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Sample records for human beta-2 adrenergic

  1. Reduced expression of immunoreactive beta2-adrenergic receptor protein in human myometrium with labor.

    PubMed

    Chanrachakul, Boonsri; Matharoo-Ball, Balwir; Turner, Anita; Robinson, Graham; Broughton-Pipkin, Fiona; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Khan, Raheela N

    2003-10-01

    A considerable body of evidence exists suggesting that the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) mediates uterine relaxation. However, little information exists on the localization, distribution, or expression of beta(2)-ARs in the human myometrium during the nonpregnant to labor transition. We have used immunochemical methods to investigate beta(2)-AR localization and expression in the nonpregnant, term pregnant, and term parturient uterus. Myometrial biopsies were obtained from 1) nonpregnant, menstruating women undergoing hysterectomy; 2) singleton term pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean section before the onset of labor; or 3) singleton term pregnant women undergoing emergency cesarean section after spontaneous labor. Tissues were processed for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting and a primary polyclonal antibody specific to the human beta(2)-AR to identify immunoreactive myometrial beta(2)-AR. Protein levels were subsequently quantified by densitometry relative to rat brain protein. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of beta(2)-AR predominantly at the plasma membrane and also in the cytosol of myometrial cells. A 2-fold decrease in protein levels of the beta(2)-AR was apparent in the myometrium of labor compared with that of nonpregnant and pregnant nonlaboring women (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that down-regulation of beta(2)-AR protein with labor may constitute a contributory mechanism by which uterine quiescence is removed at term.

  2. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor regulation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic.

    PubMed

    de Coupade, Catherine; Gear, Robert W; Dazin, Paul F; Sroussi, Herve Y; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2004-12-01

    While the mechanisms underlying the marked sexual dimorphism in inflammatory diseases are not well understood, the sexually dimorphic sympathoadrenal axis profoundly affects the inflammatory response. We tested whether adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic, since neutrophils provide the first line of defense in the inflammatory response. There was a marked sexual dimorphism in beta(2)-adrenergic receptor binding, using the specific beta(2)-adrenergic receptor ligand, [(3)H]-dihydroalprenolol, with almost three times more binding sites on neutrophils from females (20,878 +/- 2470) compared to males (7331 +/- 3179). There was also a marked sexual dimorphism in the effects of isoprenaline, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, which increased nondirected locomotion (chemokinesis) in neutrophils obtained from females, while having no effect on neutrophils from males. Isoprenaline stimulated the release of a chemotactic factor from neutrophils obtained from females, but not from males. This chemotactic factor acts on the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) chemokine receptor, since an anti-CXCR2 antibody and the selective nonpeptide CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, inhibited chemotaxis produced by this factor. While interleukin- (IL-) 8 is a principal CXCR2 ligand, isoprenaline did not produce an increase in IL-8 release from neutrophils. IL-8-induced chemotaxis was inhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by isoprenaline, which also stimulated release of a mediator from neutrophils that induced chemotaxis, that was inhibited by anti-CXCR2 antibodies. These findings indicate an important role for adrenergic receptors in the modulation of neutrophil trafficking, which could contribute to sex-differences in the inflammatory response. PMID:15477226

  3. Mutation of tyrosine-141 inhibits insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and increased responsiveness of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, M; Parent, S; Loisel, T P; Bouvier, M

    1995-01-01

    The ability of insulin to promote phosphorylation of the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) was assessed in Chinese hamster fibroblasts transfected with beta 2AR cDNA. Phosphotyrosine residues were detected in purified beta 2AR using a polyclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and by phosphoamino acid analysis following metabolic labelling with inorganic 32P. Treatment of the cells with insulin induced a 2.4-fold increase in the phosphotyrosine content of the receptor. The insulin-promoted phosphorylation of the beta 2AR was accompanied by an increase in the beta-adrenergic-stimulated adenyl cyclase activity. Substitution of a phenylalanine residue for tyrosine-141 completely prevented both the increased tyrosine phosphorylation and the enhanced responsiveness of the beta 2AR promoted by insulin treatment. Mutation of three other tyrosines located in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, tyrosine-366, tyrosine-350 and tyrosine-354, did not abolish the insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin promotes phosphorylation of the beta 2AR on tyrosine-141 and that such phosphorylation leads to a supersensitization of the receptor. Images PMID:8521811

  4. Altered phosphorylation and desensitization patterns of a human beta 2-adrenergic receptor lacking the palmitoylated Cys341.

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, S; Mouillac, B; Bonin, H; Bouvier, M

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of beta 2-adrenergic receptors to agonists causes a rapid desensitization of the receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, associated with an increased phosphorylation of the receptor. Agonist-promoted phosphorylation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) by protein kinase A and the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is believed to promote a functional uncoupling of the receptor from the guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein Gs. More recently, palmitoylation of Cys341 of the receptor has also been proposed to play an important role in the coupling of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor to Gs. Here we report that substitution of the palmitoylated cysteine by a glycine (Gly341 beta 2 AR) using site directed mutagenesis leads to a receptor being highly phosphorylated and largely uncoupled from Gs. In Chinese hamster fibroblasts (CHW), stably transfected with the human receptor cDNAs, the basal phosphorylation level of Gly341 beta 2AR was found to be approximately 4 times that of the wild type receptor. This elevated phosphorylation level was accompanied by a depressed ability of the receptor to stimulate the adenylyl cyclase and to form a guanyl nucleotide-sensitive high affinity state for agonists. Moreover, exposure of this unpalmitoylated receptor to an agonist did not promote any further phosphorylation or uncoupling. A modest desensitization of the receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase response was observed but resulted from the agonist-induced sequestration of the unpalmitoylated receptor and could be blocked by concanavalin A. This contrasts with the agonist-promoted phosphorylation and uncoupling of the wild type receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8381352

  5. Increased thermogenic responsiveness to intravenous beta-adrenergic stimulation in habitually exercising humans is not related to skeletal muscle beta2-adrenergic receptor density.

    PubMed

    Stob, Nicole R; Seals, Douglas R; Jørgen, Jensen; van Baak, Marleen A; Steig, Amy J; Lindstrom, Rachel C; Bikman, Benjamin T; Bell, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Habitually exercising adults demonstrate greater thermogenic responsiveness to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation compared with their sedentary peers, but the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. To determine the possible role of increased beta-AR density, we studied 32 healthy adults: 17 habitual aerobic exercisers (age 45 +/- 5 years, 11 males) and 15 sedentary (49 +/- 5 years, 7 males). Maximal oxygen uptake (43.7 +/- 2.5 versus 31.6 +/- 2.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P = 0.002, mean +/- S.E.M.) and vastus lateralis muscle maximal citrate synthase activity (1.70 +/- 0.36 versus 0.58 +/- 0.11 micromol min(-1) g(-1), P = 0.008) were higher in the habitually exercising subjects. Resting energy expenditure (EE) adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) was similar in the habitually exercising (5903 +/- 280 kJ day(-1)) and sedentary adults (6054 +/- 289 kJ day(-1), P = 0.43). The percentage increase in EE (DeltaEE%; indirect calorimetry, ventilated hood) above resting EE in response to beta-AR stimulation (intravenous isoproterenol at 6, 12 and 24 ng (kg FFM)(-1) min(-1)) was greater (7.1 +/- 1.2, 13.7 +/- 1.0, 20.7 +/- 1.3 versus 5.9 +/- 0.9, 9.9 +/- 1.4, 15.9 +/- 1.70%, respectively, P = 0.04), and the dose of isoproterenol required to increase EE by 10% above resting EE was lower (8.2 +/- 1.5 versus 17.1 +/- 4.1 ng (kg FFM)(-1) min(-1), P = 0.03) in the habitually exercising adults. In contrast, vastus lateralis muscle beta(2)-AR density was similar in the habitually exercising and sedentary subjects (7.46 +/- 0.29 versus 7.44 +/- 0.60 fmol (mg dry weight muscle)(-1), P = 0.98), and was not related to DeltaEE% (r = 0.02, P = 0.94) or to the isoproterenol dose required to increase EE by 10% above resting EE (r = -0.06, P = 0.76). These findings indicate that increased beta(2)-AR density is not a mechanism contributing to the greater thermogenic responsiveness to beta-AR stimulation in adult humans who regularly perform aerobic exercise.

  6. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of beta2-adrenergic agonist enantiomers: zilpaterol.

    PubMed

    Kern, Christopher; Meyer, Thorsten; Droux, Serge; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Miculka, Christian

    2009-03-26

    The beta-adrenergic agonist 1 (zilpaterol) is used as production enhancer in cattle. Binding experiments of separated enantiomers on recombinant human beta(2)-adrenergic and mu-opioid receptors and functional studies showed that the (-)-1 enantiomer accounts for essentially all the beta(2)-adrenergic agonist activity and that it exhibits less affinity toward the mu-opioid receptor than (+)-1, which is a mu-opioid receptor antagonist. X-ray crystallography revealed the absolute configuration of (-)-1 to be 6R,7R.

  7. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  8. beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and salbutamol-stimulated energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Oomen, J M; van Rossum, C T M; Hoebee, B; Saris, W H M; van Baak, M A

    2005-04-01

    The beta-adrenergic system is involved in the control of energy metabolism and expenditure. The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) gene shows polymorphisms that have been associated with obesity in several studies. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest differences in beta2-AR-mediated function between these polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic variation in codon 16 of the beta2-AR gene on energy metabolism in humans. Thirty-four subjects were recruited [Gly16Gly (n = 13), Gly16Arg (n = 16), or Arg16Arg (n = 5)]. The beta2-AR was stimulated with two doses of salbutamol (50 and 100 ng/kg fat-free mass per minute) after blockade of the beta1-adrenergic receptors with atenolol. Energy expenditure and plasma substrate and hormone concentrations were measured. The increase in energy expenditure (DeltaEE) was significantly different among groups in which the Arg16Arg group showed the lowest increase (P < 0.05 vs. Gly carriers). In a multiple regression model, variations in the increase in nonesterified fatty acid concentration during salbutamol infusion (partial r = 0.51) and the polymorphism contributed significantly to the variation in DeltaEE. Thirty-five percent of the variation in DeltaEE was explained by these two factors. We conclude that subjects with the Arg16Arg polymorphism of the beta2-AR gene have a reduced thermogenic response to beta2-adrenergic stimulation. Although this relatively small study needs confirmation, the findings support a role for this polymorphism in the development and maintenance of overweight and obesity.

  9. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists in asthma management.

    PubMed

    Ortega, V E

    2014-07-01

    Beta2 (β2) adrenergic receptor agonists (beta agonists) are a commonly prescribed treatment for asthma despite the small increase in risk for life-threatening adverse responses associated with long-acting beta agonist (LABA). The concern for life-threatening adverse effects associated with LABA and the inter-individual variability of therapeutic responsiveness to LABA-containing combination therapies provide the rationale for pharmacogenetic studies of beta agonists. These studies primarily evaluated genes within the β2-adrenergic receptor and related pathways; however, recent genome-wide studies have identified novel loci for beta agonist response. Recent studies have identified a role for rare genetic variants in determining beta agonist response and, potentially, the risk for rare, adverse responses to LABA. Before genomics research can be applied to the development of genetic profiles for personalized medicine, it will be necessary to continue adapting to the analysis of an increasing volume of genetic data in larger cohorts with a combination of analytical methods and in vitro studies.

  11. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors are colocalized and coregulated with "whisker barrels" in rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Vos, P; Kaufmann, D; Hand, P J; Wolfe, B B

    1990-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to visualize independently the subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat somatosensory cortex. Beta 2-Adrenergic receptors, but not beta 1-adrenergic receptors colocalize with "whisker barrels" in this tissue. Thus, each whisker sends a specific multisynaptic pathway to the somatosensory cortex that can be histochemically visualized and only one subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor is specifically associated with this cortical representation. Additionally, neonatal lesion of any or all of the whisker follicles results in loss of the corresponding barrel(s) as shown by histochemical markers. This loss is paralleled by a similar loss in the organization of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the somatosensory cortex. Other results indicate that these beta 2-adrenergic receptors are not involved in moment-to-moment signal transmission in this pathway and, additionally, are not involved in a gross way in the development of whisker-barrel array. Images PMID:2164222

  12. Homology modelling of the human adenosine A2B receptor based on X-ray structures of bovine rhodopsin, the beta2-adrenergic receptor and the human adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Sherbiny, Farag F; Schiedel, Anke C; Maass, Astrid; Müller, Christa E

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional model of the human adenosine A2B receptor was generated by means of homology modelling, using the crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, the beta2-adrenergic receptor, and the human adenosine A2A receptor as templates. In order to compare the three resulting models, the binding modes of the adenosine A2B receptor antagonists theophylline, ZM241385, MRS1706, and PSB601 were investigated. The A2A-based model was much better able to stabilize the ligands in the binding site than the other models reflecting the high degree of similarity between A2A and A2B receptors: while the A2B receptor shares about 21% of the residues with rhodopsin, and 31% with the beta2-adrenergic receptor, it is 56% identical to the adenosine A2A receptor. The A2A-based model was used for further studies. The model included the transmembrane domains, the extracellular and the intracellular hydrophilic loops as well as the terminal domains. In order to validate the usefulness of this model, a docking analysis of several selective and nonselective agonists and antagonists was carried out including a study of binding affinities and selectivities of these ligands with respect to the adenosine A2A and A2B receptors. A common binding site is proposed for antagonists and agonists based on homology modelling combined with site-directed mutagenesis and a comparison between experimental and calculated affinity data. The new, validated A2B receptor model may serve as a basis for developing more potent and selective drugs.

  13. Beta-2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Wendy K.; Barrow, Bethany J.; Glasgow, Connie G.; Mendoza, Jennifer Woo; Ehrmantraut, Mary; Lin, Jing-Ping; Insel, Paul A.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disease affecting the lung, pancreas, gut, liver, and reproductive tract, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes a cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate-regulated chloride channel. The variability of disease progression among patients with CF suggests effects of genetic modifiers of disease. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2AR), which are abundant in airway epithelial cells, accelerate the formation of cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate, which can modulate CFTR activity and affect smooth muscle contractility. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of the β2AR gene, which have been shown to influence receptor desensitization, are more frequent in patients than in controls. Methods We genotyped 130 adult CF patients and 1 : 1 age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched normal volunteers for Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu β2AR. Results We found that CF patients were more likely than controls to be Gly16 homozygotes (48 and 32%, respectively) (P < 0.01) and Glu27 homozygotes (29 and 10%, respectively) (P < 0.01). Conclusions Our results, showing a higher frequency of Gly16 and Glu27 β2AR alleles in adult CF patients than in the control population, contrast with data from children with CF, who are reported to have lower frequency of Gly16 and similar frequency of G1u27, and with data from young adults with CF, who showed no differences in frequencies of β2AR variants. The Gly16Glu27 variant of β2AR may have properties that lead to enhanced β2AR function, resulting in the upregulation of CFTR activity and the improvement of CF disease. PMID:17502834

  14. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1990-06-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

  15. Decreased numbers of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors in pregnant women receiving beta 2-adrenergic agonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Santala, M; Saarikoski, S; Castrén, O

    1990-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of buphenine hydrochloride was administered on 4 successive days to 8 pregnant women with imminent preterm labor. Serial blood samples taken before and throughout the study were assayed for lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density and cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). The lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density declined significantly (p less than 0.01) during the treatment. The plasma cAMP concentration was highest 4 h after commencement of infusion and decreased thereafter. Despite the decrease in lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density, the clinical response remained good and the parturients did not go into labor until several days after infusion was started.

  16. Beta 2-adrenergic agonist as adjunct therapy to levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Schwartzman, R J; Nukes, T A; Grothusen, J R; Hooker, M D

    1994-08-01

    We studied the effect of the beta 2-adrenergic agonist albuterol on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving chronic levodopa treatment. The albuterol-treated patients demonstrated reduced parkinsonian symptoms and an increased ability to tap their index finger between two points 20 cm apart, and were able to perform a "walk test" in 70% of their control time. Three patients currently on chronic albuterol therapy still show amelioration of their parkinsonian symptoms, and two have reduced their daily levodopa dose. This study suggests that beta 2-adrenergic agonists as adjunct therapy to levodopa may be beneficial in PD.

  17. Adrenergic regulation of ovarian androgen biosynthesis is mediated via beta 2-adrenergic theca-interstitial cell recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, E R; Jimenez, J L; Payne, D W; Adashi, E Y

    1988-04-01

    Acting alone or in concert with pituitary gonadotropins, catecholamines have recently been shown to enhance androgen production by ovarian theca-interstitial cells. It is the objective of the in vitro studies reported herein to further characterize this catecholaminergic activity as well as to type and subtype the putative adrenergic recognition sites mediating this phenomenon. Treatment of collagenase-processed whole ovarian dispersates or highly enriched (greater than 90%) theca-interstitial cells from immature rats with norepinephrine (10(-6) M) resulted in a 2.0-fold increment in the accumulation of androsterone (3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstane-17-one), the main androgenic steroid identified in culture medium by HPLC. Qualitatively similar stimulation was obtained using beta (isoproterenol)- but not alpha (methoxamine)-selective adrenergic agonists. Moreover, combined treatment with both norepinephrine (10(-6) M) and hCG (1 ng/ml) unmasked a synergistic interaction subject to stereospecific blockade by beta (propranolol)- but not alpha (phentolamine)-selective adrenergic antagonists. Further probing with subtype-selective adrenergic ligands revealed terbutaline (a beta 2-selective agonist) to enhance androgen biosynthesis, with dobutamine (a beta 1-selective agonist) having little or no effect. Moreover, a beta 2 (ICI-118406)- but not a beta 1 (ICI-89406)-selective adrenergic antagonist yielded dose-dependent inhibition of the isoproterenol effect. Unaccounted for by either enhanced cellular growth or an alteration of the overall steroidogenic pattern, catecholaminergically stimulated androgen biosynthesis proved time and dose dependent but independent of the hCG dose (0.1-10 ng/ml) employed. Binding of [125I]iodocyanopindolol to highly enriched theca-interstitial cells proved stereoselective and saturable, displaying a single class (Hill coefficient = 0.96 +/- 0.01) of high affinity (Kd = 5.6 X 10(-11) M), low capacity (1219 +/- 317 sites/cell) binding

  18. The Principles of Ligand Specificity on beta-2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, H. C. Stephen; Filipek, Slawomir; Yuan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are recognized as one of the largest families of membrane proteins. Despite sharing a characteristic seven-transmembrane topology, G protein-coupled receptors regulate a wide range of cellular signaling pathways in response to various physical and chemical stimuli, and prevail as an important target for drug discovery. Notably, the recent progress in crystallographic methods led to a breakthrough in elucidating the structures of membrane proteins. The structures of β2-adrenergic receptor bound with a variety of ligands provide atomic details of the binding modes of agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists. In this study, we selected four representative molecules from each functional class of ligands and investigated their impacts on β2-adrenergic receptor through a total of 12 × 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations. From the obtained trajectories, we generated molecular fingerprints exemplifying propensities of protein-ligand interactions. For each functional class of compounds, we characterized and compared the fluctuation of the protein backbone, the volumes in the intracellular pockets, the water densities in the receptors, the domain interaction networks as well as the movements of transmembrane helices. We discovered that each class of ligands exhibits a distinct mode of interactions with mainly TM5 and TM6, altering the shape and eventually the state of the receptor. Our findings provide insightful prospective into GPCR targeted structure-based drug discoveries. PMID:27703221

  19. Dephosphorylation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin by latent phosphatase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.D.; Fong, Y.L.; Benovic, J.L.; Sibley, D.R.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1988-06-25

    Recent evidence suggests that the function of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins may be controlled by highly specific protein kinases, e.g. rhodopsin kinase and the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. In order to investigate the nature of the phosphatases which might be involved in controlling the state of receptor phosphorylation we studied the ability of four highly purified well characterized protein phosphatases to dephosphorylate preparations of rhodopsin or beta 2-adrenergic receptor which had been highly phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. These included: type 1 phosphatase, calcineurin phosphatase, type 2A phosphatase, and the high molecular weight latent phosphatase 2. Under conditions in which all the phosphatases could dephosphorylate such common substrates as (/sup 32/P)phosphorylase a and (/sup 32/P)myelin basic protein at similar rates only the latent phosphatase 2 was active on the phosphorylated receptors. Moreover, a latent phosphatase activity was found predominantly in a sequestered membrane fraction of frog erythrocytes. This parallels the distribution of a beta-adrenergic receptor phosphatase activity recently described in these cells. These data suggest a potential role for the latent phosphatase 2 as a specific receptor phosphatase.

  20. Self-limitation of intravenous tocolysis with beta2-adrenergic agonists is mediated through receptor G protein uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Frambach, Torsten; Müller, Thomas; Freund, Sebastian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sütterlin, Marc; Lohse, Martin J; Dietl, Johannes

    2005-05-01

    Tocolysis with a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist is the most common approach to premature labor management after the 25th wk of pregnancy. However, prolonged treatment is associated with a marked loss of efficacy. The biochemical mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fenoterol on beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction in human myometrium. Myometrial biopsy specimens were obtained from 40 women at cesarean section between the 25th and 34th wk of pregnancy. Nineteen patients had received no tocolysis (controls, group I) and 21 had been treated with fenoterol (<48 h in 10, group II; > or = 48 h in 11, group III). As methods we used membrane preparation, adenylyl cyclase assay and cAMP RIA. Adenylyl cyclase activity was determined by the measurement of cAMP levels to evaluate signal transduction after stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol, G protein with GTP, and adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. The functional activity of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G(s)) and adenylyl cyclase was not altered by fenoterol treatment. In the control group, the increase in adenylyl cyclase activity in response to GTP plus isoproterenol was greater than in response to GTP alone. The increase was reduced by 50% in group II and was insignificant in group III. There was no correlation between gestational age and basal adenylyl cyclase activity. Intravenous tocolysis with the beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist fenoterol leads to complete desensitization of the beta-adrenergic receptor system. In addition to the known reduction in receptor number (down-regulation) as underlying mechanism, uncoupling of the receptor from the stimulatory G protein G(s) was identified.

  1. Protective effects of a glucocorticoid on downregulation of pulmonary beta 2-adrenergic receptors in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, J C; Nishikawa, M; Shirasaki, H; Miyayasu, K; Barnes, P J

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the in vivo effects of a glucocorticoid on beta-agonist-induced downregulation of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors (determined by [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding), mRNA expression (assessed by Northern blotting), and gene transcription (using nuclear run-on assays) in rat lung. Dexamethasone (Dex) (0.2 mg/kg/d, days 1-8) increased beta 1- and beta 2-receptor numbers by 70 and 69% above control, respectively, but did not change their mRNA expression. Isoproterenol (Iso) (0.96 mg/kg/d, days 2-8) decreased beta 1- and beta 2-receptor numbers by 48 and 51%, respectively, and also reduced mRNA expression by 69 and 57%, respectively. The combination of Dex and Iso resulted in no net change in beta 2-receptor number and its mRNA expression, although there was a significant reduction in beta 1-receptor number and mRNA expression. The mapping of beta 1- and beta 2-receptors by receptor autoradiography confirmed these findings over alveoli, epithelium, endothelium, and airway and vascular smooth muscle. We also measured the activation of the transcription factor, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CREB-like DNA-binding activity was decreased after Iso treatment but this decrease was prevented after treatment with Dex. Nuclear run-on assays revealed that the transcription rate of the beta 1-receptor gene did not alter after Dex treatment, but was reduced after Iso treatment. The transcription rate of the beta 2-receptor gene was increased after Dex treatment by approximately twofold, but there was no change after Iso treatment. We conclude that glucocorticoids can prevent homologous downregulation of beta 2-receptor number and mRNA expression at the transcriptional level without affecting beta 1-receptors and that the transcription factor CREB may be involved in this phenomenon. Such an effect may have clinical implications for preventing the development of tolerance to beta 2-agonists in

  2. Quantification of the response of equine apocrine sweat glands to beta2-adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Scott, C M; Marlin, D J; Schroter, R C

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the quantitative sweating response of the horse to beta2-adrenergic stimulation. The sweating responses of 6 horses to the randomised infusion of 8 different adrenaline concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 1.0 or 2.0 microg/kg bwt/min), was investigated. Sweating rate (SR) and skin temperature (TSK) on the neck (N) and gluteal region (G), and plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were measured. Peak SR was approximately 15 (N) and approximately 9 g/m2/min (G) during infusion of both 1.0 and 2.0 microg/kg bwt/min adrenaline. Sweat produced per nmol/l plasma adrenaline peaked during the infusion of 0.075 microg/kg bwt/min adrenaline. Higher adrenaline infusion concentrations resulted in a progressive decrease in the amount of sweat produced per nmol/l plasma adrenaline and a plateau of 6 g/m2/(nmol/l) plasma adrenaline was reached for infusions between 1.0 and 2.0 microg/kg bwt/min. Peak SR were far lower than we have previously reported during exercise. There was no evidence of sweat gland fatigue or vasoconstriction during infusion, suggesting saturation of sweat gland beta2 receptors. We conclude that sweating in the horse is under dual control from a combination of hormonal and neural mechanisms.

  3. Nanoscale organization of beta2-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Taylor, Rod; Johnston, Linda J; Pezacki, John Paul

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the beta(2)AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of beta(2)AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress beta(2)AR-GFP and beta(2)AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use beta(2)AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for beta(2)AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on beta(2)AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  4. Adrenergic lipolysis in guinea pig is not a beta 3-adrenergic response: comparison with human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Carpéné, C; Castan, I; Collon, P; Galitzky, J; Moratinos, J; Lafontan, M

    1994-03-01

    beta 3-Adrenoceptor agonists are potent lipolytic activators in rats, but they are only weak stimulators in human adipocytes, indicating interspecies differences in the adrenergic regulation of lipid mobilization. Like human but not rat adipocytes, guinea pig fat cells were poorly responsive to the beta 3-agonists BRL-37344, CGP-12177, SR-58611, and ICI-215001, acid metabolite of ICI-D7114. In guinea pigs, the beta 1-agonist dobutamine was more lipolytic than the beta 2-agonist procaterol. Anatomic location of fat deposits was without major influence on the beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Weak responses to beta 3-agonists were found whatever the sex or the age (from 2 days to 16 mo) of the animals. Even in the interscapular brown adipose tissue, which is well known in rats for its beta 3-adrenergic responsiveness, a blunted response to BRL-37344 was observed. The alpha 2-adrenergic antilipolytic effect and receptor number were smaller in guinea pig than in human adipocytes, but the beta-adrenergic receptor number was similar in the two species. Thus guinea pig adipocytes resemble human fat cells when their weak beta 3-adrenergic responsiveness is considered. PMID:7909205

  5. Beta2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms as Systemic Determinants of Healthy Aging in an Evolutionary Context

    PubMed Central

    Kulminski, Alexander M.; Culminskaya, Irina V.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Land, Kenneth C.; Yashin, Anatoli I.

    2010-01-01

    The Gln27Glu polymorphism but not the Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial infarction (MI), intermittent claudication (IC), and overall/healthy longevity in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. The Gln27Gln genotype increases risks of cancer, MI and IC, whereas the Glu27 allele or, equivalently, the Gly16Glu27 haplotype tends to be protective against these diseases. Genetic associations with longevity are of opposite nature at young-old and oldest-old ages highlighting the phenomenon of antagonistic pleiotropy. The mechanism of antagonistic pleiotropy is associated with an evolutionary-driven advantage of carriers of a derived Gln27 allele at younger ages and their survival disadvantage at older ages as a result of increased risks of cancer, MI and IC. The ADRB2 gene can play an important systemic role in healthy aging in evolutionary context that warrants exploration in other populations. PMID:20399803

  6. G(i)-dependent localization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor signaling to L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Izu, Y; Xiao, R P; Izu, L T; Cheng, H; Kuschel, M; Spurgeon, H; Lakatta, E G

    2000-01-01

    A plausible determinant of the specificity of receptor signaling is the cellular compartment over which the signal is broadcast. In rat heart, stimulation of beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)-AR), coupled to G(s)-protein, or beta(2)-AR, coupled to G(s)- and G(i)-proteins, both increase L-type Ca(2+) current, causing enhanced contractile strength. But only beta(1)-AR stimulation increases the phosphorylation of phospholamban, troponin-I, and C-protein, causing accelerated muscle relaxation and reduced myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+). beta(2)-AR stimulation does not affect any of these intracellular proteins. We hypothesized that beta(2)-AR signaling might be localized to the cell membrane. Thus we examined the spatial range and characteristics of beta(1)-AR and beta(2)-AR signaling on their common effector, L-type Ca(2+) channels. Using the cell-attached patch-clamp technique, we show that stimulation of beta(1)-AR or beta(2)-AR in the patch membrane, by adding agonist into patch pipette, both activated the channels in the patch. But when the agonist was applied to the membrane outside the patch pipette, only beta(1)-AR stimulation activated the channels. Thus, beta(1)-AR signaling to the channels is diffusive through cytosol, whereas beta(2)-AR signaling is localized to the cell membrane. Furthermore, activation of G(i) is essential to the localization of beta(2)-AR signaling because in pertussis toxin-treated cells, beta(2)-AR signaling becomes diffusive. Our results suggest that the dual coupling of beta(2)-AR to both G(s)- and G(i)-proteins leads to a highly localized beta(2)-AR signaling pathway to modulate sarcolemmal L-type Ca(2+) channels in rat ventricular myocytes. PMID:11053129

  7. Beta-2- Adrenergic Receptor Genotype and Other Variables that Contribute to Labor Pain and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Reitman, Elena; Conell-Price, Jessamyn; Evansmilth, Jennifer; Olson, Luke; Drosinos, Sofia; Jasper, Nancy; Randolph, Paula; Smiley, Richard; Shafer, Steven; Flood, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Background Beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activity influences labor and its genotype affects the incidence of preterm delivery. We determined the effect of β2AR genotype on term labor progress and pain. Methods We prospectively enrolled 150 nulliparous parturients in the third trimester and obtained sensory thresholds, demographic information and DNA. Cervical dilation, pain scores and labor management data were extracted with associated times. The association of genetic and demographic factors with labor was tested with mixed effects models. Results Parturients who express Gln at the 27 position of the β2AR had slower labor (P<0.03). They progressedfrom 1–10cm dilation in approximately 21 hours compared to 14 hours in otherpatients. Asian ethnicity, previously associated with slower labor, is highly associated with this polymorphism (P<0.0001). Heavier and Black patients had slower latent labor (P<0.01, 0.01) and neuraxial analgesia was associated with slower labor progress (P<0.0001). It could take up to 36 hours for the heaviest and the Black parturients to transition from 1cm cervical dilation to active labor; however once the active phase began, labor rate was the same as other patients’. Conclusion We detected a strong association between β2AR genotype and slower labor. Asian ethnicity may be a proxy for β2AR genotype. Black and heavy women have slower latent labor. These results confirm many of the associations found when this mathematical model was applied to a large retrospectivecohort, further validating this approach to description and analysis of labor progress. PMID:21394004

  8. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  9. The impact of acute dynamic exercise on intraocular pressure: role of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Güngör, K; Beydaği, H; Bekir, N; Arslan, C; Süer, C; Erbağci, I; Ergenoğlu, T; Aynacioğlu, A S

    2002-01-01

    Effects of mutations in the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) gene on intraocular pressure (IOP), in response to acute dynamic exercise, were investigated in 19 healthy males (age 22.6 +/- 2.8 years). Intraocular pressures were measured pre- and post-exercise. Weight, height, body mass index, and maximal oxygen (VO2max) uptake were recorded and subjects were genotyped for Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu and Thr164Ile mutations of the beta 2AR gene. Post-exercise, reductions in mean IOP values were found in 16 subjects with the Gly16Gly and Arg16Gly genotypes, but these values remained low in the eight patients with the Gly16Gly genotype 3 h post-exercise, whereas they returned to baseline within 1 h in the eight subjects with the Arg16Gly genotype. beta 2AR stimulation during exercise could be an important regulator of IOP response and determining beta 2AR polymorphisms may improve understanding of pathogenesis and treatment selection in ophthalmic diseases, e.g. glaucoma.

  10. Roles of genotypes of beta2-adrenergic receptor in the relationship between eosinophil counts and lung function in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chu; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Lei, Huan-Yao; Guo, Yueliang Leon; Su, Huey-Jen

    2003-05-01

    To examine the roles of genetic polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) in the relationship between eosinophil (EOS) counts and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) counts and lung function, we recruited a random sample from the 1996 nationwide survey of asthma prevalence in middle school children. A total of 149 subjects--42 asthmatic children, 38 asthmatics in remission (no reported attack for more than 12 months), and 69 nonasthmatics--completed a physical evaluation, pulmonary function test, and determination of EOS, ECP, and beta2AR genotypes at amino acids 16 and 27. Asthmatic children had higher EOS and ECP than did nonasthmatics. No association was found between asthma and beta2AR genotypes. Lung function was significantly and inversely correlated with EOS but not with ECP in asthmatic children. By genotype, an inverse correlation between lung function and EOS was found in asthmatic children with Arg16Arg or Gln27Glu. A nonsignificant but similar inverse correlation was found in asthmatic children with Arg16Gly or Gln27Gln. However, a nonsignificant but positive correlation was found in asthmatic children with Gly16Gly. In conclusion, we suggest that EOS is a better clinical indicator of airway inflammation than ECP when children are not having an asthma attack. The association between an increase of EOS and lower lung function can be differentiated by beta2AR genotypes at amino acid 16.

  11. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani; Bruss, Matthew D; Granier, Sébastien; Wang, Yvonne L; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Horner, Kathleen; Wang, Ping; Lei, Tao; Patterson, Andrew J; Kobilka, Brian; Conti, Marco

    2008-01-23

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing effects on myocyte apoptosis and cell survival. Differences in the assembly of macromolecular signaling complexes may explain the distinct biological outcomes. Here, we demonstrate that beta1AR forms a signaling complex with a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) in a manner inherently different from a beta2AR/beta-arrestin/PDE complex reported previously. The beta1AR binds a PDE variant, PDE4D8, in a direct manner, and occupancy of the receptor by an agonist causes dissociation of this complex. Conversely, agonist binding to the beta2AR is a prerequisite for the recruitment of a complex consisting of beta-arrestin and the PDE4D variant, PDE4D5, to the receptor. We propose that the distinct modes of interaction with PDEs result in divergent cAMP signals in the vicinity of the two receptors, thus, providing an additional layer of complexity to enforce the specificity of beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptor signaling.

  12. Thermogenic responsiveness to nonspecific beta-adrenergic stimulation is not related to genetic variation in codon 16 of the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher; Stob, Nicole R; Seals, Douglas R

    2006-04-01

    Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates energy expenditure (EE), but substantial interindividual variability is observed. We determined whether the thermogenic response to beta-AR stimulation is related to genetic variation in codon 16 of the beta(2)-AR, a biologically important beta-AR polymorphism, and whether differences in SNS activity (i.e., the stimulus for agonist-promoted downregulation) are involved. The increase in EE (DeltaEE, indirect calorimetry, ventilated hood) above resting EE in response to nonspecific beta-AR stimulation [iv isoproterenol: 6, 12, and 24 ng/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/min] was measured in 46 healthy adult humans [Arg16Arg: 9 male, 7 female, 48 +/- 5 yr; Arg16Gly: 11 male, 4 female, 53 +/- 5 yr; Gly16Gly: 3 male, 12 female, 48 +/- 5 yr (means +/- SE)]. Neither FFM-adjusted baseline resting EE (P = 0.83) nor the dose of isoproterenol required to increase EE 10% above resting (P = 0.87) differed among the three groups (Arg16Arg: 5,409 +/- 209 kJ/day, 11.2 +/- 2.1 ng x kg FFM(-1) x min(-1); Arg16Gly: 5,367 +/- 272 kJ/day, 11.1 +/- 2.1 ng x kg FFM(-1) x min(-1); Gly16Gly: 5,305 +/- 159 kJ/day, 10.5 +/- 1.4 ng x kg FFM(-1) x min(-1)). Consistent with this, muscle sympathetic nerve activity and plasma norepinephrine concentrations were not different among the groups. Group differences in sex composition did not influence the results. Our findings indicate that the thermogenic response to nonspecific beta-AR stimulation, an important mechanistic component of overall beta-AR modulation of EE, is not related to this beta(2)-AR polymorphism in healthy humans. This may be explained in part by a lack of association between this gene variant and tonic SNS activity.

  13. Molecular modeling of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors: comparison of rhodopsin- and beta2-adrenergic-based homology models through the docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yuzlenko, Olga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2009-01-15

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are members of the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. The homology models of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors were constructed. The high-resolution X-ray structure of bovine rhodopsin and crystal structure of beta2-adrenergic receptor were used as templates. The binding sites of the A1 and A2A ARs were constructed by using data obtained from mutagenesis experiments as well as docking simulations of the respective AR antagonsists DPCPX and XAC. To compare rhodopsin- and beta2-adrenergic-based models, the binding mode of A1 (KW-3902, LUF-5437) and A2A (KW-6002, ZM-241385) ARs antagonists were also examined. The differences in the binding ability of both models were noted during the study. The beta2-adrenergic-based A2A AR model was much more capable to stabilize the ligand in the binding site cavity than the corresponding rhodopsin-based A2A AR model, however, such differences were not so clear in case of A1 AR models. It was suggested that for the A1 AR it is possible to use the crystal structure of rhodopsin as a template as well as beta2-adrenergic receptor, but for A2A AR, with the now available beta2-adrenergic receptor X-ray structure, docking studies should be avoided on the rhodopsin-based model. However, taking into account that the beta2AR shares about 31% of the residues with the AR in comparison to 21% in case of bRho, we suggest using beta2-adrenergic-based models for the A1 and A2A ARs for further in silico ligand screening also because of their generally better ability to stabilize ligands inside the binding pocket.

  14. Structural basis for receptor subtype-specific regulation revealed by a chimeric beta 3/beta 2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Liggett, S B; Freedman, N J; Schwinn, D A; Lefkowitz, R J

    1993-01-01

    The physiological significance of multiple G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, such as the beta-adrenergic receptors (beta ARs), remains obscure, since in many cases several subtypes activate the same effector and utilize the same physiological agonists. We inspected the deduced amino acid sequences of the beta AR subtypes for variations in the determinants for agonist regulation as a potential basis for subtype differentiation. Whereas the beta 2AR has a C terminus containing 11 serine and threonine residues representing potential sites for beta AR kinase phosphorylation, which mediates rapid agonist-promoted desensitization, only 3 serines are present in the comparable region of the beta 3AR, and they are in a nonfavorable context. The beta 3AR also lacks sequence homology in regions which are important for agonist-mediated sequestration and down-regulation of the beta 2AR, although such determinants are less well defined. We therefore tested the idea that the agonist-induced regulatory properties of the two receptors might differ by expressing both subtypes in CHW cells and exposing them to the agonist isoproterenol. The beta 3AR did not display short-term agonist-promoted functional desensitization or sequestration, or long-term down-regulation. To assign a structural basis for these subtype-specific differences in agonist regulation, we constructed a chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR which comprised the beta 3AR up to proline-365 of the cytoplasmic tail and the C terminus of the beta 2AR. When cells expressing this chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR were exposed to isoproterenol, functional desensitization was observed. Whole-cell phosphorylation studies showed that the beta 2AR displayed agonist-dependent phosphorylation, but no such phosphorylation could be demonstrated with the beta 3AR, even when beta AR kinase was overexpressed. In contrast, the chimeric beta 3/beta 2AR did display agonist-dependent phosphorylation, consistent with its functional desensitization. In

  15. Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor regulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy and collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Aránguiz-Urroz, Pablo; Canales, Jimena; Copaja, Miguel; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Carrillo, Constanza; Lara, Hernán; Lavandero, Sergio; Díaz-Araya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a physiological degradative process key to cell survival during nutrient deprivation, cell differentiation and development. It plays a major role in the turnover of damaged macromolecules and organelles, and it has been involved in the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular diseases. Activation of the adrenergic system is commonly associated with cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, and cardiac fibroblasts are key players in these processes. Whether adrenergic stimulation modulates cardiac fibroblast autophagy remains unexplored. In the present study, we aimed at this question and evaluated the effects of b(2)-adrenergic stimulation upon autophagy. Cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts were treated with agonists or antagonists of beta-adrenergic receptors (b-AR), and autophagy was assessed by electron microscopy, GFP-LC3 subcellular distribution, and immunowesternblot of endogenous LC3. The predominant expression of b(2)-ARs was determined and characterized by radioligand binding assays using [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol. Both, isoproterenol and norepinephrine (non-selective b-AR agonists), as well as salbutamol (selective b(2)-AR agonist) increased autophagic flux, and these effects were blocked by propanolol (b-AR antagonist), ICI-118,551 (selective b(2)-AR antagonist), 3-methyladenine but not by atenolol (selective b(1)-AR antagonist). The increase in autophagy was correlated with an enhanced degradation of collagen, and this effect was abrogated by the inhibition of autophagic flux. Overall, our data suggest that b(2)-adrenergic stimulation triggers autophagy in cardiac fibroblasts, and that this response could contribute to reduce the deleterious effects of high adrenergic stimulation upon cardiac fibrosis. PMID:20637865

  16. Contribution of coupling between human myometrial beta2-adrenoreceptor and the BK(Ca) channel to uterine quiescence.

    PubMed

    Chanrachakul, Boonsri; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Khan, Raheela N

    2004-12-01

    The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) and the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel have been shown, separately, to be involved in mediating uterine relaxation. Our recent studies reveal that the levels of both beta(2)-AR and BK(Ca) channel proteins in pregnant human myometrium decrease by approximately 50% after the onset of labor. We present direct evidence in support of a structural and functional association between the beta(2)-AR and the BK(Ca) channel in pregnant human myometrium. Localization of both proteins is predominantly plasmalemmal, with 60% of beta(2)-AR colocalizing with the BK(Ca) channel. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicate that BK(Ca) and beta(2)-AR are structurally linked by direct protein-protein interactions. Functional correlation was confirmed by experiments of human myometrial contractility in which the BK(Ca) channel blocker, paxilline, significantly antagonized the relaxant effect of the beta(2)-AR agonist ritodrine. These novel findings provide an insight into the coupling between the beta(2)-AR and BK(Ca) channel and may have utility in the application of this signaling cascade for therapeutic potential in the management of preterm labor.

  17. Preliminary study on association of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism with hypertension in hypertensive subjects attending Balok Health Centre, Kuantan.

    PubMed

    Atia, A E; Norsidah, K; Nor Zamzila, A; Rafidah Hanim, M; Samsul, D; Aznan, M A M; Rashidah, A R; Norlelawati, A T

    2012-02-01

    Polymorphisms within the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene have been repeatedly linked to hypertension. Among the ADRB2 polymorphisms detected, Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu codons are considered the two most important variations. The amino acid substitution at these codons may lead to abnormal regulation of ADRB2 activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between ADRB2 polymorphisms and hypertension. This case-control study consisted of 100 unrelated subjects (50 hypertensive and 50 matched normal controls). Arg16Gly and the Gln27Glu polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. There were no significant evidence of association in allelic and genotypes distribution of Arg16Gly and Glu27Gln with blood pressure and hypertension. These findings suggest that the variation within codon 16 and 27 of ADRB2 gene were unlikely to confer genetic susceptibility for hypertension in our population samples. PMID:22582545

  18. Beta 2-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency in rat bronchiolar epithelium: potentiation by isosmotic cell shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Shiima-Kinoshita, Chisa; Min, Kyong-Yob; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Mori, Hiroshi; Nakahari, Takashi

    2004-01-15

    Single bronchiolar ciliary cells were isolated from rat lungs. The beta(2)-adrenergic regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was studied using video-optical microscopy. Terbutaline (a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) increased CBF in a dose-dependent manner, and it also decreased the volume of the ciliary cells. These terbutaline actions were inhibited by a PKA inhibitor (H-89) and mimicked by forskolin, IBMX and DBcAMP. Ion transport inhibitors were used to isosmotically manipulate the volume of the terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells. Amiloride (1 microM) and bumetanide (20 microM) potentiated cell shrinkage and the CBF increase, and they shifted the terbutaline dose-response curve to the lower-concentration side. Quinidine (500 microM), in contrast, increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase. Moreover, a KCl solution containing amiloride (1 microM) and strophanthidin (100 microM) increased cell volume and suppressed the CBF increase, and then the subsequent removal of either amiloride or strophanthidin decreased cell volume and further increased CBF. NPPB (10 microM) or glybenclamide (200 microM) had no effect on the action of terbutaline. Thus, in terbutaline-stimulated ciliary cells, cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase; in contrast, cell swelling suppresses it. However, the results of direct manupulation of cell volume by applying osmotic stresses (hyperosmotic shrinkage or hyposmotic swelling) were the opposite of the findings of the isosmotic experiments: hyposmotic cell swelling enhanced the CBF increase, while isosmotic swelling suppressed it. These results suggest that isosmotic and non-isosmotic volume changes in terbutaline-stimulated bronchiolar ciliary cells may trigger different signalling pathways. In conclusion, terbutaline increases CBF and decreases the volume of rat bronchiolar ciliary cells via cAMP accumulation under isosmotic conditions, and the isosmotic cell shrinkage enhances the CBF increase by increasing c

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal fundamental role of water as factor determining affinity of binding of beta-blocker nebivolol to beta(2)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba, Karol; Róg, Tomasz; Bryl, Krzysztof; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Karttunen, Mikko

    2010-07-01

    The beta-adrenergic antagonists (beta-blockers) constitute a class of drugs that have well-established roles in treatments of various cardiovascular diseases. Despite a 50 year history, there are two clinically important subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) called beta(1)AR and beta(2)AR that still are promising drug targets. Our study maps the interactions between nebivolol-one of the most efficient beta-blocking agents-and the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor by simulating two optical isomers of nebivolol: ssss-nebivolol and srrr-nebivolol. The srrr-configuration binds preferentially to beta(1)AR and beta(2)AR. The ssss-form has much lower binding affinity to both of them. Our work indicates that water is a very important component of the binding site of the beta(2)AR receptor. We found that the higher stereoselectivity of the srrr-configuration is due to interactions with water molecules, which extensively hydrate the binding site of beta(2)AR. By lowering the energy of binding, water enhanced the affinity of the srrr-form to beta(2)AR. We also address the problem of beta(1)AR/beta(2)AR selectivity. At higher concentrations, all beta-blocking agents lose their specificity and bind nonselectively, causing many adverse effects. Our simulations indicate that PHE194, TYR308, and ILE309 of the beta(2)AR and the corresponding residues of the beta(1)AR receptor may be important determinants of beta(1)AR versus beta(2)AR selectivity.

  20. Effect of conventional (mixed beta 1/beta 2) and novel (beta 3) adrenergic agonists on thermoregulatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, H J; Stock, M J

    1991-10-01

    The effects of submaximal and maximal thermogenic doses of isoproterenol (ISO) on operant thermoregulatory responses in a cold (-8 degrees C) environment were tested in lean (+/?) Zucker rats trained to barpress for radiant heat. Contrary to expectations, ISO rats pressed for twice as much exogenous heat as controls, but showed a smaller rise in colonic temperature. Conversely, a beta 3-selective adrenergic agonist (RO40-2148) decreased the requirement for exogenous heat and produced larger rises in colonic temperature. RO40-2148 and another beta 3-agonist (ICI D7114) produced similar responses in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, but tests with ISO were terminated because it caused profound, and lethal hypothermia. The hypothermic effects of ISO on colonic temperature were also observed in Sprague-Dawley rats at room temperature (22 degrees C), whereas RO40-2148 produced hyperthermia. These results provide behavioral evidence for the high thermogenic selectivity of these novel adrenergic agonists and support the existence of an atypical beta 3-adrenoceptor. The hypothermic effects of ISO are presumed to be due to actions on beta 1- and/or beta 2-adrenoceptors. PMID:1687163

  1. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Alfredo José; Fontes, Rosana Seleri; Canzi, Regina Airoldi; Nishimura, Raphael; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; de Lima, Antonio Carlos Pedroso; Krieger, José Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

    2009-01-01

    Background - Beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly and Thr164Ile were suggested to have an effect in heart failure. We evaluated these polymorphisms relative to clinical characteristics and prognosis of alarge cohort of patients with heart failure of different etiologies. Methods - We studied 501 patients with heart failure of different etiologies. Mean age was 58 years (standard deviation 14.4 years), 298 (60%) were men. Polymorphisms were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results - During the mean follow-up of 12.6 months (standard deviation 10.3 months), 188 (38%) patients died. Distribution of genotypes of polymorphism Arg16Gly was different relative to body mass index (χ2 = 9.797;p = 0.04). Overall the probability of survival was not significantly predicted by genotypes of Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly, or Thr164Ile. Allele and haplotype analysis also did not disclose any significant difference regarding mortality. Exploratory analysis through classification trees pointed towards a potential association between the Gln27Glu polymorphism and mortality in older individuals. Conclusion - In this study sample, we were not able to demonstrate an overall influence of polymorphisms Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly of beta-2 receptor gene on prognosis. Nevertheless, Gln27Glu polymorphism may have a potential predictive value in older individuals. PMID:19886995

  2. Tyr199 in transmembrane domain 5 of the beta2-adrenergic receptor interacts directly with the pharmacophore of a unique fluorenone-based antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Z; Thiriot, D S; Ruoho, A E

    2001-01-01

    Mutagenesis of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) has suggested that amino acids in transmembrane domain 5 (TMD 5) play an important role in the interaction of the receptor with the catechol end of adrenergic agonists. However, little direct biochemical evidence for the interaction of any beta2AR agonist or antagonist with TMD 5 has been reported. To identify receptor amino acids that contribute to the beta2AR antagonist binding site, we identified the precise amino acid photoinsertion site of a novel carazolol-like fluorenone antagonist photoaffinity label, [125I]iodoaminoflisopolol ([125I]IAmF). A unique property of this photolabel is that the photoreactive centre is also the binding pharmacophore, which corresponds to the catechol end of related beta2AR agonists. [125I]IAmF specifically photolabels membrane-bound and purified beta2AR from a baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) ('Sf9') expression system. When the photolabelled beta2AR was cleaved by trypsin or Factor Xa, 30 kDa labelled peptides were generated. On the basis of concanavalin A binding and amino acid sequencing, these contain the N-terminus of the beta2AR, including TMDs 1-5. Further cleavage of the 30 kDa peptides with endoproteinase Lys-C generated a 4 kDa labelled peptide with an N-terminal amino acid sequence between TMDs 4 and 5. Radiosequencing of this peptide demonstrated that the precise [125I]IAmF photoinsertion site was Tyr(199) in TMD 5. Since the photoreactive centre and the binding pharmacophore of IAmF are the same, these data demonstrate that Tyr(199) interacts with the planar fluorenone moiety of a carazolol-like beta2AR antagonist, and contributes significant new information regarding the binding site for beta2AR antagonists. PMID:11237852

  3. Effects of beta 2 adrenergic agonists on axonal injury and mitochondrial metabolism in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z W; Qin, X Y; Che, F Y; Xie, G; Shen, L; Bai, Y Y

    2015-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to investigate mitochondrial metabolism during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model axonal injury and to determine the correlation among neurological function scores, pathological changes, and the activities of the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-BB), catalase (CAT), and calpain in the brain tissues of EAE rats. Another goal was to preliminarily define the mechanism of mitochondrial metabolism resulting from the effect of beta 2 adrenergic agonists in the process of EAE animal model axonal damage. EAE was induced in specific pathogen free Wistar rats by guinea pig spinal cord homogenate, complete Freund's adjuvant, and pertussis vaccine. We recorded the behavioral change in EAE rats, detected pathological changes in central nervous tissue, and observed the changes of the CK-BB, CAT, and calpain in the EAE rat brain and spinal cord. The results indicated that the average neurologic function score increased in the EAE group compared to that of the controls (P < 0.01). In addition, CAT and CK-BB activities significantly decreased and the calpain activity significantly increased compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The decrease of the activity of central nervous CK-BB and CAT content, as well as the increase of calpain activity at the highest time point were considered to be the consequences of EAE. Furthermore, the results revealed that use of salbutamol could alleviate disease symptoms and reduce the recurrence of the EAE disease. PMID:26535670

  4. Ligand-dependent perturbation of the conformational ensemble for the GPCR beta2 adrenergic receptor revealed by HDX

    PubMed Central

    West, Graham M.; Chien, Ellen Y. T.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Chalmers, Michael J.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mechanism of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and their modulation by functionally distinct ligands remains elusive. Using the technique of amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry we examined the ligand-induced changes in conformational states and stability within the beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Differential HDX reveals ligand-specific alterations in the energy landscape of the receptor’s conformational ensemble. The inverse agonists timolol and carazolol were found to be most stabilizing even compared to the antagonist alprenolol, notably in intracellular regions where G-proteins are proposed to bind, while the agonist isoproterenol induced the largest degree of conformational mobility. The partial agonist clenbuterol displayed found in both the inverse agonists and the agonist. This study confirms the regional plasticity of the receptor, supports current models for GPCR signaling, and characterizes unique conformations spanning the entire receptor sequence stabilized solely by functionally selective ligands all of which differ from the apo state of the receptor. PMID:21889352

  5. On the association of human beta 2 microglobulin with cell culture-grown human cytomegalovirus (HCMV).

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Shimokata, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1992-09-01

    We studied the production of human beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) in mock-infected or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infected human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL) and the association of human beta 2m with HCMV virions. Titration of beta 2m by two-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay revealed that HEL released considerable amounts of human beta 2m into the culture medium and that the production of beta 2m was significantly enhanced by HCMV infection. The concentration of human beta 2m in the culture medium of HCMV-infected HEL reached 500 to 600 ng/ml, which corresponded to 7- to 12-fold of levels found in healthy adult urine. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that HEL-grown HCMV bound a significant amount of endogenous beta 2m, but the viruses were efficiently neutralized by either human hyperimmune anti-HCMV globulin or anti-HCMV monoclonal antibody even when treated with a large amount of human beta 2m or with dialysed urine. Thus it seems unlikely that the binding of beta 2m by HCMV is involved in masking the viral antigenic site necessary for neutralization.

  6. Influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor on the presence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in adolescents✰

    PubMed Central

    Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; Furtado-Alle, Lupe; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Milano, Gerusa Einsfeld; Lazarotto, Leilane; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Leite, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of polymorphisms of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) in triggering exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in adolescents. Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups: present EIB (EIB+) (n=45) and absent EIB (EIB−) (n=115). The bronchial provocation test with exercise was performed with a protocol that consisted of walking/running for at least eight minutes at high intensity, i.e., >85% of maximum heart rate, considering EIB+ as a 10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The genotyping of the ADRB2 gene was performed by the Taqman method, using the Step One Plus system. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Age, body weight, height, FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio were lower in the EIB+ group when compared to EIB− (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the proportion of the allele at position 27 and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes between the EIB+ and EIB− groups (p=0.26; p=0.97 and p=0.43, respectively). However, there was a trend toward statistical significance regarding the greater proportion of the Gly16 allele for the EIB+ when compared to the EIB− group (p=0.08). Conclusions: The presence of polymorphisms associated with the Glu27 allele and Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu genotypes had no influence on EIB. However, the statistical trend toward greater frequency of the Gly16 allele in individuals with EIB+ can be considered evidence of the influence of polymorphisms of the ADBR2 gene on EIB in adolescents. PMID:26684442

  7. Association between polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene with myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in women.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie E; Zee, Robert Y L

    2009-02-01

    Results from studies investigating the association between polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Using haplotype-based analysis, we have previously shown a protective effect of the Gly16-Gln27-Ile164 haplotype on myocardial infarction in men. We sought to replicate these findings in women and further investigated whether the gene variants exert differential effects on myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. We performed a prospective study among 25,224 women, participating in the Women's Health Study and free of CVD at study entry. We had information on polymorphisms Gly16Arg, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile in the ADRB2. Incident CVD was self-reported and confirmed after medical record review. We used proportional hazards models to investigate the association between genotypes and haplotypes with any myocardial infarction, any ischaemic stroke, and CVD death. During a mean of 11.8 years of follow-up, 274 myocardial infarctions, 299 ischaemic strokes, and 159 CVD deaths occurred. Among the whole cohort genotype- and haplotype-based analyses did not show an association for any of the gene variants with any of the CVD outcomes. When we focused on Caucasian women, the haplotype-based analysis, however, suggested an inverse association of the haplotype Gly16-Gln27-Thr164 with incident myocardial infarction (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.97; p = 0.03). We did not find associations in the haplotype-based analyses with incident ischaemic stroke or CVD death. Our results suggest that the haplotype Gly16-Gln27-Thr164 is associated with reduced risk of incident myocardial infarction but not ischaemic stroke in Caucasian women and suggest differential pathophysiologies for myocardial infarction and stroke.

  8. Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic /sup 125/I-pindolol binding sites in the interpeduncular nucleus of the rat: Normal distribution and the effects of deafferentation

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, W.P.; Artymyshyn, R.P.; Murray, M.

    1989-07-01

    The plasticity of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes was examined in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the adult rat. The beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist 125I-pindolol (125I-PIN) was used in conjunction with the selective subtype antagonists ICI 118,551 and ICI 89,406 to determine the subnuclear distribution of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors in this nucleus and to correlate the receptor distribution with the distribution of both noradrenergic afferents from the locus coeruleus (LC) and non-noradrenergic afferents from the fasiculus retroflexus (FR). The density of these binding sites was examined following lesions that decreased (LC lesions) or increased (FR lesions) the density of the noradrenergic projection in the IPN. Quantitative radioautography indicated that beta 1-labeled binding sites account for the larger percentage of binding sites in the IPN. The beta 1-binding sites are densest in those subnuclei that receive a noradrenergic projection from the LC: the central, rostral, and intermediate subnuclei. beta 1-binding sites are algo homogeneously distributed throughout the lateral subnuclei, where there is no detectable noradrenergic innervation. beta 2-binding sites have a more restricted distribution. They are concentrated in the ventral half of the lateral subnuclei, where they account for 70% of total 125I-PIN binding sites. beta 2-binding sites are also present along the ventral border of the IPN. Some of this labeling extends into the central and intermediate subnuclei. Bilateral lesions of the LC, which selectively remove noradrenergic innervation to the IPN, result in an increase in the beta 1-binding sites. Bilateral lesions of the FR, which remove the major cholinergic and peptidergic input from the IPN, elicit an increase in noradrenergic projections and a decrease in beta 1-binding sites.

  9. Gln27Glu polymorphism of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene in healthy Japanese men is associated with the change of fructosamine level caused by exercise.

    PubMed

    Kahara, Toshio; Hayakawa, Tetsuo; Nagai, Yukihiro; Shimizu, Akiko; Takamura, Toshinari

    2004-06-01

    Adrenaline plays a major role in the maintenance of blood glucose level by promoting glycogenolysis during prolonged exercise predominantly via the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR). Because beta2ARs are mainly present in the muscle and liver, beta2AR gene polymorphism may affect changes in glucose metabolism caused by exercise. We, therefore, investigated the effect of beta2AR gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism in healthy Japanese men. The study group consisted of 124 unrelated healthy Japanese men who were aged 21-69 years (mean +/- S.D.: 45.3+/-11.7). They participated in an exercise program which was defined as low-moderate intensity at 20-60min per day, 2-3 days per week for 3 months. The genotype of Gln27Gln was detected in 109 subjects (87.9%), of Gln27Glu in 15 subjects (12.1%) and of Glu27Glu in none, and that of Arg16Arg, Arg16Gly and Gly16Gly in 32 (25.8%), 79 (63.7%) and 13 subjects (10.5%), respectively. There was no association between these polymorphisms and the metabolic characteristics at baseline. The change in fructosamine level as a result of exercise showed that the carrier of the Glu allele had a better response to exercise than the non-carrier. In conclusion, Gln27Glu polymorphism was associated with the change in fructosamine level resulting from exercise, but not Arg16Gly polymorphism.

  10. beta(2)-adrenergic receptor Arg16/Arg16 genotype is associated with reduced lung function, but not with asthma, in the Hutterites.

    PubMed

    Summerhill, E; Leavitt, S A; Gidley, H; Parry, R; Solway, J; Ober, C

    2000-08-01

    In a genome-wide screen for asthma loci in the Hutterites, a marker locus on chromosome 5q23-31 showed evidence of linkage to asthma (C. Ober and colleagues, Hum. Molec. Genet. 1998;7:1393). To determine whether the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) gene is the 5q-linked asthma locus in the Hutterites, we genotyped this sample for polymorphisms in the beta(2)AR gene. Neither the Arg16Gly nor Gln27Glu polymorphisms showed evidence of linkage to qualitative measures of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (p > 0.10) or to quantitative measures of serum IgE and airway reactivity (p > 0.10). In contrast, FEV(1) percentage of predicted and FVC percentage of predicted were significantly lower among individuals homozygous for the Arg16 allele (FEV(1) %: 98.3 +/- 13.2% versus 103. 8 +/- 14.9%, p = 0.003; FVC %: 104.2 +/- 12.3% versus 108.3 +/- 13. 2%, p = 0.02 by t test). These findings held true for adolescents and adults, but not for children beta(2)AR gene. However, it is the first study to suggest that the beta(2)AR Arg16Gly polymorphism influences either lung growth or the rate of decline of lung function with age. PMID:10934093

  11. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway.

  12. Asthma: Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene as risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The ADRB2 gene, which encodes the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, is one of the most extensively studied genes with respect to asthma prevalence and severity. The Arg16Gly (+46A > G) and Gln27Glu (+79C > G) polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene cause changes in the amino acids flanking the receptor ligand site, altering the response to bronchodilators and the risk of asthma through complex pathways. The ADRB2 polymorphisms affect beta-adrenergic bronchodilator action and are a tool to identify at-risk populations. Objective To determine the frequency of these two polymorphisms in allergic asthma patients and healthy subjects and to correlate these data with the occurrence and severity of asthma. Methods Eighty-eight allergic asthma patients and 141 healthy subjects were included in this study. The ADRB2 polymorphisms were analyzed using the amplification-refractory mutation system – polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 21.0 software using the Fisher’s Exact and χ2 tests. Results The ADRB2 polymorphisms were associated with asthma occurrence. The Arg16Arg, Gln27Gln and Gln27Glu genotypes were risk factors; the odds ratios were 6.782 (CI = 3.07 to 16.03), 2.120 (CI = 1.22 to 3.71) and 8.096 (CI = 3.90 to 17.77), respectively. For the Gly16Gly and Glu27Glu genotypes, the odds ratios were 0.312 (CI = 0.17 to 0.56) and 0.084 (CI = 0.04 to 0.17), respectively. The haplotype analysis showed that there were associations between the following groups: Arg16Arg-Gln27Gln (OR = 5.108, CI = 1.82 to 16.37), Gly16Gly-Glu27Glu (OR = 2.816, CI = 1.25 to 6.54), Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.048, CI = 0.01 to 0.14) and Gly16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.1036, CI = 0.02 to 0.39). The polymorphism Gln27Glu was associated with asthma severity, as the Gln27Gln genotype was a risk factor for severe asthma (OR

  13. Tissue specific effects of the beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol on LPS-induced IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TGF-beta responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Cobelens, Pieter M; Sanders, Virginia M; Heijnen, Cobi J; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2004-05-01

    Beta2-adrenergic agonists have immunomodulatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. We describe that oral salbutamol (beta-adrenergic agonist) administration has tissue-specific effects on cytokine production induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Salbutamol reduced LPS-induced IFN-gamma levels at both mucosal and non-mucosal sites. However, salbutamol increased IL-10 levels in the peritoneal cavity, but decreased levels in terminal ileum and lung. Salbutamol did not alter LPS-induced TGF-beta levels in the terminal ileum, but increased levels in liver and peritoneal cavity. Thus, orally administered salbutamol decreases LPS-induced IFN-gamma levels in all tissues tested, but has tissue specific effects on IL-10 and TGF-beta levels.

