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Sample records for human beta-defensin locus

  1. Increased expression of human beta-defensin 3 in mollusca contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hoffert, U; Schwarz, T; Schröder, J M; Gläser, R

    2010-03-01

    The human beta defensins (hBDs)-2 and -3 are inducible antimicrobial peptides present in human skin. Besides an important role in fighting bacteria, they also have an antiviral function. Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a cutaneous viral disease caused by the MC virus. Lesions show a tendency towards spontaneous regression, which might be caused by antiviral proteins such as defensins. We report a marked increase in hBD-3 immunoreactivity in MC lesions in contrast to hBD-2, which was only marginally increased. We suggest a role for the hBD-3 peptide in MC pathogenesis.

  2. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Haa-Yung; Pan, Huiqi; Takeshita, Tamotsu; Park, Raekil; Cha, Kiweon; Andalibi, Ali; Lim, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM). Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:16433908

  3. Probiotic E. coli treatment mediates antimicrobial human beta-defensin synthesis and fecal excretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Möndel, M; Schroeder, B O; Zimmermann, K; Huber, H; Nuding, S; Beisner, J; Fellermann, K; Stange, E F; Wehkamp, J

    2009-03-01

    Inducible epithelial human beta-defensins (hBD) play an important role in intestinal barrier function. In vitro studies showed that clinically effective probiotics induce antimicrobial hBD-2. Here, we aimed to assess the in vivo effect in healthy volunteers and also addressed how defensins affect probiotic survival. Symbioflor 2 containing one strain of several viable genotypes of Escherichia coli was administered to 23 healthy individuals. After 3 weeks, fecal hBD-2 peptide was increased in 78% (mean 3.7-fold; P<0.0001). Interestingly, the fecal hBD-2 peptide was still elevated 9 weeks after treatment (P=0.008). In vitro studies revealed that this effect was mediated by only one out of three tested E. coli genotypes and comparable to probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (10- to 15-fold). Functional assays showed that all tested bacteria were similarly killed by defensins allowing to speculate about a suicidal character of this effect. Defensin induction seems to be a common and important mechanism of probiotic treatment.

  4. Activity of human beta-defensin 3 alone or combined with other antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Batoni, Giovanna; Esin, Semih; Luperini, Filippo; Pardini, Manuela; Bottai, Daria; Florio, Walter; Giuca, Maria Rita; Gabriele, Mario; Campa, Mario

    2003-10-01

    The in vitro activities of human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3) alone or combined with lysozyme, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and chlorhexidine were investigated with the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. hBD-3 showed bactericidal activity against all of the bacterial species tested. The bactericidal effect was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with the antimicrobial agents mentioned above.

  5. Barrier function, epidermal differentiation, and human beta-defensin 2 expression in tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jens-Michael; Pfeiffer, Stephan; Akaki, Tatsuya; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Kleine, Michael; Neumann, Claudia; Proksch, Ehrhardt; Brasch, Jochen

    2007-07-01

    Tinea corporis is a superficial mycotic infection resulting in substantial epidermal changes. We determined skin barrier function, epidermal differentiation, and human-beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) protein expression in 10 patients with tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). We found disturbed skin barrier function as shown by a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and specific ultrastructural changes including disturbed formation of extracellular lipid bilayers, lamellar body extrusion, and deposit of clotted material at the stratum granulosum/stratum corneum interface. Epidermal proliferation in tinea increased several fold and accordingly, proliferation and inflammation-associated keratins K6, K16, and K17 were expressed. Expression of basal keratins K5 and K14 increased, whereas differentiation-associated K10 was reduced. Reduction of the cornified envelope proteins involucrin, loricrin, and the S100 protein filaggrin was also seen. Reduced filaggrin expression correlated with reduced skin hydration; protein breakdown products of filaggrin have been shown to be important for water binding. Surprisingly, we found pronounced epidermal protein expression of hBD-2, which may be related to disturbed epidermal differentiation and inflammation. hBD-2 showed a weak, although significant, antifungal activity against T. rubrum in the turbidimetric assay and the immunohistological staining was somewhat less pronounced in areas directly underneath fungal hyphae in the stratum corneum. Together, we describe profound changes in skin barrier structure and function, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation including pronounced protein expression of hBD-2 in tinea corporis.

  6. MEF up-regulates human beta-defensin 2 expression in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhuo; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Suico, Mary Ann; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Li, Jian-Dong; Kai, Hirofumi

    2004-03-12

    Human beta-defensin 2 (HBD2), an antimicrobial peptide, is widely expressed in epithelial tissues and displays a potent killing activity in response to the invasiveness of a wide range of microorganisms and the stimulation of various molecules. Myeloid ELF-1-like factor (MEF) has been reported to be involved in innate immunity responses, such as activation of perforin and lysozyme transcription. The role of MEF in the transcription regulation of HBD2, however, is unknown. Here, we show that MEF not only activated HBD2 promoter activity, but also increased the endogenous HBD2 transcription level. Moreover, the activated HBD2 promoter activity was attenuated by the antisense MEF RNA input and the loss of the ETS binding site (EBS: GGAA core sequence) in the HBD2 promoter. The interaction between the EBS and MEF protein was further confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Thus, our data indicate that MEF may play an important role in regulating HBD2 expression in epithelial cells.

  7. Effects of Genetically Modified Milk Containing Human Beta-Defensin-3 on Gastrointestinal Health of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yange; Shi, Zhaopeng; Gao, Ming-Qing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of genetically modified (GM) milk containing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) on mice by a 90-day feeding study. The examined parameters included the digestibility of GM milk, general physical examination, gastric emptying function, intestinal permeability, intestinal microflora composition of mice, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The emphasis was placed on the effects on gastrointestinal (GI) tract due to the fact that GI tract was the first site contacting with food and played crucial roles in metabolic reactions, nutrition absorption and immunity regulation in the host. However, the traditional methods for analyzing the potential toxicological risk of GM product pay little attention on GI health. In this study, the results showed GM milk was easy to be digested in simulated gastric fluid, and it did not have adverse effects on general and GI health compared to conventional milk. And there is little possibility of HGT. This study may enrich the safety assessment of GM product on GI health. PMID:27438026

  8. Studies of the biological properties of human beta-defensin 1.

    PubMed

    Pazgier, Marzena; Prahl, Adam; Hoover, David M; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2007-01-19

    Defensins are small (30-45 amino acid residues) cationic proteins with broad antimicrobial activity against many bacteria and fungi, some enveloped viruses, and other activities such as chemoattraction of a range of different cell types to the sites of inflammation. These proteins represent attractive targets for developing novel antimicrobial agents and modulators of immune responses with therapeutic applicability. In this report, we present the results of functional and structural studies of 26 single-site mutants of human beta-defensin 1 (hBD1). All mutants were assayed for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC strain 25922) and for chemotactic activity with CCR6-transfected HEK293 cells. To analyze the structural implications of mutagenesis and to verify the correctness of the disulfide connectivity, we used x-ray crystallography to conduct complete structural studies for 10 mutants in which the topology of disulfides was the same as in the native hBD1. Mutations did not induce significant changes of the tertiary structure, suggesting that the observed alterations of biological properties of the mutants were solely associated with changes in the respective side chains. We found that cationic residues located near the C terminus (Arg(29), Lys(31), Lys(33), and Lys(36)) of hBD1 define most of the anti-E. coli in vitro activity of this protein. In turn, nearly all mutations altering the CCR6-mediated chemotaxis are located at one area of the protein, defined by the N-terminal alpha-helical region (Asp(1)... Ser(8)) and a few topologically adjacent residues (Lys(22), Arg(29), and Lys(33)). These experimental results allow for the first time drafting of the CCR6-epitope for a defensin molecule.

  9. Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su Ho; Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Younghee; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2009-11-20

    Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

  10. Malassezia furfur induces the expression of beta-defensin-2 in human keratinocytes in a protein kinase C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Giovanna; Paoletti, Iole; Buommino, Elisabetta; Orlando, Manuela; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Baroni, Adone

    2004-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family are expressed in all human epithelial tissues tested to date and have recently been the subject of vigorous investigation. Their localization and characteristics support the hypothesis that these peptides play a role in mucosal and skin defense. The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur is a saprophyte found in normal human cutaneous flora. Malassezia furfur is not only a saprophyte, but is also associated with several diseases such as Malassezia folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis and some forms of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and confluent and reticulate papillomatosis. Little is known about the mechanism by which M. furfur overcomes the natural barrier of the skin. To further define the role of the beta-defensins in the innate human skin immune response, we analyzed the mRNA expression of two human beta-defensins HBD-1 and HBD-2 in human keratinocytes treated with M. furfur. In addition, we looked into how M. furfur of TGF-beta1 and IL-10, cytokines that interfere with the development of protective cell immunity, regulate their expression. Finally, we examined the signal transduction mechanisms involved during M. furfur uptake. Cultured human keratinocytes were treated with M. furfur. The mRNA and protein expression were analyzed, respectively, by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Our data demonstrate that M. furfur does not modify HBD-1 expression, whereas it up-regulates, via protein kinase C (PKC), the expression of HBD-2, TGFbeta-1 and IL-10 48 h after treatment. Our results suggest that beta-defensins are integral components of innate host defenses. They play an essential part in the resistance of the human skin surfaces against M. furfur uptake and other microbial invasion.

  11. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184) and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:22196482

  12. Human beta-defensin 3 contributes to the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer via activation of NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chongbing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Weijia; Chang, Ying; Shao, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Human beta-defensin 3 (hBD3), an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expressed in epithelium in response to various stimulations including human papillomavirus infection, has recently been found to be overexpressed in head and neck cancers and exhibit tumorigenic activities. However, the role of hBD3 in cervical cancer remains to be investigated. In this study, we showed by immunohistochemistry that hBD3 expression was elevated in cervical cancer samples of different stages versus the normal tissue, and was positively correlated with the progression of the disease. Overexpression of hBD3 in cervical cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation by accelerating G1/S progression and enhanced cell migration and invasion in vitro. These oncogenic effects of hBD3 were associated with activation of NF-κB signaling. Using a mouse xenograft model, we further demonstrated that hBD3 overexpression promoted the growth of cervical cancer cells in vivo. Our results suggested that hBD3 is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of cervical cancer, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target of this disease. PMID:27713149

  13. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender.

  14. In vitro activity of human beta-defensin 2 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of tear fluid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling C; Redfern, Rachel L; Narayanan, Srihari; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2007-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes vision-threatening keratitis and is difficult to treat due to emerging resistance. Human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide expressed by ocular surface epithelia with broad-spectrum activity against various pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. The activity of hBD-2 against P. aeruginosa in the presence of human tears or NaCl was studied. In some experiments, tears were heat-inactivated, filtered, and separated into cationic/anionic fractions or mucin MUC5AC was removed by immunoprecipitation before use. Immunoprecipitation was performed to study the interaction between hBD-2 and MUC5AC. hBD-2 activity was reduced by 40 to 90% in the presence of 17.5 to 70% (vol/vol) tears. NaCl reduced hBD-2 activity, but at most it could account for only 36% of the inhibitory effect of tears. Heat inactivation and filtration attenuated the ability of tears to inhibit hBD-2 activity by 65 and 68%, respectively. Anionic tear fractions significantly reduced (86%) the activity of hBD-2, whereas only a 22% reduction was observed with the cationic fractions. In the absence of MUC5AC, the activity of hBD-2 was restored by 64%. Immunoprecipitation studies suggested that the loss of hBD-2 activity in tears is due to a direct binding interaction with MUC5AC. Our data showed that the antimicrobial activity of hBD-2 is sensitive to the presence of human tears and that this is partly due to the salt content and also the presence of MUC5AC. These data cast doubt on the effectiveness of hBD-2 as an antimicrobial peptide, and additional studies are required to conclusively elucidate its role in innate immunity at the ocular surface in vivo.

  15. Signal transduction and nuclear responses in Staphylococcus aureus-induced expression of human beta-defensin 3 in skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Barbara E; Kenoyer, Aimee

    2006-12-01

    The human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3) is an inducible epithelial peptide antibiotic that has potent antistaphylococcal activity. Infection of skin epithelial cells with viable Staphylococcus aureus, a common skin pathogen, induces increased gene expression of hBD-3 and other antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study was to identify signaling pathways and nuclear responses that contribute to the gene expression of hBD-3 in primary human keratinocytes upon contact with S. aureus. Increased hBD-3 peptide was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in keratinocytes exposed to S. aureus and to lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Both are ligands for the cell surface Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and thus the contribution of TLR2 signaling in hBD-3 expression was examined. Functional inhibition of TLR2 prior to S. aureus stimulation significantly decreased hBD-3 mRNA levels by 37%, attesting to the involvement of this surface receptor in the initial recognition and downstream signaling for hBD-3 expression. Treatment of keratinocytes with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor prior to either S. aureus or LTA stimulation was associated with reduced hBD-3 mRNA transcripts and peptide. We also propose a role for the MAPK-regulated transcriptional activating protein 1 in S. aureus-induced hBD-3 gene expression. Combined, these studies indicate a role for TLR2 signaling and MAPK activation in the upregulation of hBD-3 and demonstrate the innate immune capacity of skin keratinocytes under conditions of S. aureus challenge to enhance the local expression of this antistaphylococcal peptide antibiotic.

  16. Human beta-defensins 2 and -3 cointernalize with human immunodeficiency virus via heparan sulfate proteoglycans and reduce infectivity of intracellular virions in tonsil epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Rossana; Morris, Michael; Rosbe, Kristina; Feng, Zhimin; Weinberg, Aaron; Tugizov, Sharof

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that expression of the anti-HIV innate proteins human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) and hBD3 in adult oral epithelial cells reduces HIV transepithelial transmission by inactivation of virus. However, fetal/infant oral epithelia lack beta-defensin expression, leading to transmission of HIV. The mechanisms of hBD2- and hBD3-mediated HIV inactivation in adult oral epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here we found that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the apical surfaces of epithelial cells facilitate simultaneous binding of hBDs and HIV gp120 to the cell surface. HSPG-facilitated binding of hBDs and HIV gp120 to the cell surface did not affect viral attachment. HBD2 or -3 cointernalized with virions in endosomes, formed oligomers, and reduced infectivity of HIV. The anti-HIV effect of combining hBD2 and hBD3 was substantially higher than that of the individual peptides. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of anti-HIV resistance in adult oral epithelium. PMID:26539799

  17. Structure-activity relation of human beta-defensin 3: influence of disulfide bonds and cysteine substitution on antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Enno; Schulz-Maronde, Sandra; Scheid, Svenja; Meyer, Bernd; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Adermann, Knut

    2005-07-19

    Human beta-defensins form a group of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides which have been found in epithelial tissue and, more recently, in the male genital tract. They play a role in the defense against microbial pathogens in innate immunity and display additional chemotactic functions in the adaptive immune system. An important characteristic of antimicrobial peptides is that they also exhibit toxic potential on eukaryotic cells. Very little is known about the structure dependence of antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. We investigated human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3), a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector peptide, regarding the influence of structural parameters on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. We have established a structure-activity relation of the hBD-3 using synthetic derivatives differing in length, charge, disulfide connectivity, and overall hydrophobicity. The antimicrobial activity of the peptides was compared to the cyctotoxic effects on monocytic THP-1 cells and the hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. We found that it is not important for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity whether and how cysteine residues are arranged to form disulfide bonds. Substitution of half-cystinyl residues by tryptophan resulted in increased activities, while other substitutions did not change activity. Correlation of activities with the structural changes demonstrates that the activity on eukaryotic cells appears to depend strongly on the overall hydrophobicity. In contrast, the antimicrobial potency of hBD-3 peptides is determined by the distribution of positively charged amino acid residues and hydrophobic side chains. The results facilitate the understanding of beta-defensin interaction with different cell types and guide the design of antimicrobially active peptides.

  18. Expression of Beta-Defensin 131 Promotes an Innate Immune Response in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa; Kim, Hae Jong; Lee, Jaehyouk; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray we found that β-defensin 131 (DEFB131), an antimicrobial peptide, is upregulated in the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 upon stimulation with lipoteichoic acid (LTA; a gram-positive bacterial component), than that in the untreated RWPE-1 cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of DEFB131 in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection. We examined the intracellular signaling pathways and nuclear responses in RWPE-1 cells that contribute to DEFB131 gene induction upon stimulation with LTA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to determine whether NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter after LTA stimulation in RWPE-1 cells. We found that DEFB131 expression was induced by LTA stimulation through TLR2 and p38MAPK/NF-κB activation, which was evident in the phosphorylation of both p38MAPK and IκBα. We also found that SB203580 and Bay11-7082, inhibitors of p38MAPK and NF-κB, respectively, suppressed LTA-induced DEFB131 expression. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter, suggesting that NF-κB is a direct regulator, and is necessary for LTA-induced DEFB131 expression in RWPE-1 cells. Interestingly, with DEFB131 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells, the accumulation of mRNA and protein secretion of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12α) and chemokines (CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL8) were significantly enhanced. In addition, DEFB131-transfected RWPE-1 cells markedly induced chemotactic activity in THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that DEFB131 induces cytokine and chemokine upregulation through the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection and promotes an innate immune response.

