSC-CMs, but not hESC-CMs, limiting their use in investigation of hypertrophic signaling. These data raise questions regarding the hiPSC-CM as a valid model for certain aspects of cardiac disease. PMID:25418732

  4. Coexistence of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in the rabbit heart: quantitative analysis of the regional distribution by (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol binding

    SciTech Connect

    Brodde, O.E.; Leifert, F.J.; Krehl, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    We determined the amount of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in right and left atria and ventricles of rabbits. For this purpose inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol ((-)-/sup 3/H-DHA) binding (5 nM) by beta 1-selective (practolol, metoprolol) and beta 2-selective (zinterol, IPS 339) adrenergic drugs was determined and analyzed by pseudo-Scatchard (Hofstee) plots. For both atria, inhibition of binding by the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs resulted in non-linear Hofstee plots, suggesting the coexistence of both beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. From these plots we calculated a beta 1:beta 2-adrenoceptor ratio of 72:28 for the right atrium and of 82:18 for the left. In contrast, only a very small amount of beta 2-adrenoceptors (approximately 5-7% of the total beta-adrenoceptor population) could be detected in the ventricles. For comparison we analyzed the inhibition of specific (-)-/sup 3/H-DHA binding in tissues with homogeneous population of beta-adrenoceptors (beta 1:guinea pig left ventricle; beta 2: cerebellum of mature rats). For both tissues the four selective beta-adrenergic drugs showed linear Hofstee plots, demonstrating that in tissues with homogeneous beta-receptor population interaction of each drug with the receptor followed simple mass-action kinetics. We conclude that beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors coexist in rabbit atria while the ventricles are predominantly endowed the beta 1-adrenoceptors.

  5. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 ..mu..M phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  6. Inflammatory stimuli inhibit glucocorticoid-dependent transactivation in human pulmonary epithelial cells: rescue by long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Rider, Christopher F; King, Elizabeth M; Holden, Neil S; Giembycz, Mark A; Newton, Robert

    2011-09-01

    By repressing inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoids are the most effective treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma. However, in some patients with severe disease, or who smoke or suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glucocorticoids are poorly effective. Although many investigators focus on defects in the repression of inflammatory gene expression, glucocorticoids also induce (transactivate) the expression of numerous genes to elicit anti-inflammatory effects. Using human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and pulmonary (A549) cells, we show that cytokines [tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β], mitogens [fetal calf serum (FCS) and phorbol ester], cigarette smoke, and a G(q)-linked G protein-coupled receptor agonist attenuate simple glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-dependent transcription. With TNFα and FCS, this effect was not overcome by increasing concentrations of dexamethasone, budesonide, or fluticasone propionate. Thus, the maximal ability of the glucocorticoid to promote GRE-dependent transcription was reduced, and this was shown additionally for the glucocorticoid-induced gene p57(KIP2). The long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) formoterol fumarate and salmeterol xinafoate enhanced simple GRE-dependent transcription to a level that could not be achieved by glucocorticoid alone. In the presence of TNFα or FCS, which repressed glucocorticoid responsiveness, these LABAs restored glucocorticoid-dependent transcription to levels that were achieved by glucocorticoid alone. Given the existence of genes, such as p57(KIP2), which may mediate anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids, we propose that repression of transactivation represents a mechanism for glucocorticoid resistance and for understanding the clinical benefit of LABAs as an add-on therapy in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Modeling of the adrenergic response of the human IKs current (hKCNQ1/hKCNE1) stably expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Imredy, John P; Penniman, Jacob R; Dech, Spencer J; Irving, Winston D; Salata, Joseph J

    2008-11-01

    Stable coexpression of human (h)KCNQ1 and hKCNE1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells reconstitutes a nativelike slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (HEK-I(Ks)), allowing beta-adrenergic modulation of the current by stimulation of endogenous receptors in the host cell line. HEK-I(Ks) was enhanced two- to fourfold by isoproterenol (EC50 = 13 nM), forskolin (10 microM), or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (50 microM), indicating an intact cAMP-dependent ion channel-regulating pathway analogous to the PKA-dependent regulation observed in native cardiac myocytes. Activation kinetics of HEK-I(Ks) were accurately fit with a novel modified second-order Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) gating model incorporating a fast and a slow gate, each independent of each other in scale and adrenergic response, or a "heterodimer" model. Macroscopically, beta-adrenergic enhancement shifted the current activation threshold to more negative potentials and accelerated activation kinetics while leaving deactivation kinetics relatively unaffected. Modeling of the current response using the H-H model indicated that observed changes in gating could be explained by modulation of the opening rate of the fast gate. Under control conditions at nearly physiological temperatures (35 degrees C), rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) was observed only at pulse frequencies exceeding 3 Hz. Rate-dependent accumulation of I(Ks) at high pulsing rate had two phases, an initial staircaselike effect followed by a slower, incremental accumulation phase. These phases are readily interpreted in the context of a heterodimeric H-H model with two independent gates with differing closing rates. In the presence of isoproterenol after normalizing for its tonic effects, rate-dependent accumulation of HEK-I(Ks) appeared at lower pulse frequencies and was slightly enhanced (approximately 25%) over control.

  8. Contractile properties of early human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: beta-adrenergic stimulation induces positive chronotropy and lusitropy but not inotropy.

    PubMed

    Pillekamp, Frank; Haustein, Moritz; Khalil, Markus; Emmelheinz, Markus; Nazzal, Rewa; Adelmann, Roland; Nguemo, Filomain; Rubenchyk, Olga; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brockmeier, Konrad; Hescheler, Juergen

    2012-08-10

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) provide the unique opportunity to study the very early development of the human heart. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium and beta-adrenergic stimulation on the contractile properties of early hESC-CMs. Beating clusters containing hESC-CMs were co-cultured in vitro with noncontractile slices of neonatal murine ventricles. After 5-7 days, when beating clusters had integrated morphologically into the damaged tissue, isometric force measurements were performed during spontaneous beating as well as during electrical field stimulation. Spontaneous beating stopped when extracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺](ec)) was removed or after administration of the Ca²⁺ channel blocker nifedipine. During field stimulation at a constant rate, the developed force increased with incremental concentrations of [Ca²⁺](ec). During spontaneous beating, rising [Ca²⁺](ec) increased beating rate and developed force up to a [Ca²⁺](ec) of 2.5 mM. When [Ca²⁺](ec) was increased further, spontaneous beating rate decreased, whereas the developed force continued to increase. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced a dose-dependent increase of the frequency of spontaneous beating; however, it did not significantly change the developed force during spontaneous contractions or during electrical stimulation at a constant rate. Force developed by early hESC-CMs depends on [Ca²⁺](ec) and on the L-type Ca²⁺ channel. The lack of an inotropic reaction despite a pronounced chronotropic response after beta-adrenergic stimulation most likely indicates immaturity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. For cell-replacement strategies, further maturation of cardiac cells has to be achieved either in vitro before or in vivo after transplantation.

  9. Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serum or Urine Related tests: Albumin , Creatinine , BUN , Heavy Metals Were you looking for Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor ... to high levels of cadmium and/or other heavy metals like mercury, such as may occur with occupational ...

  10. β-adrenergic blockade during memory retrieval in humans evokes a sustained reduction of declarative emotional memory enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Kroes, M. C. W.; Strange, B. A.; Dolan, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here we report that administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarative memory enhancement for emotional items. Critically, this effect persists at a subsequent 24 hours memory test, in the absence of propranolol. Thus, these findings extend our current understanding of the role of NE in emotional memory to encompass effects at retrieval, and provide face validity to clinical interventions using β-adrenergic antagonists in conjunction with reactivation of unwanted memories in anxiety-related disorders. PMID:20237266

  11. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W. )

    1989-05-02

    The human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M{sub r} 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M{sub r} 4000, which was further digested to the M{sub r} 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M{sub r} 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M{sub r} 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor.

  12. GIPC interacts with the beta1-adrenergic receptor and regulates beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liaoyuan A; Chen, Wei; Martin, Negin P; Whalen, Erin J; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2003-07-11

    Beta1-adrenergic receptors, expressed at high levels in the human heart, have a carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif that can directly interact with PDZ domain-containing proteins. Using the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl terminus as bait, we identified the novel beta1-adrenergic receptor-binding partner GIPC in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library. Here we demonstrate that the PDZ domain-containing protein, GIPC, co-immunoprecipitates with the beta1-adrenergic receptor in COS-7 cells. Essential for this interaction is the Ser residue of the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif. Our data also demonstrate that beta1-adrenergic receptor stimulation activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2. beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by pertussis toxin, implicating Gi, and was substantially decreased by the expression of GIPC. Expression of GIPC had no observable effect on beta1-adrenergic receptor sequestration or receptor-mediated cAMP accumulation. This GIPC effect was specific for the beta1-adrenergic receptor and was dependent on an intact PDZ binding motif. These data suggest that GIPC can regulate beta1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated, Gi-mediated, ERK activation while having no effect on receptor internalization or Gs-mediated cAMP signaling.

  13. Characterization of arrangement and expression of the beta-2 microglobulin locus in the sandbar and nurse shark.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Kshirsagar, Sarika; Jensen, Ingvill; Lau, Kevin; Simonson, Caitlin; Schluter, Samuel F

    2010-02-01

    Beta 2 microglobulin (beta2m) is an essential subunit of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type I molecules. In this report, beta2m cDNAs were identified and sequenced from sandbar shark spleen cDNA library. Sandbar shark beta2m gene encodes one amino acid less than most teleost beta2m genes, and 3 amino acids less than mammal beta2m genes. Although sandbar shark beta2m protein contains one beta sheet less than that of human in the predicted protein structure, the overall structure of beta2m proteins is conserved during evolution. Germline gene for the beta2m in sandbar and nurse shark is present as a single locus. It contains three exons and two introns. CpG sites are evenly distributed in the shark beta2m loci. Several DNA repeat elements were also identified in the shark beta2m loci. Sequence analysis suggests that the beta2m locus is not linked to the MHC I loci in the shark genome.

  14. Transforming growth factor beta 2 in epithelial differentiation of developing teeth and odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Heikinheimo, K; Happonen, R P; Miettinen, P J; Ritvos, O

    1993-01-01

    Dysregulation of TGF beta 2, a modulator of cell growth and differentiation, can result in uncontrolled growth and tumor formation. Our comparative studies on the expression of TGF beta 2 mRNA and protein indicate that TGF beta 2 may primarily be a regulator of epithelial differentiation during tooth development (between 13 and 20 gestational wk) and tumorigenesis of odontogenic neoplasms. A paracrine mode of action for TGF beta 2 in early human tooth germ (cap/early bell stage) is suggested by location of mRNA in the mesenchyme surrounding the tooth germ, whereas protein is found in the epithelial dental lamina and enamel organ. During the late bell stage, TGF beta 2 gene expression shifted from the mesenchyme to the odontogenic epithelium and was colocalized with protein, suggesting an autocrine role for the terminal differentiation of ameloblasts. In odontogenic tumors of epithelial origin (ameloblastomas) and epithelial-ectomesencymal origin (ameloblastic fibromas), TGF beta 2 mRNA was mostly located in the mesenchymal tumor component and protein in the epithelial tumor component. Odontogenic ectomesenchymal tumors (myxomas) were not associated with TGF beta 2 mRNA and protein expression. The results imply that TGF beta 2 may play an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in human tooth morphogenesis and development of odontogenic tumors. Images PMID:8450031

  15. 3D Structure Prediction of Human β1-Adrenergic Receptor via Threading-Based Homology Modeling for Implications in Structure-Based Drug Designing

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Saeed, Maria; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Khan, Waqasuddin

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of left ventricular dysfunction accompanied by impairment of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) signal cascade. The disturbed β1-AR function may be based on an elevated sympathetic tone observed in patients with heart failure. Prolonged adrenergic stimulation may induce metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances in the myocardium, resulting in tachyarrhythmia that leads to the development of heart failure in human and sudden death. Hence, β1-AR is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop effective and specific drug against this tempting pharmaceutical target is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure of Homo sapiens β1-AR (hsβADR1). This study encompasses elucidation of 3D structural and physicochemical properties of hsβADR1 via threading-based homology modeling. Furthermore, the docking performance of several docking programs including Surflex-Dock, FRED, and GOLD were validated by re-docking and cross-docking experiments. GOLD and Surflex-Dock performed best in re-docking and cross docking experiments, respectively. Consequently, Surflex-Dock was used to predict the binding modes of four hsβADR1 agonists. This study provides clear understanding of hsβADR1 structure and its binding mechanism, thus help in providing the remedial solutions of cardiovascular, effective treatment of asthma and other diseases caused by malfunctioning of the target protein. PMID:25860348

  16. 3D structure prediction of human β1-adrenergic receptor via threading-based homology modeling for implications in structure-based drug designing.

    PubMed

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Saeed, Maria; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Khan, Waqasuddin

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of left ventricular dysfunction accompanied by impairment of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) signal cascade. The disturbed β1-AR function may be based on an elevated sympathetic tone observed in patients with heart failure. Prolonged adrenergic stimulation may induce metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances in the myocardium, resulting in tachyarrhythmia that leads to the development of heart failure in human and sudden death. Hence, β1-AR is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop effective and specific drug against this tempting pharmaceutical target is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure of Homo sapiens β1-AR (hsβADR1). This study encompasses elucidation of 3D structural and physicochemical properties of hsβADR1 via threading-based homology modeling. Furthermore, the docking performance of several docking programs including Surflex-Dock, FRED, and GOLD were validated by re-docking and cross-docking experiments. GOLD and Surflex-Dock performed best in re-docking and cross docking experiments, respectively. Consequently, Surflex-Dock was used to predict the binding modes of four hsβADR1 agonists. This study provides clear understanding of hsβADR1 structure and its binding mechanism, thus help in providing the remedial solutions of cardiovascular, effective treatment of asthma and other diseases caused by malfunctioning of the target protein.

  17. Betaxolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rudoy, C A; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2007-06-30

    Anxiety has been indicated as one of the main symptoms of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome in human addicts and severe anxiety during withdrawal may potentially contribute to relapse. As alterations in noradrenergic transmission in limbic areas underlie withdrawal symptomatology for many drugs of abuse, the present study sought to determine the effect of cocaine withdrawal on beta-adrenergic receptor (beta(1) and beta(2)) expression in the amygdala. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days. Two days following the last cocaine injection, amygdala brain regions were micro-dissected and processed for Western blot analysis. Results showed that beta(1)-adrenergic receptor, but not beta(2)-adrenergic receptor expression was significantly increased in amygdala extracts of cocaine-withdrawn animals as compared to controls. This finding motivated further studies aimed at determining whether treatment with betaxolol, a highly selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, could ameliorate cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety. In these studies, betaxolol (5 mg/kg via i.p. injection) was administered at 24 and then 44 h following the final chronic cocaine administration. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test approximately 2 h following the last betaxolol injection. Following behavioral testing, betaxolol effects on beta(1)-adrenergic receptor protein expression were examined by Western blotting in amygdala extracts from rats undergoing cocaine withdrawal. Animals treated with betaxolol during cocaine withdrawal exhibited a significant attenuation of anxiety-like behavior characterized by increased time spent in the open arms and increased entries into the open arms compared to animals treated with only saline during cocaine withdrawal. In contrast, betaxolol did not produce anxiolytic-like effects in control animals treated chronically with saline. Furthermore

  18. A Specific Cholesterol Binding Site Is Established by the 2.8 Å Structure of the Human [beta][subscript 2]-Adrenergic Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Michael A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Griffith, Mark T.; Roth, Christopher B.; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Kuhn, Peter; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-07-08

    The role of cholesterol in eukaryotic membrane protein function has been attributed primarily to an influence on membrane fluidity and curvature. We present the 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a thermally stabilized human {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor bound to cholesterol and the partial inverse agonist timolol. The receptors pack as monomers in an antiparallel association with two distinct cholesterol molecules bound per receptor, but not in the packing interface, thereby indicating a structurally relevant cholesterol-binding site between helices I, II, III, and IV. Thermal stability analysis using isothermal denaturation confirms that a cholesterol analog significantly enhances the stability of the receptor. A consensus motif is defined that predicts cholesterol binding for 44% of human class A receptors, suggesting that specific sterol binding is important to the structure and stability of other G protein-coupled receptors, and that this site may provide a target for therapeutic discovery.

  19. Distribution of adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig, mouse, and rat.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Yasmin; Ho, Winnie; Sharkey, Keith A

    2006-04-10

    Adrenergic receptors in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are important in control of the gastrointestinal tract. Here we describe the distribution of adrenergic receptors in the ENS of the ileum and colon of the guinea pig, rat, and mouse by using single- and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. In the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat and mouse, alpha2a-adrenergic receptors (alpha2a-AR) were widely distributed on neurons and enteric glial cells. alpha2a-AR mainly colocalized with calretinin in the MP, whereas submucosal alpha2a-AR neurons colocalized with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y, and calretinin in both species. In the guinea pig ileum, we observed widespread alpha2a-AR immunoreactivity on nerve fibers in the MP and on VIP neurons in the submucosal plexus (SMP). We observed extensive beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) expression on neurons and nerve fibers in both the MP and the SMP of all species. Similarly, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) was expressed on neurons and nerve fibers in the SMP of all species, as well as in the MP of the mouse. In the MP, beta1- and beta2-AR immunoreactivity was localized to several neuronal populations, including calretinin and nitrergic neurons. In the SMP of the guinea pig, beta1- and beta2-AR mainly colocalized with VIP, whereas, in the rat and mouse, beta1- and beta2-AR were distributed among the VIP and calretinin populations. Adrenergic receptors were widely localized on specific neuronal populations in all species studied. The role of glial alpha2a-AR is unknown. These results suggest that sympathetic innervation of the ENS is directed toward both enteric neurons and enteric glia.

  20. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of (125I)cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species.

  1. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists delay while antagonists accelerate epithelial wound healing: evidence of an endogenous adrenergic network within the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Christine E; Zhao, Min; Song, Bing; Pu, Jin; Reid, Brian; Ghoghawala, Shahed; McCaig, Colin; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2007-04-01

    Wound healing is a complex and well-orchestrated biological process. Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) must respond quickly to trauma to rapidly restore barrier function and protect the eye from noxious agents. They express a high level of beta2-adrenergic receptors but their function is unknown. Here, we report the novel finding that they form part of a regulatory network in the corneal epithelium, capable of modulating corneal epithelial wound repair. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists delay CEC migration via a protein phosphatase 2A-mediated mechanism and decrease both electric field-directed migration and corneal wound healing. Conversely, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists accelerate CEC migration, enhance electric field-mediated directional migration, and promote corneal wound repair. We demonstrate that CECs express key enzymes required for epinephrine (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) synthesis in the cytoplasm and can detect epinephrine in cell extracts. We propose that the mechanism for the pro-motogenic effect of the beta-adrenergic antagonist is blockade of the beta2-adrenergic receptor preventing autocrine catecholamine binding. Further investigation of this network will improve our understanding of one of the most frequently prescribed class of drugs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Contracting human skeletal muscle maintains the ability to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction during KIR channel and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Hearon, Christopher M; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-06-15

    During exercise there is a balance between vasoactive factors that facilitate increases in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the active tissue and the sympathetic nervous system, which acts to limit muscle blood flow for the purpose of blood pressure regulation. Functional sympatholysis describes the ability of contracting skeletal muscle to blunt the stimulus for vasoconstriction, yet the underlying signalling of this response in humans is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels and the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, two potential vasodilator pathways within blood vessels, contributes to the ability to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction. Our results show preserved blunting of α1 -adrenergic vasconstriction despite blockade of these vasoactive factors. Understanding this complex phenomenon is important as it is impaired in a variety of clinical populations. Sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle is blunted relative to that which occurs in resting tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this 'functional sympatholysis' remain unclear in humans. We tested the hypothesis that α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise following inhibition of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR ) channels and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (BaCl2  + ouabain). In young healthy humans, we measured forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated forearm vascular conductance (FVC) at rest, during steady-state stimulus conditions (pre-phenylephrine), and after 2 min of phenylephrine (PE; an α1 -adrenoceptor agonist) infusion via brachial artery catheter in response to two different stimuli: moderate (15% maximal voluntary contraction) rhythmic handgrip exercise or adenosine infusion. In Protocol 1 (n = 11 subjects) a total of six trials were performed in three conditions: control (saline), combined enzymatic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis (l

  3. Effect of PDE5 inhibition on the modulation of sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle of young and older recreationally active humans.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Piil, Peter; Egelund, Jon; Sprague, Randy S; Mortensen, Stefan P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-12-01

    Aging is associated with an altered regulation of blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) increased blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle of older but not young human subjects. Here we examined whether this effect of PDE5 inhibition was related to an improved ability to blunt α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) and/or improved efficacy of local vasodilator pathways. A group of young (23 ± 1 yr) and a group of older (72 ± 1 yr) male subjects performed knee-extensor exercise in a control setting and following intake of the highly selective PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil. During both conditions, exercise was performed without and with arterial tyramine infusion to evoke endogenous norepinephrine release and consequently stimulation of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors. The level of the sympatholytic compound ATP was measured in venous plasma by use of the microdialysis technique. Sildenafil increased (P < 0.05) vascular conductance during exercise in the older group, but tyramine infusion reduced (P < 0.05) this effect by 38 ± 9%. Similarly, tyramine reduced (P < 0.05) the vasodilation induced by arterial infusion of a nitric oxide (NO) donor by 54 ± 9% in the older group, and this effect was not altered by sildenafil. Venous plasma [ATP] did not change with PDE5 inhibition in the older subjects during exercise. Collectively, PDE5 inhibition in older humans was not associated with an improved ability for functional sympatholysis. An improved efficacy of the NO system may be one mechanism underlying the effect of PDE5 inhibition on exercise hyperemia in aging. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Crosstalk between adrenergic and toll-like receptors in human mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes: a recipe for impaired wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dasu, Mohan R; Ramirez, Sandra R; La, Thi Dinh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Nguyen, Chuong; Lin, Benjamin R; Mashburn, Chelcy; Stewart, Heather; Peavy, Thomas R; Nolta, Jan A; Isseroff, Roslyn R

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that skin wounds generate epinephrine (EPI) that can activate local adrenergic receptors (ARs), impairing healing. Bacterially derived activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) within the wound initiate inflammatory responses and can also impair healing. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that these two pathways crosstalk to one another, using EPI and macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP2) to activate ARs and TLR2, respectively, in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and neonatal keratinocytes (NHKs). BM-MSCs exposed to EPI significantly (p < .05) increased TLR2 message (sevenfold BM-MSCs), TLR2 protein (twofold), and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (fourfold). Conversely, activation of TLR2 by MALP2 in these cells increased β2-AR message (twofold in BM-MSCs, 2.7-fold in NHKs), β2-AR protein (2.5-fold), phosphorylation of β-AR-activated kinase (p-BARK, twofold), and induced release of EPI from both cell types (twofold). Treating cells with EPI and MALP2 together, as would be encountered in a wound, increased β2-AR and p-BARK protein expression (sixfold), impaired cell migration (BM-MSCs- 21%↓ and NHKs- 60%↓, p < .002), and resulted in a 10-fold (BM-MSCs) and 51-fold (NHKs) increase in release of IL-6 (p < .001) responses that were remarkably reduced by pretreatment with β2-AR antagonists. In vivo, EPI-stressed animals exhibited impaired healing, with elevated levels of TLR2, MyD88, and IL-6 in the wounds (p < .05) relative to nonstressed controls. Thus, our data describe a recipe for decreasing cell migration and exacerbating inflammation via novel crosstalk between the adrenergic and Toll-like receptor pathways in BM-MSCs and NHKs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Crosstalk Between Adrenergic and Toll-Like Receptors in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Keratinocytes: A Recipe for Impaired Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Sandra R.; La, Thi Dinh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Nguyen, Chuong; Lin, Benjamin R.; Mashburn, Chelcy; Stewart, Heather; Peavy, Thomas R.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that skin wounds generate epinephrine (EPI) that can activate local adrenergic receptors (ARs), impairing healing. Bacterially derived activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) within the wound initiate inflammatory responses and can also impair healing. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that these two pathways crosstalk to one another, using EPI and macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP2) to activate ARs and TLR2, respectively, in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and neonatal keratinocytes (NHKs). BM-MSCs exposed to EPI significantly (p < .05) increased TLR2 message (sevenfold BM-MSCs), TLR2 protein (twofold), and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (fourfold). Conversely, activation of TLR2 by MALP2 in these cells increased β2-AR message (twofold in BM-MSCs, 2.7-fold in NHKs), β2-AR protein (2.5-fold), phosphorylation of β-AR-activated kinase (p-BARK, twofold), and induced release of EPI from both cell types (twofold). Treating cells with EPI and MALP2 together, as would be encountered in a wound, increased β2-AR and p-BARK protein expression (sixfold), impaired cell migration (BM-MSCs- 21%↓ and NHKs- 60%↓, p < .002), and resulted in a 10-fold (BM-MSCs) and 51-fold (NHKs) increase in release of IL-6 (p < .001) responses that were remarkably reduced by pretreatment with β2-AR antagonists. In vivo, EPI-stressed animals exhibited impaired healing, with elevated levels of TLR2, MyD88, and IL-6 in the wounds (p < .05) relative to nonstressed controls. Thus, our data describe a recipe for decreasing cell migration and exacerbating inflammation via novel crosstalk between the adrenergic and Toll-like receptor pathways in BM-MSCs and NHKs. PMID:24760207

  6. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in dispersed rat testicular interstitial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poyet, P.; Labrie, F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate steroidogenesis and cyclic AMP formation in mouse Leydig cells in culture. To obtain information about the possible presence and the characteristics of a beta-adrenergic receptor in rat testicular interstitial cells, the potent beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol (CYP) was used as ligand. Interstitial cells prepared by collagenase dispersion from rat testis were incubated with the ligand for 2 h at room temperature. (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binds to a single class of high affinity sites at an apparent KD value of 15 pM. A number of sites of 6,600 sites/cell is measured when 0.1 microM (-) propranolol is used to determine non-specific binding. The order of potency of a series of agonists competing for (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol binding is consistent with the interaction of a beta 2-subtype receptor: zinterol greater than (-) isoproterenol greater than (-) epinephrine = salbutamol much greater than (-) norepinephrine. In addition, it was observed that the potency of a large series of specific beta 1 and beta 2 synthetic compounds for displacing (/sup 125/I)cyanopindolol in rat interstitial cells is similar to the potency observed for these compounds in a typical beta 2-adrenergic tissue, the rat lung. For example, the potency of zinterol, a specific beta 2-adrenergic agonist, is 10 times higher in interstitial cells and lung than in rat heart, a typical beta 1-adrenergic tissue. Inversely, practolol, a typical beta 1-antagonist, is about 50 times more potent in rat heart than in interstitial cells and lung.