  14. Correlation of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Tumor-Free Surgical Margin and at the Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Lauand, Gustavo Amaral; Assao, Agnes; Suárez-Peñaranda, José-Manuel; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García-García, Abel; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor is expressed by neoplastic cells and is correlated with a wide spectrum of tumor cell mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Objectives. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in tumor-free surgical margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and at the invasive front. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with OSCC, confirmed by biopsy, were selected for the study. The clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up were obtained from medical records and their association with β2-AR expression was verified by the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. To verify the correlation of β2-AR expression in tumor-free surgical margins and at the invasive front of OSCCs, Pearson's correlation coefficient test was applied. Results. The expression of β2-AR presented a statistically significant correlation between the tumor-free surgical margins and the invasive front of OSCC (r = 0.383; p = 0.002). The immunohistochemical distribution of β2-AR at the invasive front of OSCC was also statistically significant associated with alcohol (p = 0.038), simultaneous alcohol and tobacco consumption (p = 0.010), and T stage (p = 0.014). Conclusions. The correlation of β2-AR expression in OSCC and tumor-free surgical margins suggests a role of this receptor in tumor progression and its expression in normal oral epithelium seems to be constitutive. PMID:27042179

  15. Correlation of Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Tumor-Free Surgical Margin and at the Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Bravo-Calderón, Diego Mauricio; Lauand, Gustavo Amaral; Assao, Agnes; Suárez-Peñaranda, José-Manuel; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; García-García, Abel; Marana, Aparecido Nilceu; Nonogaki, Suely; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor is expressed by neoplastic cells and is correlated with a wide spectrum of tumor cell mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration, and metastasis. Objectives. The present study aimed to analyze the expression of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in tumor-free surgical margins of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and at the invasive front. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with OSCC, confirmed by biopsy, were selected for the study. The clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up were obtained from medical records and their association with β2-AR expression was verified by the chi-square test or Fischer's exact test. To verify the correlation of β2-AR expression in tumor-free surgical margins and at the invasive front of OSCCs, Pearson's correlation coefficient test was applied. Results. The expression of β2-AR presented a statistically significant correlation between the tumor-free surgical margins and the invasive front of OSCC (r = 0.383; p = 0.002). The immunohistochemical distribution of β2-AR at the invasive front of OSCC was also statistically significant associated with alcohol (p = 0.038), simultaneous alcohol and tobacco consumption (p = 0.010), and T stage (p = 0.014). Conclusions. The correlation of β2-AR expression in OSCC and tumor-free surgical margins suggests a role of this receptor in tumor progression and its expression in normal oral epithelium seems to be constitutive.

  16. Interactions among the alpha2-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenergic receptor genes and obesity-related phenotypes in the Quebec Family Study.

    PubMed

    Ukkola, O; Rankinen, T; Weisnagel, S J; Sun, G; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2000-08-01

    The gene-gene interactions between markers in the alpha2-, beta2-, and beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADR) genes and obesity-related phenotypes were studied in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) cohort. The prevalence of the Arg allele of the Arg16Gly polymorphism in the beta2-ADR gene was higher (49%) in males with a body mass index (BMI) of 35 kg/m2 or higher versus those with a BMI less than 35 kg/m2 (33%; P = .010). The beta2-ADR gene Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms were associated with plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. In addition, the homozygotes for the 6.3-kb allele of DraI polymorphism in the alpha2-ADR gene had the lowest mean abdominal subcutaneous fat area (P = .012) and total fat area (P = .003), as well as insulin area, under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test ([OGTT] P = .004). Several ADR gene-gene interaction effects on abdominal fat distribution and plasma lipids were detected. First, significant interactions between alpha2- and beta3-ADR genes were observed on total (P = .015) and subcutaneous (P = .004) abdominal fat. Second, interaction effects between alpha2- and beta2-ADR gene variants influenced total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and LDL cholesterol concentrations. Finally, there were interactions between markers within the beta2-ADR gene affecting plasma triglyceride concentrations and subcutaneous abdominal fat. From these results, we conclude that polymorphisms in the ADR genes contribute to body fat and plasma lipid variability in men. Gene-gene interactions among the ADR genes contribute to the phenotypic variability in abdominal obesity and plasma lipid and lipoprotein, but not in visceral fat levels.

  17. Beta2-adrenergic agonist residues: simultaneous methyl- and butylboronic derivatization for confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F; Santos, C; Silva, A; da Silveira, M I

    1998-09-25

    A derivatization procedure for confirmatory residue analysis of beta2-agonists is described. Methyl (MBA) and butyl (BBA) boronic acids are simultaneously used for the derivatization of tulobuterol, mabuterol, mapenterol, salbutamol, clenproperol, clenbuterol, clenpenterol and bromobuterol by GC-MS determination. A temperature of 55 degrees C during 60 min was selected as optimal temperature-time condition for simultaneous MBA and BBA beta2-agonists derivatization. It was also observed that stability of boronic derivatives was maintained at -20 degrees C over a period of four days. The proposed methodology was tested in urine and it could be applied for confirmatory residue analysis of clenbuterol-like compounds.

  18. Alpha-hederin, but not hederacoside C and hederagenin from Hedera helix, affects the binding behavior, dynamics, and regulation of beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Anne; Prenner, Lars; Sorkalla, Thomas; Wolf, Anne; Jakobs, Daniel; Runkel, Frank; Häberlein, Hanns

    2009-04-21

    Hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin are saponins of dry extracts obtained from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.). Internalization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-GFP fusion proteins after stimulation with 1 microM terbutaline was inhibited by preincubation of stably transfected HEK293 cells with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h, whereas neither hederacoside C nor hederagenin (1 microM each) influenced this receptor regulation. After incubation of A549 cells with 5 nM Alexa532-NA, two different diffusion time constants were found for beta(2)AR-Alexa532-NA complexes by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Evaluation of the autocorrelation curve revealed diffusion time constants: tau(bound1) = 1.4 +/- 1.1 ms (n = 6) found for receptor-ligand complexes with unrestricted lateral mobility, and tau(bound2) = 34.7 +/- 14.1 ms (n = 6) for receptor-ligand complexes with hindered mobility. The distribution of diffusion time constants was 24.3 +/- 2.5% for tau(bound1) and 8.7 +/- 4.3% for tau(bound2) (n = 6). A549 cells pretreated with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h showed dose-dependent alterations in this distribution with 37.1 +/- 5.5% for tau(bound1) and 4.1 +/- 1.1% for tau(bound2). Simultaneously, the level of Alexa532-NA binding was significantly increased from 33.0 +/- 6.8 to 41.2 +/- 4.6%. In saturation experiments, alpha-hederin did not influence the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor density (B(max)), whereas the K(D) value for Alexa532-NA binding decreased from 36.1 +/- 9.2 to 24.3 +/- 11.1 nM. Pretreatment of HASM cells with alpha-hederin (1 microM, 24 h) revealed an increased intracellular cAMP level of 13.5 +/- 7.0% under stimulating conditions. Remarkably, structure-related saponins like hederacoside C and hederagenin did not influence either the binding behavior of beta(2)AR or the intracellular cAMP level.

  19. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Neiva; Lazarotto, Leilane; Milano, Gerusa Eisfeld; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Consentino, Cássio Leandro Mühe; de Mattos, Fernanda; de Andrade, Fabiana Antunes; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) with the occurrence of asthma and overweight and the gene's influence on anthropometric, clinic, biochemical and physical fitness variables in children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were evaluated for allelic frequencies of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score, waist circumference (WC), pubertal stage, resting heart rate (HRres), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), Homeostasis Metabolic Assessment (HOMA2-IR), Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The participants were divided in four groups: overweight asthmatic (n=39), overweight non-asthmatic (n=115), normal weight asthmatic (n=12), and normal weight non-asthmatic (n=40). Results: Regarding the Gln27Glu polymorphism, higher total cholesterol was observed in usual genotype individuals than in genetic variant carriers (p=0.04). No evidence was found that the evaluated polymorphisms are influencing the physical fitness. The Arg16 allele was found more frequently among the normal weight asthmatic group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.02), and the Glu27 allele was more frequently found in the overweight asthmatics group when compared to the normal weight non-asthmatic group (p=0.03). Conclusions: The association of Arg16 allele with the occurrence of asthma and of the Glu27 allele with overweight asthmatic adolescents evidenced the contribution of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene to the development of obesity and asthma. PMID:26409918

  20. Mouse model to study human A beta2M amyloidosis: generation of a transgenic mouse with excessive expression of human beta2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyao; Fu, Xiaoying; Sawashita, Jinko; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Beiru; Qian, Jinze; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Masayuki; Ando, Yukio; Naiki, Hironobu; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2010-06-01

    Patients on long-term hemodialysis can develop dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) due to deposition of beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) into amyloid fibrils (Abeta(2)M). Despite intensive biochemical studies, the pathogenesis of amyloid deposition in DRA patients remains poorly understood. To elucidate the mechanisms that underlie Abeta(2)M fibril formation in DRA, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress human beta(2)m protein in a mouse beta(2)m gene knockout background (hB2MTg(+/+) mB2m(+/+)). The hB2MTg(+/+)mB2m(-/-) mice express a high level of human beta(2)m protein in many tissues as well as a high plasma beta(2)m concentration (192.8 mg/L). This concentration is >100 times higher than that observed in healthy humans and >4 times higher than that detected in patients on dialysis. We examined spontaneous and amyloid fibril-induced amyloid deposition in these mice. Amyloid deposition of beta(2)m protein was not observed in aged or amyloid fibril injected animals. However, mouse senile apolipoprotein A-II amyloidosis (AApoAII) was detected, particularly in the joints of mice that were injected with AApoAII amyloid fibrils. This study demonstrates that this mouse model could be valuable in studying the components and conditions that promote DRA, and indicates that high plasma concentrations of hbeta(2)m as well as seeding with pre-existing amyloid fibrils may not be sufficient to induce Abeta(2)M.

  1. Adrenergic receptors in human fetal liver membranes.

    PubMed

    Falkay, G; Kovács, L

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptor binding capacities in human fetal and adult livers were measured to investigate the mechanism of the reduced alpha-1 adrenoreceptor response of the liver associated with a reciprocal increase in beta-adrenoreceptor activity in a number of conditions. Alpha-1 and beta-adrenoreceptor density were determined using 3H-prazosin and 3H-dihydroalprenolol, respectively, as radioligand. Heterogenous populations of beta-adrenoreceptors were found in fetal liver contrast to adult. Decreased alpha-1 and increased beta-receptor density were found which may relate to a decreased level in cellular differentiation. These findings may be important for the investigation of perinatal hypoglycaemia of newborns after treatment of premature labour with beta-mimetics. This is the first demonstration of differences in the ratio of alpha-1 and beta-adrenoceptors in human fetal liver.

  2. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  3. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  4. The effect of the beta-2-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol or implantation with oestradiol plus trenbolone acetate on protein metabolism in wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Bohorov, O; Buttery, P J; Correia, J H; Soar, J B

    1987-01-01

    The effects of Revalor (trenbolone acetate plus oestradiol) implantation or the inclusion of clenbuterol (a beta-2-adrenergic agonist) in the diet of wether lambs was studied. Using continuous intravenous infusion of [3H]tyrosine the fractional synthetic rate of mixed protein from three separate muscles was measured. Clenbuterol slightly increased growth rate but had a significant (P less than 0.02) effect on food conversion efficiency. The weight and protein content of the longissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis muscles were increased but no such changes were observed for the vastus intermedius. For the longissimus dorsi at least the increase was probably achieved by a reduction in fractional degradation rate of the muscle protein. Revalor significantly increased the growth rate and food conversion efficiency of the animals. This increase was not specific for muscle. Estimated degradation rates of muscle protein were lower in the treated animals. The possible mode of action of these materials was discussed. The results obtained again highlight the importance of protein degradation in controlling growth.

  5. The effect of the Gly16Arg polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene on plasma free fatty acid levels is modulated by physical activity.

    PubMed

    Meirhaeghe, A; Luan, J; Selberg-Franks, P; Hennings, S; Mitchell, J; Halsall, D; O'Rahilly, S; Wareham, N J

    2001-12-01

    The lipolytic effects of catecholamines are mediated through members of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (BAR-2) family. Previous studies have suggested that genetic variants in the BAR-2 gene may be associated with obesity in some populations. To our knowledge, no studies have directly examined the effects of this polymorphism on circulating nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels. To explore this issue further, a cohort of 604 Caucasian individuals (aged 40-65 yr) was genotyped for a common polymorphism in the BAR-2 gene (Gly16Arg), and the relationships between genotype, body mass index (BMI), NEFA, and lipid levels were examined. Women bearing the Arg16 allele had higher BMI values (P < 0.01) than Gly16Gly women. Women carriers of the Arg16Arg genotype had lower fasting plasma NEFAs (P < 0.01) and greater suppression of NEFAs (P < 0.01) after an oral glucose load than women bearing the Gly16 allele. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status, the interaction between the BAR-2 genotype and BMI in determining fasting NEFA concentrations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The availability of objective measures of total energy expenditure in this population permitted the further examination of interactions, particularly that between genotype and physical activity. In the population as a whole, after adjustment for confounding by age, smoking, and BMI, the effect of the Arg16Arg genotype on the suppression of NEFA levels was modified by physical activity level (P for interaction <0.05). These data suggest the existence in this population of a gene-physical activity interaction on NEFA levels.

  6. Specific inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta2 expression in human osteoblast cells by antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z J; Kim, S K; Kwon, O S; Lee, Y S; Moon, B J

    2001-04-01

    To elucidate the role of endogenous transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta2 on human osteoblast cell, antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (S-ODNs) complementary to regions in mRNA of TGF-beta2 were synthesized and examined their effects on TGF-beta2 production and cell proliferation in a human osteoblast cell line ROS 17/2. Antisense S-ODNs were designated for three different target regions in the mRNA of TGF-beta2. Among several antisense S-ODN analyzed, an oligonucleotide (AS-11) complementary to the translation initiation site of mRNA of TGF-beta2 demonstrated a selective and strong inhibitory effect on TGF-beta2 production in osteoblast cells. Other antisense S-ODNs which were designated for other regions in mRNA of TGF-beta2 and one- or three-base mismatched analogs of AS-11 showed little or much less antisense activities than AS-11. Therefore, the most effective target site in mRNA of TGF-beta2 is at the initiation codon region. The antisense effects of AS-11 were observed without reduction of levels of mRNA of TGF-beta2. Furthermore, the inhibition of TGF-beta2 expression by antisense S-ODN appeared to enhance cell proliferation, demonstrating the growth inhibitory effect of autocrine TGF-beta2 in osteoblast cells.

  7. Muscle protein waste in tumor-bearing rats is effectively antagonized by a beta 2-adrenergic agonist (clenbuterol). Role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Costelli, P; García-Martínez, C; Llovera, M; Carbó, N; López-Soriano, F J; Agell, N; Tessitore, L; Baccino, F M; Argilés, J M

    1995-01-01

    Tissue protein hypercatabolism (TPH) is a most important feature in cancer cachexia, particularly with regard to the skeletal muscle. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a very suitable model system for studying the mechanisms involved in the processes that lead to tissue depletion, since it induces in the host a rapid and progressive muscle waste mainly due to TPH (Tessitore, L., G. Bonelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1987. Biochem. J. 241:153-159). Detectable plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with marked perturbations in the hormonal homeostasis have been shown to concur in forcing metabolism into a catabolic setting (Tessitore, L., P. Costelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1993. Br. J. Cancer. 67:15-23). The present study was directed to investigate if beta 2-adrenergic agonists, which are known to favor skeletal muscle hypertrophy, could effectively antagonize the enhanced muscle protein breakdown in this cancer cachexia model. One such agent, i.e., clenbuterol, indeed largely prevented skeletal muscle waste in AH-130-bearing rats by restoring protein degradative rates close to control values. This normalization of protein breakdown rates was achieved through a decrease of the hyperactivation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory (Llovera, M., C. García-Martínez, N. Agell, M. Marzábal, F. J. López-Soriano, and J. M. Argilés. 1994. FEBS (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 338:311-318). By contrast, the drug did not exert any measurable effect on various parenchymal organs, nor did it modify the plasma level of corticosterone and insulin, which were increased and decreased, respectively, in the tumor hosts. The present data give new insights into the mechanisms by which clenbuterol exerts its preventive effect on muscle protein waste and seem to warrant the implementation of experimental protocols involving the use of clenbuterol or alike drugs in the treatment of pathological states involving

  8. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoberg, M. . E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H.; Noll, M.; Jones, D.B.

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  9. Expression of beta 2-microglobulin by human benign and malignant mesenchymal and neurogenic tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, B. L.; Braendstrup, O.

    1993-01-01

    Human myosarcomas, liposarcomas, meningosarcomas, glioblastomas and malignant schwannomas, their benign counterparts and normal cells from which these tumours derive, were examined for the expression of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m). Formalin fixed specimens from these tumours were studied by light microscopy employing the immunoperoxidase method with the use of antibodies directed towards beta 2m. The malignant tumours showed a broad spectrum from unstained to strongly stained tumours, most pronounced among myosarcomas. In addition, most stained tumours displayed a mosaic staining pattern in that unstained areas alternated with stained. There was a tendency towards increased staining for beta 2m in malignant compared to normal cells; this was also observed in the benign tumours although to a lesser degree. The results differ from most earlier studies, mainly of carcinomas which have shown a tendency towards down-regulation of MHC I molecules on the tumour cells. The results are discussed in relation to concepts of immune surveillance of tumours. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8398813

  10. Human {beta}2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wewer, U.M.; Durkin, M.E.; Albrechtsen, R.

    1994-11-15

    Overlapping cDNA clones that encode the full-length human laminin {beta}2 chain, formerly called the S chain, were isolated. The cDNA of 5680 nt contains a 5391-nt open reading frame encoding 1797 amino acids. At the amino terminus is a 32-amino-acid signal peptide that is followed by the mature {beta}2 chain polypeptide of 1765 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 192,389 Da. The human {beta}2 chain is predicted to have all of the seven structural domains typical of the {beta} chains of laminin, including the short cysteine-rich {alpha} region. The amino acid sequence of human {beta}2 chain showed 86.1% sequence identity to the rat {beta}2 chain, 50.0% to human {beta}1 chain, and 36.3% to the human {beta}3 chain. The greatest sequence identity was in domains VI, V, and III. The sequence of a 24-amino-acid peptide fragment isolated from the {beta}2 chain of laminin purified from human amniotic basement membrane matched the sequence predicted from the cDNA, confirming that the cDNA encodes human {beta}2 laminin. The cDNA was used to assign the gene (LAMB2) to human chromosome 3p21 by in situ hybridization. It is not linked to genes for human laminin chains {alpha}1, {beta}1, and {gamma}1 or other known laminin genes. Immunostaining showed that the {beta}2 chain is localized to the smooth muscle basement membranes of the arteries, while the homologous {beta}1 chain is confined to the subendothelial basement membranes. The {beta}2 chain was found in the basement membranes of ovarian carcinomas but not colon carcinomas. These results indicate that the expression of the {beta}2 chain gene is tightly regulated in normal human tissues and in disease. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin: predictive markers for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in children?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M M; Campos, J M; Josephs, S; Rifai, N

    1990-01-01

    The value of beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin concentrations in serum for early diagnosis of infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected mothers was assessed. Concentrations of both markers were measured in serum samples from pediatric patients (Centers for Disease Control classifications P0, P1, and P2), as well as in age-matched normal subjects. Both beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin were significantly increased in HIV-1-infected symptomatic subjects (P2) compared to controls. Seventy-five percent of asymptomatic patients (P1) also had increased values. On the other hand, a significant overlap in concentrations of both markers in serum was found between controls and P0 patients. Thirty-eight percent of the P0 patients had values comparable to those of the P2 group. Persistently high concentrations of both markers in P0 patients may be indicative of HIV-1 infection. PMID:2229344

  12. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  13. Stress-induced changes in the expression of monocytic beta2-integrins: the impact of arousal of negative affect and adrenergic responses to the Anger Recall Interview.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Lewis, James G; Achanzar, Karen; Zimmerman, Eugene; Young, Kenneth H; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular endothelium is one of the earliest steps in the development of atherosclerosis. This leukocyte-to-endothelium interaction is mediated in part by beta2-integrins, a group of cell adhesion molecules that bind to endothelial ligands. Given the significance of this interaction to atherogenesis, we examined the effects of stress, operationalized as the arousal of negative affect (NA) and cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to the Anger Recall Interview (ARI), on the expression of LFA-1 (CD11a), Mac-1 (CD11b) and p150/95 (CD11c) on circulating monocytes (CD14+). Subjects were 173 healthy, nonsmoking men and women (60% men, 40% minorities, aged 18-49 year). Arousal of NA, cardiovascular responses (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), circulating catecholamines (epinephrine [Epi], norepinephrine [Ne]) and beta2-integrin (CD11/CD18) expression were determined prior to and following the ARI. The principal findings were that the ARI, on average, induced a decrease in monocyte expression of beta2-integrins. However, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise status, and baseline level of beta2-integrin expression, those individuals who showed the largest increases in NA, Ne and DBP during the ARI showed an increase in monocyte beta2-integrin expression. Thus, heightened psychological and physiological stress responses induced phenotypic changes in monocytic expression of beta2-integrins that are consistent with the role of monocytes/macrophages in vascular inflammation and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  14. In search of secreted protein biomarkers for the anti-inflammatory effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists: application of DIGE technology in combination with multivariate and univariate data analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Gaspari, Marco; Bijlsma, Sabina; van der Greef, Jan; Witkamp, Renger F; Doornbos, Robert P; Rodenburg, Richard J T

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) in combination with univariate (Student's t-test) and multivariate data analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to study the anti-inflammatory effects of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) agonist zilpaterol. U937 macrophages were exposed to the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory reaction, which was inhibited by the addition of zilpaterol (LZ). This inhibition was counteracted by addition of the beta(2)-AR antagonist propranolol (LZP). The extracellular proteome of the U937 cells induced by the three treatments were examined by DIGE. PCA was used as an explorative tool to investigate the clustering of the proteome dataset. Using this tool, the dataset obtained from cells treated with LPS and LZP were separated from those obtained from LZ treated cells. PLS-DA, a multivariate data analysis tool that also takes correlations between protein spots and class assignment into account, correctly classified the different extracellular proteomes and showed that many proteins were differentially expressed between the proteome of inflamed cells (LPS and LZP) and cells in which the inflammatory response was inhibited (LZ). The Student's t-test revealed 8 potential protein biomarkers, each of which was expressed at a similar level in the LPS and LZP treated cells, but differently expressed in the LZ treated cells. Two of the identified proteins, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) are known secreted proteins. The inhibition of MIP-1beta by zilpaterol and the involvement of the beta(2)-AR and cAMP were confirmed using a specific immunoassay.

  15. Effects of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on anti-IgE-induced contraction and smooth muscle reactivity in human airways.

    PubMed Central

    Gorenne, I; Labat, C; Norel, X; De Montpreville, V; Guillet, M C; Cavero, I; Brink, C

    1995-01-01

    1. The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 relaxed basal tone of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. Salmeterol- and RP 58802-induced relaxations persisted for more than 4 h when the medium was constantly renewed after treatment. 2. Salbutamol, salmeterol and RP 58802 reversed histamine-induced contractions in human airways (pD2 values: 6.15 +/- 0.21, 6.00 +/- 0.19 and 6.56 +/- 0.12, respectively). 3. Anti-IgE-induced contractions were significantly inhibited immediately after pretreatment of preparations with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM). However, when tissues were treated with beta 2-agonists and then washed for a period of 4 h, salmeterol was the only agonist which significantly inhibited the anti-IgE response. 4. Histamine response curves were shifted to the right immediately after pretreatment of tissues with the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists (10 microM; 20 min), but maximal contractions were not affected. After a 4 h washing period, the histamine curves were not significantly different from controls. Concentration-effect curves to acetylcholine (ACh) or leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were not significantly modified after beta 2-agonist pretreatment. 5. These results suggest that beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists may prevent anti-IgE-induced contraction by inhibition of mediator release rather than alterations of those mechanisms involved in airway smooth muscle contraction. PMID:7780648

  16. Development of beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in baboon brain: an autoradiographic study using (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol

    SciTech Connect

    Slesinger, P.A.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Singer, H.S.; Walker, L.C.; Casanova, M.F.; Price, D.L.; Coyle, J.T.

    1988-07-15

    (125I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) autoradiography was used to investigate the temporal development and distribution of beta 1 and beta 2 receptors in brains of baboons at ages embryonic day 100 (E100), full-term gestation (El80), and 3 years. In all brain regions examined, with the exception of the hippocampus, binding to beta 1 receptors exceeded that to beta 2 receptors. The highest densities of beta 1 receptors were found in the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and cerebral cortex; intermediate receptor densities were observed in most nuclei of thalamus, and the lowest concentrations were in the hippocampus. At E100, beta receptors were identified in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus. During maturation, the number of beta 1 receptors declined in cortical areas but increased in the head of the caudate and putamen. Significant differences in the developmental distribution of beta receptors during development were also detected: at E100 and E180 beta 1 receptors appeared as patches in the caudate and putamen, but by 3 years of age they were more homogeneously distributed in both regions; changes also occurred in the distribution of binding within cortical layers. Autoradiograms of (125I)ICYP and (3H)mazindol binding show overlapping patches of labeling in the E180 striatum, suggesting a possible developmental association between beta receptors and dopamine high-affinity uptake carrier sites. This study demonstrates that noradrenergic receptors in the primate forebrain undergo significant developmental reorganization with regional variations.

  17. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase: amino acid substitution in the beta 2 beta 2 Oriental isozyme explains functional properties, establishes an active site structure, and parallels mutational exchanges in the yeast enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J; Vallee, B L; Bosron, W F; Li, T K

    1984-01-01

    The homodimeric Oriental beta 2 beta 2 isozyme of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, corresponding to an allelic variant at the ADH2 gene locus, was studied in order to define the amino acid exchange in relation to the beta 1 beta 1 isozyme, the predominant allelic form among Caucasians. Sequence analysis reveals that the amino acid substitution occurs at position 7 of the largest CNBr fragment, corresponding to position 47 of the whole protein chain. Here, the beta 2 form has a histidine residue, while, in common with other characterized mammalian liver alcohol dehydrogenases, the beta 1 form has an arginine residue. This exchange does not affect the adjacent cysteine-46 residue, which is a protein ligand to the active-site zinc atom, thus clarifying previously inconsistent results. The histidine/arginine-47 mutational replacement corresponds to a position that binds the pyrophosphate group of the coenzyme NAD(H); this explains the functional differences between the beta 1 beta 1 and beta 2 beta 2 isozymes, including both a lower pH optimum and higher turnover number of beta 2 beta 2, which is likely to be the mutant form. The exchange demonstrates the existence of parallel but separate mutations in the evolution of alcohol dehydrogenases because these mammalian enzymes differ at exactly the same position by the same type of substitution as is found between a mutant and the wild-type constitutive forms of the corresponding yeast enzyme. PMID:6374651

  18. Anti-cardiolipin/beta-2 glycoprotein activities co-exist on human anti-DNA antibody light chains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Nagl, Sylvia; Kalsi, J K; Ravirajan, C T; Athwal, Dee; Latchman, David S; Pearl, Laurence H; Isenberg, David A

    2003-12-01

    We have recently shown that the human anti-DNA antibodies B3 and 33H11 also bind cardiolipin and that the anti-autoantigen activity resides predominantly on their lambda light chains. We now show that the two auto-antibodies possess strong reactivity to the plasma-protein 2-Glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) also. Utilizing chain shuffling experiments involving an unrelated anti-p185 antibody 4D5 with insignificant reactivity to cardiolipin or to beta2-GPI, we now demonstrate that hybrid Fabs with constituent light chain, but not the heavy chain, of B3 or 33H11, exhibit anti-cardiolipin activity. Furthermore, the constructs possessing the auto-antibody-derived light chain also exhibited significant reactivity to beta2-GPI. The results suggest that anti-DNA, anti-cardiolipin and anti-beta2-GPI activities co-exist on the light chains of the antibodies studied and, importantly, these activities could be transferred to antibody constructs by their light chains alone. Computer-generated models of the three-dimensional structures of the auto-antibodies and their hybrids, suggest predominant interaction of their light chains with domain IV of beta2-GPI.

  19. Effects of long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists on mast cells of rat, guinea pig, and human.

    PubMed

    Lau, H Y; Wong, P L; Lai, C K; Ho, J K

    1994-10-01

    The effects of two recently developed long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, formoterol and salmeterol, on mast cells from different sources were compared with those of the prototype short-acting analogue, salbutamol. With the exception of high concentrations of salmeterol (> 10(-5) M), none of the tested beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists inhibited the anti-IgE-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. In contrast, all three compounds dose dependently inhibited the immunologically induced histamine release from isolated lung mast cells of guinea pig and human at concentrations < or = 10(-5) M.

  20. Suppression of natural killer cell activity by rabbit antibody to human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) is an Fc-mediated phenomenon and is not beta 2m specific.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A; Richards, S J; Patel, D; Scott, C S

    1991-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity constitutes an important component of the host immune defence system. The NK effector cell has been relatively well defined in terms of immunophenotypic characteristics, but in contrast to the functional T-cell receptor molecule associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity, the NK cell receptor has not to date been defined. However, several studies have suggested that the beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) molecule is functionally associated with NK cell activity. Using various heterospecific and monoclonal antibodies, this study has shown that intact rabbit IgG antibody bound either directly or indirectly to peripheral mononuclear cell (PMNC) effector populations significantly reduced their lytic activity against K562 targets. Substitution of F(ab)2 fragments for rabbit IgG antibodies, or the use of monoclonal antibodies alone, failed to reduce peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PMNC) lytic activity. Addition of non-NK cell components labelled with rabbit anti-beta 2m to purified NK-enriched effector cell populations also suppressed K562 lysis. In contrast, pre-treatment of a NK-enriched PMNC fraction with rabbit anti-beta 2m enhanced target lysis. These results strongly suggest that antibody-induced suppression of PMNC NK activity is mediated via rabbit Fc attached to co-existing non-NK cells in the mononuclear fraction, and are inconsistent with the previously suggested functional association between NK activity and membrane beta 2m.

  1. Polymorphic variants of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and ADRB2-related propanolol-induced dyslipidemia in the Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Isaza, C; Henao, J; Ramirez, E; Cuesta, F; Cacabelos, R

    2005-05-01

    Different polymorphisms of the ADRB2 gene encoding the beta-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) are associated with changes in a variety of responses of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). In this study, we have investigated the distribution of frequencies of ADRB2-related allelic variants (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile) in the Colombian population, as well as the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism as a risk factor for the development of dyslipidemia following propranolol administration. Genotyping was performed in unrelated Colombian volunteers, using PCR-RFLP methods. To examine the association between the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene and dyslipidemia induced by propranolol, we recruited 19 healthy individuals who were homozygous for either the Gln27 (wild-type, N = 11) or the Glu27 (homozygous mutant, N = 8) genotype. Electrocardiography (ECG), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), serum lipid levels (T-CHO, HDL-CHO, TG), and fibrinogen were determined before and after propranolol administration. The distribution of genotypes was as follows: Arg16Arg 46%, Arg16Gly 47.4%, Gly16Gly 6.6%, Gln27Gln 44.7%, Gln27Glu 48.2%, and Glu27Glu 7.1%, with allelic frequencies of 69.7% for Arg16, 30.3% for Gly16, 68.8% for Gln27, and 31.2% for Glu27. The Thr164Ile polymorphism was found only in one subject, who was heterozygous for the isoleucine variant. Significant changes in physiological parameters (HR, SBP, DBP) have been found in association with ADRB2 variants in both native and mutant subgroups after propranolol intake. HDL-CHO levels diminished (p = 0.005) in native homozygous individuals (Gln27Gln), whereas TG levels were found increased (p = 0.012) in the mutant homozygous individuals (Glu27Glu). T-CHO levels and serum fibrinogen levels remained unaltered in both subgroups. The evidence that subjects homozygous for Gln27 in the ADRB2 gene show a significant reduction of HDL-CHO levels, as well

  2. Effect of freezing and ultrasonication on the density of human lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Santala, M; Castrén, O; Saarikoski, S; Penttilä, I

    1989-06-01

    In this study 21 pregnant volunteers were divided into three equal groups; blood samples were taken from each, and after isolation of the lymphocytes the cell suspensions were divided into two equal samples. The density of beta 2-adrenoceptor in intact lymphocytes was compared with the receptor density for lymphocytes stored 7 days or 19 days at -70 degrees C and with cells disrupted by ultrasonication. Storage by lymphocytes at -70 degrees C for 7 days to 19 days decreased the beta 2-adrenoceptor density by 20% and 37%, respectively; ultrasonication decreased the density by 65%.

  3. Beta 2 integrin-dependent protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the FGR protein tyrosine kinase in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Stimulation of adherent human neutrophils (PMN) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) triggers protein tyrosine phosphorylation (Fuortes, M., W. W. Jin, and C. Nathan. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:777-784). We investigated the dependence of this response on beta 2 integrins by using PMN isolated from a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient, which do not express beta 2 integrins, and by plating PMN on surface bound anti-beta 2 (CD18) antibodies. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in PMN plated on fibrinogen and this phosphorylation was enhanced by TNF. Triggering of protein tyrosine phosphorylation did not occur in LAD PMN plated on fibrinogen either in the absence or the presence of TNF. Surface bound anti-CD18, but not isotype-matched anti- Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, antibodies triggered tyrosine phosphorylation in normal, but not in LAD PMN. As the major tyrosine phosphorylated proteins we found in our assay conditions migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 56-60 kD, we investigated whether beta 2 integrins are implicated in activation of members of the src family of intracellular protein-tyrosine kinases. We found that the fgr protein-tyrosine kinase (p58fgr) activity, and its extent of phosphorylation in tyrosine, in PMN adherent to fibrinogen, was enhanced by TNF. Activation of p58fgr in response to TNF was evident within 10 min of treatment and increased with times up to 30 min. Also other activators of beta 2 integrins such as phorbol-12- myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced activation of p58fgr kinase activity. Activation of p58fgr kinase activity, and phosphorylation in tyrosine, did not occur in PMN of a LAD patient in response to TNF. Soluble anti-CD18, but not anti-Class I MHC antigens, antibodies inhibited activation of p58fgr kinase activity in PMN adherent to fibrinogen in response to TNF, PMA, and FMLP. These findings demonstrate that, in PMN, beta 2 integrins

  4. Purification and reconstitution of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Cerione, R.A.; Nakata, H.; Benovic, J.L.; DeMarinis, R.M.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors have been purified approx.80,000 fold to apparent homogeneity by a five step chromatographic procedure. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of radioiodinated protein from purified receptor preparations shows a single major band of M/sub r/ 64,000. The competitive binding of ligands to the purified receptor protein shows the proper ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic specificity. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor contains an essential sulfhydryl residues. Thus, exposure of the purified receptor to the sulfhydryl specific reagent, phenylmercuric chloride (PMC), resulted in a 80% loss of binding activity. This loss of binding activity was prevented when exposure to PMC was done in the presence of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic ligands and it was reversed by subsequent exposure to dithiothreitol. Partial proteolysis of purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors was obtained with S. aureus V-8 protease, ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin and papain. In a comparison with purified ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors no common partial proteolytic products were found. Partially purified preparations of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor were successfully reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles with the inhibitory guanyl nucleotide-binding regulatory protein, N/sub i/. In these reconstituted preparations, epinephrine could stimulate, and phentolamine could block, the GTPase activity of N/sub i/.

  5. The effect of pasteurization on transforming growth factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta 2 concentrations in human milk.

    PubMed

    McPherson, R J; Wagner, C L

    2001-01-01

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and beta 2 (TGF-beta2) are present in human milk and are involved in growth differentiation and repair of neonatal intestinal epithelia. Heat treatment at 56 degrees C has been shown effective for providing safe banked donor milk, with good retention of other biologically active factors. The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of heat sterilization on TGF-alpha and TGF-beta2 concentrations in human milk. Twenty milk samples were collected from 20 lactating mothers in polypropylene containers and frozen at -20 degrees C for transport or storage. Before heat treatment by holder pasteurization, the frozen milk was thawed and divided into 1-mL aliquots. All samples were heated in an accurately regulated water bath until a holding temperature was achieved, then held for 30 minutes using constant agitation. Holding temperature ranged from 56.5 degrees C to 56.9 degrees C. The milk was then stored at 4 degrees C overnight for analysis the following day. The concentration of TGF-alpha was measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentration +/- SD of TGF-alpha in raw milk samples was 119+/-50 pg/mL, range 57 to 234. The mean concentration +/- SD of TGF-alpha in heat treated samples was 113+/-50 pg/mL, range 51 to 227. TGF-alpha concentration was minimally affected by pasteurization, with an overall loss of 6.1%. Of 19 samples, 4 had increased and 15 had decreased concentrations after pasteurization (mean percent SEM: 94%+/-7% of raw milk, range 72%+/-107%). The concentration of acid-activated TGF-beta2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean concentration +/- SD of TGF-beta2 in raw milk samples was 5624+/-5038 pg/mL, range 195 to 15480. The mean concentration +/- SD of TGF-beta2 in heat-treated samples was 5073+/-4646 pg/mL, range 181 to 15140. TGF-beta2 survived with relatively little loss (0.6%): of 18 samples, 11 had increased and 7 had decreased concentrations after pasteurization (mean percent

  6. Mutated human beta3-adrenergic receptor (Trp64Arg) lowers the response to beta3-adrenergic agonists in transfected 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Sasaki, N; Asano, A; Mizukami, J; Kayahashi, S; Kawada, T; Fushiki, T; Morimatsu, M; Yoshida, T; Saito, M

    2000-03-01

    Wild-type or mutated human beta3-adrenergic receptor (Trp64Arg) cDNAs were stably expressed in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Saturation binding study using a beta-adrenergic ligand revealed that there was no significant difference in the receptor density and the equilibrium dissociation constant between the two cell lines. However, the ability of the mutant beta3-adrenergic receptor to accumulate cyclic AMP (cAMP) in response to isoproterenol was much reduced and Kact for cAMP accumulation was lowered as compared to the wild type receptor. The amount of alpha subunit of stimulatory GTP-binding protein (GSalpha) and adenylyl cyclase activity in response to forskolin were not different in the two cell lines. The responses of the mutant receptor to epinephrine, norepinephrine and L-755,507, a highly specific agonist for human beta3-adrenergic receptor, were also reduced, but the reduction of Kact for L-755,507 was more evident than other agonists tested. The cAMP accumulation in response to some conventional beta3 agonists was less than 10% of that to isoproterenol even in the cells expressing the wild type receptor. These results suggest that the Trp64Arg mutant beta3-adrenergic receptor has less ability to stimulate adenylyl cyclase, and that lipolytic activity through the beta3-adrenergic receptor by catecholamines in subjects carrying this mutation might be suppressed. PMID:10786926

  7. Beta-2-glycoprotein specificity of human anti-phospholipid antibody resides on the light chain: a novel mechanism for acquisition of cross-reactivity by an autoantibody.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Nagl, Sylvia; Kalsi, Jatinderpal K; Ravirajan, Chelliah T; Athwal, Dee; Latchman, David S; Pearl, Laurence H; Isenberg, David A

    2005-01-01

    We have recently shown that the anti-cardiolipin activity of human anti-phospholipid antibody UK4 (lambda) resides on its heavy chain. We now show that UK4 possesses strong reactivity to the plasma-protein beta2-Glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) also. Utilizing chain shuffling experiments involving an unrelated anti-p185 antibody 4D5 (kappa) with no reactivity to beta2-GPI, we now demonstrate that both the constructs possessing the auto-antibody-derived light chain exhibited significant binding to beta2-GPI. However, the construct possessing UK4 heavy chain in association with 4D5 light chain, exhibited no anti-beta2-GPI activity. Furthermore, there was a low increase (approximately 10%) in the binding of UK4 to cardiolipin in the presence of beta2-GPI. The results demonstrate that anti-beta2-GPI activity resides on UK4 light chain and, importantly, this activity could be transferred to a novel antibody construct via the light chain alone. Computer-generated models of the three-dimensional structures of UK4 and its hybrids, suggest predominant interaction of UK4 light chain with domain IV of beta2-GPI. Molecular docking experiments highlight a number of potential sites on beta2-GPI for interaction of UK4 and indicate as to how beta2-GPI recognition may occur primarily via the autoantibody light chain. The study provides first demonstration of the occurrence of anti-phospholipid and anti-beta2-GPI activities separately on heavy and light chains of an autoantibody. The possible mechanisms that such antibodies may employ to recognise their antigens, are discussed.

  8. Cloning and expression of a human kidney cDNA for an /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Kobilka, B.K.

    1988-09-01

    An /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype has been cloned from a human kidney cDNA library using the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor as a probe. The deduced amino acid sequence resembles the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor and is consistent with the structure of other members of he family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors. The cDNA was expressed in a mammalian cell line (COS-7), and the /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic ligand (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine was bound. Competition curve analysis with a variety of adrenergic ligands suggests that this cDNA clone represents the /alpha//sub 2/B-adrenergic receptor. The gene for this receptor is on human chromosome 4, whereas the gene for the human platelet /alpha//sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (/alpha//sub 2/A) lies on chromosome 10. This ability to express the receptor in mammalian cells, free of other adrenergic receptor subtypes, should help in developing more selective /alpha/-adrenergic ligands.

  9. Expression of two human beta-adrenergic receptors in Escherichia coli: functional interaction with two forms of the stimulatory G protein.

    PubMed Central

    Freissmuth, M; Selzer, E; Marullo, S; Schütz, W; Strosberg, A D

    1991-01-01

    When expressed in Escherichia coli, the human beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors retain their ligand binding specificity. Their functional integrity was investigated by analyzing receptor-guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein coupling by using two splice variants of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory G protein Gs synthesized in E. coli (rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L) and the beta gamma subunits of G protein purified from bovine brain. In competition binding experiments with (-)-[125I]iodocyanopindolol and (-)-isoproterenol, rGs alpha-S.beta gamma and rGs alpha-L.beta gamma reconstituted guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding with comparable affinities, whereas rGs alpha PT, a mutant of rGs alpha-L with an altered carboxyl terminus, and a recombinant subtype of the alpha subunit of the inhibitory G protein, rGi alpha-1, were approximately 20- and approximately 200-fold less potent, respectively. A comparison of the beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expressed in E. coli with the beta 2-receptor in S49 murine lymphoma cyc- cell membranes revealed a similar affinity of rGs alpha-S and rGs alpha-L for the recombinant and native receptors. After stable incorporation of rGs alpha-S.beta gamma into E. coli membranes, receptor-G protein coupling was also verified by determining the isoproterenol-mediated acceleration of the rate for guanine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate binding. These results show that (i) receptor-G protein coupling can be reconstituted in E. coli using recombinant components and that (ii) such an approach may be more generally used to evaluate coupling preferences between defined molecular species of receptors and G-protein subunits. PMID:1656450

  10. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, R.M. Columbia Univ College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY ); Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with {sup 32}PO{sub 4} in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the {beta}-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M{sub r} 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the {alpha}-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined {alpha} and {beta} agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the {alpha}-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes.

  11. Immunoanalogue of vertebrate beta-adrenergic receptor in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2002-01-01

    Cell fractionation, SDS-PAGE, quantitative Western blot, confocal immunolocalization and immunogold labelling were performed to find an interpretation of the physiological response of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium to beta-adrenergic ligands. The 69 kDa polypeptide separated by SDS-PAGE in S2 and P2 Paramecium subcellular fractions cross-reacted with antibody directed against human beta2-adrenergic receptor. This was detected by Western blotting followed by chemiluminescent detection. Quantitative image analysis showed that beta-selective adrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol--previously shown to enhance phagocytic activity--evoked redistribution of the adrenergic receptor analogue from membraneous (P2) to cytosolic (S2) fraction. The relative increase in immunoreactive band intensity in S2 reached 80% and was paralleled by a 59% decrease in P2 fraction. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed beta2-adrenergic receptor sites on the cell surface and at the ridge of the cytopharynx--where nascent phagosomes are formed. This localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. These results indicate that the 69 kDa Paramecium polypeptide immunorelated to vertebrate beta2-adrenergic receptor appeared in this evolutionary ancient cell as a nutrient receptor.

  12. Removal of the N-terminal hexapeptide from human beta2-microglobulin facilitates protein aggregation and fibril formation.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, G.; Michelutti, R.; Verdone, G.; Viglino, P.; Hernández, H.; Robinson, C. V.; Amoresano, A.; Dal Piaz, F.; Monti, M.; Pucci, P.; Mangione, P.; Stoppini, M.; Merlini, G.; Ferri, G.; Bellotti, V.

    2000-01-01

    The solution structure and stability of N-terminally truncated beta2-microglobulin (deltaN6beta2-m), the major modification in ex vivo fibrils, have been investigated by a variety of biophysical techniques. The results show that deltaN6beta2-m has a free energy of stabilization that is reduced by 2.5 kcal/mol compared to the intact protein. Hydrogen exchange of a mixture of the truncated and full-length proteins at microM concentrations at pH 6.5 monitored by electrospray mass spectrometry reveals that deltaN6beta2-m is significantly less protected than its wild-type counterpart. Analysis of deltaN6beta2-m by NMR shows that this loss of protection occurs in beta strands I, III, and part of II. At mM concentration gel filtration analysis shows that deltaN6beta2-m forms a series of oligomers, including trimers and tetramers, and NMR analysis indicates that strand V is involved in intermolecular interactions that stabilize this association. The truncated species of beta2-microglobulin was found to have a higher tendency to self-associate than the intact molecule, and unlike wild-type protein, is able to form amyloid fibrils at physiological pH. Limited proteolysis experiments and analysis by mass spectrometry support the conformational modifications identified by NMR and suggest that deltaN6beta2-m could be a key intermediate of a proteolytic pathway of beta2-microglobulin. Overall, the data suggest that removal of the six residues from the N-terminus of beta2-microglobulin has a major effect on the stability of the overall fold. Part of the tertiary structure is preserved substantially by the disulfide bridge between Cys25 and Cys80, but the pairing between beta-strands far removed from this constrain is greatly perturbed. PMID:10850793

  13. Expression of two alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in human placenta: evidence from direct binding studies.

    PubMed

    Falkay, G; Kovács, L

    1994-09-01

    Adrenergic receptors may play an important role for mediating a variety of metabolic and haemodynamic effects of catecholamines including placental blood flow. The alpha-adrenergic receptors of the human placenta were characterized in vitro by the use of [3H]rauwolscine and [3H]prazosin as radioligands. Saturation experiments would suggest that the alpha-adrenoceptors in the human placenta are alpha 2. Comparative binding studies were performed, using recently synthesized compounds (Beecham Pharmaceuticals, UK) selective for alpha 2A (BRL-44408) and alpha 2B (BRL-41992) subtypes. The results indicate that human placenta contains at least two pharmacologically distinct alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes with approximately 60 per cent alpha 2A and 40 per cent alpha 2B receptors. In contrast with the pattern of increasing beta-adrenoceptor density, the concentration of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in term placentae is significantly lower than in placentae from the first trimester.

  14. Correlation between beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptor concentrations in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Falkay, G; Melis, K; Kovács, L

    1994-05-01

    alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors in human placental membranes have been investigated using the radioligands [3H]-RX 821002 and [3H]-dihydroalprenolol, respectively. The specific binding of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821002 confirms the presence of an alpha 2-adrenoceptor in the human placenta, which has been characterized previously with [3H]-rauwolscine. The major finding presented here is a correlation between the alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentrations (r = 0.765) in the human placenta at term. It is suggested that the alpha 2/beta adrenoceptor balance may play an important role in regulation of the vascular bed of the placenta. Determination of the alpha 2/beta ratio may help towards an understanding of the contractility of the placental vascular muscles.

  15. Subcellular localization and dynamics of Mac-1 (alpha m beta 2) in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Sengeløv, H; Kjeldsen, L; Diamond, M S; Springer, T A; Borregaard, N

    1993-01-01

    The subcellular localization of Mac-1 was determined in resting and stimulated human neutrophils after disruption by nitrogen cavitation and fractionation on two-layer Percoll density gradients. Light membranes were further separated by high voltage free flow electrophoresis. Mac-1 was determined by an ELISA with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for the alpha-chain (CD11b). In unstimulated neutrophils, 75% of Mac-1 colocalized with specific granules including gelatinase granules, 20% with secretory vesicles and the rest with plasma membranes. Stimulation with nanomolar concentrations of FMLP resulted in the translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane, and only minimal translocation from specific granules and gelatinase granules. Stimulation with PMA or Ionomycin resulted in full translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules to the plasma membrane, and partial translocation of Mac-1 from specific granules. These findings were corroborated by flow cytometry, which demonstrated a 6-10-fold increase in the surface membrane content of Mac-1 in response to stimulation with FMLP, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-8, leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, TNF-alpha, and zymosan-activated serum, and a 25-fold increase in response to Ionomycin. Thus, secretory vesicles constitute the most important reservoir of Mac-1 that is incorporated into the plasma membrane during stimulation with inflammatory mediators. PMID:8376598

  16. Homology modeling of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABA receptor channels and Surflex-docking of fipronil.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Gen-Yan

    2009-09-01

    To further explore the mechanism of selective binding of the representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) fipronil to insect over mammalian GABARs, three-dimensional models of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABAR were generated by homology modeling, using the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo marmorata as a template. Fipronil was docked into the putative binding site of the human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 receptors by Surflex-docking, and the calculated docking energies are in agreement with experimental results. The GABA receptor antagonist fipronil exhibited higher potency with house fly beta 3 GABAR than with human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAR. Furthermore, analyses of Surflex-docking suggest that the H-bond interaction of fipronil with Ala2 and Thr6 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of these GABARs plays a relatively important role in ligand selective binding. The different subunit assemblies of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABARs may result in differential selectivity for fipronil.

  17. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments.

  18. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  19. Effects of halothane on the human beta-adrenergic receptor of lymphocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, J.; Nivoche, Y.; Nimier, M.; Rocchiccioli, C.; Luscombe, F.; Henzel, D.; Loiseau, A.; Desmonts, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The effects of halothane on beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist interaction were studied using the membranes of human lymphocytes as a model. Membrane preparations of lymphocytes were obtained from blood samples withdrawn from seven healthy young volunteers. Beta-receptor studies were performed using (-)/sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol (/sup 125/ICP) binding. Non-specific binding was determined in the presence of (-)isoproterenol. Beta-receptor density (Bmax) and the dissociation constant (KD) for /sup 125/ICP were determined from saturation curves. Beta-receptor affinity for agonists evaluated by the IC50 (the concentration of isoproterenol required to inhibit 50% of specific /sup 125/ICP binding) and the dissociation constant (KL) for isoproterenol was established from competition curves. The effect of halothane 1%, in an air oxygen mixture (oxygen fraction: 0.3) administered by tonometry during ligand membrane incubation, on beta-adrenergic receptor, was compared to that of control experiments not exposed to halothane. Halothane produced a moderate but significant decrease of Bmax (-10%) and a significant increase in non-specific binding (+30%), while KD, IC50, and KL were unchanged. The authors conclude that halothane, in vitro, decreases beta-adrenergic receptor density. This effect could be mediated by an alteration of the receptor in the membrane due to action of halothane on the lipid phase of the membrane.

  20. beta-2 Microglobulin values among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, HIV-positive asymptomatic, and HIV-positive symptomatic Ugandans.

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar, E M; Tugume, S B; Grant, R M; Lutalo, T; Pattishall, K; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    1995-01-01

    Mean serum beta-2 microglobulin levels among healthy human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative and asymptomatic and symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive Ugandans were found to be 2.35, 3.75, and 5.06 mg/liter, respectively (P < 0.001). The upper limit of the normal range (3.5 mg/liter) is higher in this African population than that reported elsewhere. PMID:7697536

  1. The immunomodulatory activity of human amniotic fluid can be correlated with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and beta 2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, A K; Searle, R F

    1994-01-01

    The role of alphafetoprotein (AFP) in the immunomodulatory activity of amniotic fluids (AF) from normally progressing human pregnancy (weeks 14-16) was investigated. A panel of 42 AF (25% v/v) reduced significantly phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in serum-free cultures with a mean per cent inhibition of 68.4 +/- 5.5%. In contrast, AFP preparations, with one exception (U.AFP), failed to display inhibitory activity. Pretreatment of AF with anti-TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 antibodies used alone resulted in the mean per cent loss of inhibition of 33.1 +/- 3.9% and 52.3 +/- 7.5%, respectively. A summative loss of AF-mediated inhibition was detected when anti-TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 antibodies were used in combination, but immunomodulation was rarely abolished 100% by this treatment. Anti-TGF-beta 2 antibody treatment, unlike anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody treatment, reversed the inhibitory activity of U.AFP. The amount of TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 contained in human AF was studied by growth inhibition of Mv1 Lu cells. The mean levels of TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 in AF were 11 +/- 0.9 U/ml and 2.3 +/- 0.4 U/ml, respectively, which corresponds with a mean per cent inhibition of 49 +/- 4.7%. U.AFP also significantly inhibited Mv1 Lu cell growth. To investigate the mechanism of AF-mediated inhibition, the effect of AF and AFP on IL-2 production by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated PBMC blasts was determined by the CTLL-2 cell bioassay. IL-2 production was reduced 55.5% in AF-treated blasts and 61% in U.AFP-treated blasts compared with controls. Our findings indicate that the immunomodulatory activity of human AF can be correlated with TGF-beta 1 and beta 2 and not with AFP, the inhibitory activity of U.AFP preparation reflecting copurifying TGF-beta 2 activity. PMID:7518368

  2. The Beta-2-Adrenoreceptor Agonists, Formoterol and Indacaterol, but Not Salbutamol, Effectively Suppress the Reactivity of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ronald; Theron, Annette J.; Steel, Helen C.; Durandt, Chrisna; Tintinger, Gregory R.; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of beta-2 agonists remains contentious possibly due to differences in their molecular structures and agonist activities. The current study has compared the effects of 3 different categories of β2-agonists, namely, salbutamol (short-acting), formoterol (long-acting) and indacaterol (ultra-long-acting), at concentrations of 1–1000 nM, with human blood neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were activated with either N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 µM) or platelet-activating factor (PAF, 200 nM) in the absence and presence of the β2-agonists followed by measurement of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4, release of elastase, and expression of the β2-integrin, CR3, using a combination of chemiluminescence, ELISA, colorimetric, and flow cytometric procedures respectively. These were correlated with alterations in the concentrations of intracellular cyclic-AMP and cytosolic Ca2+. At the concentrations tested, formoterol and indacaterol caused equivalent, significant (P < 0.05 at 1–10 nM) dose-related inhibition of all of the pro-inflammatory activities tested, while salbutamol was much less effective (P < 0.05 at 100 nM and higher). Suppression of neutrophil reactivity was accompanied by elevations in intracellular cAMP and accelerated clearance of Ca2+ from the cytosol of activated neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that β2-agonists vary with respect to their suppressive effects on activated neutrophils. PMID:24733958

  3. Heterogeneous responses of human limbs to infused adrenergic agonists: a gravitational effect?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike quadrupeds, the legs of humans are regularly exposed to elevated pressures relative to the arms. We hypothesized that this "dependent hypertension" would be associated with altered adrenergic responsiveness. Isoproterenol (0.75-24 ng x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) and phenylephrine (0.025-0.8 microg x 100 ml limb volume-1 x min-1) were infused incrementally in the brachial and femoral arteries of 12 normal volunteers; changes in limb blood flow were quantified by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Compared with the forearm, baseline calf vascular resistance was greater (38.8 +/- 2.5 vs. 26.9 +/- 2.0 mmHg x 100 ml x min x ml-1; P < 0.001) and maximal conductance was lower (46.1 +/- 11.9 vs. 59.4 +/- 13.4 ml x ml-1 x min-1 x mmHg-1; P < 0.03). Vascular conductance did not differ between the two limbs during isoproterenol infusions, whereas decreases in vascular conductance were greater in the calf than the forearm during phenylephrine infusions (P < 0.001). With responses normalized to maximal conductance, the half-maximal response for phenylephrine was significantly less for the calf than the forearm (P < 0.001), whereas the half-maximal response for isoproterenol did not differ between limbs. We conclude that alpha1- but not beta-adrenergic-receptor responsiveness in human limbs is nonuniform. The relatively greater response to alpha1-adrenergic-receptor stimulation in the calf may represent an adaptive mechanism that limits blood pooling and capillary filtration in the legs during standing.

  4. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in human developing teeth: immunolocalization according to the odontogenesis phases.

    PubMed

    Sassá Benedete, Ana Paula; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Kamibeppu, Leonardo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional growth factor that has several biological effects in vivo, including control of cell growth and differentiation, cell migration, lineage determination, motility, adhesion, apoptosis, and synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and TGF-beta plays an important role in regulating tissue repair and regeneration. Our study analyzed the participation of TGF-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 in the different stages of morphogenesis and differentiation of human developing dental organ using immunohistochemistry. The maxillae and mandibles of 10 human embryos ranging from 8 to 23 weeks of gestation were employed, according to the approval of the ethical committee. Our study revealed that the TGF-beta subunits-beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3-were present in the various stages of tooth development, but the expression varied according to the differentiation stage, tissue, and TGF-beta subunit. Our results indicated that TGF-beta 1 is closely related to differentiation of enamel organ and initiation of matrix secretion, TGF-beta 2 to cellular differentiation, and TGF-beta 3 to mineral maturation matrix.

  5. The presence and distribution of alpha adrenergic receptors in human renal pelvis and calyces.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Osman Raif; Yilmazer, Demet; Ozturk, Ufuk; Sener, Nevzat Can; Saltas, Hakan; Karabacak, Yurdum; Alper, Murat

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the presence of Alpha (α) 1 receptors and subtypes in human pelvis and calyces, because an agent to facilitate kidney stone movement and help decrease pain may be an α 1 adrenergic blocker, as used in ureteral stones. Twenty patients who applied to our clinic for renal cell carcinoma were enrolled to the study. All patients underwent radical nephrectomy. After the specimens were removed, excisional biopsies were performed on healthy pelvises and calyces. Mean α-receptor stain rates in renal pelvis were 2.65 ± 0.74, 1.35 ± 0.81 and 2.9 ± 0.30 for α 1A, 1B and 1D, respectively. For calyces, the rates are 2.40 ± 0.82, 1.50 ± 0.76 and 2.75 ± 0.44 for α 1A, 1B and 1D, respectively (Fig. 1). When the staining patterns were compared, α 1A and 1D were expressed more in both pelvis and calyces than α 1B (p < 0.05). After the demonstration of α-adrenergic receptors in pelvis and calyces of human kidney, it may be helpful in coming up with new alternative treatments for patients suffering from kidney stones.

  6. Solubilization and characterization of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors from the human platelet and rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor heterogeneity has been hypothesized to explain functional and radioligand binding differences between rodent and non-rodent species. Computer analysis of the inhibition of (/sup 3/He)yohimbine binding by prazosin in the rat cerebral cortex indicates the possibility of at least two binding sites rather than negative cooperativity at a single site. There appear to be three alternative hypotheses which may explain the rodent vs. non-rodent differences. To develop the technical capability to distinguish between the above alternatives, the human platelet and rat cerebral cortex were solubilized and p-azidoclonidine (AZC) an alpha-2 receptor photoaffinity label was synthesized. Soluble preparations from both species showed saturable, high affinity (/sup 3/He)yohimbine binding. The rank order of potencies for various adrenergic agonists and antagonists are consistent with the notion that (/sup 3/He)yohimbine binding detected solubilized alpha-2 receptors. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of soluble alpha-2 receptors indicated no significant molecular size difference. (/sup 3/H)AZC binding to the alpha-2 receptor in the rat cerebral cortex demonstrated high affinity saturability and the correct rank order of potency.

  7. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.