  19. Comparative simulation studies of native and single-site mutant human beta-defensin-1 peptides.

    PubMed

    Toubar, Rabab A; Zhmurov, Artem; Barsegov, Valeri; Marx, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Human defensins play important roles in a broad range of biological functions, such as microbial defense and immunity. Yet, little is known about their molecular properties, i.e. secondary structure stability, structural variability, important side chain interactions, surface charge distribution, and resistance to thermal fluctuations, and how these properties are related to their functions. To assess these factors, we studied the native human β-defensin-1 monomer and dimer as well as several single-site mutants using molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that disulfide bonds are important determinants in maintaining the defensins' structural integrity, as no structural transitions were observed at 300 K and only minor structural unfolding was detected upon heating to 500 K. The α-helix was less thermally stable than the core β-sheet structure held together by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The monomer α-helix stability was directly correlated, whereas the end-to-end distance was inversely correlated to the experimentally measured β-defensin-1 chemotactic activity, in the order: mutant 2 (Gln24Glu) > mutant 3 (Lys31Ala) = wild type > mutant 1 (Asn4Ala). The structural stability of the β-defensin-1 dimer species exhibited an inverse correlation to their chemotactic activity. In dimers formed by mutants 2 and 3, we observed sliding of one monomer upon the surface of the other in the absence of unbinding. This dynamic sliding feature may enhance the molecular oligomerization of β-defensin-1 peptides contributing to their antibacterial activity. It could also help these peptides orient correctly in the CC chemokine receptor 6 binding site, thereby initiating their chemotactic activity. In agreement with this notion, the remarkable sliding behavior was observed only for the mutants with the highest chemotactic activity.

  20. Expression of Beta-Defensin 131 Promotes an Innate Immune Response in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jong; Lee, Jaehyouk; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray we found that β-defensin 131 (DEFB131), an antimicrobial peptide, is upregulated in the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 upon stimulation with lipoteichoic acid (LTA; a gram-positive bacterial component), than that in the untreated RWPE-1 cells. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of DEFB131 in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection. We examined the intracellular signaling pathways and nuclear responses in RWPE-1 cells that contribute to DEFB131 gene induction upon stimulation with LTA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to determine whether NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter after LTA stimulation in RWPE-1 cells. We found that DEFB131 expression was induced by LTA stimulation through TLR2 and p38MAPK/NF-κB activation, which was evident in the phosphorylation of both p38MAPK and IκBα. We also found that SB203580 and Bay11-7082, inhibitors of p38MAPK and NF-κB, respectively, suppressed LTA-induced DEFB131 expression. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB directly binds to the DEFB131 promoter, suggesting that NF-κB is a direct regulator, and is necessary for LTA-induced DEFB131 expression in RWPE-1 cells. Interestingly, with DEFB131 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells, the accumulation of mRNA and protein secretion of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12α) and chemokines (CCL20, CCL22, and CXCL8) were significantly enhanced. In addition, DEFB131-transfected RWPE-1 cells markedly induced chemotactic activity in THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that DEFB131 induces cytokine and chemokine upregulation through the TLR2/NF-κB signaling pathway in RWPE-1 cells during bacterial infection and promotes an innate immune response. PMID:26649771

  1. Mycobacterium bovis-mediated induction of human beta-defensin-2 in epithelial cells is controlled by intracellular calcium and p38MAPK.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia; Alba, Laura; Trejo, Artemisa

    2007-05-01

    Induction of human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2) by mycobacteria has been reported. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which mycobacteria up-regulates HBD-2 gene expression in epithelial cells remains poorly understood. In this work, we provide evidence that the induction of HBD-2 mRNA in response to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with a cell-permeable BAPTA-AM, which chelates intracellular calcium. Our data also demonstrate that HBD-2 mRNA induction by M. bovis in A549 lung epithelial cells requires activation of calmodulin. Interestingly, HBD-2 mRNA expression in response to M. bovis BCG was attenuated by pretreatment with SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]), but not by an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK): PD98059. Furthermore, we found that a second p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) significantly blocked M. bovis BCG-mediated HBD-2 induction in A549 lung epithelial cells. Together, these data suggest that M. bovis BCG induces HBD-2 mRNA expression in A549 lung epithelial cells at least in part mediated through intracellular calcium flux as well as activation of signaling protein of p38MAPK, but not ERK.

  2. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Human Beta-Defensins Modulate the Release of Antimicrobial Chemokine CCL20/Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 3α ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Santosh K.; Gupta, Sanhita; Jiang, Bin; Weinberg, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Cells of the innate immune system regulate immune responses through the production of antimicrobial peptides, chemokines, and cytokines, including human beta-defensins (hBDs) and CCL20. In this study, we examined the kinetics of primary human oral epithelial cell (HOEC) production of CCL20 and hBDs in response to Fusobacterium nucleatum, a commensal bacterium of the oral cavity, which we previously showed promotes HOEC induction of hBDs. HOECs secrete maximal levels of CCL20 at 6 h, following stimulation by F. nucleatum cell wall (FnCW). The kinetics of CCL20 release is distinct from that of hBD-2 and -3, which peaks after 24 h and 48 h of FnCW stimulation, respectively. FnCW-induced release of CCL20 by HOECs requires both transcriptional and translational activation. Release of CCL20 by HOECs is inhibited by brefeldin A, suggesting that it is secreted through a vesicle transport pathway. Other epithelium-derived agents that FnCW induces, such as hBD-2, hBD-3, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), are also able to release CCL20. By focusing on mitogen-activated protein kinases, we show that both extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38, but not JNK, are required for hBD-, TNF-α-, and IL-1β-induced secretion of CCL20 by HOECs. The ability of FnCW and its induced hBDs to produce proinflammatory cytokines and CCL20 suggests the broad role of F. nucleatum and human antimicrobial peptides in primary immune responses elicited by oral epithelium. PMID:21911466

  3. Calcium triggers beta-defensin (hBD-2 and hBD-3) and chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) expression in monolayers of activated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pernet, I; Reymermier, C; Guezennec, A; Branka, J-E; Guesnet, J; Perrier, E; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C; Schmitt, D; Viac, J

    2003-12-01

    The inducible epidermal beta-defensins and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) are important mediators involved in innate and adaptive immunity and in the recruitment of immune cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether calcium could trigger the induction of beta-defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) mRNA and the release of MIP-3alpha by normal human keratinocyte monolayers. Epidermal cells derived from foreskin were cultured in defined medium supplemented with different calcium levels (0.09, 0.8 and 1.7 mM) and were stimulated or not with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha 1-500 ng/ml) or interferon-gamma (INF-gamma 1-100 ng/ml). A high calcium concentration (1.7 mM) alone applied in culture medium for 4 days was sufficient to induce hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA expression. Whatever interindividual variability in the expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha secretion, the addition of TNF-alpha for a short duration (26h), initiated a dose-dependent and coordinated up-regulation of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA and MIP-3alpha release in keratinocyte cultures. Unlike hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA was preferentially stimulated by IFN-gamma rather than TNF-alpha. In our experimental conditions, L-isoleucine, described to stimulate beta-defensin in bovine epithelial cells, did not exert any effect either on hBD-2 and hBD-3 transcripts or MIP-3alpha protein. Taken together, these results confirm the major role of the maturation/differentiation process of normal human keratinocytes in the induction of inducible beta-defensins and MIP-3alpha chemokine, which contribute in vivo to the immunosurveillance of the skin barrier function.

  4. Expression and New Exon Mutations of the Human Beta Defensins and Their Association on Colon Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Al Shahrani, Omair; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; alharbi, Othman; Almadi, Majid A.; Azzam, Nahla Ali; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad S.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer involves genetic predisposition and a variety of environmental exposures. Genome-wide linkage analyses provide evidence for the significant linkage of many diseases to susceptibility loci on chromosome 8p23, the location of the human defensin gene cluster. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are important molecules of innate immunity. This study was designed to analyze the expression and genetic variations in hBDs (hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) and their putative association with colon cancer. hBD gene expression and relative protein expression were evaluated by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, from 40 normal patients and 40 age-matched patients with colon cancer in Saudi Arabia. In addition, hBD polymorphisms were genotyped by exon sequencing and by promoter methylation. hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4 basal messenger RNA expression was significantly lower in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. Several insertion mutations were detected in different exons of the analyzed hBDs. However, no methylation in any hBDs promoters was detected because of the limited number of CpG islands in these regions. We demonstrated for the first time a link between hBD expression and colon cancer. This suggests that there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer. PMID:26038828

  5. Expression and new exon mutations of the human Beta defensins and their association on colon cancer development.

    PubMed

    Semlali, Abdelhabib; Al Amri, Abdullah; Azzi, Arezki; Al Shahrani, Omair; Arafah, Maha; Kohailan, Muhammad; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman; Almadi, Majid A; Azzam, Nahla Ali; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad S

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer involves genetic predisposition and a variety of environmental exposures. Genome-wide linkage analyses provide evidence for the significant linkage of many diseases to susceptibility loci on chromosome 8p23, the location of the human defensin gene cluster. Human β-defensins (hBDs) are important molecules of innate immunity. This study was designed to analyze the expression and genetic variations in hBDs (hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4) and their putative association with colon cancer. hBD gene expression and relative protein expression were evaluated by Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, from 40 normal patients and 40 age-matched patients with colon cancer in Saudi Arabia. In addition, hBD polymorphisms were genotyped by exon sequencing and by promoter methylation. hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3 and hBD-4 basal messenger RNA expression was significantly lower in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. Several insertion mutations were detected in different exons of the analyzed hBDs. However, no methylation in any hBDs promoters was detected because of the limited number of CpG islands in these regions. We demonstrated for the first time a link between hBD expression and colon cancer. This suggests that there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer.

  6. Expression of beta-defensin-1 in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) airways.

    PubMed

    Duits, L A; Langermans, J A; Paltansing, S; van der Straaten, T; Vervenne, R A; Frost, P A; Hiemstra, P S; Thomas, A W; Nibbering, P H

    2000-10-01

    In human airways, beta-defensins function in the elimination of various pathogens. They have been identified in a wide range of species. Here we report the identification and expression of chimpanzee beta-defensin-1 (cBD1), which is a homolog of human beta-defensin-1, in chimpanzee airways and skin. The cBD1 cDNA sequence differs by only one synonymous nucleotide substitution compared to the human cDNA sequence. In situ hybridization revealed that in lung tissue beside alveolar macrophages also airway epithelial cells, endothelial cells and type II pneumocytes express cBD1 mRNA. In skin, cBD1 mRNA was expressed in keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Together, these results show similarity in structure and expression pattern and perhaps in function.

  7. Expression of natural antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin-2 and Langerhans cell accumulation in epidermis from human non-healing leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Galkowska, Hanna; Olszewski, Waldemar L; Wojewodzka, Urszula

    2005-01-01

    Chronic wounds like venous calf and diabetic foot ulcers are frequently contaminated and colonized by bacteria and it remains unclear whether there is sufficient expression of defensins and recruitment of epidermal Langerhans cells in the margin of ulcer compared to normal skin. The aim of this study was to examine immunohistochemically the expression of beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), GM-CSF, VEGF growth factors and accumulation of CD1a+ Langerhans cells (LC) in epidermis from chronic skin ulcers and to compare it to normal skin from the corresponding areas. Studies were carried out in 10 patients with diabetic foot, 10 patients with varicous ulcers of the calf and 10 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (normal skin for control). Biopsy specimens were immunostained using specific primary antibodies, LSAB+ kit based on biotin-avidin-peroxidase complex technique and DAB chromogen. Results were expressed as a mean staining intensity. Statistical analysis of staining showed significantly higher staining of hBD2 in both normal and ulcerated epidermis from foot sole skin compared to calf skin (normal and ulcerated, p < 0.05). Chronic ulcers showed the same expression of hBD2 as normal skin. There was significantly lower accumulation of CD1a+ LC in normal epidermis from foot sole skin compared to normal calf skin (p<0.05). Accumulation of CD1a+ LC and GM-CSF upregulation at the border area of diabetic foot ulcer and reduction of LC concentration at the margin of venous calf ulcer compared to normal skin were observed. It seems that normal calf and sole epidermis is, unlike in the mechanisms of innate immunity, influenced by the different keratinocyte turnover and bacterial flora colonizing these regions. Insufficient upregulation of hBD2 in both diabetic foot and venous calf ulcers may suggest the pathological role of this protein in the chronicity of ulcers.

  8. Effect of selectively introducing arginine and D-amino acids on the antimicrobial activity and salt sensitivity in analogs of human beta-defensins.

    PubMed

    Olli, Sudar; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the antimicrobial activity of C-terminal analogs of human β-defensins HBD-1 and-3 wherein lysines have been selectively replaced by L- and D-arginines and L-isoleucine substituted with its D-enantiomer. The analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. Physiological concentration of NaCl did not attenuate the activity of the peptides against Gram-negative bacteria considerably, while some attenuation of activity was observed against S. aureus. Variable attenuation of activity was observed in the presence of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺. Introduction of D-amino acids abrogated the need for a disulfide bridge for exhibiting activity. Confocal images of carboxyfluorescein (CF) labeled peptides indicated initial localization on the membrane and subsequent translocation into the cell. Analogs corresponding to cationic rich segments of human defensins substituted with L- and D-arginine, could be attractive candidates for development as future therapeutic drugs.

  9. Ubiquitously expressed Human Beta Defensin 1 (hBD1) forms bacteria-entrapping nets in a redox dependent mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Raschig, Judith; Mailänder-Sánchez, Daniela; Berscheid, Anne; Berger, Jürgen; Malek, Nisar P.; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of endogenous host defense antimicrobial peptides it has been discussed how these evolutionary conserved molecules avoid to induce resistance and to remain effective. Human ß-defensin 1 (hBD1) is an ubiquitously expressed endogenous antimicrobial peptide that exhibits qualitatively distinct activities between its oxidized and reduced forms. Here, we explore these antimicrobial mechanisms. Surprisingly, using electron microscopy we detected a so far unknown net-like structure surrounding bacteria, which were treated with the reduced but not the oxidized form of hBD1. A transmigration assay demonstrated that hBD1-derived nets capture bacteria and inhibit bacterial transmigration independent of bacterial killing. The presence of nets could completely prevent migration of hBD1 resistant pathogens and are stable in the presence of human duodenal secretion with a high amount of proteases. In contrast to HD6, cysteins are necessary for net formation. This redox-dependent function serves as an additional mechanism of action for hBD1 and differs from net formation by other defensins such as Paneth cell-derived human α-defensin 6 (HD6). While hBD1red and hBD1ox have distinct antimicrobial profiles and functions, only the reduced form provides additional host protection by entrapping bacteria in extracellular net structures preventing bacterial invasion. Better understanding of the modes of action of endogenous host peptides will help to find new antimicrobial strategies. PMID:28323883

  10. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Andrea G.; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site. PMID:26448160

  11. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hielpos, M Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site.

  12. In Vitro Studies on the Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin 9 (HBD9): Signalling Pathways and Pathogen-Related Response (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Harminder S.; Otri, Ahmad Muneer; Hopkinson, Andrew; Mohammed, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Human β-defensins (HBDs) are an important part of the innate immune host defense at the ocular surface. Unlike other defensins, expression of HBD9 at the ocular surface is reduced during microbial infection, but activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in corneal epithelial cells has been shown to up-regulate HBD9. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that TLR2 has a key role in the signalling pathway(s) involved in the overexpression or underexpression of HBD9, and accordingly, different pathogens would induce a different expression pattern of HBD9. Methods: The in vitro RNAi silencing method and response to dexamethasone were used to determine key molecules involved in signalling pathways of HBD9 in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells. The techniques included cell culture with exposure to specific transcription factor inhibitors and bacteria, RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistology. Results: This study demonstrates that TLR2 induces HBD9 mRNA and protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Transforming growth factor-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays a central role in HBD9 induction by TLR2, and transcription factors c-JUN and activating transcription factor 2 are also involved. Dexamethasone reduces TLR2-mediated up-regulation of HBD9 mRNA and protein levels in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP1)-dependent and c-JUN-independent manner. HBD9 expression differs with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: TLR2-mediated MKPs and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways are involved in HBD9 expression. TAK-1 is a key molecule. These molecules can be potentially targeted to modulate HBD9 expression. Differential expression of HBD9 with different bacteria could be related to differences in pathogen-associated molecular patterns of these organisms. PMID:25646028

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis disrupts epididymal beta-defensin expression and inhibits sperm motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dongmei; Li, Yidong; Yang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Yuchuan; Diao, Hua; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yonglian; Lu, Jian

    2010-12-01

    Although more than 40 beta-defensins have been identified in rat epididymis, little is known about their regulation or their relation to male infertility caused by inflammation. Using a rat model of epididymitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we examined expression of SPAG11E (also known as Bin1b), a caput epididymis-specific beta-defensin in rat. Unlike the expression of other beta-defensins in various epithelial cells with upregulated expression after LPS stimulation, expression of SPAG11E was significantly decreased by LPS at the mRNA and protein levels. LPS treatment also significantly decreased both sperm binding to SPAG11E and sperm motility, and supplementation of the spermatozoa with recombinant SPAG11E in vitro remarkably increased both SPAG11E binding and motility of sperm. To clarify whether decreased expression is a common pattern of epididymal beta-defensins after LPS stimulation, we examined the expression of another 12 epididymal beta-defensins expressed in the caput epididymis. For nine of these beta-defensins, expression was decreased, but for the other three, expression remained unaffected. These findings demonstrate that LPS-induced epididymitis can decrease the expression of epididymal beta-defensins and that disruption of SPAG11E expression is involved in the impairment of sperm motility.