  7. Catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla exert a compensatory, protective effect at beta 2-adrenoceptors against Paf-induced death in mice.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, M; Subissi, A

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of a number of drugs and experimental conditions, which inhibit or stimulate adrenergic function, were evaluated on platelet-activating factor (Paf)-induced death in conscious mice. 2. Adrenalectomy markedly potentiated Paf toxicity, while guanethidine and reserpine did not. However, reserpine, which produced a virtually complete depletion of catecholamines (CA) in cardiac tissue, was not able to reduce adrenal CA by more than 58%. Drugs which release noradrenaline from the adrenergic nerve terminals, such as tyramine and amphetamine, did not protect mice from Paf toxicity, while drugs or conditions which favour the release of CA from the adrenal medulla, such as urethane and cold-induced stress, did. 3. beta 2- and beta 1 + beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists (ICI 118551, propranolol and nadolol), but not beta 1-antagonists (atenolol, practolol, metoprolol and CGP 20712 A), potentiated Paf toxicity at low doses; beta 2- and beta 1 + beta 2-agonists (salbutamol, fenoterol and isoprenaline), but not beta 1-agonists (prenalterol and tazolol) were potent inhibitors of Paf toxicity. alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists did not exert significant effects. Propranolol did not appear to enhance the hypotensive action of Paf in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized mice. 4. It is concluded that manipulation of the release of CA from the adrenal medulla, but not from adrenergic nerves, has profound effects on Paf toxicity in mice. A number of considerations support the hypothesis that bronchoconstriction is a major determinant of Paf-induced death in mice.

  8. The effect of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) in rat saliva.

    PubMed

    Bedi, G S

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a number of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on the induction of rat salivary cystatin was investigated. A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was used to determine cystatin in rat whole saliva. Treatment for 10 consecutive days with a non-specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, or the beta 1-adrenergic agonists dobutamine or methoxyphenamine, resulted in the induction of the salivary cystatin. Induction was also found in rats treated for 10 days with arterenol. Only trace quantities of cystatin could be detected in saliva of rats treated with the beta 2-adrenergic agonists terbutaline or salbutamol. When isoproterenol was injected concomitantly with the mixed beta-antagonist propranolol or the beta 1-adrenergic antagonists metaprolol, proctocol or atenolol the production of cystatin was totally suppressed. However, the beta 2-antagonist, ICI 118551, produced only a partial reduction in salivary cystatin induction elicited by isoproterenol. The findings suggest that the induction of salivary cystatin is regulated, in part, by beta 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation.

  9. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) monoclonal antibodies with lupus anticoagulant-like activity enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, H.; Mori, T.; Gabazza, E. C.; Kuroda, K.; Deguchi, H.; Matsuura, E.; Ichikawa, K.; Koike, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    beta2-Glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a plasma glycoprotein with phospholipid-binding property, is known to be the actual target antigen for autoimmune type anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs). Certain groups of aCLs (anti-beta2GPI antibodies) exert lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity and perturb the function of vascular endothelial cells. This investigation aimed at highlighting some insights into the molecular basis by which aCLs exert their biological effects by using anti-beta2GPI mAbs with well-characterized epitopes from mice and from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the third domain (Cof-20 and Cof-22) and fourth domain (Cof-21, EY1C8, and EY2C9) of beta2GPI inhibited the thrombin generation induced by Russell's viper venom in diluted plasma and that induced by the prothrombinase complex reconstituted with purified clotting factors. This anticoagulant activity was abrogated in the presence of an excess amount of phospholipids, thus resembling the LA activity. In stark contrast, anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the fifth domain and the carboxy-terminal region of the fourth domain showed no LA-like activity. These findings suggest that the LA activity of anti-beta2GPI antibodies depends on their epitope specificity. Experiments carried out to clarify the mechanism of the LA activity showed that anti-beta2GPI mAbs with LA-like activity, but not those without this effect, enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids. In addition, the F(ab')2 fragment, but not the Fab' fragment, of the anti-beta2GPI mAbs was found to enhance the LA activity and the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids, suggesting that anti-beta2GPI antibodies induce formation of multiple complexes of beta2GPI on the surface of phospholipids because of their bivalent property. This clustering of beta2GPI molecules induced by anti-beta2GPI antibodies, probably because of their multivalent property and epitope specificity, might hinder the lateral mobility and

  10. TGF-{beta}2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-{beta}2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-{beta}2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-{beta}2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-{beta}2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-{beta}2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-{beta}2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-{beta}2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-{beta}2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway.

  11. Contracting human skeletal muscle maintains the ability to blunt α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction during KIR channel and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Hearon, Christopher M; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle is blunted relative to that which occurs in resting tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this ‘functional sympatholysis’ remain unclear in humans. We tested the hypothesis that α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise following inhibition of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+/K+-ATPase (BaCl2 + ouabain). In young healthy humans, we measured forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated forearm vascular conductance (FVC) at rest, during steady-state stimulus conditions (pre-phenylephrine), and after 2 min of phenylephrine (PE; an α1-adrenoceptor agonist) infusion via brachial artery catheter in response to two different stimuli: moderate (15% maximal voluntary contraction) rhythmic handgrip exercise or adenosine infusion. In Protocol 1 (n = 11 subjects) a total of six trials were performed in three conditions: control (saline), combined enzymatic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis (l-NMMA + ketorolac) and combined inhibition of NO, PGs, KIR channels and Na+/K+-ATPase (l-NMMA + ketorolac + BaCl2 + ouabain). In Protocol 2 (n = 6) a total of four trials were performed in two conditions: control (saline), and combined KIR channel and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. All trials occurred after local β-adrenoceptor blockade (propranolol). PE-mediated vasoconstriction was calculated (%ΔFVC) in each condition. Contrary to our hypothesis, despite attenuated exercise hyperaemia of ∼30%, inhibition of KIR channels and Na+/K+-ATPase, combined with inhibition of NO and PGs (Protocol 1) or alone (Protocol 2) did not enhance α1-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise (Protocol 1: −27 ± 3%; P = 0.2 vs. control, P = 0.4 vs.l-NMMA + ketorolac; Protocol 2: −21 ± 7%; P = 0.9 vs. control). Thus, contracting human skeletal muscle maintains the ability to blunt α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction during

  12. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz, Zbys; Nasser, Mona; Jagannath, Vanitha A; Beaman, Jessica H; Ejaz, Kiran; van Zuuren, Esther J

    2012-05-16

    Dysmenorrhoea is a common gynaecological complaint that can affect as many as 50% of premenopausal women, 10% of whom suffer severely enough to be rendered incapacitated for one to three days during each menstrual cycle. Primary dysmenorrhoea is where women suffer from menstrual pain but lack any pathology in their pelvic anatomy. Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists have been used in the treatment of women with primary dysmenorrhoea but their effects are unclear. To determine the effectiveness and safety of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register; CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; PsycINFO and the EBM Reviews databases. The last search was on 22 August 2011. Randomised controlled trials comparing beta2-adrenoceptor agonists with placebo or no treatment, each other or any other conventional treatment in women of reproductive age with primary dysmenorrhoea. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Five trials involving 187 women with an age range of 15 to 40 years were included. Oral isoxsuprine was compared with placebo in two trials; terbutaline oral spray, ritodrine chloride and oral hydroxyphenyl-orciprenalin were compared with placebo in a further three trials. Clinical diversity in the studies in terms of the interventions being evaluated, assessments at different time points and the use of different assessment tools mitigated against pooling of outcome data across studies in order to provide a summary estimate of effect for any of the comparisons. Only one study, with unclear risk of bias, reported pain relief with a combination of isoxsuprine, acetaminophen and caffeine. None of the other studies reported any significant clinical difference in effectiveness between the intervention and placebo. Adverse effects were reported with all of these medications in up to a quarter of the

  13. Ligand-Stabilized Conformational States of Human β2 Adrenergic Receptor: Insight into G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Hall, Spencer E.; Li, Hubert; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2008-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to exist in dynamic equilibrium between inactive- and several active-state conformations, even in the absence of a ligand. Recent experimental studies on the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) indicate that structurally different ligands with varying efficacies trigger distinct conformational changes and stabilize different receptor conformations. We have developed a computational method to study the ligand-induced rotational orientation changes in the transmembrane helices of GPCRs. This method involves a systematic spanning of the rotational orientation of the transmembrane helices (TMs) that are in the vicinity of the ligand for predicting the helical rotations that occur on ligand binding. The predicted ligand-stabilized receptor conformations are characterized by a simultaneous lowering of the ligand binding energy and a significant gain in interhelical and receptor-ligand hydrogen bonds. Using the β2AR as a model, we show that the receptor conformational state depends on the structure and efficacy of the ligand for a given signaling pathway. We have studied the ligand-stabilized receptor conformations of five different ligands, a full agonist, norepinephrine; a partial agonist, salbutamol; a weak partial agonist, dopamine; a very weak agonist, catechol; and an inverse agonist, ICI-115881. The predicted ligand-stabilized receptor models correlate well with the experimentally observed conformational switches in β2AR, namely, the breaking of the ionic lock between R1313.50 at the intracellular end of TM3 (part of the DRY motif) and E2686.30 on TM6, and the rotamer toggle switch on W2866.48 on TM6. In agreement with trp-bimane quenching experiments, we found that norepinephrine and dopamine break the ionic lock and engage the rotamer toggle switch, whereas salbutamol, a noncatechol partial agonist only breaks the ionic lock, and the weak agonist catechol only engages the rotamer toggle switch. Norepinephrine and

  14. Receptor-Mediated Enhancement of Beta Adrenergic Drug Activity by Ascorbate In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Patrick F.; Root-Bernstein, Robert; Robinson, N. Edward; Abraham, William M.; Berney, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Previous in vitro research demonstrated that ascorbate enhances potency and duration of activity of agonists binding to alpha 1 adrenergic and histamine receptors. Objectives Extending this work to beta 2 adrenergic systems in vitro and in vivo. Methods Ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to study ascorbate binding to adrenergic receptor preparations and peptides. Force transduction studies on acetylcholine-contracted trachealis preparations from pigs and guinea pigs measured the effect of ascorbate on relaxation due to submaximal doses of beta adrenergic agonists. The effect of inhaled albuterol with and without ascorbate was tested on horses with heaves and sheep with carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction. Measurements Binding constants for ascorbate binding to beta adrenergic receptor were derived from concentration-dependent spectral shifts. Dose- dependence curves were obtained for the relaxation of pre-contracted trachealis preparations due to beta agonists in the presence and absence of varied ascorbate. Tachyphylaxis and fade were also measured. Dose response curves were determined for the effect of albuterol plus-and-minus ascorbate on airway resistance in horses and sheep. Main Results Ascorbate binds to the beta 2 adrenergic receptor at physiological concentrations. The receptor recycles dehydroascorbate. Physiological and supra-physiological concentrations of ascorbate enhance submaximal epinephrine and isoproterenol relaxation of trachealis, producing a 3–10-fold increase in sensitivity, preventing tachyphylaxis, and reversing fade. In vivo, ascorbate improves albuterol's effect on heaves and produces a 10-fold enhancement of albuterol activity in “asthmatic” sheep. Conclusions Ascorbate enhances beta-adrenergic activity via a novel receptor-mediated mechanism; increases potency and duration of beta adrenergic agonists effective in asthma and COPD; prevents tachyphylaxis; and reverses fade. These novel effects are probably caused by a

  15. Cloning, characterisation and identification of several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the human alpha2B-adrenergic receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Cécile; Heinonen, Paula; Viikari, Liisa; Schaak, Stéphane; Snapir, Amir; Bouloumié, Anne; Karvonen, Matti K; Pesonen, Ullamari; Scheinin, Mika; Paris, Hervé

    2004-02-01

    Screening of a foetal brain genomic DNA library allowed to isolate a 10-kb fragment of the gene encoding the human alpha2B-adrenergic receptor, that contained 5.5 kb of the 5'-flanking region, the open reading frame and 2.9 kb of the 3'-flanking region. The 1-kb fragment upstream from the start codon was rich in GC, lacked consensus TATA or CAAT box, but contained several Sp1-binding sites. Other potential cis-regulatory elements found in the 5'-flanking region included AP2, USF, Stat-6, NFkappaB and Olf-1. A single canonical polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) was found at position +3252/+3257 and the polyadenylation site was 3274 nucleotides downstream from ATG. Transfection experiments with chimeric luciferase constructs containing various truncated fragments of the 5'-region showed that the fragment -3160/+3 exhibited promoter activity in all tested cell lines and permitted the definition of a minimal 200-bp promoter (-603/-411) containing three putative Sp1-binding sites and two initiator elements. Transcriptional activity of this region was inhibited by the addition of mithramycin, a specific inhibitor of Sp1 binding to GC-rich sequences. The search for sequence variants within a fragment covering 1.7 kb of 5'-flanking region and the coding region allowed us to identify five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms. Interestingly, the G/C substitution at position -98 relative to the start codon was common and in complete linkage with a previously identified insertion/deletion polymorphism in the coding region which was showed to affect alpha2B-adrenergic receptor function. Based on transfection data and computer-assisted sequence analysis, the -98 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism was located within a portion of the 5'-UTR (-127/+3) affecting luciferase activity and it created additional putative binding site for Sp1. However, G/C substitution had no significant incidence on promoter activity in BHK-21 or HeLa cells.

  16. A systematic study on the influence of the main ingredients of an ivy leaves dry extract on the β2-adrenergic responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Greunke, Christian; Hage-Hülsmann, Anne; Sorkalla, Thomas; Keksel, Nelli; Häberlein, Felix; Häberlein, Hanns

    2015-04-01

    The bronchospasmolytic and secretolytic effects of ivy leaves dry extracts can be explained by an increased β2-adrenergic responsiveness of the bronchi. Recently, it was shown that α-hederin inhibits the internalization of β2-adrenergic receptors (ß2AR) under stimulating conditions. α-Hederin pretreated alveolar type II cells and human airway smooth muscle cells revealed an increased ß2AR binding and an elevated intracellular cAMP level, respectively. In order to identify whether additional compounds also mediate an increased β2-adrenergic responsiveness, we examined the ingredients of an ivy leaves dry extract (EA 575) protocatechuic acid, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, 3,4-, 3,5- and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, hederacoside B, and β-hederin. Within all the tested substances, only β-hederin inhibited the internalization of GFP-tagged ß2AR in stably transfected HEK293 cells. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy β-hederin (1 μM, 24 h) pretreated HASM cells showed a statistically significant increase in the ß2AR binding from 33.0 ± 8.9% to 44.1 ± 11.5% which was distributed with 36.0 ± 9.5% for τbound1 and 8.1 ± 2.6% for τbound2, respectively (n = 8, p < 0.05). The increased binding was selectively found for the receptor-ligand complex with unrestricted lateral mobility (τbound1 of 0.9 ± 0.1 ms, D1 = 9.1 ± 0.2 μm(2)/s, n = 8), whereas the binding of ß2AR with hindered lateral mobility (τbound2 of 64.2 ± 47.6 ms, D2 = 0.15 ± 0.02 μm(2)/s, n = 8) was not affected. Compared to control cells, a statistically significant increase of 17.5 ± 6.4% (n = 4, p < 0.05) and 24.2 ± 5.8% (n = 4, p < 0.001) in the cAMP formation was found for β-hederin pretreated HASM cells after stimulation with 10 μM of terbutaline and simultaneous stimulation with 10 μM terbutaline and 10 μM forskolin, respectively. Within this systematic study

  17. Screening and confirmation analysis of stimulants, narcotics and beta-adrenergic agents in human urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; Fiacco, Ilaria; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-11-11

    The chromatographic behaviour of 44 polar compounds (23 beta-adrenergic agents, 11 stimulants, 4 narcotics and 6 phenolalkylamines) included in the list of prohibited substances and methods of the World Anti-Doping Agency, has been investigated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography conditions by application of different mobile phase compositions (percentage of the organic solvent, type and amount of mobile phase additive and ionic strength) and column temperatures. Detection of analytes was performed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode after liquid/liquid extraction. Data collected using as stationary phase type-B silica materials from different producers, showed that the best chromatographic conditions in terms of peak shape, selectivity and chromatographic retention were obtained using an initial percentage of acetonitrile of 90%, a column temperature of 35 °C, a mobile phase pH of 4.5 and ammonium acetate (5 mM) and acetic acid (0.1%) as mobile phase additives. The selected chromatographic conditions were used to develop screening and confirmation analytical procedures to detect polar compounds in human urine for antidoping purpose. The developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and repeatability of retention times and relative ion abundances. Such methods offer attractive alternatives and considerable advantages over traditional approaches especially for the analysis of the phenolalkylamines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, G.; Sallese, M.; Stornaiuolo, A.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of proteins play a major role in determining homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors: {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase ({beta}ARK), which phosphorylates the agonist-occupied receptor and its functional cofactor, {beta}-arrestin. Both {beta}ARK and {beta}-arrestin are members of multigene families. The family of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases includes rhodopsin kinase, {beta}ARK1, {beta}ARK2, IT11-A (GRK4), GRK5, and GRK6. The arrestin/{beta}-arrestin gene family includes arrestin (also known as S-antigen), {beta}-arrestin 1, and {beta}-arrestin 2. Here we report the chromosome mapping of the human genes for arrestin (SAG), {beta}arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results confirmed the assignment of the gene coding for arrestin (SAG) to chromosome 2 and allowed us to refine its localization to band q37. The gene coding for {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) was mapped to chromosome 17p13 and that coding for {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) to chromosome 22q11. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Myofibrillar calcium sensitivity of isometric tension is increased in human dilated cardiomyopathies: role of altered beta-adrenergically mediated protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, M R; Buck, S H; Stoker, S W; Greaser, M L; Mentzer, R M

    1996-01-01

    To examine the role of alterations in myofibrillar function in human dilated cardiomyopathies, we determined isometric tension-calcium relations in permeabilized myocytesized myofibrillar preparations (n = 16) obtained from left ventricular biopsies from nine patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) during cardiac transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation. Similar preparations (n = 10) were obtained from six normal hearts used for cardiac transplantation. Passive and maximal Ca2+-activated tensions were similar for the two groups. However, the calcium sensitivity of isometric tension was increased in DCM compared to nonfailing preparations ([Ca2+]50=2.46+/-0.49 microM vs 3.24+/-0.51 microM, P < 0.001). In vitro treatment with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) decreased calcium sensitivity of tension to a greater degree in failing than in normal preparations. Further, isometric tension-calcium relations in failing and normal myofibrillar preparations were similar after PKA treatment. These findings suggest that the increased calcium sensitivity of isometric tension in DCM may be due at least in part to a reduction of the beta-adrenergically mediated (PKA-dependent) phosphorylation of myofibrillar regulatory proteins such as troponin I and/or C-protein. PMID:8690789

  20. D-1 dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase in a clone derived from the human astrocytoma cell line G-CCM.

    PubMed

    Balmforth, A J; Ball, S G; Freshney, R I; Graham, D I; McNamee, H B; Vaughan, P F

    1986-09-01

    Clones have been isolated from the human astrocytoma cell line G-CCM. Homogenates of clone D384 contain an adenylate cyclase that is stimulated by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine), noradrenaline, and isoprenaline with Ka apparent values of 4, 56, and 2.7 microM, respectively. The Ka apparent value for dopamine was increased by the D-1 antagonist cis-flupenthixol, 25 and 100 nM, to 23 and 190 microM, respectively, but was unaffected by propranolol (1 microM). Noradrenaline stimulation of adenylate cyclase was only partially inhibited by either propranolol (10 microM) or cis-flupenthixol (1 microM). Propranolol (10 microM), but not cis-flupenthixol (1 microM), prevented stimulation by isoprenaline. The stimulation of adenylate cyclase by dopamine and noradrenaline remained unchanged in the presence of phentolamine (1 microM) and sulpiride (1 microM). These results suggest that clone D384 contains both D-1 dopaminergic and beta-adrenergic receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase. Dopamine stimulates D384 adenylate cyclase through D-1 receptors, isoprenaline via beta-receptors, and noradrenaline through both receptors.

  1. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  2. beta2-integrins in demyelinating disease: not adhering to the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianzhen; Wohler, Jillian E; Dugger, Kari J; Barnum, Scott R

    2010-03-01

    The beta(2)-integrins are a subfamily of integrins expressed on leukocytes that play an essential role in leukocyte trafficking, activation, and many other functions. Studies in EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis, show differential requirements for beta(2)-integrins in this disease model, ranging from critical in the case of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) to unimportant in the case of CD11d/CD18. Importantly, expression of beta(2)-integrins on T cell subsets provides some clues as to the function(s) these adhesion molecules play in disease development. For example, transferred EAE studies have shown that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on alphabeta T cells is critical for disease development, and the absence of LFA-1 on Tregs in recipient mice results in exacerbated disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of beta(2)-integrins in demyelinating disease and new information about the role of beta(2)-integrins with respect to alterations in Treg numbers and function. In addition, we discuss the potential for targeting beta(2)-integrins in human demyelinating disease in light of the recent animal model studies.

  3. Increased expression of TGF-beta 2 in osteoblasts results in an osteoporosis-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The development of the skeleton requires the coordinated activities of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The activities of these two cell types are likely to be regulated by TGF-beta, which is abundant in bone matrix. We have used transgenic mice to evaluate the role of TGF-beta 2 in bone development and turnover. Osteoblast- specific overexpression of TGF-beta 2 from the osteocalcin promoter resulted in progressive bone loss associated with increases in osteoblastic matrix deposition and osteoclastic bone resorption. This phenotype closely resembles the bone abnormalities seen in human hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. Furthermore, a high level of TGF- beta 2 overexpression resulted in defective bone mineralization and severe hypoplasia of the clavicles, a hallmark of the developmental disease cleidocranial dysplasia. Our results suggest that TGF-beta 2 functions as a local positive regulator of bone remodeling and that alterations in TGF-beta 2 synthesis by bone cells, or in their responsiveness to TGF-beta 2, may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic bone disease. PMID:8567723

  4. Intrinsic cardiac neurons involved in cardiac regulation possess alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Armour, J A

    1997-03-01

    To determine whether intrinsic cardiac neurons involved in cardiac regulation possess alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1-, or beta 2-adrenoceptors. The alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine, the beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist prenaterol and the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline were administered individually to a population of spontaneously active intrinsic cardiac neurons either locally (10 microL of 100 microM solution; eight dogs) or via the local arterial blood supply (0.1 mL of 100 microM solution; 20 dogs) in artificially ventilated, open chest anesthetized dogs. Neuronal and cardiac effects induced by each of the adrenergic agonists were also tested in the presence of an antagonist selective to each adrenoceptor subtype studied. The activity of intrinsic cardiac neurons was modified by at least one of the adrenoceptor agonists tested, and 34% of the spontaneously active neurons were affected by all four agonists. Alpha-adrenoceptor agonists either increased or decreased neuronal activity, depending on the population of neurons studied. On the other hand, the activity generated by intrinsic cardiac neurons was augmented by beta-adrenoceptor agonists. Ventricular contractile force increased when intrinsic cardiac neurons were excited by adrenoceptor agonists. The spontaneous activity generated by neurons was suppressed by beta-adrenoceptor, but not alpha-adrenoceptor, blockade. Neuronal and cardiovascular responses were no longer elicited by an agonist in the presence of its selective antagonist; they were elicited in the presence of antagonists to the other receptor subtypes studied. Intrinsic cardiac neurons involved in cardiac regulation possess alpha 1-, alpha 2-, beta 1- or beta 2-adrenoceptors. Intrinsic cardiac adrenergic neurons receive tonic inputs via beta-, but not alpha-, adrenoceptors. These data indicate that adrenergic blockade may affect cardiac function, in part, via modification of the intrinsic

  5. GPI-80, a beta2 integrin associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, concentrates on pseudopodia without association with beta2 integrin during neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yuji; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we identified a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, designated GPI-80, present on human neutrophils and monocytes. GPI-80 is physically associated with beta2 integrin on the surface of human neutrophils and may be a regulator of neutrophil adherence and migration. However, it is not yet known how GPI-80 regulates cell adhesion and migration. To investigate the physiological role(s) of GPI-80, we examined the topological relationship of GPI-80 and the beta2 integrin subunit (CD18) on resting and migrating human neutrophils by confocal laser microscopy. On resting neutrophils, GPI-80 was evenly distributed on the cell surface and was associated with CD18. On the other hand, during the early phase of migration (5 - 30 minutes), GPI-80 was detected on cell bodies and also on pseudopodia, but CD18 was detected only on cell bodies, where it was associated with GPI-80. In the late phase of migration (60 minutes), GPI-80 was detected only on pseudopodia and its association with CD18 was hardly observed. Furthermore, some of the GPI-80 on pseudopodia of migrating neutrophils during the late phase was associated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a regulator of beta2 integrin-dependent adherence and migration. The distribution of GPI-80 on cell surfaces is similar to that of uPAR. These observations suggest that GPI-80 belongs to the beta2 integrin-associated GPI-anchored protein family, which has regulatory activity in cell adherence.