    1989-02-15

    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  8. Characterization and distribution of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Valet, P; Senard, J M; Devedjian, J C; Planat, V; Salomon, R; Voisin, T; Drean, G; Couvineau, A; Daviaud, D; Denis, C

    1993-01-01

    The subtype and the expression of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor were investigated in the normal mucosa from human intestine by means of radioligand binding, RNase mapping, and measurement of adenylate cyclase activity. The study of the binding of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, [3H]RX821002, to epithelial cell membranes indicated the existence of a single class of noninteracting sites displaying a high affinity for the radioligand (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.5 nM). The rank order of potency of antagonists to inhibit [3H]RX821002 binding (RX821002 > yohimbine = rauwolscine > phentolamine approximately idazoxan >> chlorpromazine > prazosin) suggested that the receptor is of the alpha 2A subtype. A conclusion which is confirmed by the fact that only alpha 2C10 transcripts were found in the human intestine mucosa. Competition curves with (-)-norepinephrine demonstrated that 60% of the receptor population exhibited high affinity for agonists. This high-affinity state was abolished by the addition of GTP plus Na+ or by prior treatment of the membranes with pertussis toxin indicating it corresponded to G protein-coupled receptors. [32P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting experiments identified two pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins corresponding to Gi2 and Gi3. The study of the distribution of the receptor indicated that (a) the proximal colon is the intestine segment exhibiting the highest receptor density and (b) the receptor is predominantly expressed in crypts and is preferentially located in the basolateral membrane of the polarized cell. The distribution of the receptor along the crypt-surface axis of the colon mucosa can be correlated with a higher level of alpha 2C10-specific mRNA and a higher efficiency of UK14304 to inhibit adenylate cyclase in crypt cells. Images PMID:8098045

  9. Modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during exercise and exogenous ATP infusions in ageing humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S; Crecelius, Anne R; Voyles, Wyatt F; Dinenno, Frank A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The ability to modulate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle is impaired with age. In young adults, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to blunt sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness similar to exercise. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction to exogenous ATP is impaired in ageing humans. We measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) and calculated vascular conductance (FVC) to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and dexmedetomidine (α2-agonist) during rhythmic handgrip exercise (15% MVC), a control non-exercise vasodilator condition (adenosine), and ATP infusion in seven older (64 ± 3 years) and seven young (22 ± 1 years) healthy adults. Forearm hyperaemia was matched across all vasodilatating conditions. During adenosine, forearm vasoconstrictor responses to direct α1-stimulation were lower in older compared with young adults (ΔFVC =−25 ± 3%vs.−41 ± 5%; P < 0.05), whereas the responses to α2-stimulation were not different (−35 ± 6%vs.−44 ± 8%; NS). During exercise, α1-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly blunted compared with adenosine in both young (−9 ± 2%vs.−41 ± 5%) and older adults (−15 ± 2%vs.−25 ± 3%); however, the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (32 ± 13 vs. 74 ± 8%; P < 0.05). Similarly, α2-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise was significantly blunted in both young (−15 ± 4%vs.−44 ± 8%) and older adults (−26 ± 3%vs.−35 ± 6%), however the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (19 ± 8%vs. 60 ± 10%; P < 0.05). During ATP, both α1- and α2-mediated vasoconstriction was nearly abolished in young and older adults (ΔFVC ∼−5%), and the magnitude of sympatholysis was similar in both age groups (∼85–90%). Our findings indicate that the ability to modulate postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during

  10. Modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during exercise and exogenous ATP infusions in ageing humans.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brett S; Crecelius, Anne R; Voyles, Wyatt F; Dinenno, Frank A

    2011-05-15

    The ability to modulate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle is impaired with age. In young adults, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to blunt sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness similar to exercise. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that modulation of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction to exogenous ATP is impaired in ageing humans.We measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) and calculated vascular conductance (FVC) to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (α₁-agonist) and dexmedetomidine (α₂-agonist) during rhythmic handgrip exercise (15% MVC), a control non-exercise vasodilator condition (adenosine), and ATP infusion in seven older (64 ± 3 years) and seven young (22 ± 1 years) healthy adults. Forearm hyperaemia was matched across all vasodilatating conditions. During adenosine, forearm vasoconstrictor responses to direct α₁-stimulation were lower in older compared with young adults (ΔFVC=-25 ± 3% vs. -41 ± 5%; P <0.05), whereas the responses to α₂-stimulation were not different (-35±6% vs. -44 ± 8%; NS). During exercise, α₁-mediated vasoconstriction was significantly blunted compared with adenosine in both young (-9 ± 2% vs. -41 ± 5%) and older adults (-15 ± 2% vs. -25 ± 3%); however, the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (32 ± 13 vs. 74 ± 8%; P <0.05). Similarly, α₂-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise was significantly blunted in both young (-15 ± 4% vs. -44 ± 8%) and older adults (-26 ± 3% vs. -35 ± 6%), however the magnitude of sympatholysis was reduced in older adults (19 ± 8% vs. 60 ± 10%; P <0.05). During ATP, both α₁- and α₂-mediated vasoconstriction was nearly abolished in young and older adults (ΔFVC ∼ -5%), and the magnitude of sympatholysis was similar in both age groups (∼85-90%). Our findings indicate that the ability to modulate postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during exercise is impaired

  11. Beta Adrenergic Receptors in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sivamani, Raja K.; Lam, Susanne T.; Isseroff, R. Rivkah

    2007-01-01

    Synopsis Beta2 adrenergic receptors were identified in keratinocytes more than 30 years ago, but their function in the epidermis continues to be elucidated. Abnormalities in their expression, signaling pathway, or in the generation of endogenous catecholamine agonists by keratinocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous diseases such as atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and psoriasis. New studies also indicate that the beta2AR also modulates keratinocyte migration, and thus can function to regulate wound re-epithelialization. This review focuses on the function of these receptors in keratinocytes and their contribution to cutaneous physiology and disease. PMID:17903623

  12. Browning of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Humans after Severe Adrenergic Stress.

    PubMed

    Sidossis, Labros S; Porter, Craig; Saraf, Manish K; Børsheim, Elisabet; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S; Chao, Tony; Ali, Arham; Chondronikola, Maria; Mlcak, Ronald; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hawkins, Hal K; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Herndon, David N

    2015-08-01

    Since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was confirmed in adult humans, BAT has become a therapeutic target for obesity and insulin resistance. We examined whether human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can adopt a BAT-like phenotype using a clinical model of prolonged and severe adrenergic stress. sWAT samples were collected from severely burned and healthy individuals. A subset of burn victims were prospectively followed during their acute hospitalization. Browning of sWAT was determined by the presence of multilocular adipocytes, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and increased mitochondrial density and respiratory capacity. Multilocular UCP1-positive adipocytes were found in sWAT samples from burn patients. UCP1 mRNA, mitochondrial density, and leak respiratory capacity in sWAT increased after burn trauma. Our data demonstrate that human sWAT can transform from an energy-storing to an energy-dissipating tissue, which opens new research avenues in our quest to prevent and treat obesity and its metabolic complications.

  13. Effects of beta 2-agonist- and dexamethasone-treatment on relaxation and regulation of beta-adrenoceptors in human bronchi and lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Hauck, R W; Harth, M; Schulz, C; Präuer, H; Böhm, M; Schömig, A

    1997-08-01

    1. Long-term treatment with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists can lead to a decreased therapeutic efficacy of bronchodilatation in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. In order to examine whether or not this is due to beta-adrenoceptor desensitization, human bronchial muscle relaxation was studied in isolated bronchial rings after pretreatment with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Additionally, the influence of pretreatment with dexamethasone on desensitization was studied. 2. The effect of beta 2-agonist incubation alone and after coincubation with dexamethasone on density and affinity of beta-adrenoceptors was investigated by radioligand binding experiments. 3. In human isolated bronchi, isoprenaline induces a time- and concentration-dependent beta-adrenoceptor desensitization as judged from maximal reduction in potency by a factor of 7 and reduction of 73 +/- 4% in efficacy of isoprenaline to relax human bronchial smooth muscle. 4. After an incubation period of 60 min with 100 mumol l-1 terbutaline, a significant decline in its relaxing efficacy (81 +/- 8%) and potency (by a factor 5.5) occurred. 5. Incubation with 30 mumol l-1 isoprenaline for 60 min did not impair the maximal effect of a subsequent aminophylline response but led to an increase in potency (factor 4.4). 6. Coincubation of dexamethasone with isoprenaline (120 min; 30 mumol l-1) preserved the effect of isoprenaline on relaxation (129 +/- 15%). 7. In radioligand binding experiments, pretreatment of lung tissue for 60 min with isoprenaline (30 mumol l-1) resulted in a decrease in beta-adrenoceptor binding sites (Bmax) to 64 +/- 1.6% (P < 0.05), while the antagonist affinity (KD) for [3H]-CGP-12177 remained unchanged. 8. In contrast, radioligand binding studies on lung tissue pretreated with either dexamethasone (30 mumol l-1) or isoprenaline (30 mumol l-1) plus dexamethasone (30 mumol l-1) for 120 min did not lead to a significant change of Bmax (160 +/- 22.1% vs 142.3 +/- 28.7%) or KD (5.0 nmol l-1

  14. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  15. Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by a β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Weiner, Lauren S.; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Elía, Elisa Franquet; Kessler, Skyler H.; Kahn, Peter A.; English, Jeffrey; Chatman, Kelly; Trauger, Sunia A.; Doria, Alessandro; Kolodny, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Increasing energy expenditure through activation of endogenous brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential approach to treat obesity and diabetes. The class of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists stimulates rodent BAT, but this activity has never been demonstrated in humans. Here we determined the ability of 200 mg oral mirabegron (Myrbetriq, Astellas Pharma, Inc.), a β3-AR agonist currently approved to treat overactive bladder, to stimulate BAT as compared to placebo. Mirabegron led to higher BAT metabolic activity as measured via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in all twelve healthy male subjects (p = 0.001), and it increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) by 203 ± 40 kcal/day (+13%; p = 0.001). BAT metabolic activity was also a significant predictor of the changes in RMR (p = 0.006). Therefore, a β3-AR agonist can stimulate human BAT thermogenesis and may be a promising treatment for metabolic disease. PMID:25565203

  16. Changes in adrenergic receptors in the pregnant human uterine cervix following mifepristone or placebo treatment in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Kovács, L; Falkay, G

    1993-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the antiprogesterone mifepristone (RU-486) can dilate the cervix of pregnant women. The uterine and cervical smooth muscle contractile response to adrenergic agonists is regulated by the steroidal environment. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of treatment with RU-486 on the concentrations of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in cervical crude membranes from pregnant women using a radioligand binding assay. A special needle biopsy technique was used for human cervical specimens. The probable relative oestrogen dominance due to the antiprogesterone treatment selectively decreased the alpha-2 adrenoceptor in human cervix at an early stage of gestation. This finding was similar to that reported earlier in pregnant rabbits. The existence of a functionally distinct alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtype will have important implications for our understanding of the contractile activity of the cervix.

  17. Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in hyperplastic human prostate: identification and characterization using (/sup 3/H) rauwolscine

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine ((/sup 3/H)Ra), a selective ligand for the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor, was used to identify and characterize alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in prostate glands of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)Ra to prostatic tissue homogenates was rapid and readily reversible by addition of excess unlabelled phentolamine. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments demonstrates a single, saturable class of high affinity binding sites (Bmax = 0.31 +/- 0.04 fmol./microgram. DNA, Kd = 0.9 +/- 0.11 nM.). The relative potency of alpha adrenergic drugs (clonidine, alpha-methylnorepinephrine and prazosin) in competing for (/sup 3/H)Ra binding sites was consistent with the order predicted for an alpha 2 subtype. The role of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in normal prostatic function and in men with bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH requires further investigation.

  18. Dissociation between renin and arterial pressure responses to beta-adrenergic blockade in human essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bravo, E L; Tarazi, R C; Dustan, H P; Lewis, J W

    1975-06-01

    Studies were carried out in 69 patients with essential hypertension to examine the relationship between changes in plasma renin activity (PRA) and arterial pressure (BP) in response to a beta-adrenergic blocking agent, propranolol. PRA had no consistent relationship with BP during treatment, either in patients receiving propranolol alone (r = 0.12) or in those receiving a combination of diuretics and propranolol (r = 0.18). Furthermore, long-term beta-adrenergic blockade failed to inhibit increases of PRA induced by diuretics or rapid sodium depletion. These results indicate that (1) beta-adrenergic blockade can reduce BP by mechanisms other than PRA suppression; and (2) the beta-adrenergic nervous system is important, but not essential, for renin release. PMID:236841

  19. Leutropin/beta-adrenergic receptor chimeras bind choriogonadotropin and adrenergic ligands but are not expressed at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Moyle, W R; Bernard, M P; Myers, R V; Marko, O M; Strader, C D

    1991-06-15

    In some G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g. beta-adrenergic receptor (beta 2 AR)), the ligand-binding pocket is contained within the hydrophobic transmembrane domain. In others (e.g. luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR)), the relative roles of the extracellular N-terminal domain and the transmembrane region in hormone binding are unknown. To study the roles of these domains, we prepared vectors encoding the rat LHR N-terminal domain alone (L- -), the LHR N-terminal domain fused to the transmembrane and C-terminal domains of the vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein (LVV), the LHR N-terminal domain fused to the transmembrane and C-terminal domains of the hamster beta 2 AR (LAA), and the beta 2 AR N-terminal domain fused to the transmembrane and C-terminal domains of the rat LHR (ALL). Membrane preparations obtained from COS-7 cells expressing the beta 2 AR or LAA bound the beta-adrenergic antagonist 125I-cyanopindolol with equal affinity, confirming the observation that the beta 2 AR transmembrane domain forms the hormone-binding site. Membranes from COS-7 cells transfected with LHR bound 125I-human choriomic gonadotropin (hCG). However, membranes from LAA-, L(- -)-, and LVV-transfected cells had low capacity to bind 125I-hCG unless they were solubilized with Triton X-100. The affinity of the detergent-solubilized receptors for 125I-hCG was similar to that of the LHR. We were unable to detect binding of 125I-hCG to ALL in the presence or absence of detergent. These observations suggest that, whereas the transmembrane region of the beta 2 AR is sufficient to bind adrenergic ligands, the N-terminal region of the LHR is required for binding of hCG. Although the N terminus of the LHR is sufficient to bind hCG, both the N terminus and the transmembrane domains of the LHR are required for receptor expression on the cell surface.

  20. Beta-adrenergic regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in cultured human syncytiotrophoblast.

    PubMed

    Grullon, K; Jacobs, M M; Li, S X; Illsley, N P

    1995-10-01

    Isolated elements of the beta-adrenergic/adenyl cyclase signal transduction system have been studied previously using purified membranes. We used cultured syncytiotrophoblast cells to identify components of this signalling system and the interactions which regulate syncytial adenyl cyclase. Generation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was stimulated in these cells by both forskolin and isoproterenol but not by dopamine, adenosine, carbachol or prostaglandin E1. Synthesis was also stimulated by treatment with cholera toxin, indicating the involvement of the G-protein, Gs. Somatostatin inhibited isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation, an effect which could be blocked by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin, demonstrating the mediation of somatostatin action by Gi. Furthermore, secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) was increased significantly by isoproterenol while somatostatin blocked the isoproterenol-stimulated release of hCG. These results clearly demonstrate that adenyl cyclase in syncytiotrophoblast is controlled by a stimulatory pathway operating through Gs and inhibitory pathway acting through Gi.

  1. [Effect of interferon on human cell lines which do not express class I transplantation antigens: K 562 and Daudi. Presence of a pseudo-messenger RNA of beta 2-microglobulin in Daudi cell line].

    PubMed

    Rosa, F; Fellous, M

    1982-10-11

    Human alpha and beta interferons increase the rate of class I human MHC antigens mRNA HLA-A, B, C and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) in most human cells studied so far. The present work studies the effect of those interferons upon cell lines which do not express class I antigen on their membrane: K 562 et Daudi. If beta 2m mRNA is enhanced in K 562 cell by both alpha and beta interferons, those interferons are not able to promote the de novo synthesis of HLA-A, B, c mRNA, which is not detectable in this cell line. On the other hand, HLA-A, B, C mRNA, which is present in Daudi cell, is amplified by both alpha and beta interferons. Furthermore, we could show that, if it has not been possible to detect mature beta 2m protein either in the cytoplasm or on Daudi membrane, there is a poly A+ RNA in it, which hybridizes with a cDNA probe specific for beta 2m.

  2. Heat and α1-adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Kwon, Sun Hyung; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Ruan, Ting; Noyes, R. Dirk; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Symons, J. David; Richardson, Russell S.

    2012-01-01

    Increased local temperature exerts a sympatholytic effect on human skeletal muscle feed arteries. We hypothesized that this attenuated α1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness may be due to a temperature-induced increase in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby reducing the impact of the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine (PE). Thirteen human skeletal muscle feed arteries were harvested, and wire myography was used to generate PE concentration-response curves at 37°C and 39°C, with and without the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). A subset of arteries (n = 4) were exposed to 37°C or 39°C, and the protein content of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and α1-adrenergic receptors was determined by Western blot analysis. Additionally, cultured bovine endothelial cells were exposed to static or shear stress conditions at 37°C and 39°C and assayed for eNOS activation (phosphorylation at Ser1177), eNOS expression, and NO metabolites [nitrate + nitrite (NOx)]. Maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (PEmax) was lower at 39°C than at 37°C [39 ± 10 vs. 84 ± 30% maximal response to 100 mM KCl (KClmax)]. NO blockade restored vasocontraction at 39°C to that achieved at 37°C (80 ± 26% KClmax). Western blot analysis of the feed arteries revealed that heating increased eNOS protein, but not α1-adrenergic receptors. Heating of bovine endothelial cells resulted in greater shear stress-induced eNOS activation and NOx production. Together, these data reveal for the first time that, in human skeletal muscle feed arteries, NO blockade can restore the heat-attenuated α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasocontraction and implicate endothelium-derived NO bioavailability as a major contributor to heat-induced sympatholysis. Consequently, these findings highlight the important role of vasodilators in modulating the vascular response to vasoconstrictors. PMID:23042905

  3. Muscarinic receptor modulation of basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated function of the failing human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Newton, G E; Parker, A B; Landzberg, J S; Colucci, W S; Parker, J D

    1996-12-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of muscarinic receptor modulation on basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated left ventricular function in patients with heart failure. 21 heart failure patients and 14 subjects with normal ventricular function were studied. In Protocol 1 intracoronary acetylcholine resulted in a 60+/-8% inhibition of the left ventricular +dP/dt response to intracoronary dobutamine in the normal group, and a similar 70+/-13% inhibition in the heart failure group. Acetylcholine also attenuated the dobutamine-mediated acceleration of isovolumic relaxation (Tau) in both groups. Acetylcholine alone had no effect on Tau in the normal group, while it prolonged Tau in the heart failure group. In Protocol 2 intracoronary atropine resulted in a 35+/-10% augmentation of the inotropic response to dobutamine in the normal group, versus a non-significant 12+/-15% augmentation of the dobutamine response in the heart failure group. In Protocol 3, in 6 heart failure patients, both effects of acetylcholine, the slowing of ventricular relaxation and the inhibition of beta-adrenergic responses, were reversed by the addition of atropine. Therefore, in the failing human left ventricle muscarinic stimulation has an independent negative lusitropic effect and antagonizes the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  4. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis in search for a putative Paramecium beta-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Płatek, A; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    1999-01-01

    RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis were performed in order to search for a putative beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) in Paramecium using several beta2-adrenergic-specific molecular probes. Under strictly defined RT-PCR conditions DNA species of expected molecular size about 360 bp were generated with the primers corresponding to the universal mammalian beta2-AR sequence tagged sites (located within the 4th and the 6th transmembrane regions of the receptor). This RT-PCR product hybridized in Southern blot analysis with the oligonucleotide probe designed to the highly conservative beta2-AR region involved in G-proteins interaction and located within the amplified region. Northern hybridization was performed on Paramecium total RNA and mRNA with human beta2-AR cDNA and two oligonucleotide probes: the first included Phe 290 involved in agonist binding (Strader et al., 1995) and the second was the backward RT-PCR primer. All these probes revealed the presence of about 2 kb mRNA which is consistent with the size of beta2-AR transcripts found in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Evidence that the human cutaneous venoarteriolar response is not mediated by adrenergic mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Yen, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response causes vasoconstriction to skin and muscle via local mechanisms secondary to venous congestion. The purpose of this project was to investigate whether this response occurs through alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. In supine individuals, forearm skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry over sites following local administration of terazosin (alpha(1)-antagonist), yohimbine (alpha(2)-antagonist), phentolamine (non-selective alpha-antagonist) and bretylium tosylate (inhibits neurotransmission of adrenergic nerves) via intradermal microdialysis or intradermal injection. In addition, skin blood flow was monitored over an area of forearm skin that was locally anaesthetized via application of EMLA (2.5 % lidocaine (lignocaine) and 2.5 % prilocaine) cream. Skin blood flow was also monitored over adjacent sites that received the vehicle for the specified drug. Each trial was performed on a minimum of seven subjects and on separate days. The venoarteriolar response was engaged by lowering the subject's arm from heart level such that the sites of skin blood flow measurement were 34 +/- 1 cm below the heart. The arm remained in this position for 2 min. Selective and non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism and presynaptic inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission did not abolish the venoarteriolar response. However, local anaesthesia blocked the venoarteriolar response without altering alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction. These data suggest that the venoarteriolar response does not occur through adrenergic mechanisms as previously reported. Rather, the venoarteriolar response may due to myogenic mechanisms associated with changes in vascular pressure or is mediated by a non-adrenergic, but neurally mediated, local mechanism.

  6. Modified human beta 2-microglobulin (desLys(58)) displays decreased affinity for the heavy chain of MHC class I and induces nitric oxide production and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Harhaji, L; Lamberth, K; Harndahl, M; Buus, S; Heegaard, N H H; Claesson, M H; Nissen, M H

    2009-03-01

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) is the light chain of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, and is a prerequisite for the binding of peptides to the heavy chain and their presentation to CD8+ T cells. beta2m can be modified in vivo and in vitro by proteolytic cleavage by complement C1 and subsequent carboxypeptidase B-like activity--processes that lead to the generation of desLys(58) beta2m (dbeta2m). This work aims to study the effect of dbeta2m on peptide binding to MHC-I, the influence of dbeta2m on the binding of beta2m to the MHC-I heavy chain and the biological activity of dbeta2m. Both beta2m and dbeta2m are able to support the generation of MHC-I/peptide complexes at 18 degrees C, but complexes formed in the presence of dbeta2m destabilize at 37 degrees C. Moreover, a 250 times higher concentration of dbeta2m than of beta2m is needed to displace MHC-I associated beta2m from the cell surface. In addition, only beta2m is able to restore MHC-I/peptide complex formation on acid-treated cells whereas dbeta2m appears to bind preferentially to denatured MHC-I heavy chains. In cell cultures, exogenously added dbeta2m, but not beta2m, induces apoptotic cell death in monocytic leukaemic cell lines but spares other kinds of leukaemic cells. Additionally, the presence of dbeta2m, and to a lesser extent beta2m, enhances IFN-gamma-induced NO production by monocytic leukaemic cells. In conclusion, these data show that dbeta2m is not able to support the formation of a stable tri-molecular MHC-I complex at physiological temperature and that dbeta2m exerts other biological functions compared to beta2m when bound to cells.

  7. The CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Beta-2 Isoform (CEBPβ-2) Upregulates Galectin-7 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Carole G.; Labrie, Marilyne; Grosset, Andrée-Anne; St-Pierre, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-7 is considered a gene under the control of p53. However, elevated expression of galectin-7 has been reported in several forms of cancer harboring an inactive p53 pathway. This is especially true for breast cancer where galectin-7 expression is readily expressed in a high proportion in basal-like breast cancer tissues, conferring cancer cells with increased resistance to cell death and metastatic properties. These observations suggest that other transcription factors are capable of inducing galectin-7 expression. In the present work, we have examined the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) in inducing expression of galectin-7. C/EBP proteins have been shown to contribute to breast cancer by upregulating pro-metastatic genes. We paid particular attention to C/EBPβ-2 (also known as LAP2), the most transcriptionally active of the C/EBPβ isoforms. Our results showed that ectopic expression of C/EBPβ-2 in human breast cancer cells was sufficient to induce expression of galectin-7 at both the mRNA and protein levels. In silico analysis further revealed the presence of an established CEBP element in the galectin-7 promoter. Mutation of this binding site abolished the transcriptional activity of the galectin-7 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that C/EBPβ-2 binds to the endogenous galectin-7 promoter. Analysis of galectin-7 protein expression in normal epithelia and in breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry further showed the expression pattern of C/EBPβ closely micmicked that of galectin-7, most notably in mammary myoepithelial cells and basal-like breast cancer where galectin-7 is preferentially expressed. Taken together, our findings suggest that C/EBPβ is an important mediator of galectin-7 gene activation in breast cancer cells and highlight the different transcriptional mechanisms controlling galectin-7 in cancer cells. PMID:24789216

  8. A Novel Dimeric Inhibitor Targeting Beta2GPI in Beta2GPI/Antibody Complexes Implicated in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    A Kolyada; C Lee; A De Biasio; N Beglova

    2011-12-31

    {beta}2GPI is a major antigen for autoantibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. Only the dimeric form of {beta}2GPI generated by anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies is pathologically important, in contrast to monomeric {beta}2GPI which is abundant in plasma. We created a dimeric inhibitor, A1-A1, to selectively target {beta}2GPI in {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes. To make this inhibitor, we isolated the first ligand-binding module from ApoER2 (A1) and connected two A1 modules with a flexible linker. A1-A1 interferes with two pathologically important interactions in APS, the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes with anionic phospholipids and ApoER2. We compared the efficiency of A1-A1 to monomeric A1 for inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes to anionic phospholipids. We tested the inhibition of {beta}2GPI present in human serum, {beta}2GPI purified from human plasma and the individual domain V of {beta}2GPI. We demonstrated that when {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes are formed, A1-A1 is much more effective than A1 in inhibition of the binding of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin, regardless of the source of {beta}2GPI. Similarly, A1-A1 strongly inhibits the binding of dimerized domain V of {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin compared to the monomeric A1 inhibitor. In the absence of anti-{beta}2GPI antibodies, both A1-A1 and A1 only weakly inhibit the binding of pathologically inactive monomeric {beta}2GPI to cardiolipin. Our results suggest that the approach of using a dimeric inhibitor to block {beta}2GPI in the pathological multivalent {beta}2GPI/antibody complexes holds significant promise. The novel inhibitor A1-A1 may be a starting point in the development of an effective therapeutic for antiphospholipid syndrome.

  9. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN.

  10. Inhibition of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in exercising human thigh muscles

    PubMed Central

    Wray, D Walter; Fadel, Paul J; Smith, Michael L; Raven, Peter; Sander, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying metabolic inhibition of sympathetic responses within exercising skeletal muscle remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to test whether α2-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was more sensitive to metabolic inhibition than α1-vasoconstriction during dynamic knee-extensor exercise. We studied healthy volunteers using two protocols: (1) wide dose ranges of the α-adrenoreceptor agonists phenylephrine (PE, α1 selective) and BHT-933 (BHT, α2 selective) were administered intra-arterially at rest and during 27 W knee-extensor exercise (n = 13); (2) flow-adjusted doses of PE (0.3 μg kg−1 l−1) and BHT (15 μg kg−1 l−1) were administered at rest and during ramped exercise (7 W to 37 W; n= 10). Ultrasound Doppler and thermodilution techniques provided direct measurements of femoral blood flow (FBF). PE (0.8 μg kg−1) and BHT (40 μg kg−1) produced comparable maximal reductions in FBF at rest (−58 ± 6 versus−64 ± 4%). Despite increasing the doses, PE (1.6 μg kg−1 min−1) and BHT (80 μg kg−1 min−1) caused significantly smaller changes in FBF during 27 W exercise (−13 ± 4 versus−3 ± 5%). During ramped exercise, significant vasoconstriction at lower intensities (7 and 17 W) was seen following PE (−16 ± 5 and −16 ± 4%), but not BHT (−2 ± 4 and −4 ± 5%). At the highest intensity (37 W), FBF was not significantly changed by either drug. Collectively, these data demonstrate metabolic inhibition of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in large postural muscles of healthy humans. Both α1- and α2-adrenoreceptor agonists produce comparable vasoconstriction in the resting leg, and dynamic thigh exercise attenuates α1- and α2-mediated vasoconstriction similarly. However, α2-mediated vasoconstriction appears more sensitive to metabolic inhibition, because α2 is completely inhibited even at low workloads, whereas α1 becomes progressively inhibited with increasing workloads. PMID

  11. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (−)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries. PMID:23668336

  12. Identification of the origin of adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers within the superior hypogastric plexus of the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Diallo, Djibril; Benoit, Gérard; Bessede, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Nerve fibers contributing to the superior hypogastric plexus (SHP) and the hypogastric nerves (HN) are currently considered to comprise an adrenergic part of the autonomic nervous system located between vertebrae (T1 and L2), with cholinergic aspects originating from the second to fourth sacral spinal segments (S2, S3 and S4). The aim of this study was to identify the origin and the nature of the nerve fibers within the SHP and the HN, especially the cholinergic fibers, using computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). Serial histological sections were performed at the level of the lumbar spine and pelvis in five human fetuses between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Sections were treated with histological staining [hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's trichrome (TriM)] and with immunohistochemical methods to detect nerve fibers (anti-S100), adrenergic fibers (anti-TH), cholinergic fibers (anti-VAChT) and nitrergic fibers (anti-nNOS). The sections were then digitalized using a high-resolution scanner and the 3D images were reconstructed using winsurf software. These experiments revealed the coexistence of adrenergic and cholinergic fibers within the SHP and the HNs. One-third of these cholinergic fibers were nitrergic fibers [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (+)] and potentially pro-erectile, while the others were non-nitrergic [anti-VACHT (+)/anti-NOS (-)]. We found these cholinergic fibers arose from the lumbar nerve roots. This study described the nature of the SHP nerve fibers which gives a better understanding of the urinary and sexual dysfunctions after surgical injuries.

  13. [Serum beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2M) following renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Silva, A; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ramos, O L; Azjen, H; Pereira, A B

    1994-01-01

    Although there was an important improvement in graft and patient survival the last 10 years, graft rejection continues to be a major barrier to the success of renal transplantation. Identification of a laboratory test that could help to diagnose graft rejection would facilitate the management of renal transplanted patients. PURPOSE--To evaluate the utility of monitoring serum beta 2M in recently transplanted patients. METHODS--We daily determined serum beta 2M levels in 20 receptors of renal grafts (10 from living related and 10 from cadaveric donors) and compared them to their clinical and laboratory evolution. RESULTS--Eight patients who presented immediate good renal function following grafting and did not have rejection had a mean serum beta 2M of 3.7 mg/L on the 4th day post transplant. The sensitivity of the test for the diagnosis of acute rejection was 87.5%, but the specificity was only 46%. Patients who presented acute tubular necrosis (ATN) without rejection had a progressive decrease in their serum levels of beta 2M, while their serum creatinine changed as they were dialyzed. In contrast, patients with ATN and concomitance of acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity presented elevated beta 2M and creatinine serum levels. CONCLUSION--Daily monitoring of serum beta 2M does not improve the ability to diagnose acute rejection in patients with good renal function. However, serum beta 2M levels seemed to be useful in diagnosing acute rejection or CSA nephrotoxicity in patients with ATN. PMID:7787867

  14. Tissue-specific and cell surface expression of human major histocompatibility complex class I heavy (HLA-B7) and light (beta 2-microglobulin) chain genes in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, J W; Nolan, J A; Conrad, P J; Vasavada, H A; Vasavada, H H; Ploegh, H L; Ganguly, S; Janeway, C A; Weissman, S M

    1988-01-01

    We introduced the human genes HLA-B7 and B2M encoding the heavy (HLA-B7) and light [beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m)] chains of a human major histocompatibility complex class I antigen into separate lines of transgenic mice. The tissue-specific pattern of HLA-B7 RNA expression was similar to that of endogenous class I H-2 genes, although the HLA-B7 gene was about 10-fold underexpressed in liver. Identical patterns of RNA expression were detected whether the HLA-B7 gene contained 12 or 0.66 kilobase(s) (kb) of 5' flanking sequence. The level of expression was copy number dependent and as efficient as that of H-2 genes; gamma interferon enhanced HLA-B7 RNA expression in parallel to that of H-2. In addition to the mechanism(s) responsible for gamma interferon-enhanced expression, there must be at least one other tissue-specific mechanism controlling the constitutive levels of class I RNA. Tissue-specific human beta 2m RNA expression was similar to that of mouse beta 2m, including high-level expression in liver. Cell surface HLA-B7 increased 10- to 17-fold on T cells and on a subset of thymocytes from HLA-B7/B2M doubly transgenic mice compared to HLA-B7 singly transgenic mice. The pattern of expression of HLA-B7 on thymocytes resembled that of H-2K as opposed to H-2D. These results confirm that coexpression of both human chains is required for efficient surface expression and that HLA-B7 may share a regulatory mechanism with H-2K, which distinguishes it from H-2D. Images PMID:2459712

  15. α₁-Adrenergic receptors contribute to the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Hysek, Cédric M; Fink, Anja E; Simmler, Linda D; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Grouzmann, Eric; Liechti, Matthias E

    2013-10-01

    Preclinical studies implicate a role for α₁-noradrenergic receptors in the effects of psychostimulants, including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"). The present study evaluated the effects of the α₁-noradrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin on the acute pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic response to MDMA in 16 healthy subjects. Doxazosin (8 mg/d) or placebo was administered for 3 days before MDMA (125 mg) or placebo using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-session, crossover design. Doxazosin reduced MDMA-induced elevations in blood pressure, body temperature, and moderately attenuated positive mood but enhanced tachycardia associated with MDMA. The results indicate that α₁-adrenergic receptors contribute to the acute cardiostimulant and to a minor extent possibly also to the thermogenic and euphoric effects of MDMA in humans.

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta2 utilizes the canonical Smad-signaling pathway to regulate tissue transglutaminase expression in human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Clark, Abbot F; Wordinger, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) is elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma. This growth factor is known to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the trabecular meshwork (TM) as well as increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in perfused human cultured anterior eye segments. In addition overexpression of TGF-β2 in the mouse TM leads to elevated IOP. Exogenous TGF-β2 also increases tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) protein levels and enzyme activity in TM cells. TGM2 is a calcium-dependent enzyme that mediates cross-linking of ECM proteins, thus making ECM proteins resistant to enzymatic degradation and physical breakdown. We have investigated the signaling pathway by which TGF-β2 induces TGM2 in human TM cells. Primary cultures of human TM cells (N = 6) were treated for 48 h with TGF-β2 (0-10 ng/ml) in serum-free medium. TGM2 enzyme activity differences between non-treated and TGF-β2 treated TM cells were studied using a biotin cadaverine assay. Endogenous TGF-β2 protein levels were examined in normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (GTM) cell strains. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression and co-localization of TGF-β2 and TGM2 in NTM and GTM tissues. Activation of Smad3 signaling pathway was evaluated by western immunoblot analysis using phospho-specific antibodies following exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Pharmacological specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) and short interfering (si)RNAs were used to suppress Smad3 activity and CTGF gene expression respectively. Endogenous TGF-β2 levels were significantly elevated in cultured GTM cells (p < 0.05) when compared to NTM cells. Immunohistochemistry studies also demonstrated elevated expression and co-localization of both TGF-β2 and TGM2 in glaucoma human TM tissues. Exogenous TGF-β2 increased both TGM2 protein levels and enzyme activity in TM cells. Phosphorylation of Smad3 was stimulated in TM cell strains by exogenous TGF

  17. Cocaine downregulates beta-adrenergic receptors in pregnant sheep myometrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, F L; Gauvin, J M; Dombrowski, M P; Smith, Y R; Christopher, K A; Hurd, W W

    1996-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is associated with premature labor. Although cocaine is known to competitively inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor binding, cocaine's effect on receptor downregulation is uncertain. This study was designed to determine the in vitro effect of cocaine on downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in pregnant myometrium. Pregnant sheep myometrium was incubated with either cocaine, isoproterenol, or a cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Membrane fractions were assayed for beta-adrenergic receptors using (125I)-cyanopindolol and the beta 2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551. We found that cocaine (10(-6) to 10(-4) mol/L), but not benzoylecgonine, downregulated both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors, but did not further augment receptor downregulation by isoproterenol. The 46% decrease in beta-adrenergic receptors seen after exposure to cocaine was similar to the 53% decrease seen after isoproterenol. We hypothesize downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors by cocaine may play a role in the association of cocaine abuse with premature labor.

  18. Expansion of the. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor family: Cloning and characterization of a human. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor subtype, the gene for which is located on chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, J.W.; Lorenz, W.; Allen, L.F.; King, K.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J. ); Regan, J.W. ); Yang-Feng, T.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Pharmacologic, biochemical, and genetic analyses have demonstrated the existence of multiple {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor ({alpha}{sub 2}AR) subtypes. The authors have cloned a human {alpha}{sub 2}AR by using the polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers homologous to conserved regions of the previously cloned {alpha}{sub 2}ARs, the genes for which are located on human chromosomes 4 (C4) and 10 (C10). The deduced amino acid sequence encodes a protein of 450 amino acids whose putative topology is similar to that of the family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors, but whose structure most closely resembles that of the {alpha}{sub 2}ARs. Competition curve analysis of the binding properties of the receptor expressed in COS-7 cells with a variety of adrenergic ligands demonstrates a unique {alpha}{sub 2}AR pharmacology. Hybridization with somatic cell hybrids shows that the gene for this receptor is located on chromosome 2. Northern blot analysis of various rat tissues shows expression in liver and kidney. The unique pharmacology and tissue localization of this receptor suggest that this is an {alpha}{sub 2}AR subtype not previously identified by classical pharmacological or ligand binding approaches.

  19. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  20. Construction of bioactive chimeric MHC class I tetramer by expression and purification of human-murine chimeric MHC heavy chain and beta(2)m as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ding; Wang, Fang; He, Xiaowen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Dean; Ying, He; Sun, Shuhan

    2006-12-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) class I tetramers are used in the quantitative analysis of epitope peptide-specific CD8+ T-cells. An MHC class I tetramer was composed of 4 MHC class I complexes and a fluorescently labeled streptavidin (SA) molecule. Each MHC class I complex consists of an MHC heavy chain, a beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) molecule and a synthetic epitope peptide. In most previous studies, an MHC class I complex was formed in the refolding buffer with an expressed MHC heavy chain molecule and beta(2)m, respectively. This procedure inevitably resulted in the disadvantages of forming unwanted multimers and self-refolding products, and the purification of each kind of monomer was time-consuming. In the present study, the genes of a human/murine chimeric MHC heavy chain (HLA-A2 alpha1, HLA-A2 alpha2 and MHC-H2D alpha3) and beta(2)m were tandem-cloned into plasmid pET17b and expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein was refolded with each of the three HLA-A2 restricted peptides (HBc18-27 FLPSDFFPSI, HBx52-60 HLSLRGLPV, and HBx92-100 VLHKRTLGL) and thus three chimeric MHC class I complexes were obtained. Biotinylation was performed, and its level of efficiency was observed via a band-shift assay in non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Such chimeric MHC class I tetramers showed a sensitive binding activity in monitoring HLA/A2 restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in immunized HLA/A*0201 transgenic mice. PMID:17046278

  1. Novel proteins associated with human dilated cardiomyopathy: selective reduction in α(1A)-adrenergic receptors and increased desensitization proteins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Moravec, Christine S; Perez, Dianne M

    2013-04-01

    Abstract Therapeutics to treat human heart failure (HF) and the identification of proteins associated with HF are still limited. We analyzed α(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes in human HF and performed proteomic analysis on more uniform samples to identify novel proteins associated with human HF. Six failing hearts with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and four non-failing heart controls were subjected to proteomic analysis. Out of 48 identified proteins, 26 proteins were redundant between samples. Ten of these 26 proteins were previously reported to be associated with HF. Of the newly identified proteins, we found several muscle proteins and mitochondrial/electron transport proteins, while novel were functionally similar to previous reports. However, we also found novel proteins involved in functional classes such as β-oxidation and G-protein coupled receptor signaling and desensitization not previously associated with HF. We also performed radioligand-binding studies on the heart samples and not only confirmed a large loss of β(1)-ARs in end-stage DCM, but also found a selective decrease in the α(1A)-AR subtype not previously reported. We have identified new proteins and functional categories associated with end-stage DCM. We also report that similar to the previously characterized loss of β(1)-AR in HF, there is also a concomitant loss of α(1A)-ARs, which are considered cardioprotective proteins.

  2. Regulation of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.; Wolfe, B.B.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1989-07-01

    The technique of quantitative autoradiography has been used to localize changes in the densities of subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat brain following treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. Previously reported increases in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors in the cerebral cortex were confirmed. The anatomical resolution of autoradiography made it possible to detect changes in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex and in a number of other brain regions. The density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors increased from 30 to 50% depending on the region of the cortex being examined. The increase in the somatomotor cortex was greater than that in the frontal or occipital cortex. The increase in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in the cortex was not as widespread as that of beta 1-adrenergic receptors and occurred primarily in frontal cortex, where the density of receptors increased by 40%. The densities of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in a number of forebrain, thalamic, and midbrain structures. Selective changes in the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors were observed in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the amygdala. The density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors increased in the caudate-putamen, the substantia nigra, and the lateral and central nuclei of the thalamus, whereas the density of beta 1-adrenergic receptors did not change in these regions. The densities of both subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors increased in the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus, and the dorsal lateral geniculate.

  3. A Myocardial Slice Culture Model Reveals Alpha-1A-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in the Human Heart

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. Croft; Singh, Abhishek; Cowley, Patrick; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Montgomery, Megan D.; Swigart, Philip M.; De Marco, Teresa; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Translation of preclinical findings could benefit from a simple, reproducible, high throughput human model to study myocardial signaling. Alpha-1A-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are expressed at very low levels in the human heart, and it is unknown if they function. Objectives To develop a high throughput human myocardial slice culture model, and to test the hypothesis that alpha-1A- ARs are functional in the human heart. Methods Cores of LV free wall 8 mm diameter were taken from 52 hearts (18 failing and 34 nonfailing). Slices 250 μm thick were cut with a Krumdieck apparatus and cultured using a rotating incubation unit. Results About 60 slices were cut from each LV core, and a typical study could use 96 slices. Myocyte morphology was maintained, and diffusion into the slice center was rapid. Slice viability was stable for at least 3 days in culture by ATP and MTT assays. The beta-AR agonist isoproterenol stimulated phospholamban phosphorylation, and the alpha-1A-AR agonist A61603 stimulated ERK phosphorylation, with nanomolar EC50 values in slices from both failing and nonfailing hearts. Strips cut from the slices were used to quantify activation of contraction by isoproterenol, A61603, and phenylephrine. The slices supported transduction by adenovirus. Conclusions We have developed a simple, high throughput LV myocardial slice culture model to study signaling in the human heart. This model can be useful for translational studies, and we show for the first time that the alpha-1A-AR is functional in signaling and contraction in the human heart. PMID:27453955

  4. α1-Adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the impact of reducing extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Morgan, R Garrett; Gifford, Jayson R; Park, Song-Young; Symons, J David; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Graded exercise results not only in the modulation of adrenergic mediated smooth muscle tone and a preferential increase in blood flow to the active skeletal muscle termed 'functional sympatholysis', but is also paralleled by metabolically induced reductions in pH. We therefore sought to determine whether pH attenuates α(1)-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in human feed arteries. Feed arteries (560 ± 31 μm i.d.) were harvested from 24 humans (55 ± 4 years old) and studied using the isometric tension technique. Vessel function was assessed using KCl, phenylephrine (PE), ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration-response curves to characterize non-receptor-mediated and receptor-mediated vasocontraction, as well as endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, respectively. All concentration-response curves were obtained from (originally contiguous) vessel rings in separate baths with a pH of 7.4, 7.1, 6.8 or 6.5. Reduction of the pH, via HCl, reduced maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (pH 7.4 = 85 ± 19, pH 7.1 = 57 ± 16, pH 6.8 = 34 ± 15 and pH 6.5 = 16 ± 5% KCl(max)), which was partly due to reduced smooth muscle function, as assessed by KCl (pH 7.4 = 88 ± 13, pH 7.1 = 67 ± 8, pH 6.8 = 67 ± 9 and pH 6.5 = 58 ± 8% KCl(max)). Graded acidosis had no effect on maximal vasorelaxation. In summary, these data reveal that reductions in extracellular pH attenuate α(1)-mediated vasocontraction, which is partly explained by reduced smooth muscle function, although vasorelaxation in response to ACh and SNP remained intact. These findings support the concept that local acidosis is likely to contribute to functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia by opposing sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction while not impacting vasodilatation.

  5. Adrenergic regulation of HSL serine phosphorylation and activity in human skeletal muscle during the onset of exercise.

    PubMed

    Talanian, Jason L; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Watt, Matthew J; Duong, Mylinh; Perry, Christopher G R; Steinberg, Gregory R; Kemp, Bruce E; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity is increased by contractions and increases in blood epinephrine (EPI) concentrations and cyclic AMP activation of the adrenergic pathway during prolonged exercise. To determine the importance of hormonal stimulation of HSL activity during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise, nine men [age 24.3 +/- 1.2 yr, 80.8 +/- 5.0 kg, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) 43.9 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] cycled for 1 min at approximately 65% VO2 peak, rested for 60 min, and cycled at approximately 90% VO2 peak for 1 min. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken pre- and postexercise, and arterial blood was sampled throughout exercise. Arterial EPI increased (P < 0.05) postexercise at 65% (0.45 +/- 0.10 to 0.78 +/- 0.27 nM) and 90% VO2 peak (0.57 +/- 0.34 to 1.09 +/- 0.50 nM). HSL activity increased (P < 0.05) following 1 min of exercise at 65% VO2 peak [1.05 +/- 0.39 to 1.78 +/- 0.54 mmol x min(-1) x kg dry muscle (dm)(-1)] and 90% VO2 peak (1.07 +/- 0.24 to 1.91 +/- 0.62 mmol x min(-1) x kg dm(-1)). Cyclic AMP content also increased (P < 0.05) at both exercise intensities (65%: 1.52 +/- 0.67 to 2.75 +/- 1.12, 90%: 1.85 +/- 0.65 to 2.64 +/- 0.93 micromol/kg dm). HSL Ser660 phosphorylation (approximately 55% increase) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation ( approximately 33% increase) were augmented following exercise at both intensities, whereas HSL Ser563 and Ser565 phosphorylation were not different from rest. The results indicate that increases in arterial EPI concentration during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise increase cyclic AMP content, which results in the phosphorylation of HSL Ser660. This adrenergic stimulation contributes to the increase in HSL activity that occurs in human skeletal muscle in the first minute of exercise at 65% and 90% VO2 peak.

  6. Molecular Insights into the Dynamics of Pharmacogenetically Important N-Terminal Variants of the Human β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Durba; Joshi, Manali

    2014-01-01

    The human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is expressed in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Upon activation by agonists, β2AR causes bronchodilation and relief in asthma patients. The N-terminal polymorphism of β2AR at the 16th position, Arg16Gly, has warranted a lot of attention since it is linked to variations in response to albuterol (agonist) treatment. Although the β2AR is one of the well-studied GPCRs, the N-terminus which harbors this mutation, is absent in all available experimental structures. The goal of this work was to study the molecular level differences between the N-terminal variants using structural modeling and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulations reveal that the N-terminal region of the Arg variant shows greater dynamics than the Gly variant, leading to differential placement. Further, the position and dynamics of the N-terminal region, further, affects the ligand binding-site accessibility. Interestingly, long-range effects are also seen at the ligand binding site, which is marginally larger in the Gly as compared to the Arg variant resulting in the preferential docking of albuterol to the Gly variant. This study thus reveals key differences between the variants providing a molecular framework towards understanding the variable drug response in asthma patients. PMID:25501358

  7. Doxazosin inhibits proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth-muscle cells independent of alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z W; Shi, X Y; Hoffman, B B

    1998-06-01

    Proliferation and migration of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs), stimulated by a variety of growth factors, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. We found unexpectedly that doxazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation of cultured human VSMCs. Subsequent experiments systematically investigated inhibitory effects of doxazosin on mitogenesis stimulated in VSMCs by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor, and G protein-coupled receptor agonists thrombin and angiotensin II. Doxazosin attenuated the stimulation of DNA synthesis for each of these ligands with median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) from 0.3 to 1 microM. PDGF-AB (1 nM) increased cell number; doxazosin inhibited this response by 70-80%. Prazosin, a related alpha1-receptor antagonist, had similar but less potent effects on inhibiting mitogenesis in these cells. Doxazosin and prazosin inhibited PDGF-AB-stimulated and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I)-stimulated migration of VSMCs by approximately 40-50%. These effects of doxazosin were likely unrelated to alpha1-receptor blockade because pretreatment of cells with phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible alpha1 antagonist, did not change the capacity of doxazosin to inhibit of PDGF-stimulated mitogenesis. Also, doxazosin inhibited PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis in NIH 3T3 cells, which do not express alpha1 receptors. These results suggest that doxazosin is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation and migration through a mechanism unrelated to alpha1-receptor antagonism.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor and CD11/CD18 (beta 2) integrins act synergistically to lower cAMP in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The ability of neutrophils (PMN) to undergo a prolonged respiratory burst in response to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) depends on expression of CD11/CD18 (beta 2) integrins and interaction with matrix protein-coated surfaces (Nathan, C., S. Srimal, C. Farber, E. Sanchez, L. Kabbash, A. Asch, J. Gailit, and S. D. Wright. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:1341-1349). We tested the hypothesis that changes in cAMP mediate the joint action of cytokines and integrins. When plated on FBS- or fibrinogen-coated surfaces, PMN responded to TNF with a sustained fall in intracellular cAMP. This did not occur without TNF; in suspended PMN; in PMN treated with anti-CD18 mAb; or in PMN genetically deficient in beta 2 integrins. A preceding fall in cAMP appeared essential for TNF to induce a respiratory burst, because drugs that elevate cAMP blocked the burst if added any time before, but not after, its onset. Adenosine analogues and cytochalasins also block the TNF-induced respiratory burst if added before, but not after, its onset. Both also blocked the TNF-induced fall in cAMP. The effect of cytochalasins led us to examine the relationship between cAMP and actin reorganization. The same conditions that led to a sustained fall in cAMP led at the same time to cell spreading and the assembly of actin filaments. As with the respiratory burst, cAMP-elevating agents inhibited TNF-induced cell spreading and actin filament assembly if added before, but not after, spreading began. Thus, occupation of TNF receptors and engagement of CD18 integrins interact synergistically in PMN to promote a fall in cAMP. The fall in cAMP is closely related to cell spreading and actin reorganization. These changes are necessary for TNF to induce a prolonged respiratory burst. We conclude that integrins can act jointly with cytokines to affect cell shape and function through alterations in the level of a second messenger, cAMP. PMID:1699953

  9. Tumor necrosis factor and CD11/CD18 (beta 2) integrins act synergistically to lower cAMP in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nathan, C; Sanchez, E

    1990-11-01

    The ability of neutrophils (PMN) to undergo a prolonged respiratory burst in response to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) depends on expression of CD11/CD18 (beta 2) integrins and interaction with matrix protein-coated surfaces (Nathan, C., S. Srimal, C. Farber, E. Sanchez, L. Kabbash, A. Asch, J. Gailit, and S. D. Wright. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:1341-1349). We tested the hypothesis that changes in cAMP mediate the joint action of cytokines and integrins. When plated on FBS- or fibrinogen-coated surfaces, PMN responded to TNF with a sustained fall in intracellular cAMP. This did not occur without TNF; in suspended PMN; in PMN treated with anti-CD18 mAb; or in PMN genetically deficient in beta 2 integrins. A preceding fall in cAMP appeared essential for TNF to induce a respiratory burst, because drugs that elevate cAMP blocked the burst if added any time before, but not after, its onset. Adenosine analogues and cytochalasins also block the TNF-induced respiratory burst if added before, but not after, its onset. Both also blocked the TNF-induced fall in cAMP. The effect of cytochalasins led us to examine the relationship between cAMP and actin reorganization. The same conditions that led to a sustained fall in cAMP led at the same time to cell spreading and the assembly of actin filaments. As with the respiratory burst, cAMP-elevating agents inhibited TNF-induced cell spreading and actin filament assembly if added before, but not after, spreading began. Thus, occupation of TNF receptors and engagement of CD18 integrins interact synergistically in PMN to promote a fall in cAMP. The fall in cAMP is closely related to cell spreading and actin reorganization. These changes are necessary for TNF to induce a prolonged respiratory burst. We conclude that integrins can act jointly with cytokines to affect cell shape and function through alterations in the level of a second messenger, cAMP.

  10. α1- and α2-adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of TRPV ion channels in heat-induced sympatholysis.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Jayson R; Ives, Stephen J; Park, Song-Young; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Mueller, Michelle T; Treiman, Gerald S; Ward, Christopher; Trinity, Joel D; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if heat inhibits α2-adrenergic vasocontraction, similarly to α1-adrenergic contraction, in isolated human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFA) and elucidate the role of the temperature-sensitive vanilloid-type transient receptor potential (TRPV) ion channels in this response. Isolated SMFA from 37 subjects were studied using wire myography. α1 [Phenylephrine (PE)]- and α2 [dexmedetomidine (DEX)]-contractions were induced at 37 and 39°C with and without TRPV family and TRPV4-specific inhibition [ruthenium red (RR) and RN-1734, respectively]. Endothelial function [acetylcholine (ACh)] and smooth muscle function [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and potassium chloride (KCl)] were also assessed under these conditions. Heat and TRPV inhibition was further examined in endothelium-denuded arteries. Contraction data are reported as a percentage of maximal contraction elicited by 100 mM KCl (LTmax). DEX elicited a small and variable contractile response, one-fifth the magnitude of PE, which was not as clearly attenuated when heated from 37 to 39°C (12 ± 4 to 6 ± 2% LTmax; P = 0.18) as were PE-induced contractions (59 ± 5 to 24 ± 4% LTmax; P < 0.05). Both forms of TRPV inhibition restored PE-induced contraction at 39°C (P < 0.05) implicating these channels, particularly the TRPV4 channels, in the heat-induced attenuation of α1-adrenergic vasocontraction. TRPV inhibition significantly blunted ACh relaxation while denudation prevented heat-induced sympatholysis without having an additive effect when combined with TRPV inhibition. In conclusion, physiological increases in temperature elicit a sympatholysis-like inhibition of α1-adrenergic vasocontraction in human SMFA that appears to be mediated by endothelial TRPV4 ion channels.

  11. Agonist binding to β-adrenergic receptors on human airway epithelial cells inhibits migration and wound repair.

    PubMed

    Peitzman, Elizabeth R; Zaidman, Nathan A; Maniak, Peter J; O'Grady, Scott M

    2015-12-15

    Human airway epithelial cells express β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs), which regulate mucociliary clearance by stimulating transepithelial anion transport and ciliary beat frequency. Previous studies using airway epithelial cells showed that stimulation with isoproterenol increased cell migration and wound repair by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. In the present study, impedance-sensing arrays were used to measure cell migration and epithelial restitution following wounding of confluent normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and Calu-3 cells by electroporation. Stimulation with epinephrine or the β2-AR-selective agonist salbutamol significantly delayed wound closure and reduced the mean surface area of lamellipodia protruding into the wound. Treatment with the β-AR bias agonist carvedilol or isoetharine also produced a delay in epithelial restitution similar in magnitude to epinephrine and salbutamol. Measurements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation following salbutamol or carvedilol stimulation showed no significant change in the level of phosphorylation compared with untreated control cells. However, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity completely blocked the delay in wound closure produced by β-AR agonists. In Calu-3 cells, where CFTR expression was inhibited by RNAi, salbutamol did not inhibit wound repair, suggesting that β-AR agonist stimulation and loss of CFTR function share a common pathway leading to inhibition of epithelial repair. Confocal images of the basal membrane of Calu-3 cells labeled with anti-β1-integrin (clone HUTS-4) antibody showed that treatment with epinephrine or carvedilol reduced the level of activated integrin in the membrane. These findings suggest that treatment with β-AR agonists delays airway epithelial repair by a G protein- and cAMP-independent mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A and a reduction in β1-integrin activation in the basal membrane. PMID:26491049

  12. Distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors in failing human myocardium. Implications for mechanisms of down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The density of beta-adrenergic receptors is reduced in crude membranes prepared from failing human myocardium. We used quantitative autoradiography of radioligand binding sites in intact tissue slices to determine whether the total tissue content of receptors is reduced and to characterize the transmural distribution of receptors in cardiac myocytes and the coronary vasculature in hearts obtained from nine cardiac transplant patients with severe congestive failure. Binding of (125Iodo)cyanopindolol to transmural slices of human myocardium was rapid, saturable, stereoselective, and displaceable by agonists and antagonists with an appropriate rank order of potency. Binding isotherms in four normal and nine failing ventricles showed a significant reduction in the total tissue content of beta-receptors in failing myocardium (38.3 +/- 2.0 fmol/mg protein) compared with normal tissue (52.4 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein, p = 0.038). In the normal ventricles, the greatest receptor density was observed autoradiographically in myocytic regions of the subendocardium. Receptor density of the coronary arterioles was approximately 70% of that in adjacent myocytic regions. The density of binding sites in both myocytic regions and arterioles was diminished in all regions of the failing ventricles, but down-regulation was due primarily to a selective reduction of beta-receptors of subendocardial myocytes (63 +/- 5% of subepicardial receptor density vs. 115 +/- 6% in controls, p less than 0.0001). These observations indicate that down-regulation occurs nonuniformly in the transmural distribution and thus is likely not related simply to elevated circulating catecholamine levels.

  13. Inhibition of α-adrenergic tone disturbs the distribution of blood flow in the exercising human limb.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Wendelin-Saarenhovi, Maria; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Knuuti, Juhani; Scheinin, Mika; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2013-07-15

    The role of neuronal regulation of human cardiovascular function remains incompletely elucidated, especially during exercise. Here we, by positron emission tomography, monitored tissue-specific blood flow (BF) changes in nine healthy young men during femoral arterial infusions of norepinephrine (NE) and phentolamine. At rest, the α-adrenoceptor agonist NE reduced BF by ~40%, similarly in muscles (from 3.2 ± 1.9 to 1.4 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) in quadriceps femoris muscle), bone (from 1.1 ± 0.4 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)) and adipose tissue (AT) (from 1.2 ± 0.7 to 0.7 ± 0.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)). During exercise, NE reduced exercising muscle BF by ~16%. BF in AT was reduced similarly as rest. The α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine increased BF similarly in the different muscles and other tissues of the limb at rest. During exercise, BF in inactive muscle was increased 3.4-fold by phentolamine compared with exercise without drug, but BF in exercising muscles was not influenced. Bone and AT (P = 0.055) BF were also increased by phentolamine in the exercise condition. NE increased and phentolamine decreased oxygen extraction in the limb during exercise. We conclude that inhibition of α-adrenergic tone markedly disturbs the distribution of BF and oxygen extraction in the exercising human limb by increasing BF especially around inactive muscle fibers. Moreover, although marked functional sympatholysis also occurs during exercise, the arterial NE infusion that mimics the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular disease was still capable of directly limiting BF in the exercising leg muscles.

  14. Activity of the Adrenergic Nerve System in the Airways Permeability of Healthy Persons

    PubMed Central

    Gashi, Njazi; Islami, Pëllumb; Mustafa, Lirim; Maloku, Halit; Veseli, Arta; Islami, Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this work, role of the adrenergic nerve system (alpha1 and beta2) in adjustment of the bronchomotor tonus in healthy people was researched. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined by Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and SRaw was calculated as well. Aerosolization is done with standard aerosolizing machines – Asema. Results: Results gained shows that following the blockade of beta-2 adrenergic receptor with Propranolol (20 mg–aerosol), stimulation of alpha adrenergic receptor with Oxedrine (120 mg-aerosol) and blockage of these receptors with Tolazoline (20 mg-aerosol), does not change significantly the bronchomotor tonus of the tracheobronchial tree (p > 0.1). Meanwhile, stimulation of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor with Hexoprenaline (2 inh × 0.2 mg) is associated with a significant increase of the peripheral resistance of the airways (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This suggests that the activity of the alpha1-adrenergic receptor, unlike the activity of the beta2-adrenergic receptor in the healthy people smooth musculature, is not significant and as such is insufficient to oppose to the tonic activities of the cholinergic system. PMID:24554803

  15. Binding of dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine as l-DOPA metabolites to human alpha(2)-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Amal; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Jones, Owen T

    2010-07-01

    The ability of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), l-DOPA-methyl ester and their major metabolites, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic (HVA), 3-O-methyldopa and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) to bind to alpha(2) adrenergic and D1 and D2 dopamine receptors was assessed by radioligand binding to cloned human receptors expressed in cell lines. As anticipated, dopamine bound with high affinity to D1 (IC(50) 1.1 + or - 0.16 microM) and D2 (IC(50) 0.7 + or - 0.3 microM) dopamine receptors. However, dopamine also bound with high affinity to alpha(2A) (IC(50) was 2.6 + or - 0.5 microM), alpha(2C) (IC(50) 3.2 + or - 0.7 microM). 3-MT bound to alpha(2A) with high affinity (IC(50), 3.6 + or - 0.2 microM) though moderate affinity to alpha(2)c, D1 and D2 receptors (values of IC(50) were 55 + or - 14, 121 + or - 43, 36 + or - 14 microM, respectively). l-DOPA-methyl ester bound with high affinity to alpha(2) (IC(50) 17-36 microM) but not dopamine receptors (IC(50) 0.9-2.5 mM). l-DOPA, 3-O-methyldopa and DOPAC had no observable effect on binding to any of the receptors tested. These data suggest that the effects of l-DOPA in Parkinson's disease may result from actions of its metabolites dopamine and 3-MT on both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic receptors. These findings may provide explanations for the differences between l-DOPA and dopamine receptor agonists in mediating anti-parkinsonian effects and propensity to be associated with dyskinesia and motor complications such as wearing-off and on-off.

  16. Metabolic and febrile responses to typhoid vaccine in humans: effect of beta-adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A L; Horan, M A; Little, R A; Rothwell, N J

    1992-06-01

    Fever and activation of acute phase responses were induced in human volunteers by intramuscular injection of typhoid vaccine. Vaccine injection caused a rapid (within 1 h) and sustained rise in metabolic rate (peak response 16%, 6-8 h), followed by later increases in white blood cell count (3-4 h), skin temperature (4-5 h), oral temperature (5-6 h), heart rate (6-8 h), and plasma cortisol (5-8 h). A peak fever [1.2 +/- 0.2 degree C (SE) rise] was recorded 12 h after vaccine injection. The involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in the development of these responses was investigated by the oral administration of propranolol before (80 mg) and 3 h after (40 mg) vaccine injection. Propranolol prevented the increases in metabolic rate, heart rate, and skin temperature but did not inhibit the rise in oral temperature or white cell count after vaccine administration. These data indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the rise in energy expenditure associated with fever in humans. However, the rise in body temperature can develop in the absence of this increase in metabolic rate possibly by changes in heat loss.

  17. Purification and characterization of the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shreeve, S.M.; Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Mariani, A.P.; Venter, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-receptor (..cap alpha../sub 2/-R) from human platelets has been purified to homogeneity using a four step process. An affinity column was prepared by coupling p-aminoclonidine to CH-Sepharose 4B via the p-NH/sub 2/ group. Digitonin solubilized ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R bound to the affinity matrix were eluted with 100 ..mu..M phentolamine and directly applied to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Bound receptors were eluted with a linear gradient of 0-500 mM NaCl, pooled and chromatographed on HPLC size exclusion columns. Three peaks of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding were eluted from HPLC columns (t = 33, 42, 47 min). Radioiodination of HPLC eluates and analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated that ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R binding was associated with a 75-85 kDa protein. These data suggest that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R may exist in monomeric and oligomeric forms in the purified state and support previous target size data which indicate that the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R exists as a dimer in the native membrane. The pure radioiodinated ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R (77-85 kDa) is a glycoprotein with terminal sialic acid or N-acetylglucosamine residues and has a pI of 4.1 on column isoelectric focusing. These data are consistent with those previously reported on the partially purified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R. Electron micrographs confirm the oligomeric nature and size of the pure ..cap alpha../sub 2/-R.

  18. Standardization of immunoassays for antiphospholipid antibodies with beta 2GPI and role of other phospholipid cofactors.

    PubMed

    Amiral, J; Larrivaz, I; Cluzeau, D; Adam, M

    1994-01-01

    Presence of beta 2 Glycoprotein I (beta 2GPI), in addition to phospholipids, is an absolute requirement for binding APA. This binding is frequently observed with beta 2GPI coated alone, however many APA react only with beta 2GPI complexed to phospholipids, but not with phospholipids alone. We demonstrate that a subgroup of rabbit polyclonal antibodies to human beta 2GPI binds to this protein only when it is coated on a solid surface, but not if it is in solution. In addition, beta 2GPI present in goat serum is strongly fixed by the coated phospholipids and the complexes formed bind as well APA as the rabbit antibodies to beta 2GPI. The diluent used for testing APA, has a strong incidence on APA's reactivity as it can be a source of beta 2GPI. Antibody binding to beta 2GPI, Prothrombin, Protein S, and Annexin V, coated in the presence or in the absence of phospholipids, was tested in 55 patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. The strongest binding of antibodies was observed in 39 plasma to a mixture of phospholipids and purified human beta 2GPI, however 17 samples also presented a significant reactivity to beta 2GPI alone. Nine plasmas contained antibodies to Prothrombin, 4 to Protein S, 3 to Annexin V, and 1 to Protein C. We conclude that most of the APA are directed to a complex of beta 2GPI and phospholipids although in some patients antibodies to beta 2GPI alone or to other phospholipid binding proteins are present.

  19. Interactive effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation and mechanical stretch on low-frequency oscillations of ventricular action potential duration in humans.