  14. Bioinformatic and molecular characterization of beta-defensins-like peptides isolated from the green lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, Luisa; Benato, Francesca; Maistro, Silvia; Quinzani, Stefano; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The high resistance of lizards to infections indicates that anti-microbial peptides may be involved. Through the analysis of the green lizard (Anolis carolinensis) genome and the expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries 32 beta-defensin-like-peptides have been identified. The level of expression of some of these genes in different tissues has been determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression and structure analysis suggest the presence of alternative splicing mechanisms, with a number of exons ranging from two to four, similar to that for beta-defensins genes in mammals. Lizard beta-defensin-like peptides present the characteristic cysteine-motif identified in mammalian and avian beta-defensins. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that some lizard beta-defensins-like peptides are related to crotamine and crotamin-like peptides of snakes and lizards suggesting that beta-defensins and venomous peptides have a common ancestor gene.

  15. Cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins in dry eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Kristin; Garreis, Fabian; Dunse, Matthias; Paulsen, Friedrich P

    2010-01-01

    Several diseases concomitant with L-arginine deficiency (diabetes, chronic kidney failure, psoriasis) are significantly associated with dry eye syndrome. One important factor that has so far been neglected is the y(+) transporter. In humans, y(+) accounts for nearly 80% of arginine transport, exclusively carrying the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine. y(+) is represented by CAT(cationic amino acid transporter) proteins. L-arginine is a precursor of the moisturizer urea, which has been used in the treatment of dry skin diseases. Although urea has also been shown to be part of the tear film, little attention has been paid to it in this role. Moreover, L-arginine and L-lysine are major components contributing to synthesis of the antimicrobially active beta-defensins induced under dry eye conditions. The first results have demonstrated that transport of L-arginine and L-lysine into epithelial cells is limited by the y(+) transporter at the ocular surface.

  16. Identification of a Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Porcine Beta-Defensin-1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Pruthviraj, D R; Usha, A P; Venkatachalapathy, R T

    2016-03-01

    Porcine beta-defensin-1 (PBD-1) gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of pigs. The peptide encoded by this gene is an antimicrobial peptide that has direct activity against a wide range of microbes. This peptide is involved in the co-creation of an antimicrobial barrier in the oral cavity of pigs. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphisms, if any, in exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) and native Ankamali pigs of Kerala, India. Blood samples were collected from 100 pigs and genomic DNA was isolated using phenol chloroform method. The quantity of DNA was assessed in a spectrophotometer and quality by gel electrophoresis. Exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Subsequent silver staining of the polyacrylamide gels revealed three unique SSCP banding patterns in each of the two exons. The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products. A novel SNP was found in the 5'-UTR region of exon-1 and a SNP was detected in the mature peptide coding region of exon-2. In exon-1, the pooled population frequencies of GG, GT, and TT genotypes were 0.67, 0.30, and 0.03, respectively. GG genotype was predominant in both the breeds whereas TT genotype was not detected in LWY breed. Similarly, in exon-2, the pooled population frequencies of AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 0.50, 0.27, and 0.23, respectively. AA genotype was predominant in LWY pigs whereas GG genotype was predominant in native pigs. These results suggest that there exists a considerable genetic variation at PBD-1 locus and further association studies may help in development of a PCR based genotyping test to select pigs with better immunity.

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of beta-defensins, multi-functional peptides of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Enno; Adermann, Knut; Schulz, Axel

    2006-04-01

    beta-defensins are a large family of multiple disulfide-bonded peptides occurring in mammals and birds. They play an important role in the innate immune system, directly killing microbial organisms. Recent research has demonstrated that beta-defensins are important for other biological functions beyond antimicrobial effects, including inhibition of viral infection, interaction with Toll-like receptors, chemotactic effects, and sperm function. The corresponding broad spectrum of activities makes this peptide class an important subject and tool in immunologic research. In this review, we summarize the current status of the routes to obtain synthetic beta-defensins, their major structural properties and structure-activity relationship.

  18. Toll-like Receptor Signaling Activation by Entamoeba histolytica Induces Beta Defensin 2 in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells: Its Possible Role as an Element of the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Sumuano, Jorge-Tonatiuh; Téllez-López, Victor M.; Domínguez-Robles, M. del Carmen; Shibayama-Salas, Mineko; Meza, Isaura

    2013-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce β defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NFκB pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody. Conclusions/Significance Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed. PMID:23469306

  19. Beta-defensin 1 plays a role in acute mucosal defense to Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Tomalka, Jeffrey; Azodi, Elaheh; Narra, Hema P.; Patel, Krupen; O’Neill, Samantha; Cardwell, Cisley; Hall, Brian A.; Wilson, James M.; Hise, Amy G.

    2015-01-01

    Candida is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the mucosal tract of humans. Pathogenic infection occurs in the presence of conditions causing perturbations to the commensal microbiota or host immunity. Early innate immune responses by the epithelium, including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and cytokines, are critical for protection against overgrowth. Reduced salivary AMP levels are associated with oral Candida infection and certain AMPs, including human beta-defensins 1 - 3, have direct fungicidal activity. Here we demonstrate that murine β-Defensin 1 (mBD1) is important for control of early mucosal Candida infection and plays a critical role in the induction of innate inflammatory mediators. Mice deficient in mBD1 exhibit elevated oral and systemic fungal burdens as compared to wild-type mice. Neutrophil infiltration to the sites of mucosal Candida invasion, an important step in limiting fungal infection, is significantly reduced in mBD1 deficient mice. These mice also exhibit defects in the expression of other antimicrobial peptides, including mBD2 and mBD4, which may have direct anti-Candida activity. We also show that mBD1 deficiency impacts the production of important anti-fungal inflammatory mediators including IL-1β, IL-6, KC, and IL-17. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a role for the mBD1 peptide in early control of Candida infection in a murine model of mucosal candidiasis, as well as on the modulation of host immunity through augmentation of leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory gene induction. PMID:25595775

  20. Potential roles of placental human beta-defensin-3 and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3G in prevention of intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoxia; Tian, Ting; Wang, Peng; Yang, Xiaofu; Wang, Zhengping; Dong, Minyue

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 5% of newborns were infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) via intrauterine transmission and this is the main reason for high prevalence of HBV in endemic regions. However, the mechanisms by which intrauterine transmission is avoided in most cases remain elusive and placental natural anti-microbial factors may play a role in the prevention of HBV intrauterine transmission. The expression levels of human β-defensin-3 (HBD-3), apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3G (A3G) and mannose binding lectin (MBL) were determined in the placenta of 30 HBV-seronegative pregnant women (controls), 7 HBV-seropositive pregnant women with infants infected via intrauterine transmission (infected group) and 30 HBV-seropositive pregnant women with non-infected infants (non-infected group). The expression of HBD-3, A3G, and MBL of placental trophoblast cell line Swan71 was determined after exposed to HBV. There were significant differences in placental HBD-3 and A3G levels among three groups, but the expression of MBL did not significantly differ. The expressions of HBD-3 and A3G were higher in non-infected group than controls and infected group, but not significantly different between infected group and controls. The exposure to HBV increased significantly the expression of HBD-3, A3G, and MBL by Swan 71. It may be concluded HBV up-regulates HBD-3 and A3G expression in vivo and in vitro in placental trophoblast and lack of this up-regulation is possibly associated with intrauterine transmission of HBV.

  1. Copy number variation of the beta defensin gene cluster on chromosome 8p influences the bacterial microbiota within the nasopharynx of otitis-prone children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eric A; Kananurak, Anchasa; Bevins, Charles L; Hollox, Edward J; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2014-01-01

    As there is increasing evidence that aberrant defensin expression is related to susceptibility for infectious disease and inflammatory disorders, we sought to determine if copy number of the beta-defensin gene cluster located on chromosome 8p23.1 (DEFB107, 106, 105, 104, 103, DEFB4 and SPAG11), that shows copy number variation as a block, was associated with susceptibility to otitis media (OM). The gene DEFB103 within this complex encodes human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide (AP) expressed by epithelial cells that line the mammalian airway, important for defense of mucosal surfaces and previously shown to have bactericidal activity in vitro against multiple human pathogens, including the three that predominate in OM. To this end, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of 113 OM prone children and 267 controls aged five to sixty months. We identified the copy number of the above defined beta-defensin gene cluster (DEFB-CN) in each study subject by paralogue ratio assays. The mean DEFB-CN was indistinguishable between subjects classified as OM prone based on a recent history of multiple episodes of OM and control subjects who had no history of OM (4.4 ± 0.96 versus 4.4 ± 1.08, respectively: Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.16 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.20). Despite a lack of direct association, we observed a statistically significant correlation between DEFB-CN and nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization patterns. Collectively, our findings suggested that susceptibility to OM might be mediated by genetic variation among individuals, wherein a DEFB-CN less than 4 exerts a marked influence on the microbiota of the nasopharynx, specifically with regard to colonization by the three predominant bacterial pathogens of OM.

  2. A Potential Relationship among Beta-Defensins Haplotype, SOX7 Duplication and Cardiac Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shaohai; Xu, Yuejuan; Sun, Kun; Chen, Sun; Xu, Rang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the pathogenesis of a patient born with congenital heart defects, who had appeared normal in prenatal screening. Methods In routine prenatal screening, G-banding was performed to analyse the karyotypes of the family and fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate the 22q11.2 deletion in the fetus. After birth, the child was found to be suffering from heart defects by transthoracic echocardiography. In the following study, sequencing was used to search for potential mutations in pivotal genes. SNP-array was employed for fine mapping of the aberrant region and quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results. Furthermore, other patients with a similar phenotype were screened for the same genetic variations. To compare with a control, these variations were also assessed in the general population. Results The child and his mother each had a region that was deleted in the beta-defensin repeats, which are usually duplicated in the general population. Besides, the child carried a SOX7-gene duplication. While this duplication was not detected in his mother, it was found in two other patients with cardiac defects who also had the similar deletion in the beta-defensin repeats. Conclusion The congenital heart defects of the child were probably caused by a SOX7-gene duplication, which may be a consequence of the partial haplotype of beta-defensin regions at 8p23.1. To our knowledge, this is the first congenital heart defect case found to have the haplotype of beta-defensin and the duplication of SOX7. PMID:24009689

  3. Ciprofloxacin Affects Host Cells by Suppressing Expression of the Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides Cathelicidins and Beta-Defensin-3 in Colon Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Protim; Mily, Akhirunnesa; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Jalal, Shah; Bergman, Peter; Raqib, Rubhana; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics exert several effects on host cells including regulation of immune components. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), e.g., cathelicidins and defensins display multiple functions in innate immunity. In colonic mucosa, cathelicidins are induced by butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on butyrate-induced expression of cathelicidins and beta-defensins in colon epithelial cells. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin and clindamycin reduce butyrate-induced transcription of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. Suppression of LL-37 peptide/protein by ciprofloxacin was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ciprofloxacin suppresses the rabbit cathelicidin CAP-18 in rectal epithelia of healthy and butyrate-treated Shigella-infected rabbits. Ciprofloxacin also down-regulated butyrate-induced transcription of the human beta-defensin-3 in HT-29 cells. Microarray analysis of HT-29 cells revealed upregulation by butyrate with subsequent down-regulation by ciprofloxacin of additional genes encoding immune factors. Dephosphorylation of histone H3, an epigenetic event provided a possible mechanism of the suppressive effect of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, LL-37 peptide inhibited Clostridium difficile growth in vitro. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin exert immunomodulatory function by down-regulating AMPs and other immune components in colonic epithelial cells. Suppression of AMPs may contribute to the overgrowth of C. difficile, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. PMID:27025750

  4. The DUB/USP17 deubiquitinating enzymes: A gene family within a tandemly repeated sequence, is also embedded within the copy number variable Beta-defensin cluster

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The DUB/USP17 subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes were originally identified as immediate early genes induced in response to cytokine stimulation in mice (DUB-1, DUB-1A, DUB-2, DUB-2A). Subsequently we have identified a number of human family members and shown that one of these (DUB-3) is also cytokine inducible. We originally showed that constitutive expression of DUB-3 can block cell proliferation and more recently we have demonstrated that this is due to its regulation of the ubiquitination and activity of the 'CAAX' box protease RCE1. Results Here we demonstrate that the human DUB/USP17 family members are found on both chromosome 4p16.1, within a block of tandem repeats, and on chromosome 8p23.1, embedded within the copy number variable beta-defensin cluster. In addition, we show that the multiple genes observed in humans and other distantly related mammals have arisen due to the independent expansion of an ancestral sequence within each species. However, it is also apparent when sequences from humans and the more closely related chimpanzee are compared, that duplication events have taken place prior to these species separating. Conclusions The observation that the DUB/USP17 genes, which can influence cell growth and survival, have evolved from an unstable ancestral sequence which has undergone multiple and varied duplications in the species examined marks this as a unique family. In addition, their presence within the beta-defensin repeat raises the question whether they may contribute to the influence of this repeat on immune related conditions. PMID:20403174

  5. [Cloning and antimicrobial activity of pigeon avian beta-defensin 5].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shengnan; Zhang, Kexing; Zhang, Mingyue; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Shengwang; Ma, Deying

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the study was to clone avian beta-defensin (AvBD) 5 gene from pigeon bone marrow tissues and liver tissues, to express the recombinant AvBD5 protein in E. coli, and to determine its antimicrobial activity. The mRNA of duck AvBD5 was cloned from pigeon bone marrow tissues and liver tissues by RT-PCR. In addition, phylogenetic relationships between amino acid sequence of the pigeon AvBD5, AvBDs from other avian species, and some mammalian beta-defensin-5 were analyzed. The cDNA of pigeon AvBD5 was sub-cloned into pGEX-6p-1 vector to construct recombinant plasmid pGEX-pigeon AvBD5. The recombinant protein was expressed into E. coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity and physical-chemical stability of the recombinant fusion protein were measured in vitro. The complete nucleotide sequence of both cDNAs contained 201 bp nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 66 amino acids. Both beta-defensins have six conserved cysteines. Phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. Both pigeon AvBDs shared the highest amino acid homology (87.9% and 78.8%) with duck AvBD5. So it was named as pigeon AvBD5alpha (bone marrow) and AvBD5beta (liver). Both recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21 and the bacteria were induced with Isopropyl beta-D-1-Thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). After purification, antibacterial activity of the purified was investigated. In addition, effect of ionic strength on the antibacterial activity, and hemolytic recombinant protein activity of the purified recombinant protein were investigated. A 32 kDa protein was highly expressed. Both purified recombinant pigeon AvBD5alpha and AvBD5beta exhibited extensive antimicrobial activities against 12 bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative. In high salt ions concentrations, antibacterial activity of both recombinant proteins was decreased. In addition, the hemolysis activity of recombinant protein was extremely low.