  6. Beta-Adrenergic Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Barisione, Giovanni; Baroffio, Michele; Crimi, Emanuele; Brusasco, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptoms-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. In this article, we first review the basic mechanisms by which the β2-adrenergic system contributes to the control of airway smooth muscle tone. Then, we go on describing the structural characteristics of β2-AR and the molecular basis of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and mechanisms of its desensitization/ dysfunction. In particular, phosphorylation mediated by protein kinase A and β-adrenergic receptor kinase are examined in detail. Finally, we discuss the pivotal role of inhaled β2-AR agonists in the treatment of asthma and the concerns about their safety that have been recently raised. PMID:27713285

  7. [Study of a beta-adrenergic stimulant and its antidepressant activity in man].

    PubMed

    Jouvent, R; Lecrubier, Y; Puech, A J; Simon, H F; Widlocher, D

    1977-01-01

    In animals, the psychopharmacological profile of beta-adrenergic stimulants is very similar to that of tricyclic antidepressants. In patients, more particularly in endogenous depressive patients, the antidepressant effect of salbutamol was very clear. A definite improvement was observed in all of the 22 studied patients after 1 to 3 days of intermittent venous infusion. The place of salbutamol in the therapeutic armamentarium of depressive states has still to be defined exactly. It is speculated that the antidepressant effect of imipramine-like derivatives is related to the stimulation of central beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

  8. Role of selective alpha and beta adrenergic receptor mechanisms in rat jejunal longitudinal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Haefliger, Simon; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2008-06-01

    Gut motility is modulated by adrenergic mechanisms. The aim of our study was to examine mechanisms of selective adrenergic receptors in rat jejunum. Spontaneous contractile activity of longitudinal muscle strips from rat jejunum was measured in 5-ml tissue chambers. Dose-responses (six doses, 10(-7) -3 x 10(-5)M) to norepinephrine (NE, nonspecific), phenylephrine (PH, alpha1), clonidine (C, alpha2), prenalterol (PR, beta1), ritodrine (RI, beta2), and ZD7714 (ZD, beta3) were evaluated with and without tetrodotoxin (TTX, nerve blocker). NE(3 x 10(-5)M) inhibited 74 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous activity. This was the maximum effect. The same dose of RI(beta2), PH(alpha1), or ZD(beta(3)) resulted in an inhibition of only 56 +/- 5, 43 +/- 4, 33 +/- 6, respectively. The calculated concentration to induce 50% inhibition (EC50) of ZD(beta3) was similar to NE, whereas higher concentrations of PH(alpha1) or RI(beta2) were required. C(alpha2) and PR(beta1) had no effect. TTX changed exclusively the EC50 of RI from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.8% (p < 0.04). Contractility was inhibited by NE (nonspecific). PH(alpha1), RI(beta2), and ZD(beta3) mimic the effect of NE. TTX reduced the inhibition by RI. Our results suggest that muscular alpha1, beta2, and beta3 receptor mechanisms mediate adrenergic inhibition of contractility in rat jejunum. beta2 mechanisms seem to involve also neural pathways.

  9. cDNA for the human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilka, B.K.; Dixon, R.A.F.; Frielle, T.; Dohlman, H.G.; Bolanowski, M.A.; Sigal, I.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Francke, U.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

  10. Role of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in prostaglandin E(1)- and E(2)-induced inhibition of the adrenergic response in human vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Mauricio, María Dolores; Vila, José M; Chuan, Pascual; Lluch, Salvador

    2011-07-01

    We studied the role of K(+) channels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in the presynaptic inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) and PGE(2) on the adrenergic responses of human vas deferens. Furthermore, we determined the effects of increasing extracellular K(+) concentrations ([K(+)](o)) and inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase on neurogenic and norepinephrine-induced contractile responses. Ring segments of the epididymal part of the vas deferens were taken from 45 elective vasectomies and mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. The neuromodulatory effects of PGEs were tested in the presence of K(+) channel blockers. PGE(1) and PGE(2) (10(-8) to 10(-6)M) induced inhibition of adrenergic contractions. The presence of tetraethylammonium (10(-3)M), charybdotoxin (10(-7)M), or iberiotoxin (10(-7)M), prevented the inhibitory effects of PGE(1) and PGE(2) on the adrenergic contraction. Both glibenclamide (10(-5)M) and apamin (10(-6)M) failed to antagonize PGE(1) and PGE(2) effects. Raising the [K(+)](o) from 15.8mM to 25.8mM caused inhibition of the neurogenic contractions. Ouabain at a concentration insufficient to alter the resting tension (10(-6)M) increased contractions induced by electrical stimulation but did not alter the contractions to norepinephrine. The inhibition of neurogenic responses induced PGE(1), PGE(2) and increased extracellular concentration of K(+) was almost completely prevented by ouabain (10(-6)M). The results demonstrate that PGE(1) and PGE(2) inhibit adrenergic responses by a prejunctional mechanism that involves the activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  11. Human placental lactogen decreases regional blood flow in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Mary, D A S G; Ribichini, F; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    2006-01-01

    In 22 pigs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in blood flow caused by infusion of human placental lactogen into the left renal, external iliac, and anterior descending coronary arteries were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. In 17 pigs, infusion of human placental lactogen whilst keeping the heart rate and arterial pressure constant decreased coronary, renal and iliac flow. In 5 additional pigs, increasing the dose of human placental lactogen produced a dose-related decrease in regional blood flow. The mechanisms of the above response were studied in 15 of the 17 pigs by repeating the experiment of infusion. The human placental lactogen-induced decrease in regional blood flow was not affected by blockade of cholinergic receptors (5 pigs) or of alpha-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs), but it was abolished by blockade of beta2-adrenergic receptors (5 pigs). The present study showed that intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen primarily decreased coronary, renal and iliac blood flow. The mechanism of this response was shown to be due to the inhibition of a vasodilatory beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated effect.

  12. Selective expansion of T cells expressing V beta 2 in toxic shock syndrome

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Infection with Staphylococcus aureus and the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that TSST-1 is a powerful but selective stimulator of human T cells, and that the majority of activated cells express the TCR V beta 2 gene segment. We therefore studied patients with toxic shock syndrome using a modification of the PCR to determine if expansion of V beta 2+ T cells is a marker of the in vivo disease process. Five of eight patients studied demonstrated markedly elevated levels of circulating V beta 2+ T cells, whereas none showed significantly elevated levels of T cells expressing other V beta gene segments. The results suggest that toxin-mediated T cell activation, which involves a large fraction of the human T cell repertoire, may be critical in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:2117641

  13. Beta 2-microglobulin clearance in neonates: index of tubular maturation.

    PubMed

    Assadi, F K; John, E G; Justice, P; Fornell, L

    1985-08-01

    Serum and urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) were studied by enzyme immunoassay in 28 normal neonates at day 1 and day 4 of life in relation to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA). The infants were grouped according to GA; 10 with GA ranging from 32 to 35 weeks (mean 33.5 weeks) and 18 with GA ranging from 36 to 41 weeks (mean 38.3 weeks). Serum beta 2M varied directly with both GA and PNA. When values for serum beta 2M were related to conceptional age (CA), a significant positive correlation was present for all the infants studied (r = 0.68, P less than 0.01). Fractional excretion of beta 2M (FE beta 2M) decreased as a function of both GA and PNA. When a comparison of FE beta 2M was made in infants of all CA, a significant inverse correlation was noted for infants with CA less than or equal to 35 weeks (r = -0.89, P less than 0.001). The fall in FE beta 2M reached a plateau by 36 weeks. The highest FE beta 2M (33%) was observed in infants of 32 weeks CA who had the lowest filtered beta 2M (F beta 2M). No statistically significant relationship between changes in FE beta 2M and fractional urine flow rate was observed within each of the CA categories (infants less than or equal to 35 weeks, r = 0.21, P = 0.28; infants greater than or equal to 36 weeks, r = 0.25, P = 0.18).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Altered adrenergic response and specificity of the receptors in rat ascites hepatoma AH130.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1989-11-15

    Adenylate cyclase activation through adrenergic receptors in rat ascites hepatoma (AH) 130 cells in response to adrenergic drugs was studied, and receptor binding and displacement were compared with those of normal rat hepatocytes. Epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) activated AH130 adenylate cyclase about half as much as isoproterenol (IPN) but equaled IPN after treatment with the alpha-antagonist phentolamine or islet-activating protein (IAP). The three catecholamines in hepatocytes were similar regardless of phentolamine or IAP. These catecholamines activated adenylate cyclase in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells but IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in hepatocytes. We then used the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin, the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine, and the beta-ligand [125I]iodocyanopindolol [( 125I]ICYP), and found that AH130 cells had few prazosin-binding sites, about eight times as many clonidine-binding sites with high affinity, and many more ICYP-binding sites than in hepatocytes. The dissociation constant (Ki) of the beta 1-selective drug metoprolol by Hofstee plots for AH130 cells was lower than that for hepatocytes. The inhibition of specific ICYP binding by the beta 2-selective agonist salbutamol for AH130 cells gave only one Ki value which was much higher than both high and low Ki values of the drug for hepatocytes. These findings indicate that the alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in hepatocytes are predominantly alpha 1-type and beta 2-type, but that those in AH130 cells are predominantly alpha 2-type and beta 1-type, and the low adrenergic response of AH130 cells is due to the dominant appearance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, linked with the inhibitory guanine-nucleotide binding regulatory protein, instead of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, and beta 1-adrenergic receptors with low affinity for the hormone.

  15. Beta-2 microglobulin is an amyloidogenic protein in man.

    PubMed Central

    Gorevic, P D; Casey, T T; Stone, W J; DiRaimondo, C R; Prelli, F C; Frangione, B

    1985-01-01

    Curvilinear fibrils with the tinctorial properties of amyloid were isolated from a patient with bone and joint involvement complicating chronic dialysis for renal disease. Subunit fractions of 24,000 and 12,000 mol wt were identified after gel filtration under dissociating conditions, the latter containing a significant amount of a dimer of the former. This was confirmed by Edman degradation of each fraction, which yielded the amino terminal sequence of normal human beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) to residues 20 and 30, respectively. The size of the subunit protein (12,000 mol wt) and the amino acid composition make it likely that intact B2M is a major constituent of the fibrils. B2M is thus another example of a low molecular weight serum protein, with a prominent beta-pleated sheet structure, that may adopt the fibrillar configuration of amyloid in certain pathologic states. Images PMID:3908488

  16. CHIP-MYTH: a novel interactive proteomics method for the assessment of agonist-dependent interactions of the human β₂-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kittanakom, Saranya; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam; Petschnigg, Julia; Arnoldo, Anthony; Wong, Victoria; Kotlyar, Max; Heisler, Lawrence E; Jurisica, Igor; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Nislow, Corey; Stagljar, Igor

    2014-03-21

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in a variety of disease processes and comprise major drug targets. However, the complexity of integral membrane proteins such as GPCRs makes the identification of their interacting partners and subsequent drug development challenging. A comprehensive understanding of GPCR protein interaction networks is needed to design effective therapeutic strategies to inhibit these drug targets. Here, we developed a novel split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) technology called CHIP-MYTH, which allows the unbiased characterization of interaction partners of full-length GPCRs in a drug-dependent manner. This was achieved by coupling DNA microarray technology to the MYTH approach, which allows a quantitative evaluation of interacting partners of a given integral membrane protein in the presence or absence of drug. As a proof of principle, we applied the CHIP-MYTH approach to the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a target of interest in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. A CHIP-MYTH screen was performed in the presence or absence of salmeterol, a long-acting β2AR-agonist. Our results suggest that β2AR activation with salmeterol can induce the dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins, Gαβγ, into Gα and Gβγ subunits, which in turn activates downstream signaling cascades. Using CHIP-MYTH, we confirmed previously known and identified novel β2AR interactors involved in GPCR-mediated signaling cascades. Several of these interactions were confirmed in mammalian cells using LUminescence-based Mammalian IntERactome (LUMIER) and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In summary, the CHIP-MYTH approach is ideal for conducting comprehensive protein-protein interactions (PPI) screenings of full-length GPCRs in the presence or absence of drugs, thus providing a valuable tool to further our understanding of GPCR-mediated signaling

  17. Functional interactions between the oxytocin receptor and the β2-adrenergic receptor: implications for ERK1/2 activation in human myometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Wrzal, Paulina K; Goupil, Eugénie; Laporte, Stéphane A; Hébert, Terence E; Zingg, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    The Gq-coupled oxytocin receptor (OTR) and the Gs-coupled β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) are both expressed in myometrial cells and mediate uterine contraction and relaxation, respectively. The two receptors represent important pharmacological targets as OTR antagonists and β(2)AR agonists are used to control pre-term uterine contractions. Despite their physiologically antagonistic effects, both receptors activate the MAP kinases ERK1/2, which has been implicated in uterine contraction and the onset of labor. To determine the signalling pathways involved in mediating the ERK1/2 response, we assessed the effect of blockers of specific G protein-associated pathways. In human myometrial hTERT-C3 cells, inhibition of Gαi as well as inhibition of the Gαq/PKC pathway led to a reduction of both OTR- and β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 activation. The involvement of Gαq/PKC in β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 induction was unexpected. To test whether the emergence of this novel signalling mechanism was dependent on OTR expression in the same cell, we conducted experiments in HEK 293 cells that were transfected with the β(2)AR alone or co-transfected with the OTR. Using this approach, we found that β(2)AR-mediated ERK1/2 responses became sensitive to PKC inhibition only in cells co-transfected with the OTR. Inhibitor studies indicated the involvement of an atypical PKC isoform in this process. We confirmed the specific involvement of PKCζ in this pathway by assessing PKCζ translocation to the cell membrane. Consistent with our inhibitor studies, we found that β(2)AR-mediated PKCζ translocation was dependent on co-expression of OTR. The present demonstration of a novel β(2)AR-coupled signalling pathway that is dependent on OTR co-expression is suggestive of a molecular interaction between the two receptors.

  18. Uncoupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor as a mechanism of in vitro neutrophil desensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Galant, S.P.; Britt, S.

    1984-02-01

    Human leukocytes have been useful in studying desensitization phenomena to beta-adrenergic agonists in a number of clinical conditions. In the present in vitro study the authors have explored the mechanism for beta-adrenergic desensitization and have compared conditions for homologous and heterologous desensitization, using the intact PMN model. PMN preincubated with isoproterenol (10/sup -4/M), washed thoroughly, then restimulated, desensitized rapidly so that within 10 min 80% of control isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP stimulation is lost. Cells washed free of isoproterenol recover full responsiveness in 1 to 2 hr. The estimated isoproterenol desensitization EC/sub 50/ in cells washed and then restimulated is 1 x 10/sup -5/M, and EC/sub 50/ in unwashed cells that are restimulated is 9 x 10/sup -8/M. Rank-order potency studies of catecholamine desensitization show isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine, a beta-2 pattern. Isoproterenol-induced desensitization results in a small reduction in (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites, which becomes statistically significant (p < 0.05) from control values at 1 hr (67% of control) and 3 hr (64%). In the absence of GTP, isoproterenol binding is characterized by an EC/sub 50/ of 6.6 +/- 2.6 x 10/sup -/(M, which is significantly different (p < 0.05) from the EC/sub 50/ of 38.1 +/- 9.1 x 10/sup -1/M found when cells are previously desensitized with isoproterenol for 10 min. GTP does not affect the EC/sub 50/ of desensitized cells. Finally, prolonged (3 hr) isoproterenol preincubation results in a small but significant (p < 0.05) loss of cyclic AMP responsiveness to histamine (67.7% +/- 11.7 of control) and PGE/sub 1/ (59.3% +/- 7.4), suggesting heterologous desensitization. These studies suggest that the human PMN is a suitable model to study both homologous and heterologous desensitization in vitro. 22 references. 6 figures. 3 tables.

  19. Beta2-agonist clenbuterol induced changes in the distribution of white blood cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Tanihata, Jun; Motohashi, Norio; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Tomoda, Akio; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2007-06-01

    Clenbuterol [CLE: 4-amino-alpha(t-butyl-amino)methyl-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol] is well known as a potent beta2-adrenergic agonist and non-steroidal anabolic drug, and thus it is generally used for sports doping and asthma therapy. Although the functions of immune cells such as white blood cells (WBCs) have shown to be modulated through beta2-adrenoceptors, the effects of CLE on immune-responsive systems have not been elucidated systematically. Therefore, the effects of CLE on the number of WBCs were studied in rats. Male adult rats were divided into CLE-administered group and the control group to compare the number of total WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The administration (dose = 1.0 mg . kg(-1) body weight . day(-1), s.c.) of CLE was maintained for 30 days. CLE did not change the number of total WBCs during the experimental period. However, CLE increased significantly the number of neutrophils and monocytes, while CLE decreased drastically the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils. There was no significant change in the number of basophils between both groups. These results suggest that the administration of CLE induces drastic redistribution of WBCs in circulation without changing the number of total WBCs, and these responses of WBCs during the administration of CLE are sustained for at least 30 days.

  20. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daniel; Schreiber, Andrea; Ciotkowska, Anna; Strittmatter, Frank; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G; Gratzke, Christian; Hennenberg, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Smooth muscle contraction and prostate growth are important targets for medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Honokiol and Magnolol are lignan constituents of Magnolia species, which are used in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we examined effects of honokiol and magnolol on contraction of human prostate tissue and on growth of stromal cells. Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Contraction of prostate strips was examined in organ bath studies. Effects in stromal cells were assessed in cultured immortalized human prostate stromal cells (WPMY-1). Ki-67 mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and proliferation by a fluorescence 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Honokiol (100μM) reduced noradrenaline-induced contractions, which was significant at 10 to 100μM noradrenaline. Honokiol reduced phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was significant at 3 to 100μM phenylephrine. Honokiol reduced electric field stimulation-induced contractions very slightly. In WPMY-1 cells, honokiol (24 hours) induced cell death. Magnolol (100μM) was without effects on contraction, and cellular viability. Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  1. Homology modelling of the human adenosine A2B receptor based on X-ray structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor and the human adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbiny, Farag F.; Schiedel, Anke C.; Maaß, Astrid; Müller, Christa E.

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional model of the human adenosine A2B receptor was generated by means of homology modelling, using the crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor, and the human adenosine A2A receptor as templates. In order to compare the three resulting models, the binding modes of the adenosine A2B receptor antagonists theophylline, ZM241385, MRS1706, and PSB601 were investigated. The A2A-based model was much better able to stabilize the ligands in the binding site than the other models reflecting the high degree of similarity between A2A and A2B receptors: while the A2B receptor shares about 21% of the residues with rhodopsin, and 31% with the β2-adrenergic receptor, it is 56% identical to the adenosine A2A receptor. The A2A-based model was used for further studies. The model included the transmembrane domains, the extracellular and the intracellular hydrophilic loops as well as the terminal domains. In order to validate the usefulness of this model, a docking analysis of several selective and nonselective agonists and antagonists was carried out including a study of binding affinities and selectivities of these ligands with respect to the adenosine A2A and A2B receptors. A common binding site is proposed for antagonists and agonists based on homology modelling combined with site-directed mutagenesis and a comparison between experimental and calculated affinity data. The new, validated A2B receptor model may serve as a basis for developing more potent and selective drugs.

  2. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  11. Role of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in regulating skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance during forearm exercise in ageing humans

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer C; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    In healthy humans, ageing is typically associated with reduced skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise. Further, there is a marked increase in resting sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity with age, yet whether augmented SNS-mediated α-adrenergic vasoconstriction contributes to the age-associated impairment in exercising muscle blood flow and vascular tone in humans is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SNS-mediated vasoconstriction is greater in older than young adults and limits muscle (forearm) blood flow (FBF) during graded handgrip exercise (5, 15, 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)). FBF was measured (Doppler ultrasound) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated in 11 young (21 ± 1 years) and 12 older (62 ± 2 years) adults in control conditions and during combined local α- and β-adrenoreceptor blockade via intra-arterial infusions of phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Under control conditions, older adults exhibited significantly lower FBF and FVC at 15% MVC exercise (22.6 ± 1.3 vs. 29 ± 3.3 ml min−1 100 g forearm fat-free mass (FFM)−1 and 21.7 ± 1.2 vs. 33.6 ± 4.0 ml min−1 100 g FFM−1 100 mmHg−1; P < 0.05) and 25% MVC exercise (37.4 ± 1.4 vs. 46.0 ± 4.9 ml min−1 100 g FFM−1 and 33.7 ± 1.4 vs. 49.0 ± 5.7 ml min−1 100 g FFM−1 100 mmHg−1; P < 0.05), whereas there was no age group difference at 5% MVC exercise. Local adrenoreceptor blockade increased FBF and FVC at rest and during exercise in both groups, although the increase in FBF and FVC from rest to steady-state exercise was similar in young and older adults across exercise intensities, and thus the age-associated impairment in FBF and FVC persisted. Our data indicate that during graded intensity handgrip exercise, the reduced FVC and subsequently lower skeletal muscle blood flow in older healthy adults is not due to augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction, but rather due to

  12. Role of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in regulating skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance during forearm exercise in ageing humans.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer C; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    In healthy humans, ageing is typically associated with reduced skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise. Further, there is a marked increase in resting sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity with age, yet whether augmented SNS-mediated α-adrenergic vasoconstriction contributes to the age-associated impairment in exercising muscle blood flow and vascular tone in humans is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SNS-mediated vasoconstriction is greater in older than young adults and limits muscle (forearm) blood flow (FBF) during graded handgrip exercise (5, 15, 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)). FBF was measured (Doppler ultrasound) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated in 11 young (21 ± 1 years) and 12 older (62 ± 2 years) adults in control conditions and during combined local α- and β-adrenoreceptor blockade via intra-arterial infusions of phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Under control conditions, older adults exhibited significantly lower FBF and FVC at 15% MVC exercise (22.6 ± 1.3 vs. 29 ± 3.3 ml min(-1) 100 g forearm fat-free mass (FFM)(-1) and 21.7 ± 1.2 vs. 33.6 ± 4.0 ml min(-1) 100 g FFM(-1) 100 mmHg(-1); P < 0.05) and 25% MVC exercise (37.4 ± 1.4 vs. 46.0 ± 4.9 ml min(-1) 100 g FFM(-1) and 33.7 ± 1.4 vs. 49.0 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) 100 g FFM(-1) 100 mmHg(-1); P < 0.05), whereas there was no age group difference at 5% MVC exercise. Local adrenoreceptor blockade increased FBF and FVC at rest and during exercise in both groups, although the increase in FBF and FVC from rest to steady-state exercise was similar in young and older adults across exercise intensities, and thus the age-associated impairment in FBF and FVC persisted. Our data indicate that during graded intensity handgrip exercise, the reduced FVC and subsequently lower skeletal muscle blood flow in older healthy adults is not due to augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction, but rather due to

  13. α1A-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonism Improves Erectile and Cavernosal Responses in Rats With Cavernous Nerve Injury and Enhances Neurogenic Responses in Human Corpus Cavernosum From Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Secondary to Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; La Fuente, José M; Martínez-Salamanca, Eduardo; Fernández, Argentina; Pepe-Cardoso, Augusto J; Louro, Nuno; Carballido, Joaquín; Angulo, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) in rats and radical prostatectomy (RP) in men result in loss of nitrergic function and increased adrenergic-neurogenic contractions of cavernosal tissue. To evaluate the modulation of the α-adrenergic system as a strategy to relieve erectile dysfunction (ED) and functional cavernosal alterations induced by CNI. A non-selective α-blocker (phentolamine 1 mg/kg daily), a selective α1A-blocker (silodosin [SILOD] 0.1 mg/kg daily), or vehicle was orally administered for 4 weeks after bilateral crush CNI (BCNI). Erectile and neurogenic responses of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were evaluated. The acute effects of SILOD also were evaluated in vivo (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) and ex vivo (10 nmol/L). The effects of SILOD and tadalafil (TAD) on nitrergic relaxations were determined in human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology or ED secondary to RP. Erectile responses in vivo in rats and neurogenic contractions and relaxations of rat and human CC. Long-term treatment with SILOD significantly improved erectile responses and allowed for the potentiation of erectile responses by acute treatment with TAD (0.3 mg/kg intravenously) in rats with BCNI. SILOD partly recovered nitrergic relaxations and normalized neurogenic contractions in CC from rats with BCNI. Long-term treatment with SILOD partly prevented BCNI-induced decreases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression. Acute administration of SILOD (0.03 mg/kg intravenously) improved erectile responses in vivo and potentiated nitrergic relaxation and decreased neurogenic contractions ex vivo in CC from rats with BCNI. In human CC from patients with ED with a vascular etiology, TAD (30 nmol/L), SILOD (10 nmol/L), or their combination increased nitrergic relaxations. Potentiation by TAD was lost in human CC from patients with ED after RP but was recovered after co-treatment with SILOD. α-Adrenergic modulation, especially selective α1A-blockade, improves erectile and cavernosal

  14. Molecular cloning, sequencing and functional study of the promoter region of the human alpha2C4-adrenergic receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Schaak, S; Devedjian, J C; Cayla, C; Sender, Y; Paris, H

    1997-12-01

    Screening of a human foetal brain genomic DNA library allowed us to isolate an EcoRI-EcoRI fragment containing 6 kb of the 5'-flanking region, the open reading frame and 4 kb of the 3'-flanking region of the alpha2C4 gene. Analysis of the sequenced region (4850 bp) revealed that the first 900 bp 5' to the start codon are very rich in GC (84%), contain several Sp1-binding sites and lack a consensus TATA box. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the alpha2C4 transcript were determined by RNase-protection assays carried out with a series of antisense probes. The data obtained with cellular RNA from HepG2 cells demonstrated that transcription is initiated 891 bases upstream of the translation-start site and that the polyadenylation site is located 550 bases downstream of the stop codon. These results are consistent with the existence of a non-conventional TATA box (TTAGAAA) and the presence of a unique polyadenylation signal (AATAAA). They also fit with the size of alpha2C4-RNA found by Northern-blot analysis (2.9 kb). The transcriptional activity of the alpha2C4 promoter region was investigated by transfecting several cell types with chimaeric constructs containing various fragments of the 5'-non-coding region and luciferase as a reporter gene. The activity of the construct containing the entire 5'-non-coding region appeared to depend on the host cell. Removal of the 5'-untranslated region resulted in loss of cell specificity and a concomitant increase in luciferase activity. Transfection of HepG2 and SK-N-MC cells with constructs deleted of additional 5'-flanking fragments permitted the definition of a minimal 200 bp promoter fragment containing the pseudo-TATA box and two putative SP1-binding sites.