    PubMed

    Pueyo, Esther; Orini, Michele; Rodríguez, José F; Taggart, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Ventricular repolarization dynamics are crucial to arrhythmogenesis. Low-frequency oscillations of repolarization have recently been reported in humans and the magnitude of these oscillations proposed to be a strong predictor of sudden cardiac death. Available evidence suggests a role of the sympathetic nervous system. We have used biophysically detailed models integrating ventricular electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, mechanics and β-adrenergic signaling to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The main results were: (1) Phasic beta-adrenergic stimulation (β-AS) at a Mayer wave frequency between 0.03 and 0.15Hz resulted in a gradual decrease of action potential (AP) duration (APD) with concomitant small APD oscillations. (2) After 3-4minutes of phasic β-AS, the mean APD adapted and oscillations of APD became apparent. (3) Phasic changes in haemodynamic loading at the same Mayer wave frequency (a known accompaniment of enhanced sympathetic nerve activity), simulated as variations in the sarcomere length, also induced APD oscillations. (4) The effect of phasic β-AS and haemodynamic loading on the magnitude of APD oscillations was synergistic. (5) The presence of calcium overload and reduced repolarization reserve further enhanced the magnitude of APD oscillations and was accompanied by afterdepolarizations and/or spontaneous APs. In conclusion, low-frequency oscillations of repolarization recently reported in humans were induced by phasic β-AS and phasic mechanical loading, which acted synergistically, and were greatly enhanced by disease-associated conditions, leading to arrhythmogenic events. PMID:27178727

  20. Localization of the fourth membrane spanning domain as a ligand binding site in the human platelet. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.; Regan, J.W. )

    1989-05-02

    The human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein which binds epinephrine. The gene for this receptor has been cloned, and the primary structure is thus known. A model of its secondary structure predicts that the receptor has seven transmembrane spanning domains. By covalent labeling and peptide mapping, the authors have identified a region of the receptor that is directly involved with ligand binding. Partially purified preparations of the receptor were covalently radiolabeled with either of two specific photoaffinity ligands: ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 (an antagonist) or p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine (an agonist). The radiolabeled receptors were then digested with specific endopeptidases, and peptides containing the covalently bound radioligands were identified. Lysylendopeptidase treatment of ({sup 3}H)SKF 102229 labeled receptor yielded one peptide of M{sub r} 2400 as the product of a complete digest. Endopeptidase Arg-C gave a labeled peptide of M{sub r} 4000, which was further digested to the M{sub r} 2400 peptide by additional treatment with lysylendopeptidase. Using p-azido({sup 3}H)clonidine-labeled receptor, a similar M{sub r} 2400 peptide was obtained by lysylendopeptidase cleavage. This M{sub r} 2400 peptide corresponds to the fourth transmembrane spanning domain of the receptor. These data suggest that this region forms part of the ligand binding domain of the human platelet {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor.

  1. Behaviour of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes under continuous and pulsatile tocolysis with Fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhode, Peter; Brunke, Björn; Schröer, Heinrich; Obert, Kirstin; Schlegel, Kerstin; Sturm, Gerhard; Schulz, Klaus-Dieter; von Wichert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the population of beta 2-receptors on lymphocytes in pregnant women with premature labor between the 29th and 34th week of pregnancy. The population of receptors on lymphocytes correlates with that on the myometrium, which is not accessible for study during pregnancy. Fourteen patients received a pulsatile tocolysis, while ten women received a continuous tocolysis with Fenoterol. Assuming an equal population of receptors in both groups before commencement of therapy, the numbers of receptors in the patients with continuous tocolysis fell to about 35% of the initial value after 72 hours. Under pulsatile tocolysis, the numbers of receptors remained unchanged for a period of three days and was still only just below 70% of the initial value by the seventh day. Our data demonstrate that continuous administration of the short-acting beta 2-agonist Fenoterol resulted in a substantial loss of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. In contrast, intermittent administration of the same beta 2-adrenergic agonist prevented the onset of receptor down-regulation in pregnant women with preterm labor. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of the decreased loss of beta 2-adrenoceptor density on the good clinical experience with intermittent tocolysis.

  2. Specific (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 binding in human cortex occurs at multiple high affinity states with alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic selectivity and differing affinities for GTP

    SciTech Connect

    Andorn, A.C.; Carlson, M.A.; Gilkeson, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)UK 14,034 is a full agonist at ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Although the characteristics of the binding of the partial ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists in postmortem human brain were known, the binding of (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 had not been studied in this tissue. Multi-site binding of this radiolabel had been reported in other tissues and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) had been shown to reduce (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 binding. The authors now report that (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 labels at least 2 specific binding sites in human brain that both have the characteristics of an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic binding site. GTP decreases agonist binding at both of these sites, but with different potencies at each site.

  3. Are so many adrenergic receptor subtypes really present in domestic animal tissues? A pharmacological perspective.

    PubMed

    Badino, P; Odore, R; Re, G

    2005-09-01

    Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are the cellular membrane binding sites through which natural catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs exert their physiological and pharmacological effects. In recent decades, studies to clarify the distribution and function of ARs have been performed mostly on cultured cells, laboratory animals and human target tissues, but little is known about these aspects in domestic animals. This review focuses on AR structure, classification and signalling pathways and on AR subtype distribution in target tissues of some domestic animals, namely dogs, horses and bovines. In these species, different alpha- and beta-AR subtypes have been characterized and the functions controlled by the adrenergic systems have been studied. In the dog, the role played by the adrenergic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and in the modulation of canine aggression has roused particular interest. In dogs affected by dilated cardiomyopathy a significant down-regulation of beta-ARs has been observed both in the heart and circulating lymphocytes. This finding confirms the involvement of the adrenergic system in the pathogenesis and progression of the disorder and suggests new therapeutic strategies. In the horse, AR distribution has been studied in the cardiac, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as well as in digital veins and arteries. The cardiac beta-ARs in healthy horses seem to be predominantly represented by the beta(1) subtype. In this species, heart failure may increase the expression of the beta(2) subtype, rather than causing AR down-regulation. Different beta- and alpha-AR subtypes have been characterized in the smooth muscle of equine ileum. The sympathetic relaxation of equine ileum smooth muscle seems to depend mainly on beta(3)-AR subtype activation, with minor involvement of the beta(2) subtype. In the respiratory tract, regional differences have been evidenced in the functionality of beta-AR subtype. The beta(2) subtype

  4. Postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are critical for the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine on behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han-Ting; Whisler, Lisa R; Huang, Ying; Xiang, Yang; O'Donnell, James M

    2009-03-01

    The antidepressant desipramine inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), leading to activation of both pre- and postsynaptic adrenergic receptors, including alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta-2 subtypes. However, it is not clear which adrenergic receptors are involved in mediating its antidepressant effects. Treatment of mice with desipramine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an antidepressant-like effect, as evidenced by decreased immobility in the forced-swim test; this was antagonized by pretreatment with the alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist idazoxan (0.1-2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Similarly, idazoxan, administered peripherally (0.5-2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or centrally (1-10 microg, i.c.v.), antagonized the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine in rats responding under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72-s schedule, ie, decreased response rate and increased reinforcement rate. By contrast, pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic antagonists propranolol and CGP-12177 or the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin did not alter the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine on DRL behavior. The lack of involvement of beta-adrenergic receptors in mediating the behavioral effects of desipramine was confirmed using knockout lines. In the forced-swim test, the desipramine-induced decrease in immobility was not altered in mice deficient in beta-1, beta-2, or both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors. In addition, desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect on behavior under a DRL 36-s schedule in mice deficient in both beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors. As antagonism of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors facilitates NE release, which potentiates the effects of desipramine, the present results suggest that postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors play an important role in its antidepressant effects.

  5. Defective adrenergic responses in patients with arsenic-induced peripheral vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Chang, Huoy-Rou; Chen, Jau-Shiuh; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2007-01-01

    Blackfoot disease is an endemic arsenic-induced peripheral vascular disease in southern Taiwan. The main pathologic feature is atherosclerosis, which may relate to imbalances of the adrenergic system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the peripheral adrenergic responses of patients with blackfoot disease. Eight patients with blackfoot disease and four age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Baseline cutaneous perfusion was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. The response of alpha-adrenoceptors in the cutaneous microcirculation was assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry with iontophoresis of phenylephrine into the nailfold. In vitro binding with (125)I-cyanopindolol determined beta-adrenoceptor density in lymphocytes. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level at baseline and after isoproterenol stimulation reflects lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Results revealed persistently decreased skin perfusion in patients with blackfoot disease. In contrast, there was a transient decrease in skin perfusion in healthy controls after iontophoresis of phenylephrine. Both beta-2 receptor density and isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes decreased. Increased peripheral alpha-adrenergic response and decreased beta-2-adrenergic response are related to increased vascular tone and result in atherosclerosis. Our findings of accentuated alpha-adrenergic response in microcirculation and decreased lymphocyte beta-2-adrenoceptor response play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in blackfoot disease.

  6. Functional rescue of a constitutively desensitized beta2AR through receptor dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, T E; Loisel, T P; Adam, L; Ethier, N; Onge, S S; Bouvier, M

    1998-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that wild-type beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2AR) form homodimers and that disruption of receptor dimerization inhibits signalling via Gs [Hebert, Moffett, Morello, Loisel, Bichet, Barret and Bouvier (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16384-16392]. Here taking advantage of the altered functional properties of a non-palmitoylated, constitutively desensitized mutant beta2AR (C341Gbeta2AR), we sought to study whether physical interactions between mutant and wild-type beta2AR expressed in Sf9 cells could occur and have functional consequences. Using metabolic labelling with [3H]palmitate and co-immunoprecipitation we demonstrated the existence of heterodimerization between wild-type and C341Gbeta2AR. Furthermore, we show that, in co-expression experiments, wild-type receptors have a dominant positive effect resulting in the functional complementation of C341Gbeta2AR. Indeed, when expressed alone, the mutant C341G receptor displays altered functional characteristics in that (1) the response of the receptor to agonist is reduced as compared to the wild-type receptor and (2) the desensitization of the receptor in response to prolonged exposure to agonist is minimal. In contrast, when C341G and the wild-type beta2AR were expressed together, both the response to agonist and subsequent desensitization (at a constant level of total receptor) were equivalent to the wild-type beta2AR expressed alone. This dominant positive effect was also seen when C341G was co-expressed with a second receptor mutant in which the two protein kinase A phosphorylation sites (S261, 262, 345, 346A beta2AR) were mutated. Taken together these data suggest that intermolecular interactions between receptors may have both functional and structural implications for G-protein-mediated signalling. PMID:9461522

  7. 3D Structure Prediction of Human β1-Adrenergic Receptor via Threading-Based Homology Modeling for Implications in Structure-Based Drug Designing

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Saeed, Maria; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Khan, Waqasuddin

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of left ventricular dysfunction accompanied by impairment of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) signal cascade. The disturbed β1-AR function may be based on an elevated sympathetic tone observed in patients with heart failure. Prolonged adrenergic stimulation may induce metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances in the myocardium, resulting in tachyarrhythmia that leads to the development of heart failure in human and sudden death. Hence, β1-AR is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop effective and specific drug against this tempting pharmaceutical target is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure of Homo sapiens β1-AR (hsβADR1). This study encompasses elucidation of 3D structural and physicochemical properties of hsβADR1 via threading-based homology modeling. Furthermore, the docking performance of several docking programs including Surflex-Dock, FRED, and GOLD were validated by re-docking and cross-docking experiments. GOLD and Surflex-Dock performed best in re-docking and cross docking experiments, respectively. Consequently, Surflex-Dock was used to predict the binding modes of four hsβADR1 agonists. This study provides clear understanding of hsβADR1 structure and its binding mechanism, thus help in providing the remedial solutions of cardiovascular, effective treatment of asthma and other diseases caused by malfunctioning of the target protein. PMID:25860348

  8. 3D structure prediction of human β1-adrenergic receptor via threading-based homology modeling for implications in structure-based drug designing.

    PubMed

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Saeed, Maria; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Khan, Waqasuddin

    2015-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of left ventricular dysfunction accompanied by impairment of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) signal cascade. The disturbed β1-AR function may be based on an elevated sympathetic tone observed in patients with heart failure. Prolonged adrenergic stimulation may induce metabolic and electrophysiological disturbances in the myocardium, resulting in tachyarrhythmia that leads to the development of heart failure in human and sudden death. Hence, β1-AR is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop effective and specific drug against this tempting pharmaceutical target is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure of Homo sapiens β1-AR (hsβADR1). This study encompasses elucidation of 3D structural and physicochemical properties of hsβADR1 via threading-based homology modeling. Furthermore, the docking performance of several docking programs including Surflex-Dock, FRED, and GOLD were validated by re-docking and cross-docking experiments. GOLD and Surflex-Dock performed best in re-docking and cross docking experiments, respectively. Consequently, Surflex-Dock was used to predict the binding modes of four hsβADR1 agonists. This study provides clear understanding of hsβADR1 structure and its binding mechanism, thus help in providing the remedial solutions of cardiovascular, effective treatment of asthma and other diseases caused by malfunctioning of the target protein. PMID:25860348

  9. A Specific Cholesterol Binding Site Is Established by the 2.8 Å Structure of the Human [beta][subscript 2]-Adrenergic Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Michael A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Griffith, Mark T.; Roth, Christopher B.; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Kuhn, Peter; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-07-08

    The role of cholesterol in eukaryotic membrane protein function has been attributed primarily to an influence on membrane fluidity and curvature. We present the 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a thermally stabilized human {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor bound to cholesterol and the partial inverse agonist timolol. The receptors pack as monomers in an antiparallel association with two distinct cholesterol molecules bound per receptor, but not in the packing interface, thereby indicating a structurally relevant cholesterol-binding site between helices I, II, III, and IV. Thermal stability analysis using isothermal denaturation confirms that a cholesterol analog significantly enhances the stability of the receptor. A consensus motif is defined that predicts cholesterol binding for 44% of human class A receptors, suggesting that specific sterol binding is important to the structure and stability of other G protein-coupled receptors, and that this site may provide a target for therapeutic discovery.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... beta-2-microglobulin (a protein molecule) in serum, urine, and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  11. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of (125I)cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species.

  12. Effect of PDE5 inhibition on the modulation of sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle of young and older recreationally active humans.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Piil, Peter; Egelund, Jon; Sprague, Randy S; Mortensen, Stefan P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-12-01

    Aging is associated with an altered regulation of blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) increased blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle of older but not young human subjects. Here we examined whether this effect of PDE5 inhibition was related to an improved ability to blunt α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) and/or improved efficacy of local vasodilator pathways. A group of young (23 ± 1 yr) and a group of older (72 ± 1 yr) male subjects performed knee-extensor exercise in a control setting and following intake of the highly selective PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil. During both conditions, exercise was performed without and with arterial tyramine infusion to evoke endogenous norepinephrine release and consequently stimulation of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors. The level of the sympatholytic compound ATP was measured in venous plasma by use of the microdialysis technique. Sildenafil increased (P < 0.05) vascular conductance during exercise in the older group, but tyramine infusion reduced (P < 0.05) this effect by 38 ± 9%. Similarly, tyramine reduced (P < 0.05) the vasodilation induced by arterial infusion of a nitric oxide (NO) donor by 54 ± 9% in the older group, and this effect was not altered by sildenafil. Venous plasma [ATP] did not change with PDE5 inhibition in the older subjects during exercise. Collectively, PDE5 inhibition in older humans was not associated with an improved ability for functional sympatholysis. An improved efficacy of the NO system may be one mechanism underlying the effect of PDE5 inhibition on exercise hyperemia in aging.

  13. The evolution of beta2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Sears, M R

    2001-08-01

    Beta-agonists have been widely used in the treatment of asthma for many years Although concerns have been expressed over their safety based largely upon epidemics of increased mortality in asthmatics associated with high doses of isoprenaline in the 1960s and fenoterol in the 1970s and 1980s, the specific beta2-agonists are vital drugs in asthma management. The short-acting beta2-agonists have an important prophylactic role in the prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and are essential in the emergency treatment of severe asthma. However, little if any benefit seems to be derived from regular use of short-acting beta2-agonists and regular or frequent use can increase the severity of the condition. The development of beta2-agonists with long-acting properties, such as salmeterol and formoterol, has provided advantages over short-acting beta-agonists, such as prolonged bronchodilation, reduced day- and night-time symptoms and improved quality of sleep, and has reduced the requirement for short-acting beta2-agonists as relief medication. Both drugs are well tolerated and, when added to inhaled corticosteroids, produce greater mprovement in lung function than increased steroid dose alone. Because of its rapid onset of action, formoterol also has the potential to be used for as-needed bronchodilator therapy in asthma.

  14. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  15. A pharmacodynamic study on clenbuterol-induced toxicity: beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors involvement in guinea-pig tachycardia in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Sotto, Antonella; Daniele, Claudia; Battinelli, Lucia; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fiori, Maurizio; Loizzo, Stefano; Loizzo, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Beta(2)-receptor adrenergic agonists as clenbuterol and analogues are illegally used as growth promoters in cattle, in Europe, as well as in other countries. Following consumption of meat or liver, intoxication cases were described, and cardiovascular toxic effects (tachycardia, hypertension) were of clinical relevance. Therefore, we investigated whether heart rate increase induced by clenbuterol could depend upon stimulation of beta(1)- and/or beta(2)-adrenergic receptors, and in which ratio. We used in vitro guinea-pig atria, a model in which beta(1)-/beta(2)-receptors ratio is similar to that found in men. In our experiments both beta(1)- and beta(2)-receptors contributed to clenbuterol-induced heart rate increase, but with a different potency. The selective beta(2)-antagonist ICI-118,551 competitively antagonized responses to clenbuterol with high affinity (pA(2) 9.47+/-0.28, SchildSlope 0.98+/-0.20 not significantly different from unity, K(B) 0.34 nM). The selective beta(1)-antagonist atenolol antagonized clenbuterol with a relatively lower affinity (pA(2)=7.59+/-0.14), the SchildSlope=1.97+/-0.33 was significantly different from unity (P<0.05). Results show that clenbuterol stimulates guinea-pig heart rate by acting chiefly on beta(2)-adrenoceptor, although responses to clenbuterol apparently are mediated by an inter-play between both beta-adrenoceptors. Further experiments are necessary to understand which beta-adrenergic antagonists are of effectiveness to counteract cardiovascular effects in case of intoxication following clenbuterol, or other beta-adrenergic stimulants.

  16. Characterization of phosphatidylserine-dependent beta2-glycoprotein I macrophage interactions. Implications for apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, K; Schroit, A J

    1998-10-30

    The binding and uptake of phosphatidylserine (PS)-expressing cells appears to involve multiple receptor-mediated systems that recognize the lipid either directly or indirectly through intermediate proteins that form a molecular bridge between the cells. Here we show that beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a 50-kDa serum glycoprotein, binds PS-containing vesicles and serves as an intermediate for the interaction of these vesicles with macrophages. Chemical modification of lysines and cysteines abolished beta2GPI-dependent PS uptake by inhibiting the binding of PS to beta2GPI and the binding of PS.beta2GPI complex to macrophages, respectively. Recognition was mediated by beta2GPI and not by the lipid because antibodies to beta2GPI inhibited binding of the complex to macrophages. These results indicate that human (THP-1-derived) macrophages bind beta2GPI only after it is bound to its lipid ligand. Competition experiments with monosaccharides that inhibit lectin-dependent interactions, and PS.beta2GPI binding experiments using deglycosylated beta2GPI, suggested that carbohydrate residues were not required for macrophage recognition of the complex. Antibodies to putative macrophage PS receptors (CD36, CD68, and CD14) did not inhibit uptake of the complex. These data suggest that beta2GPI can bind cells that fail to maintain membrane lipid asymmetry and generate a specific bridging moiety that is recognized for clearance by a phagocyte receptor that is distinct from CD36, CD68, and CD14.

  17. Target cell lysis by natural killer cells is influenced by beta 2-microglobulin expression.

    PubMed

    Müllbacher, A; King, N J

    1989-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells form part of the vertebrate defence against viruses and tumours, but show only limited specificity. The molecule(s) recognized by NK cells on target cells are at present unknown. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen concentration on target cells is inversely correlated with NK cell lysis. Here we show that MHC class I-unassociated beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) expression is involved in NK cell-target cell interaction. Two human MHC class I negative cell lines, Daudi and K562, are differentially susceptible to NK cell lysis. Daudi cells are beta 2-m-negative and resistant to NK lysis, K562 are beta 2-m-positive and highly susceptible to lysis by NK cells. Interferon (IFN) treatment augments beta 2-m expression and NK lysis of K562, but not in Daudi cells. NK cell lysis of K562, but not YAC-1 cells, can be inhibited by monoclonal anti-human beta 2-m antibody. Furthermore, susceptibility of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) to NK lysis can be increased by infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the human beta 2-m gene.

  18. Effects of beta-adrenergic receptor activation, cholera toxin and forskolin on human natural killer cell function.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, M M; Bankhurst, A D

    1990-01-01

    Membranes from highly purified natural killer (NK) cells were ADP-ribosylated by treatment with cholera toxin (CTX). CTX resulted in a single band of specific 32P incorporation at Mr 43,600. CTX treatment of intact NK cells caused a 9-fold increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations. Pretreatment of NK cells with CTX diminished their ability to lyse K562 tumour cells by up to 79%. Forskolin treatment elevated NK cell cAMP levels 8-fold and decreased lysis of K562 cells by up to 45%. Adrenaline and isoprenaline (isoproterenol) both inhibited lysis of K562 cells by approx. 35% and elevated cAMP by at least 2.5-fold, and their inhibition of lysis was reversed by propranolol. These data suggest that the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding protein GS coupled to beta-adrenergic receptors is involved in transducing signals which inhibit NK cell lysis of tumour cells. CTX and forskolin also diminish the ability of NK cells to bind K562 cells (binding is necessary for lysis). This suggests that the NK-cell receptor(s) for the tumour cell may be altered as a consequence of cAMP-mediated events or by activation of GS. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2176460

  19. Contracting human skeletal muscle maintains the ability to blunt α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction during KIR channel and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Hearon, Christopher M; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle is blunted relative to that which occurs in resting tissue; however, the mechanisms underlying this ‘functional sympatholysis’ remain unclear in humans. We tested the hypothesis that α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise following inhibition of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels and Na+/K+-ATPase (BaCl2 + ouabain). In young healthy humans, we measured forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated forearm vascular conductance (FVC) at rest, during steady-state stimulus conditions (pre-phenylephrine), and after 2 min of phenylephrine (PE; an α1-adrenoceptor agonist) infusion via brachial artery catheter in response to two different stimuli: moderate (15% maximal voluntary contraction) rhythmic handgrip exercise or adenosine infusion. In Protocol 1 (n = 11 subjects) a total of six trials were performed in three conditions: control (saline), combined enzymatic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis (l-NMMA + ketorolac) and combined inhibition of NO, PGs, KIR channels and Na+/K+-ATPase (l-NMMA + ketorolac + BaCl2 + ouabain). In Protocol 2 (n = 6) a total of four trials were performed in two conditions: control (saline), and combined KIR channel and Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. All trials occurred after local β-adrenoceptor blockade (propranolol). PE-mediated vasoconstriction was calculated (%ΔFVC) in each condition. Contrary to our hypothesis, despite attenuated exercise hyperaemia of ∼30%, inhibition of KIR channels and Na+/K+-ATPase, combined with inhibition of NO and PGs (Protocol 1) or alone (Protocol 2) did not enhance α1-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise (Protocol 1: −27 ± 3%; P = 0.2 vs. control, P = 0.4 vs.l-NMMA + ketorolac; Protocol 2: −21 ± 7%; P = 0.9 vs. control). Thus, contracting human skeletal muscle maintains the ability to blunt α1-adrenergic vasoconstriction during

  20. Graded sympatholytic effect of exogenous ATP on postjunctional alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the human forearm: implications for vascular control in contracting muscle.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brett S; Voyles, Wyatt F; Carlson, Rick E; Dinenno, Frank A

    2008-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can inhibit vasoconstrictor responses to endogenous noradrenaline release via tyramine in the skeletal muscle circulation, similar to what is observed in contracting muscle. Whether this involves direct modulation of postjunctional alpha-adrenoceptor responsiveness, or is selective for alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-receptors remains unclear. Therefore, in Protocol 1, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous ATP can blunt direct postjunctional alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction in humans. We measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) and calculated the vascular conductance (FVC) responses to local intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (alpha(1)-agonist) and dexmedetomidine (alpha(2)-agonist) during moderate rhythmic handgrip exercise (15% maximum voluntary contraction), during a control non-exercise vasodilator condition (adenosine), and during ATP infusion in eight young adults. Forearm hyperaemia was matched across all conditions. Forearm vasoconstrictor responses to direct alpha(1)-receptor stimulation were blunted during exercise versus adenosine (DeltaFVC = -11 +/- 3% versus -39 +/- 5%; P< 0.05), and were abolished during ATP infusion (-3 +/- 2%). Similarly, vasoconstrictor responses to alpha(2)-receptor stimulation were blunted during exercise versus adenosine (-13 +/- 4% versus -40 +/- 8%; P< 0.05), and were abolished during ATP infusion (-4 +/- 4%). In Prototol 2 (n = 10), we tested the hypothesis that graded increases in ATP would reduce alpha(1)-mediated vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner compared with vasodilatation evoked via adenosine. Forearm vasoconstrictor responses during low dose adenosine (-38 +/- 3%) and ATP (-33 +/- 2%) were not significantly different from rest (-40 +/- 3%; P> 0.05). In contrast, vasoconstrictor responses during moderate (-22 +/- 6%) and high dose ATP (-8 +/- 5%) were significantly blunted compared with rest, whereas the responses during adenosine became

  1. Graded sympatholytic effect of exogenous ATP on postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in the human forearm: implications for vascular control in contracting muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brett S; Voyles, Wyatt F; Carlson, Rick E; Dinenno, Frank A

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can inhibit vasoconstrictor responses to endogenous noradrenaline release via tyramine in the skeletal muscle circulation, similar to what is observed in contracting muscle. Whether this involves direct modulation of postjunctional α-adrenoceptor responsiveness, or is selective for α1- or α2-receptors remains unclear. Therefore, in Protocol 1, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous ATP can blunt direct postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in humans. We measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) and calculated the vascular conductance (FVC) responses to local intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and dexmedetomidine (α2-agonist) during moderate rhythmic handgrip exercise (15% maximum voluntary contraction), during a control non-exercise vasodilator condition (adenosine), and during ATP infusion in eight young adults. Forearm hyperaemia was matched across all conditions. Forearm vasoconstrictor responses to direct α1-receptor stimulation were blunted during exercise versus adenosine (ΔFVC =−11 ± 3%versus−39 ± 5%; P< 0.05), and were abolished during ATP infusion (−3 ± 2%). Similarly, vasoconstrictor responses to α2-receptor stimulation were blunted during exercise versus adenosine (−13 ± 4%versus−40 ± 8%; P< 0.05), and were abolished during ATP infusion (−4 ± 4%). In Prototol 2 (n= 10), we tested the hypothesis that graded increases in ATP would reduce α1-mediated vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner compared with vasodilatation evoked via adenosine. Forearm vasoconstrictor responses during low dose adenosine (−38 ± 3%) and ATP (−33 ± 2%) were not significantly different from rest (−40 ± 3%; P < 0.05). In contrast, vasoconstrictor responses during moderate (−22 ± 6%) and high dose ATP (−8 ± 5%) were significantly blunted compared with rest, whereas the responses during adenosine became progressively greater (moderate =−48

  2. Agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, P; Hempel, P; Kunze, R; Bimmler, M

    2012-05-01

    Although primary causes of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia are unknown, the importance of preceding vascular lesions is widely accepted. Furthermore, there is strong evidence for the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms. Here, we report the presence of agonistic autoantibodies directed at adrenergic receptors in the circulation of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. In 59% of these patients, agonistic autoantibodies against the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor were identified. The majority of positive patients (66%) contained both types of autoantibodies in combination. In a control group of patients with neurological impairments others than Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, only 17% were found to harbour these autoantibodies. The autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor interacted preferably with the extracellular loop1 of the receptor. They were further studied in IgG preparations from the column regenerate of a patient who underwent immunoadsorption. The α(1) -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies specifically bound to the extracellular loop1 peptide of the receptor with an apparent EC(50) value of 30 nm. They mobilized intracellular calcium in a clonal cell line expressing the human form of the α(1) -adrenergic receptor. Our data support the notion that autoimmune mechanisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. We suggest that agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor may contribute to vascular lesions and increased plaque formation.

  3. Steroid hormone modulation of cAMP production in response to beta adrenergic receptor stimulation in genital tract myocytes.

    PubMed

    DiGiovanni, L; Austin, R; Phillippe, M

    1992-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic receptor stimulation results in smooth muscle relaxation through activation of adenylyl cyclase and subsequent cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of steroid hormones (i.e. testosterone and hydrocortisone) on beta 2-adrenergic receptors and their signal transduction in the DDT1 MF-2 genital tract myocyte. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that these two steroid hormones produced a 70 to 80% increase in the density of beta 2-adrenergic receptors in these myocytes. Stimulation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptors with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase of cAMP in control myocytes; cells treated with testosterone for 24 h demonstrated a comparable response to isoproterenol, whereas hydrocortisone for 24 h resulted in a 50% greater cAMP response. In contrast to the response at 24 h, stimulation of myocytes after testosterone treatment for 48 h resulted in a cAMP response comparable to that seen in response to hydrocortisone at 24 h. Studies performed using theophylline demonstrated similar cAMP responses at 24 h between the control and testosterone-treated myocytes, thereby ruling out the possibility that the delayed increase of the cAMP response after testosterone was caused by stimulation of phosphodiesterase. Direct stimulation with forskolin resulted in greater cAMP production in the testosterone-treated myocytes compared to controls, thereby refuting the possibility that testosterone directly suppresses adenylyl cyclase activity at 24 h. These findings suggest that although both testosterone and hydrocortisone produce a twofold increase in beta 2-adrenergic receptor density in the DDT1 myocytes, beta 2-adrenergic receptors expressed in response to hydrocortisone appear functional at 24 h resulting in increased cAMP production, whereas those expressed in response to testosterone require 48 h to demonstrate increased functional activity.

  4. Physiological and Clinical Implications of Adrenergic Pathways at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The adrenergic system is part of a full array of mechanisms allowing the human body to adapt to the hypoxic environment. Triggered by the stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors, the adrenergic centers in the medulla are activated in acute hypoxia and augment the adrenergic drive to the organs, especially to the heart, leading to tachycardia. With prolonged exposure to altitude hypoxia, the adrenergic drive persists, as witnessed by elevated blood concentrations of catecholamines and nerve activity in adrenergic fibers. In response to this persistent stimulation, the pathways leading to the activation of adenylate cyclase are modified. A downregulation of β-adrenergic and adenosinergic receptors is observed, while muscarinic receptors are upregulated. The expression and activity of Gi and Gs proteins are modified, leading to a decreased response of adenylate cyclase activity to adrenergic stimulation. The clinical consequences of these cellular and molecular changes are of importance, especially for exercise performance and protection of heart function. The decrease in maximal exercise heart rate in prolonged hypoxia is fully accounted for the observed changes in adrenergic and muscarinic pathways. The decreased heart rate response to isoproterenol infusion is another marker of the desensitization of adrenergic pathways. These changes can be considered as mechanisms protecting the heart from a too high oxygen consumption in conditions where the oxygen availability is severely reduced. Similarly, intermittent exposure to hypoxia has been shown to protect the heart from an ischemic insult with similar mechanisms involving G proteins and downregulation of β receptors. Other pathways with G proteins are concerned in adaptation to hypoxia, such as lactate release by the muscles and renal handling of calcium. Altogether, the activation of the adrenergic system is useful for the acute physiological response to hypoxia. With prolonged exposure to hypoxia, the autonomous

  5. In vitro study on the effects of some selected agonists and antagonists of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors on the contractility of the aneurysmally-changed aortic smooth muscle in humans.

    PubMed

    Gnus, J; Czerski, A; Ferenc, S; Zawadzki, W; Witkiewicz, W; Hauzer, W; Rusiecka, A; Bujok, J

    2012-02-01

    The study included 18 sections of the aneurysmally-changed abdominal aortas, obtained from patients of the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Wroclaw and 18 sections of normal abdominal aortas obtained from swine. The collected samples were placed horizontally in the incubation chamber. Changes in their transverse section area were registered. They were stretched to a tension of 5 mN. Krebs-Henseleit buffer was used as the incubatory environment. Incubation of the sections was performed at a temperature of 37°C, in the gaseous mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide used in the following proportion: 95% of O(2) and 5% of CO(2). Contractions of the aorta were registered with isotonic transducers (Letica Scientific Instruments). In the studies, we examined the influence of α(1)-adrenergic receptors (and their subtypes α(1A), α(1B), α(1D)) on the contractility of the aortic muscle in humans and swine by their stimulation or inhibition with some selected agonists or antagonists. This time, it was shown that the stimulation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors leads to contractions of the human and swine aortic muscle; the observed increase in the muscle tone may follow from the stimulation of all subtypes of alpha-1 receptor (α(1A), α(1B), α(1D)). All three subtypes of 1-adrenergic receptor are engaged in vasoconstriction, especially of α(1A) and α(1D) subtypes; the α(1B) subtype is less significant for aortic contractility. The contractile response of the aneurysmally-changed abdominal aorta in humans to agonists of α-adrenergic receptors was significantly less intense than that of the normal porcine aorta. It can be concluded that aneurysms influence the contractile response of the aorta.

  6. Screening and confirmation analysis of stimulants, narcotics and beta-adrenergic agents in human urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Monica; Fiacco, Ilaria; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-11-11

    The chromatographic behaviour of 44 polar compounds (23 beta-adrenergic agents, 11 stimulants, 4 narcotics and 6 phenolalkylamines) included in the list of prohibited substances and methods of the World Anti-Doping Agency, has been investigated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography conditions by application of different mobile phase compositions (percentage of the organic solvent, type and amount of mobile phase additive and ionic strength) and column temperatures. Detection of analytes was performed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring acquisition mode after liquid/liquid extraction. Data collected using as stationary phase type-B silica materials from different producers, showed that the best chromatographic conditions in terms of peak shape, selectivity and chromatographic retention were obtained using an initial percentage of acetonitrile of 90%, a column temperature of 35 °C, a mobile phase pH of 4.5 and ammonium acetate (5 mM) and acetic acid (0.1%) as mobile phase additives. The selected chromatographic conditions were used to develop screening and confirmation analytical procedures to detect polar compounds in human urine for antidoping purpose. The developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and repeatability of retention times and relative ion abundances. Such methods offer attractive alternatives and considerable advantages over traditional approaches especially for the analysis of the phenolalkylamines.

  7. Chromosome mapping of the human arrestin (SAG), {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (ADRBK2) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, G.; Sallese, M.; Stornaiuolo, A.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of proteins play a major role in determining homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors: {beta}-adrenergic receptor kinase ({beta}ARK), which phosphorylates the agonist-occupied receptor and its functional cofactor, {beta}-arrestin. Both {beta}ARK and {beta}-arrestin are members of multigene families. The family of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases includes rhodopsin kinase, {beta}ARK1, {beta}ARK2, IT11-A (GRK4), GRK5, and GRK6. The arrestin/{beta}-arrestin gene family includes arrestin (also known as S-antigen), {beta}-arrestin 1, and {beta}-arrestin 2. Here we report the chromosome mapping of the human genes for arrestin (SAG), {beta}arrestin 2 (ARRB2), and {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results confirmed the assignment of the gene coding for arrestin (SAG) to chromosome 2 and allowed us to refine its localization to band q37. The gene coding for {beta}-arrestin 2 (ARRB2) was mapped to chromosome 17p13 and that coding for {beta}ARK2 (ADRBK2) to chromosome 22q11. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  8. TGF-{beta}2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-{beta}2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-{beta}2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-{beta}2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-{beta}2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-{beta}2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-{beta}2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-{beta}2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-{beta}2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway.

  9. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor–salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of “Prolosin”, produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. Results: After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p < 0.05). Blood pressure suffered no significant decrease following administration of the 0.8 mg dose of tamsulosin. Conclusion: This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility. PMID:26543414

  10. Influence of beta(2)-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms on diet-induced thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oomen, J M; Waijers, P M C M; van Rossum, C; Hoebee, B; Saris, W H M; van Baak, M A

    2005-11-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the control of energy metabolism and expenditure. Diet-induced thermogenesis is mediated partly by the ss-adrenergic component of this system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of genetic variation in the beta(2)-adrenoceptor in diet-induced thermogenesis. Data from twenty-four subjects (fourteen men and ten women; BMI 26.7(sem 0.8) kg/m(2); age 45.2(sem1.4) years) with different polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor at codon 16 (Gly16Gly, Gly16Arg or Arg16Arg) were recruited for this study. Subjects were given a high-carbohydrate liquid meal, and the energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, and plasma concentrations of NEFA, glycerol, glucose, insulin and catecholamines were measured before and over 4 h after the meal. The AUC of energy expenditure (diet-induced thermogenesis) was not significantly different between polymorphism groups, nor was the response of any of the other measured variables to the meal. In a multiple regression model, the only variable that explained a significant proportion (32 %) of the variation in diet-induced thermogenesis was the increase in plasma adrenaline in response to the meal (P<0.05). The beta(2)-adrenoceptor codon16 polymorphisms did not contribute significantly. In conclusion, an independent contribution of the codon 16 polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenoceptor gene to the variation in thermogenic response to a high-carbohydrate meal could not be demonstrated. The interindividual variation in thermogenic response to the meal was correlated with variations in the plasma adrenaline response to the meal.

  11. Dynamin-association with agonist-mediated sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptor in single-cell eukaryote Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2004-04-01

    Evidence that dynamin is associated with the sequestration of the Paramecium beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) immunoanalogue is presented. We previously reported a dramatic change in the distribution of betaAR analogue in the subcellular fractions upon isoproterenol treatment: it is redistributed from the membraneous to the cytosolic fraction, as revealed by quantitative image analysis of western blots. Here we confirm and extend this observation by laser scanning confocal and immunogold electron microscopy. In the presence of isoproterenol (10 micro mol l(-1)) betaAR translocated from the cell surface into dynamin-positive vesicles in the cytoplasmic compartment, as observed by dual fluorochrome immunolabeling in a series of the confocal optical sections. Colocalization of betaAR and dynamin in the tiny endocytic vesicles was detected by further electron microscopic studies. Generally receptor sequestration follows its desensitization, which is initiated by receptor phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase. We cloned and sequenced the gene fragment of 407 nucleotides homologous to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (betaARK): its deduced amino acid sequence shows 51.6% homology in 126 amino acids that overlap with the human betaARK2 (GRK3), and may participate in Paramecium betaAR desensitization. These results suggest that the molecular machinery for the desensitization/sequestration of the receptor immunorelated to vertebrate betaAR exists in unicellular PARAMECIUM:

  12. Beta(2)-microglobulin identified as an apoptosis-inducing factor and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Terui, Y; Ikeda, M; Tomizuka, H; Uwai, M; Kasahara, T; Kubota, N; Itoh, T; Mishima, Y; Douzono-Tanaka, M; Yamada, M; Shimamura, S; Kikuchi, J; Furukawa, Y; Ishizaka, Y; Ikeda, K; Mano, H; Ozawa, K; Hatake, K

    1999-10-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in antigen presentation for induction of tumor as well as cellular and humoral immunities. Recent studies using anti-MHC antibodies demonstrated that antibodies specific for HLA class I molecules induced cellular activation and a type of apoptosis that may be distinct from Fas-dependent or TNFR (tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor)-dependent processes. We purified a previously untested apoptosis-inducing factor from HL-60 human leukemic cell-conditioned media to homogeneity and sequenced it. It was identified as beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m), which has been previously known as thymotaxin and is a part of the HLA class I antigen complex. beta(2)m acts on both T-leukemic cells and myeloid leukemic cells to induce apoptosis, which then activates caspase 1 and 3. Cross-linking studies showed that biotinilated beta(2)m recognized an epitope distinct from those recognized by the anti-HLA class I antibody, as reported previously. We demonstrated that beta(2)m plays a previously unrecognized and important role in regulating the elimination of tumor cells, which occurs as a result of the action of beta(2)m as an apoptosis-inducing factor.

  13. Presynaptic targeting of alpha4beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is regulated by neurexin-1beta.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Amici, Stephanie A; Ren, Xiao-Qin; McKay, Susan B; Treuil, Magdalen W; Lindstrom, Jon M; Rao, Jayaraman; Anand, Rene

    2009-08-28

    The mechanisms involved in the targeting of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), critical for their functional organization at neuronal synapses, are not well understood. We have identified a novel functional association between alpha4beta2 AChRs and the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule, neurexin-1beta. In non-neuronal tsA 201 cells, recombinant neurexin-1beta and mature alpha4beta2 AChRs form complexes. alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta also coimmunoprecipitate from rat brain lysates. When exogenous alpha4beta2 AChRs and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in hippocampal neurons, they are robustly targeted to hemi-synapses formed between these neurons and cocultured tsA 201 cells expressing neuroligin-1, a postsynaptic binding partner of neurexin-1beta. The extent of synaptic targeting is significantly reduced in similar experiments using a mutant neurexin-1beta lacking the extracellular domain. Additionally, when alpha4beta2 AChRs, alpha7 AChRs, and neurexin-1beta are coexpressed in the same neuron, only the alpha4beta2 AChR colocalizes with neurexin-1beta at presynaptic terminals. Collectively, these data suggest that neurexin-1beta targets alpha4beta2 AChRs to presynaptic terminals, which mature by trans-synaptic interactions between neurexins and neuroligins. Interestingly, human neurexin-1 gene dysfunctions have been implicated in nicotine dependence and in autism spectrum disorders. Our results provide novel insights as to possible mechanisms by which dysfunctional neurexins, through downstream effects on alpha4beta2 AChRs, may contribute to the etiology of these neurological disorders.

  14. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  15. [Adrenergic receptors of blood platelets].

    PubMed

    Lanza, F; Cazenave, J P

    1987-01-01

    Blood platelets possess adrenergic receptors and are stimulated by adrenaline in the circulation. This review summarizes the state of knowledge of the pharmacology of adrenergic receptors and the biochemical mechanisms of platelet activation by adrenaline in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:2837727

  16. Dissociations in the Effects of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists on cAMP Formation and Superoxide Production in Human Neutrophils: Support for the Concept of Functional Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Brunskole Hummel, Irena; Reinartz, Michael T.; Kälble, Solveig; Burhenne, Heike; Schwede, Frank; Buschauer, Armin; Seifert, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In neutrophils, activation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a Gs-coupled receptor, inhibits inflammatory responses, which could be therapeutically exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various β2AR ligands on adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2•−) production in human neutrophils and to probe the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations (also referred to as functional selectivity or biased signaling) in a native cell system. This is an important question because so far, evidence for functional selectivity has been predominantly obtained with recombinant systems, due to the inherent difficulties to genetically manipulate human native cells. cAMP concentration was determined by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry, and O2•− formation was assessed by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. β2AR agonists were generally more potent in inhibiting fMLP-induced O2•− production than in stimulating cAMP accumulation. (−)-Ephedrine and dichloroisoproterenol were devoid of any agonistic activity in the cAMP assay, but partially inhibited fMLP-induced O2•− production. Moreover, (−)-adrenaline was equi-efficacious in both assays whereas the efficacy of salbutamol was more than two-fold higher in the O2•− assay. Functional selectivity was visualized by deviations of ligand potencies and efficacies from linear correlations for various parameters. We obtained no evidence for involvement of protein kinase A in the inhibition of fMLP-induced O2•− production after β2AR-stimulation although cAMP-increasing substances inhibited O2•− production. Taken together, our data corroborate the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations with unique signaling capabilities in native human cells and suggest that the β2AR inhibits O2•− production in a cAMP-independent manner. PMID

  17. The effect of a short-term ritodrine treatment on the concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors in human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, U; Grenman, S; Kaila, T

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of beta-adrenoceptors in human myometrium has been studied of women giving birth by elective cesarean section at term. Eight of the woman were treated with intravenous ritodrine two hours prior to the operation. In the control group seven women received physiological saline with the same infusion rate as ritodrine in the study group. The concentration of beta-receptors in the myometrium of the lower uterine segment was determined with radioligand binding assay. Ritodrine treatment decreased the available beta-receptors significantly.

  18. [Beta 2 microglobulin in children with neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Murawska, E; Szychowska, Z; Jarno, A

    1997-01-01

    CSF and plasma beta2 microglobulin (B2M) concentrations were determined by an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) (Vidas-bioMerieux) in children with bacterial (B2M), viral (mumps and enteroviral) meningitis and in the controls. CSF B2M concentrations in children with B2M at admission, at 24-48 hrs of treatment and at recovery (day 10), in children with viral meningitis at admission and at recovery were significantly higher in comparison with the control group of children with non-pleiocytic CSF. The levels of CSF B2M at 24-48 hrs of treatment of B2M cases were significantly higher than those at the beginning of both mumps and enteroviral meningitis cases which may be helpful in differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in cases of retarded diagnosis or partially treated B2M. Plasma levels of B2M during bacterial and mumps meningitis did not differ from those in healthy children but in children with enteroviral meningitis were significantly higher. There was a positive correlation between CSF B2M at the beginning of B2M and some laboratory findings of inflammatory response (CRP, ERS). The CSF B2M levels were significantly higher than its plasma levels in patients with B2M at 24-48 hours (second stage) of disease, mumps meningitis on admission and recovery which may suggest intrathecal production of B2M during central nervous system infection.

  19. Arg16Gly polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor is associated with differences in cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Dietz, Niki M; Eisenach, John H; Joyner, Michael J; Turner, Stephen T; Johnson, Bruce D

    2006-01-01

    In humans, subjects homozygous for arginine (ArgArg) at codon 16 of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) have been shown to have greater agonist-mediated desensitization than subjects homozygous for glycine (GlyGly). We sought to determine if this substitution differentially influenced cardiovascular function during short duration (9 min) low and high intensity exercise (40 and 75% of peak work). Healthy Caucasian ArgArg (n = 16), GlyGly (n = 31) and ArgGly (n = 17) subjects matched for age, sex and peak oxygen uptake were studied. There were no differences in adrenaline (ADR) at rest or with heavy exercise, but the ArgArg group had lower ADR with light exercise (P = 0.04). Resting heart rate (HR) was higher in ArgArg (P < 0.01), while cardiac output (Q̇), stroke volume (SV), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were lower than the other groups (HR = 86±2, 78±2, 80±1 beats min−1; Q̇ = 5.7±0.81, 6.1±0.18, 6.7±0.22 l min−1; SV = 68±3, 82±3, 89±4 ml beat−1; MAP = 92±1, 103±2, 98± 1 mmHg – for ArgArg, ArgGly and GlyGly, respectively, means ±s.e.m., P < 0.01), however, no differences were observed in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). With low intensity exercise and high intensity exercise the ArgArg group continued to have a lower Q̇, SV and MAP compared to the other groups (P < 0.05), with no differences observed in SVR. During recovery, the ArgArg subjects continued to have a lower MAP but there were no differences in HR, Q̇, or SVR. These data suggest that subjects homozygous for Arg at codon 16 of the β2AR have reduced Q̇ and MAP at rest that persist during exercise with no evidence for differential changes over the course of exercise despite large changes in catecholamines. This may suggest possible genotype-related differences in baseline receptor function or density which causes phenotypic differences at rest that are sustained during short-term exercise. PMID:16339181

  20. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Damstrup, L.; Rygaard, K.; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8388229

  1. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5630 - Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-microglobulin immunological test system. 866.5630 Section 866.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  9. Lymphocyte beta-2-adrenoceptors and plasma catecholamines in fetal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santala, M; Saarikoski, S; Castrén, O; Parviainen, M

    1990-01-01

    Conclusive evidence has been furnished that the beta 2-adrenoceptor density in circulating lymphocytes is related to that of beta 2-adrenoceptors in tissues from the same subjects. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of fetal hypoxia on lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density. The material consisted of 8 hypoxic newborns, 4 delivered by vacuum extraction and 4 by Caesarean section, after approximately 10 h parturition. The control group consisted of 8 vaginally delivered newborns without hypoxia. Umbilical plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline were significantly elevated in the hypoxic newborns. Their lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density was lower (p less than 0.01) than that in the controls. A plausible explanation for this finding might be downregulation of beta 2-adrenoceptors because of elevated plasma catecholamine level.

  10. Molecular and pharmacological characteristics of the gerbil α(1a)-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Witt, Kelly M; Bockman, Charles S; Dang, Herbert K; Gruber, Daniel D; Wangemann, Philine; Scofield, Margaret A

    2012-01-01

    The spiral modiolar artery supplies blood and essential nutrients to the cochlea. Our previous functional study indicates the α(1A)-adrenergic receptor subtype mediates vasoconstriction of the gerbil spiral modiolar artery. Although the gerbil cochlea is often used as a model in hearing research, the molecular and pharmacological characteristics of the cloned gerbil α(1a)-adrenergic receptor have not been determined. Thus we cloned, expressed and characterized the gerbil α(1a)-adrenergic receptor and then compared its molecular and pharmacological properties to those of other mammalian α(1a)-adrenergic receptors. The cDNA clone contained 1404 nucleotides, which encoded a 467 amino acid peptide with a deduced sequence having 96.8, 96.4 and 91.6% identity to rat, mouse and human α(1a)-receptors, respectively. We transiently transfected the α(1a)-adrenergic receptor into COS-1 cells and determined its pharmacological characteristics by [(3)H]prazosin binding. Unlabeled prazosin had a K(i) of 0.89±0.1nM. The α(1A)-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonists, 5-methylurapidil and WB-4101, bound with high affinity and had K(i) values of 4.9±1 and 1.0±0.1nM, respectively. BMY-7378, an α(1D)-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, bound with low affinity (260±60nM). The 91.6% amino acid sequence identity and K(i)s of the cloned gerbil α(1a)-adrenergic receptor are similar to those of the human α(1a)-adrenergic receptor clone. These results show that the gerbil α(1a)-adrenergic receptor is representative of the human α(1a)-adrenergic receptor, lending validity to the use of the gerbil spiral modiolar artery as a model in studies of vascular disorders of the cochlea.

  11. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin and middle molecules in haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, James

    2007-01-01

    Middle molecules, consisting mostly of peptides and small proteins with molecular weight the range of 500-60,000 Da, accumulate in renal failure and contribute to the uraemic toxic state. Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) with a molecular weight of 11,000 is considered representative of these middle molecules. These solutes are not well cleared by low-flux dialysis. High-flux dialysis will clear middle molecules, partly by internal filtration. This convective component of high-flux dialysis can be enhanced in a predictable way by haemodiafiltration (HDF). The convective and diffusive clearance rates of any middle molecule across any haemodiafilter can be predicted from known or measurable factors such as its sieving coefficient, bound fraction and molecular weight. The removal of middle molecules is also influenced by factors within the patient. Beta2-MG is distributed within the extracellular fluid. During HDF, beta2-MG must transfer into the intravascular compartment across the capillary walls. This transcapillary transfer at a rate of approximately 100 ml/min slows beta2-MG removal from the body. Continuing transfer after the end of a treatment session results in a significant rebound of beta2-MG levels. This intercompartment transfer and its effect on beta2-MG clearance and concentration can be predicted by a 2-compartment model. By extrapolation, the behaviour of other middle molecules can be predicted. The 2-compartment model, which takes non-dialytic beta2-MG clearance at a rate of 3 ml/min and beta2-MG generation at a rate of 0.1 mg/min into account, can predict the effect of any HDF schedule on beta2-MG levels. Low-flux dialysis results in a beta2-MG level of around 40 mg/l. Three times weekly, 4-hour HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 20 mg/l. Long (nocturnal) HDF can reduce beta2-MG levels to around 10 mg/l, compared to physiological levels of less than 5 mg/l.

  12. Amino acid sequence and location of the disulfide bonds in bovine beta 2 glycoprotein I: the presence of five Sushi domains.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Enjyoji, K

    1991-12-17

    beta 2 glycoprotein I is a plasma protein with the ability to bind with various kinds of negatively charged substances. The complete amino acid sequence and the location of all the disulfide bonds of bovine beta 2 glycoprotein I were determined. Bovine beta 2 glycoprotein I consists of 326 amino acid residues with five asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains. Homology with the human protein was calculated to be 83%. Eleven disulfide bonds in bovine beta 2 glycoprotein I constitute four characteristic domains, Sushi domains, and one modified form of a Sushi domain.

  13. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  14. Tolerance with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists: time for reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Grove, A; Lipworth, B J

    1995-01-01

    1. In spite of the widespread use of beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of asthma controversy continues regarding their possible role in increasing asthma mortality and morbidity. There is however no evidence available to suggest that tolerance to the bronchodilator or anti-bronchoconstrictor effects of these drugs is responsible for the deleterious effects reported with the regular use of bronchodilators. 2. There is no conclusive evidence to suggest that tolerance develops to the bronchodilator effects of short-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Tolerance does however appear to develop to the anti-bronchoconstrictor effects of these drugs. 3. With regard to the long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, there is evidence to suggest that tolerance develops both to their anti-bronchoconstrictor, and bronchodilator effects. Tolerance was however demonstrated in the presence of improved symptom control, therefore the clinical relevance of this phenomenon is uncertain. 4. Systemic corticosteroids can modulate lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor function both preventing, and reversing tolerance. The situation regarding the effects of systemic or inhaled corticosteroids on modulating bronchodilator responses in asthmatics is less clear. There is some evidence to suggest that inhaled corticosteroids are unable to prevent bronchodilator or systemic tolerance to long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. 5. On the basis of the current evidence, the British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of asthma appear appropriate with regard to their recommendations for the use of long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:7742147

  15. DNA encoding an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Weinshank, R.L.; Hartig, P.R.

    1991-10-01

    This paper describes an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a human alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor. This patent also describes an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein the isolated nucleic acid molecule is a DNA molecule and a mammalian cell comprising the DNA molecule.

  16. Response of the Adrenergic System After Provoked Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Hilmi; Ilazi, Ali; Gashi, Nijazi; Mustafa, Lirim; Maloku, Halit; Jashanica, Adelina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, effect of the Tolazoline as antagonist of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was studied, and also the effect of stimulation with Hexoprenaline of beta-2 adrenergic receptor after bronchi-constriction caused with Propranolol, and Acetylcholine. Methods: Lung function parameters are determined with Body plethysmography. In patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis was registered resistance (Raw), was determined the amount of intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV), and specific resistance was calculated as well (SRaw). Aerosolization was done with standard aerosolizing machine-Asema. Results: The study included a total of 21 patients. Two hours after the inhalation of Propranolol, in experimental group, it was applied the blocker of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (Tolazoline 20 mg / ml with inhalator ways), which did not cause changes in bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial system (p > 1.0). Meanwhile, at the same patient, stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptor with Hexoprenaline (2 inh x 0.2 mg) is associated with a significant decrease of the specific resistance of airways (SRaw, p < 0.01). Control group results show that after bronchi-constriction caused by Propranolol-aerosol (20 mg / ml) in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis, an increase of specific resistance in airways was caused (SRaw, p < 0.01), which confirms the presence of hyper-reactive bronco-constrictor effects intermediated by vagal ways. Two hours after Propranolol, inhaled Hexorenaline has blocked the action of Propranolol, but not entirely. Furthermore, two hours after acetylcholine-aerosol (1 mg /ml) was applied, inhaled Ipratropium (2 inh x 1 mg) has fully blocked the action of chemical bronchoconstrictor mediators, causing a decline of specific resistance in the airways (SRaw; p < 0.01). Conclusion: This suggests that primary mechanism, which would cause

  17. Effect of different beta-adrenergic agonists on the intestinal absorption of galactose and phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Díez-Sampedro, A; Pérez, M; Cobo, M T; Martínez, J A; Barber, A

    1998-08-01

    Nutrient transport across the mammalian small intestine is regulated by several factors, including intrinsic and extrinsic neural pathways, paracrine modulators, circulating hormones and luminal agents. Because beta-adrenoceptors seem to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as bicarbonate and acid secretion, intestinal motility and gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow, we have investigated the effects of different beta-adrenergic agonists on nutrient absorption by the rat jejunum in-vitro. When intestinal everted sacs were used the beta2-agonist salbutamol had no effect either on galactose uptake by the tissue or mucosal-to-serosal flux whereas mixed beta1- and beta2-agonists (isoproterenol and orciprenaline) and beta3-agonists (BRL 35135, Trecadrine, ICI 198157 and ZD 7114) inhibited galactose uptake and transfer of D-galactose from the mucosal-to-serosal media across the intestinal wall (although the inhibiting effects of isoproterenol and Trecadrine were not statistically significant). In intestinal everted rings both Trecadrine and BRL 35135 clearly reduced galactose uptake, the effect being a result of inhibition of the phlorizin-sensitive component. Total uptake of phenylalanine by the intestinal rings was also reduced by those beta3-adrenergic agonists. These results suggest that beta1- and beta3-adrenergic receptors could be involved in the regulation of intestinal active transport of sugars and amino acids. PMID:9751456

  18. Role of beta2 agonists in respiratory medicine with particular attention to novel patents and effects on endocrine system and immune response.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Nancy E; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny V; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2011-09-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.

  19. Adrenergic regulation of innate immunity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Scanzano, Angela; Cosentino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has a major role in the brain-immune cross-talk, but few information exist on the sympathoadrenergic regulation of innate immune system. The aim of this review is to summarize available knowledge regarding the sympathetic modulation of the innate immune response, providing a rational background for the possible repurposing of adrenergic drugs as immunomodulating agents. The cells of immune system express adrenoceptors (AR), which represent the target for noradrenaline and adrenaline. In human neutrophils, adrenaline and noradrenaline inhibit migration, CD11b/CD18 expression, and oxidative metabolism, possibly through β-AR, although the role of α1- and α2-AR requires further investigation. Natural Killer express β-AR, which are usually inhibitory. Monocytes express β-AR and their activation is usually antiinflammatory. On murine Dentritic cells (DC), β-AR mediate sympathetic influence on DC-T cells interactions. In human DC β2-AR may affect Th1/2 differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In microglia and in astrocytes, β2-AR dysregulation may contribute to neuroinflammation in autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease. In conclusion, extensive evidence supports a critical role for adrenergic mechanisms in the regulation of innate immunity, in peripheral tissues as well as in the CNS. Sympathoadrenergic pathways in the innate immune system may represent novel antiinflammatory and immunomodulating targets with significant therapeutic potential. PMID:26321956

  20. Expression of beta 1- and beta 3-adrenergic-receptor messages and adenylate cyclase beta-adrenergic response in bovine perirenal adipose tissue during its transformation from brown into white fat.

    PubMed Central

    Casteilla, L; Muzzin, P; Revelli, J P; Ricquier, D; Giacobino, J P

    1994-01-01

    Possible modifications of the beta-adrenergic effector system during the development of bovine perirenal brown adipose tissue (BAT) in utero and its transformation into white-like adipose tissue after birth were studied. The parameters assessed were the level of expression of beta 1-, beta 2- and beta 3-adrenergic receptor (AR) mRNAs and the response of the plasma-membrane adenylate cyclase to (-)-isoprenaline and to the beta 3-agonist BRL 37344. The beta 3-AR mRNA was found to be expressed very early in utero, i.e. before the third month of foetal life. Then it increased dramatically (9-fold) between month 6 of foetal life and birth. A high beta 3-AR mRNA level was maintained after birth up to an age of 3 months. After conversion of BAT into white-like adipose tissue, i.e. in the adult bovine, the beta 3-AR mRNA expression became small or not detectable, and the beta 1-AR mRNA, which was expressed much less than the beta 3-AR mRNA in foetal life, became predominant. A response of the adenylate cyclase to (-)-isoprenaline was observed in foetal life (3.1-fold stimulation). It decreased after birth (1.8-fold stimulation) and then remained constant until adulthood. A response to BRL 37344 was also observed in foetal life (1.8-fold stimulation). It was maintained after birth, but disappeared in the adult. A possible relationship between the beta-AR expression and the adenylate cyclase response to (-)-isoprenaline on the one hand and the uncoupling-protein expression on the other is discussed. The bovine might represent a good model to understand the transition from brown to white fat in the human. Images Figure 3 PMID:7904157

  1. Inhibitory effects of the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist zilpaterol on the LPS-induced production of TNF-alpha in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, K C M; Doornbos, R P; van der Greef, J; Witkamp, R F; Rodenburg, R J T

    2005-12-01

    In this study the anti-inflammatory properties of zilpaterol, a beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist specifically developed as a growth promoter in cattle were investigated. Although zilpaterol has a different structure compared with the beta2-AR agonists known to date, it was noted that it was able to bind to both the beta2-AR (Ki = 1.1 x 10(-6)) and the beta1-AR (Ki = 1.0 x 10(-5)). Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed U937 macrophages, the production of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were investigated. Zilpaterol inhibited TNF-alpha release and induced intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of TNF-alpha release and induction of cAMP production was mainly mediated via the beta2-AR, as indicated by addition of beta1- and beta2-specific antagonists. The effects of zilpaterol were investigated in LPS-treated male Wistar rats after pretreatment with zilpaterol. Zilpaterol dosed at 500 microg/kg body weight reduced the TNF-alpha plasma levels. In conclusion, zilpaterol is a beta2-adrenergic agonist and an inhibitor of TNF-alpha production induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Increased aerobic glycolysis through beta2 stimulation is a common mechanism involved in lactate formation during shock states.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruno; Desebbe, Olivier; Montemont, Chantal; Gibot, Sebastien

    2008-10-01

    During septic shock, muscle produces lactate by way of an exaggerated NaK-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)-stimulated aerobic glycolysis associated with epinephrine stimulation possibly through beta2 adrenoreceptor involvement. It therefore seems logical that a proportion of hyperlactatemia in low cardiac output states would be also related to this mechanism. Thus, in low-flow and normal-to-high-flow models of shock, we investigate (1) whether muscle produces lactate and (2) whether muscle lactate production is linked to beta2 adrenergic stimulation and Na+K+-ATPase. We locally modulated the adrenergic pathway and Na+K+-ATPase activity in male Wistar rats' skeletal muscle using microdialysis with nonselective and selective beta blockers and ouabain in different models of rodent shock (endotoxin, peritonitis, and hemorrhage). Blood flow at the probe site was evaluated by ethanol clearance. We measured the difference between muscle lactate and blood lactate concentration, with a positive gradient indicating muscle lactate or pyruvate production. Epinephrine levels were elevated in all shock groups. All models were associated with hypotension and marked hyperlactatemia. Muscle lactate concentrations were consistently higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 2.5+/-0.3 in endotoxic shock, 2.1+/-0.2 mM in peritonitis group, and 0.9+/-0.2 mM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Muscle pyruvate concentrations were also always higher than arterial levels, with a mean gradient of 260+/-40 microM in endotoxic shock, 210+/-30 microM in peritonitis group, and 90+/-10 microM in hemorrhagic shock (P<0.05 for all groups). Despite a decrease in blood flow, lactate formation was decreased by all the pharmacological agents studied irrespective of shock mechanism. This demonstrates that lactate production during shock states is related, at least in part, to increased NaK-ATPase activity under beta2 stimulation. In shock state associated with a reduced or

  3. Lacking prognostic significance of beta 2-microglobulin, MHC class I and class II antigen expression in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wintzer, H. O.; Benzing, M.; von Kleist, S.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of MHC antigen expression on the survival of patients with cancer, 77 human breast carcinomas were investigated for the expression of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR. Thirty-one benign breast tumours were stained for comparison. The results for the carcinomas were related to the survival data of the cancer patients. The expression of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C and HLA-DR was significantly lower in malignant tumours compared to the benign lesions. Whereas all benign tumours were positive for beta 2m and HLA-A,B,C and 28/31 positive for HLA-DR the following positivity rates were found in carcinomas: 74/77 for beta 2m, 57/77 for HLA-A,B,C and 10/77 for HLA-DR. The follow-up (median 45 months) of 66 cancer patients for overall survival and of 65 patients for disease-free survival revealed no influence of beta 2m, HLA-A,B,C or HLA-DR expression on the prognosis of this cancer. In conclusion, experimental data indicating the importance of MHC antigens in anti-tumour responses are not confirmed by the analysis of cancer patient survival data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2201398

  4. alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms in spontaneous contractile activity of rat ileal longitudinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2005-02-01

    Gastrointestinal motility is influenced by adrenergic modulation. Our aim was to identify specific subtypes of adrenergic receptors involved in inhibitory mechanisms that modulate gut smooth muscle contractile activity. Muscle strips of rat ileal longitudinal muscle were evaluated for spontaneous contractile activity and for equimolar dose-responses (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M) to the adrenergic agents norepinephrine (nonselective agonist), phenylephrine (alpha(1)-agonist), clonidine (alpha(2)-agonist), prenalterol (beta(1)-agonist), ritodrine (beta(2)-agonist), and ZD7114 (beta(3)-agonist) in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin (nonselective nerve blocker). Norepinephrine (3 x 10(-5) M) inhibited 65 +/- 6% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous contractile activity. The same molar dose of ritodrine, phenylephrine, or ZD7114 resulted in less inhibition (46 +/- 7%, 31 +/- 5%, and 39 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). The calculated molar concentration of ZD7114 needed to induce 50% inhibition was similar to that of norepinephrine, whereas higher concentrations of phenylephrine or ritodrine were required. Clonidine and prenalterol had no effect on contractile activity. Blockade of intramural neural transmission by tetrodotoxin affected the responses to ritodrine and phenylephrine (but not to norepinephrine or ZD7114), suggesting that these agents exert part of their effects via neurally mediated enteric pathways. Our results suggest that adrenergic modulation of contractile activity in the rat ileum is mediated primarily by muscular beta(3)-, beta(2)-, and alpha(1)-receptor mechanisms; the latter two also involve neural pathways. PMID:15694819

  5. Current issues with beta2-adrenoceptor agonists: historical background.

    PubMed

    Tattersfield, Anne E

    2006-01-01

    The discovery that dessicated adrenal glands had beneficial effects in asthma arose in 1900 following a vogue for studying organotherapy at the end of the 19th century. The adrenal hormone adrenaline was found to have sympathomimetic properties and was isolated and synthesized in 1901. The first nonselective beta-agonist, isoproterenol, was isolated in 1940, followed by the development of selective beta2-agonists in the 1960s and the introduction of the long-acting beta2-agonists in the 1990s. The introduction of beta2-selectivity reduced adverse effects, as did developments in inhaler technology that allowed subjects to inhale much smaller doses of drug selectively to the airways. The beta2-agonists are some of the more important drugs to have been developed in the 20th century. Excessive doses can cause problems, and attempts to maximize the benefit from beta2-agonists and to reduce adverse effects has led to considerable epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic research over the last 50 yr.