  6. Inhibition of beta-defensin gene expression in airway epithelial cells by low doses of residual oil fly ash is mediated by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Klein-Patel, Marcia E; Diamond, Gill; Boniotto, Michele; Saad, Sherif; Ryan, Lisa K

    2006-07-01

    Poor ambient air quality is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including respiratory infections. However, its effects on various host-defense mechanisms are poorly understood. This study utilized an in vitro model to study the effect of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on one antimicrobial mechanism of host defense in the airway, beta-defensin-2 and its bovine homologue, tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) induction in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL-1beta. Our model utilized cultured primary bovine tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells and the human alveolar type II epithelial cell line, A549, treated with 0-20 microg/cm(2) residual oil fly ash (ROFA) for 6 h. The cells were then washed and stimulated for 18 h with 100 ng/ml LPS or for 6 h with 100 ng/ml IL-1beta. ROFA inhibited the LPS-induced increase in TAP mRNA and protein without inducing significant cytotoxicity. As little as 2.5 microg/cm(2) of ROFA inhibited LPS-induced TAP gene expression by 30%. The inhibitory activity was associated with the soluble fraction and not the washed particle. The activity in the leachate was attributed to vanadium, but not nickel or iron. SiO(2) and TiO(2) were utilized as controls and did not inhibit LPS induction of TAP gene expression in BTE. ROFA also inhibited the increase of IL-1beta-induced human beta-defensin-2, a homologue of TAP, in A549 cells. The results show that ROFA, V(2)O(5), and VOSO(4) inhibit the ability of airway epithelial cells to respond to inflammatory stimuli at low, physiologically relevant doses and suggest that exposure to these agents could result in an impairment of defense against airborne pathogens.

  7. Immunocytochemical detection of beta-defensins and cathelicidins in the secretory granules of the tongue in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Previous molecular studies indicated that antimicrobial peptides in lizard are expressed in the skin and tongue among other epithelial organs. The present ultrastructural immunogold study aimed to detect the specific location of three broadly expressed antimicrobial peptides in the tongue of the lizard Anolis carolinensis. The immunocytochemical study indicated that beta-defensin-15, the likely main defensin of granulocytes and skin, is poorly expressed in some dense and medium-dense granules of glandular cells of the papillated tongue. Conversely beta-defensin-27 appears highly expressed in numerous pale and cribriform dense granules of glandular cells and is also secreted on the tongue surface. The immunostaining for cathelicidin-1 indicated a variable but however positive immunolabeling in numerous granules in the tongue glands, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide previously found on the epidermal surface is also present in the tongue secretions and participates to the formation of the anti-microbial oral barrier. The study suggests that among the numerous beta-defensins and cathelicidins identified in the genome of this lizard is present a specific distribution of different peptide subtypes in various body regions, including the tongue, and that these peptides contribute to the formation of local antimicrobial barriers.

  8. A novel beta-defensin structure: a potential strategy of big defensin for overcoming resistance by Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Takahide; Fujitani, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Osaki, Tsukasa; Nishimura, Shin-ichiro; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Demura, Makoto; Nitta, Katsutoshi; Kawano, Keiichi

    2008-10-07

    Big defensin is a 79-residue peptide derived from hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab. It has antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of big defensin can be divided into an N-terminal hydrophobic half and a C-terminal cationic half. Interestingly, the trypsin cleaves big defensin into two fragments, the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments, which are responsible for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, respectively. To explore the antimicrobial mechanism of big defensin, we determined the solution structure of mature big defensin and performed a titration experiment with DPC micelles. Big defensin has a novel defensin structure; the C-terminal domain adopts a beta-defensin structure, and the N-terminal domain forms a unique globular conformation. It is noteworthy that the hydrophobic N-terminal domain undergoes a conformational change in micelle solution, while the C-terminal domain remains unchanged. Here, we propose that the N-terminal domain achieves its antimicrobial activity in a novel fashion and explain that big defensin has developed a strategy different from those of other beta-defensins to suppress the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. The beta-defensin gallinacin-6 is expressed in the chicken digestive tract and has antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L M; Romijn, Roland A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2007-03-01

    Food-borne pathogens are responsible for most cases of food poisoning in developed countries and are often associated with poultry products, including chicken. Little is known about the role of beta-defensins in the chicken digestive tract and their efficacy. In this study, the expression of chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 (Gal-6) and its antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens were investigated. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed high expression of Gal-6 mRNA in the esophagus and crop, moderate expression in the glandular stomach, and low expression throughout the intestinal tract. Putative transcription factor binding sites for nuclear factor kappa beta, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor interleukin-6 were found in the Gal-6 gene upstream region, which suggests a possible inducible nature of the Gal-6 gene. In colony-counting assays, strong bactericidal and fungicidal activity was observed, including bactericidal activity against food-borne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli. Treatment with 16 mug/ml synthetic Gal-6 resulted in a 3 log unit reduction in Clostridium perfringens survival within 60 min, indicating fast killing kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy examination of synthetic-Gal-6-treated Clostridium perfringens cells showed dose-dependent changes in morphology after 30 min, including intracellular granulation, cytoplasm retraction, irregular septum formation in dividing cells, and cell lysis. The high expression in the proximal digestive tract and broad antimicrobial activity suggest that chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 plays an important role in chicken innate host defense.

  10. Pupil diameter covaries with BOLD activity in human locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Peter R; O'Connell, Redmond G; O'Sullivan, Michael; Robertson, Ian H; Balsters, Joshua H

    2014-08-01

    The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) neuromodulatory system has been implicated in a broad array of cognitive processes, yet scope for investigating this system's function in humans is currently limited by an absence of reliable non-invasive measures of LC activity. Although pupil diameter has been employed as a proxy measure of LC activity in numerous studies, empirical evidence for a relationship between the two is lacking. In the present study, we sought to rigorously probe the relationship between pupil diameter and BOLD activity localized to the human LC. Simultaneous pupillometry and fMRI revealed a relationship between continuous pupil diameter and BOLD activity in a dorsal pontine cluster overlapping with the LC, as localized via neuromelanin-sensitive structural imaging and an LC atlas. This relationship was present both at rest and during performance of a two-stimulus oddball task, with and without spatial smoothing of the fMRI data, and survived retrospective image correction for physiological noise. Furthermore, the spatial extent of this pupil/LC relationship guided a volume-of-interest analysis in which we provide the first demonstration in humans of a fundamental characteristic of animal LC activity: phasic modulation by oddball stimulus relevance. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential for utilizing pupil diameter to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the LC-NA system in human cognition.

  11. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-12-28

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N{O}) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N{O} and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs.

  12. High polymorphism at the human melanocortin 1 receptor locus.

    PubMed Central

    Rana, B K; Hewett-Emmett, D; Jin, L; Chang, B H; Sambuughin, N; Lin, M; Watkins, S; Bamshad, M; Jorde, L B; Ramsay, M; Jenkins, T; Li, W H

    1999-01-01

    Variation in human skin/hair pigmentation is due to varied amounts of eumelanin (brown/black melanins) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow melanins) produced by the melanocytes. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a regulator of eu- and phaeomelanin production in the melanocytes, and MC1R mutations causing coat color changes are known in many mammals. We have sequenced the MC1R gene in 121 individuals sampled from world populations with an emphasis on Asian populations. We found variation at five nonsynonymous sites (resulting in the variants Arg67Gln, Asp84Glu, Val92Met, Arg151Cys, and Arg163Gln), but at only one synonymous site (A942G). Interestingly, the human consensus protein sequence is observed in all 25 African individuals studied, but at lower frequencies in the other populations examined, especially in East and Southeast Asians. The Arg163Gln variant is absent in the Africans studied, almost absent in Europeans, and at a low frequency (7%) in Indians, but is at an exceptionally high frequency (70%) in East and Southeast Asians. The MC1R gene in common and pygmy chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan, and baboon was sequenced to study the evolution of MC1R. The ancestral human MC1R sequence is identical to the human consensus protein sequence, while MC1R varies considerably among higher primates. A comparison of the rates of substitution in genes in the melanocortin receptor family indicates that MC1R has evolved the fastest. In addition, the nucleotide diversity at the MC1R locus is shown to be several times higher than the average nucleotide diversity in human populations, possibly due to diversifying selection. PMID:10101176

  13. Evolutionary conservation of CCND1-ORAOV1-FGF19-FGF4 locus from zebrafish to human.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2003-07-01

    The CCND1-ORAOV1-FGF19-FGF4-FGF3-FLJ10261-FADD-PPFIA1-EMS1 locus on human chromosome 11q13 is frequently amplified in esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and bladder tumors. FGF19, FGF4 and FGF3 genes are implicated in embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. We proposed in 2002 the hypothesis that mouse Fgf15 might be the ortholog of human FGF19 based on comparative genomics. Here, we identified zebrafish fgf19 and oraov1 genes by using bioinformatics to demonstrate the hypothesis. Zebrafish fgf19 gene, consisting of three exons, was located around nucleotide position 121802-124963 of zebrafish genome draft sequence AL929586.12 in the reverse orientation. Zebrafish fgf19 (209 aa) was more homologous to chicken fgf19 and human FGF19 than to rodent Fgf15. Zebrafish oraov1 gene, consisting of five exons, was located around nucleotide position 112172-115838 of AL929586.12 in the reverse orientation. Zebrafish oraov1 protein (141 aa) was more homologous to human ORAOV1 than to rodent Oraov1. The CCND1-ORAOV1-FGF19-FGF4 locus was well conserved between human and zebrafish genomes in the order of genes, in the direction of genes, and in the exon-intron structure. Rat Ccnd1-Oraov1-Fgf15-Fgf4 locus was synthenic to mouse Ccnd1-Oraov1 (also known as 2210010N10Rik)-Fgf15-Fgf4 locus. Fgf15, homologous to human FGF19 and zebrafish fgf19, was located on the synthenic locus of human FGF19 and zebrafish fgf19 within rodent genomes. Based on the evolutionary conservation of the CCND1-ORAOV1-FGF19-FGF4 locus from zebrafish to human, it was concluded that Fgf15 gene is the rodent ortholog of human FGF19 gene.

  14. Administration of Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and Avian Beta Defensin as Adjuvants in Inactivated Inclusion Body Hepatitis Virus and its Hexon Protein-Based Experimental Vaccine Formulations in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Dar, Arshud; Tipu, Masroor; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andy; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major infectious diseases adversely affecting the poultry industry of the United States and Canada. Currently, no effective and safe vaccine is available for the control of IBH virus (IBHV) infection in chickens. However, based on the excellent safety and immunogenic profiles of experimental veterinary vaccines developed with the use of new generation adjuvants, we hypothesized that characterization of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV or its capsid protein hexon as antigens, along with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and avian beta defensin 2 (ABD2) as vaccine adjuvants, will be helpful in development of an effective and safe vaccine formulation for IBH. Our data demonstrated that experimental administration of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV and a mixture of PCEP with or without ABD2 as an adjuvant induced significantly higher antibody responses compared with other vaccine formulations, while hexon protein-based vaccine formulations showed relatively lower levels of antibody responses. Thus, a vaccine formulation containing inactivated IBHV with PCEP or a mixture of PCEP and ABD2 (with a reduced dosage of PCEP) as an adjuvant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate. However, in order to overcome the risks associated with whole virus inactivated vaccines, characterization of additional viral capsid proteins, including fiber protein and penton of IBHV along with hexon protein in combination with more new generation adjuvants, will be helpful in further improvements of vaccines against IBHV infection.

  15. Oral administration of synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 improves growth performance and cecal microbial flora and down-regulates the expression of intestinal toll-like receptor-4 and inflammatory cytokines in weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiru; Xu, Ling; Shi, Baoshi; Deng, Huang; Lai, Xin; Liu, Jingyan; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 (pBD-2) was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth-promoters in pig production. Thirty 21-day weaned piglets were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and orally dosed with either sterile water (CON), pBD-2 (BD) or neomycin sulphate (NS) twice daily for 21 days. pBD-2 and NS led to higher growth performance, jejunum villus height and increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-I compared with the CON group (P < 0.05). Hemolytic E. coli scores from rectal swabs, and copy numbers of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus in the cecal digesta of the BD- or NS-treated piglets were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Messenger RNA levels of toll-like receptor 4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in the jejunum mucosa of the BD and NS groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Copy numbers of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in the cecal digesta of the BD group were higher than those of the CON and NS groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, pBD-2 has antimicrobial activity in piglets, and it can improve growth performance, reduce inflammatory cytokine expression and affect intestinal morphological indices in the same way as probiotics. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Search for a schizophrenia susceptibility locus of human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.

    1994-06-15

    We used 10 highly informative DNA polymorphic markers and genetic linkage analysis to examine whether a gene locus predisposing to schizophrenia is located on chromosome 22, in 105 families with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The LOD score method, including analysis for heterogeneity, provided no conclusive evidence of linkage under a dominant, recessive, or penetrance free model of inheritance. Affected sib-pair analysis was inconclusive. Affected Pedigree Member (APM) analysis gave only suggestive evidence for linkage. Multipoint APM analysis, using 4 adjacent loci including D22S281 and IL2RB, a region of interest from the APM analysis, gave non-significant results for the three different weighting functions. 18 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Content and organization of the human Ig VH locus: definition of three new VH families and linkage to the Ig CH locus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, J E; Mellis, S J; Pollock, R; Smith, C L; Suh, H; Heinke, B; Kowal, C; Surti, U; Chess, L; Cantor, C R

    1988-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the content and organization of the human immunoglobulin VH locus. Human VH genes representing five distinct families were isolated, including novel members belonging to two out of three of the known VH gene families (VH1 and VH3) as well as members of three new families (VH4, VH5, and VH6). We report the nucleotide sequence of 21 novel human VH genes, many of which belong to the three new VH gene families. In addition, we provide a preliminary analysis of the organization of these gene segments over the full extent of the locus. We find that the five multi-segment families (VH1-5) have members interspersed over nearly the full 1500-2000 kb of the VH locus, and estimate that the entire heavy chain locus covers 2500 kb or less. Finally, we provide the first report of the physical linkage of the variable and constant loci of a human Ig gene family by demonstrating that the most proximal known human VH segments lie within 100 kb of the constant region locus. Images PMID:3396540

  18. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  19. The complete 685-kilobase DNA sequence of the human {Beta} T cell receptor locus

    SciTech Connect

    Rowen, L.; Koop, B.F.; Hood, L.

    1996-06-21

    The human {Beta} T cell receptor (TCR) locus, comprising a complex family of genes, has been sequenced. The locus contains two types of coding elements-TCR elements (65 variable gene segments and two clusters of diversity, joining, and constant segments) and eight trypsinogen genes-that constitute 4.6 percent of the DNA. Genome-wide interspersed repeats and locus-specific repeats span 30 and 47 percent, respectively, of the 685-kilobase sequence. A comparison of the germline variable elements with their approximately 300 complementary DNA counterparts reveals marked differential patterns of variable gene expression, the importance of exonuclease activity in generating TCR diversity, and the predominant tendency for only functional variable elements to be present in complementary DNA libraries. 47 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Structure and expression of the human haptoglobin locus.

    PubMed Central

    Bensi, G; Raugei, G; Klefenz, H; Cortese, R

    1985-01-01

    Human genomic clones of the haptoglobin Hp1F and the "haptoglobin related' gene (Hpr) have been isolated. The two genes are adjacent, spanning a region of approximately 21 kb. A comparison of their coding sequences shows that Hpr differs from Hp1F at 28 codons. Northern blot and primer elongation analyses with human liver RNA show that the haptoglobin gene Hp1F appears to be transcribed some 1000-fold less in fetal than in adult liver. In adult liver the amount of Hpr mRNA is at the lower limit of detection, therefore the extent of its expression is at most less than 1000-fold that of the Hp1F gene. No Hpr mRNA can be detected in fetal liver. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4018023

  1. Structure and expression of the human haptoglobin locus.

    PubMed

    Bensi, G; Raugei, G; Klefenz, H; Cortese, R

    1985-01-01

    Human genomic clones of the haptoglobin Hp1F and the "haptoglobin related' gene (Hpr) have been isolated. The two genes are adjacent, spanning a region of approximately 21 kb. A comparison of their coding sequences shows that Hpr differs from Hp1F at 28 codons. Northern blot and primer elongation analyses with human liver RNA show that the haptoglobin gene Hp1F appears to be transcribed some 1000-fold less in fetal than in adult liver. In adult liver the amount of Hpr mRNA is at the lower limit of detection, therefore the extent of its expression is at most less than 1000-fold that of the Hp1F gene. No Hpr mRNA can be detected in fetal liver.

  2. Human pituitary adenomas show no loss of heterozygosity at the retinoblastoma gene locus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Leon, S.P.; Beggs, A.H.; Busque, L.; Gilliland, D.G.; Black, P.M.