  15. Glaucoma, capillaries and pericytes. 4. Beta-adrenergic activation of cultured retinal pericytes.

    PubMed

    Zschauer, A O; Davis, E B; Anderson, D R

    1996-01-01

    To characterize the relaxation of pericytes induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation, changes in the contractile tone of pericytes were quantified as a change in the wrinkling of an elastic silicone surface on which they were cultured. Isoproterenol produced relaxation of pericytes in a dose-dependent manner over a range of 5 nM to 1 microM. Low concentrations of the nonselective beta-blockers propanolol and timolol blocked the relaxation produced by isoproterenol. The specific beta 2-adrenergic component of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was shown by blockage with bromoacetyl alprenolol menthane. In contrast, atenolol and betaxolol, as relatively selective beta 1-adrenergic blockers, had no effect on the isoproterenol-induced relaxation.

  16. β-Adrenergic receptor gene expression in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and encephalitis: implications for MOR-1K subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Dever, Seth M; Rodriguez, Myosotys; El-Hage, Nazira

    2016-12-01

    We previously reported that mRNA expression of the unique alternatively spliced OPRM1 isoform μ-opioid receptor-1K (MOR-1K), which exhibits excitatory cellular signaling, is elevated in HIV-infected individuals with combined neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and HIV encephalitis (HIVE). It has recently been shown that the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) chaperones MOR-1K, normally localized intracellularly, to the cell surface. Here, we found mRNA expression of the adrenoceptor beta 2 (ADRB2) gene is also elevated in NCI-HIVE individuals, as well as that β2-AR protein expression is elevated in HIV-1-infected primary human astrocytes treated with morphine, and discuss the implications for MOR-1K subcellular localization in this condition.

  17. Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Blackard, W G; Heidingsfelder, S A

    1968-06-01

    The influence of catecholamines on growth hormone secretion has been difficult to establish previously, possibly because of the suppressive effect of the induced hyperglycemia on growth hormone concentrations. In this study, an adrenergic receptor control mechanism for human growth hormone (HGH) secretion was uncovered by studying the effects of alpha and beta receptor blockade on insulin-induced growth hormone elevations in volunteer subjects. Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine during insulin hypoglycemia, 0.1 U/kg, inhibited growth hormon elevations to 30-50% of values in the same subjects during insulin hypoglycemia without adrenergic blockade. More complete inhibition by phentolamine could not be demonstrated at a lower dose of insulin (0.05 U/kg). Beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol during insulin hypoglycemia significantly enhanced HGH concentrations in paired experiments. The inhibiting effect of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade on HGH concentrations could not be attributed to differences in blood glucose or free fatty acid values; however, more prolonged hypoglycemia and lower plasma free fatty acid values may have been a factor in the greater HGH concentrations observed during beta blockade. In the absence of insulin induced hypoglycemia, neither alpha nor beta adrenergic receptor blockade had a detectable effect on HGH concentrations. Theophylline, an inhibitor of cyclic 3'5'-AMP phosphodiesterase activity, also failed to alter plasma HGH concentrations. These studies demonstrate a stimulatory effect of alpha receptors and a possible inhibitory effect of beta receptors on growth hormone secretion.

  18. Alteration of catecholamine phenotype in transgenic mice influences expression of adrenergic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Ota, A; Togari, A; Morita, S; Mizuguchi, T; Sawada, H; Yamada, K; Nagatsu, I; Matsumoto, S; Fujita, K

    1995-08-01

    Agonist-induced regulation of adrenergic receptors (ARs) has an important role in controlling physiological functions in response to changes in catecholamine stimulation. We previously generated transgenic mice expressing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) under the control of a human dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene promoter to switch catecholamine specificity from the norepinephrine phenotype to the epinephrine phenotype. In the present study, we first examined changes in catecholamine metabolism in peripheral tissues innervated by sympathetic neurons of the transgenic mice. In the transgenic target tissues, a high-level expression of PNMT led to a dramatic increase in the epinephrine levels, whereas the norepinephrine levels were decreased to 48.6-87.9% of the nontransgenic control levels. Analysis of plasma catecholamines in adrenalectomized mice showed large amounts of epinephrine derived from sympathetic neurons in the transgenic mice. Subsequently, we performed radioligand binding assays with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol to determine changes in binding sites of beta-AR subtypes. In transgenic mice, the number of beta 2-AR binding sites was 56.4-74.9% of their nontransgenic values in the lung, spleen, submaxillary gland, and kidney, whereas the beta 1-AR binding sites were regulated in a different fashion among these tissues. Moreover, northern blot analysis of total RNA from the lung tissues showed that down-regulation of beta 2 binding sites was accompanied by a significant decrease in steady-state levels of the receptor mRNA. These results strongly suggest that alteration of catecholamine specificity in the transgenic sympathetic neurons leads to regulated expression of the beta-AR subtypes in their target tissues.

  19. Increased production of beta2-microglobulin after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Erez, E; Aravot, D; Erman, A; Sharoni, E; van Oyk, D J; Raanani, E; Abramov, D; Sulkes, J; Vidne, B A

    1998-05-01

    Serum beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) levels were measured to evaluate the state of immunoactivation in stable heart transplant recipients. Serum beta2m and renal function of 29 heart transplant recipients were compared with 16 control subjects, who were age and sex matched, and 11 patients with chronic kidney failure. Serum creatinine and 24-hour urine collection for albuminuria were used as markers of renal impairment. Heart transplant recipients with normal renal function (n = 7) had significantly elevated beta2m levels compared with control subjects: 2.6 +/- 0.9 vs 1.66 +/- 0.32 microg/ml, p < or = 0.05. Heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (n = 22) had significantly elevated beta2m compared with the chronic kidney failure group: 4.42 +/- 1.3 vs 3.49 +/- 0.66 microg/ml (p < or = 0.05); although there was no significant difference in serum creatinine levels. Albuminuria excretion was significantly elevated in the chronic kidney failure group compared with the heart transplant recipients with impaired renal function (p < or = 0.05). Elevated serum beta2m in heart transplant recipients suggests increased beta2m production, reflecting increased immunoactivation. This observation could be useful in monitoring long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Beta2-agonists and exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sandra D; Caillaud, Corinne; Brannan, John D

    2006-01-01

    Beta2-agonists taken immediately before exercise provide significant protection against exercise- induced asthma (EIA) in most patients. However, when they are taken daily, there are some negative aspects regarding severity, control, and recovery from EIA. First, there is a significant minority (15-20%) of asthmatics whose EIA is not prevented by beta2-agonists, even when inhaled corticosteroids are used concomitantly. Second, with daily use, there is a decline in duration of the protective effect of long-acting beta2-agonists. Third, if breakthrough EIA occurs, recovery of lung function is slower in response to a beta2-agonist, and additional doses are often required to achieve pre-exercise values. If a person who takes a beta2-agonist daily experiences problems with exercise, then the physician should consider changing the treatment regimen to achieve better control of EIA. These problems likely result from desensitization of the beta2-receptor on the mast cell, which enhances mediator release, and on the bronchial smooth muscle, which enhances the bronchoconstrictor response and delays recovery from EIA. These effects are reversed within 72 h after cessation of a beta2-agonists. The important clinical question is: Are we actually compromising the beneficial effects of beta2-agonists on the prevention and recovery from EIA by prescribing them daily? Patients with EIA need to ensure that their doses of inhaled corticosteroid or other anti-inflammatory therapy are optimized so that, if necessary, a beta2-agonist can be used intermittently as prophylactic medication with greater confidence in the outcome.

  1. Direct analysis of beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes on intact adult ventricular myocytes of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Buxton, I.L.; Brunton, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    beta 1- and beta 2-Adrenergic receptors co-exist in the adult rat ventricle. Radioligand binding and cell purification techniques have been employed to determine the cellular origin of these receptors. The beta-adrenergic antagonist ligand (+/-)-(/sup 125/I) iodocyanopindolol binds to 2 X 10(5) receptors per purified adult rat cardiomyocyte, with a dissociation constant of 70 pM. The subtype-selective antagonists betaxolol (beta 1), practolol (beta 1), and zinterol (beta 2) compete for (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol-binding sites on intact myocytes in monophasic manners with dissociation constants of 46, 845, and 923 nM, respectively. (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol binding to membranes prepared from nonmyocyte elements of rat ventricle occurs with a dissociation constant of 43 pM and a capacity of 88 fmol/mg membrane protein. Computer analysis of competition of (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol binding by betaxolol, practolol, and zinterol in nonmyocyte membranes demonstrates biphasic curves that comprise binding to both beta 1- and beta 2-receptors. These data demonstrate that purified adult ventricular myocytes possess only beta 1-receptors, and that the beta 2-receptors found in rat ventricle are located on nonmyocyte cell types.

  2. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  3. Beta-adrenergic receptor function is acutely altered in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Marty, J; Nimier, M; Rocchiccioli, C; Mantz, J; Luscombe, F; Henzel, D; Loiseau, A; Desmonts, J M

    1990-07-01

    Catecholamine-induced desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors resulting in hyporesponsiveness to further stimulation has been frequently reported after an increase in endogenous catecholamines. To examine the possibility of beta-adrenoceptor desensitization due to intraoperative adrenergic activation (surgical stress), the alterations of human lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptor density and affinity observed after anesthesia and surgery were studied using (-)125I-iodocyanopindolol binding in 19 patients undergoing noncardiac surgical procedures with general anesthesia (thiopental, fentanyl, and halothane or isoflurane). In 13 patients, repeated determinations of plasma levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine showed an increase during the surgical procedure (norepinephrine +60%; epinephrine +60%); this change was not observed in the remaining patients. A significant postoperative increase in receptor density (Bmax +25%) and a significant decrease of receptor affinity for isoproterenol (IC50 +22%) were found in the patients who experienced intraoperative adrenergic activation. By contrast, no significant change in beta-receptor density or affinity was found in the patients who had normal intraoperative adrenergic activation. In addition, heart rate responses to the postoperative changes in plasma catecholamines (an index of cardiac sensitivity to agonist) were significantly attenuated in patients who experienced both intraoperative adrenergic activation and a decrease in affinity of beta-receptor for agonist, suggesting hyporesponsiveness to beta stimulation. We conclude that beta-adrenergic receptors and, consequently, beta-adrenergic responsiveness might be altered by perioperative adrenergic activation in surgical patients.

  4. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder. PMID:28198454

  5. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-15

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder.

  6. Biomarker Identification in Breast Cancer: Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling and Pathways to Therapeutic Response

    PubMed Central

    Kafetzopoulou, Liana E.; Boocock, David J.; Dhondalay, Gopal Krishna R.; Powe, Desmond G.; Ball, Graham R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies have associated beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling with breast cancer pathways such as progression and metastasis. These findings have been supported by clinical and epidemiological studies which examined the effect of beta-blocker therapy on breast cancer metastasis, recurrence and mortality. Results from these studies have provided initial evidence for the inhibition of cell migration in breast cancer by beta-blockers and have introduced the beta-adrenergic receptor pathways as a target for therapy. This paper analyzes gene expression profiles in breast cancer patients, utilising Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to identify molecular signatures corresponding to possible disease management pathways and biomarker treatment strategies associated with beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) cell signaling. The adrenergic receptor relationship to cancer is investigated in order to validate the results of recent studies that suggest the use of beta-blockers for breast cancer therapy. A panel of genes is identified which has previously been reported to play an important role in cancer and also to be involved in the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling. PMID:24688711

  7. Structural and functional alterations in the beta2-adrenoceptor are caused by a point mutation in patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Schallreuter, Karin U; Wei, Yuwang; Pittelkow, Mark R; Swanson, Norma N; Gibbons, Nicholas C J; Wood, John M

    2007-10-01

    The density of beta2-adrenoceptors is significantly decreased in both keratinocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with atopic eczema. Furthermore both cell types showed a sixfold increase in the K(D) for the specific binding of the non-specific antagonists (-)-[(3)H]CGP 12177 and [(125) I]CYP to keratinocytes and lymphocytes respectively compared with healthy controls. Based on these results polymorphism in the beta2-adrenoceptor gene was suspected. Consequently the entire intronless beta2-adrenoceptor gene was isolated from whole blood and by RT-PCR from keratinocyte extracts of nine patients with atopic eczema and four healthy controls. DNA sequence analysis of nine atopic eczema patients confirmed a substitution in codon (1618) GCC (Ala(119)) to GAC (Asp(119)). This point mutation is expressed on the third transmembrane helix only 13A away from the established agonist/antagonist binding site at Asp(113). Computer modelling of this third transmembrane helix revealed substantial structural changes in the mutant compared with the wild type. Epidermal keratinocytes were established from one patient with atopic eczema (homozygote), the mother (heterozygote) and one age-matched healthy control. Cells were grown in media containing different concentrations of l-phenylalanine and receptor densities were determined. The results showed that cells with atopic eczema showed an increased sensitivity to l-phenylalanine concentrations with a narrow homeostasis compared with healthy controls. The heterozygous mother was only 50% as sensitive as the child. In summary, the results indicate that atopic eczema is associated with a single point mutation in the beta2-adrenoceptor gene leading to an impaired adrenergic response in the epidermis of these patients.

  8. β-Adrenergic blockers.

    PubMed

    Frishman, William H; Saunders, Elijah

    2011-09-01

    KEY POINTS AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: •  β-Blockers are appropriate treatment for patients with hypertension and those who have concomitant ischemic heart disease, heart failure, obstructive cardiomyopathy, or certain arrhythmias. •  β-Blockers can be used in combination with other antihypertensive drugs to achieve maximal blood pressure control. Labetalol can be used in hypertensive emergencies and urgencies. •  β-Blockers may be useful in patients having hyperkinetic circulation (palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, and anxiety), migraine headache, and essential tremor. •  β-Blockers are highly heterogeneous with respect to various pharmacologic effects: degree of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, membrane-stabilizing activity, β(1) selectivity, α(1) -adrenergic-blocking effect, tissue solubility, routes of systemic elimination, potencies and duration of action, and specific effects may be important in the selection of a drug for clinical use. •  β-Blocker usage to reduce perioperative ischemia and cardiovascular complications may not benefit as many patients as was once hoped and may actually cause harm in some individuals. Currently the best evidence supports β-blocker use in two patient groups: patients undergoing vascular surgery with known ischemic heart disease or multiple risk factors for it and for patients already receiving β-blockers for known cardiovascular conditions.

  9. Characterization of the beta2-microglobulin gene of the horse.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Lear, Teri L; Johnson, Amanda K; Guérin, Gérard; Millon, Lee V; Carpenter, Susan L; Antczak, Douglas F

    2003-01-01

    A clone containing beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-m), the light chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I cell surface molecule, was isolated from an equine bacterial artificial chromosome library. This clone was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and unidirectional sequencing to elucidate the genomic sequence and intron/exon boundaries. We obtained 7,000 bases of sequence, extending from 1,100 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the coding region start through 1,698 nt downstream of the stop codon. The sequence contained regulatory elements in the region upstream of the coding sequence similar to those of the beta(2)-m gene of other species. The beta(2)-m gene was localized to horse chromosome ECA1q23-q25 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. This was confirmed by synteny mapping on a (horse x mouse) somatic cell hybrid panel. The sequence and intron/exon boundaries determined were used to design PCR primers to amplify and sequence the coding region of the beta(2)-m gene in other equids, including five breeds of domestic horse, one Przewalski's horse, five domestic donkeys and five zebras. A high degree of conservation was found among equids, illustrated by >98% (349/354) identity at the nucleotide level and 95% (113/118) at the amino acid level, because of non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions. The promoter detected in the region upstream of the coding sequence was subcloned and used in chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assays to demonstrate the presence of a functional promoter. This study provides tools for the analysis of regulation of not only the horse beta(2)-m gene, but also for any genes dependent upon beta(2)-m for expression.

  10. Overlap of dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotoninergic receptors and complementarity of their subtypes in primate prefrontal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman-Rakic, P.S.; Lidow, M.S.; Gallager, D.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to determine and compare the areal and laminar distribution of the major dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter receptors in 4 cytoarchitectonic regions of the prefrontal cortex in adult rhesus monkeys. The selective ligands, 3H-SCH-23390, 3H-raclopride, 3H-prazosin, and 3H-clonidine were used to label the D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes and the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, respectively, while 125I-iodopindolol was used to detect beta-adrenergic receptors. The radioligands, 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine and 3H-ketanserin labeled, respectively, the 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Densitometry was performed on all cortical layers and sublayers for each of the 7 ligands to allow quantitative as well as qualitative comparison among them in each cytoarchitectonic area. Although each monoamine receptor was distributed in a distinctive laminar-specific pattern that was remarkably similar from area to area, there was considerable overlap among the dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotoninergic receptors, while subtypes of the same receptor class tended to have complementary laminar profiles and different concentrations. Thus, the D1 dopamine, the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic, and the 5-HT1 receptors were present in highest relative concentration in superficial layers I, II, and IIIa (the S group). In contrast, the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic subtypes and the 5-HT2 receptor had their highest concentrations in the intermediate layers, IIIb and IV (the I group), while the D2 receptor was distinguished by relatively high concentrations in the deep layer V compared to all other layers (the D class). Thus, clear laminar differences were observed in the D1 vs D2 dopaminergic, the alpha- vs beta-adrenergic, and the 5-HT1 vs 5-HT2 serotoninergic receptor subtypes in all 4 areas examined.

  11. Lacking prognostic significance of beta 2-microglobulin, MHC class I and class II antigen expression in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wintzer, H. O.; Benzing, M.; von Kleist, S.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of MHC antigen expression on the survival of patients with cancer, 77 human breast carcinomas were investigated for the expression of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR. Thirty-one benign breast tumours were stained for comparison. The results for the carcinomas were related to the survival data of the cancer patients. The expression of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR was significantly lower in malignant tumours compared to the benign lesions. Whereas all benign tumours were positive for beta 2m and HLA-A,B,C and 28/31 positive for HLA-DR the following positivity rates were found in carcinomas: 74/77 for beta 2m, 57/77 for HLA-A,B,C and 10/77 for HLA-DR. The follow-up (median 45 months) of 66 cancer patients for overall survival and of 65 patients for disease-free survival revealed no influence of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C or HLA-DR expression on the prognosis of this cancer. In conclusion, experimental data indicating the importance of MHC antigens in anti-tumour responses are not confirmed by the analysis of cancer patient survival data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2201398

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits TGF-beta2 stimulation of extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells: role of gremlin in ECM modulation.

    PubMed

    Zode, Gulab S; Clark, Abbot F; Wordinger, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The characteristic cupping of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucoma is associated with elevated TGF-beta2 and increased synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In addition to TGF-beta2, the human ONH also expresses bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP receptors, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. We examined the potential effects of BMP4 and the BMP antagonist gremlin on TGF-beta2 induction of ECM proteins in ONH cells. BMP-4 dose dependently inhibited TGF-beta2-induced fibronectin (FN) and PAI-1 expression in ONH astrocytes and lamina cribrosa (LC) cells and also reduced TGF-beta2 stimulation of collagen I, collagen VI, and elastin. Addition of gremlin blocked this BMP-4 response, increasing cellular and secreted FN as well as PAI-1 levels in both cell types. Gremlin was expressed in ONH tissues and ONH cells, and gremlin protein levels were significantly increased in the LC region of human glaucomatous ONH tissues. Interestingly, recombinant gremlin dose dependently increased ECM protein expression in cultured ONH astrocytes and LC cells. Gremlin stimulation of ECM required activation of TGF-beta receptor and R-Smad3. TGF-beta2 increased gremlin mRNA expression and protein levels in ONH cells. Inhibition of either the type I TGF-beta receptor or Smad3 phosphorylation blocked TGF-beta2-induced gremlin expression. In conclusion, BMP4 blocked the TGF-beta2 induction of ECM proteins in ONH cells. The BMP antagonist gremlin reversed this inhibition, allowing TGF-beta2 stimulation of ECM synthesis. Increased expression of gremlin in the glaucomatous ONH may further exacerbate TGF-beta2 effects on ONH ECM metabolism by inhibiting BMP-4 antagonism of TGF-beta2 signaling. Modulation of the ECM via gremlin provides a novel therapeutic target for glaucoma.

  13. Role of beta2 agonists in respiratory medicine with particular attention to novel patents and effects on endocrine system and immune response.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Nancy E; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny V; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2011-09-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.

  14. Phosphorylation and function of alpha4beta2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Isabel; Moroni, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha4 and beta2 subunits expressed in heterologous expression systems assemble into high- and low-affinity receptors (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003), which reflects the assembly of two distinct subunit stoichiometries of alpha4beta2 receptor (Nelson et al., 2003). The high-affinity receptor ([alpha4]2[beta2]3) is about 100-fold more sensitive to ACh than the low-affinity receptor ([alpha4]3[beta2]2) (Zwart and Vijverberg, 1998; Buisson and Bertrand, 2001; Houlihan et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2003). Recent evidence implicated 14-3-3 proteins as modulators of the relative abundance of nAChR subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where ligand-gated ion channels assemble. The 14-3-3 proteins influence ER-to-plasma membrane trafficking of multimeric cell-surface proteins (O'Kelly et al., 2002). 14-3-3 proteins bind components of these multimeric proteins, and this interaction overrides dibasic COP1 retention signal to permit forward transport of the protein (O'Kelly et al., 2002). In the case of alpha4beta2 nAChRs, 14-3-3 binds the alpha4 subunit, and this association is dependent on phosphorylation of a serine residue within a protein kinase A(PKA) consensus sequence in the large cytoplasmic domain of the alpha4 subunit, which is also a binding motif recognized by 14-3-3 (Jeancloss et al., 2001; O'Kelly et al., 2002). The interplay among PKA, alpha4 subunits, and 14-3-3 proteins increases cell-surface expression of alpha4beta2 nAChRs by increasing steady-state levels of the alpha4 subunit available for assembly with beta2 subunits (Jeancloss et al., 2001). Because it is not known how 14-3-3-dependent changes in the steady-state levels of the alpha4 subunit might affect the functional type of alpha4beta2 receptors, we have investigated the effects of mutations of the 14-3-3 binding motif in the alpha4 subunit on alpha4beta2 nAChR function.

  15. Binding of [3H]idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative [3H] RX821002 in human fat cells: [3H]idazoxan but not [3H] RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites.

    PubMed

    Langin, D; Paris, H; Lafontan, M

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, [3H]idazoxan and its methoxy derivative [3H]RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that [3H]RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas [3H]idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described "imidazoline-preferring sites." [3H]idazoxan and [3H]RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible [3H]RX821002 binding sites, without modification of [3H]idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. [3H]idazoxan binding, but not [3H]RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  16. The heavy chain of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG is sequestered in endoplasmic reticulum by forming oligomers in the absence of beta2-microglobulin association.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Peng, Junmin; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Nakajima, Atsushi; Lencer, Wayne I; Blumberg, Richard S

    2002-01-01

    The heavy chain (HC) of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG is non-convalently associated with beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m). In beta(2)m(-/-) mice, FcRn functions are greatly impaired. We sought to determine how FcRn HC, particularly its structure and biogenesis, is affected by the absence of beta(2)m. Human FcRn HC, expressed from the beta(2)m-null cell line FO-1(FcRn), was present as a monomeric 45-kDa protein under reducing conditions but primarily as a 92-kDa oligomeric protein under non-reducing conditions. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS analysis showed that the 92-kDa protein was a dimer of the 45-kDa HC. Immunostaining showed that FcRn HC in FO-1(FcRn) was co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bip/GRP78 but not with an endosome protein, EEA1. In contrast, FcRn HC in FO-1(FcRn+beta2m) was detected in both the ER and endosome. The dimeric HC in FcRn oligomers was free of beta(2)m association in FO-1(FcRn+beta2m). Mutation of non-paired cysteine residues at positions 48 and 251 within the human FcRn cDNA failed to eliminate the oligomers. The FcRn HC oligomers could be reduced by reconstitution of FO-1(FcRn) with beta(2)m or by balanced expression of FcRn HC with beta(2)m, or beta(2)m fused with a KDEL retention sequence. Similarly, the majority of FcRn HC isolated from neonatal beta(2)m(-/-) mice was in a dimeric form under non-reducing conditions. The amount of FcRn HC was significantly decreased in beta(2)m(-/-) mice and FO-1(FcRn). Furthermore, beta(2)m-free FcRn HC was sensitive to endoglycosidase digestion. These results indicate that FcRn HC alone can form disulphide-bonded oligomers in the ER, which may represent a misfolded protein. The beta(2)m association with FcRn HC is critical for correct folding of FcRn and exiting the ER for routing to endosomes and the cell surface. PMID:12162790

  17. Beta-adrenergic receptors are differentially expressed in distinct interneuron subtypes in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Cox, David J; Racca, Claudia; LeBeau, Fiona E N

    2008-08-20

    Noradrenaline (NA) acting via beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) plays an important role in the modulation of memory in the hippocampus. betaARs have been shown to be expressed in principal cells, but their distribution across different interneuron classes is unknown. We have used specific interneuron markers including calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) and neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin) together with either beta1AR or beta2AR to determine the distribution of these receptors in all major subfields of the hippocampus. We found that beta1AR-expressing interneurons were more prevalent in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus than in the dentate gyrus, where they were relatively sparse. beta2AR-expressing interneurons were more uniformly distributed between all three regions of the hippocampus. A high proportion of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus co-expressed beta2AR. beta1AR labeling was common in interneurons expressing somatostatin and parvalbumin in the CA3 and CA1 regions, particularly in the stratum oriens of these regions. beta2AR labeling was more likely to be found than beta1AR labeling in cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. In contrast, calretinin-containing interneurons were virtually devoid of beta1AR or beta2AR labeling. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences suggest functionally distinct roles for NA in modulating hippocampal activity via activation of betaARs.