  6. Beta2-agonist extraction procedures for chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    dos Ramos, F J

    2000-06-01

    Normally, different procedures were necessary to prepare sample matrices for chromatographic determination of beta2-agonists. The present review includes sampling, pre-treatment and extraction/purification for urine, plasma, liver, meat, feeds, hair and milk powder, as previous steps for chromatographic analysis of beta2-agonists. Six methodologies were especially revised for extraction/purification namely, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE), matrix solid-phase dispersion, immunoaffinity chromatography, dialysis and supercritical fluid extraction. SPE was discussed in detail and five mechanisms were described: adsorption, apolar, polar, ion-exchange and mixed phase. A brief conclusion in this field was also outlined.

  7. Exercise induced changes in lymphocyte beta adrenergic receptors correlate with peak exercise heart rates in healthy trained and sedentary human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, M.; Engelmeier, R.; Glisson, S.; Scanlon, P.

    1986-03-05

    Lymphocyte beta adrenergic receptors (lymph BAR) increase after maximal multistage treadmill exercise (TME) presumably by externalization from intracellular vesicles. Nine healthy subjects underwent symptom limited TME by the Bruce protocol. Heart rate was measured at the end of each 3 minute stage. Plasma norepinephrine (NE), plasma epinephrine (EPI) and lymph BAR were measured at rest and at peak exercise. Catecholamines were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Lymph BAR were measured by separating cells from 25cc of whole blood across a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient and incubating membrane preparations with 7 dilutions of I/sup 125/ cyanopindolol in the presence or absence of 1..mu..M(-) propranolol in a total assay volume of 450 ..mu..l. BAR was standardized to Lowry-Peterson protein at rest and exercise. The relationship of maximum heart rate versus peak plasma NE, EPI and lymph BAR was analyzed by linear regression. The following conclusions were reached: (1) there is a significant correlation between exercise induced changes in lymph BAR and peak heart rate; (2) this relationship does not exist between peak plasma NE or EPI and peak heart rate.

  8. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors: targets for agonist drugs to treat heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brian C; O'Connell, Timothy D; Simpson, Paul C

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from cell, animal, and human studies demonstrates that α1-adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive and protective effects in the heart. These effects may be particularly important in chronic heart failure, when catecholamine levels are elevated and β-adrenergic receptors are down-regulated and dysfunctional. This review summarizes these data and proposes that selectively activating α1-adrenergic receptors in the heart might represent a novel and effective way to treat heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure."

  9. Prenatal and Postnatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure, Airway Hyperreactivity, and Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Function in Sensitized Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; McDonald, Jacob D.; Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven; Perera, Frederica; Factor, Phillip; Miller, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite data associating exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in asthma, mechanistic support has been limited. We hypothesized that both prenatal and early postnatal exposure to PAH would increase airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and that the resulting AHR may be insensitive to treatment with a β2AR agonist drug, procaterol. Further, we hypothesized that these exposures would be associated with altered β2AR gene expression and DNA methylation in mouse lungs. Mice were exposed prenatally or postnatally to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week. Double knockout β2AR mice were exposed postnatally only. Prenatal exposure to PAH was associated with reduced β2AR gene expression among nonsensitized mice offspring, but not increases in DNA methylation or AHR. Postnatal exposure to PAH was borderline associated with increased AHR among sensitized wildtype, but not knockout mice. In the first study that delivers PAH aerosols to mice in a relatively physiological manner, small effects on AHR and β2AR gene expression, but not β2AR agonist drug activity, were observed. If confirmed, the results may suggest that exposure to PAH, common ambient urban pollutants, affects β2AR function, although the impact on the efficacy of β2AR agonist drugs used in treating asthma remains uncertain. PMID:24454363

  10. cap alpha. -2 adrenergic receptor: a radiohistochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Unnerstall, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-2 adrenergic agents have been shown to influence blood pressure, heart rate and other physiological and behavioral functions through interactions with adrenergic pathways within the central nervous system. Pharmacologically relevant ..cap alpha..-1 adrenergic receptors were biochemically characterized and radiohistochemically analyzed in intact tissue sections of the rat and human central nervous system. The anatomical distribution of the ..cap alpha..-2 receptors, labeled with the agonist (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine, verified the concept that ..cap alpha..-2 receptors are closely associated with adrenergic nerve terminals and that ..cap alpha..-2 agents can influence autonomic and endocrine function through an action in the central nervous system. Since ..cap alpha..-2 agonists can influence sympathetic outflow, ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites were closely analyzed in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. The transport of putative presynaptic ..cap alpha..-2 binding sites in the rat sciatic nerve was analyzed by light microscopic radiohistochemical techniques. Finally, in intact tissue section of the rat central nervous system, the biochemical characteristics of (/sup 3/H)rauwolscine binding were analyzed. Data were also shown which indicates that the synthetic ..cap alpha..-2 antagonist (/sup 3/H)RX781094 also binds to ..cap alpha..-2 receptors with high-affinity. Further, the distribution of (/sup 3/H)RX781094 binding sites in the rat central nervous system was identical to the distribution seen when using (/sup 3/H)para-aminoclonidine.

  11. Progesterone prevents linkage of rabbit myometrial alpha 2-adrenergic receptors to inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Y; Riemer, R K; Goldfien, A; Roberts, J M

    1989-04-01

    The uterine response to adrenergic stimulation is determined by the hormonal milieu. This response is particularly well characterized in the rabbit. In this species, as in humans, the response of the uterus to sympathetic stimulation is alpha-adrenergically mediated contraction with elevated circulating estrogen. However, with progesterone predominance, similar stimulation inhibits uterine contractions, a response mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors acting through their second message, cyclic adenosine monophosphate. We studied the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate myometrial adrenergic responses. In this study, we questioned whether part of the effect of sex steroids could be explained by an alteration of the coupling of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We found that in the progesterone-treated rabbit, although alpha 2-receptors are present, they are not linked to inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate synthesis. The net synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphage in response to endogenous catecholamines is determined by their activation of beta-adrenergic receptors to increase and alpha 2-receptors to decrease cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation. Thus the uncoupling of alpha 2-receptors contributes to increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in myometrium of progesterone-treated animals consistent with the reported predominance of beta-adrenergic contractile responses in this setting.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system....5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  17. Beta2-integrins contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Marino, Joseph S; Tausch, Brian J; Dearth, Christopher L; Manacci, Marc V; McLoughlin, Thomas J; Rakyta, Samuel J; Linsenmayer, Matthew P; Pizza, Francis X

    2008-10-01

    We tested the contribution of beta(2)-integrins, which are important for normal function of neutrophils and macrophages, to skeletal muscle hypertrophy after mechanical loading. Using the synergist ablation model of hypertrophy and mice deficient in the common beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins (CD18(-/-)), we found that overloaded muscles of wild-type mice had greater myofiber size, dry muscle mass, and total protein content compared with CD18(-/-) mice. The hypertrophy in wild-type mice was preceded by elevations in neutrophils, macrophages, satellite cell/myoblast proliferation (5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine- and desmin-positive cells), markers of muscle differentiation (MyoD1 and myogenin gene expression and formation and size of regenerating myofibers), signaling for protein synthesis [phosphorylation of Akt and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k)], and reduced signaling for protein degradation (decreased gene expression of muscle atrophy F box/atrogin-1). The deficiency in beta(2)-integrins, however, altered the accumulation profile of neutrophils and macrophages, disrupted the temporal profile of satellite cell/myoblast proliferation, reduced the markers of muscle differentiation, and impaired the p70S6k signaling, all of which could serve as mechanisms for the impaired hypertrophy in overloaded CD18(-/-) mice. In conclusion, our findings indicate that beta(2)-integrins contribute to the hypertrophic response to muscle overload by temporally regulating satellite cells/myoblast proliferation and by enhancing muscle differentiation and p70S6k signaling.

  18. Antibodies to endothelial cells and to beta 2-glycoprotein I in the antiphospholipid syndrome: prevalence and isotype distribution.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Cervera, R; Teixidó, M; Reverter, J C; Font, J; López-Soto, A; Monteagudo, J; Escolar, G; Ingelmo, M

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and isotype distribution of antibodies to endothelial cells (aEC) and to beta 2-glycoprotein I (a beta 2GPI) in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Fifteen patients with an APS [nine associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and six "primary'] and 15 with SLE without an APS were prospectively studied. The aEC were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein and the a beta 2GPI by ELISA using highly purified beta 2GPI. A positive titre of aEC was detected in 20 out of 30 patients (67%), but in none of the control group. Ten patients had both IgG and IgM isotypes, five had IgG only and five had only IgM. Thirteen patients with the APS (87%) were found to have a positive titre of aEC, while only seven with SLE but without a history of APS (47%) had aEC (P < 0.05). Nine patients with the APS (60%) had a positive titre of a beta 2GPI (four had both IgG and IgM isotypes, one had IgG only and four had only IgM), while none of the patients without an APS (0%) had these antibodies (P < 0.001). A significant association was also found between the presence of aPL and aEC (P < 0.05), as well as between aPL and a beta 2GPI (P < 0.001). Both aEC and a beta 2GPI can be found in the APS. This reinforces the theory that APS represents a complex autoimmune disorder in which several autoantibodies co-exist with aPL.

  19. beta2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Rainer; Eilmes, Katrin Jennifer; Grasemann, Hartmut; Torres, Brian; Knauer, Nicola; Sroka, Karin; Insel, Paul A; Ratjen, Felix

    2002-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator can be activated through beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) stimulation. We tested the hypothesis that coding sequence polymorphisms in the beta2AR gene contribute to the disease state in patients with cystic fibrosis. The Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile beta2AR polymorphisms were studied by specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 126 cystic fibrosis patients. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in cystic fibrosis patients carrying the Gly16 allele in either homozygous or heterozygous form (Gly16Gly + Arg16Gly) compared to patients homozygous for the Arg16 allele (60.3 +/- 3.5% versus 75.7 +/- 4.9% predicted). Similarly, forced vital capacity and flows at lower lung volumes were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) lower in cystic fibrosis patients carrying the Gly16 allele. In addition, the Gly16 allele was associated with a greater 5 year decline in pulmonary function (P < 0.01). Bronchodilator responses to albuterol were not significantly different between the groups. The Thr164Ile variant was found in four patients; these patients had markedly reduced pulmonary function. Isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP formation was significantly blunted in cystic fibrosis patients carrying either the Gly16 allele or Thr164Ile genotype compared to cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for the respective Arg16 alleles. These data provide the first evidence suggesting that polymorphisms of the beta2AR gene contribute to clinical severity and disease progression in cystic fibrosis.

  20. Prolonged treatment with the beta3-adrenergic agonist CL 316243 induces adipose tissue remodeling in rat but not in guinea pig: 1) fat store depletion and desensitization of beta-adrenergic responses.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, C; Redonnet, A; Prévot, D; Carpéné, C; Atgié, C

    2006-06-01

    Beta3-adrenergic agonists have been considered as potent antiobesity and antidiabetic agents mainly on the basis of their beneficial actions discovered twenty years ago in obese and diabetic rodents. The aim of this work was to verify whether prolonged treatment with a beta3-adrenergic agonist known to stimulate lipid mobilisation, could promote desensitization of beta-adrenergic responses. Wistar rats and guinea pigs were treated during one week with CL 316243 (CL, 1 mg/kg/d) by implanted osmotic minipumps. In control animals, beta3-adrenergic agonists were lipolytic in rat but not in guinea pig adipocytes. CL-treatment did not alter body weight gain in both species, but reduced fat stores in rats. Lipolysis stimulation by forskolin was unmodified but responses to beta1-, beta2- and beta3-agonists were reduced in visceral or subcutaneous white adipose tissues of CL-treated rats. Similarly, the beta3-adrenergic-dependent impairment of insulin action on glucose transport and lipogenesis in rat adipocytes was diminished after CL-treatment. In rat adipocytes, [125I]ICYP binding and beta3-adrenoceptor mRNA levels were reduced after sustained CL administration. These findings show that CL 316243 exerts (beta3-adrenergic lipolytic and antilipogenic effects in rat adipocytes. These actions, which are likely involved in the fat depletion observed in rat, also lead to the desensitization of all beta-adrenergic responses. Therefore this desensitization, together with the lack of slimming action in guinea pig, seriously attenuates the usefulness of beta3-agonists as antiobesity agents, and may explain why such agonists have not been conducted to a widespread clinical use.

  1. Beta(2)-microglobulin as a negative growth regulator of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Rui; Li, Zhongkui; Epstein, Joshua; Barlogie, Bart; Yi, Qing

    2002-08-01

    High beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) levels in myeloma correlate with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that beta(2)m may affect myeloma cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of beta(2)m on myeloma cells. Primary myeloma cells freshly isolated from patients and myeloma cell lines were used, cultured in the presence of beta(2)m, and monitored for growth and survival. Beta(2)m suppressed the growth of primary tumour cells and myeloma cell lines (ARK-RS, ARP-1, RPMI-8226, U266, ARH-77 and IM-9). High concentrations of beta(2)m induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Beta(2)m-induced apoptosis was dependent on activation of a caspase cascade, inhibited by interleukin 6, and did not involve the surface death receptors, as receptor-neutralizing antibodies had no inhibitory effect. Beta(2)m-induced growth arrest was associated with downregulation of cyclins A and D2. Surprisingly, anti-beta(2)m antibodies did not block the effect of beta(2)m but were synergistic with beta(2)m, resulting in 90% growth inhibition and 70% apoptosis of myeloma cells. Whereas beta(2)m treatment resulted in slight upregulation of surface beta(2)m and major histocompatibility complex class I alpha-chain expression, treatment of myeloma cells with anti-beta(2)m antibodies alone or with beta(2)m resulted in significant downregulation of surface beta(2)m and class I molecules, suggesting that class I molecules may be involved in signal transduction. Our data demonstrate that beta(2)m plays an important role in regulating the growth and survival of myeloma cells in vitro and warrants further investigation to delineate the mechanisms of beta(2)m and anti-beta(2)m antibody-induced growth regulation of myeloma cells.

  2. alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine reward and anxiety relief

    PubMed Central

    McGranahan, Tresa M.; Patzlaff, Natalie E.; Grady, Sharon R.; Heinemann, Stephen F.; Booker, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary psychoactive substance in tobacco and it exerts its effects by interaction with various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. One of the major subtypes expressed in brain, the alpha4beta2-nAChR, endogenously modulates neuronal excitability and thereby, modifies certain normal, as well as nicotine-induced, behaviors. Although alpha4-containing nAChRs are widely expressed across the brain, a major focus has been on their roles within midbrain dopaminergic regions involved in drug addition, mental illness and movement control in humans. We developed a unique model system to examine the role of alpha4-nAChRs within dopaminergic neurons by a targeted genetic deletion of the alpha4 subunit from dopaminergic neurons in mice. The loss alpha4 mRNA and alpha4beta2-nAChRs from dopaminergic neurons was confirmed, as well as selective loss of alpha4beta2-nAChR function from dopaminergic but not GABAergic neurons. Two behaviors central to nicotine dependence, reward and anxiety relief, were examined. Alpha4-nAChRs specifically on dopaminergic neurons were demonstrated to be necessary for nicotine reward as measured by nicotine place preference, but not for another drug of addiction, cocaine. Alpha4-nAChRs are necessary for the anxiolytic effects of nicotine in the elevated plus maze and elimination of alpha4-beta2-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons decreased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of nicotine. Deletion of alpha4-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons also increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced locomotor depression, however nicotine-induced hypothermia was unaffected. This is the first work to develop a dopaminergic specific deletion of a nAChR subunit and examine resulting changes in nicotine behaviors. PMID:21795541

  3. Theiler's virus infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fiette, L; Aubert, C; Brahic, M; Rossi, C P

    1993-01-01

    Theiler's virus, a murine picornavirus, persists in the central nervous systems of susceptible mice and induces a chronic demyelinating disease. Susceptibility or resistance to this disease is controlled in part by the H2-D locus of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). For this reason, it has been proposed that CD8+ class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells play a main role in the pathogenesis of this viral infection. We recently reported the existence of anti-virus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the course of Theiler's virus infection. In the present study, we examined the role of these effector cells in mice in which the beta 2-microglobulin gene had been disrupted. These mice fail to express class I MHC molecules and therefore lack CD8+ T cells. The mice are derived from a C57BL/6 x 129/Ola cross and are H-2b, a haplotype associated with resistance to Theiler's virus infection. beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient mice (beta 2m-/-mice) failed to clear the virus, developed demyelination, and, interestingly, did not succumb to early infection. These results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are required to clear Theiler's virus infection. In contrast with a current hypothesis, they also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are not major mediators of the demyelinating disease. Images PMID:8416386

  4. The CD8+ T cell repertoire in beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice is biased towards reactivity against self-major histocompatibility class I

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Beta 2-Microglobulin-deficient (beta 2m -/-) mice are reported to lack cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, CD8+ T cells, and the ability to mount MHC class I- specific T cell responses. We have observed that beta 2m -/- mice possess CD8+ T cells that can be induced to perform strong allospecific cytotoxic responses against nonself-MHC class I by in vivo priming. We report that these beta 2m -/- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) differ from those induced in beta 2m-positive littermates in that they cross-react and kill cells expressing self-MHC class I at normal ligand density with beta 2m. beta 2m -/- CTL could even be induced in primary mixed lymphocyte culture by self-MHC class I expressing stimulator cells, whereas allogeneic stimulator cells failed to elicit a response under similar conditions. Cells with a reduced cell surface MHC class I expression were less sensitive, while syngeneic beta 2m -/- cells were resistant to the beta 2m -/- CTL. This antiself-MHC reactivity could not be induced when beta 2m -/- T cells matured in an environment with normal MHC class I expression in bone marrow chimeric mice. Antiself- MHC reactivity was also observed against human peptide loading- deficient cells expressing the appropriate murine class I molecules, suggesting that affinity to self-MHC class I may occur irrespective of peptide content. The results fit with a model where positive and negative selection of CD8+ T cells in beta 2m -/- mice is mediated by low levels of MHC class I free heavy chains. In this model, low ligand density on selecting cells leads to positive selection of rare T cells that bind to low levels of MHC class I free heavy chains, resulting in a very small peripheral CD8+ compartment. Due to low density of the selecting ligand, negative selection does not remove T cells recognizing beta 2m-positive cells expressing self-MHC class I at normal ligand density, which generates a T cell repertoire that would

  5. Isolation and characterization of TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 5 from medium conditioned by Xenopus XTC cells.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A B; Rosa, F; Roche, N S; Coligan, J E; Garfield, M; Rebbert, M L; Kondaiah, P; Danielpour, D; Kehrl, J H; Wahl, S M

    1990-01-01

    TGF-beta 2 and -beta 5 have been purified from medium conditioned by Xenopus cultured cells (XTC) and identified based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and biological activity. When applied in high concentrations, Xenopus TGF-beta 2, like porcine TGF-beta 2, induces expression of mesodermal markers from cultured Xenopus ectodermal explants, whereas TGF-beta 5 is inactive in this assay. However, the TGF-beta 's could be separated from the major mesoderm-inducing activity present in XTC medium. Xenopus TGF-beta 2 and -beta 5 are approximately equivalent to TGF-beta 1 in their abilities to inhibit the growth of mink lung CCL-64 cells, induce anchorage-independent growth of rat NRK cells, inhibit the proliferation and antibody secretion of human B-lymphocytes, and stimulate chemotaxis of human monocytes. These data establish the functional activity of TGF-beta 5 and suggest that more complex multicellular systems, in contrast to most isolated cells, discriminate between the different TGF-beta s.

  6. α(1D)-Adrenergic receptors constitutive activity and reduced expression at the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    García-Sáinz, J Adolfo; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Medina, Luz Del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors are a heterogeneous family of the G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Adrenergic receptors comprise three subfamilies (α(1), α(2), and β, with three members each) and the α(1D)-adrenergic receptor is one of the members of the α(1) subfamily with some interesting traits. The α(1D)-adrenergic receptor is difficult to express, seems predominantly located intracellularly, and exhibits constitutive activity. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to determine changes in intracellular free calcium concentration which has been instrumental to define the constitutive activity of these receptors. Taking advantage of the fact that truncation of the first 79 amino acids of α(1D)-adrenergic receptors markedly increased their membrane expression, we were able to show that constitutive activity is present in receptors truncated at the amino and carboxyl termini, which indicates that such domains are dispensable for this action. Constitutive activity could be observed in cells expressing either the rat or human α(1D)-adrenergic receptor orthologs. Such constitutive activity has been observed in native rat arteries and we will discuss the possible functional implications that it might have in the regulation of blood pressure.

  7. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2-glycoprotein III aids in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of this serum protein and a variety of...

  8. Data Testing for ENDF/B-VII.1beta2

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Calculations have been performed for 390 critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments using the beta2 release of ENDF/B-VII.1. The results are compared to previous results for ENDF/B-VII. Cases that changed between the two versions are highlighted, and the results are discussed. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is working on a new release of the ENDF/B-VII library of evaluated nuclear data, and the 'beta2' set of files was recently made available by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). A set of about 850 input files for the MCNP Monte Carlo code to run critical assemblies from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments was available from our previous data testing work for ENDF/B-VII.0. We have now run 390 of those cases using data based on the beta2 files, and those results will be presented below. The ENDF files were downloaded from the NNDC to a Mac workstation. They were then processed using NJOY10 into ACE format files for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The processing was limited to materials needed for the data testing work at this point. The existing MCNP input decks were used. No checking was done to see if any of the benchmarks had been updated since the ENDF/B-VII testing was finished. Most runs used 50 million histories in order to get Monte Carlo statistical uncertainties down the 0.01% range.

  9. Clenbuterol, a beta(2)-agonist, retards atrophy in denervated muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2) agonist, clenbuterol, on the protein content as well as on the contractile strength and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area of various denervated muscles from rats were investigated. It was found that denervated soleus, anterior tibialis, and gastrocnemius muscles, but not the extensor digitorum longus, of rats treated for 2-3 weeks with clenbuterol contained 95-110 percent more protein than denervated controls. The twofold difference in the protein content of denervated solei was paralleled by similar changes in contractile strength and muscle fiber cross-sectional area.

  10. [Adrenergic beta-agonist intoxication].

    PubMed

    Carrola, Paulo; Devesa, Nuno; Silva, José Manuel; Ramos, Fernando; Alexandrino, Mário B; Moura, José J

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe two clinical cases (father and daughter), observed in the Hospital Urgency with distal tremors, anxiety, palpitations, nausea, headaches and dizziness, two hours after ingestión of cow liver. They also had leucocytosis (with neutrophylia), hypokalemia and hyperglycaemia. After treatment with potassium i.v. and propranolol, the symptoms disappeared. The symptoms recurred at home because the patients didn't take the prescribed medication and persisted for five days, with spontaneous disappearance. The serum of both patients revealed the presence of clenbuterol (65 hg/ml - father and 58 hg/ml - daughter). The animal's liver had a concentration of 1,42 mg/kg. Clenbuterol is a ß-adrenergic agonist with low specificity, with some veterinary indications. However, this substance has been illegally used as a growth's promotor. We intend to alert doctors for this problem, particularly those that work in the Urgency.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10117 - Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10117 Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1... substance identified generically as heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (PMN P-04-776)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10117 - Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10117 Heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1... substance identified generically as heteromonocyclo-beta-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) -1-propanol (PMN P-04-776)...

  13. Folding and fibrillogenesis: clues from beta2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Rennella, Enrico; Corazza, Alessandra; Giorgetti, Sofia; Fogolari, Federico; Viglino, Paolo; Porcari, Riccardo; Verga, Laura; Stoppini, Monica; Bellotti, Vittorio; Esposito, Gennaro

    2010-08-13

    Renal failure impairs the clearance of beta(2)-microglobulin from the serum, with the result that this protein accumulates in joints under the form of amyloid fibrils. While the molecular mechanism leading to deposition of amyloid in vivo is not totally understood, some organic compounds, such as trifluoroethanol (TFE), are commonly used to promote the elongation of amyloid fibrils in vitro. This article gives some insights into the structural properties and the conformational states of beta(2)-microglobulin in the presence of TFE, using both the wild-type protein and the mutant Trp60Gly. The structure of the native state of the protein is rather insensitive to the presence of the alcohol, but the stability of this state is lowered in comparison to some other conformational states. In particular, a native-like folding intermediate is observed in the presence of moderate concentrations of TFE. Instead, at higher concentrations of the alcohol, the population of a disordered native-unlike state is dominant and correlates with the ability to elongate fibrils. PMID:20558175

  14. The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jin; Song, Fuyang; Yang, Yi; Ma, Chenjie; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Yong; Wang, Yujiong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) beta2 toxin (CPB2) is an important virulent factor of necrotic enteritis in both animals and humans. However, studies of its pathogenic roles and functional mechanisms have been hampered due to the difficulty of purification and lack of specific antibodies against this toxin. Methods. A recombinant His-tagged C. perfringens beta2 (rCPB2) toxin and monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against CPB2 were generated and characterized by assays of cytotoxicity, immunoblotting, ELISA, neutralization, and immunofluorescence. Results. A His-tagged rCPB2 with integrity and cytotoxicity of native CPB2 was purified from E. coli expressing system, which exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity on NCM460 human intestinal epithelial cells. The rCPB2 could induce apoptotic cell death rather than necrotic death in part through a pathway involved in caspase-3 signaling. Mechanistically, rCPB2 was able to first bind to cell membrane and dynamically translocate into cytoplasm for its cytotoxic activity. Three McAbs 1E23, 2G7 and 2H7 were characterized to be able to immunologically react with CPB2 and neutralize rCPB2 cytotoxicity on NCM460 cells. Conclusion. These results indicated the rCPB2 and antibodies generated in this study are useful tools for studies of biological functions and pathogenic mechanisms of CPB2 in future, which warrants for further investigations.

  15. The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jin; Song, Fuyang; Yang, Yi; Ma, Chenjie; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Yong; Wang, Yujiong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) beta2 toxin (CPB2) is an important virulent factor of necrotic enteritis in both animals and humans. However, studies of its pathogenic roles and functional mechanisms have been hampered due to the difficulty of purification and lack of specific antibodies against this toxin. Methods. A recombinant His-tagged C. perfringens beta2 (rCPB2) toxin and monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against CPB2 were generated and characterized by assays of cytotoxicity, immunoblotting, ELISA, neutralization, and immunofluorescence. Results. A His-tagged rCPB2 with integrity and cytotoxicity of native CPB2 was purified from E. coli expressing system, which exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity on NCM460 human intestinal epithelial cells. The rCPB2 could induce apoptotic cell death rather than necrotic death in part through a pathway involved in caspase-3 signaling. Mechanistically, rCPB2 was able to first bind to cell membrane and dynamically translocate into cytoplasm for its cytotoxic activity. Three McAbs 1E23, 2G7 and 2H7 were characterized to be able to immunologically react with CPB2 and neutralize rCPB2 cytotoxicity on NCM460 cells. Conclusion. These results indicated the rCPB2 and antibodies generated in this study are useful tools for studies of biological functions and pathogenic mechanisms of CPB2 in future, which warrants for further investigations. PMID:27672668

  16. Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists counteract LPS-induced neuronal death in retinal cultures by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kunizo; Wood, John P M; Osborne, Neville N

    2003-09-26

    Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 72 h was shown to dose-dependently increase nitric oxide production from 6-day-old retinal cultures. Cell death, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and an increase in neuronal labelling for TUNEL, was elevated concurrently. During treatment there was an increase of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and glial fibrillary acidic protein labelling in glial cells and a reduction in the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive neurones. The NOS inhibitors, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, dexamethasone and indomethacin potently inhibited both nitric oxide stimulation and cell death caused by LPS. In this study, the beta(2)- (ICI-18551), beta(1)- (betaxolol) and mixed beta(1)/beta(2)- (timolol, metipranolol) adrenergic receptor antagonists were all shown to attenuate LPS-induced LDH release from these cultures, but to have no effect on LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production. This effect was mimicked by the calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. Interestingly, the beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, salbutamol, arterenol and isoproterenol were also able to attenuate cell death caused by LPS. Moreover, these compounds also inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide release. These studies suggest that LPS stimulates nitric oxide release from cultured retinal glial cells and that this process leads to neurone death. beta-adrenergic receptor agonists prevent the effects of LPS by inhibiting the stimulation of nitric oxide production. The data also suggest that beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists can attenuate LPS-induced death of neurones, but that these compounds act in a manner that is neurone-dependent, is mimicked by blockade of calcium channels and is independent of the stimulation of nitric oxide release.

  17. Human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtype distribution: widespread and subtype-selective expression of alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 mRNA in multiple tissues.

    PubMed

    Eason, M G; Liggett, S B

    1993-07-01

    At present, molecular cloning and pharmacological studies have delineated three human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2AR) subtypes, alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2. Assignment of the alpha 2AR subtypes to specific functions has been limited by an unclear definition of tissue alpha 2AR expression outside of the central nervous system. It has been suggested that alpha 2C4 expression is confined to the brain, that alpha 2C2 expression is only in the liver and kidney, and that there is nearly ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C10. However, this is based on studies of a limited number of rat tissues or on studies using non-species-specific approaches. Therefore, to define alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 tissue expression, we used reverse transcription of total RNA isolated from 20 human tissues, followed by amplification of alpha 2AR cDNA using the polymerase chain reaction. This technique provided two advantages: high sensitivity and, with the use of subtype-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes, differentiation between the alpha 2AR subtypes. The tissues studied were aorta, vena cava, heart (epicardium and endocardium), lung, skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas (head and tail), fat (perinephric and subcutaneous), kidney (cortex and medulla), prostate, stomach, ileum, jejunum, colon, adrenal gland, and spleen. We found that the majority of these tissues expressed alpha 2C10, with the exceptions being the head of the pancreas, subcutaneous fat, colon, and spleen. In marked distinction to other studies, however, we found a prolific expression of the alpha 2C4 and alpha 2C2 subtypes. Expression of alpha 2C4 was found in all tissues with the exception of liver, fat, stomach, and colon, and a virtually ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C2 was found, with the exception of epicardium. Of all tissues studied, only colon and subcutaneous fat expressed a single alpha 2AR subtype, which was alpha 2C2. Thus, the alpha 2AR subtypes do not have a confined expression but

  18. Human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtype distribution: widespread and subtype-selective expression of alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 mRNA in multiple tissues.

    PubMed

    Eason, M G; Liggett, S B

    1993-07-01

    At present, molecular cloning and pharmacological studies have delineated three human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2AR) subtypes, alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2. Assignment of the alpha 2AR subtypes to specific functions has been limited by an unclear definition of tissue alpha 2AR expression outside of the central nervous system. It has been suggested that alpha 2C4 expression is confined to the brain, that alpha 2C2 expression is only in the liver and kidney, and that there is nearly ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C10. However, this is based on studies of a limited number of rat tissues or on studies using non-species-specific approaches. Therefore, to define alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 tissue expression, we used reverse transcription of total RNA isolated from 20 human tissues, followed by amplification of alpha 2AR cDNA using the polymerase chain reaction. This technique provided two advantages: high sensitivity and, with the use of subtype-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes, differentiation between the alpha 2AR subtypes. The tissues studied were aorta, vena cava, heart (epicardium and endocardium), lung, skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas (head and tail), fat (perinephric and subcutaneous), kidney (cortex and medulla), prostate, stomach, ileum, jejunum, colon, adrenal gland, and spleen. We found that the majority of these tissues expressed alpha 2C10, with the exceptions being the head of the pancreas, subcutaneous fat, colon, and spleen. In marked distinction to other studies, however, we found a prolific expression of the alpha 2C4 and alpha 2C2 subtypes. Expression of alpha 2C4 was found in all tissues with the exception of liver, fat, stomach, and colon, and a virtually ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C2 was found, with the exception of epicardium. Of all tissues studied, only colon and subcutaneous fat expressed a single alpha 2AR subtype, which was alpha 2C2. Thus, the alpha 2AR subtypes do not have a confined expression but

  19. Role of IL-1 beta and prostaglandins in beta 2-microglobulin-induced bone mineral dissolution.

    PubMed

    Moe, S M; Hack, B K; Cummings, S A; Sprague, S M

    1995-02-01

    beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) induces an osteoclast-mediated net calcium efflux from neonatal mouse calvariae which occurs only after 48 hours of incubation, suggesting that beta 2m acts via other growth factors. To further test this hypothesis, calvariae were incubated with and without beta 2m in the presence of the prostaglandin inhibitor indomethacin, anti-interleukin-1 beta antibody (anti-IL-1 beta), or interleukin-1 beta receptor antagonist (IL-1 beta RA). The addition of beta 2m to the culture medium stimulated, whereas indomethacin inhibited basal calcium efflux following 48 hours. However, the difference (delta) between the calcium efflux induced in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in basal medium and that in calvariae incubated with and without beta 2m in indomethacin supplemented medium was similar, suggesting a prostaglandin independent mechanism. There was a time dependent increase in PGE2 in basal medium which was unaffected by beta 2m. In contrast, pre-incubating calvariae with either anti-IL-1 beta or IL-1 beta RA did not alter basal calcium efflux but completely blocked the beta 2m induced calcium efflux. Anti-IL-1 beta had no effect on the basal release of beta-glucuronidase but partially blocked the beta 2m induced release of beta-glucuronidase. Thus, the beta 2m-induced calcium efflux observed in neonatal mouse calvariae is dependent on interleukin-1 beta but not prostaglandins.

  20. Relationship between Human Evolution and Neurally Mediated Syncope Disclosed by the Polymorphic Sites of the Adrenergic Receptor Gene α2B-AR

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Akira; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Nagata, Eiichiro; Sakura, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of disease on neurally mediated syncope (NMS) during an acute stress reaction. We analyzed the mechanism of the molecular interaction and the polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor (α2B-AR) gene as the potential psychiatric cause of incentive stress. We focused on the following three genotypes of the repeat polymorphism site at Glu 301–303 in the α2B-AR gene: Glu12/12, Glu12/9, and Glu9/9. On the basis of our clinical research, NMS is likely to occur in people with the Glu12/9 heterotype. To verify this, we assessed this relationship with the interaction of Gi protein and adenylate cyclase by in silico analysis of the Glu12/9 heterotype. By measuring the difference in the dissociation time of the Gi-α subunit twice, we found that the Glu12/9 heterotype suppressed the action of adenylate cyclase longer than the Glu homotypes. As this difference in the Glu repeat number effect is thought to be one of the causes of NMS, we investigated the evolutionary significance of the Glu repeat number. Glu8 was originally repeated in simians, while the Glu12 repeats occurred over time during the evolution of bipedalism in humans. Taken with the Glu12 numbers, NMS would likely become a defensive measure to prevent significant blood flow to the human brain. PMID:25860977

  1. Human heart rate: Heritability of resting and stress values in twin pairs, and influence of genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway at a micro-RNA motif in the 3’-UTR of cytochrome b561 (CYB561)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuixing; Deacon, Dekker C.; Rao, Fangwen; Schork, Andrew J.; Fung, Maple M.; Waalen, Jill; Schork, Nicholas J.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Chi, Neil C.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    G disrupted a micro-RNA (hsa-miR-1294) recognition motif in the 3’-UTR (with AG) was demonstrated in a transfected luciferase reporter / human 3’-UTR variant system in two different neuronal/neuroendocrine cell types, and the micro-RNA effect was further documented by co-transfection of a hsa-miR-1294 mimic, yielding an exaggerated decline in expression of the A-allele (better match) reporter (p=4.3E-05). Similar findings of differential 3’-UTR allelic susceptibility to miR-1294 were noted during expression of the full-length human CYB561 mRNA with its cognate 3’-UTR. Finally, exposure of stem-cell-derived human embryoid bodies to miR-1294 mimic or antagomir oligonucleotides yielded directionally opposite effects on contraction rate in proto-hearts. Conclusions HR is a substantially heritable trait, with genetic influence by variation in the adrenergic pathway, here shown for mRNA translational control at the CYB561 step of transmitter formation. The results have implications for potentially modifiable autonomic pathways that influence this risk trait in the population. PMID:24140660

  2. Binding of adrenergic ligands to liver plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum; the toad, Xenopus laevis; and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Janssens, P A; Grigg, J A

    1988-09-01

    The beta-adrenergic ligand iodocyanopindolol (ICP) bound specifically to hepatic plasma membrane preparations from the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Bmax, 40 fmol/mg protein (P) at free concentration above 140 pM; KD, 42 pM); the toad, Xenopus laevis (Bmax, 200 fmol/mg P at 1 nM; KD, 300 pM); and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Bmax, 100 fmol/mg P at 5 nM). For the lungfish, the Scatchard plot was curved showing two classes of binding site with KD's of 20 and 500 pM. Neither the alpha 1-adrenergic ligand prazosin nor the alpha 2-adrenergic ligand yohimbine bound specifically to hepatic membrane preparations from any of the three species. Several adrenergic ligands displaced ICP from hepatic membrane preparations of all three species with KD's of Axolotl--propranolol, 50 nM; isoprenaline, 600 nM; adrenaline, 10 microM; phenylephrine, 20 microM; noradrenaline, 40 microM; and phentolamine, greater than 100 microM; X. laevis--propranolol, 30 nM; isoprenaline, 100 microM; adrenaline, 200 microM; noradrenaline, 300 microM; phenylephrine, 1 mM; and phentolamine, greater than 1 mM; N. forsteri,--propranolol, 25 nM; isoprenaline, 1 microM; adrenaline, 20 microM; phenylephrine, 35 microM; noradrenaline, 600 microM; and phentolamine, 400 microM. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptors are not present in hepatic plasma membrane preparations from these three species and that the hepatic actions of catecholamines are mediated via beta-adrenergic receptors. The order of binding of the beta-adrenergic ligands suggests that the receptors are of the beta 2 type.

  3. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  4. Cellular expression or binding of desLys58-beta2 microglobulin is not dependent on the presence of the tri-molecular MHC class I complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Corlin, D B; Heegaard, N H H; Claesson, M H; Nissen, M H

    2008-02-01

    The monoclonal antibody 332-01 is a newly developed antibody which specifically recognizes human desLys58-beta2 microglobulin (dbeta2m). In the present study, we characterized the binding of 332-01 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a number of human leukaemic and monocytic cell lines, and beta2m gene-deleted murine lymphocytes. dbeta2m was found to be expressed on non-activated and activated monocytes. When cells were pre-exposed to dbeta2m, 332-01 also bound to non-activated T lymphocytes. dbeta2m was expressed on the monocytic cell lines U937 and TIB-202, and binding was significantly increased when cells were pre-incubated with dbeta2m and when TIB-202 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide. dbeta2m was also expressed on T leukaemic Jurkat cells as well as on low HLA-expressing erythroleukaemic K562 cells. beta2m gene-deleted murine splenocytes only bound 332-01 after pre-exposure to dbeta2m. Binding of 332-01 antibody could not be displaced by addition of high concentrations of native beta2m. In conclusion, our data indicate that dbeta2m - in contrast to native beta2m - binds to a hitherto unknown cell surface receptor independent of classical MHC class I molecules. As beta2m has previously been shown to display biological activities such as the induction of both growth promotion and apoptosis, C1 complement activity, shown to mediate cleavage of beta2m, could be involved in these processes.

  5. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  6. Structure, function, and regulation of adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, A. D.

    1993-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and noradrenaline belong to the large multigenic family of receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins. Three pharmacologic types have been identified: alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenergic receptors. Each of these has three subtypes, characterized by both structural and functional differences. The alpha 2 and beta receptors are coupled negatively and positively, respectively, to adenylyl cyclase via Gi or Gs regulatory proteins, and the alpha 1 receptors modulate phospholipase C via the Go protein. Subtype expression is regulated at the level of the gene, the mRNA, and the protein through various transcriptional and postsynthetic mechanisms. Adrenergic receptors constitute, after rhodopsin, one of the best studied models for the other receptors coupled to G proteins that are likely to display similar structural and functional properties. PMID:8401205

  7. Beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis presenting as esophageal perforation in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, G A; Lewis, F I; Dasgupta, M

    1997-01-01

    A 45-year-old male with hypertensive end-stage renal disease and on maintenance hemodialysis for 13 years is reported. He presented with life-threatening hematemesis, secondary to esophageal rupture. Immunohistological staining and electron microscopy examination of the esophageal perforation showed depositions of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) amyoloid. The unique aspect presented here is the localized esophageal involvement with beta 2-M amyloidosis. This is the first reported patient with esophageal perforation, due to the deposition and infiltration of the lower esophagus with beta 2-M which predisposed to its rupture. PMID:9426849

  8. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density during menstrual cycle and pregnancy, in delivery and puerperium.

    PubMed

    Santala, M; Vilska, S; Saarikoski, S; Castrén, O

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density was determined in 11 women during the normal menstrual cycle and 15 women during normal pregnancy. No significant difference in lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density was established in this follow-up study during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Lower lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density was established just after delivery and in puerperium compared with that during pregnancy. It is likely that the high catecholamine concentration during parturition together with the duration of labour and delivery caused down-regulation of the beta 2-adrenoceptors. In puerperium the irregular day-rhythm and the stress of caring for the newborn may also have an effect.

  9. The haemochromatosis protein HFE induces an apparent iron-deficient phenotype in H1299 cells that is not corrected by co-expression of beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Guohua; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2003-03-15

    HFE, an atypical MHC class I type molecule, has a critical, yet still elusive function in the regulation of systemic iron metabolism. HFE mutations are linked to hereditary haemochromatosis type 1, a common autosomal recessive disorder of iron overload. Most patients are homozygous for a C282Y point mutation that abrogates the interaction of HFE with beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) and, thus, impairs its proper processing and expression on the cell surface. An H63D substitution is also associated with disease. To investigate the function of HFE we have generated clones of human H1299 lung cancer cells that express wild-type, C282Y or H63D HFE under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Consistent with earlier observations in other cell lines, the expression of wild-type or H63D, but not C282Y, HFE induces an apparent iron-deficient phenotype, manifested in the activation of iron-regulatory protein and concomitant increase in transferrin receptor levels and decrease in ferritin content. This phenotype persists in cells expressing wild-type HFE after transfection with a beta(2)M cDNA. Whereas endogenous beta(2)M is sufficient for the presentation of at least a fraction of chimeric HFE on the cell surface, this effect is stimulated by approx. 2.8-fold in beta(2)M transfectants. The co-expression of exogenous beta(2)M does not significantly affect the half-life of HFE. These results suggest that the apparent iron-deficient phenotype elicited by HFE is not linked to beta(2)M insufficiency.

  10. Serum clara-cell protein and beta2-microglobulin as early markers of occupational exposure to nitric oxides.

    PubMed

    Hałatek, T; Gromadzińska, J; Wasowicz, W; Rydzyński, K

    2005-02-01

    Biochemical effects of NOx on 60 workers (both genders) of nitric acid production were studied. The control group consisted of 61 nonexposed people employed elsewhere in the plant. Although the actual threshold limit valuetime weighted averages (TLV-TWA) were not exceeded in the specific conditions of our study, the subjects were exposed to NO2 and NO during several exposure episodes with peak maximal concentrations of 140 ppm and 515 ppm, respectively. Additional cross-week evaluation of several biochemical biomarkers in 15 NOx-exposed workers from one shift was performed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the value of serum Clara-cell protein (CC16) as a marker of bronchoalveolar epithelium activity. Antioxidant status was assessed by measuring activity of enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma, or superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthatione S-transferase (GST), and nonenzymatic alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in plasma. Serum hyaluronic acid (HA) determining the connective tissue matrix status of airways, and beta2-microglobulin in serum (beta2M-S) and urine (beta2M-U) as a marker of renal function in occupational exposure to NOx were also employed. Exposure to NOx initiates peroxidative chain depleting of lipoprotein pool (alpha-tocopherol) in blood. Serum CC16 levels in NOx-exposed workers were found to be closely connected with alpha-tocopherol content. In NOx-exposed workers, the beta2M-S level was significantly higher than in the nonexposed ones, with the exception of smokers. Results of the cross-week study confirm cumulative systemic effects of NOx on several examined biomarkers. SOD and GST were found to be depleted. A transient higher level of HA after a 5-d shift significantly inversely correlated with CC16 level. The data imply that NOx-depleted levels of CC16 are detectable already after an 8-h shift. Our results demonstrate that even low NOx human exposure can

  11. Quantification of beta adrenergic receptor subtypes in beta-arrestin knockout mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Akhil; Strachan, Ryan T; Walker, Julia K L

    2015-01-01

    In allergic asthma Beta 2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are important mediators of bronchorelaxation and, paradoxically, asthma development. This contradiction is likely due to the activation of dual signaling pathways that are downstream of G proteins or β-arrestins. Our group has recently shown that β-arrestin-2 acts in its classical role to desensitize and constrain β2AR-induced relaxation of both human and murine airway smooth muscle. To assess the role of β-arrestins in regulating β2AR function in asthma, we and others have utilized β-arrestin-1 and -2 knockout mice. However, it is unknown if genetic deletion of β-arrestins in these mice influences β2AR expression in the airways. Furthermore, there is lack of data on compensatory expression of βAR subtypes when either of the β-arrestins is genetically deleted, thus necessitating a detailed βAR subtype expression study in these β-arrestin knockout mice. Here we standardized a radioligand binding methodology to characterize and quantitate βAR subtype distribution in the airway smooth muscle of wild-type C57BL/6J and β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice. Using complementary competition and single-point saturation binding assays we found that β2ARs predominate over β1ARs in the whole lung and epithelium-denuded tracheobronchial smooth muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Quantification of βAR subtypes in β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 knockout mouse lung and epithelium-denuded tracheobronchial tissue showed that, similar to the C57BL/6J mice, both knockouts display a predominance of β2AR expression. These data provide further evidence that β2ARs are expressed in greater abundance than β1ARs in the tracheobronchial smooth muscle and that loss of either β-arrestin does not significantly affect the expression or relative proportions of βAR subtypes. As β-arrestins are known to modulate β2AR function, our analysis of βAR subtype expression in β-arrestin knockout mice airways sets a reference

  12. Sleep-deprivation reduces NK cell number and function mediated by β-adrenergic signalling.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Beatriz H P; de Oliveira Marchioro, Laís; Greco, Carollina Ribeiro; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Reduction of sleep time triggers a stress response, leading to augmented levels of glucocorticoids and adrenaline. These hormones regulate components of the innate immune system such as natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether and how stress hormones could alter the population and function of NK and NKT cells of mice submitted to different lengths of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, from 24 to 72 h). Results showed that 72h of PSD decreased not only NK and NKT cell counts, but also their cytotoxic activity against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Propranolol treatment during PSD reversed these effects, indicating a major inhibitory role of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) on NK cells function. Moreover, both corticosterone plasma levels and expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) in NK cells increased by 48 h of PSD. In vitro incubation of NK cells with dexamethasone augmented the level of β2-AR in the cell surface, suggesting that glucocorticoids could induce β2-AR expression. In summary, we propose that reduction of NK and NKT cell number and cytotoxic activity appears to be mediated by glucocorticoids-induced increased expression of β2-AR in these cells. PMID:25929826

  13. Serum factors, cell membrane CD14, and beta2 integrins are not required for activation of bovine macrophages by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Jungi, T W; Sager, H; Adler, H; Brcic, M; Pfister, H

    1997-01-01

    The role of serum factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and of macrophage-expressed CD14 and beta2 integrins in the activation of bovine macrophages by LPS was investigated. Macrophage activation was determined by measuring tumor necrosis factor production, NO generation, and upregulation of procoagulant activity by LPS (Escherichia coli O55:B5) at concentrations of 100 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml. The 50% effective dose for LPS was 1 order of magnitude higher than that for activating human macrophages. Macrophages were activated by LPS in the presence of serum or in the presence of albumin demonstrated to be free of LBP. The capacity to react to LPS in the absence of LBP was not due to the acquisition of LBP during a previous culture in serum. It was then established which CD14-specific antibodies block LPS binding to monocytes. Among the CD14-specific antibodies recognizing bovine mononuclear phagocytes (60bca, 3C10, My4, CAM36, VPM65, CMRF31, and TUK4), the first four blocked the binding of LPS-fluorescein isothiocyanate to bovine monocytes at low concentrations. Anti-CD14 antibodies did not block LPS-mediated activation of bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages, monocyte-derived macrophages, and alveolar macrophages. This was observed in experiments in which anti-CD14 concentrations exceeded the 50% inhibitory dose by >30-fold (3C10 and My4) or >300-fold (60bca), as defined in the binding assay described above. Monocyte-derived macrophages from an animal deficient in beta2 integrins and control macrophages were activated by similar concentrations of LPS, suggesting that beta2 integrins are not important bovine LPS receptors. Thus, in bovine macrophages, LPS recognition pathways which are independent of exogenous LBP, of membrane-expressed CD14, and of beta2 integrins may exist. PMID:9284122

  14. Cloning and expression of a rat brain. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RB{alpha}{sub 2B}) and its homologous gene (GR{alpha}{sub 2B}) encoding an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor ({alpha}{sub 2}-C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype (RNG{alpha}{sub 2}). Transient expression of RB{alpha}{sub 2B} in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine {gt} yohimbine {gt} prazosin {gt} oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K{sub i} ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GR{alpha}{sub 2B} may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated {alpha}{sub 2B} subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptors.

  15. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7 nAChR) and {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX, {alpha}7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol ({beta}-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE{sub 2} and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE{sub 2} induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not {alpha}-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. Beta-2-linked glucans secreted by fast-growing species of Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    York, W.S.; McNeil, M.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1980-04-01

    Fast-growing species of Rhizobium were found to secrete low-molecular-weight ..beta..-2-linked glucans when cultured in synthetic liquid medium. These glucans are quite similar to ..beta..-2-linked glucans produced by species of Agrobacterium. No reducing terminus was detected in these glucans.

  17. Agonist-dependent single channel current and gating in alpha4beta2delta and alpha1beta2gamma2S GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Angelo; Harrison, Neil L

    2008-02-01

    The family of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediates two types of inhibition in the mammalian brain. Phasic inhibition is mediated by synaptic GABA(A)Rs that are mainly comprised of alpha(1), beta(2), and gamma(2) subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs comprised of alpha(4/6), beta(2), and delta subunits. We investigated the activation properties of recombinant alpha(4)beta(2)delta and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs in response to GABA and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP) using electrophysiological recordings from outside-out membrane patches. Rapid agonist application experiments indicated that THIP produced faster opening rates at alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs (beta approximately 1600 s(-1)) than at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs (beta approximately 460 s(-1)), whereas GABA activated alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs more rapidly (beta approximately 1800 s(-1)) than alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs (beta < 440 s(-1)). Single channel recordings of alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) and alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs showed that both channels open to a main conductance state of approximately 25 pS at -70 mV when activated by GABA and low concentrations of THIP, whereas saturating concentrations of THIP elicited approximately 36 pS openings at both channels. Saturating concentrations of GABA elicited brief (<10 ms) openings with low intraburst open probability (P(O) approximately 0.3) at alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs and at least two "modes" of single channel bursting activity, lasting approximately 100 ms at alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA(A)Rs. The most prevalent bursting mode had a P(O) of approximately 0.7 and was described by a reaction scheme with three open and three shut states, whereas the "high" P(O) mode ( approximately 0.9) was characterized by two shut and three open states. Single channel activity elicited by THIP in alpha(4)beta(2)delta and alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S) GABA

  18. A missense mutation in the beta-2 integrin gene (ITGB2) causes canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kijas, J M; Bauer, T R; Gäfvert, S; Marklund, S; Trowald-Wigh, G; Johannisson, A; Hedhammar, A; Binns, M; Juneja, R K; Hickstein, D D; Andersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) is a fatal immunodeficiency disease found in Irish setters. The clinical manifestations of CLAD are very similar to LAD in humans and BLAD in cattle, which are both caused by mutations in ITGB2 encoding the leukocyte integrin beta-2 subunit (CD18). Sequence analysis of the ITGB2 coding sequence from a CLAD dog and a healthy control revealed a single missense mutation, Cys36Ser. This cysteine residue is conserved among all beta integrins, and the mutation most likely disrupts a disulfide bond. The mutation showed a complete association with CLAD in Irish setters and was not found in a sample of dogs from other breeds. The causative nature of this mutation was confirmed by transduction experiments using retroviral vectors and human LAD EBV B-cells. The normal canine CD18 formed heterodimers with the human CD11 subunit, whereas gene transfer of the mutant CD18 resulted in very low levels of CD11/CD18 expression. The identification of the causative mutation for CLAD now makes it possible to identify carrier animals with a simple diagnostic DNA test, and it forms the basis for using CLAD as a large animal model for the development and evaluation of clinical treatments for human LAD. PMID:10512685

  19. Beta 1-adrenergic regulation of the GT1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal cell lines: stimulation of GnRH release via receptors positively coupled to adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Martínez de la Escalera, G; Choi, A L; Weiner, R I

    1992-09-01

    The release of GnRH evoked by norepinephrine (NE) was studied in GT1 GnRH neuronal cell lines in superfusion and static cultures. GnRH release from static cultured GT1-7 cells was stimulated by NE in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mimicked by the nonsubtype-selective beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the beta 1-adrenergic subtype-specific antagonist CGP 20712A. However, the stimulation of GnRH release by NE was not affected by the beta 2-, alpha-, alpha 1-, or alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists ICI 118.551, phentolamine, prazosin, or yohimbine, respectively. Superfusion of GT1-1 cells with NE for 60-100 min resulted in rapid and sustained increases in GnRH secretion. The NE-stimulated GnRH release showed a higher amplitude and longer duration than the spontaneous GnRH pulses characteristic of GT1-1 cells. In parallel to the stimulation of GnRH release, NE also rapidly increased (first observed at 60 sec) the intracellular concentration of cAMP in isobutylmethylxanthine-pretreated GT1-1 and GT1-7 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. The stimulation of intracellular cAMP concentration was also mimicked by isoproterenol and blocked by propranolol and CGP 20712A. In addition, GT1 cells express beta 1- but not beta 2-adrenergic receptor mRNA, as probed by Northern blot analysis. These results demonstrate a direct stimulatory effect of NE on GnRH neurons. The pharmacological evidence and the mRNA analysis are consistent with NE acting through a beta 1-adrenergic receptor positively coupled to adenylate cyclase.

  20. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  1. Mass spectrometric characterization of conformational preludes to [beta]2-microglobulin aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Cheng, Lei; Heegaard, Niels H. H.

    2007-12-01

    Characterization of protein folding and unfolding is an important issue for basic biological science, for understanding the devastating amyloid diseases, and for the manufacture and use of biological therapeutics. Unlike nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the use of mass spectrometry to monitor amide hydrogen (1H/2H) exchange kinetics (HX-MS) allows characterization of structural dynamics even when only limited amounts of protein is available. As an adjunct technique, requiring even less material and very well suited for serial monitoring of folding phenomena in a single solution under native conditions capillary electrophoresis may also be very informative. These approaches are here used to examine the small (99 amino acid residues) protein [beta]2-microglobulin ([beta]2m) which is prone to amyloidogenic unfolding especially after cleavage at its lysine-58 residue. The propensity for unfolding of native, non-cleaved [beta]2m and lysine-58 cleaved [beta]2m variants as well as the effect of acetonitrile on the conformational equilibria could be addressed by these approaches. At physiological conditions, intact [beta]2m and the lysine-58 cleaved variants undergo a transient unfolding that exhibit an EX1 type hydrogen exchange behaviour. We have measured the unfolding rate constants for the cleaved variant where Lys-58 is removed ([Delta]K58-[beta]2m) and the cleaved variant where this residue is preserved (cK58-[beta]2m) at various temperatures. Below 37 °C, the variant devoid of Lys-58 ([Delta]K58-[beta]2m) has a higher unfolding rate than cK58-[beta]2m and this correlates with the observation that [Delta]K58-[beta]2m has a higher propensity to aggregate. The results of our studies provide valuable insight into the early conformational perturbations involved in rendering this protein insoluble and amyloidogenic. The approaches used in this study should be useful also for the characterization of other conformationally unstable proteins.

  2. Binding of ( sup 3 H)idazoxan and of its methoxy derivative ( sup 3 H) RX821002 in human fat cells: ( sup 3 H)idazoxan but not ( sup 3 H) RX821002 labels additional non-alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Langin, D.; Paris, H.; Lafontan, M. )

    1990-06-01

    Binding studies were carried out in human fat cell membranes with two alpha 2-adrenergic antagonists, (3H)idazoxan and its methoxy derivative (3H)RX821002. Inhibition studies with epinephrine enantiomers indicate that (3H)RX821002 only binds to alpha 2-adrenoceptors, whereas (3H)idazoxan labels alpha 2-adrenoceptors and additional nonadrenergic sites (NAIBS). NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors display different affinities towards drugs from various chemical families. Imidazoline and some guanidine derivatives exhibit a high affinity for NAIBS. Pharmacological studies of human NAIBS indicate that they are slightly different from those previously reported in the rabbit, suggesting the existence of several subtypes of NAIBS. Furthermore, NAIBS are different from the previously described imidazoline-preferring sites. (3H)idazoxan and (3H)RX821002 saturation analyses were performed in human adipocytes from different anatomical locations, in order to compare the number of NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Although there was an important variation in NAIBS and alpha 2-adrenoceptor numbers in the studied samples, a very poor correlation was obtained between the Bmax values of the two sites. Moreover, alkylation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by phenoxybenzamine produces a 90% reduction in accessible (3H)RX821002 binding sites, without modification of (3H)idazoxan binding. These data show that NAIBS are not closely related to the alpha 2-adrenergic molecule. In addition, benextramine appears to be a reversible competitor at NAIBS. (3H)idazoxan binding, but not (3H)RX821002 binding, is sensitive to K+, suggesting that the domains involved in the ligand-NAIBS interaction are different from those involved in the ligand-alpha 2-adrenoceptor interaction.