    1994-04-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) is inactivated in hereditary and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma as well as in a number of other sporadic tumors. The majority of human pituitary tumors have been shown to be monoclonal neoplasms, suggesting that 1 or more somatic mutations are involved in the clonal expansion of a single progenitor cell. Recently, a high percentage of transgenic mice containing a disrupted RB1 allele have been shown to develop pituitary tumors. To investigate whether RB1 inactivation contributes to the development of human pituitary adenomas, the authors searched for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) within the RB1 gene locus in a variety of human pituitary adenomas. They screened 34 adenomas for LOH using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based microsatellite polymorphic marker at the RB1 gene locus. In addition, a variable number of tandem repeat markers from within the RB1 gene was also used to search for LOH in 14 tumors. They found no LOH or microsatellite instability at the RB1 locus in any of the informative cases (30 of 34). Additionally, they showed that 4 representative adenomas from female patients are monoclonal in origin using a PCR-based clonality analysis assay. They conclude that the RB1 gene shows no LOH in a variety of human pituitary adenomas and that PCR-based microsatellite markers can serve as a useful tool for LOH analysis in human pituitary tumors. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tissue specific CTCF occupancy and boundary function at the human growth hormone locus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    The robust and tissue-specific activation of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene cluster in the pituitary and placenta constitutes an informative model for analysis of gene regulation. The five-gene hGH cluster is regulated by two partially overlapping sets of DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) that constitute the pituitary (HSI, II, III and V) and placental (HSIII, IV, and V) locus control regions (LCRs). The single placenta-specific LCR component, HSIV, is located at -30 kb to the cluster. Here we generate a series of hGH/BAC transgenes specifically modified to identify structural features of the hGH locus required for its appropriate placental expression. We find that placental specificity is dependent on the overall multigene configuration of the cluster whereas the distance between the cluster and its LCR impacts the level of placental expression. We further observe that a major function of the placental hGH LCR is to insulate the transgene locus from site-of-integration effects. This insulation activity is linked to placenta-specific occupancy of the chromatin architectural protein, CTCF, at HSIV. These data reveal a remarkable combination of structural configurations and regulatory determinants that must work in concert to insure robust and tightly controlled expression from a complex multigene locus.

  4. Analysis of human chromosome 21 for a locus conferring susceptibility to Hirschsprung Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bolk, S.; Duggan, D.J.; Chakravarti, A.

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 5% of patients diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), or aganglionic megacolon, have trisomy 21. Since the incidence of Hirschsprung disease is 1/5000 live births and the incidence of trisomy 21 is approximately 1/1000 live births, the observed occurrence of HSCR in trisomy 21 is fifty times higher than expected. We propose that at least one locus on chromosome 21 predisposes to HSCR. Although at fifty times elevated risk, only 1% of Down Syndrome cases have HSCR. Thus additional genes or genetic events are necessary for HSCR to manifest in patients with trisomy 21. Based on segregation analysis, Badner et al. postulated that recessive genes may be responsible for up to 80% of HSCR. We postulate that at least one such gene is on chromosome 21 and increased homozygosity for common recessive HSCR mutations may be one cause for the elevated risk of HSCR in cases of trisomy 21. To map such a chromosome 21 locus, we are searching for segments of human chromosome 21 which are identical by descent from the parent in whom non-disjunction occurred. These segments will arise either from meiosis I (followed by a crossover between the centromere and the locus) or from meiosis II (followed by no crossovers). Nine nuclear families with a proband diagnosed with HSCR and Down Syndrome have been genotyped for 18 microsatellite markers spanning human chromosome 21q. In all nine cases analyzed thus far, trisomy 21 resulted from maternal non-disjunction at meiosis I. At this point no single IBD region is apparent. Therefore, additional families are being ascertained and additional markers at high density are being genotyped to map the HSCR locus.

  5. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J.P. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Kukolich, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-D7S553-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. The authors propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. )

    1990-06-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  7. The human growth hormone gene is regulated by a multicomponent locus control region

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Cooke, N.E.; Liebhaber, S.A.; Monks, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    This article describes research involving the five-member human growth hormone (hGH)/chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) gene cluster and its expression in the placenta. The results indicate that interactions among multiple elements are required to restrict hGH transcription to the pituitary and generate appropriate levels of expression in the mouse genome. In addition, the results suggest a role for shared and unique regulatory sequences in locus control region-mediated expression of the hGH/hCS gene cluster in the pituitary and possibly the placenta. 67 refs., 9 figs.

  8. c-MYC is a radiosensitive locus in human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M A; Sunter, N J; Fordham, S E; Long, A; Masic, D; Russell, L J; Harrison, C J; Rand, V; Elstob, C; Bown, N; Rowe, D; Lowe, C; Cuthbert, G; Bennett, S; Crosier, S; Bacon, C M; Onel, K; Scott, K; Scott, D; Travis, L B; May, F E B; Allan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation is a potent human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent and young women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer following exposure to ionising radiation compared with older women, and that risk is dose-dependent. Although it is well understood which individuals are at risk of radiation-induced breast carcinogenesis, the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie cell transformation are less clear. To identify genetic alterations potentially responsible for driving radiogenic breast transformation, we exposed the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A to fractionated doses of X-rays and examined the copy number and cytogenetic alterations. We identified numerous alterations of c-MYC that included high-level focal amplification associated with increased protein expression. c-MYC amplification was also observed in primary human mammary epithelial cells following exposure to radiation. We also demonstrate that the frequency and magnitude of c-MYC amplification and c-MYC protein expression is significantly higher in breast cancer with antecedent radiation exposure compared with breast cancer without a radiation aetiology. Our data also demonstrate extensive intratumor heterogeneity with respect to c-MYC copy number in radiogenic breast cancer, suggesting continuous evolution at this locus during disease development and progression. Taken together, these data identify c-MYC as a radiosensitive locus, implicating this oncogenic transcription factor in the aetiology of radiogenic breast cancer. PMID:25531321

  9. A Dual Reporter Mouse Model of the Human β-Globin Locus: Applications and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Petros; Gutiérrez, Laura; van der Linden, Reinier; Kong-A-San, John; Maas, Alex; Drabek, Dubravka; Patrinos, George P.; Philipsen, Sjaak; Grosveld, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The human β-globin locus contains the β-like globin genes (i.e. fetal γ-globin and adult β-globin), which heterotetramerize with α-globin subunits to form fetal or adult hemoglobin. Thalassemia is one of the commonest inherited disorders in the world, which results in quantitative defects of the globins, based on a number of genome variations found in the globin gene clusters. Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) also caused by similar types of genomic alterations can compensate for the loss of adult hemoglobin. Understanding the regulation of the human γ-globin gene expression is a challenge for the treatment of thalassemia. A mouse model that facilitates high-throughput assays would simplify such studies. We have generated a transgenic dual reporter mouse model by tagging the γ- and β-globin genes with GFP and DsRed fluorescent proteins respectively in the endogenous human β-globin locus. Erythroid cell lines derived from this mouse model were tested for their capacity to reactivate the γ-globin gene. Here, we discuss the applications and limitations of this fluorescent reporter model to study the genetic basis of red blood cell disorders and the potential use of such model systems in high-throughput screens for hemoglobinopathies therapeutics. PMID:23272095

  10. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewa, E; Brandys, M K; van Lith, H A; Kas, M J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region for voluntary exercise levels. First, a panel of mouse chromosome substitution strains was used to map a genomic region on mouse chromosome 2 that contributes to voluntary wheel running levels - a behavioral readout considered a model of voluntary exercise in humans. Subsequently, we tested the syntenic region (HSA20: 51,212,545-55,212,986) in a human sample (Saint Thomas Twin Register; n=3038) and found a significant association between voluntary exercise levels (categorized into excessive and non-excessive exercise) and an intergenic SNP rs459465 (adjusted P-value of 0.001). Taking under consideration the methodological challenges embedded in this translational approach in the research of complex phenotypes, we wanted to further test the validity of this finding. Therefore, we repeated the analysis in an independent human population (ALSPAC data set; n=2557). We found a significant association of excessive exercise with two SNPs in the same genomic region (rs6022999, adjusted P-value of P=0.011 and rs6092090, adjusted P-value of 0.012). We explored the locus for possible candidate genes by means of literature search and bioinformatics analysis of gene function and of trans-regulatory elements. We propose three potential human candidate genes for voluntary physical exercise levels (MC3R, CYP24A1, and GRM8). To conclude, the identified genetic variance in the human locus 20q13.2 may affect voluntary exercise levels.

  11. A Study of Human Leukocyte D Locus Related Antigens in Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Nadir R.; Sampson, Laura; Noel, Elke P.; Barnard, John M.; Mandeville, Robert; Larsen, Bodil; Marshall, William H.; Carter, Nicholas D.

    1979-01-01

    An association between Graves' disease and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has previously been reported. The disease was more strongly associated with the HLA D locus antigen Dw3 than with HLA B8. Products of the HLA D locus are determined by the interaction of test cells with standard typing lymphocytes, a technically difficult procedure. Recently, it has been possible to type serologically for D locus related (DRw) specificities on peripheral bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes. Blood B lymphocytes from 50 unrelated controls and 41 patients with Graves' disease were typed for seven HLA DRw specificities. 28 patients with Graves' disease (68%) were positive for DRw3, in contrast to 14 controls (28%); whereas only 21 patients (50%) were HLA B8 positive, compared with 13 (26%) controls. Thus, positivity for DRw3 afforded a relative risk for Graves' disease of 5.5, whereas that for HLA B8 amounted to 3.0. Additionally, a family with multiple cases of Graves' disease in which the disease was previously shown to be inherited with the haplotype, was linked to DRw2, which suggests that the susceptibility to the disease was inherited in association with that antigen. Two HLA B/glyoxalase recombination events were observed in this family; in both instances HLA DRw followed HLA B. This study thus demonstrates that the disease susceptibility gene for Graves' disease is in strong linkage disequilibrium with DRw3; however, it may be associated with other DRw specificities and inherited within family units in association with them. PMID:105012

  12. Detection of the signature of natural selection in humans: evidence from the Duffy blood group locus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, M T; Di Rienzo, A

    2000-01-01

    The Duffy blood group locus, which encodes a chemokine receptor, is characterized by three alleles-FY*A, FY*B, and FY*O. The frequency of the FY*O allele, which corresponds to the absence of Fy antigen on red blood cells, is at or near fixation in most sub-Saharan African populations but is very rare outside Africa. The FST value for the FY*O allele is the highest observed for any allele in humans, providing strong evidence for the action of natural selection at this locus. Homozygosity for the FY*O allele confers complete resistance to vivax malaria, suggesting that this allele has been the target of selection by Plasmodium vivax or some other infectious agent. To characterize the signature of directional selection at this locus, we surveyed DNA sequence variation, both in a 1.9-kb region centered on the FY*O mutation site and in a 1-kb region 5-6 kb away from it, in 17 Italians and in a total of 24 individuals from five sub-Saharan African populations. The level of variation across both regions is two- to threefold lower in the Africans than in the Italians. As a result, the pooled African sample shows a significant departure from the neutral expectation for the number of segregating sites, whereas the Italian sample does not. The FY*O allele occurs on two major haplotypes in three of the five African populations. This finding could be due to recombination, recurrent mutation, population structure, and/or mutation accumulation and drift. Although we are unable to distinguish among these alternative hypotheses, it is likely that the two major haplotypes originated prior to selection on the FY*O mutation. PMID:10762551

  13. Locus for a human hereditary cataract is closely linked to the. gamma. -crystallin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Lubsen, N.H.; Renwick, J.H.; Tsui, L.C.; Breitman, M.L.; Schoenmakers, J.G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Within the human ..gamma..-crystallin gene cluster polymorphic Taq I sites are present. These give rise to three sets of allelic fragments from the ..gamma..-crystallin genes. Together these restriction fragment length polymorphisms define eight possible haplotypes, three of which (Q, R, and S) were found in the Dutch and English population. A fourth haplotype (P) was detected within a family in which a hereditary Coppock-like cataract of the embryonic lens nucleus occurs in heterozygotes. Haplotype P was found only in family members who suffered from cataract, and all family members who suffered from cataract had haplotype P. The absolute correlation between the presence of haplotype P and cataract within this family shows that the ..gamma..-crystallin gene cluster and the locus for the Coppock-like cataract are closely linked. This linkage provides genetic evidence that the primary cause of a cataract in humans could possibly be a lesion in a crystallin gene.

  14. Human Obesity Associated with an Intronic SNP in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Locus.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zongyang; Hyde, Thomas M; Lipska, Barbara K; Martinowich, Keri; Wei, Peter; Ong, Chiew-Jen; Hunter, Lindsay A; Palaguachi, Gladys I; Morgun, Eva; Teng, Rujia; Lai, Chen; Condarco, Tania A; Demidowich, Andrew P; Krause, Amanda J; Marshall, Leslie J; Haack, Karin; Voruganti, V Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Nalls, Michael A; Zonderman, Alan B; Singleton, Andrew B; Evans, Michele K; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart; Tsao, Jack W; Kleinman, Joel E; Yanovski, Jack A; Han, Joan C

    2015-11-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 BDNF SNPs. We observed that the minor C allele of rs12291063 is associated with lower human ventromedial hypothalamic BDNF expression (p < 0.001) and greater adiposity in both adult and pediatric cohorts (p values < 0.05). We further demonstrated that the major T allele for rs12291063 possesses a binding capacity for the transcriptional regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B, knockdown of which disrupts transactivation by the T allele. Binding and transactivation functions are both disrupted by substituting C for T. These findings provide a rationale for BDNF augmentation as a targeted treatment for obesity in individuals who have the rs12291063 CC genotype.

  15. Structural forms of the human amylase locus and their relationships to SNPs, haplotypes, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Christina L; Handsaker, Robert E; Esko, Tõnu; Tuke, Marcus A; Weedon, Michael N; Hastie, Alex R; Cao, Han; Moon, Jennifer E; Kashin, Seva; Fuchsberger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; McCarthy, Mark I; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David M; Frayling, Timothy M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; McCarroll, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genes reside in structurally complex, poorly understood regions of the human genome1-3. One such region contains the three amylase genes (AMY2B, AMY2A, and AMY1) responsible for digesting starch into sugar. The copy number of AMY1 is reported to be the genome’s largest influence on obesity4, though genome-wide association studies for obesity have found this locus unremarkable. Using whole genome sequence analysis3,5, droplet digital PCR6, and genome mapping7, we identified eight common structural haplotypes of the amylase locus that suggest its mutational history. We found that AMY1 copy number in individuals’ genomes is generally even (rather than odd) and partially correlates to nearby SNPs, which do not associate with BMI. We measured amylase gene copy number in 1,000 obese or lean Estonians and in two other cohorts totaling ~3,500 individuals. We had 99% power to detect the lower bound of the reported effects on BMI4, yet found no association. PMID:26098870

  16. Genomic organization of the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, K; Hata, S; Devlin, P; Roncarolo, M G; De Vries, J E; Spits, H; Strominger, J L; Krangel, M S

    1988-11-01

    Two clusters of overlapping cosmid clones comprising about 100 kilobases (kb) at the human T-cell antigen-receptor alpha/delta locus were isolated from a genomic library. The structure of the germ-line V delta 1 variable gene segment was determined. V delta 1 is located 8.5 kb downstream of the V alpha 13.1 gene segment, and both V segments are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. The V alpha 17.1 segment is located between V delta 1 and the D delta, J delta, C delta region (containing the diversity, joining, and constant gene segments). Thus, V delta and V alpha segments are interspersed along the chromosome. The germ-line organization of the D delta 2, J delta 1, and J delta 2 segments was determined. Linkage of C delta to the J alpha region was established by identification of J alpha segments within 20 kb downstream of C delta. The organization of the locus was also analyzed by field-inversion gel electrophoresis. The unrearranged V delta 1 and D delta, J delta, C delta regions are quite distant from each other, apparently separated by a minimum of 175-180 kb.

  17. Association of bone mineral density with polymorphism of the human calcium-sensing receptor locus.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, K; Orimo, H; Hosoi, T; Miyao, M; Ota, N; Nakajima, T; Yoshida, H; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Emi, M

    2000-03-01

    A strong correlation between bone mass and genetic factors has been shown in twins and family studies. Some of the genes involved would regulate bone metabolism, bone formation, and resorption, all processes that determine bone mass. One candidate genes, calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) in the parathyroid gland, regulates calcium homeostasis by sensing decreases in extracellular calcium level and effecting an increase in secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium (Ca) reabsorption in the kidney. We have investigated a possible association between the CA-repeat polymorphism at the human CASR gene locus and the bone mineral density (BMD) of radial bone in 472 postmenopausal Japanese women. Genotypes were classified into nine groups according to the number of CA repeats present, from 20 to 12. BMD was expressed as the adjusted BMD, which was the body mass index (BMI), and age-adjusted average BMD. The 247 women who had an A3 allele (228 bp, containing 18 repeats of CA) had significantly lower adjusted BMD (mean +/- SD: 0.303 +/- 0.059 versus 0.316 +/- 0.063 g/cm(2); P = 0.0308) than the participants (n = 201) who did not carry an allele of that size. This result suggests that genetic variation at the CASR gene locus is associated with some determinants for BMD in postmenopausal women.