  18. Adrenergic and non-adrenergic control of active skeletal muscle blood flow: implications for blood pressure regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Blood flow to active skeletal muscle increases markedly during dynamic exercise. However, despite the massive capacity of skeletal muscle vasculature to dilate, arterial blood pressure is well maintained. Sympathetic nerve activity is elevated with increased intensity of dynamic exercise, and is essential for redistribution of cardiac output to active skeletal muscle and maintenance of arterial blood pressure. In addition, aside from the sympathetic nervous system, evidence from human studies is now emerging that supports roles for non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways that become active during exercise and contribute to vasoconstriction in active skeletal muscle. Neuropeptide Y and adenosine triphosphate are neurotransmitters that are co-released with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals capable of producing vasoconstriction. Likewise, plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) increase during dynamic exercise, particularly at higher intensities. Ang II and ET-1 have both been shown to be important vasoconstrictor pathways for restraint of blood flow in active skeletal muscle and the maintenance of arterial blood pressure during exercise. Indeed, although both adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstriction can be attenuated in exercising muscle with greater intensity of exercise, with the higher volume of blood flow, the active skeletal muscle vasculature remains capable of contributing importantly to the maintenance of blood pressure. In this brief review we provide an update on skeletal muscle blood flow regulation during exercise with an emphasis on adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathways and their potential capacity to offset vasodilation and aid in the regulation of blood pressure.

  19. The beta-1 adrenergic antagonist, betaxolol, improves working memory performance in rats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Brian P; Colgan, Lesley; Nou, Eric; Ovadia, Shira; Wilson, Steven R; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that beta adrenergic receptor stimulation has no effect on the cognitive functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Blockade of beta-1 and beta-2 receptors in the PFC with the mixed beta-1/beta-2 antagonist, propanolol, had no effect on spatial working memory performance. However, more selective blockade of beta-1 or beta-2 receptors might show efficacy if the two receptors have opposite effects on PFC function. The current study examined the effects of the selective beta-1 antagonist, betaxolol, on working memory in rats and monkeys. In rats, betaxolol (.0011-1.11 microg/.5 microL) was infused into the PFC 5 min before delayed alternation testing. Monkeys were systemically injected with betaxolol (.0000011-.11 mg/kg) 2 hours before delayed response testing. Betaxolol produced a dose-related improvement in working memory performance following either direct PFC infusion in rats, or systemic administration in monkeys. However, some aged monkeys developed serious pancreatic problems over the course of this study. These findings suggest that endogenous activation of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor impairs PFC cognitive function. These results may have therapeutic relevance to post-traumatic stress disorder or other disorders with excessive noradrenergic activity and PFC dysfunction. Pancreatic side effects in aged subjects taking betaxolol warrants further investigation.

  20. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  1. Synergistic mobilization of hemopoietic progenitor cells using concurrent beta1 and beta2 integrin blockade or beta2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Papayannopoulou, T; Priestley, G V; Nakamoto, B; Zafiropoulos, V; Scott, L M; Harlan, J M

    2001-03-01

    The hierarchy of cytoadhesion molecules involved in hematopoietic/stem progenitor cell mobilization has not yet been delineated. Previous studies have suggested an important role for alpha4beta1 integrin in this process. To test whether mobilization involves dynamic interactions of alpha4beta1 with other integrins on hematopoietic cells, especially the beta2 integrins, mice and primates were treated with anti-beta1 or anti-beta2 antibodies alone or in combination. A single injection of anti-alpha4beta1 antibody elicited reproducible mobilization in contrast to other antibodies, and 3 injections yielded higher mobilization efficiency than each of the other antibodies. When the anti-beta2 (anti-CD11a or anti-CD18) or anti-alpha5/beta1 integrin antibody was combined with anti-alpha4, an augmentation in mobilization was seen that was either additive or synergistic, depending on the potency of the antibody used. Synergy between anti-alpha4 and anti-CD18 (beta(2)) antibody blockade was seen in primates and confirmed in anti-alpha4-treated CD18-deficient mice. In the latter, there was a 49-fold increase in mobilization with anti-alpha4, much higher than in littermate control animals, in CD18 hypomorphic mice, or in other strains of mice tested. Data from both the antibody blockade and gene-targeted mice suggest that the cooperativity of alpha4beta1 with beta2 integrins becomes evident when they are concurrently inhibited. It is unclear whether this cooperativity is exerted at the stage of reversible adhesion versus migration, and enhancement of and whether the 2 integrins work in a sequential or parallel manner. Whatever the mechanism, the data provide a novel example of beta1 and beta2 integrin crosstalk in stem/progenitor cell mobilization.

  2. The role of nitric oxide in the peripheral vasoconstriction caused by human placental lactogen in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Molinari, C; Grossini, E; Mary, D A S G; Ribichini, F; Surico, N; Vacca, G

    2006-05-01

    Regional intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen in anaesthetized pigs has been shown to cause coronary, renal and iliac vasoconstriction by antagonizing the vasodilatory effects of beta2-adrenergic receptors. Since nitric oxide is known to modulate or mediate beta2-adrenergic effects, the present study was planned in the same experimental model to determine the role of nitric oxide in the above vascular responses to human placental lactogen. In eight pigs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone, changes in anterior descending coronary, left renal and left internal iliac blood flow caused by intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen at constant heart rate and arterial blood pressure were assessed using electromagnetic flowmeters. Intra-arterial infusion of the human placental lactogen caused decreases in coronary, renal and iliac blood flow which, respectively, averaged 16.7, 8.1 and 12.2% of the baseline values. The role of nitric oxide in this response was studied in the same pigs by repeating the experiments, after measured blood flows had returned to baseline values, following intra-arterial administration of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The subsequent intra-arterial infusion of human placental lactogen did not cause any significant changes in measured blood flows, even when performed after reversing the increase in arterial blood pressure and coronary, renal and iliac resistance caused by L-NAME with continuous intravenous infusion of papaverine. These results indicate that the coronary, renal and iliac vasoconstriction caused by human placental lactogen, known to involve antagonism of beta2-adrenergic vasodilatory effects, was mediated by inhibition of nitric oxide release.

  3. Beta2-Agonist Doping Control and Optical Isomer Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Fawcett, J Paul

    2016-12-01

    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) currently allows therapeutic use of the beta2-agonists salbutamol, formoterol and salmeterol when delivered via inhalation despite some evidence suggesting these anti-asthma drugs may be performance enhancing. Beta2-agonists are usually administered as 50:50 racemic mixtures of two enantiomers (non-superimposable mirror images), one of which demonstrates significant beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated bronchodilation while the other appears to have little or no pharmacological activity. For salbutamol and formoterol, urine thresholds have been adopted to limit supratherapeutic dosing and to discriminate between inhaled (permitted) and oral (prohibited) use. However, chiral switches have led to the availability of enantiopure (active enantiomer only) preparations of salbutamol and formoterol, which effectively doubles their urine thresholds and provides a means for athletes to take supratherapeutic doses for doping purposes. Given the availability of these enantiopure beta2-agonists, the analysis of these drugs using enantioselective assays should now become routine. For salmeterol, there is currently only a therapeutic dose threshold and adoption of a urinary threshold should be a high priority for doping control.

  4. alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms in spontaneous contractile activity of rat ileal longitudinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2005-02-01

    Gastrointestinal motility is influenced by adrenergic modulation. Our aim was to identify specific subtypes of adrenergic receptors involved in inhibitory mechanisms that modulate gut smooth muscle contractile activity. Muscle strips of rat ileal longitudinal muscle were evaluated for spontaneous contractile activity and for equimolar dose-responses (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M) to the adrenergic agents norepinephrine (nonselective agonist), phenylephrine (alpha(1)-agonist), clonidine (alpha(2)-agonist), prenalterol (beta(1)-agonist), ritodrine (beta(2)-agonist), and ZD7114 (beta(3)-agonist) in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin (nonselective nerve blocker). Norepinephrine (3 x 10(-5) M) inhibited 65 +/- 6% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous contractile activity. The same molar dose of ritodrine, phenylephrine, or ZD7114 resulted in less inhibition (46 +/- 7%, 31 +/- 5%, and 39 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). The calculated molar concentration of ZD7114 needed to induce 50% inhibition was similar to that of norepinephrine, whereas higher concentrations of phenylephrine or ritodrine were required. Clonidine and prenalterol had no effect on contractile activity. Blockade of intramural neural transmission by tetrodotoxin affected the responses to ritodrine and phenylephrine (but not to norepinephrine or ZD7114), suggesting that these agents exert part of their effects via neurally mediated enteric pathways. Our results suggest that adrenergic modulation of contractile activity in the rat ileum is mediated primarily by muscular beta(3)-, beta(2)-, and alpha(1)-receptor mechanisms; the latter two also involve neural pathways.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  10. Relation of beta(2)-adrenoceptor haplotype to risk of death and heart transplantation in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaekyu; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T; Gong, Yan; Zineh, Issam; Langaee, Taimour Y; Yarandi, Hossein; Schofield, Richard S; Aranda, Juan M; Hill, James A; Pauly, Daniel F; Johnson, Julie A

    2007-01-15

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by neurohormonal activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems. Genetic polymorphisms in these systems could alter the prognosis in HF. We hypothesized the genetic polymorphisms in the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems are associated with adverse outcomes, defined as death or heart transplantation in patients with HF. A total of 227 patients with HF were enrolled from a tertiary care clinic and followed for outcomes for < or =4 years. Eight polymorphisms in 6 genes were genotyped: beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1, S49G, R389G), beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2, G16R, Q27E), alpha(2c)-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2C, insertion/deletion 322-325), angiotensinogen (AGT, M235T), angiotensin receptor type 1 (AGTR1, 1166A>C), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, insertion/deletion in intron 16). Most patients were treated according to consensus guidelines. Male gender (hazard ratio 2.24, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 3.94), higher New York Heart Association functional class (hazard ratio 2.54, 95% confidence interval 1.84 to 3.52), and 2 copies of ADRB2 Arg16Gln27 haplotype (hazard ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 3.36) increased the risk of adverse outcomes. In contrast, a higher serum sodium level (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 0.97) and higher creatinine clearance (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 0.99) decreased the risk of adverse outcomes. None of the other genotypes/haplotypes were associated with adverse outcomes. In conclusion, ADRB2 Arg16Gln27 haplotype may significantly increase the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with HF receiving contemporary HF pharmacotherapy.

  11. Beta2-adrenergic stimulation increases energy expenditure at rest, but not during submaximal exercise in active overweight men.

    PubMed

    Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn; Narkowicz, Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kalsen, Anders; Kreiberg, Michael; Jessen, Søren; Bangsbo, Jens; Hostrup, Morten

    2017-07-12

    β2-Agonists have been proposed as weight-loss treatment, because they elevate energy expenditure. However, it is unknown what effect β2-agonists have on energy expenditure in overweight individuals. Furthermore, the influence of β2-agonist R- and S-enantiomer ratio for the increased energy expenditure is insufficiently explored. Nineteen males were included in the study of which 14 completed. Subjects were 31.6 (±3.5) years [mean (±95% CI)] and had a fat percentage of 22.7 (±2.1)%. On separate days, subjects received either placebo or inhaled racemic (rac-) formoterol (2 × 27 µg). After an overnight fast, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were estimated by indirect calorimetry at rest and during submaximal exercise. Plasma (R,R)- and (S,S)-formoterol enantiomer levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. At rest, energy expenditure and fat oxidation were 12% (P ≤ 0.001) and 38% (P = 0.006) higher for rac-formoterol than placebo. Systemic (R,R):(S,S) formoterol ratio was correlated with change in energy expenditure at rest in response to rac-formoterol (r = 0.63, P = 0.028), whereas no association was observed between fat percentage and rac-formoterol-induced change in energy expenditure. During exercise, energy expenditure was not different between treatments, although carbohydrate oxidation was 15% higher (P = 0.021) for rac-formoterol than placebo. Rac-formoterol-induced shift in substrate choice from rest to exercise was related to plasma ln-rac-formoterol concentrations (r = 0.75, P = 0.005). Selective β2-adrenoceptor agonism effectively increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in overweight individuals. The potential for weight loss induced by β2-agonists may be greater for R-enantiopure formulations.

  12. The β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for browning of adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jasper M A; Wouters, René T F; Boulet, Nathalie; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Petrovic, Natasa

    2017-02-21

    Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes. However, when comparing wild-type and β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice, we observed no differences in cold-induced thermogenic gene expression (Ucp1, Pgc1a, Dio2 and Cidea) in brown or white (brite/beige) adipose tissues. Irrespective of the duration of the cold exposure or the sex of the mice, we observed no effect of the absence of the β3-adrenergic receptor. Experiments with the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL-316,243 verified the functional absence of β3-adrenergic signaling in these knockout mice. The β3-adrenergic receptor knockout model in the present study was maintained on a FVB/N background, whereas earlier reports used C57BL/6 and 129Sv mice. Thus, our data imply background-dependent differences in adrenergic signaling mechanisms in response to cold exposure. Nonetheless, the present data indicate that the β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for cold-induced transcriptional activation in both classical brown and, as opposed to earlier studies, brite/beige cells. This should be taken into account in the increasing number of studies on the induction of browning and their extrapolation to human physiology.

  13. Exercise induced changes in lymphocyte beta adrenergic receptors correlate with peak exercise heart rates in healthy trained and sedentary human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, M.; Engelmeier, R.; Glisson, S.; Scanlon, P.

    1986-03-05

    Lymphocyte beta adrenergic receptors (lymph BAR) increase after maximal multistage treadmill exercise (TME) presumably by externalization from intracellular vesicles. Nine healthy subjects underwent symptom limited TME by the Bruce protocol. Heart rate was measured at the end of each 3 minute stage. Plasma norepinephrine (NE), plasma epinephrine (EPI) and lymph BAR were measured at rest and at peak exercise. Catecholamines were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Lymph BAR were measured by separating cells from 25cc of whole blood across a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient and incubating membrane preparations with 7 dilutions of I/sup 125/ cyanopindolol in the presence or absence of 1..mu..M(-) propranolol in a total assay volume of 450 ..mu..l. BAR was standardized to Lowry-Peterson protein at rest and exercise. The relationship of maximum heart rate versus peak plasma NE, EPI and lymph BAR was analyzed by linear regression. The following conclusions were reached: (1) there is a significant correlation between exercise induced changes in lymph BAR and peak heart rate; (2) this relationship does not exist between peak plasma NE or EPI and peak heart rate.

  14. [Influence of endogenous catecholamines on responses of rat lung to beta-adrenergic agonists].

    PubMed

    Candenas, M L; Anselmi, E

    1988-12-01

    Relaxation responses to the beta-adrenoceptor agonists: isoprenaline (non selective), salbutamol (beta 2-selective) and noradrenaline (plus phentolamine 10(-5) M) (beta 1-selective) have been obtained on rat lung parenchymal strips in the absence and presence of pargyline and tropolone (monoamino-oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors), cocaine (neuronal uptake blocking agent), corticosterone (extraneuronal uptake inhibitor) as well as in reserpinized rat. Responses to these beta-adrenergic agonists were not potentiated in the presence of any of these inhibitors. This indicates that endogenous catecholamines, enzymatic or uptake processes, do not modulate beta-adrenoceptor mediated responses of rat lung strip and demonstrates that there is no correlation between neuronal uptake/beta 1-adrenoceptors and extraneuronal uptake/beta 2-adrenoceptor mediated responses, as had previously been suggested.

  15. [Arterial hypertension. Density of alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in blood platelets, beta adrenergic receptors in the lymphocytes and serum catecholamine levels].

    PubMed

    Halawa, B

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the sympathetic nervous system on blood pressure is mediated predominantly by catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine acting on alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. The study of human alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptors in hypertension is hampered by the lack of easily accessible cardiovascular tissues. Therefore numerous investigators have used platelets as a model system to study alpha-adrenergic receptors and lymphocytes to study beta-adrenergic receptors in humans. During the last decade some studies with small patient numbers have been published, that generally did not detect significant differences in platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor density between normotensive and hypertensive subjects, however, most investigators have described higher density of beta-receptors in lymphocytes from hypertensive patients than in cells from normotensive control subjects. This study was carried out to analyse density of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors in platelet membrane preparations and beta-adrenoreceptors in lymphocytes before and after physiological increase in plasma catecholamines. It was found that density of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoreceptors in platelet membranes of patients with stable blood hypertension was similar to that in the healthy individuals while beta-adrenergic receptors density in lymphocytes was higher. In normotensives posture induced rise in plasma catecholamines correlated with reduced alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoreceptors density as well as beta-adrenoreceptor density. Hypertensive subjects had similar rise in plasma catecholamines with upright posture, but no changes in receptor density was observed. These suggest that in hypertension alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic regulation by agonist may be disturbed.

  16. Detection of beta 2-agonists in milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Montana, M; Pasqualucci, C; Brambilla, G; Pompa, G

    1995-01-01

    beta 2-Agonist drugs may be illegally used as growth promoters for feedlot calves, when mixed into milk replacer immediately before feeding. To check for the presence of clenbuterol, salbutamol and terbutaline in such food, an analytical system was established using a screening method based on two commercial qualitative competitive ELISA tests, with antibodies raised against the arylamino group and the t-butyl group. The extraction procedure was based on precipitation of the milk samples with acetonitrile followed by filtration. The absence of any significant interference by other substances in the filtrate allowed detection of beta 2-agonist drugs in spiked samples at the lowest concentration having a repartitioning effect (50 ppb for clenbuterol, mabuterol and terbutaline, 500 ppb for salbutamol). In view of a false positive response with tetracycline in milk samples and a cross-reaction between clenbuterol and mabuterol, an HPLC-MS technique was developed which, after extraction and purification of the samples with SPE C18 Polar Plus, was able to confirm the presence of these drugs. The good recovery after extraction (ranging from 84% to 90.2%) and the low detection limit with this method (250 ng/ml for clenbuterol, mabuterol and terbutaline, and 2.5 micrograms/ml for salbutamol) allowed easy confirmation and simultaneous detection of the four beta 2-agonists at the lowest concentrations at which they are used in adulterated milk for calves.

  17. Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.

    PubMed

    Nemati, H; Boskabady, M H; Ahmadzadef Vostakolaei, H

    2008-12-01

    To study the mechanism(s) of the relaxant effects of Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), the stimulatory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of this plant and one of its constituent, safranal was examined on beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal chains of guinea pigs. The beta(2)-adrenergic stimulatory was tested by performing the cumulative concentration-response curves of isoprenaline-induced relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. The studied solutions were included two concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract from Crocus sativus (0.1 and 0.2g%), safranal (1.25 and 2.5 microg), 10nM propranolol, and saline. The study was done in two different conditions including: non-incubated (group 1, n=9) and incubated tissues with 1 microM chlorpheniramine (group 2, n=6). The results showed clear leftward shifts in isoprenaline curves obtained in the presence of only higher concentration of the extract in group 1 and its both concentrations in group 2 compared with that of saline. The EC(50) (the effective concentration of isoprenaline, causing 50% of maximum response) obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract (0.17+/-0.06 and 0.12+/-0.02) and safranal (0.22+/-0.05 and 0.22+/-0.05) in group 1 and only in the presence of two concentrations of the extract (1.16+/-0.31 and 0.68+/-0.21) in group 2 was significantly lower compared to saline (1.00+/-0.22 and 4.06+/-1.04 for groups 1 and 2, respectively) (p<0.05-0.001). The maximum responses obtained in the presence of both concentrations of the extract and safranal in group 1 were significantly lower than that of saline (p<0.005 for all cases). All values (CR-1=(EC(50) obtained in the presence of active substances/EC(50), obtained in the presence of saline)-1) obtained in the presence of higher concentrations of extract in group 1, its both concentrations and higher concentration of safranal in group 2 were negative and there were significant differences in this value between propranolol and

  18. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  19. Metabolism of the alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor antagonist, pyridine-phenylpiperazine analog (RWJ-69597), in rat, dog and human hepatic S9 fractions -API-MS/MS identification of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wu, W N; McKown, L A; Kuo, G H

    2005-01-01

    The In vitro metabolism of the alpha-1A-adrenergic antagonist, RWJ-69597, an analog of pyridine-phenylpiperazines, was conducted after incubation with rat, dog and human hepatic S9 fractions in the presence of an NADPH-generating system. Unchanged RWJ-69597 (> or =43% of the sample in all species) plus 9 metabolites were profiled, quantified, and tentatively identified on the basis of API-MS and MS/MS data. The four metabolic pathways for the formation of RWJ-69597 metabolites are: 1. methyl/phenyl/piperazinylhydroxylation, 2. N/Odealkylation, 3. N-dephenylation, and 4. dehydration. Pathway 1 formed 1 major (8-36%) and 3 minor (<1-3%) hydroxylated metabolites. Pathway 2 produced 2 moderate/minor N/O-dealkylated metabolites (<1- < or =11%), and in conjunction with pathway 1, formed 1 minor diol metabolites (< or =2%). Pathways 3 and 4 generated 2 minor metabolites, N-desphenyl RWJ-69597 (< or =4%) and dehydrated RWJ-69597 (< or =2%), respectively. RWJ-69597 is more extensively metabolized in the rat than the dog or the human in this hepatic system.

  20. Alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists as analgesics.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R E

    2001-08-01

    Alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists are analgesic agents, and the alpha2-adrenergic agonist clonidine has been used in clinical studies for regional analgesia after intrathecal administration. We review here recent developments concerning the structure activity relationships of a new class of potent alpha2-adrenergic agonists and their use as analgesic agents. The effect of structure upon cardiovascular side-effects is also monitored, such as the prolongation of the QT portion of the cardiac action potential.

  1. Mucociliary clearance in COPD can be increased by both a D2/beta2 and a standard beta2 agonists.

    PubMed

    Hasani, A; Toms, N; Agnew, J E; Lloyd, J; Dilworth, J P

    2005-02-01

    In addition to breathlessness and cough, excessive mucus production is one of the main symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Excess mucus coupled with deteriorating mucociliary clearance is associated with a decline in lung function and an increased risk of death from pulmonary infection. The effect of Viozan (Sibenadet HCl, AR-C68397AA), a novel dual D2 dopamine receptor, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, on mucociliary clearance was investigated together with that of a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, salbutamol. Using a double blind, parallel group study design, 15 patients with COPD, all habitual smokers, were randomised to receive nebulised sidenadet (3mg tid; n = 7) or salbutamol (5mg tid; n = 8) for 10 days. Lung mucociliary clearance rates were measured, by a standard radioaerosol technique, before and after the treatment period, as were 24-h sputum volumes. Both sibenadet and salbutamol therapies resulted in significant (P<0.02) enhancement of lung mucociliary clearance. The 24-h sputum volume was significantly reduced following sibenadet therapy (P<0.03) whereas salbutamol therapy had no effect. Our results, in addition to illustrating the effects of a standard beta2 agonist on mucociliary clearance, strongly suggest the potential dual benefit of dual-agonist compounds in lessening sputum production whilst simultaneously enhancing mucociliary clearance. For reasons unconnected with the present study, development work on this specific formulation is no Longer proceeding.

  2. [Renal handling of beta2 microglobulin. Its significance in carriers of adolescent nephronophthisis (NPH3)].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen; Araque, Carolina; Méndez, Jorge; Angulo, Luisa; Fargier, Bernardo

    2007-06-01

    The adolescent nephronophthisis (NPH3) is a variant of the nephronophthisis. In Venezuela, one to three patients have been registered each year, all of them belonging to the same family tree. The objective of this study was to evaluate the function of the proximal convoluted tubule in NPHP3 carriers; using the beta2M as biological marker. Eight carriers, 7 heterozygotes and 1 homozygote, with normal renal function were compared with a 10 healthy subjects (control group). Serum beta2 microglobulin (beta2M), urinary beta2M, the quotient urinary beta2M/urinary creatinine and the beta2M fractional excretion were determinated. The filtered beta2M and the percentage of reabsortion were calculated. We observed an increase in the plasmatic concentration of beta2M but not related with a decrease of the glomerular filtration. The urinary beta2M, the beta2M/urinary creatinine relation and the fractional excretion of beta2M were normal. The filtered load of beta2M was elevated without increase in the excretion or percentage of reabsortion. We conclude that in our group of NPH3 carriers, functional changes in the proximal convoluted tubule, when measured by urinary excretion of beta2M, were absent. This finding suggests the existence of other mechanism of uptake or degradation of the substance in the proximal convoluted tubule, which have yet to be elucidated.

  3. The rush to adrenaline: drugs in sport acting on the beta-adrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Davis, E; Loiacono, R; Summers, R J

    2008-06-01

    Athletes attempt to improve performance with drugs that act on the beta-adrenergic system directly or indirectly. Of three beta-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, the beta(2)-AR is the main target in sport; they have bronchodilator and anabolic actions and enhance anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids. Although demonstrable in animal experiments and humans, there is little evidence that these properties can significantly improve performance in trained athletes. Their actions may also be compromised by receptor desensitization and by common, naturally occurring receptor mutations (polymorphisms) that can influence receptor signalling and desensitization properties in individuals. Indirectly acting agents affect release and reuptake of noradrenaline and adrenaline, thereby influencing all AR subtypes including the three beta-ARs. These agents can have potent psychostimulant effects that provide an illusion of better performance that does not usually translate into improvement in practice. Amphetamines and cocaine also have considerable potential for cardiac damage. beta-AR antagonists (beta-blockers) are used in sports that require steadiness and accuracy, such as archery and shooting, where their ability to reduce heart rate and muscle tremor may improve performance. They have a deleterious effect in endurance sports because they reduce physical performance and maximum exercise load. Recent studies have identified that many beta-AR antagonists not only block the actions of agonists but also activate other (mitogen-activated PK) signalling pathways influencing cell growth and fate. The concept that many compounds previously regarded as 'blockers' may express their own spectrum of pharmacological properties has potentially far-reaching consequences for the use of drugs both therapeutically and illicitly.