  3. Comparison of the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists Landiolol and Esmolol: Receptor Selectivity, Partial Agonism, and Pharmacochaperoning Actions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi-Shirazi, Shahrooz; Sucic, Sonja; Yang, Qiong; Freissmuth, Michael; Nanoff, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Blockage of β1-adrenergic receptors is one of the most effective treatments in cardiovascular medicine. Esmolol was introduced some three decades ago as a short-acting β1-selective antagonist. Landiolol is a more recent addition. Here we compared the two compounds for their selectivity for β1-adrenergic receptors over β2-adrenergic receptors, partial agonistic activity, signaling bias, and pharmacochaperoning action by using human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cell lines, which heterologously express each human receptor subtype. The affinity of landiolol for β1-adrenergic receptors and β2-adrenergic receptors was higher and lower than that of esmolol, respectively, resulting in an improved selectivity (216-fold versus 30-fold). The principal metabolite of landiolol (M1) was also β1-selective, but its affinity was very low. Both landiolol and esmolol caused a very modest rise in cAMP levels but a robust increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2, indicating that the two drugs exerted partial agonist activity with a signaling bias. If cells were incubated for ≥24 hours in the presence of ≥1 μM esmolol, the levels of β1-adrenergic-but not of β2-adrenergic-receptors increased. This effect was contingent on export of the β1-receptor from endoplasmic reticulum and was not seen in the presence of landiolol. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that landiolol offers the advantage of: 1) improved selectivity and 2) the absence of pharmacochaperoning activity, which sensitizes cells to rebound effects upon drug discontinuation. PMID:27451411

  4. Effect of the carbohydrate moiety on the secondary structure of beta 2-glycoprotein. I. Implications for the biosynthesis and folding of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M T; Watzlawick, H; Putnam, F W; Schmid, K; Brossmer, R

    1990-07-01

    By use of six highly purified exoglycosidases with well-defined specificity, the oligosaccharide units of human plasma beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I) were modified by sequential enzymatic degradation. The released monosaccharides (NeuAc, Gal, GlcNAc, and Man) were quantified, and the carbohydrate compositions of the resulting glycoprotein (gp) derivatives were determined. The gp was found to be both partially sialylated and galactosylated. These findings which are in agreement with earlier reports suggest that the carbohydrate moiety of beta 2I possesses more bi- than tri-antennas, probably three of the former and two of the latter carbohydrate units. Circular dichroic (CD) spectra of native beta 2I and its derivatives were measured in aqueous buffer and 2-chloroethanol (2-CE). Analysis of these spectra for elements of secondary structure showed beta 2I and most of the derivatives to contain predominantly beta-sheet and beta-turn structures. The lack of alpha-helical structures in aqueous buffer was noted. Removal of a large portion of the carbohydrate moiety did not alter the CD spectra or secondary structure of beta 2I in either aqueous buffer or in 2-CE. However, after enzymatic removal of approximately 96% of the carbohydrate moiety, large significant changes in the spectra and secondary structures were observed. In aqueous buffer a shift in the wavelength minimum occurred, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the molar ellipticity and the amount of beta-turn, with a reduction in random coil. One-third of the amino acids which were originally in random coil conformation assumed beta-turns after removal of 96% of the carbohydrate moiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. beta 2-Microglobulin levels in serum and urine of rheumatoid arthritis patients on gold therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Latt, D; Weiss, J B; Jayson, M I

    1981-01-01

    The levels of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) in serum and urine of 24 seropositive patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with regular gold (sodium aurothiomalate) injections have been investigated. The values obtained were compared with levels from 20 seropositive patients with RA treated only with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 20 age and sex matched normal controls who had received no medication. A significant increase of urinary beta 2-m levels was found in the gold-treated RA group. No correlation between dose of gold received and the levels of beta 2-m in the urine could be established. There was also no correlation between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or total lymphocyte count and beta 2-m levels in serum or urine. We conclude that serum and urinary beta 2-m levels appear to be poor indices of joint inflammation, but sequential urinary beta 2-m levels may prove valuable in monitoring the development of renal tubular lesions due to gold therapy. PMID:6164344

  6. Reduced beta 2-adrenoceptor sensitivity in normal pregnancy but not in pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nisell, H; Martinsson, A; Hjemdahl, P

    1988-01-01

    beta 2-Adrenoceptors on lymphocytes from healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women and patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) were studied in vitro by a radioligand binding technique (125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol) and related to in vivo responses to infused adrenaline. Healthy pregnant women had significantly fewer beta 2-adrenoceptor binding sites than nonpregnant controls (47.1 +/- 5.6 vs. 73.6 +/- 10.5 fmol X mg-1 protein), PIH patients displaying intermediate values. Adrenaline-induced increases in plasma cyclic AMP (a beta 2-mediated in vivo response) also tended to be reduced during normal pregnancy. The systemic vasodilatation evoked by intravenously infused adrenaline and the density of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor binding sites were positively related in the nonpregnant controls (r = 0.50), but inversely related in both the pregnant controls (r = -0.40) and the PIH patients (r = -0.70). These regression lines differed significantly. The present results indicate a reduction of beta 2-adrenoceptor function during normal pregnancy, which is less pronounced in PIH, as well as an altered relationship between beta 2-mediated vasodilator responses and densities of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes during pregnancy.

  7. Interferon-gamma is a strong modulator of NK susceptibility and expression of beta 2-microglobulin but not of transferrin receptors of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, A; Kiessling, R; Fiers, W

    1985-10-01

    The human cell line K562 was treated with human natural leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) and recombinant immune interferon (IFN-gamma). Cell cultures exposed to both types of IFNs displayed a reduced susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of human PBL (NK activity). While this effect occurred preferentially at high doses of IFN-alpha, as little as 10 U/ml of IFN-gamma caused a marked decrease in susceptibility to NK-cell-mediated lysis. Using a monoclonal antibody against human beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) a low level of specific binding to K562 cells was detected. The binding increased after treatment with IFN-alpha (1.4-fold) and IFN-gamma (1.7-fold). The expression of transferrin receptors (TR) was not changed significantly. A hybrid cell line between K562 and a Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line displayed a similar pattern of response to IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma as did K562, when effects on NK susceptibility, beta2M expression, and TR expression were studied. The Burkitt's lymphoma line PUT showed no consistent changes in expression of beta2M and TR. These results demonstrate that IFN-gamma is highly efficient in modulating the NK susceptibility, and the expression of beta2M on K562. The presented data do not support a role for expression of TR as the only property that determines the degree of NK susceptibility, since there was no correlation between NK susceptibility and TR expression among the cell lines tested or when IFN-treated and untreated cells were compared.

  8. Hypersomnolence with beta-adrenergic blockers.

    PubMed

    Thachil, J; Zeller, J R; Kochar, M S

    1987-11-01

    An elderly, mildly demented, hypertensive male patient developed hypersomnolence on administration of propranolol for treatment of hypertension; no other cause for hypersomnolence was detected. Upon replacement of propranolol with atenolol, he felt better but continued to be quite somnolent. When atenolol was discontinued, he reported to have lack of sleep. On readministration of subtherapeutic doses of the same beta-adrenergic blocking agents, he once again experienced excessive sleepiness. By discontinuing beta-blocking agents and introducing captopril, he felt much better, became pleasant and talkative, and blood pressure was well controlled. Beta antagonists are important drugs in the management of many cardiovascular problems. Propranolol, a lipophilic beta-blocking agent, and atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, are two of the major agents currently used clinically in the United States. Numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects of the beta-adrenergic blocking drugs have been reported, but hypersomnolence is not readily recognized as one of them. PMID:3665616

  9. Long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus either tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Charlotta; Cates, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-acting bronchodilators comprising long-acting beta2-agonists and the anticholinergic agent tiotropium are commonly used for managing persistent symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Combining these treatments, which have different mechanisms of action, may be more effective than the individual components. However, the benefits and risks of combining tiotropium and long-acting beta2-agonists for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease are unclear. Objectives To assess the relative effects of treatment with tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist compared to tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials and clinicaltrials.gov up to January 2012. Selection criteria We included parallel group, randomised controlled trials of three months or longer comparing treatment with tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist against tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and then extracted data on trial quality and the outcome results. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse effects from the trials. Main results Five trials were included in this review, mostly recruiting participants with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All of them compared tiotropium in addition to long-acting beta2-agonist to tiotropium alone, but only one trial additionally compared a combination of the two types of bronchodilator with long-acting beta2-agonist (formoterol) alone. Two studies used the long-acting beta2-agonist indacaterol, two used formoterol and one used salmeterol. Compared to tiotropium alone (3263 patients), treatment with tiotropium plus long

  10. [INTERACTION OF THE DYE CONGO RED WITH FIBRILS OF LYSOZYME, BETA2-MICROGLOBULIN AND TRANSTHYRETIN].

    PubMed

    Antimonova, O I; Grudinina, N A; Egorov, V V; Polyakov, D S; Iljin, V V; Shavlovsky, M M

    2016-01-01

    By means of spectrophotometric assay we investigated interaction of the dye Congo red (CR) with fibrils of model proteins--hen egg white lysozyme, recombinant human beta2-microglobulin (b2M) and recombinant human transthyretin (TTR). The commercial dye sample was found to contain a significant amount of impurities. Methods for the dye purification are disclosed and CR molar extinction coefficient at 490 nm (ε490) was determined to be 3.3 x 10(4) M(-1) x cm(-1) at pH above 6.0. Formation of the CR-fibril complex results in changes in the dye visible absorption spectrum. According to the data on titration of fibril solutions with excess of the dye, CR binds to lysozyme fibrils at a ratio of about 5 molecules per protein monomer within fibril structure, to b2M fibrils--about 4 molecules per monomer, to TTR fibrils--about 4 molecules per subunit of the protein. PMID:27228663

  11. Soluble CD8 stabilizes the HLA class I molecule by promoting beta2M exchange: analysis in real-time.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C L; Price, C P; Cohen, S B; Madrigal, J A; Newman, D J

    1999-05-01

    Human soluble CD8 (sCD8) is secreted by activated CD8+/- cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The immunological role of sCD8 is poorly defined, however. We have studied the influence of sCD8 on HLA class I interactions by real-time analysis. Using an optical biosensor we demonstrated that the binding of sCD8 to HLA-A2 promotes exchange of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in order to stabilize the complex. Kinetic analysis showed that sCD8 significantly increased the affinity (K(A)) of HLA-A2 for immobilized human beta2m; from 1.14 +/- 0.04 x 10(9) M(-1) in its absence, to 2.18 +/- 0.21 x 10(9) M(-1) following preincubation with sCD8. This suggests that the sCD8:HLA class I complex is unlikely to be degraded at the cell surface. Even in the presence of exogenous peptide (HLA-A2 specific or nonspecific), sCD8 has a stabilizing influence on the HLA class I molecule. These findings point to an immunosuppressive role for sCD8, because the binding of sCD8 to HLA class I would block the binding site for CTL-bound CD8 and, therefore, interfere with T cell activation and proliferation. This may have particular significance in pathological situations where elevated levels of sCD8 are found in extracellular fluids, and sCD8 may provide an alternative approach for immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:10447404

  12. Structure and expression of the mouse beta 2-microglobulin gene isolated from somatic and non-expressing teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, F; Morello, D; Le Bail, O; Chambon, P; Cayre, Y; Kourilsky, P

    1983-01-01

    Mouse teratocarcinoma cells express neither H-2 heavy chains nor beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m). We have constructed two genomic libraries, one from PCC4-aza-RI embryonal carcinoma cells and the other from their adult syngenic counterpart 129/Sv liver cells (H-2bc). The libraries were screened with a full length mouse beta 2-m cDNA probe which we isolated and sequenced. Two cosmid clones carrying the entire beta 2-m gene were isolated, one from each library. There was no detectable difference in structure between the two genes. Furthermore, both were shown to be active and to restore beta 2-m synthesis upon transfer into mutant cells deficient in beta 2-m. Irreversible DNA alterations in or around the beta 2-m gene are thus unlikely to account for the lack of beta 2-m gene expression in embryonal teratocarcinoma cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:6354707

  13. Probing of β-adrenergic receptors by novel fluorescent β-adrenergic blockers

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Daphne; Levitzki, Alexander

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis of two high-affinity fluorescent β-adrenergic blockers is described: dl-N1-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-naphthyloxy)propyl]-N2-(9-acridyl)-1,2-propanediamine (9-aminoacridylpropanolol, 9-AAP) and dl-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-naphthyloxy)propyl]-N′-dansylethylenediamine (dansyl analogue of propranolol, DAPN). Both 9-AAP and DAPN inhibit competitively the l-epinephrine-dependent adenylate cyclase activity [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] in turkey erythrocyte membranes without affecting the fluoride-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Similarly, 9-AAP and DAPN inhibit in a competitive manner the binding of [125I]-iodohydroxybenzylpindolol to these β-adrenergic receptors. The two fluorescent β-adrenergic blockers 9-AAP and DAPN probe specifically β-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system as well as in other organs when injected into rats. The fluorescence pattern can be monitored by fluorescence microscopy performed on cryostat slices of these organs. The appearance of the characteristic fluorescence pattern can be blocked in a stereospecific fashion by a prior injection of l-propranolol and not by a prior injection of d-propranolol. These compounds therefore offer a powerful means to map β-adrenergic receptors in vivo. The stereospecific displacement of 9-AAP from the β-adrenergic receptors of turkey erythrocyte membranes by l-propranolol and by l-epinephrine can be detected in vitro using front-face fluorescence. The potential use of these compounds to probe β-receptors in vitro and in vivo is discussed. Images PMID:23531

  14. Homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Michel, B

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats have a marked beta-adrenergic responsiveness. Preincubation of these hepatocytes with isoprenaline induced a time-dependent and concentration-dependent desensitization of the beta-adrenergic responsiveness without altering that to glucagon (homologous desensitization). The desensitization was evidenced both in the cyclic AMP accumulation and in the stimulation of ureagenesis induced by the beta-adrenergic agonists. Under the same conditions, preincubation with glucagon induced no desensitization. Propranolol was also unable to induce desensitization, but blocked that induced by isoprenaline. Pertussis-toxin treatment did not alter the homologous beta-adrenergic desensitization induced by isoprenaline. PMID:2825633

  15. Serum and urinary beta-2-microglobulin among cadmium-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Iwao, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Sakurai, H.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of ten years' cadmium (Cd) exposure was investigated among a total of 18 workers (ten with previous heavy exposure, three with recent lower exposure and five control workers) by comparing indicators of previous exposure (blood and urinary Cd and ..beta..2-M) with clinical estimates of renal tubular function. The ten workers still excreted higher concentration of Cd than did the other three workers with low exposure, even after cessation of exposure. Estimates of renal function indicated that most workers among the ten and the three workers did not always exhibit dysfunction. Elevated blood Cd was significantly correlated with elevated serum ..beta..2-M. The study demonstrated that increased ..beta..2-M in urine is not necessarily due to tubular impairment, but may be the result of the increased ..beta..2-M in plasma exceeding the renal threshold.

  16. Mesoderm induction in amphibians: the role of TGF-beta 2-like factors.

    PubMed

    Rosa, F; Roberts, A B; Danielpour, D; Dart, L L; Sporn, M B; Dawid, I B

    1988-02-12

    Mesoderm induction in the amphibian embryo can be studied by exposing animal region explants (destined to become ectoderm) to appropriate stimuli and assaying the appearance of mesodermal products like alpha-actin messenger RNA. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2), but not TGF-beta 1, was active in alpha-actin induction, while addition of fibroblast growth factor had a small synergistic effect. Medium conditioned by Xenopus XTC cells (XTC-CM), known to have powerful mesoderm-inducing activity, was shown to contain TGF-beta-like activity as measured by a radioreceptor binding assay, colony formation in NRK cells, and growth inhibition in CCL64 cells. The activity of XTC-CM in mesoderm induction and in growth inhibition of CCL64 cells was inhibited partially by antibodies to TGF-beta 2 but not by antibodies to TGF-beta 1. Thus, a TGF-beta 2-like molecule may be involved in mesoderm induction.

  17. Mode of delivery and lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density in parturients and newborns.

    PubMed

    Santala, M

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-six women with uncomplicated pregnancy at term were selected for the study. Nine had spontaneous vaginal delivery without medication, 8 elective caesarean section under epidural and 9 under general anaesthesia. The results clearly demonstrate that newborns have lower lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density than their mothers. In vaginally delivered newborns the lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density was 38%, in the caesarean section group with general anaesthesia 27%, and with epidural anaesthesia 22% lower than in the corresponding mother group. Vaginally delivered newborns have lower lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor density than those delivered by caesarean section. A plausible explanation is the down-regulation of the beta 2-adrenoceptors during labour and delivery.

  18. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin concentration and mortality in a cadmium-polluted area

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, H.; Nishijo, M.; Morikawa, Y.; Tabata, M.; Senma, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kawano, S.; Ishizaki, M.; Sugita, N.; Nishi, M. )

    1993-11-01

    A 9-y follow-up study of 3,178 persons who lived in a cadmium-polluted area was conducted to assess the influence of environmental cadmium exposure on long-term outcome. The standardized mortality ratios of the urinary beta 2-microglobulin-positive subjects (> 1,000 micrograms/g creatinine) of both sexes were higher than those of the general Japanese population, whereas the cumulative survival curves were lower than those of the urinary beta 2-microglobulin-negative group. A significant association was also found between urinary beta 2-microglobulin and mortality, using a Cox's proportional hazards model. Moreover, mortality rates increased in proportion to increases in the amount of urinary beta 2-microglobulin excreted. These results suggest that the prognosis for cadmium-exposed subjects with proximal tubular dysfunction is unfavorable. The mortality rate tended to become higher as the severity of renal dysfunction progressed.

  19. Adrenergic stimulation of lipoprotein lipase gene expression in rat brown adipocytes differentiated in culture: mediation via beta3- and alpha1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kuusela, P; Rehnmark, S; Jacobsson, A; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the positive effect of adrenergic stimulation on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression in brown adipose tissue is a direct effect on the brown adipocytes themselves, the expression of the LPL gene was investigated by measuring LPL mRNA levels in brown adipocytes, isolated as precursors from the brown adipose tissue of rats and grown in culture in a fully defined medium before experimentation. Addition of noradrenaline led to an enhancement of LPL gene expression; the mRNA levels increased as a linear function of time for at least 5 h and were finally approx. 3 times higher than in control cells, an increase commensurate with that seen in vivo in both LPL mRNA levels and LPL activity during physiological stimulation. The increase was dependent on transcription. The effect of noradrenaline showed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an EC50 of approx. 11 nM. beta3-Agonists (BRL-37344 and CGP-12177) could mimic the effect of noradrenaline; the beta1-agonist dobutamine and the beta2-agonist salbutamol could not; the alpha1-agonist cirazoline had only a weak effect. The effect of noradrenaline was fully inhibited by the beta-antagonist propranolol and was halved by the alpha1-antagonist prazosin; the alpha2-antagonist yohimbine was without effect. An increase in LPL mRNA level similar to (but not significantly exceeding) that caused by noradrenaline could also be induced by the cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and cholera toxin, and 8-Br-cAMP also increased LPL mRNA levels. The increase in LPL gene expression was not mediated via an increase in the level of an intermediary proteinaceous factor. It is concluded that the physiologically induced increase in LPL gene expression is a direct effect of noradrenaline on the brown adipocytes themselves, mediated via a dominant beta3-adrenergic pathway and an auxiliary alpha1-adrenergic pathway which converge at a regulatory point in transcriptional control. PMID:9032464

  20. Do inhaled beta(2)-agonists have an ergogenic potential in non-asthmatic competitive athletes?

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Wilfried

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is higher in elite athletes than in the general population. The risk of developing asthmatic symptoms is the highest in endurance athletes and swimmers. Asthma seems particularly widespread in winter-sport athletes such as cross-country skiers. Asthmatic athletes commonly use inhaled beta(2)-agonists to prevent and treat asthmatic symptoms. However, beta(2)-agonists are prohibited according to the Prohibited List of the World Anti-Doping Agency. An exception can be made only for the substances formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline by inhalation, as long as a therapeutic use exemption has been applied for and granted. In this context, the question arises of whether beta(2)-agonists have ergogenic benefits justifying the prohibition of these substances. In 17 of 19 randomised placebo-controlled trials in non-asthmatic competitive athletes, performance-enhancing effects of the inhaled beta(2)-agonists formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline could not be proved. This is particularly true for endurance performance, anaerobic power and strength performance. In three of four studies, even supratherapeutic doses of salbutamol (800-1200 microg) had no ergogenic effect. In contrast to inhaled beta(2)-agonists, oral administration of salbutamol seems to be able to improve the muscle strength and the endurance performance. There appears to be no justification to prohibit inhaled beta(2)-agonists from the point of view of the ergogenic effects. PMID:17241101

  1. Effect of extracellular pH on recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2 GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mercik, Katarzyna; Pytel, Maria; Cherubini, Enrico; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-08-01

    Recently, we have reported that extracellular protons allosterically modulated neuronal GABA(A) receptors [Mozrzymas, J.W., Zarnowska, E.D., Pytel, M., Mercik, K., 2003a. Modulation of GABA(A) receptors by hydrogen ions reveals synaptic GABA transient and a crucial role of desensitiztion process. Journal of Neuroscience 23, 7981-7992]. However, GABAARs in neurons are heterogeneous and the effect of hydrogen ions depends on the receptor subtype. In particular, gamma2 subunit sets the receptor sensibility to several modulators including protons. However, the mechanisms whereby protons modulate gamma2-containing and gamma2-free GABAARs have not been fully elucidated. To this end, current responses to ultrafast GABA applications were recorded for alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2 receptors at different pH values. For both receptor types, increase in pH induced a decrease in amplitudes of currents elicited by saturating [GABA] but this effect was stronger for alpha1beta2 receptors. In the case of alpha1beta2gamma2 receptors, protons strongly affected the current time course due to a down regulation of binding and desensitization rates. This effect was qualitatively similar to that described in neurons. Protons strongly influenced the amplitude of alpha1beta2 receptor-mediated currents but the effect on their kinetics was weak suggesting a predominant direct non-competitive inhibition with a minor allosteric modulation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that extracellular protons strongly affect GABAA receptors and that, depending on the presence of the gamma2 subunit, the modulatory mechanisms show profound quantitative and qualitative differences.

  2. Restricting mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2-adrenoceptor enhances adenylate cyclase activity by reducing Gsalpha GTPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel-Seifert, K; Lee, T W; Seifert, R; Kobilka, B K

    1998-01-01

    The beta2-adrenoceptor (beta2AR) activates the G-protein Gsalpha to stimulate adenylate cyclase (AC). Fusion of the beta2AR C-terminus to the N-terminus of Gsalpha (producing beta2ARGsalpha) markedly increases the efficiency of receptor/G-protein coupling compared with the non-fused state. This increase in coupling efficiency can be attributed to the physical proximity of receptor and G-protein. To determine the optimal length for the tether between receptor and G-protein we constructed fusion proteins from which 26 [beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha] or 70 [beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha] residues of the beta2AR C-terminus had been deleted and compared the properties of these fusion proteins with the previously described beta2ARGsalpha. Compared with beta2ARGsalpha, basal and agonist-stimulated GTP hydrolysis was markedly decreased in beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha, whereas the effect of the deletion on binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) was relatively small. Surprisingly, deletions did not alter the efficiency of coupling of the beta2AR to Gsalpha as assessed by GTP[S]-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding. Moreover, basal and ligand-regulated AC activities in membranes expressing beta2AR(Delta70)Gsalpha and beta2AR(Delta26)Gsalpha were higher than in membranes expressing beta2ARGsalpha. These findings suggest that restricting the mobility of Gsalpha relative to the beta2AR results in a decrease in G-protein inactivation by GTP hydrolysis and thereby enhanced activation of AC. PMID:9729456

  3. The effect of Yohimbine, an alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the growth hormone response to apomorphine in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Guyda, H

    1996-01-01

    Yohimbine HCl (16 mg po) administered 30 min before clonidine (CLON) (2 ug/kg infused over 10 min) (N = 5) or apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc) (N = 10) antagonized the growth hormone (GH) response to CLON but had no effect on the GH response to Apo in normal men. This finding suggests that in humans, alpha2 adrenergic mechanisms do not modulate dopaminergic function, at least not in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and that the GH response to Apo is not mediated via an alpha2 adrenergic link. PMID:8820174

  4. Has iprindole an alpha adrenergic activity?

    PubMed

    Ganry, H; Bourin, M

    1993-05-01

    1. Acute administration of iprindole potentiated the toxicity of 1-norepinephrine and increased the intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremors. 2. On the forced swimming test combination iprindole with imipramine reduced the duration of immobility. 3. The action of yohimbine on the locomotor activity was antagonized by a pre-injection of iprindole. 4. Iprindole increased and prolonged exophthalmia and loss of righting reflex induced by xylazine. 5 All these results seems indicate that iprindole has an indirect alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic activity.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and extrapulmonary beta 2 adrenoceptor activity of nebulised racemic salbutamol and its R and S isomers in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, B. J.; Clark, D. J.; Koch, P.; Arbeeny, C.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Racemic salbutamol remains one of the most commonly used bronchodilators in the treatment of reversible airways obstruction. Data from animal and human studies suggest that the S-isomer, whilst contributing no bronchodilator activity, may induce increased bronchial hyperreactivity and may explain the adverse effects of regular racemic salbutamol on asthmatic disease control. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of racemic (+/-) salbutamol and its R(-) and S(+) isomers in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at extrapulmonary beta 2 adrenoceptors when given by the inhaled route to healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers of mean age 20.6 years were studied in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design comparing cumulative doubling doses of nebulised R-salbutamol (R) and S-salbutamol (S) isomers (200 micrograms/400 micrograms/800 micrograms/1600 micrograms/3200 micrograms) and racemic salbutamol (RS) (400 micrograms/800 micrograms/1600 micrograms/3200 micrograms/6400 micrograms). Doses were administered at 20 minute intervals (t0/t20/t40/t60/t80) and measurements were made of extrapulmonary beta 2 responses as an increase in finger tremor and heart rate and fall in plasma potassium at baseline and each dose level (t0/t20/t40/t60/t80/t100). Plasma levels of salbutamol were measured at 15 minutes after each dose with a further sample at 30 minutes after the last dose (t110). RESULTS: Pharmacodynamics showed dose related beta 2 responses for R-salbutamol and RS-salbutamol but not for the S isomer, and a plateau in response was not reached within the administered dose range. No differences in responses were found between R-salbutamol and RS-salbutamol when compared on a 1:2 microgram basis. The effects of the S isomer were indistinguishable from those of placebo. For all beta 2 responses there were differences between R-salbutamol and S-salbutamol (for t100 response as change from placebo

  6. Mechanical anchoring strength of L-selectin, beta2 integrins, and CD45 to neutrophil cytoskeleton and membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, J Y; Hochmuth, R M

    1999-01-01

    The strength of anchoring of transmembrane receptors to cytoskeleton and membrane is important in cell adhesion and cell migration. With micropipette suction, we applied pulling forces to human neutrophils adhering to latex beads that were coated with antibodies to CD62L (L-selectin), CD18 (beta2 integrins), or CD45. In each case, the adhesion frequency between the neutrophil and bead was low, and our Monte Carlo simulation indicates that only a single bond was probably involved in every adhesion event. When the adhesion between the neutrophil and bead was ruptured, it was very likely that receptors were extracted from neutrophil surfaces. We found that it took 1-2 s to extract an L-selectin at a force range of 25-45 pN, 1-4 s to extract a beta2 integrin at a force range of 60-130 pN, and 1-11 s to extract a CD45 at a force range of 35-85 pN. Our results strongly support the conclusion that, during neutrophil rolling, L-selectin is unbound from its ligand when the adhesion between neutrophils and endothelium is ruptured. PMID:10388783

  7. beta. -Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.; Guay, G.; Bukowiecki, L.J. Laboratoire de Thermoregulation et Metabolisme Energetique, Lyon )

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipose tissue (BAT) growth were studied by quantitative photonic radioautography using tritiated thymidine to follow mitotic activity. To identify the nature of the adrenergic pathways mediating brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, the effects of cold exposure (4 days at 4{degree}C) on BAT growth were compared with those induced by treating rats at 25{degree}C with norepinephrine (a mixed agonist), isoproterenol (a {beta}-agonist), and phenylephrine (an {alpha}-agonist). Norepinephrine mimicked the effects of cold exposure, not only on the mitotic activity, but also on the distribution of the labeling among the various cellular types. Isoproterenol entirely reproduced the effects of norepinephrine both on the labeling index and on the cellular type labeling frequency. These results demonstrate that norepinephrine triggers a coordinated proliferation of brown adipocytes and endothelial cells in warm-exposed rats that is similar to that observed after cold exposure. They also suggest that cold exposure stimulates BAT growth by increasing the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves and that the neurohormone activates mitoses in BAT precursor cells via {beta}-adrenergic pathways.

  8. Effect of adrenergic antagonists during phenylephrine stimulation of the mandibular gland of red kangaroos, Macropus rufus.

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    2002-07-01

    Intracarotid infusions of l-phenylephrine at 1.0 nmol.kg(-1).min(-1) or(.)10 nmol.kg(-1).min(-1) were accompanied by increases in salivary protein, urea, magnesium and bicarbonate, and by decreases in osmolality, hydrogen ion activity, sodium, potassium and chloride relative to cholinergically stimulated saliva. Intravenous infusions of phenylephrine at the same dose rates had much less effect on salivary composition with the differences between the routes of administration being greatest for the higher dose rate. Propranolol administered with phenylephrine via the carotid artery, at an antagonist:agonist ratio of 10:1, was much more effective in blocking the phenylephrine-induced changes in salivary composition than equimolar infusion of phentolamine with phenylephrine. Simultaneous intracarotid infusions of either a beta(1)-antagonist (CGP20712A) or a beta(2)-antagonist (ICI118551) with phenylephrine showed that ICI118551 was more potent than CGP20712A at preventing the changes in salivary composition associated with phenylephrine administration. It was concluded that alpha(1)-adrenoreceptors were not present in functionally significant numbers in the gland and that the effect of phenylephrine on the kangaroo mandibular was mediated by beta-adrenoreceptors predominantly of the beta(2)-subtype. As the phenylephrine dose rates in the kangaroos were comparable with those used to determine alpha-adrenergic responses of eutherian salivary glands and as both propranolol and phentolamine appeared to have minor beta-sympathomimetic activity, at least one subtype of beta-adrenoreceptors in macropods may not be identical to its eutherian counterpart.

  9. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  10. Amino acid sequences in the alpha 1 domain and not glycosylation are important in HLA-A2/beta 2-microglobulin association and cell surface expression.

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Aguado, J; Biro, P A; Fuhrmann, U; Strominger, J L; Barbosa, J A

    1987-01-01

    The role of the single carbohydrate moiety present on the HLA-A2 molecule was studied by introducing several amino acid substitutions (by site-directed mutagenesis of the HLA-A2 gene) in the consensus glycosylation sequence Asn-X-Ser. Two different amino acid substitutions of the asparagine residue at position 86 (glutamine and aspartic acid) resulted in the synthesis of ca. 39,000-molecular-weight nonglycosylated heavy chains that were detected in the cytoplasm but not on the surface of mouse L-cell transfectants. However, a low level of surface expression was detected following transfection of human (rhabdomyosarcoma) cells or mouse L cells containing human beta 2-microglobulin. The defect in surface expression was not due to the absence of the glycan moiety, since the substitution of a glycine for a serine at amino acid 88 did not have the same drastic effect in the presence of human beta 2-microglobulin. These and other data suggest that the asparagine residue may play a critical role in the conformation of the HLA heavy chain and its interaction with beta 2-microglobulin. Immunofluorescence microscopy following permeabilization of the transfectants demonstrated that the unglycosylated HLA heavy chains are sequestered in an unidentified cellular compartment that is different from the Golgi structure. Images PMID:3550437

  11. New beta-adrenergic agonists used illicitly as growth promoters in animal breeding: chemical and pharmacodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Gabriela; Daniele, Claudia; Boatto, Gianpiero; Manca, Giuliana; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Loizzo, Alberto

    2003-05-01

    Clenbuterol and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs are illegally used as growth promoters in animal production. Pharmacologically active residues in edible tissues led to intoxication outbreaks in several countries. Pressure of official controls pulsed synthesis of new compounds to escape analytical procedures. We report two new compounds named 'A' and 'G4', found in feeding stuffs. Chemical structure was studied through nuclear magnetic resonance-imaging and infrared spectroscopy, and beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic activity was evaluated on isolated guinea-pig atrium and trachea in comparison with clenbuterol. Both compounds share with clenbuterol an halogenated aromatic ring with a primary amino group. Main modifications consisted of substitution of secondary amino group with an alkyl chain in compound A and substitution of the ter-butyl group with a benzene ring in compound G4. In guinea-pig trachea these compounds showed myorelaxant potency lower than clenbuterol (EC(50) was 43.8 nM for clenbuterol, 11700 nM for compound A, 2140 nM for G4). On the contrary, in the guinea-pig atrium (heart-beat rate stimulant effect) the compounds were more potent than clenbuterol (EC(50) was 15.2 nM for clenbuterol, 3.4 nM for compound A, 2.8 nM for G4). These pharmacodynamic properties, and stronger lipophilic properties shown by the two compounds may result in increased cardiovascular risk for consumers of illicitly treated animals.

  12. Selective beta 3-adrenergic agonists of brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis. 2. [4-[2-[(2-Hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)amino]ethoxy]phenoxy]acetamides.

    PubMed

    Howe, R; Rao, B S; Holloway, B R; Stribling, D

    1992-05-15

    The ester methyl [4-[2-[(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)amino]ethoxy]phenoxy]acetate (1) (R1 = OMe) had previously been identified as the most interesting member of a series of selective beta 3-adrenergic agonists of brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis in the rat. In vivo it acts mainly via the related acid 1 (R1 = OH). Amides have been examined to determine whether they have advantages over the ester. In particular, in the rat and dog the half-lives of amides of appropriate potency were no longer than those of the ester. The amide (S)-4-[2-[(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)amino]ethoxy]-N-(2- methoxyethyl)phenoxyacetamide [S-27, ICI D7114] was selected as having properties consistent with a sustained-release formulation should that prove necessary. Unlike the ester it is resistant to hydrolysis in the gut lumen. Further testing of ICI D7114 has shown that in the rat, cat, and dog it stimulates the beta 3-adrenergic receptor in brown adipose tissue at doses lower than those at which it affects beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors in other tissues. Slimming effects were observed in the dog. ICI D7114 may be a selective thermogenic agent in man and may be useful in the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:1350310

  13. K3 fragment of amyloidogenic beta(2)-microglobulin forms ion channels: implication for dialysis related amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Mustata, Mirela; Capone, Ricardo; Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-10-21

    Beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) amyloid deposits are linked to dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) in hemodialysis patients. The mechanism by which beta(2)m causes DRA is not understood. It is also unclear whether only the full-length beta(2)m induces pathophysiology or if proteolytic fragments are sufficient for inducing this effect. Ser20-Lys41 (K3) is a digestion fragment of full-length beta(2)m. Solid state NMR (ssNMR) combined with X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the characteristic oligomeric amyloid conformation of the U-turn beta-strand-turn-beta-strand motif stacked in parallel and stabilized by intermolecular interactions also shown by Abeta(9-40)/Abeta(17-42) and the CA150 WW domain. Here we use the K3 U-turn atomic coordinates and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to model K3 channels in the membrane. Consistent with previous AFM imaging of other amyloids that show channel-like structures in the membrane, in the simulations K3 also forms ion channels with 3-6 loosely attached mobile subunits. We carry out AFM, single channel electrical recording, and fluorescence imaging experiments. AFM images display 3D ion channel topography with shapes, morphologies, and dimensions consistent with the theoretical model. Electrical conductance measurements indicate multiple single channel conductances, suggesting that various K3 oligomer sizes can constitute the channel structure. Fluorescence measurements in kidney cells show channel-mediated cell calcium uptake. These results suggest that the beta(2)m-induced DRA can be mediated by ion channels formed by its K3 fragment. Because the beta-strand-turn-beta-strand motif appears to be a universal amyloid feature, its ability to form ion channels further suggests that the motif may play a generic role in toxicity.

  14. Beta2-adrenoceptor genotype and function affect hemodynamic profile heterogeneity in postural tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Giris; Garland, Emily M; Costa, Fernando; Stein, C Michael; Xie, Hong-Guang; Robertson, Rose Marie; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the beta2-adrenoceptor functions abnormally in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and may contribute to their altered hemodynamic profile. To test the hypothesis that the beta2-adrenoceptor response is decreased in POTS, we studied: (1) the arterial vasodilation response to the beta agonist, isoproterenol, and (2) the distribution of common polymorphisms (codons 16 and 27) of the gene coding the receptor (beta2-AR) in a large population with POTS. We measured plasma catecholamines and monitored hemodynamics and changes in forearm and leg blood flow to incremental doses of intraarterial isoproterenol in 9 patients with POTS compared with 8 healthy subjects. For polymorphism assessment we collected DNA from 57 patients with POTS and compared with 67 age-sex matched healthy subjects. Circulating catecholamines were significantly higher in POTS subjects compared with controls. Intrabrachial and intrafemoral isoproterenol infusion elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood flow. In healthy subjects, blood flow increased (mean+/-SEM) 400+/-70% in the forearm and 170+/-40% in the leg, but only 280+/-60% in forearms and 120+/-20% in legs of patients with POTS (ANOVA for both P<0.001). The genotype and allele distributions for codons 16 and 27 beta2-AR variants were not different in the 2 groups. However, the blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine levels diverged in patients according to their genotype. Patients with Gly16Gly and patients with Glu27Glu had lower plasma catecholamines and higher supine and upright blood pressure, compared with other genotypes. Therefore, both decreased beta2-adrenoceptor-related vasodilation and beta2-AR polymorphisms may contribute to the hemodynamic diversity of patients with POTS.

  15. [The effect of R(+) limonene on β-adrenergic signaling in smooth muscles: the significance of oxidative stress index].

    PubMed

    Hódi, Ágnes; Földesi, Imre; Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Ducza, Eszter; Gáspár, Róobert

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediers (ROI) play a role in the signal transduction of beta-adrenergic receptors. We investigated whether an antioxidant (limonene) can reduce the beta-mimetic effect of terbutaline in beta-2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-regulated smooth muscles. Tissue samples were collected from nonpregnant (trachea) and 22-day-pregnant (myometrium and cervix) rats. Tissue contractility was investigated in an isolated organ bath. In separate groups of animals, the tracheal and uterine β2-AR activities were upregulated by 17-beta-estradiol valerate (E2) and progesterone (P4), respectively. The total oxidant (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were also measured. The oxidative stress index (OSI) was defined as the ratio ofTOS and TAS. Terbutaline (10(-10) - 10(-5) M) decreased the spontaneous contractions in the nontreated and the P4-pretreated myometria. The concentration-response curves for terbutaline in the presence of 10-3 M limonene were shifted to the left, but the maximum inhibitory effect was unchanged. Terbutaline (10(-6) M) increased the cervical resistance both in the nontreated and in the P4-treated samples, while limonene reduced this action only in the P4-treated cervices. Terbutaline (10(-9) - 10(-4) M) reduced the tracheal tones both in the nontreated and in the E2-treated tissues, while limonene reduced these effects. The OSI was highest in the trachea and lowest in the pregnant myometrium. Limonene has various influence on terbutaline induced effects in certain tissues. Higher OSI value means, that the antioxidants have greater role in the beta-adrenergic signalmechanism. We assume that the significance of ROI in the signalling process of the β2-ARs are divergent in the various tissues. Our results suggest that the antiasthmatic effect of beta-mimetics may worsen during parallel limonene administration.

  16. Cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the teleost heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, M; Ehrenström, F; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The tonical cholinergic and adrenergic influence on the heart rate was investigated in vivo in seven species of marine teleosts (pollack, Pollachius pollachius; cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus; ballan wrasse, Labrus berggylta; five-bearded rockling, Ciliata mustela; tadpole fish, Raniceps raninus; eel-pout, Zoarces viviparus and short-spined sea scorpion, Myoxocephalus scor pius) during rest and, in two of the species (P. pollachius and L. mixtus), also during moderate swimming exercise in a Blazka-type swim tunnel. Ventral aortic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via a catheter implanted in an afferent branchial artery, and the influence of the cholinergic and adrenergic tonus on the heart rate was assessed by injection of atropine and sotalol respectively. During rest the adrenergic tonus was higher than the cholinergic tonus in all species except L. berggylta, where the reverse was true. In P. pollachius and L. mixtus, exercise appeared to produce a lowering of the cholinergic tonus on the heart and, possibly, a slight increase of the adrenergic tonus. The nature of the adrenergic tonus (humoral or neural) is not clear, but the low plasma concentrations of catecholamines both during rest and exercise could be interpreted in favour of a mainly neural adrenergic tonus on the teleost heart. These experiments are compatible with the view that both a cholinergic inhibitory tonus and an adrenergic excitatory tonus are general features in the control of the teleost heart in vivo, both at rest and during moderate swimming exercise.

  17. Impaired cardiac energy metabolism in embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice N; Gidus, Sarah A; Price, George F; Peoples, Jessica N R; Ebert, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    As development proceeds from the embryonic to fetal stages, cardiac energy demands increase substantially, and oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria becomes vital. Relatively little, however, is known about the signaling mechanisms regulating the transition from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism that occurs during the embryonic period. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that adrenergic hormones provide critical stimulation of energy metabolism during embryonic/fetal development. We examined ATP and ADP concentrations in mouse embryos lacking adrenergic hormones due to targeted disruption of the essential dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Embryonic ATP concentrations decreased dramatically, whereas ADP concentrations rose such that the ATP/ADP ratio in the adrenergic-deficient group was nearly 50-fold less than that found in littermate controls by embryonic day 11.5. We also found that cardiac extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates were significantly decreased, and mitochondria were significantly larger and more branched in adrenergic-deficient hearts. Notably, however, the mitochondria were intact with well-formed cristae, and there was no significant difference observed in mitochondrial membrane potential. Maternal administration of the adrenergic receptor agonists isoproterenol or l-phenylephrine significantly ameliorated the decreases in ATP observed in Dbh-/- embryos, suggesting that α- and β-adrenergic receptors were effective modulators of ATP concentrations in mouse embryos in vivo. These data demonstrate that adrenergic hormones stimulate cardiac energy metabolism during a critical period of embryonic development. PMID:25516547

  18. Protons inhibit Cl- conductance by direct or allosteric interaction with the GABA-binding site in the rat recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L and alpha1beta2 GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-De; Rahman, Mozibur; Zhu, Di

    2005-12-28

    Functional roles of external pH on the Cl- conductance were examined on Xenopus oocytes expressing rat recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L and alpha1beta2 GABAA receptors. Acidic pH inhibited GABA-response in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner, significantly increasing the EC50 without appreciably changing the slope or maximal currents induced by GABA in the alpha1beta2gamma2L and alpha1beta2 receptors. In contrast, protonation did not influence the pentobarbital-gated currents in the alpha1beta2gamma2L receptors, suggesting that protons do not modulate channel activity by directly affecting the channel gating process. Protons competitively inhibited the bicuculline-induced antagonism on GABA in the alpha1beta2gamma2L receptors. The data support the hypothesis that protons inhibit GABAA receptor function by direct or allosteric interaction with the GABA-binding site.

  19. The role of inhaled long-acting beta-2 agonists in the management of asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, H. William; Harkins, Michelle S.; Boushey, Homer

    2006-01-01

    The role of inhaled beta-2 agonists in the management of asthma has changed significantly over the last several years. This review outlines the most recent understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma and the studies that define the roles that both short- and long-acting beta-2 agonists play in therapy for this disease. A concentration on the clinical pharmacology and genetic implications for clinical use of this class of drugs in accordance with the national and international guidelines are described. PMID:16532973

  20. Clinical implications of recent insights into the structural biology of beta2 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Gutierrez, Marcos Antonio; Cipres-Flores, Fabiola Jimena; Trujillo-Ferrara, Jose Guadalupe; Soriano-Ursua, Marvin Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Analysis of the crystal structure of beta-2 adrenoceptors (β2ARs) is providing new insights into the functioning of this receptor and perhaps of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as a whole. This class of receptors represents the target of at least a third of the drugs on the market and plays an essential role in the study of therapetic drug-response. Among GPCRs, the β2AR is the best understood in terms of function, expression and activation. Regarding the interaction of β2ARs with a specific ligand, polymorphisms, conformational changes and stereoselectivity are important factors. Agonist affinity for β2ARs is influenced by the polymorphisms of these receptors, which in some cases appear to affect susceptibility to disorders. Conformational changes that take place upon the approach of a given ligand, as well as the stereoselectivity of this class of receptors can modify the intrinsic activity of β2ARs (and certainly of other receptors as well). Hence, a deepening understanding of these factors can provide new data on affinity and specifically the key residues involved in recognition of β2AR agonists. The deepening the understanding of the factors involved in ligand affinity for β2ARs will assist in the development of β2AR agonists that are more selective and potent, and that have longer term action. Not only are β2AR agonists employed as therapeutic agents, but also in diagnosis. Currently, the main clinical application of targeting human β2ARs is to treat asthma with bronchodilators. However, they are also used to treat other maladies in their acute or chronic forms, including heart conditions, metabolic disorders and muscle wasting. This review shows the scope and the possible future clinical implications of data from structures of β2ARs.

  1. Contributions of beta2-microglobulin-dependent molecules and lymphocytes to iron regulation: insights from HfeRag1(-/-) and beta2mRag1(-/-) double knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Carlos J; Makui, Hortence; Andrews, Nancy C; Santos, Manuela M

    2004-04-01

    Genetic causes of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) include mutations in the HFE gene, coding for a beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated major histocompatibility complex class I-like protein. However, iron accumulation in patients with HH can be highly variable. Previously, analysis of beta2mRag1(-/-) double-deficient mice, lacking all beta2m-dependent molecules and lymphocytes, demonstrated increased iron accumulation in the pancreas and heart compared with beta2m single knock-out mice. To evaluate whether the observed phenotype in beta2mRag1(-/-) mice was due solely to the absence of Hfe or to other beta2m-dependent molecules, we generated HfeRag1(-/-) double-deficient mice. Our studies revealed that introduction of Rag1 deficiency in Hfe knock-out mice leads to heightened iron overload, mainly in the liver, whereas the heart and pancreas are relatively spared compared with beta2mRag1(-/-) mice. These results suggest that other beta2m-interacting protein(s) may be involved in iron regulation and that in the absence of functional Hfe molecules lymphocyte numbers may influence iron overload severity.

  2. Practical synthesis of enantiomerically pure beta2-amino acids via proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yonggui; English, Emily P; Pomerantz, William C; Horne, W Seth; Joyce, Leo A; Alexander, Lane R; Fleming, William S; Hopkins, Elizabeth A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2007-05-01

    Proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes using a chiral iminium ion, generated from a readily prepared precursor, provides alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes with 85:15 to 90:10 dr. The alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes can be reduced to beta-substituted-gamma-amino alcohols, the major diastereomer of which can be isolated via crystallization or column chromatography. The amino alcohols are efficiently transformed to protected beta2-amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for beta-peptides, natural products, and other interesting molecules. Because conditions for the aminomethylation and subsequent reactions are mild, beta2-amino acid derivatives with protected functional groups in the side chain, such as beta2-homoglutamic acid, beta2-homotyrosine, and beta2-homolysine, can be prepared in this way. The synthetic route is short, and purifications are simple; therefore, this method enables the preparation of protected beta2-amino acids in useful quantities.

  3. Regulation of adherence and virulence by the Entamoeba histolytica lectin cytoplasmic domain, which contains a beta2 integrin motif.

    PubMed

    Vines, R R; Ramakrishnan, G; Rogers, J B; Lockhart, L A; Mann, B J; Petri, W A

    1998-08-01

    Killing of human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica requires adherence via an amebic cell surface lectin. Lectin activity in the parasite is regulated by inside-out signaling. The lectin cytoplasmic domain has sequence identity with a region of the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic tail implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion. Intracellular expression of a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the lectin has a dominant negative effect on extracellular lectin-mediated cell adherence. Mutation of the integrin-like sequence abrogates the dominant negative effect. Amebae expressing the dominant negative mutant are less virulent in an animal model of amebiasis. These results suggest that inside-out signaling via the lectin cytoplasmic domain may control the extracellular adhesive activity of the amebic lectin and provide in vivo demonstration of the lectin's role in virulence.

  4. Expression of beta2 integrins and macrophage-associated antigens in meningeal tumours.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J F; Perret, A G; Scoazec, J Y; Brunon, J

    2000-02-01

    This study assessed the expression of leukocyte integrins and macrophage-associated antigens in meningiomas. Fourteen benign meningiomas, ten atypical/anaplastic meningiomas, two hemangiopericytomas and one solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) were included. Frozen sections were immunostained using antibodies directed against leukocyte integrins, CD68, CD14, CD2, CD1a, DRC1 and CD34. Their expression was evaluated semi-quantitatively. Ki67 positive cells were counted. Arachnoid membranes served as controls. Arachnoid cells expressed the beta2-integrin subunit and KP1. Beta2 was detected in the tumour cells of 14 meningiomas. In nine cases, this was associated with an alpha-integrin subunit. There was no statistical difference in the expression of beta2 between benign and atypical/anaplastic meningiomas. KP1 was constantly expressed by the tumour cells of meningiomas. It was not expressed by other meningeal tumours. CD34 was detected in the fibrous meningiomas, hemangiopericytomas and the SFT. In each tumour, macrophages were more numerous than T lymphocytes. There was no statistical difference in the density of macrophages and T lymphocytes between the benign and atypical/anaplastic meningiomas. There was no correlation between the Ki67 proliferation index and macrophage infiltration. Meningiomas, through the expression of leukocyte antigens, have a very particular phenotype. The expression of beta2 integrins could play a role in the attraction of immunocompetent cells in the stroma of meningiomas.

  5. Transforming growth factor-{beta}2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinender . E-mail: Dinender.Kumar@uvm.edu; Sun, Baiming

    2005-06-24

    Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of injured myocardium, but is challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Three different isoforms of transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) -{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 exhibit distinct regulatory effects on cell growth, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development. We compared the effects of these three different isoforms on cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells. In contrast to TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3, treatment of mouse ES cells with TGF-{beta}2 isoform significantly increased embryoid body (EB) proliferation as well as the extent of the EB outgrowth that beat rhythmically. At 17 days, 49% of the EBs treated with TGF-{beta}2 exhibited spontaneous beating compared with 15% in controls. Cardiac myocyte specific protein markers sarcomeric myosin and {alpha}-actin were demonstrated in beating EBs and cells isolated from EBs. In conclusion, TGF-{beta}2 but not TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells.

  6. Renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, F A; Jacobson, G

    1979-01-01

    The renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin was studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The data were compared with results obtained from patients with glomerular proteinuria and from patients with tubular proteinuria. Initially during acute pancreatitis, the clearance ratio (clearance protein/clearance creatinine) for beta-2-microglobulin was increased dramatically (77-fold) compared to normals. After four to seven days this ratio had fallen and was elevated only 7-fold. The corresponding figures for amylase were 3.3 and 1.8 times and for albumin 9 and 5 times respectively. In glomerular disease, the clearance ratios for beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin were increased 6, 1.1, and 154 times and in tubular disease 448, 1.1, and 28 times, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of the urinary proteins during pancreatitis was mostly normal. In a few cases, slight tubular proteinuria was noticed. Amylase activity in serum and urine from patients with pancreatitis was found to sediment, (S20,W = 4.6) in a sucrose gradient, identical to amylase from normal serum and urine. The marked increase in the excretion of beta-2-microglobulin probably reflects interference of the kidney function at the proximal tubular level. Determinations of this protein in urine may be of value in studies of kidney dysfunction that can accompany pancreatitis.

  7. Comparative peptide mapping of adrenergic and cholinergic neutrotransmitter receptors by reverse-HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Venter, J.C.; Shreeve, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have developed a methodology for unambiguously identifying neutrotransmitter receptor proteins and comparing structural features of related receptors as well as those in different classes. These techniques have been applied to the study of the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-adrenergic receptors as well as the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The method involves comparative peptide mapping of total proteolytic digests of receptor proteins by microbore reverse-phase HPLC in conjunction with covalent modification by specific receptor ligands or (/sup 125/I)-labeling. Femtomole amounts of receptor can be analyzed. The maps of all the (/sup 125/I)-labeled receptors contain between 20 and 25 peaks and each receptor has a unique profile although all are similar in the very hydrophobic region of the map. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor from human platelets has a higher total percentage of hydrophilic peaks than either the guinea pig lung ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor or the porcine atria muscarinic receptor. Two forms of the muscarinic receptor have very similar but clearly distinct profiles. The nicotinic receptor subunits show a higher degree of homology by this method than was revealed by previous mapping studies which utilized SDS-PAGE or thin-layer techniques.

  8. GENETIC VARIATION IN THE ALPHA1B - ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AND VASCULAR RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Adefurin, Abiodun; Ghimire, Laxmi V.; Kohli, Utkarsh; Muszkat, Mordechai; Sofowora, Gbenga G.; Li, Chun; Levinson, Rebecca T.; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Stein, C. Michael; Kurnik, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    α1B- adrenergic receptors contribute to vasoconstriction in humans. We tested the hypothesis that variation in the ADRA1B gene contributes to interindividual variability and ethnic differences in adrenergic vasoconstriction. We measured dorsal hand vein responses to increasing doses of phenylephrine in 64 Caucasians and 41 African-Americans and genotyped 34 ADRA1B variants. We validated findings in another model of catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction, the increase in mean arterial pressure (ΔMAP) during a cold pressor test (CPT). One ADRA1B variant, rs10070745, present in 14 African-American heterozygotes but not in Caucasians, was associated with a lower phenylephrine ED50 (geometric mean [95% CI], 144 [69–299] ng/ml) compared to 27 African-American non-carriers (208 [130–334] ng/ml; P=0.015) and contributed to the ethnic differences in ED50. The same variant was also associated with a greater ΔMAP during CPT (P=0.008). In conclusion, ADRA1B rs10070745 was significantly associated with vasoconstrictor responses after adrenergic stimulation and contributed to the ethnic difference in phenylephrine sensitivity. PMID:27089938

  9. Restoration of β -Adrenergic Signaling in Failing Cardiac Ventricular Myocytes via Adenoviral-Mediated Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shahab A.; Skaer, Christine A.; Kypson, Alan P.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Peppel, Karsten C.; Glower, Donald D.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.; Koch, Walter J.

    1997-10-01

    Cardiovascular gene therapy is a novel approach to the treatment of diseases such as congestive heart failure (CHF). Gene transfer to the heart would allow for the replacement of defective or missing cellular proteins that may improve cardiac performance. Our laboratory has been focusing on the feasibility of restoring β -adrenergic signaling deficiencies that are a characteristic of chronic CHF. We have now studied isolated ventricular myocytes from rabbits that have been chronically paced to produce hemodynamic failure. We document molecular β -adrenergic signaling defects including down-regulation of myocardial β -adrenergic receptors (β -ARs), functional β -AR uncoupling, and an upregulation of the β -AR kinase (β ARK1). Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of the human β 2-AR or an inhibitor of β ARK1 to these failing myocytes led to the restoration of β -AR signaling. These results demonstrate that defects present in this critical myocardial signaling pathway can be corrected in vitro using genetic modification and raise the possibility of novel inotropic therapies for CHF including the inhibition of β ARK1 activity in the heart.

  10. The actions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on transforming growth factor-beta2 promoter activity are localized to the TATA box binding region and controlled through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, D C; Barlow, K D; Gaido, K W

    1996-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread environmental contaminant and suspected human carcinogen, is believed to act by altering expression of a number of genes involved in cell growth control. In a previous study, we demonstrated the transcriptional down regulation of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) by TCDD. To identify the region of the TGF-beta2 promoter necessary for the observed down-regulation by TCDD, we studied the effect of TCDD on a series of TGF-beta2 gene promoter deletions ranging from 1391 to 64 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. We demonstrate that the effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 promoter activity is localized to the TATA box sequence. The effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 transcription is dose-dependent, exhibiting saturation kinetics maximal by 10 nM. Time course experiments show that the maximum decrease (30-50%) in promoter activity by a 10 nM dose of TCDD is complete by 24 hr. DNAase I footprinting and gel shift experiments indicate a single shifted protein complex in this region that we conclude is the transcription initiation complex. TCDD does not appear to significantly alter this complex suggesting that gross alterations in the proteins associated with this sequence do not occur. Treatment of the cells with various protein kinase inhibitors had no significant effect on the TCDD-induced decrease in promoter activity with the exception of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Genistein reverses the effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 promoter activity back to control levels. Thus, TCDD can modulate gene transcription by acting at the transcription initiation complex via a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway.

  11. The Specific α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Prazosin Influences the Urine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mindi; Wu, Jianqiang; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Urine, reflecting many changes in the body, is a better source than blood for biomarker discovery. However, even under physiological conditions, the urine proteome often varies. Understanding how various regulating factors affect urine proteome helps link changes to urine proteome with urinary biomarkers of physiological conditions as well as corresponding diseases. To evaluate the possible impact of α1-adrenergic receptor on urine proteome, this study investigated effects of the specific inhibitor prazosin on the urine proteome in a rat model by using tandem mass tagging and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 775 proteins were identified, approximately half of which were influenced by prazosin treatment, indicating that the sympathetic nervous system exerts a significant impact on urine proteome. Eight significantly changed proteins were previously annotated as urinary candidate biomarkers. Angiotensinogen, haptoglobin, and beta-2 microglobulin, which were reported to be associated with blood pressure, were validated via Western blot. Prazosin is widely used in clinical practice; thus, these protein changes should be considered when studying corresponding diseases such as hypertension, post-traumatic stress disorder and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The related physiological activities of α1-receptors, controlling blood pressure and fear response might significantly affect the urine proteome and warrant further biomarker studies. PMID:27780262

  12. The effects of spaceflight on adrenergic receptors and agonists and cell adhesion molecule expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Paul J.; Perez, Christy J.; Adler, Karen A.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Meck, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-two astronauts who flew aboard 10 different US Space Shuttle flights were studied 10 days before launch, on landing day, and 2-4 days post-landing. After landing, plasma levels of norepinephrine (p<0.01) were elevated. Lymphocyte beta(2)-adrenergic receptors were desensitized 2-4 days post-landing (p<0.02). The density of CD62L on lymphocytes was unchanged but the densities of CD11a (p<0.01) and CD54 (p<0.001) were down-regulated. CD11a density was also down-regulated on monocytes (p<0.01). Neutrophils showed an up-regulation of CD11a (p<0.01) and a down-regulation of CD54 (p<0.01). CD11a density on neutrophils remained up-regulated (p<0.01) and CD54 density remained down-regulated (p<0.01) at 2-4 days post-landing. Circulating levels of soluble ICAM-1 (CD54) and soluble E-selectin (CD62E) were decreased after landing (p's<0.05). The data suggest that spaceflight leads to an environment that would support reduced leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Sympathetic activation may contribute to this phenomenon.

  13. beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms and beta-blocker treatment outcomes in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pacanowski, M A; Gong, Y; Cooper-Dehoff, R M; Schork, N J; Shriver, M D; Langaee, T Y; Pepine, C J; Johnson, J A

    2008-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1 and ADRB2) variants influence cardiovascular risk and beta-blocker responses in hypertension and heart failure. We evaluated the relationship between ADRB1 and ADRB2 haplotypes, cardiovascular risk (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke), and atenolol-based vs. verapamil sustained-release (SR)-based antihypertensive therapy in 5,895 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. After an average of 2.8 years, death rates were higher in patients carrying the ADRB1 Ser49-Arg389 haplotype (hazard ratio (HR) 3.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.68-7.99). This mortality risk was significant in patients randomly assigned to verapamil SR (HR 8.58, 95% CI 2.06-35.8) but not atenolol (HR 2.31, 95% CI 0.82-6.55), suggesting a protective role for the beta-blocker. ADRB2 haplotype associations were divergent within the treatment groups but did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. ADRB1 haplotype variation is associated with mortality risk, and beta-blockers may be preferred in subgroups of patients defined by ADRB1 or ADRB2 polymorphisms.

  14. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in subjects practicing transcendental meditation.

    PubMed

    Mills, P J; Schneider, R H; Hill, D; Walton, K G; Wallace, R K

    1990-01-01

    Several studies suggest that behavioral techniques such as meditation and relaxation may be associated with reduced end organ adrenergic receptor sensitivity. Thus far the evidence supporting this hypothesis has been indirect. We present preliminary findings showing reduced beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in a group of subjects practicing Transcendental Meditation. The meditation group (N = 10), compared to controls (N = 10), had a lower percentage of functional lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors (p = 0.009), but showed no difference in total receptor number or plasma catecholamines. There were no differences between the groups in Type A behavior, the Type A components, exercise, or family history of hypertension. The results provide some support for studies postulating that meditation is associated with reduced sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity, and provide encouragement for the efficacy of receptor measurement in psychophysiology research.

  15. Rabbit alveolar beta-adrenergic receptors increase with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, V; Goldfien, A C; Day, J P; Roberts, J M

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptors, which mediate the actions of endogenous catecholamines, increase before birth, an important step in pulmonary maturation. This increase, which occurs primarily in the alveoli, may be hastened by corticosteroids. However, because the lung is composed of more than 40 cell types, we asked whether the normal distribution of beta-adrenergic receptors changes with gestational age in a way that seems physiologically relevant. We compared lungs from fetal rabbits at 26 and 31 days' gestation with lungs from adult rabbits by autoradiography with 125iodocyanopindolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist. While the total silver grain concentration increased during gestation, the greatest proportional increase occurred in the alveoli. We conclude that pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptor concentration increases during gestation and that this increase is most dramatic for alveoli. This pattern is consistent with that previously observed after treatment of fetal rabbits in utero with corticosteroids.

  16. Ambroxol-induced modification of ion transport in human airway Calu-3 epithelia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Isao; Niisato, Naomi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2006-05-01

    Ambroxol is often used as a mucolytic agent in various lung diseases. However, it is unclear how ambroxol acts on bronchial epithelial cells. To clarify the action of ambroxol, we studied the effects of ambroxol on the ion transport in human Calu-3 cells, a human submucosal serous cell line, measuring the transepithelial short-circuit current and conductance across monolayers of Calu-3 cells. Ambroxol of 100 microM diminished the terbutaline (a beta2-adrenergic agonist)-stimulated Cl-/HCO3(-)-dependent secretion without any decreases in the conductance of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel locating on the apical membrane. On the other hand, under the basal (unstimulated) condition ambroxol increased the Cl(-)-dependent secretion with no significant change in the apical CFTR channel conductance and decreased the HCO3- secretion associated with a decrease in the apical CFTR channel conductance. Ambroxol had no major action on the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) or the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption. These results indicate that in Calu-3 cells: (1) under the basal (unstimulated) condition ambroxol increases Cl- secretion by stimulating the entry step of Cl- and decreases HCO3- secretion by diminishing the activity of the CFTR channel and/or the Na+/HCO3(-)-dependent cotransporter, (2) under the adrenergic agonist-stimulated condition, ambroxol decreases Cl- secretion by acting on the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, and (3) ambroxol has a more powerful action than the adrenergic agonist on the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, leading fluid secretion to a moderately stimulated level from a hyper-stimulated level.

  17. The role of integrin alpha D beta2 (CD11d/CD18) in monocyte/macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Yakubenko, Valentin P; Belevych, Nataly; Mishchuk, Daria; Schurin, Aleksey; Lam, Stephen C-T; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2008-08-15

    Integrin alpha(D)beta(2) (CD11d/CD18) is a multiligand macrophage receptor with recognition specificity identical to that of the major myeloid cell-specific integrin alpha(M)beta(2) (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1). Despite its prominent upregulation on inflammatory macrophages, the role of alpha(D)beta(2) in monocyte and macrophage migration is unknown. In this study, we have generated model and natural cell lines expressing different densities of alpha(D)beta(2) and examined their migration to various extracellular matrix proteins. When expressed at a low density, alpha(D)beta(2) on the surface of recombinant HEK293 cells and murine IC-21 macrophages cooperates with beta(1)/beta(3) integrins to support cell migration. However, its increased expression on the alpha(D)beta(2)-expressing HEK293 cells and its upregulation by PMA on the IC-21 macrophages result in increased cell adhesiveness and inhibition of cell migration. Furthermore, ligation of alpha(D)beta(2) with anti-alpha(D) blocking antibodies restores beta(1)/beta(3)-driven cell migration by removing the excess alpha(D)beta(2)-mediated adhesive bonds. Consistent with in vitro data, increased numbers of inflammatory macrophages were recovered from the inflamed peritoneum of mice after the administration of anti-alpha(D) antibody. These results demonstrate that the density of alpha(D)beta(2) is critically involved in modulating macrophage adhesiveness and their migration, and suggest that low levels of alpha(D)beta(2) contribute to monocyte migration while alpha(D)beta(2) upregulation on differentiated macrophages may facilitate their retention at sites of inflammation. PMID:18621369

  18. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Morrison, Vicky L; Sneddon, Claire C; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M; Gabriel, Jennie L; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L J; Fagerholm, Susanna C

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo. PMID:26405763

  19. Monovalent cation and amiloride analog modulation of adrenergic ligand binding to the unglycosylated alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Seibert, K.; Brandon, S.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Limbird, L.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The unglycosylated alpha 2B subtype of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor found in NG-108-15 cells possesses allosteric regulation of adrenergic ligand binding by monovalent cations and 5-amino-substituted amiloride analogs. These findings demonstrate that allosteric modulation of adrenergic ligand binding is not a property unique to the alpha 2A subtype. The observation that amiloride analogs as well as monovalent cations can modulate adrenergic ligand binding to the nonglycosylated alpha 2B subtype indicates that charge shielding due to carbohydrate moieties does not play a role in this allosteric modulation but, rather, these regulatory effects result from interactions of cations and amiloride analogs with the protein moiety of the receptor. Furthermore, the observation that both alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptor subtypes are modulated by amiloride analogs suggests that structural domains that are conserved between the two are likely to be involved in this allosteric modulation.