  18. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.P.; Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF, also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by absent central rays and other distal limb malformations. Physical mapping of SHSF-associated chromosomal rearrangements has provided compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene locus (designated SHFD1) on chromosome 7 within q21.3-q22.1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21.3q22.1 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen - D7S492 - COL1A2 - D7S527 - D7S479 - D7S491 - SHFD1 - D7S554 - ASNS - D7S518 -qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at several of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance of this disorder. Strong evidence against linkage of SHSF to the SHFD1 critical region was obtained, and the gene responsible for the SHSF phenotype in this pedigree was excluded from a 10 cM interval spanning the entire SHFD1 critical region. Evidence of exclusion to the SHFD1 critical region was also observed in five additional families. Thus, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF, implying that mutations in at least two separate autosomal genes can result in this distinctive human developmental disorder.

  19. A human melanoma metastasis-suppressor locus maps to 6q16.3-q23.

    PubMed

    Miele, M E; Jewett, M D; Goldberg, S F; Hyatt, D L; Morelli, C; Gualandi, F; Rimessi, P; Hicks, D J; Weissman, B E; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Welch, D R

    2000-05-15

    Loss, deletion or rearrangement along large portions of the long arm (q-arm) of chromosome 6 occurs in >80% of late-stage human melanomas, suggesting that genes controlling malignant characteristics are encoded there. Metastasis, but not tumorigenicity, was completely suppressed in the human melanoma cell line C8161 into which an additional intact chromosome 6 had been introduced by microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Our objective was to refine the location of a putative metastasis suppressor gene. To do this, we transferred an intact (neo6) and a deletion variant [neo6qdel; neo6(del)(q16.3-q23)] of neomycin-tagged human chromosome 6 into metastatic C8161 subclone 9 (C8161.9) by MMCT. Single cell hybrid clones were selected in G-418 and isolated. Following verification that the hybrids retained the expected regions of chromosome 6 using a panel of polymorphic sequence-tagged sites, the hybrids were tested for tumorigenicity and metastasis in athymic mice. As reported previously, intact, normal chromosome 6 suppressed metastasis whether tumor cells were injected i.v. or into an orthotopic (i.e., intradermal) site. In contrast, metastasis was not suppressed in the neo6qdel hybrids. Tumorigenicity was unaffected in hybrids prepared with either chromosome 6 donor. These data strongly suggest that a human melanoma metastasis suppressor locus maps between 6q16.3-q23 ( approximately 40 cM).

  20. Data set for comparison of cellular dynamics between human AAVS1 locus-modified and wild-type cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Takeomi; Haga, Hisashi; Kawabata, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    This data article describes cellular dynamics, such as migration speed and mobility of the cytoskeletal protein, of wild-type human fibroblast cells and cells with a modified adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) locus on human chromosome 19. Insertion of exogenous gene into the AAVS1 locus has been conducted in recent biological researches. Previously, our data showed that the AAVS1-modification changes cellular contractile force (Mizutani et al., 2015 [1]). To assess if this AAVS1-modification affects cell migration, we compared cellular migration speed and turnover of cytoskeletal protein in human fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a green fluorescent protein gene knocked-in at the AAVS1 locus in this data article. Cell nuclei were stained and changes in their position attributable to cell migration were analyzed. Fluorescence recovery was observed after photobleaching for the fluorescent protein-tagged myosin regulatory light chain. Data here are related to the research article “Transgene Integration into the Human AAVS1 Locus Enhances Myosin II-Dependent Contractile Force by Reducing Expression of Myosin Binding Subunit 85” [1]. PMID:26937449

  1. A survey of locus-specific database curation. Human Genome Variation Society.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Richard G H; Phillips, Kate; Horaitis, Ourania

    2007-04-01

    It is widely accepted that curation of variation in genes is best performed by experts in those genes and their variation. However, obtaining funding for such variation is difficult even though up-to-date lists of variations in genes are essential for optimum delivery of genetic healthcare and for medical research. This study was undertaken to gather information on gene-specific databases (locus-specific databases) in an effort to understand their functioning, funding and needs. A questionnaire was sent to 125 curators and we received 47 responses. Individuals performed curation of up to 69 genes. The time curators spent curating was extremely variable. This ranged from 0 h per week up to 5 curators spending over 4 h per week. The funding required ranged from US$600 to US$45,000 per year. Most databases were stimulated by the Human Genome Organization-Mutation Database Initiative and used their guidelines. Many databases reported unpublished mutations, with all but one respondent reporting errors in the literature. Of the 13 who reported hit rates, 9 reported over 52,000 hits per year. On the basis of this, five recommendations were made to improve the curation of variation information, particularly that of mutations causing single-gene disorder: 1. A curator for each gene, who is an expert in it, should be identified or nominated. 2. Curation at a minimum of 2 h per week at US$2000 per gene per year should be encouraged. 3. Guidelines and custom software use should be encouraged to facilitate easy setup and curation. 4. Hits per week on the website should be recorded to allow the importance of the site to be illustrated for grant-giving purposes. 5. Published protocols should be followed in the establishment of locus-specific databases.

  2. A large section of the gene locus encoding human immunoglobulin variable regions of the kappa type is duplicated.

    PubMed

    Pech, M; Smola, H; Pohlenz, H D; Straubinger, B; Gerl, R; Zachau, H G

    1985-06-05

    The structure of a new segment of the gene locus encoding the variable regions of human immunoglobulins of the Kappa type (VK) has been elucidated. This segment (cluster B) encompasses six VK sequences, which belong to three different subgroups and which are arranged in the same transcriptional orientation. Part of cluster B was found to be very similar to another region of the VK gene locus, which was cloned previously (cluster A). Sequence differences between the homologous region of clusters A and B range from 0.2% to 3.7% depending on the position of the VK sequences. The divergence is in the same range for genes and pseudogenes. Hybridization experiments with DNAs from different individuals clearly demonstrate that the two segments are located at different positions within the VK locus and do not represent allelic variants. The sequence homology between clusters A and B is higher than the homology of both clusters to an allelic variant, which is represented by a DNA segment that had been isolated from another individual. These results, together with a report in the literature of two other homologous regions in the VK locus, make it very likely that a major part of even the whole locus is duplicated. In this case, VK gene numbers would be higher than previously estimated on the basis of hybridization studies. An inverse orientation of VK gene clusters would explain published data on rearrangement products in B-cells if an inversion-deletion mechanism is assumed.

  3. A discrete genetic locus confers xyloglucan metabolism in select human gut Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Larsbrink, Johan; Rogers, Theresa E.; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; McKee, Lauren S.; Tauzin, Alexandra S.; Spadiut, Oliver; Klinter, Stefan; Pudlo, Nicholas A.; Urs, Karthik; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Creagh, A. Louise; Haynes, Charles A.; Kelly, Amelia G.; Cederholm, Stefan Nilsson; Davies, Gideon J.; Martens, Eric C.; Brumer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    A well-balanced human diet includes a significant intake of non-starch polysaccharides, collectively termed “dietary fibre,” from the cell walls of diverse fruits and vegetables.1 Due to a paucity of alimentary enzymes encoded by the human genome,2 our ability to derive energy from dietary fibre depends on saccharification and fermentation of complex carbohydrates by the massive microbial community residing in our distal gut.3,4 The xyloglucans (XyGs), in particular, are a ubiquitous family of highly branched plant cell wall polysaccharides5,6 whose mechanism(s) of degradation in the human gut and consequent importance in nutrition was heretofore unknown.1,7,8 Here, we demonstrate that a single, complex gene locus in Bacteroides ovatus confers xyloglucan catabolism in this common colonic symbiont. Through targeted gene disruption, biochemical analysis of all predicted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate-binding proteins, and three-dimensional structural determination of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanase, we reveal the molecular mechanisms through which XyGs are hydrolysed to component monosaccharides for further metabolism. We also observe that orthologous xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGULs) serve as genetic markers of xyloglucan catabolism in Bacteroidetes, that XyGULs are restricted to a limited number of phylogenetically diverse strains, and that XyGULs are ubiquitous in surveyed human metagenomes. Our findings reveal that the metabolism of even highly abundant components of dietary fibre may be mediated by niche species, which has immediate fundamental and practical implications for gut symbiont population ecology in the context of human diet, nutrition and health.9–12 PMID:24463512

  4. The human VK locus. Characterization of a duplicated region encoding 28 different immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, B; Huber, E; Lorenz, W; Osterholzer, E; Pargent, W; Pech, M; Pohlenz, H D; Zimmer, F J; Zachau, H G

    1988-01-05

    Two large regions of the human multigene family coding for the variable parts of the immunoglobulin light chains of the K type (VK) have been characterized on cosmid clones. The two germline regions, called Aa and Ab, span together 250,000 base-pairs and comprise 28 different VK gene segments, nine of which have been sequenced. There is a preponderance of VKII genes but genes belonging to subgroups I and III, and genes that cannot be easily assigned to one of the known subgroups, are interspersed within the VKII gene clusters. A number of pseudogenes have been identified. Within the Aa and Ab regions, all gene segments are organized in the same transcriptional orientation. The regions Aa and Ab, whose restriction maps are highly homologous, were shown not to be allelic structures; they must have arisen by a duplication event. Taken together with previous results, one can conclude that the major part of the VK locus exists in duplicated form. One individual has been found who has only one copy of some of the duplicated regions. By chromosomal walking, the A regions could be linked to the O regions, an analysis of which has been reported. The A regions contribute about one-third of the VK genes so far identified.

  5. Second locus involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, L; Croteau, G; Thibeault, D; Poulin, F; Pilote, L; Lamarre, D

    1996-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are potent antiviral agents against human immunodeficiency virus type 1. As with reverse transcriptase inhibitors, however, resistance to protease inhibitors can develop and is attributed to the appearance of mutations in the protease gene. With the substrate analog protease inhibitors BILA 1906 BS and BILA 2185 BS, 350- to 1,500-fold-resistant variants have been selected in vitro and were found not only to contain mutations in the protease gene but also to contain mutations in Gag precursor p1/p6 and/or NC (p7)/p1 cleavage sites. Mutations in cleavage sites give rise to better peptide substrates for the protease in vitro and to improved processing of p15 precursors in drug-resistant clones. Importantly, removal of cleavage site mutations in resistant clones leads to a decrease or even an absence of viral growth, confirming their role in viral fitness. Therefore, these second-locus mutations indicate that cleavage of p15 is a rate-limiting step in polyprotein processing in highly resistant viruses. The functional constraint of p15 processing also suggests that additional selective pressure could further compromise viral fitness and maintain the benefits of antiviral therapies. PMID:8648711

  6. A gene for the mouse pink-eyed dilution locus and for human type II oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Rinchik, E M; Bultman, S J; Horsthemke, B; Lee, S T; Strunk, K M; Spritz, R A; Avidano, K M; Jong, M T; Nicholls, R D

    1993-01-07

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus on chromosome 7 is associated with defects of skin, eye and coat pigmentation. Mutations at p cause a reduction of eumelanin (black-brown) pigment and altered morphology of black pigment granules (eumelanosomes), but have little effect on pheomelanin (yellow-red) pigment. We show here that the human complementary DNA DN10, linked to the p locus in mice, identifies the human homologue (P) of the mouse p gene, and appears to encode an integral membrane transporter protein. The expression pattern of this gene in various p mutant mice correlates with the pigmentation phenotype; moreover, an abnormally sized messenger RNA is detected in one mutant, p(un), which reverts to the normal size in p(un) revertants. The human P gene corresponds to the D15S12 locus within the chromosome segment 15q11-q13, which is typically deleted in patients with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome (see ref. 5 for review). These disorders are phenotypically distinct, depending on the parent of origin of the deleted chromosome, but both syndromes are often associated with hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes (see ref. 8 for review), and deletion of the P gene may be responsible for this hypopigmentation. In addition, we report a mutation in both copies of the human P gene in one case of tyrosinase-positive (type II) oculocutaneous albinism, recently linked to 15q11-q13 (ref. 9).

  7. Imprinting defects at human 14q32 locus alters gene expression and is associated with the pathobiology of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jingmin; Li, Lihua; Sarver, Anne E.; Pope, Emily A.; Varshney, Jyotika; Thayanithy, Venugopal; Spector, Logan; Largaespada, David A.; Steer, Clifford J.; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy affecting children and adolescents. Although several genetic predisposing conditions have been associated with osteosarcoma, our understanding of its pathobiology is rather limited. Here we show that, first, an imprinting defect at human 14q32-locus is highly prevalent (87%) and specifically associated with osteosarcoma patients < 30 years of age. Second, the average demethylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the 14q32-locus varied significantly compared to genome-wide demethylation. Third, the 14q32-locus was enriched in both H3K4-me3 and H3K27-me3 histone modifications that affected expression of all imprinted genes and miRNAs in this region. Fourth, imprinting defects at 14q32 - DMRs are present in triad DNA samples from affected children and their biological parents. Finally, imprinting defects at 14q32-DMRs were also observed at higher frequencies in an Rb1/Trp53 mutation-induced osteosarcoma mouse model. Further analysis of normal and tumor tissues from a Sleeping Beauty mouse model of spontaneous osteosarcoma supported the notion that these imprinting defects may be a key factor in osteosarcoma pathobiology. In conclusion, we demonstrate that imprinting defects at the 14q32 locus significantly alter gene expression, may contribute to the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma, and could be predictive of survival outcomes. PMID:26802029

  8. Antimicrobial Decapeptide KSL-W Attenuates Candida albicans Virulence by Modulating Its Effects on Toll-Like Receptor, Human Beta-Defensin, and Cytokine Expression by Engineered human Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    University, Quebec, QC, Canada b Microbiology Branch, US Army Dental and Trauma Research Detachment, Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA...innate immunity of epithelial cells in prevent - ing Candida infection of the oral mucosa. Primary epithelial cells obtained from various sources...play a role in preventing microbial infections [8,19,45]. Generally, these antimicrobial peptides exhibit selective toxicity for microorganisms and

  9. Development of Transgenic Mice Containing an Introduced Stop Codon on the Human Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase Locus

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Nicole E.; Dashnow, Harriet; Pitt, James J.; Wood, Leonie R.; Peters, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The mutation R403stop was found in an individual with mut0 methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) which resulted from a single base change of C→T in exon 6 of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase gene (producing a TGA stop codon). In order to accurately model the human MMA disorder we introduced this mutation onto the human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase locus of a bacterial artificial chromosome. A mouse model was developed using this construct. The transgene was found to be intact in the mouse model, with 7 copies integrated at a single site in chromosome 3. The phenotype of the hemizygous mouse was unchanged until crossed against a methylmalonyl-CoA mutase knockout mouse. Pups with no endogenous mouse methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and one copy of the transgene became ill and died within 24 hours. This severe phenotype could be partially rescued by the addition of a transgene carrying two copies of the normal human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase locus. The “humanized” mice were smaller than control litter mates and had high levels of methylmalonic acid in their blood and tissues. This new transgenic MMA stop codon model mimics (at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels) the key features of the human MMA disorder. It will allow the trialing of pharmacological and, cell and gene therapies for the treatment of MMA and other human metabolic disorders caused by stop codon mutations. PMID:23024777

  10. Sequence diversity, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium in the human T cell receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Mackelprang, Rachel; Livingston, Robert J; Eberle, Michael A; Carlson, Christopher S; Yi, Qian; Akey, Joshua M; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2006-04-01

    T cell receptors (TR), through their interaction with the major histocompatibility complex, play a central role in immune responsiveness and potentially immune-related disorders. We resequenced all 57 variable (V) genes in the human T cell receptor alpha and delta (TRA/TRD) locus in 40 individuals of Northern European, Mexican, African-American and Chinese descent. Two hundred and eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The distribution of SNPs between V genes was heterogeneous, with an average of five SNPs per gene and a range of zero to 15. We describe the patterns of linkage disequilibrium for these newly discovered SNPs and compare these patterns with other emerging large-scale datasets (e.g. Perlegen and HapMap projects) to place our findings into a framework for future analysis of genotype-phenotype associations across this locus. Furthermore, we explore signatures of natural selection across V genes. We find evidence of strong directional selection at this locus as evidenced by unusually high values of Fst.

  11. Biosynthesis and intracellular movement of the melanosomal membrane glycoprotein gp75, the human b (brown) locus product

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayasaradhi, S.; Doskoch, P.M.; Houghton, A.N. Cornell Univ., New York, NY )

    1991-10-01

    A 75-kDa melanosomal glycoprotein (gp75) is the product of a gene that maps to the b (brown) locus, a genetic locus that determines coat color in the mouse. The b locus is conserved (88% identity) between mouse and human. The mouse monoclonal antibody TA99 was used to study the biosynthesis and processing of gp75. gp75 was synthesized as a 55-kDa polypeptide, glycosylated by addition and processing of five or more Asn-linked carbohydrate chains through the cis and trans Golgi, and transported to melanosomes as a mature 75-kDa form. Synthesis and processing of gp75 was rapid (T{sub 1/2} < 30 min), and early steps in processing were required for efficient export of gp75 was quite stable in the melanosome. Studies with inhibitors of steps in oligosaccharide processing showed that alternative forms of gp75 were generated during trimming reactions by mannosidase IA/IB and that further maturation resulted in the two mature forms of gp75. The authors purpose that the kinetics of biosynthesis and processing reflect events in the biogenesis and maturation of melanosomes.