  4. Untranslated region-dependent exclusive expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Clark A; Gubbins, Earl J; Marks, Michael J; Putman, C Brent; Thimmapaya, Rama; Meyer, Michael D; Surowy, Carol S

    2006-07-01

    alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are recognized as the principal nicotine binding site in brain. Recombinant alpha4beta2 nAChR demonstrate biphasic concentration-response relationships with low- and high-EC50 components. This study shows that untranslated regions (UTR) can influence expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nAChR. Oocytes injected with alpha4 and beta2 RNA lacking UTR expressed biphasic concentration-response relationships for acetylcholine with high-sensitivity EC50 values of 0.5 to 2.5 microM (14-24% of the population) and low-sensitivity EC50 values of 110 to 180 microM (76-86%). In contrast, message with UTR expressed exclusively the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 nAChR subform with an acetylcholine EC50 value of 2.2 microM. Additional studies revealed pharmacological differences between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subforms. Whereas the antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine (IC50 of 3-6 nM) and methyllycaconitine (IC50 of 40-135 nM) were not selective between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2, chlorisondamine, mecamylamine, and d-tubocurarine were, respectively, 100-, 8-, and 5-fold selective for the alpha4beta2 subform with low sensitivity to acetylcholine. Conversely, agonists that selectively activated the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subform with respect to efficacy as well as potency were identified. Furthermore, two of these agonists were shown to activate mouse brain alpha4beta2 as well as the ferret high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. With the use of UTR-containing RNA, exclusive expression of a novel high-sensitivity alpha3beta2 nAChR was also achieved. These studies 1) provide further evidence for the existence of multiple subforms of alpha4beta2 nAChR, 2) extend that to alpha3beta2 nAChR, 3) demonstrate UTR influence on beta2-containing nAChR properties, and 4) reveal compounds that interact with alpha4beta2 in a subform-selective manner.

  5. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors through the replicative life span of IMR-90 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpace, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic receptor number and receptor affinity for isoproterenol were assessed at various in vitro ages of the human diploid fibroblast cell line IMR-90. From population doubling level (PDL) 33 to 44, there was a positive correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Beta-adrenergic receptors, assessed by Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) binding, increased from 15 fmol/mg protein at PDL 33 to 36 fmol/mg protein at PDL 44. In contrast, from PDL 44 to 59, there was a negative correlation between beta-adrenergic receptor density and PDL. Receptor density declined to 12 fmol/mg protein at PDL 59. When the density of beta-adrenergic receptors was expressed as receptor per cell, the findings were similar. Receptor agonist affinity for isoproterenol was determined from Hill plots of (/sup 125/I)-ICYP competition with isoproterenol. There was no change in the dissociation constant for isoproterenol with in vitro age. In humans, serum norepinephrine concentrations increase with age. This increase in serum norepinephrine may be partially responsible for the decreased beta-adrenergic receptor-agonist affinity observed with age in human lymphocytes and rat heart and lung. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the decreases in receptor agonist affinity in rat and man with age are secondary to increases in catecholamine concentrations.

  6. Organic solvent mediated self-association of an amyloid forming peptide from beta2-microglobulin: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nitin; Singh, Shashi; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    Human beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) forms amyloid fibrils in hemodialysis related amyloidosis. Peptides spanning the beta strands of beta(2)m have been shown to form amyloid fibrils in isolation. We have studied the self-association of a 13-residue peptide Ac-DWSFYLLYYTEFT-am (Pbeta(2)m) spanning one of the beta-strands of human beta(2)-microglobulin when dissolved in various organic solvents such as methanol (MeOH), trifluoroethanol (TFE), hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), and dimethylsulfoxide. We have observed that Pbeta(2)m forms amyloid fibrils when diluted from organic solvents into aqueous buffer at pH 7.0 as judged by increase in thioflavin T fluorescence. Fibril formation was observed to depend on the solvents in which peptide stock solutions were prepared. Circular dichroism spectra indicated propensity for helical conformation in MeOH, TFE, and HFIP. In buffer, beta-structure was observed irrespective of the solvent in which the peptide stock solutions were prepared. Atomic force microscopy images obtained by drying the peptide on mica from organic solvents indicated the ability of Pbeta(2)m to self-associate to form nonfibrillar structures. Morphology of the structures was dependent on the solvent in which the peptide was dissolved. Peptides that have the ability to self-associate such as amyloid-forming peptides would be attractive candidates for the generation of self-assembled structures with varying morphologies by appropriate choice of surfaces and solvents for dissolution. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The beta-adrenergic blocking agents and the treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, T J; Boger, W P

    1979-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, with three types of adrenergic receptors: alpha (smooth muscle contraction), beta1 (cardiac acceleration and fatty acid mobilization) and beta2 (smooth muscle relaxation). Substances affecting the function of the adrenergic system are the agonists or stimulators, which mimic the effects of endogenous norepinephrine or epinephrine, and antagonists or blockers, which block the receptors and prevent stimulation by the agonists. Autonomic stimulation in the eye mediates various changes which apparently affect outflow facility and rate of formation of aqueous humor. Alteration of either or both of these factors by autonomic agonists or antagonists may have a direct or an indirect effect on intraocular pressure. Beta-adrenergic blocking substances have been used to treat a variety of diseases. Some of the effects of these drugs are attributable to properties other than beta blockade, such as intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and local anaesthetic activity. Side effects of this class of drugs require caution in cases of congestive heart failure and in asthmatics. Autonomic agents used in the treatment of ocular hypertension and glaucoma include pilocarpine, a chilinergic agonist, epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, and various beta adrenergic blockers or antagonists including propranolol, atenolol and timolol. The physico-chemical properties and pharmacokinetics of timolol are reviewed. Data showing a significant reduction in intraocular pressure as a result of ocular instillation of timolol are presented. Reduction of the rate of aqueous formation appears to be the mechanism of action. A low incidence of non-serious side effects is reported.

  8. Data Testing for ENDF/B-VII.1beta2

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Calculations have been performed for 390 critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments using the beta2 release of ENDF/B-VII.1. The results are compared to previous results for ENDF/B-VII. Cases that changed between the two versions are highlighted, and the results are discussed. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is working on a new release of the ENDF/B-VII library of evaluated nuclear data, and the 'beta2' set of files was recently made available by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). A set of about 850 input files for the MCNP Monte Carlo code to run critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments was available from our previous data testing work for ENDF/B-VII.0. We have now run 390 of those cases using data based on the beta2 files, and those results will be presented below. The ENDF files were downloaded from the NNDC to a Mac workstation. They were then processed using NJOY10 into ACE format files for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The processing was limited to materials needed for the data testing work at this point. The existing MCNP input decks were used. No checking was done to see if any of the benchmarks had been updated since the ENDF/B-VII testing was finished. Most runs used 50 million histories in order to get Monte Carlo statistical uncertainties down the 0.01% range.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2-glycoprotein III aids in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of this serum protein and a variety of...

  10. [Prognostic value of beta-2-microglobulin in Hodgkin disease in young adults].

    PubMed

    Fleury, J; Tortochaux, J; Legros, M; Cure, H; Kwiatkowski, F; Ferrière, J P; Travade, P; Dionet, C; Gaillard, G; Chassagne, J

    1994-07-01

    From 1977 to 1989, we measured serum beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) levels from 64 unselected and untreated patients, between 18 to 50-year-old, affected by Hodgkin's disease. Serum beta 2-MG level was measured by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas beta 2 microtest). Then, all patients received a chemotherapy such as MOPP or alternating MOPP/ABVD followed or not by radiotherapy. Elevated serum beta 2-MG level (> 2.4 mg/l) is associated with advanced stage disease (stage III-IV), presence of systemic symptoms and bulky tumor. Nevertheless, a multivariate analysis shows that the serum beta 2-MG level is the most significant prognostic indicator for disease free survival. The prognostic value of serum beta 2-MG is demonstrated for myeloma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. A few authors have evaluated the prognostic impact of serum beta 2-MG in Hodgkin's disease. This study requires confirmation by multicentric and prospective trial.

  11. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. VI. Characteristics of adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase response in rat ascites hepatoma cells and human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Kohei, K; Nomura, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-06-01

    Alpha 1, alpha 2- and beta-Adrenoceptor densities and catecholamine responsiveness in established hepatoma cells, rat ascites hepatoma AH13, AH66, AH66F, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HLF and HepG2 cells, were compared with those in normal rat hepatocytes and Chang liver cells. Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]prazosin bindings were not detected in all hepatoma cell lines. Alpha 2-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]clonidine bindings were also barely detected in hepatoma cell lines except for AH130 cells and HepG2 cells. Regarding beta-adrenoceptor, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells had much more [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites than normal rat hepatocytes, although we could not detect the binding in HepG2 cells. Adenylate cyclase of normal rat hepatocyte and Chang liver cells were stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, while the cyclase in hepatoma cells had no beta 2-adrenergic response but a beta 1-type response. These findings indicate that the characteristics of adrenergic response in hepatoma cell lines is very different from that in normal hepatocytes, suggesting a participation in the hepatocarcinogenesis and/or the autonomous proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  12. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  13. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  14. Site-directed mutagenesis of human beta-adrenergic receptors: substitution of aspartic acid-130 by asparagine produces a receptor with high-affinity agonist binding that is uncoupled from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C M; Chung, F Z; Wang, C D; Venter, J C

    1988-01-01

    By using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we have produced a point mutation (guanine to adenine) at nucleotide 388 of the gene for human beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR) that results in a substitution of asparagine for the highly conserved aspartic acid at position 130 in the putative third transmembrane domain of the human beta AR ([Asn130]beta AR). We have examined the functional significance of this mutation in B-82 cells continuously expressing the mutant [Asn130]beta AR. The mutant [Asn130]beta AR displayed normal antagonist binding but unusually high-affinity agonist binding (5- to 10-fold higher than wild-type beta AR), consistent with a single class of high-affinity binding sites. The mutant beta AR displayed guanine nucleotide-sensitive changes in agonist affinity (3- to 5-fold shift) implying an interaction between the beta AR and the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein; however, the ability of guanine nucleotides to alter agonist affinity was attenuated. Addition of saturating concentrations of isoproterenol to cell cultures expressing mutant [Asn130]-beta ARs had no effect on intracellular levels of cAMP, indicating that the mutant beta AR is unable to affect stimulation of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that substitution of the aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 130 of the human beta AR dissociates the well-characterized guanine nucleotide effects on agonist affinity from those on activation of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein and adenylate cyclase and suggests the existence of two distinct counterions for the amine portion of catecholamines that are associated with high- and low-affinity agonist binding states of beta AR. Images PMID:2840663

  15. Beta-Adrenergic blockers as antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory compounds: an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bramah N

    2005-06-01

    Beta-Adrenergic blockers have a wide spectrum of action for controlling cardiac arrhythmias that is larger than initially thought. Data from the past several decades indicate that, as an antiarrhythmic class, beta-blockers remain among the very few pharmacologic agents that reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death, prolong survival, and ameliorate symptoms caused by arrhythmias in patients with cardiac disease. As a class of compounds, beta-blockers have a fundamental pharmacologic property that attenuates the effects of competitive adrenergic receptors. However, the net clinical effects of the different beta-receptor blockers may vary quantitatively because of variations in associated intrinsic sympathomimetic agonism and in their intrinsic potency for binding to beta-receptors. These individual compounds also differ in their selectivity for beta(1)- and beta(2)-receptors. Metoprolol is a beta(1)-selective blocker, whereas carvedilol is a nonselective beta(1)- and beta(2)-blocker, an antioxidant, and has a propensity to inhibit alpha(1)-receptors and endothelin. Evolving data from controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials suggest that there are clinically significant differences among this class of drugs. Recent evidence also suggests that the antiarrhythmic actions of certain beta-receptor blockers such as carvedilol and metoprolol extend beyond the ventricular tissue to encompass atrial cells and help maintain sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation, especially in combination with potent antifibrillatory agents such as amiodarone. This introduction provides a current perspective on these newer developments in the understanding of the antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory actions of beta-blockers.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10117 - Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10117 Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1... substance identified generically as heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (PMN P-04-776) is...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10117 - Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10117 Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1... substance identified generically as heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (PMN P-04-776) is...

  18. A linkage study between the GABAA beta2 and GABAA gamma2 subunit genes and major psychoses.

    PubMed

    Ambrósio, Alda M; Kennedy, James L; Macciardi, Fabio; King, Nicole; Azevedo, Maria H; Oliveira, Catarina R; Pato, Carlos N

    2005-01-01

    Alterations of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major psychoses. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with the human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) beta2 and GABAA gamma2 subunit genes on chromosome 5q32-q35 were tested to determine whether they confer susceptibility to major psychoses. Thirty-two schizophrenic families and 25 bipolar families were tested for linkage. Nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis performed by GENEHUNTER showed no significant NPL scores for both genes in schizophrenia (GABAA beta2: NPL narrow= -0.450; NPL broad= -0.808; GABAA gamma2: NPL narrow=0.177; NPL broad= -0.051) or bipolar disorder (GABAA beta2: NPL narrow=0.834; NPL broad=0.783; GABAA gamma2: NPL narrow= -0.159; NPL broad=0.070). Linkage analysis does not support the hypothesis that variants within the GABAA beta2 and GABAA gamma2 genes are significantly linked to major psychoses in a Portuguese population.

  19. Sustained nicotine exposure differentially affects alpha 3 beta 2 and alpha 4 beta 2 neuronal nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y N; Amin, J; Weiss, D S; Wecker, L

    1996-02-01

    To determine whether prolonged exposure to nicotine differentially affects alpha 3 beta 2 versus alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, oocytes were coinjected with subunit cRNAs, and peak responses to agonist, evoked by 0.7 or 7 microM nicotine for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively, were determined before and following incubation for up to 48 h with nanomolar concentrations of nicotine. Agonist responses of alpha 4 beta 2 receptors decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values in the 10 nM range following incubation for 24 h and in the 1 nM range following incubation for 48 h. In contrast, responses of alpha 3 beta 2 receptors following incubation for 24-48 h with 1,000 nM nicotine decreased by only 50-60%, and total ablation of responses could not be achieved. Attenuation of responses occurred within the first 5 min of nicotine exposure and was a first-order process for both subtypes; half-lives for inactivation were 4.09 and 2.36 min for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively. Recovery was also first-order for both subtypes; half-lives for recovery were 21 and 7.5 h for alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 2 receptors, respectively. Thus, the responsiveness of both receptors decreased following sustained exposure to nicotine, but alpha 4 beta 2 receptors recovered much slower. Results may explain the differential effect of sustained nicotine exposure on nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release.

  20. Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption in humans driven by adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Thomas S; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas B; Hamada, Ahmad J; Rasmussen, Peter; Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Nielsen, Henning B

    2009-01-15

    During brain activation, the decrease in the ratio between cerebral oxygen and carbohydrate uptake (6 O(2)/(glucose + (1)/(2) lactate); the oxygen-carbohydrate index, OCI) is attenuated by the non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, whereas OCI remains unaffected by the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist metroprolol. These observations suggest involvement of a beta(2)-adrenergic mechanism in non-oxidative metabolism for the brain. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of adrenaline (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 15 min) and noradrenaline (0.5, 0.1 and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 20 min) on the arterial to internal jugular venous concentration differences (a-v diff) of O(2), glucose and lactate in healthy humans. Adrenaline (n = 10) increased the arterial concentrations of O(2), glucose and lactate (P < 0.05) and also increased the a-v diff for glucose from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/- s.d.; P < 0.05). The a-v diff for lactate shifted from a net cerebral release to an uptake and OCI was lowered from 5.1 +/- 1.5 to 3.6 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.05) indicating an 8-fold increase in the rate of non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during adrenaline infusion (P < 0.01). Conversely, noradrenaline (n = 8) did not affect the OCI despite an increase in the a-v diff for glucose (P < 0.05). These results support that non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption for the brain is driven by a beta(2)-adrenergic mechanism, giving neurons an abundant provision of energy when plasma adrenaline increases.

  1. Possible involvement of parotid beta-adrenergic receptors in the etiology of sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Chilla, R; Witzemann, V; Opaitz, M; Arglebe, C

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors was determined in rat and human parotid glands, in normal tissue as well as after sympathetic denervation of the rat, and in human sialadenosis. Receptor levels were clearly elevated after denervation of the rat and in sialadenosis. The possible implications of these findings for the etiology of human sialadenosis are discussed.

  2. Blockade of intra-articular adrenergic receptors increases analgesic demands for pain relief after knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Kager, Ingo; Mousa, Shaaban A; Sieper, Joachim; Stein, Christoph; Pipam, W; Likar, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    Activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerve terminals by opioid peptides that are produced and released from immune cells can result in inhibition of inflammatory pain. This study tests the hypothesis that postoperative pain is attenuated endogenously through a local sympathetic neurotransmitter-activated release of opioids in patients undergoing knee surgery. We examined the expression of opioid peptides and adrenergic receptors in cells infiltrating inflamed synovial tissue and we hypothesized that intra-articular (i.a.) administration of the adrenergic receptor antagonist labetalol will increase postoperative analgesic consumption and/or pain intensity in these patients. In a double-blind, randomized manner, 75 patients undergoing therapeutic knee arthroscopy received i.a. placebo (20 ml saline) or labetalol (2.5 or 5 mg in 20 ml saline) at the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity was assessed by visual analog and verbal rating scales at rest and on exertion, and by the consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia. Synovial biopsies were taken during the operation for double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy studies. Alpha(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors were co-expressed in opioid peptide-containing cells. No significant difference was seen in pain scores, but patients receiving 2.5 mg labetalol requested significantly higher amounts of morphine. These findings are consistent with the notion that surgical stress induces sympathetically activated release of endogenous opioids from inflammatory cells and subsequent analgesia via activation of peripheral opioid receptors.

  3. Postmortem stability and interpretation of beta 2-agonist concentrations.

    PubMed

    Couper, F J; Drummer, O H

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a series of stability and redistribution studies aimed at understanding the presence and significance of beta 2-agonists in asthma deaths. Salbutamol and terbutaline were shown to be stable in postmortem blood at 23 degrees C for 1 week, 4 degrees C for 6 months and -20 degrees C for 1 to 2 years. However, fenoterol was shown to degrade at 23 degrees C (83% loss), 4 degrees C (93% loss) and -20 degrees C (66% loss) over the same time. Salbutamol concentrations detected in blood taken at the time of body admission to the mortuary were not significantly different from the concentrations detected in blood taken from the same cases at the time of autopsy (45 h later). This suggests that significant postmortem redistribution of salbutamol is unlikely to occur during this period. Postmortem blood concentrations of at least salbutamol are likely to reflect the concentration of these drugs in the body at the time of death.

  4. alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors with high and low acetylcholine sensitivity: pharmacology, stoichiometry, and sensitivity to long-term exposure to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Mirko; Zwart, Ruud; Sher, Emanuele; Cassels, Bruce K; Bermudez, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    alpha4 and beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits expressed heterologously assemble into receptors with high (HS) and low (LS) sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh); their relative proportions depend on the alpha4to beta2 ratio. In this study, injection of oocytes with 1:10 alpha4/beta2 subunit cDNA ratios favored expression of HS alpha4beta2 nAChRs, as evidenced by monophasic ACh concentration-response curves, whereas injections with 10:1 cDNA ratios favored expression of LS alpha4beta2 receptors. The stoichiometry was inferred from the shifts in the ACh EC(50) values caused by Leu to Thr mutations at position 9' of the second transmembrane domain of alpha4 and beta2. The 1:10 injection ratio produced the (alpha4)(2)(beta2)(3) stoichiometry, whereas 10:1 injections produced the (alpha4)(3)(beta2)(2) stoichiometry. The agonists epibatidine, 3-[2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (A-85380), 5-ethoxy-metanicotine (TC-2559), cytisine, and 3-Br-cytisine and the antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine and d-tubocurarine were more potent at HS receptors. TC-2559 was more efficacious than ACh at HS receptors but was a partial agonist at LS receptors. Epibatidine was more efficacious than ACh at LS receptors and a partial agonist at HS receptors. Cytisine and 5-halogenated cytisines had moderate efficacy at LS receptors but had almost no efficacy at HS receptors. By exploiting the differential effects of ACh, TC-2559 and 5-I-cytisine we evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to nicotine on HS and LS receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes after cDNA injections or microtransplantation of alpha4beta2 receptors assembled in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We conclude that nicotine up-regulates HS alpha4beta2 receptors, probably by influencing the assembly of receptors rather than by altering the functional state of LS alpha4beta2 nAChRs.

  5. Discovery of olodaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonist with a 24 h bronchodilatory efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bouyssou, Thierry; Hoenke, Christoph; Rudolf, Klaus; Lustenberger, Philipp; Pestel, Sabine; Sieger, Peter; Lotz, Ralf; Heine, Claudia; Büttner, Frank H; Schnapp, Andreas; Konetzki, Ingo

    2010-02-15

    Compound 4p was identified from a series of 6-hydroxy-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones as potent agonist of the human beta2-adrenoceptor with a high beta1/beta2-selectivity. A complete reversal of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction which lasted over the whole study period of 5h was demonstrated for 4p in a guinea pig in vivo model without any signs of cardiovascular effects up to 10-fold above the first dose reaching 100% bronchoprotection. The enantiomerically pure (R)-form of 4p exerted a bronchodilatory efficacy over 24 h in dogs and guinea pigs in the absence of systemic pharmacodynamic effects. Formoterol which was tested as comparator in the same in vivo models of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction did not retain efficacy after 24 h. In summary, the preclinical profile of compound (R)-4p (olodaterol, also known as BI 1744 CL) suggests a potential for once-daily dosing in man accompanied with an improved safety profile. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele; Pedone, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Antagonists of the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR antagonists) are a heterogeneous class of drugs. Selected members of this class are highly recommended in congestive heart failure (HF) and after acute myocardial infarction. Hydrosolubility, half life and prevalent route of excretion define the pharmacokinetic profile of individual drugs, whereas the respective degree of affinity for beta1-AR and beta2-AR, the level of coexistent agonist properties and several beta-AR independent properties (e. g. antioxidant, direct vasodilating effect) contribute to shape the pharmacodynamic profile. Genetically determined differences in the response to beta-AR antagonists and, probably, age-related changes in the neuroautonomic system are further source of variability in the effect of beta-AR antagonists on bronchial tone. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are theoretically at risk of worsening respiratory flows and symptoms caused by beta-AR antagonists prescribed for concurrent HF or myocardial infarction. Most of these patients, however, do not experience side effects, maybe because the improved haemodynamic due to beta-AR antagonists therapy may in turn improve the respiratory function. Occasional patients can develop untoward respiratory effects of beta-AR antagonists, and this risk is higher for those with severe COPD or active asthma. We provide some simple common sense rules for selecting patients with COPD or asthma that are suitable for beta-AR antagonists therapy while minimizing the risk of adverse respiratory effects.

  7. 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA Studies on a Series of (R)-2-((2-(1H-Indol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-1-Phenylethan-1-ol with Human β₃-Adrenergic Activity.

    PubMed

    Apablaza, Gastón; Montoya, Luisa; Morales-Verdejo, Cesar; Mellado, Marco; Cuellar, Mauricio; Lagos, Carlos F; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Chung, Hery; Pessoa-Mahana, Carlos David; Mella, Jaime

    2017-03-05

    The β₃ adrenergic receptor is raising as an important drug target for the treatment of pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, and cardiac diseases among others. Several attempts to obtain selective and high affinity ligands have been made. Currently, Mirabegron is the only available drug on the market that targets this receptor approved for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in USA and the MHRA (Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) in UK have made reports of potentially life-threatening side effects associated with the administration of Mirabegron, casting doubts on the continuity of this compound. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gather information for the rational design and synthesis of new β₃ adrenergic ligands. Herein, we present the first combined 2D-QSAR (two-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) and 3D-QSAR/CoMSIA (three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship/Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis) study on a series of potent β₃ adrenergic agonists of indole-alkylamine structure. We found a series of changes that can be made in the steric, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor, lipophilicity and molar refractivity properties of the compounds to generate new promising molecules. Finally, based on our analysis, a summary and a regiospecific description of the requirements for improving β₃ adrenergic activity is given.