  20. β-adrenergic antagonists influence abdominal aorta contractility by mechanisms not involving β-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauzer, Willy; Bujok, Jolanta; Czerski, Albert; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Pecka, Ewa; Gnus, Jan; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are widely distributed in the cardiovascular system, where they considerably contribute to the control of its functions. β-blockers are commonly used in the treatment of disorders of the circulatory system. They act primarily by inhibiting cardiac β-receptors. However, there are also reports of pleiotropic action of β-blockers as well as of new compounds created to study β3 adrenergic receptors. The study aimed to investigate additional mechanisms of action of β-AR inhibitors in the rabbit abdominal aorta with emphasis on their action on α-adrenergic receptors and calcium influx. Responses to propranolol, betaxolol, metoprolol and SR59230A were evaluated in phenylephrine and PGF(2alpha) precontracted aortic rings. The effect of propranolol on the phenylephrine concentration-contraction curve was examined. Propranolol (≥ 10 μM) and SR59230A (≥ 0.1 μM) induced relaxations in phenylephrine-precontracted rings, while betaxolol and metoprolol had little effect. The β-AR inhibitors produced further contraction of tissues preincubated with PGF(2alpha), excluding SR59230A, which after initial contraction, elicited marked relaxation at a concentration above 1 ĕM. 100 μM of propranolol caused a significant rightward shift of the concentration-contraction curve to phenylephrine with no reduction in the maximum response. Incubation of aortic rings in phentolamine reduced the maximal contraction to propranolol; verapamil pretreatment by contrast enhanced contractile response. In conclusion, SR59230A and propranolol most probably act as α1-AR competitive antagonists in the presence of phenylephrine in rabbit abdominal aortic rings. After α-ARs blockade, propranolol exerts a weak relaxing activity connected with Ca2+ channel inactivation. SR59230A at a high concentration acts on the rabbit aorta by an additional mechanism needing further investigation.

  1. Structural differences determine the relative selectivity of nicotinic compounds for native alpha 4 beta 2*-, alpha 6 beta 2*-, alpha 3 beta 4*- and alpha 7-nicotine acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Grady, Sharon R; Drenan, Ryan M; Breining, Scott R; Yohannes, Daniel; Wageman, Charles R; Fedorov, Nikolai B; McKinney, Sheri; Whiteaker, Paul; Bencherif, Merouane; Lester, Henry A; Marks, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Mammalian brain expresses multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes that differ in subunit composition, sites of expression and pharmacological and functional properties. Among known subtypes of receptors, alpha 4 beta 2* and alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR have the highest affinity for nicotine (where * indicates possibility of other subunits). The alpha 4 beta 2*-nAChRs are widely distributed, while alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR are restricted to a few regions. Both subtypes modulate release of dopamine from the dopaminergic neurons of the mesoaccumbens pathway thought to be essential for reward and addiction. alpha 4 beta 2*-nAChR also modulate GABA release in these areas. Identification of selective compounds would facilitate study of nAChR subtypes. An improved understanding of the role of nAChR subtypes may help in developing more effective smoking cessation aids with fewer side effects than current therapeutics. We have screened a series of nicotinic compounds that vary in the distance between the pyridine and the cationic center, in steric bulk, and in flexibility of the molecule. These compounds were screened using membrane binding and synaptosomal function assays, or recordings from GH4C1 cells expressing h alpha 7, to determine affinity, potency and efficacy at four subtypes of nAChRs found in brain, alpha 4 beta 2*, alpha 6 beta 2*, alpha 7 and alpha 3 beta 4*. In addition, physiological assays in gain-of-function mutant mice were used to assess in vivo activity at alpha 4 beta 2* and alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChRs. This approach has identified several compounds with agonist or partial agonist activity that display improved selectivity for alpha 6 beta 2*-nAChR.

  2. 'Dialysis related arthropathy': a survey of 95 patients receiving chronic haemodialysis with special reference to beta 2 microglobulin related amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, N P; van den Berg, R; Disney, A; Alcock, M; Albertyn, L; Green, M; Pascoe, V

    1989-01-01

    Ninety five patients receiving chronic haemodialysis (CHD) were surveyed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic disease and, where possible, its aetiology. At least three distinct rheumatic syndromes were identified--a group of patients with a syndrome consisting of large and medium joint synovial swelling, restricted hips and shoulders, tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and bone cysts due to deposition of beta 2 microglobulin related amyloid (AM beta 2m); a second group with erosive azotaemic osteoarthropathy; and a third group with age related degenerative disease of small, large, and axial joints. The data presented suggest that in patients receiving CHD (a) the prevalence of AM beta 2m deposition and the associated syndrome increases with duration of dialysis, but in patients who have been dialysed for more than 10 years the risk of developing AM beta 2m is related to age; (b) AM beta 2m deposition in subchondral cysts, but not synovium, causes joint destruction; also, AM beta 2m may be more prone to deposition in synovium of joints already damaged by other processes; (c) in the absence of synovial iron deposition synovial AM beta 2m is not associated with an inflammatory infiltrate; (d) hyperparathyroidism and perhaps other factors such as synovial iron deposition are probably more important than AM beta 2m as causes of peripheral joint degeneration and destructive spondyloarthropathy in patients receiving CHD. Images PMID:2658876

  3. Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pavey, Emily S; Penheiter, Alan R; Knutson, Jean N; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10) and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). Using a randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal and high sodium with 1 month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (P = 0.03) with the Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9 ± 0.9, 13.5 ± 0.9 and 13.6 ± 0.8 fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3 ± 0.6, 10.1 ± 0.5 and 10.3 ± 0.6  fmol mg(-1) protein, respectively), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (P = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.

  4. Prevalence of anti-beta-2 microglobulin autoantibodies in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients with extra-articular manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Falus, A; Merétey, K; Bozsóky, S

    1981-01-01

    The frequency and concentration of specific factors binding beta 2 microglobulin were investigated in sera and synovial fluids of patients and in sera of normal controls. High anti-beta 2 m activity was detected in the sera of adult RA patients, particularly in those of with extra-articular disease. Similarly, anti-beta 2 m was present in the synovial fluids of RA but not of osteoarthrosis patients. Both the binding of anti-beta 2 m activity to the Sepharose staphylococcal protein A and its elution position in the second 'IgG' peak after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration suggest the antibody nature of the activity. The possibility of differences not only in titre but also in the specificity of heterologous and homologous anti-beta 2 m antibodies are discussed. PMID:6167213

  5. Induction of assembly of MHC class I heavy chains with beta 2microglobulin by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Klar, D; Hämmerling, G J

    1989-01-01

    Assembly of histocompatibility class I heavy chains with beta 2microglobulin (beta 2m) is known to be necessary for cell surface expression. Studies on the H-2 class I deficient but interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inducible fibrosarcoma BC2 and the lung carcinoma CMT 64.5 showed that after transfection with allogeneic H-2 class I genes the class I proteins are expressed, but only intracellularly and not on the cell surface. In spite of the presence of beta 2m in the cells no association of the transfected class I chain with beta 2m was observed. However, stimulation with IFN-gamma induced assembly and subsequent surface expression. These findings show that the assembly of class I heavy chains with beta 2m is not a spontaneous event but appears to be regulated by cellular mechanisms the nature of which is still unknown. Images PMID:2498080

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA techniques for assay of plasma beta 2 glycoprotein-1 and the influence of plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    McNally, T; Mackie, I J; Isenberg, D A; Machin, S J

    1993-11-15

    Beta 2 glycoprotein-1 (beta 2GP1) has been identified as a cofactor for the binding of some antiphospholipid antibodies to anionic phospholipids and has been demonstrated to possess anticoagulant properties in vitro. We have investigated Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) and ELISA techniques for measurement of beta 2GP1. Western blotting and crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) of plasma demonstrated free beta 2GP1 and beta 2GP1 complexed with unidentified plasma constituents. The free and complexed forms were not distinguished in immunoelectrophoresis assays, allowing measurement of total beta 2GP1. Standard and detergent modified IEP and ELISA techniques were compared: significant correlation was demonstrated between unmodified and detergent modified IEP, detergent modified IEP and ELISA and unmodified IEP and ELISA. The intra-assay co-efficients of variation (CVs) of the unmodified and modified IEPs and ELISA were 7.5, 3.7 and 7.9%. Inter-assay CVs determined for the modified IEP and ELISA were 5.8 and 9.1% respectively. The purified beta 2GP1 used to standardise the assays was shown to have subfraction selectivity and different calibration values were obtained for pooled normal plasma by the unmodified IEP (242 mg/l) and modified IEP and ELISA (201 mg/l). We have also investigated the influence of some pre-test variables on beta 2GP1 levels and shown that heparin, citrate or EDTA plasma and serum samples are suitable for assay of this glycoprotein and that levels are unaffected by repeated freeze/thawing. The influence of plasma lipids on beta 2GP1 measurement was also examined and we demonstrated no significant differences between pre and postprandial samples, which suggests that fasting status is not an important consideration for assay of beta 2GP1 in healthy subjects.

  7. Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros (beta 2-GLU) and the tapir.

    PubMed

    Baumann, R; Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The beta-chain of rhinoceros hemoglobin contains glutamic acid at position beta 2, and important site for the binding of organic phosphates. We have investigated the oxygen binding properties of this hemoglobin and its interaction with ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, CO2 and chloride. The results show that the presence of GLU at position beta 2 nearly abolishes the effect of organic phosphates and CO2, whereas the oxygen-linked binding of chloride is not affected. Thus rhinoceros hemoglobin has only protons and chloride anions as major allosteric effectors for the control of its oxygen affinity. From the results obtained with hemoglobin solutions it can be calculated that the blood oxygen affinity of the rhinoceros must be rather high with a P50 of about 20 torr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, which conforms with observations obtained for other large mammals.

  8. Slow to fast alterations in skeletal muscle fibers caused by clenbuterol, a beta(2)-receptor agonist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Easton, Thomas G.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2)-receptor agonist, clenbuterol, and a beta(2) antagonist, butoxamine, on the skeletal muscle fibers of rats were investigated. It was found that chronic treatment of rats with clenbuterol caused hypertrophy of histochemically identified fast-twitch, but not slow-twitch, fibers within the soleus, while in the extensor digitorum longus the mean areas of both fiber types were increased; in both muscles, the ratio of the number of fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was increased. In contrast, a treatment with butoxamine caused a reduction of the fast-twitch fiber size in both muscles, and the ratio of the fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was decreased.

  9. Options for thrust augmentation for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    1993-01-01

    A study to improve the performance of the NASA two-stage-to-orbit vehicle was undertaken. The NASA concept, a horizontal takeoff and landing, fully reusable, two-stage to orbit vehicle, will be capable of launching and returning a 10,000 pound payload to a 100 nmi polar orbit. The vehicle, Beta 2, is a derivative of the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle which was designed to deliver a 50,000 pound payload to a similar orbit. Beta 2 stages at Mach 6.5 and about 100,000 feet altitude. The propulsion system for the booster is an over/under turbine engine/ramjet configuration. In this paper a study was performed for one of the candidate engines, the variable cycle engine, to assess its potential to meet the required performance needs of the Beta 2 vehicle. Several options for thrust augmentation were studied in order to improve the performance of the engine where there was a critical need. The methodology, constraints, propulsion performance, and mission study results are presented.

  10. Defective venous beta-adrenergic response in borderline hypertensive subjects is corrected by a low sodium diet.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R D

    1990-01-01

    Hypertensive patients have reduced lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness which is corrected by a low sodium (Na) diet. To determine if this represents a more generalized abnormality in beta adrenoceptor response, we studied beta adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in hand veins of borderline hypertensive subjects and controls. Subjects received a 5-d diet containing high Na/low potassium (K), high Na/high K, or low Na/high K. Venous distension, as evaluated by a linear variable differential transformer, was measured in relation to infusion of phenylephrine followed by isoproterenol and nitroglycerin. On both the high Na/high K and high Na/low K diets, hypertensive subjects had significantly decreased isoproterenol-mediated vasodilation (47% decrease, P less than 0.01 and 36% decrease, P less than 0.01, respectively). On the low Na/high K diet, isoproterenol-mediated vasodilation in hypertensive subjects increased 41% (P less than 0.01) to a level not different from controls. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was not different in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, nor was it altered with Na intake. Phenylephrine-mediated vasoconstriction did not differ between normotensive and hypertensive groups. Venous beta-adrenergic response correlated with lymphocyte beta adrenoceptor density in normotensive (r = 0.53, P less than 0.005) but not hypertensive subjects. This study demonstrates that beta-adrenergic responsiveness is selectively reduced in peripheral veins of borderline hypertensive subjects, and this is corrected by a low Na diet. In view of our previous findings of reduced lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness in borderline hypertension, these studies suggest a generalized defect of beta adrenoceptor responsiveness in human hypertension. Further, dietary Na may play an important role in regulating this abnormality. Images PMID:2155921

  11. [Inhibition of menstrual uterine motility with four beta-adrenergic drugs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, R; Cobo, E

    1981-01-01

    Effects of the sublingual administration of four beta-adrenoceptor drugs on the uterine motility in 40 normal menstruating women were studied. The drugs and total doses tested were: orciprenaline (40 mg), Partusisten (10 mg), salbutamol (8 mg) and isoxsuprine (40 mg). The uterine and antidiuretic activities were studied before and after administration of each one. All those drugs employed reduced greatly the uterine contractions in all the patients. The cardiovascular side-effects were minimal and well tolerated. It suggested that the adrenergic system has an important role in the control of uterine motility during human menstruation.

  12. Adrenergic Metabolic and Hemodynamic Effects of Octopamine in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; de Paula, Mariana Nascimento; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Vilela, Vanessa Rodrigues; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit extracts of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite suppressants. A component of these extracts is octopamine, which is an adrenergic agent. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of octopamine on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways and hemodynamics. Octopamine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake, gluconeogenesis and the portal perfusion pressure. Octopamine also accelerated the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (octanoate and oleate), as revealed by the increase in 14CO2 production derived from 14C labeled precursors. The changes in glycogenolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure were almost completely abolished by α1-adrenergic antagonists. The same changes were partly sensitive to the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol. It can be concluded that octopamine accelerates both catabolic and anabolic processes in the liver via adrenergic stimulation. Acceleration of oxygen uptake under substrate-free perfusion conditions also means acceleration of the oxidation of endogenous fatty acids, which are derived from lipolysis. All these effects are compatible with an overall stimulating effect of octopamine on metabolism, which is compatible with its reported weight-loss effects in experimental animals. PMID:24196353

  13. Adrenal medullary regulation of rat renal cortical adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Guarnaccia, M.M.; Izzo, J.L. Jr. )

    1987-11-01

    The role of the adrenal medulla in the regulation of renal cortical adrenergic receptors was investigated in renal cortical particular fractions from control rats and rats 6 wk after adrenal demedullation. The specific binding of ({sup 3}H)prazosin, ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine, and ({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol were used to quantitate {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub 2}-, and {beta}-adrenergic receptors, respectively. Adrenal demedullation increased the concentration of all three groups of renal adrenergic receptors; maximal number of binding sites (B{sub max}, per milligram membrane protein) for {alpha}{sub 1}-, and {alpha}{sub 2}-, and {beta}-adrenergic receptors were increased by 22, 18.5, and 25%, respectively. No differences were found in the equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub D}) for any of the radioligands. Plasma corticosterone and plasma and renal norepinephrine levels were unchanged, whereas plasma epinephrine was decreased 72% by adrenal demedullation, renal cortical epinephrine was not detectable in control or demedullated animals. The results suggest that, in the physiological state, the adrenal medulla modulates the number of renal cortical adrenergic receptors, presumably through the actions of a circulating factor such as epinephrine.

  14. Prominent expression of transforming growth factor beta2 gene in the chicken embryonic gonad as revealed by suppressive subtraction cloning.

    PubMed

    Hattori Ma, Masa-aki; Furuta, Hiroki; Hiyama, Yoshio; Kato, Yukio; Fujihara, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    cDNA cloning from chicken embryonic gonad subtracted from tissues of the brain, heart, liver, gizzard, mesonephros, and muscle was performed to identify growth factor genes with expression unique to embryonic ovary and testis. We obtained several cDNA clones encoding known and many unknown genes. We found for the first time that the transforming growth factor beta2 (TGF-beta2) is preferentially expressed in the chicken embryonic ovary and testis. cDNA subtraction cloning with respect to the selective expression of TGF-beta2 in the ovary and testis was further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of other embryonic tissues. The ontogeny of TGF-beta2 was evaluated in chicken embryonic ovary and testis. In both testis and ovary, the levels of TGF-beta2 transcripts were high during the early period of embryonic development (E7), gradually decreased until the late embryonic days (E14--E17), and then slightly increased at the last embryonic day (E21). There was no difference in the TGF-beta2 transcripts per RNA between the left and the right ovaries. TGF-beta2 may have a critical role in the regulation of the development of chicken ovarian and testicular germ cells during the embryonic period.

  15. Bacterial induction of autoantibodies to beta2-glycoprotein-I accounts for the infectious etiology of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blank, Miri; Krause, Ilan; Fridkin, Mati; Keller, Nathan; Kopolovic, Juri; Goldberg, Iris; Tobar, Ana; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2002-03-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies against beta2-glycoprotein-I (beta2GPI). The factors causing production of anti-beta2GPI remain unidentified, but an association with infectious agents has been reported. Recently, we identified a hexapeptide (TLRVYK) that is recognized specifically by a pathogenic anti-beta2GPI mAb. In the present study we evaluated the APS-related pathogenic potential of microbial pathogens carrying sequences related to this hexapeptide. Mice immunized with a panel of microbial preparations were studied for the development of anti-beta2GPI autoantibodies. IgG specific to the TLRVYK peptide were affinity purified from the immunized mice and passively infused intravenously into naive mice at day 0 of pregnancy. APS parameters were evaluated in the infused mice on day 15 of pregnancy. Following immunization, high titers of antipeptide [TLRVYK] anti-beta2GPI Ab's were observed in mice immunized with Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or tetanus toxoid. The specificity of binding to the corresponding target molecules was confirmed by competition and immunoblot assays. Naive mice infused with the affinity-purified antipeptide Ab's had significant thrombocytopenia, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and elevated percentage of fetal loss, similar to a control group of mice immunized with a pathogenic anti-beta2GPI mAb. Our study establishes a mechanism of molecular mimicry in experimental APS, demonstrating that bacterial peptides homologous with beta2GPI induce pathogenic anti-beta2GPI Ab's along with APS manifestations. PMID:11901188

  16. Topical administration of adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics and nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Steinle, Jena J

    2010-01-01

    Topical application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and adrenergic receptor pharmaceutics are currently in use for corneal ulcers and glaucoma. A recent interest in the neuroprotective abilities of NGF has led to a renewed interest in NGF as a therapeutic for retinal and choroidal diseases. NGF can promote cell proliferation through actions of the TrkA receptor or promote apoptosis through receptor p75NTR. This understanding has led to novel interest in the role of NGF for diseases of the posterior eye. The role of β-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists for treatments of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and their potential mechanisms of action, are still under investigation. This review discusses the current knowledge and applications of topical NGF and adrenergic receptor drugs for ocular disease. PMID:20668722

  17. Cardiovascular effects of KUR-1246, a new tetrahydronaphthalen derivative beta2-adrenoceptor agonist and a selective uterine relaxant.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Yoshio; Motokawa, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Satoshi; Kiguchi, Sumiyoshi; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Murakami, Makoto; Kojima, Masami; Yamamoto, Toshinori

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular effects of KUR-1246 (CAS 194785-31-4, (-)-bis(2-{[(2S)-2-({(2R)-2-hydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenyl] ethyl}amino)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-7-yl]oxy}-N,N-dimethylacetamide)monosulfate), a new beta2-adrenoceptor agonist tocolytic agent. In conscious dogs, the intravenous administration of KUR-1246 at 0.1 and 1 microg/kg had no effects on blood pressure, heart rate or femoral artery blood flow. KUR-1246 at 10 and 100 microg/kg significantly decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate. In the electrocardiograms, KUR-1246 did not affect QT intervals or QTc. In addition, the cardiac effects of KUR-1246 were evaluated in in vitro electrophysiological studies. KUR-1246 at 10 micromol/L did not affect action potential parameters (the maximal upstroke velocity, resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude and action potential durations) in isolated papillary muscles of guinea pigs or in the human ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) tail current recorded from stably transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. On the basis of these results, the effects of KUR-1246 in conscious dogs on the cardiovascular system appear to be limited to changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Therefore, KUR-1246 is unlikely to provoke ventricular arrhythmias by delaying the ventricular repolarization.

  18. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs

  19. Adrenergic receptors on cerebral microvessels in control and Parkinsonian subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.; Lasbennes, F.; Sercombe, R.; Seylaz, J.; Agid, Y.

    1985-08-12

    The binding of adrenergic ligands (/sup 3/H-prazosin, /sup 3/H-clonidine, /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol) was studied on a preparation of cerebral microvessels in the prefrontal cortex and putamen of control and Parkinsonian subjects. The adrenergic receptor density in microvessels of control patients was less than 0.5% and 3.3% respectively of the total binding. A significant decrease in the number of alpha-1 binding sites was observed on microvessels in the putamen of patients with Parkinson's disease. 22 references, 2 tables.

  20. Changes of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors after surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Eandi, M; Buraglio, M; Arduino, C; Viano, I; Sansalvadore, G; Arbinolo, M A

    1984-01-01

    In this study the authors' purpose was to observe the effects of surgical stress on the number of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors in hypertensive and normotensive subjects. It was noticed that after surgery a significant reduction occurred in the number of binding sites of lymphocytes of both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. The time course of recovery to the pre-operative values of binding sites varied between the two groups, being slower in normotensive than in hypertensive patients. This might suggest a different pattern of regulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor between hypertensive and normotensive subjects.

  1. Mechanisms of postspaceflight orthostatic hypotension: low alpha1-adrenergic receptor responses before flight and central autonomic dysregulation postflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meck, Janice V.; Waters, Wendy W.; Ziegler, Michael G.; deBlock, Heidi F.; Mills, Paul J.; Robertson, David; Huang, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    Although all astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight, only approximately 20% actually experience presyncope during upright posture on landing day. The presyncopal group is characterized by low vascular resistance before and after flight and low norepinephrine release during orthostatic stress on landing day. Our purpose was to determine the mechanisms of the differences between presyncopal and nonpresyncopal groups. We studied 23 astronauts 10 days before launch, on landing day, and 3 days after landing. We measured pressor responses to phenylephrine injections; norepinephrine release with tyramine injections; plasma volumes; resting plasma levels of chromogranin A (a marker of sympathetic nerve terminal release), endothelin, dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG, an intracellular metabolite of norepinephrine); and lymphocyte beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. We then measured hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to upright tilt. Astronauts were separated into two groups according to their ability to complete 10 min of upright tilt on landing day. Compared with astronauts who were not presyncopal on landing day, presyncopal astronauts had 1). significantly smaller pressor responses to phenylephrine both before and after flight; 2). significantly smaller baseline norepinephrine, but significantly greater DHPG levels, on landing day; 3). significantly greater norepinephrine release with tyramine on landing day; and 4). significantly smaller norepinephrine release, but significantly greater epinephrine and arginine vasopressin release, with upright tilt on landing day. These data suggest that the etiology of orthostatic hypotension and presyncope after spaceflight includes low alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor responsiveness before flight and a remodeling of the central nervous system during spaceflight such that sympathetic responses to baroreceptor input become impaired.

  2. Volvox carteri alpha 2- and beta 2-tubulin-encoding genes: regulatory signals and transcription.

    PubMed

    Mages, W; Cresnar, B; Harper, J F; Brüderlein, M; Schmitt, R

    1995-07-01

    Microtubules (MT) carry out several specialized morphogenetic functions in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri (Vc), in addition to functions also executed in its closest unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr). To find out if these differences in morphogenetic complexity are reflected in tubulin (Tub) differences, we have compared the Vc alpha tub and beta tub genes with their Cr counterparts. The Vc genome contains two alpha tub and two beta tub genes. We report here the sequences of the alpha 2tub and beta 2tub genes, and thus complete the set of four tub sequences. The two alpha tub and two beta tub genes code for identical 451 (alpha) and 443 (beta) amino acid (aa) polypeptides; they differ from the Cr homologs in two (alpha) and one (beta) residues, respectively. Silent nucleotide (nt) exchanges between sibling genes are much more frequent in Vc than in Cr (12 vs. 2%), probably owing to a more stringent codon bias in the latter alga. Transcription of alpha 2tub and beta 2tub starts with an A, 26 bp (alpha 2) or 25 bp (beta 2) downstream from the TATA box. A 16-bp promoter element upstream and a G + C-rich sequence downstream from the TATA box are conserved in all tub of both species. Moreover, a 28-bp element of conserved sequence, and hence of possible functional significance, was found at similar locations in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of all four alpha tub. A conserved TGTAA downstream from the translation stop codon represents the algal poly(A)-addition signal (in both Vc and Cr).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628715

  3. Antigen-specific immune responses in cattle with inherited beta2-integrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Hoek, A; Rutten, V P; Bernadina, W E; Wentink, G H

    1997-08-01

    The significance of beta2-integrins for the generation of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo was studied employing the bovine model of beta2-integrin deficiency. To that end four cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) and healthy age-matched controls were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and rabies virus (RV) vaccines three times in monthly intervals. In addition, two animals with BLAD and three controls received a fourth vaccination 8 months after the start of the study. Proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the antigens TT and RV as well as specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were determined in intervals for up to 10 months after primary vaccination. Proliferative responses of PBMC to TT and RV were substantially lower in cattle with BLAD than in controls, although PBMC from cattle with BLAD were shown to have the capacity to proliferate in the response to the mitogen concanavalin A. Occurrence of antigen-specific IgG titers was delayed and they were considerably lower in cattle with BLAD compared to controls. Finally, treatment of TT- and RV-stimulated PBMC from an immunized control with different concentrations of the anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody R15.7 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation to almost 100%. The results of the present study show that beta2-integrin deficiency leads to delayedand severely impaired immune responsiveness in vivo. The observations that antibody production, although considerably delayed and impaired, does occur and that apparently class-switching takes place in BLAD indicate T-cell reactivity in vivo. PMID:9343338

  4. HPLC enantioseparation of beta2-homoamino acids using crown ether-based chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Berkecz, Róbert; Ilisz, István; Misicka, Aleksandra; Tymecka, Dagmara; Fülöp, Ferenc; Choi, Hee Jung; Hyun, Myung Ho; Péter, Antal

    2009-04-01

    RP high-performance liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the enantioseparation of eleven unusual beta(2)-homoamino acids. The underivatized analytes were separated on a chiral stationary phase containing (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid as chiral selector. The effects of organic (alcoholic) and acidic modifiers, the mobile phase composition and temperature on the separation were investigated. The structures of the substituents in the alpha-position of the analytes substantially influenced the retention and resolution. The elution sequence was determined in some cases: the S enantiomers eluted before the R enantiomers.

  5. Stoichiometric analysis of the TM2 6' phenylalanine mutation on desensitization in alpha1beta2 and alpha1beta2gamma2 GABA A receptors.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric B; Bell-Horner, Cathy L; Dibas, Mohammed I; Huang, Ren-Qi; Dillon, Glenn H

    2008-01-31

    The presence of phenylalanine (F) at the 6' position of transmembrane domain 2 (TM2) in the alpha4 subunit of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors enhances desensitization. As the GABA A receptor affords the ability to study the influence of as few as one and as many as five Fs at this position, we have used it to investigate potential subunit- and stoichiometry-dependent effects of the TM2 6'F mutation on desensitization. Whereas the presence of one F at this position decreased extent of desensitization, desensitization was increased in all configurations that included two or more Fs at the TM2 6' position; desensitization was particularly rapid with 3 or 4 F residues present. Our results demonstrate the ability of F residues at the TM2 6' position to modulate desensitization is likely conserved in the cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. Moreover, our findings demonstrate both stoichiometric- and subunit-dependent effects of the ability of this mutation to regulate desensitization in GABA A receptors.

  6. Relationship of beta 2 microglobulin and CD4 counts to neuropsychological performance in HIV-1-infected intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Boccellari, A A; Chambers, D B; Dilley, J W; Shore, M D; Tauber, M A; Moss, A R; Osmond, D H

    1994-10-01

    This study explores the relationship of immune dysfunction to the neuropsychological performance of i.v. drug users (IVDUs) infected with HIV-1. Ninety-seven HIV-positive and 45 HIV-negative former IVDUs on methadone maintenance were evaluated using neuropsychological measures, physical examinations, and measures of immune function, including absolute CD4 counts and beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2-M). There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects on any single neuropsychological domain. There was, however, a significant group difference on a composite indicator of neuropsychological impairment, with 32% of HIV-positive subjects demonstrating some degree of overall impairment compared with only 13% of HIV-negative subjects. HIV-positive subjects were then stratified according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) symptom groupings: group II, asymptomatic, n = 29; group III, lymphadenopathy, n = 30; and group IV A or C-2, symptomatic, non-AIDS, n = 38. There were no significant neuropsychological differences among the three CDC groups. The HIV-positive subjects were also stratified on absolute CD4 counts (< or = 200, 201-400, and > 400) and beta 2-M (> or = 5, 3-5, and < 3). Individuals with greater immune compromise (CD4, < 200, beta 2-M, > or = 5) were more impaired on measures of motor functioning. beta 2-M was found to be a better predictor than CD4 count of impaired neuropsychological performance. Furthermore, individuals with beta 2-M values > or = 5 have more than a threefold increase in the incidence of neuropsychological impairment than those with beta 2-M values < 3.0. These results suggest that beta 2-M may serve as a useful clinical marker for the development of neuropsychological impairment and that the risk of such impairment increases as the immune system weakens.

  7. TGF{beta}2-mediated production of hyaluronan is important for the induction of epicardial cell differentiation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Evisabel A.; Austin, Anita F.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2010-12-10

    In the developing heart, the epicardium is a major source of progenitor cells that contribute to the formation of the coronary vessel system. These epicardial progenitors give rise to the different cellular components of the coronary vasculature by undergoing a number of morphological and physiological changes collectively known as epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT). However, the specific signaling mechanisms that regulate epicardial EMT are yet to be delineated. In this study we investigated the role of TGF{beta}2 and hyaluronan (HA) during epicardial EMT and how signals from these two molecules are integrated during this important process. Here we show that TGF{beta}2 induces MEKK3 activation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 and ERK5 phosphorylation. TGF{beta}2 also increases Has2 expression and subsequent HA production. Nevertheless, inhibition of MEKK3 kinase activity, silencing of ERK5 or pharmacological disruption of ERK1/2 activation significantly abrogates this response. Thus, TGF{beta}2 promotes Has2 expression and HA production through a MEKK3/ERK1/2/5-dependent cascade. Furthermore, TGF{beta}2 is able to induce epicardial cell invasion and differentiation but not proliferation. However, inhibition of MEKK3-dependent pathways, degradation of HA by hyaluronidases or blockade of CD44, significantly impairs the biological response to TGF{beta}2. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TGF{beta}2 activation of MEKK3/ERK1/2/5 signaling modulates Has2 expression and HA production leading to the induction of EMT events. This is an important and novel mechanism showing how TGF{beta}2 and HA signals are integrated to regulate changes in epicardial cell behavior.

  8. alpha1-Microglobulin as a promising marker of cadmium-induced tubular dysfunction, possibly better than beta2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, J; Ezaki, T; Tsukahara, T; Furuki, K; Fukui, Y; Okamoto, S; Ukai, H; Sakurai, H; Ikeda, M

    2004-03-14

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validity of alpha1-microglobulin (alpha1-MG) in comparison with popularly used beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG). A database on 8975 cases of never-smoking adult women was revisited; the data were based on spot urine samples from the women in 10 prefectures all over Japan. The validity of alpha1-MG was examined following essentially the same protocol as beta2-MG was examined in a previous study. Comparisons were made for alpha1-MG as observed (e.g. alpha1-MG(ob)), as corrected for creatinine (CR or cr) (e.g. alpha1-MGcr) and as corrected for a specific gravity (SG or sg) of 1.016 (e.g. alpha1-MGsg). A cut-off value of 5.0 mg alpha1-MG/g cr or l was deduced from 400 microg beta2-MG/g cr taking advantage of the regression equation between alpha1-MG and beta2-MG. The prevalence of alph1-microglobulinuria as corrected for a specific gravity of 1.016 (or alpha1-MGsg-uria in short) was essentially unchanged irrespective of SG, except for in very dense or very thin urine samples. alpha1-MGcr-uria prevalence decreased at higher CR. Comparison of the present observation with previous findings on beta2-MG-uria prevalence showed that the variation in prevalence of MG-uria as a function of urine density was smaller for alpha1-MGsg whereas it was substantially larger for beta2-MGcr, and thus it appeared prudent to consider alpha1-MGsg rather than beta2-MGcr as a marker of tubular dysfunction.

  9. β-Adrenergic-mediated vasodilation in young men and women: cyclooxygenase restrains nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Johansson, Rebecca E; Peltonen, Garrett L; Harrell, John W; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2016-03-15

    We tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater vasodilator responses to β-adrenoceptor stimulation compared with men. We further hypothesized women exhibit a greater contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-adrenergic-mediated vasodilation compared with men. Forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) was measured in young men (n = 29, 26 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 33, 25 ± 1 yr) during intra-arterial infusion of isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist). In subset of subjects, isoproterenol responses were examined before and after local inhibition of nitric oxide synthase [N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA); 6 male/10 female] and/or cyclooxygenase (ketorolac; 5 male/5 female). Vascular conductance (blood flow ÷ mean arterial pressure) was calculated to assess vasodilation. Vascular conductance increased with isoproterenol infusion (P < 0.01), and this effect was not different between men and women (P = 0.41). l-NMMA infusion had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated dilation in men (P > 0.99) or women (P = 0.21). In contrast, ketorolac infusion markedly increased isoproterenol-mediated responses in both men (P < 0.01) and women (P = 0.04) and this rise was lost with subsequent l-NMMA infusion (men, P < 0.01; women, P < 0.05). β-Adrenergic vasodilation is not different between men and women and sex differences in the independent contribution of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase to β-mediated vasodilation are not present. However, these data are the first to demonstrate β-adrenoceptor activation of cyclooxygenase suppresses nitric oxide synthase signaling in human forearm microcirculation and may have important implications for neurovascular control in both health and disease. PMID:26747505

  10. β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, inhibits TLR4 signaling pathway in diabetic retina

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Elizabeth A.; Carion, Thomas W.; Jiang, Youde; Liu, Li; Chahine, Adam; Walker, Robert Jason; Steinle, Jena J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has recently become associated with complications similar to chronic inflammatory diseases. While it is clear that tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) is increased in diabetes, the role of innate immunity is only recently being investigated. As such, we hypothesized that diabetes would increase toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, which could be inhibited by a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (Compound 49b) previously shown to have anti-inflammatory actions. In order to investigate β-adrenergic receptor signaling and TLR4 in the diabetic retina, streptozotocin-injected diabetic mice, as well as human primary retinal endothelial cells (REC) and rat retinal Müller cells (rMC-1) exposed to high glucose (25mM), were treated with a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b (50nM), or PBS (control). TLR4 and its downstream signaling partners (MyD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, total and phosphorylated NF-κB) were examined. In addition, we assessed high mobility box group 1 (HMGB1) protein levels. Our data showed that diabetes or high glucose culture conditions significantly increased TLR4 and downstream signaling partners. Compound 49b was able to significantly reduce TLR4 and related molecules in the diabetic animal and retinal cells. HMGB1 was significantly increased in REC and Müller cells grown in high glucose, which was subsequently reduced with Compound 49b treatment. Our findings suggest that high glucose may increase HMGB1 levels that lead to increased TLR4 signaling. Compound 49b significantly inhibited this pathway providing a potential mechanism for its protective actions. PMID:26888251

  11. Critical closing pressure in the fetal vessel of the human placenta in vitro. II. Compared effects of a beta adrenergic substance, Salbutamol, on the critical closing pressure and vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, W L; González-Panizza, V H; Alvarez, H

    1976-01-01

    Salbutamol effects upon the fetal vessels of the human placenta were studied in vitro, comparing the changes induced upon the critical closing pressure (CCP) and viscous resistance (R). Four normal full-term placentas were used. In each of them, 4 cotyledonary areas were perfused, thus obtaining a total of 16 measurements for the observation of spontaneous variations (blank), by perfusion with Krebs solution, and the same amount for the variations due to Salbutamol. The concentration used was 10 microgram/ml, with a 4.25 ml/min flow. The relative effect of Salbutamol upon CCP was its decrease--30.4% against a relative spontaneous variation of --3.6%. The mean relative effect upon R was much lower, --9.4%. against a mean relative spontaneous variation of + 3.3%. The advantages of using CCP instead of R as a parameter of vascular contractility are discussed. Furthermore, Salbutamol is suggested to be useful in improving fetal placental circulation.

  12. Adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cerebral circulation of newborn piglets

    SciTech Connect

    Wagerle, L.C.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptor subtype mediating cerebral vasoconstriction during sympathetic nerve stimulation in the newborn piglet. The effect of ..cap alpha../sub 1/- and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonists prazosin and yohimbine on the cerebrovascular response to unilateral electrical stimulation (15 Hz, 15 V) of the superior cervical sympathetic trunk was studied in 25 newborn piglets. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with tracer microspheres. Sympathetic stimulation decreased blood flow to the ipsilateral cerebrum hippocampus, choroid plexus, and masseter muscle. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin inhibited the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the cerebrum, hippocampus, and masseter muscle and abolished it in the choroid plexus. ..cap alpha../sub s/-Adrenergic receptor blockade with yohimbine had no effect. Following the higher dose of yohimbine, however, blood flow to all brain regions was increased by approximately two-fold, possibly due to enhanced cerebral metabolism. These data demonstrate that vascular ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors mediate vasoconstriction to neuroadrenergic stimulation in cerebral resistance vessels in the newborn piglet.

  13. Molecular characterization of an. alpha. sub 2B -adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.K.; Dewan Zeng; D'Angelo, D.D.; Tucker, A.L.; Zhihong Lu; Barber, C.M.; Lynch, K.R. )

    1990-02-26

    {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptors comprise a heterogeneous population based on pharmacologic and molecular evidence. The authors have isolated a cDNA clone (pRNG{alpha}2) encoding a previously undescribed third subtype of an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor from a rat kidney cDNA library. The library was screened with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region found in all biogenic amine receptors described to date. The deduced amino acid sequence displays many features of G-protein coupled receptors with exception of the absence of the consensus N-linked glycosylation site at the amino terminus. Membranes prepared from COS-1 cells transfected with pRNG{alpha}2 display high affinity and saturable binding to {sup 3}H-rauwolscine (K{sub d}=2 nM).Competition curve data analysis shows that pRNG{alpha}2 protein binds to a variety of adrenergic drugs with the following rank order of potency: yohimbine {ge} cholorpromazine > prazosin {ge} clonidine > norepinephrine {ge} oxymetazoline. pRNG{alpha}2 RNA accumulates in both adult rat kidney and rat neonatal lung (predominant species is 4.0 kb). They conclude that pRNG{alpha}2 likely represents a cDNA for the {alpha}{sub 2B}-adrenergic receptor.

  14. Reversal of neurosteroid effects at alpha4beta2delta GABAA receptors triggers anxiety at puberty.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Gong, Qi Hua; Aoki, Chiye; Yuan, Maoli; Ruderman, Yevgeniy; Dattilo, Michael; Williams, Keith; Smith, Sheryl S

    2007-04-01

    Puberty is characterized by mood swings and anxiety, which are often produced by stress. Here we show that THP (allopregnanolone), a steroid that is released as a result of stress, increases anxiety in pubertal female mice, in contrast to its anxiety-reducing effect in adults. Anxiety is regulated by GABAergic inhibition in limbic circuits. Although this inhibition is increased by THP administration before puberty and in adults, during puberty THP reduces the tonic inhibition of pyramidal cells in hippocampal region CA1, leading to increased excitability. This paradoxical effect of THP results from inhibition of alpha4betadelta GABAA receptors. These receptors are normally expressed at very low levels, but at puberty, their expression is increased in hippocampal area CA1, where they generate outward currents. THP also decreases the outward current at recombinant alpha4beta2delta receptors, and this effect depends on arginine 353 in the alpha4 subunit, a putative site for modulation by Cl-. Therefore, inhibition of alpha4beta2delta GABAA receptors by THP provides a mechanism for the generation of anxiety at puberty.

  15. Thrust augmentation options for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is continuing to study propulsion concepts for a horizontal takeoff and landing, fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. This will be capable of launching and returning a 10,000 pound payload to a 100 nautical mile polar orbit using low-risk technology. The vehicle, Beta 2, is a derivative of the USAF/Boeing Beta vehicle which was designed to deliver a 50,000 pound payload to a similar orbit. Beta 2 stages at Mach 6.5 and about 100,000 ft altitude. The propulsion system for the booster is an over/under turbine bypass engine/ramjet configuration. In this paper, several options for thrust augmentation were studied in order to improve the performance of this engine where there was a critical need. Options studies were turbine engine overspeed in the transonic region, water injection at a various turbine engine locations also during the transonic region, and water injection at the turbine engine face during high speed operation. The methodology, constraints, propulsion performance, and mission study results are presented.

  16. Solution conformation of alpha-conotoxin GIC, a novel potent antagonist of alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M; McIntosh, J Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-conotoxin GIC is a 16-residue peptide isolated from the venom of the cone snail Conus geographus. Alpha-conotoxin GIC potently blocks the alpha3beta2 subtype of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, showing a high selectivity for neuronal versus muscle subtype [McIntosh, Dowell, Watkins, Garrett, Yoshikami, and Olivera (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33610-33615]. We have now determined the three-dimensional solution structure of alpha-conotoxin GIC by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of alpha-conotoxin GIC is well defined with backbone and heavy atom root mean square deviations (residues 2-16) of 0.53 A and 0.96 A respectively. Structure and surface comparison of alpha-conotoxin GIC with the other alpha4/7 subfamily conotoxins reveals unique structural aspects of alpha-conotoxin GIC. In particular, the structural comparison between alpha-conotoxins GIC and MII indicates molecular features that may confer their similar receptor specificity profile, as well as those that provide the unique binding characteristics of alpha-conotoxin GIC. PMID:14992691

  17. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Croft; Cowley, Patrick M; Singh, Abhishek; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M; Baker, Anthony J; Simpson, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  18. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  19. beta-Adrenergic receptors contribute to hypoxaemia induced vasodilation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, G J; Westendorp, R G; Simons, M; Chang, P C; Frölich, M; Meinders, A E

    1995-01-01

    1. It was the aim of the present study to investigate the role of the beta-adrenergic receptor in hypoxaemia induced vasodilatation in the human forearm. 2. The study was performed in 12 non-smoking male volunteers. In six subjects the local vascular effects of intra-arterially (i.a.) infused propranolol (0.1 mu kg-1 min-1) was determined during normoxaemia and hypoxaemia (peripheral oxygen saturation; SpO2 80%), and compared with the contra-lateral (control) arm. beta-adrenergic receptor blockade by propranolol was confirmed by i.a. infusions of adrenaline. In six other subjects the effects of incremental hypoxaemia (SpO2 90, 85, 80%) on forearm- and finger blood flow was investigated. A difference between these vascular beds is the absence of vascular beta-adrenergic receptors in the finger. Forearm- and finger blood flow were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Plasma levels of (nor-)adrenaline were determined in both arterial and venous blood samples. Hypoxaemia was attained by gradual decompression of a hypobaric chamber and individually adjusted. 3. During normoxaemia the single infusion of propranolol did not influence forearm vascular resistance. In contrast, during hypoxaemia a net vasoconstriction was observed in the arm treated with propranolol, which was significantly different (P = 0.009) from the vasodilatation in the control arm (mean difference in response 40%; 95% confidence interval 13.2-66.8). The net arterio-venous spillover of noradrenaline from the forearm increased after the first 15 min of hypoxaemia (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline in the next 15 min. Arterial and venous plasma levels of adrenaline during hypoxaemia remained unchanged compared with normoxaemia. In the second set of experiments incremental levels of hypoxaemia induced a vasoconstriction in the finger, which was significantly different (P = 0.025) from the vasodilatation in the forearm (mean difference in response 300%; 95% confidence interval 63-537). 4. The

  20. Major histocompatibility complex class I-specific and -restricted killing of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Glas, R; Franksson, L; Ohlén, C; Höglund, P; Koller, B; Ljunggren, H G; Kärre, K

    1992-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, normally composed of a heavy chain, a beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), and peptide antigens. beta 2m is considered essential for the assembly and intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules as well as their peptide presentation to CTLs. Contrary to this dogma, we now report the generation of allospecific and restricted CD8+ and TCR alpha beta+ CTLs (where TCR is T-cell receptor) capable of killing beta 2m-deficient cells. Such CTLs were obtained by priming mice with live allogeneic beta 2m- spleen cells or mutant lymphoma cells producing MHC class I protein but no detectable beta 2m. Although both beta 2m- and beta 2m-expressing lymphoma cells were rejected in allogeneic mice, only the former were efficient inducers of CTLs recognizing beta 2m- cells. These CTLs were MHC class I (H-2Kb or Db)-specific and CD8-dependent and did not require serum as a source of external beta 2m in the culture. They could be induced across major and minor histocompatibility barriers. The H-2-restricted CTLs generated in the latter case failed to kill the antigen-processing-deficient target RMA-S cells. The results show that MHC class I heavy chains in beta 2m- cells can be transported to the cell surface and act as antigens or antigen-presenting molecules to allospecific and MHC-restricted CTLs. PMID:1454824

  1. The effects of nicotine on the alpha-7 and beta-2 nicotinic acetycholine receptor subunits in the developing piglet brainstem.

    PubMed

    Browne, Cherylea J; Sharma, Nidhi; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We tested the hypothesis that nicotine increases expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits alpha7 and beta2 in a piglet model. Piglets exposed to 2mg/kg/day nicotine for 14 days postnatally (n=14) were compared to non-exposed controls (n=14), (equal gender proportions). Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify and quantify changes in, alpha7 and beta2 nAChR subunits in 8 nuclei of the medulla at both the rostral and caudal levels. Compared to controls, nicotine exposed piglets had decreased alpha7 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (rDMNV) (p=0.01), and increased beta2 in the caudal DMNV (cDMNV) (p=0.05), caudal nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (cNSTT) (p=0.03) and caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) (p=0.04). Analysis by gender showed that in the control group, compared to males, females had higher beta2 in the caudal hypoglossal (cXII) (p<0.01) and caudal inferior olivary (p=0.04) nuclei, while in the nicotine group females had higher beta2 in the cDMNV (p=0.02). Compared to control males, nicotine exposed males had lower beta2 in the cXII (p<0.01). Overall, changes in alpha7 were specific to nicotine exposure with no gender differentiation. Changes in beta2 were more widespread but showed gender-specific effects. These findings provide evidence that early postnatal exposure to nicotine significantly affects nAChR subunit expressions in the developing brainstem.

  2. Abrogation of resistance to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination in H-2b mice deficient in beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Dunkel, A J; Thiemann, R L; Leibowitz, J; Zijlstra, M; Jaenisch, R

    1993-07-01

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible strains of mice with Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, results in central nervous system demyelination, which is similar to multiple sclerosis. Immunogenetic experiments indicate that the MHC (H-2) and, in particular, the D region that controls class I-restricted immune responses, is an important determinant to development of demyelination. We tested whether disruption of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) would abrogate resistance to demyelinating disease normally observed in H-2b mice. All (C57BI/6 x 129)F3 mice transgenic for homozygous beta 2-m gene disruption (-/-) developed chronic demyelination after Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection, whereas none of the infected littermates with normal expression of class I MHC (beta 2-m, +/+) developed demyelination. Demyelinated lesions showed class II MHC expression, macrophages, and TNF but no class I MHC expression or CD8+ T cells. No correlation was observed between development of demyelination and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to virus Ag. Despite the presence of demyelinating lesions, none of the infected beta 2-m (-/-) mice developed neurologic deficits. Infectious virus and virus Ag persisted in the central nervous systems of infected beta 2-m (-/-) mice but not in beta 2-m (+/+) mice. These experiments support the hypothesis that a class I immune response mediated by CD8+ T cells is important in resistance to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination. Development of chronic neurologic deficits as observed in immunocompetent susceptible strains of mice may be dependent on the presence of class I MHC and CD8+ T cells.

  3. Impact of beta2-adrenoreceptor gene variants on cardiac cavity size and systolic function in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Badenhorst, D; Norton, G R; Sliwa, K; Brooksbank, R; Essop, R; Sareli, P; Woodiwiss, A J

    2007-10-01

    In heart failure, the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenoreceptor (beta2-AR) gene are associated with exercise-capacity, clinical outcomes and response to beta-AR blocker therapy. Whether beta2-AR gene variants mediate these effects in-part through an impact on cardiac structural remodeling and pump function independent of the effects of beta-blockers is uncertain. We evaluated whether the Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu variants of the beta2-AR gene predict left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) before and 6 months after receiving standard medical therapy other than beta-AR blockers. In all, 394 patients with IDC and 393 age and gender-matched controls were genotyped for the beta2-AR gene variants using restriction-fragment length polymorphism-based techniques. LVEF and dimensions were determined in 132 patients (of whom 71 were newly diagnosed) both at baseline and after 6 months. Genotype of neither variant was associated with the presence of IDC. Moreover, beta2-AR genotype did not determine LVEF or LV dimensions prior to initiating therapy. After 6 months of therapy, LVEF increased by 7.1+/-1.0 absolute units (P<0.0001) and LVEDD decreased by 0.27+/-0.06 cm (P<0.02). Adjusting for baseline values as well as gender, age, and type of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy received, genotype was associated with neither final LVEF and LVEDD, nor change in LVEF and LVEDD. In conclusion, these data suggest that in heart failure, the functional Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu variants of the beta2-AR gene have no independent effect on adverse structural remodeling and pump function.

  4. Sustained adrenergic signaling leads to increased metastasis in ovarian cancer via increased PGE2 synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Archana S.; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Sadaoui, Nouara C.; Kang, Yu; Lin, Tan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo; Wu, Sherry Y.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Allen, Julie K.; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Pradeep, Sunila; Zand, Behrouz; Previs, Rebecca A.; Hansen, Jean M.; Ivan, Cristina; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Yang, Peiying; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Cole, Steve W.; Sood, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenergic stimulation adversely affects tumor growth and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we uncovered a novel mechanism by which catecholamines induce inflammation by increasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in ovarian cancer cells. Metabolic changes in tumors isolated from patients with depression and mice subjected to restraint stress showed elevated PGE2 levels. Increased metabolites and PTGS2 and PTGES protein levels were found in Skov3-ip1 and HeyA8 cells treated with norepinephrine, and these changes were shown to be mediated by ADRB2 receptor signaling. Silencing PTGS2 resulted in significantly decreased migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of norepinephrine and decreased tumor burden and metastasis in restraint stress orthotopic models. In human ovarian cancer samples, concurrent increased ADRB2, PTGS2 and PTGES expression was associated with reduced overall and progression-free patient survival. In conclusion, increased adrenergic stimulation results in increased PGE2 synthesis via ADRB2-Nf-kB-PTGS2 axis, which drives tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26257064

  5. Norepinephrine-Induced Adrenergic Activation Strikingly Increased the Atrial Fibrillation Duration through β1- and α1-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Nozomi; Cai, Wenqian; Jin, Huiling; Hidaka, Yuko; Prajapati, Rajesh; Umemura, Masanari; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Okumura, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmias among old people. It causes serious long-term health problems affecting the quality of life. It has been suggested that the autonomic nervous system is involved in the onset and maintenance of AF in human. However, investigation of its pathogenesis and potential treatment has been hampered by the lack of suitable AF models in experimental animals. Objectives Our aim was to establish a long-lasting AF model in mice. We also investigated the role of adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes, which may be involved in the onset and duration of AF. Methods and Results Trans-esophageal atrial burst pacing in mice could induce AF, as previously shown, but with only a short duration (29.0±8.1 sec). We found that adrenergic activation by intraperitoneal norepinephrine (NE) injection strikingly increased the AF duration. It increased the duration to more than 10 minutes, i.e., by more than 20-fold (656.2±104.8 sec; P<0.001). In this model, a prior injection of a specific β1-AR blocker metoprolol and an α1-AR blocker prazosin both significantly attenuated NE-induced elongation of AF. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these receptors’ effects on AF, we assessed the SR Ca2+ leak, a major trigger of AF, and consequent spontaneous SR Ca2+ release (SCR) in atrial myocytes. Consistent with the results of our in-vivo experiments, both metoprolol and prazosin significantly inhibited the NE-induced SR Ca2+ leak and SCR. These findings suggest that both β1-AR and α1-AR may play important roles in the development of AF. Conclusions We have established a long-lasting AF model in mice induced by adrenergic activation, which will be valuable in future AF study using experimental animals, such as transgenic mice. We also revealed the important role of β1- and α1-AR-mediated signaling in the development of AF through in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. PMID:26203906

  6. Timing within the menstrual cycle, sex, and the use of oral contraceptives determine adrenergic suppression of NK cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Shakhar, K; Shakhar, G; Rosenne, E; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2000-01-01

    Physiological responses that involve adrenergic mechanisms, such as stress-induced changes in cardiovascular indices, were reported to fluctuate along the menstrual cycle. Metastatic development following surgery was also reported to vary according to the menstrual phase during which a primary breast tumour was removed. Natural killer (NK) cells are believed to play an important role in controlling metastases. Our recent studies in rats demonstrated that adrenergic suppression of NK activity and of resistance to metastasis is more profound during oestrous phases characterized by high levels of oestradiol. In the current study in humans, we examined the in vitro impact of a β-adrenergic agonist, metaproterenol (MP), on NK activity, comparing blood drawn from (a) women tested at 3–4 different phases of their menstrual cycle (n = 10), (b) women using oral contraceptives (OC) (n = 10), and (c) men (n = 7). NK activity in each blood sample was assessed in the presence of 5 different concentrations of MP (10–8M to 10–6M), and in its absence (baseline). The results indicated marked group differences in the magnitude of NK suppression by MP: EC 50 was 2.6-fold lower in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase, and 1.8-fold lower in OC users compared to men, who were least susceptible to the effects of MP. No significant group differences or menstrual effects in baseline levels of NK activity were evident. These findings provide the first empirical evidence for menstrual regulation of adrenergic impact on cellular immune competence. Relevance of these findings to the relation between the timing of breast cancer excision within the menstrual cycle and survival rates is discussed. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11104557

  7. Transforming growth factor Beta2 is required for valve remodeling during heart development.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Mohamad; Brown, Kristen; Gard, Connie; Chen, Hwudaurw; Rajan, Sudarsan; Elliott, David A; Stevens, Mark V; Camenisch, Todd D; Conway, Simon J; Doetschman, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Although the function of transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFβ2) in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well studied, its role in valve remodeling remains to be fully explored. Here, we used histological, morphometric, immunohistochemical and molecular approaches and showed that significant dysregulation of major extracellular matrix (ECM) components contributed to valve remodeling defects in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos. The data indicated that cushion mesenchymal cell differentiation was impaired in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos. Hyaluronan and cartilage link protein-1 (CRTL1) were increased in hyperplastic valves of Tgfb2(-/-) embryos, indicating increased expansion and diversification of cushion mesenchyme into the cartilage cell lineage during heart development. Finally, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses indicate that the activation of SMAD2/3 was decreased in Tgfb2(-/-) embryos during valve remodeling. Collectively, the data indicate that TGFβ2 promotes valve remodeling and differentiation by inducing matrix organization and suppressing cushion mesenchyme differentiation into cartilage cell lineage during heart development.

  8. The role of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in the nicotine-induced anxiolytic effect in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bencan, Zachary; Levin, Edward D

    2008-10-20

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been widely used to study the molecular mechanisms of development including neurodevelopment. More recently, they have begun to be used to study neuropharmacology and neurotoxicology. Critical for this line of research are methods to study behavioral function in zebrafish. Previous studies have compared zebrafish with mammalian models to determine similarities and differences in locomotor behavior, learning and memory. Relatively little research has been conducted on stress response and anxiety behavior as well as the pharmacologic response in zebrafish. We have developed a test for zebrafish to assess stress response and anxiety: the novel tank diving test. In this short test normally zebrafish dive to the bottom of a novel tank and then gradually over the 5-min test begin exploring higher levels of the tank. Nicotine, which has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans was found to diminish this novel tank diving response in zebrafish. The current study examined the nicotinic receptor subtype selectivity involved in the actions of nicotine. Two nicotinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were used: MLA (an alpha7 antagonist) and DHbetaE (an alpha4beta2 antagonist). We replicated our previous finding of the anxiolytic effect of nicotine with significantly less bottom dwelling by the fish after nicotine treatment. This nicotine-induced anxiolytic effect was reversed by both MLA and DHbetaE, indicating that both nicotinic alpha7 and alpha4beta2 receptors are involved in the nicotinic effect on anxiety in zebrafish.

  9. Association between availability of non-prescription beta 2 agonist inhalers and undertreatment of asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P; Henry, D; Francis, L; Cruickshank, D; Dupen, F; Higginbotham, N; Henry, R; Sutherland, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the availability of beta 2 agonist inhalers without prescription leads to undertreatment of asthma. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of adequacy of treatment in asthmatic subjects who purchased beta 2 agonist inhalers and subjects who obtained inhalers by prescription. SETTING--Community pharmacies in New South Wales, Australia. SUBJECTS--403 eligible consecutive asthmatic subjects aged 13 to 55 purchasing salbutamol metered dose inhalers over the counter or by prescription; 197 attended for follow up and spirometry and 139 returned 14 day symptom, peak flow, and medication diaries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Severity of asthma assessed on frequency of day time and night time wheezing, frequency of inhaler use, and peak expiratory flow rates. Adequacy of treatment according to published guidelines. RESULTS--Of the 139 patients who completed the diary 83, (60%) purchased their inhalers without prescription and 83 were undertreated. The characteristics of patients in the prescription and purchasing groups were similar. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified use of non-prescribed salbutamol as being associated with a 2.9-fold increase in the odds of undertreatment (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.8). Smoking increased the odds of undertreatment (3.3, 1.2 to 9.5) and use of a peak flow meter reduced the odds (0.11, 0.04 to 0.34). Adjustment for frequency of consultation made use of non-prescription salbutamol insignificant (1.4, 0.55 to 3.8). Attitudes to services provided by doctors and pharmacists were favourable and not associated with undertreatment. CONCLUSION--Over the counter purchase of salbutamol is associated with infrequent consultation with doctors and undertreatment of asthma. PMID:8518681

  10. The effect of adrenergic blockade on blushing and facial flushing.

    PubMed

    Drummond, P D

    1997-03-01

    The effect of adrenergic blockade on vascular responses in the forehead was assessed during stressful mental arithmetic, singing, and moderate exercise in 21 frequent blushers and 21 infrequent blushers. Adrenergic antagonists were introduced into a small site on the forehead by iontophoresis, and vascular responses were monitored bilaterally with laser Doppler flowmetry. Beta blockade prevented increases in blood flow in infrequent blushers during mental arithmetic and partially inhibited vasodilatation during singing, indicating minor participation of beta-adrenoceptors in blushing. Alpha blockade did not affect blushing but augmented vasodilatation during exercise. Despite higher ratings of self-consciousness in frequent than in infrequent blushers, vascular responses were similar in both groups. Thus, blushing propensity does not appear to be related to the density of alpha- or beta-adrenoceptors in facial vessels and may have a psychological basis. PMID:9090265

  11. Peptide-conformed beta2m-free class I heavy chains are intermediates in generation of soluble HLA by the membrane-bound metalloproteinase.

    PubMed

    Demaria, S; DeVito-Haynes, L D; Salter, R D; Burlingham, W J; Bushkin, Y

    1999-12-01

    Molecular mechanisms of soluble HLA-release by a membrane-bound metalloproteinase (MPase) are not defined. We have investigated the possibility that certain beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-free heavy chains (HC) retain peptide-induced conformations before and after the cleavage by using mutant HLA-A2.242K HC with reduced affinity for beta2m. We show that dissociation of HC/beta2m complexes on the surface of C1R lymphoblastoid cells generates both conformed and non-conformed beta2m-free HC recognized by conformation-dependent antibodies. Conformed HC, having bound the HLA-A2-specific peptide HTLV-1 tax 11-19, can retain their proper conformations after dissociation of beta2m. Further, conformed and non-conformed surface beta2m-free HC are cleaved by the MPase, and some released HC preserve their conformations. Exogenous beta2m binds only to conformed HC, and protects them from cleavage as effectively as the MPase inhibitor BB-2116. We propose that soluble HLA-release requires generation of peptide-conformed beta2m-free HC intermediates on the cell surface, which are then cleaved by the MPase and in solution may reassociate with beta2m. Given the role of soluble HLA in the indirect allorecognition, the activity of this MPase may be important in transplant rejection. PMID:10626735

  12. Primary structure of rat cardiac beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors obtained by automated DNA sequence analysis: further evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gocayne, J; Robinson, D A; FitzGerald, M G; Chung, F Z; Kerlavage, A R; Lentes, K U; Lai, J; Wang, C D; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, lambda RHM-MF and lambda RHB-DAR, encoding the muscarinic cholinergic receptor and the beta-adrenergic receptor, respectively, have been isolated from a rat heart cDNA library. The cDNA clones were characterized by restriction mapping and automated DNA sequence analysis utilizing fluorescent dye primers. The rat heart muscarinic receptor consists of 466 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 51,543. The rat heart beta-adrenergic receptor consists of 418 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 46,890. The two cardiac receptors have substantial amino acid homology (27.2% identity, 50.6% with favored substitutions). The rat cardiac beta receptor has 88.0% homology (92.5% with favored substitutions) with the human brain beta receptor and the rat cardiac muscarinic receptor has 94.6% homology (97.6% with favored substitutions) with the porcine cardiac muscarinic receptor. The muscarinic cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors appear to be as conserved as hemoglobin and cytochrome c but less conserved than histones and are clearly members of a multigene family. These data support our hypothesis, based upon biochemical and immunological evidence, that suggests considerable structural homology and evolutionary conservation between adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first report utilizing automated DNA sequence analysis to determine the structure of a gene. Images PMID:2825184

  13. Adrenergic and noradrenergic regulation of poultry behavior and production.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L

    2016-07-01

    Norepinephrine and epinephrine (noradrenaline and adrenaline) are integral in maintaining behavioral and physiological homeostasis during both aversive and rewarding events. They regulate the response to stressful stimuli through direct activation of adrenergic receptors in the central and sympathetic nervous systems, hormonal activity and through the interaction of the brain, gut, and microbiome. The multiple functions of these catecholamines work synergistically to prepare an individual for a "fight or flight" response. However, hyper-reactivity of this system can lead to increased fearfulness and aggression, decreased health and productivity, and a reduction in overall well-being. Behaviors, such as aggression and certain fear-related behaviors, are a serious problem in the poultry industry that can lead to injury and cannibalism. For decades, catecholamines have been used as a measure of stress in animals. However, few studies have specifically targeted the adrenergic systems as means to reduce behaviors that are damaging or maladapted to their rearing environments and improve animal well-being. This article attempts to address our current understanding of specific, adrenergic-regulated behaviors that impact chicken well-being and production. PMID:27345328

  14. Pseudotumoral amyloidosis of beta 2-microglobulin origin in the buttock of a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Rocha-Castilla, J L

    1993-01-01

    A 52 year old man who had been receiving haemodialysis for 13 years, with a history of renal tuberculosis, right ischial tuberculous osteomyelitis, and dialysis arthropathy, developed a soft tissue tumour in his left buttock. Histological analysis, immunohistological staining, and electron microscopic examination of the surgically removed tumour showed massive deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) amyloid. This case shows the expanding clinical spectrum of this type of amyloidosis, and it is suggested that amyloid infiltration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gluteal tumours in these patients. Images PMID:8408708

  15. Internalization of coxsackievirus A9 is mediated by {beta}2-microglobulin, dynamin, and Arf6 but not by caveolin-1 or clathrin.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Outi; Susi, Petri; Tevaluoto, Tuire; Härmä, Heidi; Marjomäki, Varpu; Hyypiä, Timo; Kiljunen, Saija

    2010-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV9) is a member of the human enterovirus B species within the Enterovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. It has been shown to utilize alphaV integrins, particularly alphaVbeta6, as its receptors. The endocytic pathway by which CAV9 enters human cells after the initial attachment to the cell surface has so far been unknown. Here, we present a systematic study concerning the internalization mechanism of CAV9 to A549 human lung carcinoma cells. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of integrin beta6 subunit inhibited virus proliferation, confirming that alphaVbeta6 mediates the CAV9 infection. However, siRNAs against integrin-linked signaling molecules, such as Src, Fyn, RhoA, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt1, did not reduce CAV9 proliferation, suggesting that the internalization of the virus does not involve integrin-linked signaling events. CAV9 endocytosis was independent of clathrin or caveolin-1 but was restrained by dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin. The RNA interference silencing of beta2-microglobulin efficiently inhibited virus infection and caused CAV9 to accumulate on the cell surface. Furthermore, CAV9 infection was found to depend on Arf6 as both silencing of this molecule by siRNA and the expression of a dominant negative construct resulted in decreased virus infection. In conclusion, the internalization of CAV9 to A549 cells follows an endocytic pathway that is dependent on integrin alphaVbeta6, beta2-microglobulin, dynamin, and Arf6 but independent of clathrin and caveolin-1.