  12. Integrative genomics identifies 7p11.2 as a novel locus for fever and clinical stress response in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jane F.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Qu, Liming; Xue, Chenyi; Liu, Yichuan; DerOhannessian, Stephanie L.; Rushefski, Melanie; Paschos, Georgios K.; Tang, Soonyew; Schadt, Eric E.; Li, Mingyao; Christie, Jason D.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    Fever predicts clinical outcomes in sepsis, trauma and during cardiovascular stress, yet the genetic determinants are poorly understood. We used an integrative genomics approach to identify novel genomic determinants of the febrile response to experimental endotoxemia. We highlight multiple integrated lines of evidence establishing the clinical relevance of this novel fever locus. Through genome-wide association study (GWAS) of evoked endotoxemia (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1 ng/kg IV) in healthy subjects of European ancestry we discovered a locus on chr7p11.2 significantly associated with the peak febrile response to LPS (top single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7805622, P = 2.4 × 10−12), as well as with temperature fluctuation over time. We replicated this association in a smaller independent LPS study (rs7805622, P = 0.03). In clinical translation, this locus was also associated with temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis. The top GWAS SNPs are not located within protein-coding genes, but have significant cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) associations with expression of a cluster of genes ∼400 kb upstream, several of which (SUMF2, CCT6A, GBAS) are regulated by LPS in vivo in blood cells. LPS- and cold-treatment of adipose stromal cells in vitro suggest genotype-specific modulation of eQTL candidate genes (PSPH). Several eQTL genes were up-regulated in brown and white adipose following cold exposure in mice, highlighting a potential role in thermogenesis. Thus, through genomic interrogation of experimental endotoxemia, we identified and replicated a novel fever locus on chr7p11.2 that modulates clinical responses in trauma and sepsis, and highlight integrated in vivo and in vitro evidence for possible novel cis candidate genes conserved across human and mouse. PMID:25416278

  13. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  14. Genetic variation at the delta-sarcoglycan (SGCD) locus elevates heritable sympathetic nerve activity in human twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Hightower, C Makena; Zhang, Kuixing; Miramontes-González, José P; Rao, Fangwen; Wei, Zhiyun; Schork, Andrew J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Biswas, Nilima; Mahata, Manjula; Elkelis, Nina; Taupenot, Laurent; Stridsberg, Mats; Ziegler, Michael G; O'Connor, Daniel T

    2013-12-01

    The Syrian Cardiomyopathic Hamster (BIO-14.6/53.58 strains) model of cardiac failure, resulting from naturally occurring deletion at the SGCD (delta-sarcoglycan) locus, displays widespread disturbances in catecholamine metabolism. Rare Mendelian myopathy disorders of human SGCD occur, although common naturally occurring SGCD genetic variation has not been evaluated for effects on human norepinephrine (NE) secretion. This study investigated the effect of SGCD genetic variation on control of NE secretion in healthy twin pairs. Genetic associations profiled SNPs across the SGCD locus. Trait heritability (h(2)) and genetic covariance (pleiotropy; shared h(2)) were evaluated. Sympathochromaffin exocytosis in vivo was probed in plasma by both catecholamines and Chromogranin B (CHGB). Plasma NE is substantially heritable (p = 3.19E-16, at 65.2 ± 5.0% of trait variance), sharing significant (p < 0.05) genetic determination with circulating and urinary catecholamines, CHGB, eGFR, and several cardio-metabolic traits. Participants with higher pNE showed significant (p < 0.05) differences in several traits, including increased BP and hypertension risk factors. Peak SGCD variant rs1835919 predicted elevated systemic vascular compliance, without changes in specifically myocardial traits. We used a chimeric-regulated secretory pathway photoprotein (CHGA-EAP) to evaluate the effect of SGCD on the exocytotic pathway in transfected PC12 cells; in transfected cells, expression of SGCD augmented CHGA trafficking into the exocytotic regulated secretory pathway. Thus, our investigation determined human NE secretion to be a highly heritable trait, influenced by common genetic variation within the SGCD locus. Circulating NE aggregates with BP and hypertension risk factors. In addition, coordinate NE and CHGB elevation by rs1835919 implicates exocytosis as the mechanism of release.

  15. Causes and Consequences of Multi-Locus Imprinting Disturbances in Humans.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, Marta; Riccio, Andrea; Eggermann, Thomas; Maher, Eamonn R; Lapunzina, Pablo; Mackay, Deborah; Monk, David

    2016-07-01

    Eight syndromes are associated with the loss of methylation at specific imprinted loci. There has been increasing evidence that these methylation defects in patients are not isolated events occurring at a given disease-associated locus but that some of these patients may have multi-locus imprinting disturbances (MLID) affecting additional imprinted regions. With the recent advances in technology, methylation profiling has revealed that imprinted loci represent only a small fraction of the methylation differences observed between the gametes. To figure out how imprinting anomalies occur at multiple imprinted domains, we have to understand the interplay between DNA methylation and histone modifications in the process of selective imprint protection during pre-implantation reprogramming, which, if disrupted, leads to these complex imprinting disorders (IDs).

  16. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Human NPHP1 Locus Reveal Complex Genomic Architecture and Its Regional Evolution in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bo; Liu, Pengfei; Gupta, Aditya; Beck, Christine R.; Tejomurtula, Anusha; Campbell, Ian M.; Gambin, Tomasz; Simmons, Alexandra D.; Withers, Marjorie A.; Harris, R. Alan; Rogers, Jeffrey; Schwartz, David C.; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Many loci in the human genome harbor complex genomic structures that can result in susceptibility to genomic rearrangements leading to various genomic disorders. Nephronophthisis 1 (NPHP1, MIM# 256100) is an autosomal recessive disorder that can be caused by defects of NPHP1; the gene maps within the human 2q13 region where low copy repeats (LCRs) are abundant. Loss of function of NPHP1 is responsible for approximately 85% of the NPHP1 cases—about 80% of such individuals carry a large recurrent homozygous NPHP1 deletion that occurs via nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between two flanking directly oriented ~45 kb LCRs. Published data revealed a non-pathogenic inversion polymorphism involving the NPHP1 gene flanked by two inverted ~358 kb LCRs. Using optical mapping and array-comparative genomic hybridization, we identified three potential novel structural variant (SV) haplotypes at the NPHP1 locus that may protect a haploid genome from the NPHP1 deletion. Inter-species comparative genomic analyses among primate genomes revealed massive genomic changes during evolution. The aggregated data suggest that dynamic genomic rearrangements occurred historically within the NPHP1 locus and generated SV haplotypes observed in the human population today, which may confer differential susceptibility to genomic instability and the NPHP1 deletion within a personal genome. Our study documents diverse SV haplotypes at a complex LCR-laden human genomic region. Comparative analyses provide a model for how this complex region arose during primate evolution, and studies among humans suggest that intra-species polymorphism may potentially modulate an individual’s susceptibility to acquiring disease-associated alleles. PMID:26641089

  17. Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yenugu, Suresh; Hamil, Katherine G; Birse, Charles E; Ruben, Steven M; French, Frank S; Hall, Susan H

    2003-01-01

    During passage through the epididymis, sperm interact with secreted epididymal proteins that promote maturation, including the acquisition of motility and fertilization competence. Viewed previously as distinct from sperm maturation, host defence capabilities are now recognized functions of the human epididymis 2 (HE2) family of sperm-binding proteins. We analysed the potent dose and time-dependent bactericidal activity of recombinant HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 and found that the full-length proteins (10 microg/ml or approximately 1 microM) caused more than a 50% decrease in Escherichia coli colony forming units within 15 min. By contrast, human beta-defensin-1, at a similar concentration, required more than 90 min to exhibit similar antibacterial activity. The epididymis-specific lipocalin, LCN6, failed to kill bacteria. Higher concentrations (25-100 microg/ml) of HE2 proteins and a longer duration of treatment resulted in near total inhibition of bacterial growth. The C-terminal peptides of HE2alpha, HEbeta1 and HEbeta2 proteins exhibited antibacterial activity similar to their full-length counterparts, indicating that the antibacterial activity of HE2 proteins resides in these C-terminal regions. Antibacterial activities of HE2 proteins and peptides were slightly inhibited by NaCl concentrations of up to 150 mM, while human beta-defensin-1 activity was nearly eliminated. Reduction and alkylation of disulphide bonds in HE2 proteins and their C-terminal peptides abolished their antibacterial activity. Consistent with the ability to kill bacteria, full-length HE2 proteins and C-terminal peptides caused rapid dose-dependent permeabilization of outer and cytoplasmic E. coli membranes. A much longer exposure time was required for human beta-defensin-1-mediated permeabilization of membranes, suggesting a possible difference in mode of action compared with the HE2 antibacterial peptides. PMID:12628001

  18. High Throughput Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Animal and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Daniel; Schwarz, Stefan; Bergonier, Dominique; Brisabois, Anne; Feßler, Andrea T.; Gilbert, Florence B.; Kadlec, Kristina; Lebeau, Benoit; Loisy-Hamon, Fabienne; Treilles, Michaël; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, a relevant pathogen in veterinary medicine, and a major cause of food poisoning. Epidemiological investigation tools are needed to establish surveillance of S. aureus strains in humans, animals and food. In this study, we investigated 145 S. aureus isolates recovered from various animal species, disease conditions, food products and food poisoning events. Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), known to be highly efficient for the genotyping of human S. aureus isolates, was used and shown to be equally well suited for the typing of animal S. aureus isolates. MLVA was improved by using sixteen VNTR loci amplified in two multiplex PCRs and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis ensuring a high throughput and high discriminatory power. The isolates were assigned to twelve known clonal complexes (CCs) and –a few singletons. Half of the test collection belonged to four CCs (CC9, CC97, CC133, CC398) previously described as mostly associated with animals. The remaining eight CCs (CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC25, CC30, CC45, CC51), representing 46% of the animal isolates, are common in humans. Interestingly, isolates responsible for food poisoning show a CC distribution signature typical of human isolates and strikingly different from animal isolates, suggesting a predominantly human origin. PMID:22567085

  19. LET and ion-species dependence for mutation induction and mutation spectrum on hprt locus in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Suzuki, Masao; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2004-11-01

    We have been studying LET and ion species dependence of RBE in mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of deletion pattern of exons in hprt locus. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with heavy-ion beams, such as carbon- (290 MeV/u and 135 MeV/u), neon- (230 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u), silicon- (490 MeV/u) and iron- (500 MeV/u) ion beams, generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at national Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Mutation induction in hprt locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine resistant colonies and deletion spectrum of exons was analyzed by multiplex PCR. The LET-RBE curves of mutation induction for carbon- and neon-ion beams showed a peak around 75 keV/micrometers and 155 keV/micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, there observed no clear peak for silicon-ion beams. The deletion spectrum of exons was different in induced mutants among different ion species. These results suggested that quantitative and qualitative difference in mutation occurred when using different ion species even if similar LET values.

  20. Distal Regions of the Human IFNG Locus Direct Cell Type-Specific Expression

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patrick L.; Chang, Shaojing; Henderson, Melodie; Soutto, Mohammed; Davis, Georgia M.; McLoed, Allyson G.; Townsend, Michael J.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Aune, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Genes, such as IFNG, which are expressed in multiple cell lineages of the immune system, may employ a common set of regulatory elements to direct transcription in multiple cell types or individual regulatory elements to direct expression in individual cell lineages. By employing a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic system, we demonstrate that IFNG employs unique regulatory elements to achieve lineage-specific transcriptional control. Specifically, a one 1-kb element 30 kb upstream of IFNG activates transcription in T cells and NKT cells but not in NK cells. This distal regulatory element is a Runx3 binding site in Th1 cells and is needed for RNA polymerase II recruitment to IFNG, but it is not absolutely required for histone acetylation of the IFNG locus. These results support a model whereby IFNG utilizes cis-regulatory elements with cell type-restricted function. PMID:20574006

  1. Global distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.M.; Kidd, J.R.; Livak, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia because the dopaminergic system has been implicated in this neuropsychiatric disorder. Several research groups have reported an association between allelic variants at DRD4 and schizophrenia, while others have been unable to replicate that finding. Knowledge of the appropriate gene frequencies in the underlying populations may resolve these inconsistencies. We have determined the frequencies of 8 different alleles of the 48 bp imperfect tandem repeat of exon 3 at the DRD4 locus in samples from 33 populations around the world. The frequencies vary considerably in the different populations with the most common allele ranging from 16% to 95%. Frequencies and Fst values will be presented for the 3 most common alleles (4-, 7-, and 2- repeat) by continental groupings, but the individual populations vary significantly around the averages. The populations averaged 4.3 alleles (range 2 to 7).

  2. A Cis-acting locus determines the polymorphic parental imprinting of the human IGF2R gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Polychronakos, C.

    1994-09-01

    The murine gene encoding the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R) is parentally imprinted in the mouse with exclusive maternal expression, but most humans express both gene copies. We have reported preferential expression of the maternal copy in approximately 17% of normal human pre-term placenta samples and in 50% of the kidneys of Wilms` tumor patients. Thus, IGF2R imprinting appears to be a polymorphic trait that may predispose to cancer. We explored the possibility that imprinting is associated with sequence variations of the imprinted domain itself (cis-acting locus). We studied 9 subjects with imprinted IGF2R expression that were informative for parental origin. These subjects were heterozygous for a transcribed CA repeat at the 3{prime}UTR of the gene, used for the study of the parental origin of mRNA transcripts. The two most common alleles, A162 and A164 (names refer to size in bp), were analyzed. In all cases the preferentially transcribed allele was maternal (p=0.002). In all 8 cases in which A164 was present, it was of paternal origin and was repressed (p=0.008), while A162 was maternal and preferentially expressed in 8/9 cases. Parental origin of A162 and A164 was random in individuals with biallelic expression. PCR amplification of genomic DNA after digestion with the methylation-sensitive enzyme HpaII revealed biallelic methylation at the 3{prime}UTR in both imprinting and non-imprinting individuals, making it unlikely that the imprint-controlling element (ICE) is located there. Polymorphic IGF2R imprinting depends on a cis-acting locus, at linkage disequilibrium with, but probably distinct from, our 3{prime}UTR marker. Biallelic expression in many subjects with a paternal A164 suggests that the frequency of the imprintable ICE is much lower than that of A164. Alternatively, the cis-locus is necessary but not sufficient and input in trans is additionally required for paternal-germline specific IGF2R repression.

  3. Antibody expression from the core region of the human IgH locus reconstructed in transgenic mice using bacteriophage P1 clones

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, S.D.; Cook, G.P.; Davies, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    Mice carrying transgenic human immunoglobulin gene miniloci can be used for the production of human monoclonal antibodies. The human variable region (V) gene segments in these miniloci undergo productive rearrangement in mouse lymphoid tissue to yield a population of B lymphocytes expressing a repertoire of antibodies. Many of the miniloci studied to date have included only a small number of germline gene segments in an artificially compact configuration. Here we describe the use of the bacteriophage P1 cloning system to create mice carrying the core region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. Three P1 clones carrying overlapping regions of the human IgH locus (spanning the five J{sub H}-proximal V{sub H} segments, the entire D{sub H} and J{sub H} clusters, and the C{mu} and C{delta} constant regions) were injected into mouse eggs and appear to have reconstituted the core region of the locus (>180 kb) following homologous recombination with each other. While this translocus yielded a titer of serum immunoglobulin similar to that obtained with a smaller plasmid-basid minilocus, the P1-based locus gave rise to substantially greater diversification by somatic hypermutation. Such diversification is important for obtaining high-affinity antibodies. The results show the usefulness of the P1 system in facilitating the manipulation and recreation of large transgenes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV Mediated Knock-in at NRL Locus in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xianglian; Xi, Haitao; Yang, Fayu; Zhi, Xiao; Fu, Yanghua; Chen, Ding; Xu, Ren-He; Lin, Ge; Qu, Jia; Zhao, Junzhao; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome engineering technologies are sparking a new revolution in biological research. This technology efficiently induces DNA double strand breaks at the targeted genomic sequence and results in indel mutations by the error-prone process of nonhomologous end joining DNA repair or homologous recombination with a DNA repair template. The efficiency of genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 alone in human embryonic stem cells is still low. Gene targeting with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been demonstrated in multiple human cell types with maximal targeting frequencies without engineered nucleases. However, whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double strand breaks and AAV based donor DNA mediated homologous recombination approaches could be combined to create a novel CRISPR/Cas9-AAV genetic tool for highly specific gene editing is not clear. Here we demonstrate that using CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, we could successfully knock-in a DsRed reporter gene at the basic motifleucine zipper transcription factor (NRL) locus in human embryonic stem cells. For the first time, this study provides the proof of principle that these two technologies can be used together. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, a new genome editing tool, offers a platform for the manipulation of human genome.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV Mediated Knock-in at NRL Locus in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xianglian; Xi, Haitao; Yang, Fayu; Zhi, Xiao; Fu, Yanghua; Chen, Ding; Xu, Ren-He; Lin, Ge; Qu, Jia; Zhao, Junzhao; Gu, Feng

    2016-11-29

    Clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome engineering technologies are sparking a new revolution in biological research. This technology efficiently induces DNA double strand breaks at the targeted genomic sequence and results in indel mutations by the error-prone process of nonhomologous end joining DNA repair or homologous recombination with a DNA repair template. The efficiency of genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 alone in human embryonic stem cells is still low. Gene targeting with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been demonstrated in multiple human cell types with maximal targeting frequencies without engineered nucleases. However, whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double strand breaks and AAV based donor DNA mediated homologous recombination approaches could be combined to create a novel CRISPR/Cas9-AAV genetic tool for highly specific gene editing is not clear. Here we demonstrate that using CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, we could successfully knock-in a DsRed reporter gene at the basic motifleucine zipper transcription factor (NRL) locus in human embryonic stem cells. For the first time, this study provides the proof of principle that these two technologies can be used together. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, a new genome editing tool, offers a platform for the manipulation of human genome.