  8. Adrenergic regulation of cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in corneal epithelium and endothelium.

    PubMed

    Grueb, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-10-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is one of the most common and versatile signal pathways in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this study was to characterize subtypes of adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptors and their influence on cAMP concentration and PKA activity in bovine corneal epithelial and endothelial cells. Adrenergic receptors and PKA were studied using polyclonal antibodies. cAMP concentration was determined with an enzyme immunoassay, and PKA activity was estimated by the kinases consumption of adenosine triphosphate. In bovine corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, immunocytochemistry and Western blot were positive for alpha(1)-, alpha(2A)-, beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. Stimulation of corneal epithelial and endothelial beta-adrenoceptors with isoprenaline led to a dose-dependent increase in cAMP concentration and activation of PKA. Stimulation of corneal alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors with brimonidine resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cAMP concentration and the inhibition of PKA activity. In corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, beta-adrenergic stimulation leads to activation of PKA via stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, and alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor stimulation inhibits PKA activity via inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Stimulation and inhibition of the corneal cAMP-PKA pathway may play a role in important corneal functions such as wound healing or homeostasis. Long-term therapy with alpha(2A)-agonists or beta-antagonists may influence these functions in a currently unknown way. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effects of TGF-beta2, BMP-4, and gremlin in the trabecular meshwork: implications for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wordinger, Robert J; Fleenor, Debra L; Hellberg, Peggy E; Pang, Iok-Hou; Tovar, Tara O; Zode, Gulab S; Fuller, John A; Clark, Abbot F

    2007-03-01

    The primary causative factor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to increased aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance, which is associated with morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Patients with glaucoma have elevated levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 in their AH, and TGF-beta has been shown to increase TM extracellular matrix (ECM) production. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway modifies TGF-beta signaling in several different tissues, and a prior study demonstrated that TM cells and tissues express members of the BMP gene family. The purpose of this study was to determine whether BMPs can alter TGF-beta2 signaling in the TM and whether there are defects in BMP signaling in glaucoma. ELISA, Western immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of BMP proteins in TM cells and tissues. ELISA was used to determine the effects of TGF-beta2 and BMPs on TM fibronectin (FN) secretion. Gene expression was determined by gene microarrays and quantitative (q)PCR. Perfusion-cultured human anterior segments were used to study the effects of altered BMP signaling on IOP. The human TM synthesized and secreted BMP-4 as well as expressed BMP receptor subtypes BMPRI and BMPRII. TM cells responded to exogenous BMP-4 by phosphorylating Smad signaling proteins. Cultured human TM cells treated with TGF-beta2 significantly increased FN levels, and BMP-4 blocked this FN induction. The expression of BMP family genes in normal and glaucomatous TM cells was profiled and significant elevation of mRNA and protein levels of the BMP antagonist gremlin were found in glaucomatous TM cells. In addition, Gremlin was present in human aqueous humor and in the perfusate medium of perfusion-cultured human eyes. Gremlin blocked the negative effect of BMP-4 on TGF-beta-induction of FN. Recombinant Gremlin added to the medium of ex vivo perfusion-cultured human

  10. Relationship between Human Evolution and Neurally Mediated Syncope Disclosed by the Polymorphic Sites of the Adrenergic Receptor Gene α2B-AR

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Akira; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Nagata, Eiichiro; Sakura, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of disease on neurally mediated syncope (NMS) during an acute stress reaction. We analyzed the mechanism of the molecular interaction and the polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor (α2B-AR) gene as the potential psychiatric cause of incentive stress. We focused on the following three genotypes of the repeat polymorphism site at Glu 301–303 in the α2B-AR gene: Glu12/12, Glu12/9, and Glu9/9. On the basis of our clinical research, NMS is likely to occur in people with the Glu12/9 heterotype. To verify this, we assessed this relationship with the interaction of Gi protein and adenylate cyclase by in silico analysis of the Glu12/9 heterotype. By measuring the difference in the dissociation time of the Gi-α subunit twice, we found that the Glu12/9 heterotype suppressed the action of adenylate cyclase longer than the Glu homotypes. As this difference in the Glu repeat number effect is thought to be one of the causes of NMS, we investigated the evolutionary significance of the Glu repeat number. Glu8 was originally repeated in simians, while the Glu12 repeats occurred over time during the evolution of bipedalism in humans. Taken with the Glu12 numbers, NMS would likely become a defensive measure to prevent significant blood flow to the human brain. PMID:25860977

  11. Ginkgolides, diterpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba, as antagonists at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shelley H; Duke, Rujee K; Chebib, Mary; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji; Johnston, Graham A R

    2004-06-28

    Ginkgolides A, B, and C are diterpene trilactones and active constituents of the 50:1 Ginkgo biloba leaf extract widely used in the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate dementia. Using the two-electrode voltage clamp methodology, these ginkgolides were found to be moderately potent antagonists at recombinant human alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Ginkgolides A, B, and C inhibited the direct action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with K(i) values of 14.5+/-1.0, 12.7+/-1.7, and 16.3+/-2.4 microM respectively. Antagonism by these ginkgolides at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2L) GABA(A) receptors appears to be noncompetitive as indicated by the nonparallel right shift and reduced maximal GABA response in their GABA concentration-effect curves.

  12. Human heart rate: heritability of resting and stress values in twin pairs, and influence of genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway at a microribonucleic acid (microrna) motif in the 3'-UTR of cytochrome b561 [corrected].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuixing; Deacon, Dekker C; Rao, Fangwen; Schork, Andrew J; Fung, Maple M; Waalen, Jill; Schork, Nicholas J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Chi, Neil C; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2014-02-04

     = 2,579), and the influence remained directionally consistent and significant (p = 0.007). A+1485G disrupted a microRNA (human microribonucleic acid-1294 [hsa-miR-1294]) recognition motif in the 3'-UTR, as demonstrated by a transfected luciferase reporter/human 3'-UTR variant system in 2 different neuronal/neuroendocrine cell types. The microRNA effect was further documented by cotransfection of an hsa-miR-1294 mimic, yielding an exaggerated decline in expression of the A-allele (better match) reporter (p = 4.3 × 10(-5)). Similar findings of differential 3'-UTR allelic susceptibility to hsa-miR-1294 were noted during expression of the full-length human CYB561 messenger ribonucleic acid with its cognate 3'-UTR. Finally, exposure of stem cell-derived human embryoid bodies to hsa-miR-1294 mimic or antagomir oligonucleotides yielded directionally opposite effects on contraction rate in proto-hearts. HR is a substantially heritable trait, with genetic influence by variation in the adrenergic pathway, here shown for messenger ribonucleic acid translational control at the CYB561 step of transmitter formation. The results have implications for potentially modifiable autonomic pathways that influence this risk trait in the population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Interaction of the mechanisms of beta 2-microglobulin convection, diffusion, and adsorption in line hemodiafiltration].

    PubMed

    García, H; Hernández-Jaras, J; Maduell, F; Yago, M; Calvo, C; Ferrero, J A

    2000-01-01

    The in vivo contribution of diffusion, convection ad adsorption to beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) elimination by hemodiafiltration (HDF) was investigated. 11 patients (8M/3W), with a mean age of 59 +/- 10 years and weighing 62.7 +/- 8.7 kg were studied. A 1.89 m2 polysulphone membrane was used in 180 min postdilution HDF. Samples at blood inlet (bi), blood autlet (bo), dialysate outlet (do) and ultrafiltrate (uf) were taken to determine beta 2-m concentrations at 30 and 150 min. Rates of flow (Q, ml(min) prescribed were: infusion, Qinf = 103.6 +/- 12.3, Quf = 14.6 +/- 4.0 y Qb = 465 +/- 5.0. Effective Qbi was automatically measured by the machine and Qdo = 800 + Quf. The removed beta 2-m mass (M, mg/min) was obtained by multiplying rates of flow (Q, L/min) by beta 2-m concentrations (mg/L) at each sampling point. From mass balance, we calculated the mass of beta 2-m removed (mg/min) by adsorption 0.23 +/- 0.2, by convection 0.7 +/- 0.3 and by diffusion 1.0 +/- 0.4, at 30 min. At 150 min, the beta 2-m mass removed was -0.06 +/- 0.1 by adsorption 0.4 +/- 0.1 by convection and 0.3 +/- 0.1 by diffusion. In HDF, these beta 2-m eliminating mechanisms play a variable role throughout the session. The more significant conclusion is that diffusion of beta 2-m with a synthetic "open" membrane is an important method of removing beta 2-m, comparable to convection over the whole procedure. That result explain the relative efficacy of beta 2-m clearance by HDF convection, and also explain why isolated diffusion is an efficient mechanism for beta 2-m removal by high-flux hemodialysis.

  14. Hypoxia sensing through β-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hoi I.; Asosingh, Kewal; Stephens, Olivia R.; Queisser, Kimberly A.; Xu, Weiling; Willard, Belinda; Hu, Bo; Dermawan, Josephine Kam Tai; Stark, George R.; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Life-sustaining responses to low oxygen, or hypoxia, depend on signal transduction by HIFs, but the underlying mechanisms by which cells sense hypoxia are not completely understood. Based on prior studies suggesting a link between the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and hypoxia responses, we hypothesized that the β-AR mediates hypoxia sensing and is necessary for HIF-1α accumulation. Beta blocker treatment of mice suppressed hypoxia induction of renal HIF-1α accumulation, erythropoietin production, and erythropoiesis in vivo. Likewise, beta blocker treatment of primary human endothelial cells in vitro decreased hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation and binding to target genes and the downstream hypoxia-inducible gene expression. In mechanistic studies, cAMP-activated PKA and/or GPCR kinases (GRK), which both participate in β-AR signal transduction, were investigated. Direct activation of cAMP/PKA pathways did not induce HIF-1α accumulation, and inhibition of PKA did not blunt HIF-1α induction by hypoxia. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of GRK, or expression of a GRK phosphorylation–deficient β-AR mutant in cells, blocked hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α accumulation. Mass spectrometry–based quantitative analyses revealed a hypoxia-mediated β-AR phosphorylation barcode that was different from the classical agonist phosphorylation barcode. These findings indicate that the β-AR is fundamental to the molecular and physiological responses to hypoxia. PMID:28018974

  15. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  16. Human heart rate: Heritability of resting and stress values in twin pairs, and influence of genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway at a micro-RNA motif in the 3’-UTR of cytochrome b561 (CYB561)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuixing; Deacon, Dekker C.; Rao, Fangwen; Schork, Andrew J.; Fung, Maple M.; Waalen, Jill; Schork, Nicholas J.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Chi, Neil C.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    G disrupted a micro-RNA (hsa-miR-1294) recognition motif in the 3’-UTR (with AG) was demonstrated in a transfected luciferase reporter / human 3’-UTR variant system in two different neuronal/neuroendocrine cell types, and the micro-RNA effect was further documented by co-transfection of a hsa-miR-1294 mimic, yielding an exaggerated decline in expression of the A-allele (better match) reporter (p=4.3E-05). Similar findings of differential 3’-UTR allelic susceptibility to miR-1294 were noted during expression of the full-length human CYB561 mRNA with its cognate 3’-UTR. Finally, exposure of stem-cell-derived human embryoid bodies to miR-1294 mimic or antagomir oligonucleotides yielded directionally opposite effects on contraction rate in proto-hearts. Conclusions HR is a substantially heritable trait, with genetic influence by variation in the adrenergic pathway, here shown for mRNA translational control at the CYB561 step of transmitter formation. The results have implications for potentially modifiable autonomic pathways that influence this risk trait in the population. PMID:24140660

  17. Translocation of peptides through microsomal membranes is a rapid process and promotes assembly of HLA-B27 heavy chain and beta 2- microglobulin translated in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have translated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chains and human beta 2-microglobulin in vitro in the presence of microsomal membranes and a peptide from the nucleoprotein of influenza A. This peptide stimulates assembly of HLA-B27 heavy chain and beta 2- microglobulin about fivefold. By modifying this peptide to contain biotin at its amino terminus, we could precipitate HLA-B27 heavy chains with immobilized streptavidin, thereby directly demonstrating class I heavy chain-peptide association under close to physiological conditions. The biotin-modified peptide stimulates assembly to the same extent as the unmodified peptide. Both peptides bind to the same site on the HLA-B27 molecule. Immediately after synthesis of the HLA-B27 heavy chain has been completed, it assembles with beta 2-microglobulin and peptide. These interactions occur in the lumen of the microsomes (endoplasmic reticulum), demonstrating that the peptide must cross the microsomal membrane in order to promote assembly. The transfer of peptide across the microsomal membrane is a rapid process, as peptide binding to heavy chain-beta 2-microglobulin complexes is observed in less than 1 min after addition of peptide. By using microsomes deficient of beta 2-microglobulin (from Daudi cells), we find a strict requirement of beta 2-microglobulin for detection of peptide interaction with the MHC class I heavy chain. Furthermore, we show that heavy chain interaction with beta 2-microglobulin is likely to precede peptide binding. Biotin-modified peptides are likely to become a valuable tool in studying MHC antigen interaction and assembly. PMID:1955465

  18. Effects of subtypes of adrenergic and angiotensinergic antagonists on the water and sodium intake induced by adrenaline injected into the paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antonio; Saad, Wilson Abrão; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio; de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan

    2003-12-24

    The present experiments were conducted to investigate the role of the alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, beta(1)-, beta(2)-adrenoceptors, and the effects of losartan and CGP42112A (selective ligands of the AT(1) and AT(2) angiotensin receptors, respectively) on the water and sodium intake elicited by paraventricular nucleus (PVN) injection of adrenaline. Male Holtzman rats with a stainless steel cannula implanted into the PVN were used. The ingestion of water and sodium was determined in separate groups submitted to water deprivation or sodium depletion with the diuretic furosemide (20 mg/rat). 5-Methylurapidil (an alpha(1A)-adrenergic antagonist) and ICI-118,551 (a beta(2)-adrenergic antagonist) injected into the PVN produced a dose-dependent increase, whereas cyclazosin (an alpha(1B)-adrenergic antagonist) and atenolol (a beta(1)-adrenergic antagonist) do not affect the inhibitory effect of water intake induced by adrenaline. On the other hand, the PVN administration of adrenaline increased the sodium intake in a dose-dependent manner. Previous injection of the alpha(1A) and beta(1) antagonists decreased, whereas injection of the alpha(1B) and beta(2) antagonists increased the salt intake induced by adrenaline. In rats with several doses of adrenaline into PVN, the previous administration of losartan increased in a dose-dependent manner the inhibitory effect of adrenaline and decreased the salt intake induced by adrenaline, while PVN CGP42112A was without effect. These results indicate that both appetites are mediated primarily by brain AT(1) receptors. However, the doses of losartan were more effective when combined with the doses of CGP42112A than given alone p<0.05, suggesting that the water and salt intake effects of PVN adrenaline may involve activation of multiple angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors subtypes.

  19. Adrenergic Regulation of HCN4 Channel Requires Protein Association with β2-Adrenergic Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Derek; Kang, Seungwoo; Kosenko, Anastasia; Hoshi, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors utilize different signaling mechanisms to control cardiac function. Recent studies demonstrated that β2-adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) colocalize with some ion channels that are critical for proper cardiac function. Here, we demonstrate that β2ARs form protein complexes with the pacemaker HCN4 channel, as well as with other subtypes of HCN channels. The adrenergic receptor-binding site was identified at a proximal region of the N-terminal tail of the HCN4 channel. A synthetic peptide derived from the β2AR-binding domain of the HCN4 channel disrupted interaction between HCN4 and β2AR. In addition, treatment with this peptide prevented adrenergic augmentation of pacemaker currents and spontaneous contraction rates but did not affect adrenergic regulation of voltage-gated calcium currents. These results suggest that the ion channel-receptor complex is a critical mechanism in ion channel regulation. PMID:22613709

  20. Adrenergic regulation of HCN4 channel requires protein association with β2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Greene, Derek; Kang, Seungwoo; Kosenko, Anastasia; Hoshi, Naoto

    2012-07-06

    β(1)- and β(2)-adrenergic receptors utilize different signaling mechanisms to control cardiac function. Recent studies demonstrated that β(2)-adrenergic receptors (β(2)ARs) colocalize with some ion channels that are critical for proper cardiac function. Here, we demonstrate that β(2)ARs form protein complexes with the pacemaker HCN4 channel, as well as with other subtypes of HCN channels. The adrenergic receptor-binding site was identified at a proximal region of the N-terminal tail of the HCN4 channel. A synthetic peptide derived from the β(2)AR-binding domain of the HCN4 channel disrupted interaction between HCN4 and β(2)AR. In addition, treatment with this peptide prevented adrenergic augmentation of pacemaker currents and spontaneous contraction rates but did not affect adrenergic regulation of voltage-gated calcium currents. These results suggest that the ion channel-receptor complex is a critical mechanism in ion channel regulation.

  1. In anesthetized pigs human chorionic gonadotropin increases myocardial perfusion and function through a β-adrenergic-related pathway and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Surico, Daniela; Mary, David A S G; Molinari, Claudio; Surico, Nicola; Vacca, Giovanni

    2013-08-15

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not only responsible for numerous pregnancy-related processes, but can affect the cardiovascular system as well. So far, however, information about any direct effect elicited by hCG on cardiac function, perfusion, and the mechanisms involved has remained scarce. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the primary in vivo effect of hCG on cardiac contractility and coronary blood flow and the involvement of autonomic nervous system and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, in coronary endothelial cells (CEC), the intracellular pathways involved in the effects of hCG on NO release were also examined. In 25 anesthetized pigs, intracoronary 500 mU/ml hCG infusion at constant heart rate and aortic blood pressure increased coronary blood flow, maximum rate of change of left ventricular systolic pressure, segmental shortening, cardiac output, and coronary NO release (P < 0.0001). These hemodynamic responses were graded in a further five pigs. Moreover, while blockade of muscarinic cholinoceptors (n = 5) and of α-adrenoceptors (n = 5) did not abolish the observed responses, β1-adrenoceptors blocker (n = 5) prevented the effects of hCG on cardiac function. In addition, β2-adrenoceptors (n = 5) and NO synthase inhibition (n = 5) abolished the coronary response and the effect of hCG on NO release. In CEC, hCG induced the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase through cAMP/PKA signaling and ERK1/2, Akt, p38 MAPK involvement, which were activated as downstream effectors of β2-adrenoceptor stimulation. In conclusion, in anesthetized pigs, hCG primarily increased cardiac function and perfusion through the involvement of β-adrenoceptors and NO release. Moreover, cAMP/PKA-dependent kinases phosphorylation was found to play a role in eliciting the observed NO production in CEC.

  2. Inhibition of protein interactions with the beta 2 sliding clamp of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III by peptides from beta 2-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian P; Prosselkov, Pavel; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Epa, V Chandana; Lilley, Penelope E; Jergic, Slobodan; Buchardt, Jens; Brown, Susan E; Alewood, Paul F; Jennings, Philip A; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2004-05-18

    The sliding clamp of the Escherichia coli replisome is now understood to interact with many proteins involved in DNA synthesis and repair. A universal interaction motif is proposed to be one mechanism by which those proteins bind the E. coli sliding clamp, a homodimer of the beta subunit, at a single site on the dimer. The numerous beta(2)-binding proteins have various versions of the consensus interaction motif, including a related hexameric sequence. To determine if the variants of the motif could contribute to the competition of the beta-binding proteins for the beta(2) site, synthetic peptides derived from the putative beta(2)-binding motifs were assessed for their abilities to inhibit protein-beta(2) interactions, to bind directly to beta(2), and to inhibit DNA synthesis in vitro. A hierarchy emerged, which was consistent with sequence similarity to the pentameric consensus motif, QL(S/D)LF, and peptides containing proposed hexameric motifs were shown to have activities comparable to those containing the consensus sequence. The hierarchy of peptide binding may be indicative of a competitive hierarchy for the binding of proteins to beta(2) in various stages or circumstances of DNA replication and repair.

  3. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  4. Adrenergic antagonists restrict replication of Legionella.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher F; Kicka, Sébastien; Kranjc, Agata; Finsel, Ivo; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Soldati, Thierry; Scapozza, Leonardo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium, which upon inhalation can cause a potentially fatal pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The opportunistic pathogen grows in environmental amoebae and mammalian macrophages within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the 'Legionella-containing vacuole'. Bacteria are exposed to many environmental cues including small signalling molecules from eukaryotic cells. A number of pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to catecholamine hormones, such as adrenalin and noradrenalin, a process mediated via the QseBC two-component system in some bacteria. In this study, we examined the effect of adrenergic compounds on L. pneumophila, and discovered that the adrenergic receptor antagonists benoxathian, naftopidil, propranolol and labetalol, as well as the QseC sensor kinase inhibitor LED209, reduced the growth of L. pneumophila in broth or amoebae, while replication in macrophages was enhanced. Growth restriction was common to members of the genus Legionella and Mycobacterium, and was observed for L. pneumophila in the replicative but not stationary phase of the biphasic life cycle. Deletion of the L. pneumophila qseBC genes indicated that growth inhibition by adrenergics or LED209 is mediated only to a minor extent by this two-component system, implying the presence of other adrenergic sensing systems. This study identifies adrenergic molecules as novel inhibitors of extra- and intracellular growth of Legionella and reveals LED209 as a potential lead compound to combat infections with Legionella or Mycobacterium spp.

  5. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-01-01

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels. Images PMID:8036151

  6. Reduced beta 2-microglobulin mRNA levels in transgenic mice expressing a designed hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Larsson, S; Hotchkiss, G; Andäng, M; Nyholm, T; Inzunza, J; Jansson, I; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    1994-06-25

    We have generated three artificial hammerhead ribozymes, denoted 'Rz-b', 'Rz-c' and 'Rz-d', with different specificities for exon II of the mouse beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2M) mRNA. In this study we tested for ribozyme mediated reduction of beta 2M mRNA in a cell line and in transgenic mice. Transfections of either of the Rz-b, Rz-c or Rz-d plasmids into a mouse cell-line (NIH/3T3) revealed reductions of beta 2M mRNA substrate in each case. Ribozyme expression in individual transfected clones was accompanied with an up to 80% reduction of beta 2M mRNA levels. Rz-c was selected for a transgenic study. Seven Rz-c transgenic founder animals were identified from which three ribozyme expressing families were established and analysed. Expression of the ribozyme transgene was tested for and detected in lung, kidney and spleen. Expression was accompanied with reduction of the beta 2M mRNA levels of heterozygous (Rz+/-) animals compared to non-transgenic litter mates. The effect was most pronounced in lung with more than 90% beta 2M mRNA reduction in individual mice. In summary, expression of our ribozymes in a cell free system, in a cell-line and in transgenic mice were all accompanied with reductions of beta 2M mRNA levels.

  7. Beta-2-linked glucans secreted by fast-growing species of Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    York, W.S.; McNeil, M.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1980-04-01

    Fast-growing species of Rhizobium were found to secrete low-molecular-weight ..beta..-2-linked glucans when cultured in synthetic liquid medium. These glucans are quite similar to ..beta..-2-linked glucans produced by species of Agrobacterium. No reducing terminus was detected in these glucans.

  8. Nicotine trapping causes the persistent desensitization of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors expressed in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Li; Flotildes, Karen; Li, Maureen; Cohen, Bruce N

    2003-02-01

    To determine whether prolonged nicotine exposure persistently inactivates rat alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, we measured the voltage-clamped alpha4beta2 response to acetylcholine (ACh) before and 24 h after, 1-h or 12-h incubations in 10 microm nicotine. A 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine depressed the alpha4beta2 ACh response for 24 h without affecting total or surface alpha4beta2 expression. To determine whether oocyte-mediated nicotine release caused this depression, we co-incubated an alpha4beta2-expressing oocyte with an un-injected one (pre-incubated in 10 microm nicotine for 12 h) for 24 h and measured the change in the alpha4beta2 ACh response. The response decreased by the same factor after the co-incubation as it did after a 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine and a 24-h incubation in nicotine-free media. Thus, oocyte-mediated nicotine release caused the persistent desensitization we observed after a 12-h incubation in 10 microm nicotine. Consistent with this result, measurements of [3H]nicotine release show that oocytes release enough nicotine into the wash media to desensitize alpha4beta2 receptors and that prolonged incubation in 300 microm ACh (which cannot readily cross the membrane or accumulate in acidic vesicles) did not persistently depress the alpha4beta2 response.

  9. Characterization of latent transforming growth factor-beta 2 from monkey kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Lioubin, M N; Madisen, L; Roth, R A; Purchio, A F

    1991-05-01

    Serum-free medium conditioned by BSC-40 cells was analyzed for the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF beta 2)-related proteins. Western blot analysis was performed using site-specific antipeptide antibodies directed against the pro- and mature regions of the TGF beta 2 precursor. When conditioned medium was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, proteins with mol wt of 53 kDa (containing both mature and proregion sequences), 34-38 kDa (containing proregion sequences only), and 12 kDa (containing mature sequences) were detected. Under nonreducing conditions, complexes of 60- to 80-kDa, 160- to 200-kDa, as well as 24-kDa mature dimers were seen. Cleavage of mature TGF beta 2 from its precursor was inhibited by monensin and chloroquin, but not by ammonium chloride or methylamine. Two peaks of bioactivity were detected after fractionation on a TSK column corresponding to mol wt of 130 and 400 kDa. These peaks contained TGF beta 2 and pro-TGF beta 2 proteins. Partial purification of the 130-kDa complex followed by N-glyconase digestion indicated that the pro-TGF beta 2 proteins were glycosylated. These data demonstrate that BSC-40 cells secrete mature TGF beta 2 complexed with proregion-containing proteins and suggest that this association may contribute to the latency phenomena observed with respect to this growth regulator.

  10. Beta 2-microglobulin levels in serum and urine of cadmium exposed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M; Björck, L; Nordberg, M

    1981-07-01

    Male rabbits were exposed to cadmium during 16 weeks by subcutaneous injections of either 0.25 mg or 0.5 md Cd as cadmium chloride per kg body weight 3 times per week. beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and creatinine in serum, cadmium in blood, as well as total protein, creatinine, beta 2-m and cadmium in urine were determined before exposure and after 3 and 7 weeks of exposure. Measurements were also made at 19 weeks, 3 weeks after the last exposure. During exposure, there was a slight increase in the serum beta 2-m/creatinine ratio among rabbits with the highest exposure, while no effect of the cadmium burden could be observed once exposure had ceased. Urinary excretion of beta 2-m was related to urinary pH, which appeared to be the case also for excretion of total protein. In the high exposure group, a significant increase in urinary beta 2-m excretion, indicative of renal tubular dysfunction was seen after 7 weeks of exposure. This was, however, not related to serum beta 2-m levels. It was concluded that before renal damage has occurred even heavy cadmium exposure has very little influence on serum beta 2-m levels.