  16. The Role of Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptors in Anti-ulcer Activity.

    PubMed

    Suleyman, Halis

    2012-04-01

    Although peptic ulcer disease has long been recognized, the proposed mechanisms of its etiopathogenesis change every year. This review shows that gastric ulcers have a significant relationship with alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The aggravating factors of gastric ulcer formation have been reported to act by blocking alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, whereas drugs possessing anti-ulcer activity have been shown to ensure gastric protection by stimulating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The data derived from the literature indicate the likelihood that any drug or substance selectively stimulating the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors may possess anti-ulcer activity.

  17. Autonomic innervation of the urogenital system: adrenergic and cholinergic elements.

    PubMed

    McConnell, J; Benson, G S; Wood, J G

    1982-01-01

    The major organs of the male urogenital (UG) system have been examined in various mammals, including man, using light and electron microscopic (EM) histochemical methods. For the light microscopic study, the urinary bladder, the vas deferens and the penis (corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum) were studied in the rat, cat, dog, monkey and man using a glyoxylic acid (GA) method modified for peripheral adrenergic nerve fibers, and a thiocholine method for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Fine structural analysis was done on the vasa of rat, cat, monkey and man, and on the bladder and penis of cat, dog, monkey and man. Tissue was fixed in glutaraldehyde (GMO) as a control or in glutaraldehyde-dichromate (GDC) for the specific localization of norepinephrine (NE). All organs studied demonstrated numerous adrenergic nerve fibers throughout the muscular layers, in the connective tissue, and in the adventitia of most blood vessels. These fibers had a brilliant fluorescence when visualized with the GA method, and demonstrated many varicosities with small (400-600 A) and/or large (800-1200 A) granular vesicles in both control and GDC-fixed tissue examined with the EM. Evaluation of the vesicles with the analytical electron microscope (AEM) verified that those in the GDC-fixed tissue were chrome-positive, and, therefore, NE-containing. In the vas and penis, acetylcholinesterase(AChE)-positive nerve fibers were encountered less frequently at the light microscopic level than adrenergic fibers, and few typical cholinergic varicosities were seen in these organs with the EM. In the bladder, cholinergic nerves were seen with about the same frequency as adrenergic fibers in both light microscopic and EM preparations. Also observed frequently in each of the viscera were varicosities with large to very large (800-2000 A) granular vesicles of the kind presently hypothesized to be peptidergic or purinergic. Few varicosities of the type considered sensory, with large (800-1200 A) clear

  18. Adrenaline Rush: The Role of Adrenergic Receptors in Stimulant-Induced Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines, act primarily through the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, and serotonin. Although stimulant addiction research has largely focused on DA, medication development efforts targeting the dopaminergic system have thus far been unsuccessful, leading to alternative strategies aimed at abating stimulant abuse. Noradrenergic compounds have shown promise in altering the behavioral effects of stimulants in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this review, we discuss the contribution of each adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype (α1, α2, and β) to five stimulant-induced behaviors relevant to addiction: locomotor activity, conditioned place preference, anxiety, discrimination, and self-administration. AR manipulation has diverse effects on these behaviors; each subtype profoundly influences outcomes in some paradigms but is inconsequential in others. The functional neuroanatomy and intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying the impact of AR activation/blockade on these behaviors remain largely unknown, presenting a new frontier for research on psychostimulant–AR interactions. PMID:24499709

  19. Adrenaline rush: the role of adrenergic receptors in stimulant-induced behaviors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karl T; Weinshenker, David

    2014-04-01

    Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines, act primarily through the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, and serotonin. Although stimulant addiction research has largely focused on DA, medication development efforts targeting the dopaminergic system have thus far been unsuccessful, leading to alternative strategies aimed at abating stimulant abuse. Noradrenergic compounds have shown promise in altering the behavioral effects of stimulants in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this review, we discuss the contribution of each adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype (α1, α2, and β) to five stimulant-induced behaviors relevant to addiction: locomotor activity, conditioned place preference, anxiety, discrimination, and self-administration. AR manipulation has diverse effects on these behaviors; each subtype profoundly influences outcomes in some paradigms but is inconsequential in others. The functional neuroanatomy and intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying the impact of AR activation/blockade on these behaviors remain largely unknown, presenting a new frontier for research on psychostimulant-AR interactions.

  20. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  1. Development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in porcine feces and the neonatal piglet intestine.

    PubMed

    Kircanski, Jasmina; Hodgins, Douglas; Soltes, Glenn; Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Songer, J Glenn; Prescott, John F

    2012-09-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for detection and quantitation of beta2-toxin in neonatal piglet intestinal contents. Polystyrene plates were coated with polyclonal capture antibodies prepared against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The ELISA was developed using consensus recombinant beta2-toxin, atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, purified consensus native beta2-toxin, and field samples of neonatal porcine intestinal contents. Captured antigen was detected using a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody against consensus recombinant beta2-toxin. The limit of detection of the ELISA for consensus beta2-toxin was between 2.0 and 3.5 ng/ml. The ELISA detected atypical recombinant beta2-toxin only weakly. Optical density was protein concentration dependent. The test confirmed differences between consensus and atypical recombinant beta2-toxin, but similar results obtained when testing pure consensus recombinant beta2-toxin and native beta2-toxin. Results obtained from intestinal content samples, particularly from the small intestine, were highly inconsistent and suggested variable protease activity. Addition of protease inhibitors partially prevented degradation of the toxin; however, sample processing at low temperature, at a lower pH (citrate buffer with 5% of bovine serum albumin, pH 6.1), and "cold incubation" of applied antigens abolished protease activity. The recombinant toxin was preserved in spiked intestinal samples by freezing at -70°C, suggesting that necropsy samples can be stored frozen for periodic testing. With appropriate sample preparation, antigen-capture ELISA can detect beta2-toxin in the intestinal content and feces of neonatal piglets.

  2. The α2B adrenergic receptor is mutant in cortical myoclonus and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    De Fusco, Maurizio; Vago, Riccardo; Striano, Pasquale; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Zara, Federico; Mei, Davide; Kim, Min Seuk; Muallem, Shmuel; Chen, Yunjia; Wang, Qin; Guerrini, Renzo; Casari, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autosomal dominant cortical myoclonus and epilepsy (ADCME) is characterized by distal, fairly rhythmic myoclonus and epilepsy with variable severity. We have previously mapped the disease locus on chromosome 2p11.1-q12.2 by genome-wide linkage analysis. Additional pedigrees affected by similar forms of epilepsy have been associated to chromosome 8q, 5p and 3q, but none of the causing genes has been identified. We aim at identifying the mutant gene responsible for this epileptic form. Methods Genes included in the ADCME critical region were prioritized and directly sequenced. Co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and electrophysiology approaches on transfected human cells have been utilized for testing the functional significance of the identified mutation. Results Here we show that mutation in the α2-adrenergic receptor subtype B (α2B-AR) associates to ADCME by identifying a novel in-frame insertion/deletion in two Italian families. The mutation alters several conserved residues of the third intracellular (3i) loop, neither hampering the α2B-AR plasma membrane localization nor the arrestin-mediated internalization capacity, but altering the binding with the scaffolding protein spinophilin upon neurotransmitter activation. Spinophilin, in turn, regulates interaction of GPCRs with Regulators of G proteins Signaling proteins. Accordingly, the mutant α2B-AR increases the epinephrine-stimulated calcium signaling. Interpretation The identified mutation is responsible for ADCME, as the loss of α2B-AR/spinophilin interaction causes a gain of function effect. This work implicates for the first time the α-adrenergic system in human epilepsy and opens new ways for understanding the molecular pathway of epileptogenesis, widening the spectrum of possible therapeutic targets. PMID:24114805

  3. Sodium channel from rat brain: role of the. beta. 1 and. beta. 2 subunits in saxitoxin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    Procedures are described for the selective removal of the ..beta..1 or the ..beta..2 subunits from the detergent-solubilized channel from rat brain, and the functional integrity of the resulting protein complex is examined. Treatment of the channel with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/ followed by sedimentation through sucrose gradients results in complete separation of ..beta..1 from the ..cap alpha..-..beta..2 complex and complete loss of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin (STX) binding activity. At intermediate MgCl/sub 2/ concentrations, the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity are closely correlated. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) quantitatively stabilizes the solubilized complex against both the loss of ..beta..1 and the loss of (/sup 3/H)STX binding activity. This indicates that association of the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..1 subunits is required to maintain the STX/TTX binding site in a conformation with high affinity for STX and TTX in the detergent-solubilized state. Treatment of the solubilized sodium channel with dithiothreitol in the presence of TTX causes specific release of the ..beta..2 subunit, without significantly removing ..beta..1. There is little or no correlation between the amount of ..beta..2 in the sodium channel complex and the ability of the preparation to bind (/sup 3/H)STX.

  4. Association of persistent bronchial hyperresponsiveness with beta2-adrenoceptor (ADRB2) haplotypes. A population study.

    PubMed

    D'amato, M; Vitiani, L R; Petrelli, G; Ferrigno, L; di Pietro, A; Trezza, R; Matricardi, P M

    1998-12-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma and represents a strong risk factor for the disease. However, not all asthmatics have BHR and it can be observed in normal subjects too, probably because of genetic predisposition. Increasing attention is being focused on the beta2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2), whose genetic variability at amino acids 16 and 27 has been shown to correlate with some clinical features of asthma, including airways reactivity. To verify whether ADRB2 gene polymorphisms can influence BHR at a broader level, we studied a large, highly homogeneous sample of individuals sharing race, gender, age, and current living environment. BHR was strictly defined as a constant positive response to serial methacholine challenge tests and an improved definition of genetic variability at the ADRB2 locus was used, by identifying the haplotypic combinations of polymorphisms 16 and 27. We observed that the ADRB2 haplotype with a Gly at position 16 and a Gln at position 27 is associated with BHR in our sample. The association persisted also after correction for potentially confounding variables such as specific and total IgE levels. This observation suggests therefore that ADRB2 gene can confer genetic susceptibility to BHR, rather than having only a disease-modifying effect in asthma.

  5. Association of beta 2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms in Malaysian hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Komara, M; Vasudevan, R; Ismail, P; Bakar, S A; Pishva, S R; Heidari, F

    2014-04-16

    The sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in blood pressure regulation. Beta 2 (β2) adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms have been associated with hypertension in different populations with conflicting results. We examined the association of three common polymorphisms, Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile, of the β2 adrenoceptor gene in Malaysian hypertensive subjects. A total of 160 hypertensive and control subjects were recruited. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and anthropometric measurements were obtained from each subject. Biochemical analyses of lipid profiles were conducted with an autoanalyzer. DNA samples were extracted from blood and buccal cells. Genotyping was accomplished with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. SBP, DBP, body mass index, and biochemical factors all differed significantly between case and control subjects (P < 0.05). The genotype frequencies of Arg16Arg, Arg16Gly, and Gly16Gly were 22.5, 70, and 7.5% among cases and 33.1, 63.1, and 3.8% among controls, respectively. The genotype frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu, and Glu27Glu among cases were 41.1, 50, and 1.9% compared to 77.5, 20.6, and 1.9% among controls, respectively. In this study, the Gln27Glu polymorphism was significantly associated with Malaysian hypertensive subjects (P < 0.05). Therefore, the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2 adrenoceptor could be a risk factor associated with hypertension among Malaysians.

  6. Computerized nursing process in critical care unit using the ICNP--Beta2.

    PubMed

    Dal Sasso, Grace T M; Peres, Heloísa Ciqueteo; Silveira, Denise Tolfo

    2006-01-01

    The process of nursing is an assertive solving problem approach to the identification and care of patients' problems as well as an instrument of education in Nursing. At the CCU, due to the complexity of care, constant changes in the clinical situation of patients and the elevated amount of information, the informatics is seen as a way to the development of the nursing process and consequently improvement of the quality of care. Therefore, this methodological study and technological production was developed with 05 nurses of the CCU aiming describing the development of the nursing computerized process in the CCU from the ICNP Beta 2 and demonstrating the contributions to the improvement of nursing care. The ethical principals of the resolution 196/96 of CNS were followed and constituted 03 production phases: planning, development and production of the B version. The evaluation process interposed the system production phases and made it possible necessary modifications to be done. The evaluations make noteworthy that a new conception of nursing care practice is established; the process of nursing informatics makes the care more notorious, organized and permits the early mistake detection; the program allows a continuous learning and explicit clinical decision making of the nurse. Therefore, information systems and related technology are necessary in order to create, democratize, and apply knowledge in nursing.

  7. Day-to-day variation of bronchodilatory response to an inhaled beta-2-stimulant in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Bake, B; Larsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The effect of inhaling 0.25 and 2.0 mg of terbutaline sulphate, a beta-2-stimulant, from a metered dose aerosol was studied in five asthmatic patients during two periods of five days each. During the first period, the patients used a good spontaneous inhalation technique; during the second period, the inhalation technique was optimized and controlled. The variation of basal FEV1 and of the increase (delta FEV1) caused by 0.25 mg of inhaled terbutaline was considerable. The effect was only slightly better and the variation only slightly smaller when the controlled inhalation technique was used. The differences were not significant. In individual patients, there was no or negative correlation between delta FEV1 and the corresponding basal FEV1 value. Accordingly, the most commonly used way of expressing delta FEV1 as a percentage of basal FEV1 value was found to be insensitive. Delta FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the maximum available FEV1 increase on the same day after 2.25 mg terbutaline sulphate, was found to be most sensitive. This way of expressing delta FEV1 will increase the possibilities of detecting differences between treatments in clinical trials. PMID:3453755

  8. Gram Negative Bacterial Inflammation Ameliorated by the Plasma Protein Beta 2-Glycoprotein I

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Saijun; Chen, Gang; Qi, Miao; El-Assaad, Fatima; Wang, Ying; Dong, Shangwen; Chen, Liming; Yu, Demin; Weaver, James C.; Beretov, Julia; Krilis, Steven A.; Giannakopoulos, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer wall of gram negative bacteria. In high doses LPS contributes to the inflammation in gram negative sepsis, and in low doses contributes to the low grade inflammation characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. We wanted to assess the role of beta2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) a highly conserved plasma protein and its different biochemical forms in a mouse model of LPS systemic inflammation. Normal and β2GPI deficient mice were administered LPS through their veins and assessed for a range of inflammation markers in their blood and liver. Different biochemical forms of β2GPI were measured in normal mice given either saline or LPS. We show that β2GPI has a significant role in inhibiting LPS induced inflammation. In this study we provide some evidence that β2GPI serves a protective role in a mouse model of LPS inflammation. This resolves the controversy of previous studies which used LPS and β2GPI in test tube based models of LPS induced activation of white cells. We also highlight the potential relevance of a newly discovered biochemical form of β2GPI in LPS mediated inflammation and we speculate that this form has a protective role against LPS induced pathology. PMID:27670000

  9. Characterization of a panel of six β2-adrenergic receptor antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Koryakina, Yulia A; Fowler, Tristan W; Jones, Stacie M; Schnackenberg, Bradley J; Cornett, Lawrence E; Kurten, Richard C

    2008-01-01

    Background The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a primary target for medications used to treat asthma. Due to the low abundance of β2AR, very few studies have reported its localization in tissues. However, the intracellular location of β2AR in lung tissue, especially in airway smooth muscle cells, is very likely to have a significant impact on how the airways respond to β-agonist medications. Thus, a method for visualizing β2AR in tissues would be of utility. The purpose of this study was to develop an immunofluorescent labeling technique for localizing native and recombinant β2AR in primary cell cultures. Methods A panel of six different antibodies were evaluated in indirect immunofluorescence assays for their ability to recognize human and rat β2AR expressed in HEK 293 cells. Antibodies capable of recognizing rat β2AR were identified and used to localize native β2AR in primary cultures of rat airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells. β2AR expression was confirmed by performing ligand binding assays using the β-adrenergic antagonist [3H] dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA). Results Among the six antibodies tested, we identified three of interest. An antibody developed against the C-terminal 15 amino acids of the human β2AR (Ab-Bethyl) specifically recognized human but not rat β2AR. An antibody developed against the C-terminal domain of the mouse β2AR (Ab-sc570) specifically recognized rat but not human β2AR. An antibody developed against 78 amino acids of the C-terminus of the human β2AR (Ab-13989) was capable of recognizing both rat and human β2ARs. In HEK 293 cells, the receptors were predominantly localized to the cell surface. By contrast, about half of the native rat β2AR that we visualized in primary cultures of rat airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells using Ab-sc570 and Ab-13989 was found inside cells rather than on their surface. Conclusion Antibodies have been identified that recognize human β2AR, rat β2AR or both rat and human β2AR

  10. Triiodothyronine Attenuates Prostate Cancer Progression Mediated by β-Adrenergic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-González, Evangelina; Sánchez-Tusie, Ana Alicia; Morales, Giapsy; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells are responsive to adrenergic and thyroid stimuli. It is well established that β-adrenergic activation (protein kinase A [PKA]/cAMP response element binding protein [CREB]) promotes cancer progression, but the role of thyroid hormones is poorly understood. We analyzed the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol [ISO]) and/or thyroid hormone on neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation and cell invasion, using in vivo (LNCaP tumor) and in vitro models (LNCaP and DU145 human cells). Nude mice were inoculated with LNCaP cells and were treated for 6 wks with ISO (200 μg/d), triiodothyronine (T3, 2.5 μg/d) or both. ISO alone reduced tumor growth but increased tumor expression of cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent genes (real-time polymerase chain reaction, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], urokinase plasmin activator [uPA] and metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9]) and some proteins related to NE differentiation and/or invasiveness (synaptophysin, VEGF, pCREB). T3 reduced tumor growth and prevented the overexpression of ISO-stimulated factors through a pCREB-independent mechanism. In low invasive LNCaP cells, 50 μmol/L ISO or 100 nmol/L thyroxine (T4) induced the acquisition of NE-like morphology (phase-contrast microscopy), increased VEGF secretion (ELISA) and invasive capacity (Transwell assay), but no synergistic effects were observed after the coadministration of ISO + T4. In contrast, 10 nmol/L T3 alone had no effect, but it prevented the NE-like morphology and invasiveness stimulated by ISO. None of these treatments had any effect on highly invasive DU145 cells. In summary, this study showed that ISO and T4 increase cancer progression, and T3 attenuates ISO-stimulated progression. Further studies are required to determine if changes in the ratio of T4/T3 could be relevant for prostate cancer progression. PMID:26928389

  11. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, Rita; Say, Meichien; Waters, Karen A.

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS

  12. Adrenergic signaling and oxidative stress: a role for sirtuins?

    PubMed Central

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Conti, Valeria; Russomanno, Giusy; Longobardi, Giancarlo; Furgi, Giuseppe; Filippelli, Amelia; Ferrara, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The adrenergic system plays a central role in stress signaling and stress is often associated with increased production of ROS. However, ROS overproduction generates oxidative stress, that occurs in response to several stressors. β-adrenergic signaling is markedly attenuated in conditions such as heart failure, with downregulation and desensitization of the receptors and their uncoupling from adenylyl cyclase. Transgenic activation of β2-adrenoceptor leads to elevation of NADPH oxidase activity, with greater ROS production and p38MAPK phosphorylation. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase or ROS significantly reduced the p38MAPK signaling cascade. Chronic β2-adrenoceptor activation is associated with greater cardiac dilatation and dysfunction, augmented pro-inflammatory and profibrotic signaling, while antioxidant treatment protected hearts against these abnormalities, indicating ROS production to be central to the detrimental signaling of β2-adrenoceptors. It has been demonstrated that sirtuins are involved in modulating the cellular stress response directly by deacetylation of some factors. Sirt1 increases cellular stress resistance, by an increased insulin sensitivity, a decreased circulating free fatty acids and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), an increased activity of AMPK, increased activity of PGC-1a, and increased mitochondrial number. Sirt1 acts by involving signaling molecules such P-I-3-kinase-Akt, MAPK and p38-MAPK-β. βAR stimulation antagonizes the protective effect of the AKT pathway through inhibiting induction of Hif-1α and Sirt1 genes, key elements in cell survival. More studies are needed to better clarify the involvement of sirtuins in the β-adrenergic response and, overall, to better define the mechanisms by which tools such as exercise training are able to counteract the oxidative stress, by both activation of sirtuins and inhibition of GRK2 in many cardiovascular conditions and can be used to prevent or treat diseases such as heart failure

  13. Mapping Neuronal Activation and the Influence of Adrenergic Signaling during Contextual Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei-Ping; Guzowski, John F.; Thomas, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a critical role for adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus during contextual and spatial memory retrieval. To determine which neurons are activated by contextual memory retrieval and its sequelae in the presence and absence of adrenergic signaling, transcriptional imaging for the immediate-early gene "Arc" was used in…

  14. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  15. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  16. Association Between Plasma Beta-2 Microglobulin Level and Cardiac Performance in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid; Omranifar, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is considered as a surrogate marker for middle molecule uremic toxins and a key component in dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, few studies have evaluated role of B2M in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma B2M level with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors in patients with CKD. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma B2M level in 86 patients with different stages of CKD and 78 age- and sex-matched individuals, as healthy control group. Then we investigated the association between plasma B2M level and left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) in echocardiography and some inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with CKD. Results: Mean plasma B2M level was significantly higher in patients with CKD than in control group (P < 0.001). It was directly correlated with serum C-reactive protein (r = 0.167, P < 0.001), phosphate (r = 0.112, P < 0.001) levels, and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.438, P < 0.001) and LVEDD (r = 0.275, P < 0.001) in echocardiography. It was also inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.033, P < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.521, P < 0.001), hemoglobin (r = -0.748, P < 0.001), and EF (r = -0.625, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that plasma B2M level is inversely associated with GFR and EF and directly correlated with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors. PMID:25738124

  17. Adrenergic Drugs Blockers or Enhancers for Cognitive Decline ? What to Choose for Alzheimer's Disease Patients?

    PubMed

    Femminella, Grazia D; Leosco, Dario; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The adrenergic system has an important role in normal central nervous system function as well as in brain disease. The locus coeruleus, the main source of norepinephrine in brain, is involved in the regulation of learning and memory, reinforcement of sleep-wake cycle and synaptic plasticity. In Alzheimer's disease, locus coeruleus degeneration is observed early in the course of the disease, years before the onset of clinical cognitive signs, with neurofibrillary detected at the stage of mild cognitive impairment, preceding amyloid deposition. Thus, in the last years, a great interest has grown in evaluating the possibility of central adrenergic system modulation as a therapeutic tool in Alzheimer's disease. However, evidences do not show univocal results, with some studies suggesting that adrenergic stimulation might be beneficial in Alzheimer's Disease and some others favoring adrenergic blockade. In this review, we summarize data from both hypothesis and describe the pathophysiological role of the adrenergic system in neurodegeneration. PMID:27189470

  18. Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, G. H.; Im, W. B.; Carter, D. B.; McKinley, D. D.

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined how gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influences interaction of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) with recombinant rat alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAA receptors stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), as monitored with changes in Cl- currents measured by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. 2. During application of GABA (5 microM) for 15 s, picrotoxin and TBPS dose-dependently accelerated the decay of inward GABA-induced currents (a holding potential of -60 mV under a symmetrical Cl- gradient). The drugs, upon preincubation with the receptors, also reduced the initial current amplitude in a preincubation time and concentration-dependent manner. This indicates their interaction with both GABA-bound and resting receptors. 3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for picrotoxin and TBPS at the beginning of a 15 s GABA (5 microM) pulse was several times greater than that obtained at the end of the pulse. GABA thus appears to enhance picrotoxin and TBPS potency, but only at concentrations leading to occupancy of both high and low affinity GABA sites, i.e., 5 microM. Preincubation of the receptors with the drugs in the presence of GABA at 200 nM, which leads to occupancy of only high affinity GABA sites in the alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 subtype, produced no appreciable change in potency of picrotoxin or TBPS. This indicates that they preferentially interact with multiliganded, but not monoliganded receptors, unlike U-93631, a novel ligand to the picrotoxin site, which has higher affinity to both mono- and multiliganded receptors than resting receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582470

  19. Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a truncated H-2Db.

    PubMed

    Allen, H; Fraser, J; Flyer, D; Calvin, S; Flavell, R

    1986-10-01

    beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) has been thought essential for transport of all major histocompatibility complex class I antigens to the cell surface. Here, we show that the mouse class I antigen H-2Db is expressed at the cell surface even when there is no beta 2m present within the cell. This was established by transfecting the H-2Db gene into the R1E cell line, which lacks beta 2m. The conformation of the Db antigen expressed by the R1E transfectant is very different from that of the native molecule. This Db antigen is not recognized by Db-allospecific and Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes or by most monoclonal antibodies to the native Db. We show further that a deletion construct of the Db gene, which consists of exon 1 linked to exons 4-8, expresses a truncated Db antigen lacking domains 1 and 2 [Db-(1 + 2)] at the cell surface after transfection into the R1E line. Previous biochemical and crystallographic data have indicated that domain 3 is associated with beta 2m; unexpectedly, Db-(1 + 2) does not associate with beta 2m when the mouse beta 2mb gene is transfected into the R1E transfectant expressing the truncated Db. This suggests that interactions with domains 1 and 2 are important for the paired association of domain 3 and beta 2m in the native Db antigen.

  20. Antitumor effect of beta2-microglobulin in leukemic cell-bearing mice via apoptosis-inducing activity: activation of caspase-3 and nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Terui, Y; Tanaka, M; Tomizuka, H; Mishima, Y; Ikeda, M; Kasahara, T; Uwai, M; Ueda, M; Inoue, R; Itoh, T; Yamada, M; Hayasawa, H; Furukawa, Y; Ishizaka, Y; Ozawa, K; Hatake, K

    2001-06-01

    We have reported previously that beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) induces apoptosis in leukemic cells in vitro, and that an interaction between beta2m and HLA class I antigen induces apoptosis. Here we examined whether beta2m can induce apoptosis in leukemic cells in vivo and whether it has an antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice. Daily administration of 50 or 250 microg of beta2m induced apoptosis and an antitumor effect on K562 leukemia cell-bearing mice in the same manner as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In tumor tissues in beta2m-treated mice, both caspase-3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were stained more strongly than in control mice by anti-caspase-3 and anti-NF-kappaB p65/Rel A polyclonal antibodies. We also observed the in vivo immunological effects of beta2m on lymphoid and hematopoietic organs, such as thymus, bone marrow, Peyer's patches, liver, and spleen in normal mice. Using antibodies against caspase-3 and NF-kappaB, immunohistochemical staining showed that no specific tissues were damaged or stained in normal mice. We conclude that beta2m stimulates caspase-3 and NF-kappaB pathways to induce apoptosis, making it a useful approach to a new therapy for leukemia.

  1. Phospholemman is a negative feed-forward regulator of Ca2+ in β-adrenergic signaling, accelerating β-adrenergic inotropy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jason H; Saucerman, Jeffrey J

    2012-05-01

    Sympathetic stimulation enhances cardiac contractility by stimulating β-adrenergic signaling and protein kinase A (PKA). Recently, phospholemman (PLM) has emerged as an important PKA substrate capable of regulating cytosolic Ca(2+) transients. However, it remains unclear how PLM contributes to β-adrenergic inotropy. Here we developed a computational model to clarify PLM's role in the β-adrenergic signaling response. Simulating Na(+) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) clamps, we identify an effect of PLM phosphorylation on SR unloading as the key mechanism by which PLM confers cytosolic Ca(2+) adaptation to long-term β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. Moreover, we show that phospholamban (PLB) opposes and overtakes these actions on SR load, forming a negative feed-forward loop in the β-adrenergic signaling cascade. This network motif dominates the negative feedback conferred by β-AR desensitization and accelerates β-AR-induced inotropy. Model analysis therefore unmasks key actions of PLM phosphorylation during β-adrenergic signaling, indicating that PLM is a critical component of the fight-or-flight response.

  2. Adrenergic deficiency leads to impaired electrical conduction and increased arrhythmic potential in the embryonic mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Baker, Candice; Taylor, David G; Osuala, Kingsley; Natarajan, Anupama; Molnar, Peter J; Hickman, James; Alam, Sabikha; Moscato, Brittany; Weinshenker, David; Ebert, Steven N

    2012-07-01

    To determine if adrenergic hormones play a critical role in the functional development of the cardiac pacemaking and conduction system, we employed a mouse model where adrenergic hormone production was blocked due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene. Immunofluorescent histochemical evaluation of the major gap junction protein, connexin 43, revealed that its expression was substantially decreased in adrenergic-deficient (Dbh-/-) relative to adrenergic-competent (Dbh+/+ and Dbh+/-) mouse hearts at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), whereas pacemaker and structural protein staining appeared similar. To evaluate cardiac electrical conduction in these hearts, we cultured them on microelectrode arrays (8×8, 200 μm apart). Our results show a significant slowing of atrioventricular conduction in adrenergic-deficient hearts compared to controls (31.4±6.4 vs. 15.4±1.7 ms, respectively, p<0.05). To determine if the absence of adrenergic hormones affected heart rate and rhythm, mouse hearts from adrenergic-competent and deficient embryos were cultured ex vivo at E10.5, and heart rates were measured before and after challenge with the β-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol (0.5 μM). On average, all hearts showed increased heart rate responses following isoproterenol challenge, but a significant (p<0.05) 225% increase in the arrhythmic index (AI) was observed only in adrenergic-deficient hearts. These results show that adrenergic hormones may influence heart development by stimulating connexin 43 expression, facilitating atrioventricular conduction, and helping to maintain cardiac rhythm during a critical phase of embryonic development.

  3. Anti-obesity effects of selective agonists to the beta 3-adrenergic receptor in dogs. I. The presence of canine beta 3-adrenergic receptor and in vivo lipomobilization by its agonists.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Uchida, E; Niiyama, M; Yoshida, T; Saito, M

    1998-04-01

    It is known that in rodents and humans the beta 3-adrenergic receptor (beta 3-AR) is present primarily in adipocytes and plays a significant role in the adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis. We examined the expression of beta 3-AR mRNA in the dog and the lipomobilizing effects of beta 3-AR-selective agonists in vivo. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of RNA extracted from dog adipose tissue produced a cDNA fragment, the nucleotide sequence of which was highly homologous to the corresponding regions of human (86.4%) and mouse (79.5%) beta 3-AR cDNA. The beta 3-AR mRNA was present at high levels in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, but undetectable in other organs. When a selective beta 3-AR agonist, CL316,243, was infused intravenously into beagle dogs, the plasma level of free fatty acid increased in 30 min and persisted at higher levels for several hours. ICI D7114, another beta 3-AR agonist, also showed a similar lipomobilizing effect, but with lower potency. beta 3-AR agonist infusion also increased the plasma insulin level. These results suggested that functional beta 3-AR is present in adipose tissues of the dog and that it is effective for in vivo lipomobilization. PMID:9592718

  4. Vascular adrenergic receptor responses in skeletal muscle in myotonic dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mechler, F.; Mastaglia, F.L.

    1981-02-01

    The pharmacological responses of vascular adrenergic receptors to intravenously administered epinephrine, phentolamine, and propranolol were assessed by measuring muscle blood flow (MBF) changes in the tibialis anterior muscle using the xenon 133 clearance technique and were compared in 8 normal subjects and 11 patients with myotonic dystrophy. In cases with advanced involvement of the muscle, the resting MBF was reduced and was not significantly altered by epinephrine before or after alpha- or beta-receptor blockade. In patients in whom the tibialis anterior muscle was normal or only minimally affected clinically, a paradoxical reduction in the epinephrine-induced increase in MBF was found after alpha blockade by phentolamine, and the epinephrine-induced MBF increase was not completely blocked by propranolol as in the normal subjects. These findings point to functional alteration in the properties of vascular adrenergic receptors in muscle in myotonic dystrophy. While this may be another manifestation of a widespread cell membrane defect in the disease, the possibility that the changes are secondary to the myotonic state cannot be excluded.

  5. Myocardial adrenergic responsiveness after lethal and nonlethal doses of endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R.E.; Lang, C.H.; McDonough, K.H.

    1987-02-01

    A dose-dependent impairment of intrinsic myocardial performance has been observed following in vivo administration of endotoxin. The present study reports a dose-dependent increase in plasma catecholamines following endotoxin (ET) that may impair ..beta..-adrenergic responsiveness. Hearts were removed from pentobarbital-anesthetized rats 4 h after a bolus injection of saline or ET and were studied as isolated cell preparations following collagenase digestion. Responsiveness of isoproterenol-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in myocytes prepared from hearts of animals injected with 10 and 100 ..mu..g ET was decreased when compared with control rats and was significantly blunted in myocytes prepared from animals receiving 1000 ..mu..g ET. Similar sensitivities of the cAMP system existed, as judged by similar half-maximum effective concentration values. cAMP accumulation in the presence of 1 ..mu..M forskolin was depressed in myocytes from the 1000-..mu..g ET animals; ..beta..-adrenergic receptor density was decreased 25% in myocytes from high-dose ET animals when compared with control animals. This was accompanied by a nonsignificant reduction in the affinity of binding sites for (+/-)(/sup 3/H)CGP 12177. The blunted myocyte hormonal responsiveness following ET challenge appears to be related to the decreased activity of the adenylate cyclase that may be attributed to alterations in both receptor density and in the adenylate cyclase itself.

  6. Rosiglitazone stimulates the release and synthesis of insulin by enhancing GLUT-2, glucokinase and BETA2/NeuroD expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Noh, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, You-Cheol; Yang, Tae-Young; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2008-03-14

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and its ligands, the thiazolidinediones, might directly stimulate insulin release and insulin synthesis in pancreatic {beta}-cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on insulin release and synthesis in pancreatic {beta}-cell (INS-1). Insulin release and synthesis were stimulated by treatment with RGZ for 24 h. RGZ upregulated the expressions of GLUT-2 and glucokinase (GCK). Moreover, it was found that RGZ increased the expression of BETA2/NeuroD gene which could regulate insulin gene expression. These results suggest that RGZ could stimulate the release and synthesis of insulin through the upregulation of GLUT-2, GCK, and BETA2/NeuroD gene expression.

  7. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations. PMID:23834392

  8. The sodium channel auxiliary subunits beta1 and beta2 are differentially expressed in the spinal cord of neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Blackburn-Munro, G; Fleetwood-Walker, S M

    1999-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is thought to arise from ectopic discharges at the site of injury within the peripheral nervous system, and is manifest as a general increase in the level of neuronal excitability within primary afferent fibres and their synaptic contacts within the spinal cord. Voltage-activated Na+ channel blockers such as lamotrigine have been shown to be clinically effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Na+ channels are structurally diverse comprising a principal a subunit (of which there are variable isoforms) and two auxiliary subunits termed beta1 and beta2. Both beta subunits affect the rates of channel activation and inactivation, and can modify alpha subunit density within the plasma membrane. In addition, these subunits may interact with extracellular matrix molecules to affect growth and myelination of axons. Using in situ hybridization histochemistry we have shown that the expression of the beta1 and beta2 subunits within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of neuropathic rats is differentially regulated by a chronic constrictive injury to the sciatic nerve. At days 12-15 post-neuropathy, beta1 messenger RNA levels had increased, whereas beta2 messenger RNA levels had decreased significantly within laminae I, II on the ipsilateral side of the cord relative to the contralateral side. Within laminae III-IV beta2 messenger RNA levels showed a small but significant decrease on the ipsilateral side relative to the contralateral side, whilst expression of beta1 messenger RNA remained unchanged. Thus, differential regulation of the individual beta subunit types may (through their distinct influences on Na+ channel function) contribute to altered excitability of central neurons after neuropathic injury.

  9. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations.

  10. Adrenergic Repression of the Epigenetic Reader MeCP2 Facilitates Cardiac Adaptation in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Sandra C.; Gilsbach, Ralf; Preissl, Sebastian; Monroy Ordonez, Elsa Beatriz; Schnick, Tilman; Beetz, Nadine; Lother, Achim; Rommel, Carolin; Ihle, Hannah; Bugger, Heiko; Rühle, Frank; Schrepper, Andrea; Schwarzer, Michael; Heilmann, Claudia; Bönisch, Ulrike; Gupta, Shashi Kumar; Wilpert, Jochen; Kretz, Oliver; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Orth, Joachim; Aktories, Klaus; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Bode, Christoph; Stiller, Brigitte; Krüger, Markus; Thum, Thomas; Doenst, Torsten; Stoll, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In chronic heart failure, increased adrenergic activation contributes to structural remodeling and altered gene expression. Although adrenergic signaling alters histone modifications, it is unknown, whether it also affects other epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation and its recognition. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of regulation of the methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and its functional significance during cardiac pressure overload and unloading. Methods and Results: MeCP2 was identified as a reversibly repressed gene in mouse hearts after transverse aortic constriction and was normalized after removal of the constriction. Similarly, MeCP2 repression in human failing hearts resolved after unloading by a left ventricular assist device. The cluster miR-212/132 was upregulated after transverse aortic constriction or on activation of α1- and β1-adrenoceptors and miR-212/132 led to repression of MeCP2. Prevention of MeCP2 repression by a cardiomyocyte-specific, doxycycline-regulatable transgenic mouse model aggravated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction after transverse aortic constriction. Ablation of MeCP2 in cardiomyocytes facilitated recovery of failing hearts after reversible transverse aortic constriction. Genome-wide expression analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, and DNA methylation analysis identified mitochondrial genes and their transcriptional regulators as MeCP2 target genes. Coincident with its repression, MeCP2 was removed from its target genes, whereas DNA methylation of MeCP2 target genes remained stable during pressure overload. Conclusions: These data connect adrenergic activation with a microRNA—MeCP2 epigenetic pathway that is important for cardiac adaptation during the development and recovery from heart failure. PMID:26195221

  11. Control of yeast mating signal transduction by a mammalian. beta. sub 2 -adrenergic receptor and G sub s. alpha. subunit

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J. ); Dohlman, H.G.; Thorner, J. )

    1990-10-05

    To facilitate functional and mechanistic studies of receptor-G protein interactions by expression of the human {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (h{beta}-AR) has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This was achieved by placing a modified h{beta}-AR gene under control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. After induction by galactose, functional h{beta}-AR was expressed at a concentration several hundred times as great as that found in any human tissue. As determined from competitive ligand binding experiments, h{beta}-AR expressed in yeast displayed characteristic affinities, specificity, and stereoselectivity. Partial activation of the yeast pheromone response pathway by {beta}-adrenergic receptor agonists was achieved in cells coexpressing h{beta}-AR and a mammalian G protein (G{sub s}) {alpha} subunit - demonstrating that these components can couple to each other and to downstream effectors when expressed in yeast. This in vivo reconstitution system provides a new approach for examining ligand binding and G protein coupling to cell surface receptors.

  12. Clinical-pharmacokinetic aspects of prolonged effect duration as illustrated by beta2-agonists.

    PubMed

    Rosenburg, Johan

    2002-07-01

    stimulation of beta2-adrenoceptors have their pros and cons. Bambuterol can be dosed orally once daily, but full effect is reached slowly. The effect of formoterol is reached within a few minutes, but administration must occur via the lungs, often twice daily. Both treatments, however, give 24-h symptom relief during regular treatment. PMID:12214578

  13. The β2 Adrenergic Receptor Gln27Glu Polymorphism Affects Insulin Resistance in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vardeny, Orly; Detry, Michelle A.; Moran, John J.M.; Johnson, Maryl R.; Sweitzer, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin resistance is prevalent in heart failure (HF) patients, and beta2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) are involved in glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that β2-AR Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms affect insulin resistance in HF patients and explored if effects of β2-AR polymorphisms on glucose handling are modified by choice of beta blocker. We studied 30 non-diabetic adults with HF and a history of systolic dysfunction, 15 on metoprolol succinate and 15 on carvedilol. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance, and determined β2-AR genotypes at codons 27 and 16. The cohort was insulin resistant with a mean HOMA-IR score of 3.4 (95%CI 2.3-4.5, normal value=1.0). Patients with the Glu27Glu genotype exhibited higher insulin and HOMA-IR compared to individuals carrying a Gln allele (p=0.019). Patients taking carvedilol demonstrated lower insulin resistance if also carrying a wild type allele at codon 27 (fasting insulin 9.8±10.5 versus 20.5±2.1 for variant, p=0.072, HOMA-IR 2.4±2.7 versus 5.1±0.6, p=0.074, respectively); those on metoprolol succinate had high insulin resistance irrespective of genotype. The β2-AR Glu27Glu genotype may be associated with higher insulin concentrations and insulin resistance in patients with HF. Future studies are needed to confirm whether treatment with carvedilol may be associated with decreased insulin and insulin resistance in β2-AR codon 27 Gln carriers. PMID:19034036

  14. PYK2 is an adhesion kinase in macrophages, localized in podosomes and activated by beta(2)-integrin ligation.

    PubMed

    Duong, L T; Rodan, G A

    2000-11-01

    Pyk2 is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family, highly expressed in the central nervous system and haemopoietic cells. Although Pyk2 is homologous to FAK, its role in signaling pathways was shown to be distinct from that of FAK. We show here that Pyk2 is highly expressed in peritoneal IC-21 macrophage and is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to cell attachment to fibronectin and fibrinogen. Upon IC-21 cell adhesion, Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibited by blocking antibodies to the integrin subunits alpha(M) and beta(2). Furthermore, Pyk2 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to ligation of beta(2) integrins by antibodies. In migrating macrophages, Pyk2 localizes to perinuclear regions and to podosomes, where it is clustered with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, in the podosomal ring structure, which surrounds the central actin core, Pyk2 co-localizes with vinculin, talin, and paxillin. In the podosomes, Pyk2 also co-localizes with the integrin alpha(M)beta(2). Lastly, reduction of Pyk2 expression in macrophages leads to inhibition of cell migration. We propose that Pyk2 is functionally linked to the formation of podosomes where it mediates the integrin-cytoskeleton interface and regulates cell spreading and migration. PMID:11056520

  15. Unusual association of beta 2-microglobulin with certain class I heavy chains of the murine major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed Central

    Bushkin, Y; Tung, J S; Pinter, A; Michaelson, J; Boyse, E A

    1986-01-01

    Class I products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprise a heavy chain of about 45 kDa noncovalently linked to a 12-kDa beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) light chain encoded on a different chromosome. We find that class I products of some mouse strains include an additional 62-kDa molecule which on the following evidence consists of a heavy chain linked covalently with beta 2m. Production of the 62-kDa protein invariably accorded with the occurrence of cysteine at position 121 of the heavy chain (Kb,Kbm1,Kbm3,Dd, and Ld). Substitution of arginine at position 121 invariably accorded with absence of the 62-kDa protein (Kbm6,Kbm7,Kbm9,Kd, and Db). On the basis of observed production versus nonproduction of the 62-kDa molecule, predictions are made regarding residue 121 in class I products for which this is not yet known; namely, Kk, Ks, and Dk, which produce the 62-kDa molecule, as compared with Kj, Qa-2, and TL, which do not. Reported differences in immunologic reactivity between Kb mutant strains with Arg-121 in place of Cys-121 imply that the occurrence of 62-kDa class I products in mice of Cys-121 genotype has functional consequences. Images PMID:3510435

  16. Imaging of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) deposits with sup 131 I-beta 2-microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Burchert, W.; Brandis, A.; Gielow, P.; Nonnast-Daniel, B.; Spindler, E.; Hundeshagen, H.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) has been based usually on clinical and radiological criteria. Following the discovery that beta 2-microglobulin was the major protein of this amyloid, we isolated and radiolabelled uremic plasma beta 2-microglobulin. After intravenous injection, gamma-camera images of selected joint areas were obtained from 42 patients who were on regular hemodialysis therapy. Positive scans involving the shoulder, hip, knee and carpal regions were found in 13 of 14 patients treated for more than 10 years and 10 of 16 patients treated for 5 to 10 years. Patients treated for less time had negative scans. Specificity was indicated by negative scans in non-amyloid inflammatory lesions in control hemodialysis patients. Up to 48-fold tracer enrichment was detected in excised AB-amyloid containing tissue as compared to amyloid-free tissue. These findings suggest that circulating radiolabelled beta 2-microglobulin is taken up by the amyloid deposits. This method may non-invasively detect tissue infiltrates of amyloid. It may also permit prospective evaluation of the efficacy of prophylactic dialysis strategies which are designed to prevent or delay the onset of this complication of long-term dialysis.

  17. Expression of beta 2 integrins on blood leukocytes of cows with or without bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cox, E; Mast, J; MacHugh, N; Schwenger, B; Goddeeris, B M

    1997-09-19

    Peripheral blood leukocytes of 11 normal cows, 7 cows heterozygous and 2 heifers homozygous for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) were analysed by flow cytometry for the intensity of their beta 2 integrin expression (LFA-1(CD11a/CD18), CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18)). BLAD-homozygotes revealed no or a very weak expression of the beta 2 integrins and had a 10-fold and 4- to 5-fold increase in absolute number of neutrophils and monocytes, respectively, whereas the absolute number of lymphocytes remained normal. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the beta 2 integrins (CD18) in heterozygous animals was 56 to 90% of this in the normal cows (MFI between 14 and 512). The difference in the expression level was most pronounced for LFA-1 on the small cluster of lymphocytes with the highest MFI for LFA-1. Repeated analysis and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation revealed that the LFA-1 expression on this high-expressing cell population of the peripheral blood allowed a ready identification of BLAD-heterozygotes by flow cytometry. PMID:9436269

  18. OxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and antiphospholipid syndrome: pathogenic implications for vascular involvement.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Luis R; Simpson, Daniel F; Hurley, Beth L; Matsuura, Eiji

    2005-06-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) interacts with beta2GPI, forming oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes. Autoimmune vascular inflammation (and oxidative stress) may promote the formation of these complexes. The coexistence of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes with autoantibodies to these complexes suggests an active pro-atherogenic role in vascular thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibodies have been regarded as pro-atherogenic, whereas IgM antibodies are thought to be anti-atherogenic. For this study, oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes, IgG, and IgM anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Measurements were taken in two patient groups: (1) those with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA); and (2) those with primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). For oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes, SLE and SSc patients had the highest mean optical densities (ODs) (P <.001), followed by RA (P = .139) and healthy controls. IgG anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibody distribution followed the same pattern observed with oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes, SLE and SSc (P <.001), RA (P = .08), and controls. IgM antibodies showed a reverse pattern, with the highest mean OD in RA (P <.001), followed by SSc (P = .007) and SLE (P = 143). Both IgG and IgM anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibodies were significantly higher in secondary APS patients compared with SLE controls without APS. In addition, the highest mean OD and prevalence of IgG anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibodies were observed in APS patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. These results may reflect the widespread vascular involvement seen in SLE and SSc, in contrast to the relatively low vascular involvement in RA. In SLE and SSc, high serum levels and prevalence of circulating oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and IgG anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI antibodies indicate significant vascular oxidative stress as well as a possible pathogenic role

  19. T-Tubular Electrical Defects Contribute to Blunted β-Adrenergic Response in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Crocini, Claudia; Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M; Poggesi, Corrado; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Pavone, Francesco S; Sacconi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the β-adrenergic signalling, structural remodelling, and electrical failure of T-tubules are hallmarks of heart failure (HF). Here, we assess the effect of β-adrenoceptor activation on local Ca(2+) release in electrically coupled and uncoupled T-tubules in ventricular myocytes from HF rats. We employ an ultrafast random access multi-photon (RAMP) microscope to simultaneously record action potentials and Ca(2+) transients from multiple T-tubules in ventricular cardiomyocytes from a HF rat model of coronary ligation compared to sham-operated rats as a control. We confirmed that β-adrenergic stimulation increases the frequency of Ca(2+) sparks, reduces Ca(2+) transient variability, and hastens the decay of Ca(2+) transients: all these effects are similarly exerted by β-adrenergic stimulation in control and HF cardiomyocytes. Conversely, β-adrenergic stimulation in HF cells accelerates a Ca(2+) rise exclusively in the proximity of T-tubules that regularly conduct the action potential. The delayed Ca(2+) rise found at T-tubules that fail to conduct the action potential is instead not affected by β-adrenergic signalling. Taken together, these findings indicate that HF cells globally respond to β-adrenergic stimulation, except at T-tubules that fail to conduct action potentials, where the blunted effect of the β-adrenergic signalling may be directly caused by the lack of electrical activity. PMID:27598150

  20. T-Tubular Electrical Defects Contribute to Blunted β-Adrenergic Response in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Crocini, Claudia; Coppini, Raffaele; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Poggesi, Corrado; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Pavone, Francesco S.; Sacconi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of the β-adrenergic signalling, structural remodelling, and electrical failure of T-tubules are hallmarks of heart failure (HF). Here, we assess the effect of β-adrenoceptor activation on local Ca2+ release in electrically coupled and uncoupled T-tubules in ventricular myocytes from HF rats. We employ an ultrafast random access multi-photon (RAMP) microscope to simultaneously record action potentials and Ca2+ transients from multiple T-tubules in ventricular cardiomyocytes from a HF rat model of coronary ligation compared to sham-operated rats as a control. We confirmed that β-adrenergic stimulation increases the frequency of Ca2+ sparks, reduces Ca2+ transient variability, and hastens the decay of Ca2+ transients: all these effects are similarly exerted by β-adrenergic stimulation in control and HF cardiomyocytes. Conversely, β-adrenergic stimulation in HF cells accelerates a Ca2+ rise exclusively in the proximity of T-tubules that regularly conduct the action potential. The delayed Ca2+ rise found at T-tubules that fail to conduct the action potential is instead not affected by β-adrenergic signalling. Taken together, these findings indicate that HF cells globally respond to β-adrenergic stimulation, except at T-tubules that fail to conduct action potentials, where the blunted effect of the β-adrenergic signalling may be directly caused by the lack of electrical activity. PMID:27598150

  1. β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in aging heart and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Nicola; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; Pagano, Gennaro; Furgi, Giuseppe; Rengo, Carlo; Femminella, Grazia D.; Leosco, Dario; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Elderly healthy individuals have a reduced exercise tolerance and a decreased left ventricle inotropic reserve related to increased vascular afterload, arterial-ventricular load mismatching, physical deconditioning and impaired autonomic regulation (the so called “β-adrenergic desensitization”). Adrenergic responsiveness is altered with aging and the age-related changes are limited to the β-adrenergic receptor density reduction and to the β-adrenoceptor-G-protein(s)-adenylyl cyclase system abnormalities, while the type and level of abnormalities change with species and tissues. Epidemiological studies have shown an high incidence and prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and a great body of evidence correlate the changes of β-adrenergic system with heart failure pathogenesis. In particular it is well known that: (a) levels of cathecolamines are directly correlated with mortality and functional status in heart failure, (b) β1-adrenergic receptor subtype is down-regulated in heart failure, (c) heart failure-dependent cardiac adrenergic responsiveness reduction is related to changes in G proteins activity. In this review we focus on the cardiovascular β-adrenergic changes involvement in the aging process and on similarities and differences between aging heart and heart failure. PMID:24409150

  2. Meta-analysis for deriving age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium concentration and beta2-microglobulinuria under environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Masashi; Ono, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Junko

    2006-05-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to derive age- and gender-specific dose-response relationships between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and beta2-microglobulinuria (beta2MG-uria) under environmental exposure. beta2MG-uria was defined by a cutoff point of 1000 microg beta2-microglobulin/g creatinine. We proposed a model for describing the relationships among the interindividual variabilities in urinary Cd concentration, the ratio of Cd concentrations in the target organ and in urine, and the threshold Cd concentration in the target organ. The parameters in the model were determined so that good agreement might be achieved between the prevalence rates of beta2MG-uria reported in the literature and those estimated by the model. In this analysis, only the data from the literature on populations environmentally exposed to Cd were used. Using the model and estimated parameters, the prevalence rate of beta2MG-uria can be estimated for an age- and gender-specific subpopulation for which the distribution of urinary Cd concentrations is known. The maximum permissible level of urinary Cd concentration was defined as the maximum geometric mean of the urinary Cd concentration in an age- and gender-specific subpopulation that would not result in a statistically significant increase in the prevalence rate of beta2MG-uria. This was estimated to be approximately 3 microg/g creatinine for a population in a small geographical area and approximately 2 microg/g creatinine for a nationwide population.

  3. Impaired chronotropic response to exercise in mice lacking catecholamines in adrenergic cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuping; Liu, Fujun; Gu, Yusu; Lu, Chuanyi M; Ziegler, Michael G

    2008-12-01

    To define the in vivo role of adrenergic catecholamines (CAs), we generated a mouse model whereby tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was knocked out (KO) in phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-expressing cells. These adrenergic specific TH-KO mice were viable and grossly normal. Their resting heart rate and blood pressure, as monitored by telemetry, were unchanged. However, when challenged with treadmill exercise, their chronotropic responses were significantly reduced by 14% compared to wild-type mice. Thus, our data suggest that adrenergic CA is required for normal chronotropic responses to stress, but not required for prenatal and postnatal development or normal cardiovascular function at rest.

  4. Identification of beta-2 as a key cell adhesion molecule in PCa cell neurotropic behavior: a novel ex vivo and biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Keith H; Castillo, Deborah G; Morris, Joseph W; Boggs, Mary E; Czymmek, Kirk J; Adams, Elizabeth L; Schramm, Lawrence P; Sikes, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC

  5. Identification of Beta-2 as a Key Cell Adhesion Molecule in PCa Cell Neurotropic Behavior: A Novel Ex Vivo and Biophysical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Keith H.; Castillo, Deborah G.; Morris, Joseph W.; Boggs, Mary E.; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Adams, Elizabeth L.; Schramm, Lawrence P.; Sikes, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC

  6. [Clinical usefulness of Beta2microglobulin in patients with Primary Sjögren Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rozzatti, M S; Fontaneto, E; Pedano, V; Racca, A; Pelosso, M; Gobbi, C; Alba, P; Demarchi, M

    2015-01-01

    Las manifestaciones extranglandulares y desórdenes linfoproliferativos son complicaciones que pueden comprometer el curso benigno del Síndrome de Sjögren Primario (SSp). Existen escasos marcadores serológicos con comprobada utilidad para predecirlas y/o diagnosticarlas. Objetivos: Evaluar la utilidad de Beta2microglobulina (β2m) en pacientes con SSp y correlacionarlos con parámetros séricos predictivos de manifestaciones extraglandulares y enfermedades linfoproliferativas (Factor Reumatoideo (FR), Inmunoglobulinas séricas (Igs), C3 y C4). Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas de pacientes que consultaron en la Unidad de Reumatología del Hospital Córdoba desde enero de 2010 a octubre 2013 y que fueron derivados a la Sección de Inmunología del Servicio de Bioquímica para la determinación de pruebas de laboratorio . Los pacientes fueron clasificados de acuerdo a los Criterios Diagnósticos de patologías autoinmunes en pacientes con diagnóstico de SSp según el Grupo Consenso Americano-Europeo, otras enfermedades autoinmunes y los controles sanos. Se estudiaron las IgG, IgA e IgM, factores del complemento C3, C4 séricos y FR por inmunoturbidimetría y β2m por ELISA. Resultados: 19 pacientes con SSp (Grupo SSp), 28 pacientes con patologías autoinmunes distintas a SSp (Grupo PAD), y 24 controles sanos (Grupo C) fueron incluidos en este estudio. Se evidenció un aumento estadísticamente significativo de β2m en el Grupo SSp respecto al Grupo C (6.19mg/dl vs 2.53mg/dl p<0.001) y respecto al Grupo PAD (6.19 vs 4.38mg/dl p<0.01). En el grupo SSp se observó aumento estadísticamente significativo de IgA (p<0.05) y G (p<0.001) y disminución de C4 (p<0.05) respecto al Grupo C. No se observó correlación entre β2m y el resto de parámetros séricos determinados. Conclusión: β2m permitió discriminar pacientes con SSp de aquellos con otras patologías autoinmunes y sujetos sanos. El aumento de β2m en

  7. β1-adrenergic receptor antagonists signal via PDE4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wito; Mika, Delphine; Blanchard, Elise; Day, Peter; Conti, Marco

    2013-03-01

    It is generally assumed that antagonists of Gs-coupled receptors do not activate cAMP signalling, because they do not stimulate cAMP production via Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase activation. Here, we report a new signalling pathway whereby antagonists of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) increase cAMP levels locally without stimulating cAMP production directly. Binding of antagonists causes dissociation of a preformed complex between β1ARs and Type-4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4s). This reduces the local concentration of cAMP-hydrolytic activity, thereby increasing submembrane cAMP and PKA activity. Our study identifies receptor/PDE4 complex dissociation as a novel mechanism of antagonist action that contributes to the pharmacological properties of β1AR antagonists and might be shared by other receptor subtypes.

  8. Agonist-Directed Desensitization of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Vasiliy; Jin, Yan; Sun, Haiyan; Ferrie, Ann M.; Wu, Qi; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists with reduced tachyphylaxis may offer new therapeutic agents with improved tolerance profile. However, receptor desensitization assays are often inferred at the single signaling molecule level, thus ligand-directed desensitization is poorly understood. Here we report a label-free biosensor whole cell assay with microfluidics to determine ligand-directed desensitization of the β2AR. Together with mechanistic deconvolution using small molecule inhibitors, the receptor desensitization and resensitization patterns under the short-term agonist exposure manifested the long-acting agonism of salmeterol, and differentiated the mechanisms of agonist-directed desensitization between a full agonist epinephrine and a partial agonist pindolol. This study reveals the cellular mechanisms of agonist-selective β2AR desensitization at the whole cell level. PMID:21541288

  9. Vagal non-adrenergic inhibition of guinea-pig stomach

    PubMed Central

    Beani, L.; Bianchi, Clementina; Crema, A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The effect of vagal and sympathetic stimulation on the mechanical and electrical activity (intracellular recording) of the body of the guinea-pig stomach was investigated in vitro. 2. Following atropine, 1 × 10-6-1 × 10-7 g/ml., vagal responses were reversed from excitatory to inhibitory. 3. Sympathetic blockade, produced by α- and β-receptor antagonists and adrenergic neurone-blocking agents, reduced or abolished sympathetic, but not vagal inhibition. 4. Hexamethonium (5 × 10-5 g/ml.) reduced vagal relaxation to 11-30% according to the stimulation rate. The residual response was maintained in the presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine tachyphylaxis. 5. Many muscle cells were observed to be under the influence of both vagus and sympathetic nerves: the effect of sympathetic stimulation was always inhibitory in nature, but high stimulation rates were required. The effect of vagal stimulation was both excitatory and inhibitory even in the absence of atropine: low stimulation rates gave rise either to E.J.P.s (excitatory junctional potentials), often followed by spikes, or to I.J.P.s (inhibitory junctional potentials). 6. In some spontaneously firing cells the interruption of electrical activity produced by vagal stimulation at 2/sec and sympathetic stimulation at 20/sec was recorded for a long enough time to check the effect of guanethedine (5 × 10-6 g/ml.): the drug selectively blocked sympathetic inhibition. 7. The significance of the inhibitory non-adrenergic transmitter, released by the intramural neurones activated by preganglionic vagal fibres, is discussed. PMID:4398576

  10. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine

    PubMed Central

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na+ current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na+-dependent Ca2+ overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca2+ calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  11. Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine.

    PubMed

    Virsolvy, Anne; Farah, Charlotte; Pertuit, Nolwenn; Kong, Lingyan; Lacampagne, Alain; Reboul, Cyril; Aimond, Franck; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Ranolazine is a recently developed drug used for the treatment of patients with chronic stable angina. It is a selective inhibitor of the persistent cardiac Na(+) current (INa), and is known to reduce the Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) overload that occurs in cardiomyocytes during ischemia. Vascular effects of ranolazine, such as vasorelaxation,have been reported and may involve multiple pathways. As voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) present in arteries play a role in contraction, we hypothesized that ranolazine could target these channels. We studied the effects of ranolazine in vitro on cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and ex vivo on rat aortas in conditions known to specifically activate or promote INa. We observed that in the presence of the Nav channel agonist veratridine, ranolazine inhibited INa and intracellular Ca(2+) calcium increase in SMC, and arterial vasoconstriction. In arterial SMC, ranolazine inhibited the activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated Nav channels and thus antagonized contraction promoted by low KCl depolarization. Furthermore, the vasorelaxant effects of ranolazine, also observed in human arteries and independent of the endothelium, involved antagonization of the α1-adrenergic receptor. Combined α1-adrenergic antagonization and inhibition of SMCs Nav channels could be involved in the vascular effects of ranolazine. PMID:26655634

  12. Beta 3-adrenergic receptor stimulation restores message and expression of brown-fat mitochondrial uncoupling protein in adult dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Champigny, O; Ricquier, D; Blondel, O; Mayers, R M; Briscoe, M G; Holloway, B R

    1991-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present throughout life in rodents and plays an important role in energy balance. However, whereas BAT is clearly recognizable in the neonates of larger mammals (including dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, and humans), it is undetectable or present in only small quan