  11. Targeting of Beta Adrenergic Receptors Results in Therapeutic Efficacy against Models of Hemangioendothelioma and Angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Jessica M.; Amaya, Clarissa; Rains, Steven; Diaz, Dolores; Pham, Robert; Battiste, James; Modiano, Jaime F.; Kokta, Victor; Boucheron, Laura E.; Mitchell, Dianne C.; Bryan, Brad A.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of the beta-adrenergic receptors has recently shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of benign vascular tumors such as infantile hemangiomas. As infantile hemangiomas are reported to express high levels of beta adrenergic receptors, we examined the expression of these receptors on more aggressive vascular tumors such as hemangioendotheliomas and angiosarcomas, revealing beta 1, 2, and 3 receptors were indeed present and therefore aggressive vascular tumors may similarly show increased susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of beta blockade. Using a panel of hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma cell lines, we demonstrate that beta adrenergic inhibition blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Beta blockade is selective for vascular tumor cells over normal endothelial cells and synergistically effective when combined with standard chemotherapeutic or cytotoxic agents. We demonstrate that inhibition of beta adrenergic signaling induces large scale changes in the global gene expression patterns of vascular tumors, including alterations in the expression of established cell cycle and apoptotic regulators. Using in vivo tumor models we demonstrate that beta blockade shows remarkable efficacy as a single agent in reducing the growth of angiosarcoma tumors. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the selective cytotoxicity and tumor suppressive ability of beta adrenergic inhibition on malignant vascular tumors and have laid the groundwork for a promising treatment of angiosarcomas in humans. PMID:23555867

  12. β-Adrenergic Regulation of Cardiac Progenitor Cell Death Versus Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Avitabile, Daniele; Siddiqi, Sailay; Nguyen, Jonathan; Wallach, Kathleen; Quijada, Pearl; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Tilley, Douglas G.; Koch, Walter J.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Short-term β-adrenergic stimulation promotes contractility in response to stress but is ultimately detrimental in the failing heart because of accrual of cardiomyocyte death. Endogenous cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) activation may partially offset cardiomyocyte losses, but consequences of long-term β-adrenergic drive on CPC survival and proliferation are unknown. Objective We sought to determine the relationship between β-adrenergic activity and regulation of CPC function. Methods and Results Mouse and human CPCs express only β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in conjunction with stem cell marker c-kit. Activation of β2-AR signaling promotes proliferation associated with increased AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and decreased levels of G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2. Conversely, silencing of β2-AR expression or treatment with β2-antagonist ICI 118, 551 impairs CPC proliferation and survival. β1-AR expression in CPC is induced by differentiation stimuli, sensitizing CPC to isoproterenol-induced cell death that is abrogated by metoprolol. Efficacy of β1-AR blockade by metoprolol to increase CPC survival and proliferation was confirmed in vivo by adoptive transfer of CPC into failing mouse myocardium. Conclusions β-adrenergic stimulation promotes expansion and survival of CPCs through β2-AR, but acquisition of β1-AR on commitment to the myocyte lineage results in loss of CPCs and early myocyte precursors. PMID:23243208

  13. Structural determinants of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Qin; Cheng, Shi-Bin; Treuil, Magdalen W; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Rao, Jayaraman; Braunewell, K H; Lindstrom, Jon M; Anand, Rene

    2005-07-13

    The structural determinants of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) trafficking have yet to be fully elucidated. Hydrophobic residues occur within short motifs important for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export or endocytotic trafficking. Hence, we tested whether highly conserved hydrophobic residues, primarily leucines, in the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha4beta2 AChR subunits were required for cell surface expression of alpha4beta2 AChRs. Mutation of F350, L351, L357, and L358 to alanine in the alpha4 AChR subunit attenuates cell surface expression of mutant alpha4beta2 AChRs. Mutation of F342, L343, L349, and L350 to alanine at homologous positions in the beta2 AChR subunit abolishes cell surface expression of mutant alpha4beta2 AChRs. The hydrophobic nature of the leucine residue is a primary determinant of its function because mutation of L343 to another hydrophobic amino acid, phenylalanine, in the beta2 AChR subunit only poorly inhibits trafficking of mutant alpha4beta2 AChR to the cell surface. All mutant alpha4beta2 AChRs exhibit high-affinity binding for [3H]epibatidine. In both tsA201 cells and differentiated SH-SY5Y neural cells, wild-type alpha4beta2 AChRs colocalize with the Golgi marker giantin, whereas mutant alpha4beta2 AChRs fail to do so. The striking difference between mutant alpha4 versus mutant beta2 AChR subunits on cell surface expression of mutant alpha4beta2 AChRs points to a cooperative or regulatory role for the alpha4 AChR subunit and an obligatory role for the beta2 AChR subunit in ER export. Collectively, our results identify, for the first time, residues within AChR subunits that are essential structural determinants of alpha4beta2 AChR ER export.

  14. TGF beta 2 mRNA expression and pregnancy failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Gorivodsky, M; Torchinsky, A; Zemliak, I; Savion, S; Fein, A; Toder, V

    1999-08-01

    We describe here a pattern of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta2 mRNA expression at the fetomaternal interface in mice with high rate of resorptions as well as its expression following maternal immunopotentiation. TGF beta 2 mRNA expression was evaluated in the uteroplacental units of mice with spontaneous (CBA/J x DBA/2J mouse combination) or cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced pregnancy loss. The effect of immunopotentiation on TGF beta 2 mRNA expression was determined in CP-treated females who underwent nonspecific immunostimulation with xenogeneic (rat) leukocytes. A quantitative analysis of TGF beta 2 mRNA level was performed using RNase protection assay. Distribution of TGF beta 2 mRNA transcripts at the fetomaternal interface was studied by in situ hybridization analysis. RNase protection analysis revealed four TGF beta 2 specific mRNA forms (330, 270, 230, and 170 bp) in the uteroplacental units of mice with either normal or decreased reproductive performance. A significant decrease (about 50%) in the level of TGF beta 2 mRNA was registered in the uteroplacental unit of mice with pregnancy loss as compared to the control mice. TGF beta 2 transcripts were abundant in the uterine epithelium and stroma. A specific hybridization signal was detected also in metrial gland cells and it was found to be substantially lower in CP-treated as compared to intact mice. In the resorbing uteroplacental unit, the expression of TGF beta 2 mRNA was completely lost in the uterine epithelium, and the number of TGF beta 2 mRNA-positive metrial gland cells was lower as compared to the control. Immunopotentiation decreased the resorption rate in mice with CP-induced pregnancy loss and caused a dramatic increase in TGF beta 2 mRNA expression: the level of TGF beta 2 mRNA was found to be higher by 2.0-3.2 fold in the uteroplacental unit of immunized as compared to nonimmunized CP-treated mice. These data suggest that distortion of TGF beta 2 expression at the fetomaternal interface

  15. Adrenergic modulation of cytokine release in bone marrow progenitor-derived macrophage following polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Kuzhali; Deng, Jiangping; Gamelli, Richard; Shankar, Ravi; Jones, Stephen B

    2005-01-01

    Catecholamines may impact on the pathophysiology of sepsis by attenuating proinflammatory cytokine and augmenting antiinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. We tested this premise in bone marrow monocyte progenitor-derived macrophages. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced in mice through cecal ligation and puncture. ER-MP 12 monocyte progenitors were isolated and differentiated into macrophages in vitro 72 hr later. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production was measured with and without epinephrine, IL-10 and anti-IL-10 antibody. Epinephrine significantly increased IL-10 production, but attenuated TNF-alpha release exclusively through beta2 adrenergic receptors, and is independent of IL-10 production. Together, these results suggest that epinephrine can promote a potent antiinflammatory response in sepsis.

  16. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  17. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as potent alpha-adrenergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seoung-Soo; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Lee, Sang-Il; Patil, Popat N; Lalchandani, S G; Feller, Dennis R; Miller, Duane D

    2005-11-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs are described. Replacement of the carbon next to the imidazoline ring of phentolamine with a nitrogen atom provides compounds (2, 3) that are about 1.6 times and 4.1 times more potent functionally than phentolamine on rat alpha1-adrenergic receptors, respectively. In receptor binding assays, the affinities of phentolamine and its bioisosteric analogs were determined on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing the human alpha1- and alpha2-AR subtypes, respectively. Analogs 2 and 3, both, displayed higher binding affinities at the alpha2- versus the alpha1-ARs, affinities being the least at the alpha1B-AR. Binding affinities of the methoxy ether analog 2 were greater than those of the phenolic analog 3 at all six alpha-AR subtypes. One of the nitrogen atoms in the imidazoline ring of phentolamine was replaced with an oxygen atom to give compounds 4 and 5, resulting in a 2-substituted oxazoline ring. The low functional antagonist activity on rat aorta, and binding potencies of these two compounds on human alpha1A- and alpha2A-AR subtypes indicate that a basic functional group is important for optimum binding to the alpha1- and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors.

  18. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  19. Quantification of beta adrenergic receptor subtypes in beta-arrestin knockout mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Akhil; Strachan, Ryan T; Walker, Julia K L

    2015-01-01

    In allergic asthma Beta 2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are important mediators of bronchorelaxation and, paradoxically, asthma development. This contradiction is likely due to the activation of dual signaling pathways that are downstream of G proteins or β-arrestins. Our group has recently shown that β-arrestin-2 acts in its classical role to desensitize and constrain β2AR-induced relaxation of both human and murine airway smooth muscle. To assess the role of β-arrestins in regulating β2AR function in asthma, we and others have utilized β-arrestin-1 and -2 knockout mice. However, it is unknown if genetic deletion of β-arrestins in these mice influences β2AR expression in the airways. Furthermore, there is lack of data on compensatory expression of βAR subtypes when either of the β-arrestins is genetically deleted, thus necessitating a detailed βAR subtype expression study in these β-arrestin knockout mice. Here we standardized a radioligand binding methodology to characterize and quantitate βAR subtype distribution in the airway smooth muscle of wild-type C57BL/6J and β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice. Using complementary competition and single-point saturation binding assays we found that β2ARs predominate over β1ARs in the whole lung and epithelium-denuded tracheobronchial smooth muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Quantification of βAR subtypes in β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 knockout mouse lung and epithelium-denuded tracheobronchial tissue showed that, similar to the C57BL/6J mice, both knockouts display a predominance of β2AR expression. These data provide further evidence that β2ARs are expressed in greater abundance than β1ARs in the tracheobronchial smooth muscle and that loss of either β-arrestin does not significantly affect the expression or relative proportions of βAR subtypes. As β-arrestins are known to modulate β2AR function, our analysis of βAR subtype expression in β-arrestin knockout mice airways sets a reference

  20. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  1. Immunolocalization of TGF-beta2 in the rat thymus during late stages of prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Mehmet Fatih; Colakoglu, Neriman; Kukner, Aysel; Ozan, Enver; Dabak, Durrin Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2) in rat thymic stromal cells and thymocytes and investigate the roles of TGF-beta2 in thymopoiesis during the late stages of fetal development. Twelve adult pregnant female Wistar rats weighing 250-270 g were used in this study. The rats were killed by cervical dislocation on gestation days 16 (GD16), 18 (GD18) and 20 (GD20). Fetal thymus glands were prepared and examined by an immunohistochemical technique to reveal binding of an anti-TGF-beta2 rabbit polyclonal antibody. The thymic primordium was surrounded with a connective tissue capsule at GD16 and at this stage TGF-beta2 immunoreactivity was not observed. At GD18, the connective tissue capsule had formed septa which subdivided the tissue into lobules and at this stage TGF-beta2 immunolocalization was detected in the capsule and in thymocytes. Lobulation was more evident at GD20 and TGF-beta2 immunoreactivity of thymocytes was more extensive than on GD18. Results indicate that TGF-beta2 may play an important role in the organization or development of thymocytes in the late stages of thymopoiesis.

  2. Sleep-deprivation reduces NK cell number and function mediated by β-adrenergic signalling.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Beatriz H P; de Oliveira Marchioro, Laís; Greco, Carollina Ribeiro; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Reduction of sleep time triggers a stress response, leading to augmented levels of glucocorticoids and adrenaline. These hormones regulate components of the innate immune system such as natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether and how stress hormones could alter the population and function of NK and NKT cells of mice submitted to different lengths of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, from 24 to 72 h). Results showed that 72h of PSD decreased not only NK and NKT cell counts, but also their cytotoxic activity against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Propranolol treatment during PSD reversed these effects, indicating a major inhibitory role of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) on NK cells function. Moreover, both corticosterone plasma levels and expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) in NK cells increased by 48 h of PSD. In vitro incubation of NK cells with dexamethasone augmented the level of β2-AR in the cell surface, suggesting that glucocorticoids could induce β2-AR expression. In summary, we propose that reduction of NK and NKT cell number and cytotoxic activity appears to be mediated by glucocorticoids-induced increased expression of β2-AR in these cells.

  3. [Genetic polymorphism of beta-adrenergic receptors and mortality in ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Patrice; Simon, Tabassome

    2007-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of beta-2 adrenergic receptors (B2AR) could play a major role in the prognostic of patients with a coronary heart disease. Two recent epidemiological studies could support this hypothesis. In 597 patients treated by a beta-blocker and followed for 3 years after a myocardial infarction or an acute coronary syndrome, the death rate was 5.4 times higher in homozygous Arg 16 and Gln 27 B2AR genotypes than in heterozygous or homozygous Gly 16 and Glu 27 B2AR genotypes. The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (B1AR) genetic polymorphism did not modify mortality. In a second study, in a prospective cohort of 5249 patients aged > or =65 years, the incidence of sudden cardiac death was 1.56 times higher in patients with homozygous Gln 27 B2AR than in heterozygous or homozygous Glu 27 B2AR genotype. This result was confirmed by a case-control study (155 cases of sudden cardiac death versus 144 control subjects). These data suggest that B2AR genetic polymorphism should be systematically studied in clinical trials in myocardial ischemia, with or without congestive heart failure.

  4. Differential expression and role of hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress in epigenetic regulation of β1, β2 and β3-adrenergic receptors in retinal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aberrant epigenetic profiles are concomitant with a spectrum of developmental defects and diseases. Role of methylation is an increasingly accepted factor in the pathophysiology of diabetes and its associated complications. This study aims to examine the correlation between oxidative stress and methylation of β1, β2 and β3-adrenergic receptors and to analyze the differential variability in the expression of these genes under hyperglycemic conditions. Methods Human retinal endothelial cells were cultured in CSC complete medium in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose to mimic a diabetic condition. Reverse transcription PCR and Western Blotting were performed to examine the expression of β1, β2 and β3-adrenergic receptors. For detections, immunocytochemistry was used. Bisulfite sequencing method was used for promoter methylation analysis. Apoptosis was determined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cells. Results β1 and β3-adrenergic receptors were expressed in retinal endothelial cells while β2-adrenergic receptor was not detectable both at protein and mRNA levels. Hyperglycemia had no significant effect on β1 and β2-adrenergic receptors methylation and expression however β3-adrenergic receptors showed a significantly higher expression (p < 0.05) and methylation (p < 0.01) in high and low glucose concentration respectively. Apoptosis and oxidative stress were inversely correlated with β3-adrenergic receptors methylation with no significant effect on β1 and β2-adrenergic receptors. β2-adrenergic receptor was hypermethylated with halted expression. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that β1 and β3-adrenergic receptors expressed in human retinal endothelial cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are inversely proportional to the extent of promoter methylation

  5. Effect of the carbohydrate moiety on the secondary structure of beta 2-glycoprotein. I. Implications for the biosynthesis and folding of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M T; Watzlawick, H; Putnam, F W; Schmid, K; Brossmer, R

    1990-07-03

    By use of six highly purified exoglycosidases with well-defined specificity, the oligosaccharide units of human plasma beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I) were modified by sequential enzymatic degradation. The released monosaccharides (NeuAc, Gal, GlcNAc, and Man) were quantified, and the carbohydrate compositions of the resulting glycoprotein (gp) derivatives were determined. The gp was found to be both partially sialylated and galactosylated. These findings which are in agreement with earlier reports suggest that the carbohydrate moiety of beta 2I possesses more bi- than tri-antennas, probably three of the former and two of the latter carbohydrate units. Circular dichroic (CD) spectra of native beta 2I and its derivatives were measured in aqueous buffer and 2-chloroethanol (2-CE). Analysis of these spectra for elements of secondary structure showed beta 2I and most of the derivatives to contain predominantly beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. The lack of alpha-helical structures in aqueous buffer was noted. Removal of a large portion of the carbohydrate moiety did not alter the CD spectra or secondary structure of beta 2I in either aqueous buffer or in 2-CE. However, after enzymatic removal of approximately 96% of the carbohydrate moiety, large significant changes in the spectra and secondary structures were observed. In aqueous buffer a shift in the wavelength minimum occurred, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the molar ellipticity and the amount of beta-turn, with a reduction in random coil. One-third of the amino acids which were originally in random coil conformation assumed beta-turns after removal of 96% of the carbohydrate moiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.

  7. Depression and topical ophthalmic beta adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, J A

    1991-05-01

    Beta adrenergic blocking agents are in widespread use as both systemic and topical medications. While they are safely used in the great majority of cases, several side effects are well known. Central nervous system side effects, specifically depression, can be among the most clinically important of these and must be investigated by the clinician.

  8. Identification and characterization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the canine prostate using (/sup 125/I)-Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lepor, H.; Baumann, M.; Shapiro, E.

    1987-11-01

    We have recently utilized radioligand receptor binding methods to characterize muscarinic cholinergic and alpha adrenergic receptors in human prostate adenomas. The primary advantages of radioligand receptor binding methods are that neurotransmitter receptor density is quantitated, the affinity of unlabelled drugs for receptor sites is determined, and receptors can be localized using autoradiography on slide-mounted tissue sections. Recently, (/sup 125/I)-Heat, a selective and high affinity ligand with high specific activity (2200 Ci/mmole) has been used to characterize alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the brain. In this study alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the dog prostate were characterized using (/sup 125/I)-Heat. The Scatchard plots were linear indicating homogeneity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding sites. The mean alpha 1 adrenergic receptor density determined from these Scatchard plots was 0.61 +/- 0.07 fmol/mg. wet wt. +/- S.E.M. The binding of (/sup 125/I)-Heat to canine prostate alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was of high affinity (Kd = 86 +/- 19 pM). Steady state conditions were reached following an incubation interval of 30 minutes and specific binding and tissue concentration were linear within the range of tissue concentrations assayed. The specificity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat for alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was confirmed by competitive displacement assays using unlabelled clonidine and prazosin. Retrospective analysis of the saturation experiments demonstrated that Bmax can be accurately calculated by determining specific (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding at a single ligand concentration. (/sup 125/I)-Heat is an ideal ligand for studying alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate and its favorable properties should facilitate the autoradiographic localization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate.

  9. Effects of Adrenergic Receptor Activation and Blockade on the Systolic Preejection Period, Heart Rate, and Arterial Pressure in Man

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Willard S.; Schoenfeld, Clyde D.; Weissler, Arnold M.

    1967-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that alterations in the duration of the systolic preejection period can be used to estimate adrenergic influences on the human left ventricle. The preejection period was determined from high speed, simultaneous recordings of the phonocardiogram, carotid pulse tracing, and electrocardiogram. The preejection period was shortened by isoproterenol, epinephrine, and moderate doses of norepinephrine—all of which activate beta adrenergic receptors—and by cedilanid-D. It was unaltered by changes in heart rate induced by atropine and right atrial electrical pacing. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol abolished the shortening effects of the three catecholamines but did not inhibit that due to cedilanid-D. Vasoconstriction, both alpha adrenergic (epinephrine and norepinephrine after propranolol) and nonadrenergic (angiotensin), prolonged the preejection period. Most of the shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic receptor activating agents and cedilanid-D and all of the prolongation accompanying pharmacologic vasoconstriction occurred after the onset of the first heart sound, thereby excluding changes in electrical-mechanical delay as a major factor in the observed preejection period responses. Shortening of the preejection period by beta adrenergic activity induced with isoproterenol was dose-related. Increasing doses of propranolol produced parallel shifts to the right in the isoproterenol dose-response curve. In 37 normal resting subjects intravenous propranolol (10 mg) prolonged the preejection period an average of 10 (SE ± 1) msec. In six patients with psychogenic sinus tachycardia and a patient with a pheochromocytoma the presence of excessive beta adrenergic influences on the left ventricle was demonstrated by the finding of an initially short preejection period which responded with an abnormally great prolongation to beta adrenergic receptor blockade. Images PMID:4294053

  10. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.; Bylund, D.B.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-time for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.

  11. SRC-dependent outside-in signalling is a key step in the process of autoregulation of beta2 integrins in polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piccardoni, Paola; Manarini, Stefano; Federico, Lorenzo; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Pecce, Romina; Martelli, Nicola; Piccoli, Antonio; Totani, Licia; Cerletti, Chiara; Evangelista, Virgilio

    2004-01-01

    In human PMN (polymorphonuclear cells), challenged by P-selectin, the beta2-integrin Mac-1 (macrophage antigen-1) promoted the activation of the SRC (cellular homologue of Rous sarcoma virus oncogenic protein) family members HCK (haematopoietic cell kinase) and LYN (an SRC family protein tyrosine kinase) and phosphorylation of a P-110 (110 kDa protein). SRC kinase activity in turn was necessary for macrophage antigen-1-mediated adhesion [Piccardoni, Sideri, Manarini, Piccoli, Martelli, de Gaetano, Cerletti and Evangelista (2001) Blood 98, 108-116]. This suggested that an SRC-dependent outside-in signalling strengthens the beta2-integrin interaction with the ligand. To support this hypothesis further, in the present study, we used the monoclonal antibody KIM127 or manganese to lock beta2 integrins in a high-affinity state, and homotypic PMN adhesion was analysed to monitor beta2-integrin adhesive function. KIM127 or manganese induced PMN homotypic adhesion and P-110 phosphorylation. Both these processes were abolished by blocking antibodies against the common beta2 chain, by a combination of antibodies against alphaL and alphaM or by inhibitors of SRC activity. Confocal microscopy showed that activation epitopes were expressed by beta2 integrins co-localized with patches of F-actin at the adhesion sites. Blockade of SRC kinases or of actin polymerization prevented clustering of activated integrins as well as F-actin accumulation. FACS analysis showed that SRC inhibitors modified neither basal nor manganese-induced KIM127 binding. An SRC-dependent outside-in signalling initiated by beta2 integrins was also required for adhesion triggered by interleukin-8. These results confirm the hypothesis that an SRC-dependent outside-in signalling triggered by high affinity and ligand binding is necessary to stabilize beta2-integrin-mediated adhesion. Allowing clustering of activated integrins, SRC might link the high-affinity with the high-avidity state. Proline-rich tyrosine

  12. Cell surface adrenergic receptor stimulation modifies the endothelial response to SIRS. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tighe, D; Moss, R; Bennett, D

    1996-11-01

    The complex pathway seen in patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) does not readily respond to mediator blockade. All such trials conducted in SIRS patients have shown no benefit in reducing mortality. We have shown experimentally that in sepsis, the administration of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists reduces hepatic cellular injury, whereas administration of an alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist increases hepatic cellular injury. Inflammatory mediators can cause a dose-related reversible change in target endothelial cells (ECs). There is a substantial body of literature describing the anti-inflammatory effects of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. They reduce both the increased permeability and the production of inflammatory mediators from ECs. Cellular transduction processes are involved when adrenergic receptor agonists modify either the anti-inflammatory or proinflammatory response to sepsis in ECs. Inflammatory mediators and alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists stimulate their trimeric G protein-linked receptors to produce diacylglycerol (DAG) and increase the intracellular concentration of calcium. DAG is involved in the production of both inflammatory proteins and lipids. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated which is also involved in the production of inflammatory proteins and lipids. beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists activate their trimeric G protein-linked receptors to produce the stimulatory G protein (Gs). Gs stimulates adenyl cyclase to form cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activate protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is involved in activating gene transcription agents to produce anti-inflammatory proteins such as interleukin-10. PKA also inhibits phospholipase C and MAPK. Although promising, the use of beta-adrenoceptor agonists or agonists that increase cellular cAMP to activate the cells' endogenous anti-inflammatory pathway requires further study.

  13. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin concentration and mortality in a cadmium-polluted area

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, H.; Nishijo, M.; Morikawa, Y.; Tabata, M.; Senma, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kawano, S.; Ishizaki, M.; Sugita, N.; Nishi, M. )

    1993-11-01

    A 9-y follow-up study of 3,178 persons who lived in a cadmium-polluted area was conducted to assess the influence of environmental cadmium exposure on long-term outcome. The standardized mortality ratios of the urinary beta 2-microglobulin-positive subjects (> 1,000 micrograms/g creatinine) of both sexes were higher than those of the general Japanese population, whereas the cumulative survival curves were lower than those of the urinary beta 2-microglobulin-negative group. A significant association was also found between urinary beta 2-microglobulin and mortality, using a Cox's proportional hazards model. Moreover, mortality rates increased in proportion to increases in the amount of urinary beta 2-microglobulin excreted. These results suggest that the prognosis for cadmium-exposed subjects with proximal tubular dysfunction is unfavorable. The mortality rate tended to become higher as the severity of renal dysfunction progressed.

  14. Rat alpha6beta2delta GABAA receptors exhibit two distinct and separable agonist affinities.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Stephen H; Amin, Jahanshah

    2007-06-15

    The onset of motor learning in rats coincides with exclusive expression of GABAA receptors containing alpha6 and delta subunits in the granule neurons of the cerebellum. This development temporally correlates with the presence of a spontaneously active chloride current through alpha6-containing GABAA receptors, known as tonic inhibition. Here we report that the coexpression of alpha6, beta2, and delta subunits produced receptor-channels which possessed two distinct and separable states of agonist affinity, one exhibiting micromolar and the other nanomolar affinities for GABA. The high-affinity state was associated with a significant level of spontaneous channel activity. Increasing the level of expression or the ratio of beta2 to alpha6 and delta subunits increased the prevalence of the high-affinity state. Comparative studies of alpha6beta2delta, alpha1beta2delta, alpha6beta2gamma2, alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha4beta2delta receptors under equivalent levels of expression demonstrated that the significant level of spontaneous channel activity is uniquely attributable to alpha6beta2delta receptors. The pharmacology of spontaneous channel activity arising from alpha6beta2delta receptor expression corresponded to that of tonic inhibition. For example, GABAA receptor antagonists, including furosemide, blocked the spontaneous current. Further, the neuroactive steroid 5alpha-THDOC and classical glycine receptor agonists beta-alanine and taurine directly activated alpha6beta2delta receptors with high potency. Specific mutation within the GABA-dependent activation domain (betaY157F) impaired both low- and high-affinity components of GABA agonist activity in alpha6betaY157Fdelta receptors, but did not attenuate the spontaneous current. In comparison, a mutation located between the second and third transmembrane segments of the delta subunit (deltaR287M) significantly diminished the nanomolar component and the spontaneous activity. The possibility that the high affinity state

  15. Apical plasma membrane mispolarization of NaK-ATPase in polycystic kidney disease epithelia is associated with aberrant expression of the beta2 isoform.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Devuyst, O; Li, X; Gatti, L; Falkenstein, D; Robinson, S; Fambrough, D; Burrow, C R

    2000-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease of the kidney, characterized by cystic enlargement of renal tubules, aberrant epithelial proliferation, and ion and fluid secretion into the lumen. Previous studies have shown abnormalities in polarization of membrane proteins, including mislocalization of the NaK-ATPase to the apical plasma membranes of cystic epithelia. Apically located NaK-ATPase has previously been shown to be fully functional in vivo and in membrane-grown ADPKD epithelial c