  6. Practical guidelines addressing ethical issues pertaining to the curation of human locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs)

    PubMed Central

    Povey, Sue; Al Aqeel, Aida I; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Dalgleish, Raymond; den Dunnen, Johan T; Firth, Helen V; Greenblatt, Marc S; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Parker, Michael; Patrinos, George P; Savige, Judith; Sobrido, Maria-Jesus; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard GH

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 Web-based locus-specific variation databases (LSDBs) are listed on the Website of the Human Genetic Variation Society (HGVS). These individual efforts, which often relate phenotype to genotype, are a valuable source of information for clinicians, patients, and their families, as well as for basic research. The initiators of the Human Variome Project recently recognized that having access to some of the immense resources of unpublished information already present in diagnostic laboratories would provide critical data to help manage genetic disorders. However, there are significant ethical issues involved in sharing these data worldwide. An international working group presents second-generation guidelines addressing ethical issues relating to the curation of human LSDBs that provide information via a Web-based interface. It is intended that these should help current and future curators and may also inform the future decisions of ethics committees and legislators. These guidelines have been reviewed by the Ethics Committee of the Human Genome Organization (HUGO). Hum Mutat 31:–6, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20683926

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV Mediated Knock-in at NRL Locus in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xianglian; Xi, Haitao; Yang, Fayu; Zhi, Xiao; Fu, Yanghua; Chen, Ding; Xu, Ren-He; Lin, Ge; Qu, Jia; Zhao, Junzhao; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome engineering technologies are sparking a new revolution in biological research. This technology efficiently induces DNA double strand breaks at the targeted genomic sequence and results in indel mutations by the error-prone process of nonhomologous end joining DNA repair or homologous recombination with a DNA repair template. The efficiency of genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 alone in human embryonic stem cells is still low. Gene targeting with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has been demonstrated in multiple human cell types with maximal targeting frequencies without engineered nucleases. However, whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double strand breaks and AAV based donor DNA mediated homologous recombination approaches could be combined to create a novel CRISPR/Cas9-AAV genetic tool for highly specific gene editing is not clear. Here we demonstrate that using CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, we could successfully knock-in a DsRed reporter gene at the basic motifleucine zipper transcription factor (NRL) locus in human embryonic stem cells. For the first time, this study provides the proof of principle that these two technologies can be used together. CRISPR/Cas9-AAV, a new genome editing tool, offers a platform for the manipulation of human genome. PMID:27898094

  8. The human protein kinase C gamma gene (PRKCG) as a susceptibility locus for behavioral disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Clegg, Hilary V; Corley, Robin P; Crowley, Thomas J; Hewitt, John K; Hopfer, Christian J; Krauter, Kenneth; Lessem, Jeffrey; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Stallings, Michael C; Wehner, Jeanne M; Young, Susan E; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2007-06-01

    This study explores the association between a highly heritable behavioral disinhibition phenotype and the protein kinase C gamma (PRKCG) gene in an ethnically diverse youth sample from Colorado, USA. The rationale for this study was based on the impulsive behavior and increased ethanol consumption observed in the protein kinase C gamma (PKC-gamma)-deficient mouse model. Two composite behavioral disinhibition phenotypes and their component behavioral scores [conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance experimentation (SUB) and novelty-seeking] were examined for association with five independent PRKCG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analysis for the five individual SNPs revealed modest genetic association of Exon 14 (rs2242244) and Upstream (rs307941) markers with the behavioral disinhibition composite variables in the combined, Hispanic and African-American samples. Additionally, haplotype-based association analysis for two SNPs located in Intron 3 (rs402691) and Exon 6 (rs3745406) indicated a significant overall association of the PRKCG locus with the ADHD-hyperactive subscale scores in the combined and Caucasian samples, supporting the relation between impulsive behaviors and the PRKCG gene. A significant haplotype association was also observed with SUB scores but only in the Hispanic ethnic group, highlighting the marker variability for each ethnic group. In conclusion, our results support the role of the PKC-gamma enzyme in behavioral impulsivity previously observed in mice. This study provides the first exploration of the PRKCG gene and its association with behavioral disinhibition and warrants further study in other larger population samples.

  9. Identification of the locus for human polymorphic cataract on chromosome 2 near gamma-crystallin gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Rogaev, E.I.; Rogaeva, E.A.; Keryanov, S.

    1994-09-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in human population. While positive linkage data have been obtained for some forms of inherited cataract, no evidence for mutations in any genes have been reported for human inherited cataract existing as an isolated abnormality. Previously, we have described the autosomal dominant polymorphic congenital cataract (PCC) which is characterized by partial opacity located between the fetal nucleus of the lens and the equator. The number, color and form of opacity is varied. We described pedigrees with 73 affected individuals, and used this in a linkage analysis with a set of polymorphic DNA markers randomly placed across the genome as well as with markers selected from some of the candidate genes or from nearby chromosomal regions. We have found evidence for segregation of a cataract locus with DNA markers from 2q36. The causative genetic defect has been mapped to a 20 cM interval which includes a cluster of gamma-crystallin genes. The gamma-crystallin proteins are abundant soluble low molecular weight proteins in the lens. We have used the trinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers from intron 2 of gamma-crystallin B gene and found the segregation of this marker with the disease with no evidence for recombination in the pedigree containing 62 affected individuals. These data suggest that the non-nuclear forms of human cataract may be caused by defects in gamma-crystallin genes.

  10. Human cardiac troponin T: Identification of fetal isoforms and assignment of the TNNT2 locus to chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, P.J.; Farza, H.; Yacoub, M.H.; Barton, P.J.R. ); MacGeoch, C.; Spurr, N.K. ); Wade, R. ); Gahlmann, R. )

    1994-05-15

    The troponin complex is located on the thin filament of striated muscle and is composed of three component polypeptides: Troponin T, troponin I, and troponin C. Three troponin T genes have been described on the basis of molecular cloning in humans and other vertebrates. These are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and encode the troponin T isoforms expressed in cardiac muscle, slow skeletal muscle, and fast skeletal muscle, respectively. Each of these genes is subject to alternative splicing, resulting in the production of multiple tissue-specific isoforms. The authors have cloned cDNAs encoding human cardiac troponin T from adult heart and have used these to demonstrate that multiple cardiac troponin T mRNAs are present in the human fetal heart, resulting from alternative splicing in the 5[prime] coding region of the gene. Hybridization of the cloned cDNAs to genomic DNA identifies a single-copy gene, and using somatic cell hybrid analysis, the authors have mapped the corresponding gene locus (designated TNNT2) to the long arm of chromosome 1 (1cen-qter). 52 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. NF-E2 disrupts chromatin structure at human beta-globin locus control region hypersensitive site 2 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J A; Emerson, B M

    1996-01-01

    The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is responsible for forming an active chromatin structure extending over the 100-kb locus, allowing expression of the beta-globin gene family. The LCR consists of four erythroid-cell-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS1 to -4). DNase I hypersensitive sites are thought to represent nucleosome-free regions of DNA which are bound by trans-acting factors. Of the four hypersensitive sites only HS2 acts as a transcriptional enhancer. In this study, we examine the binding of an erythroid protein to its site within HS2 in chromatin in vitro. NF-E2 is a transcriptional activator consisting of two subunits, the hematopoietic cell-specific p45 and the ubiquitous DNA-binding subunit, p18. NF-E2 binds two tandem AP1-like sites in HS2 which form the core of its enhancer activity. In this study, we show that when bound to in vitro-reconstituted chromatin, NF-E2 forms a DNase I hypersensitive site at HS2 similar to the site observed in vivo. Moreover, NF-E2 binding in vitro results in a disruption of nucleosome structure which can be detected 200 bp away. Although NF-E2 can disrupt nucleosomes when added to preformed chromatin, the disruption is more pronounced when NF-E2 is added to DNA prior to chromatin assembly. Interestingly, the hematopoietic cell-specific subunit, p45, is necessary for binding to chromatin but not to naked DNA. Interaction of NF-E2 with its site in chromatin-reconstituted HS2 allows a second erythroid factor, GATA-1, to bind its nearby sites. Lastly, nucleosome disruption by NF-E2 is an ATP-dependent process, suggesting the involvement of energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors. PMID:8816476

  12. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments.

    PubMed Central

    Baer, R; Boehm, T; Yssel, H; Spits, H; Rabbitts, T H

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one rearrangement within J delta-C delta and one or more J alpha rearrangements, and finally, cells with rearrangements within J alpha and consequential deletion of the delta locus. Further analysis by cloning of rearrangements within the J alpha locus show that, in addition to V alpha-J alpha joins, J alpha-J alpha aberrant recombinations occur and rearrangement data indicate that such events are frequent. A model is presented to account for such recombinations. Images PMID:2971534

  13. The IGF2 Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  14. The 4q subtelomere harboring the FSHD locus is specifically anchored with peripheral heterochromatin unlike most human telomeres.

    PubMed

    Tam, Rose; Smith, Kelly P; Lawrence, Jeanne B

    2004-10-25

    This paper investigates the nuclear localization of human telomeres and, specifically, the 4q35 subtelomere mutated in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD is a common muscular dystrophy that has been linked to contraction of D4Z4 tandem repeats, widely postulated to affect distant gene expression. Most human telomeres, such as 17q and 17p, avoid the nuclear periphery to reside within the internal, euchromatic compartment. In contrast, 4q35 localizes at the peripheral heterochromatin with 4p more internal, generating a reproducible chromosome orientation that we relate to gene expression profiles. Studies of hybrid and translocation cell lines indicate this localization is inherent to the distal tip of 4q. Investigation of heterozygous FSHD myoblasts demonstrated no significant displacement of the mutant allele from the nuclear periphery. However, consistent association of the pathogenic D4Z4 locus with the heterochromatic compartment supports a potential role in regulating the heterochromatic state and makes a telomere positioning effect more likely. Furthermore, D4Z4 repeats on other chromosomes also frequently organize with the heterochromatic compartment at the nuclear or nucleolar periphery, demonstrating a commonality among chromosomes harboring this subtelomere repeat family.

  15. Genetic linkage studies in familial partial epilepsy: Exclusion of the human chromosome regions syntenic to the El-1 mouse locus

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cendes, I.; Mulley, J.C.; Andermann, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recently, six families with a familial form of partial epilepsy were described. All pedigrees showed autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Affected individuals present with predominantly nocturnal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. In 1959, a genetic mouse model for partial epilepsy, the El mouse, was reported. In the El mouse, a major seizure susceptibility gene, El-1, segregates in an autosomal dominant fashion and has been localized to a region distal to the centromere of mouse chromosome 9. Comparative genetic maps between man and mouse have been used for prediction of localization of several human disease genes. Because the region of mouse chromosome 9 that is the most likely to contain the El-1 locus is syntenic to regions on human chromosomes 3q21-p22, 3q21-q23.3, 6q12 and 15q24, we adopted the candidate gene approach as an initial linkage strategy. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers covering these regions were used for genotyping individuals in the three larger families ascertained, two of which are Australian and one French-Canadian. Negative two-point lod scores were obtained separately for each family. The analysis of all three families combined significantly excludes the candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 15.

  16. Targeting Human α-Lactalbumin Gene Insertion into the Goat β-Lactoglobulin Locus by TALEN-Mediated Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chenchen; Song, Yujie; Ge, Hengtao; Hu, Linyong; Li, Qian; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Special value of goat milk in human nutrition and well being is associated with medical problems of food allergies which are caused by milk proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG). Here, we employed transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-assisted homologous recombination in goat fibroblasts to introduce human α-lactalbumin (hLA) genes into goat BLG locus. TALEN-mediated targeting enabled isolation of colonies with mono- and bi-allelic transgene integration in up to 10.1% and 1.1%, respectively, after selection. Specifically, BLG mRNA levels were gradually decreasing in both mo- and bi-allelic goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) while hLA demonstrated expression in GMECs in vitro. Gene-targeted fibroblast cells were efficiently used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in production of hLA knock-in goats directing down-regulated BLG expression and abundant hLA secretion in animal milk. Our findings provide valuable background for animal milk optimization and expedited development for agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:27258157

  17. The human HNRPD locus maps to 4q21 and encodes a highly conserved protein.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, L A; Li, M J; DePace, A; Bray-Ward, P; Maizels, N

    1998-05-01

    The hnRNP D protein interacts with nucleic acids both in vivo and in vitro. Like many other proteins that interact with RNA, it contains RBD (or "RRM") domains and arg-gly-gly (RGG) motifs. We have examined the organization and localization of the human and murine genes that encode the hnRNP D protein. Comparison of the predicted sequences of the hnRNP D proteins in human and mouse shows that they are 96.9% identical (98.9% similar). This very high level of conservation suggests a critical function for hnRNP D. Sequence analysis of the human HNRPD gene shows that the protein is encoded by eight exons and that two additional exons specify sequences in the 3' UTR. Use of two of the coding exons is determined by alternative splicing of the HNRPD mRNA. The human HNRPD gene maps to 4q21. The mouse Hnrpd gene maps to the F region of chromosome 3, which is syntenic with the human 4q21 region.

  18. The blp Locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae Plays a Limited Role in the Selection of Strains That Can Cocolonize the Human Nasopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Carina; Dawid, Suzanne; Pinto, Francisco R.; Hinds, Jason; Simões, Alexandra S.; Gould, Katherine A.; Mendes, Luís A.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nasopharyngeal colonization is important for Streptococcus pneumoniae evolution, providing the opportunity for horizontal gene transfer when multiple strains co-occur. Although colonization with more than one strain of pneumococcus is common, the factors that influence the ability of strains to coexist are not known. A highly variable blp (bacteriocin-like peptide) locus has been identified in all sequenced strains of S. pneumoniae. This locus controls the regulation and secretion of bacteriocins, small peptides that target other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed a series of cocolonizing isolates to evaluate the impact of the blp locus on human colonization to determine whether competitive phenotypes of bacteriocin secretion restrict cocolonization. We identified a collection of 135 nasopharyngeal samples cocolonized with two or more strains, totaling 285 isolates. The blp locus of all strains was characterized genetically with regard to pheromone type, bacteriocin/immunity content, and potential for locus functionality. Inhibitory phenotypes of bacteriocin secretion and locus activity were assessed through overlay assays. Isolates from single colonizations (n = 298) were characterized for comparison. Cocolonizing strains had a high diversity of blp cassettes; approximately one-third displayed an inhibitory phenotype in vitro. Despite in vitro evidence of competition, pneumococci cocolonized the subjects independently of blp pheromone type (P = 0.577), bacteriocin/immunity content, blp locus activity (P = 0.798), and inhibitory phenotype (P = 0.716). In addition, no significant differences were observed when single and cocolonizing strains were compared. Despite clear evidence of blp-mediated competition in experimental models, the results of our study suggest that the blp locus plays a limited role in restricting pneumococcal cocolonization in humans. IMPORTANCE Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is important for

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates intracellular signalling in human keratinocytes in response to Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Adone; Orlando, Manuela; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Farro, Pietro; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Buommino, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial players in the innate immune response to microbial invaders. The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur has been implicated in the triggering of scalp lesions in psoriasis. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of TLRs in the defence against M. furfur infection. The expression of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) gene, which is involved in the signalling pathway of many TLRs, was also analysed. In addition, a possible correlation of antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family to TLRs was tested. Human keratinocytes infected with M. furfur and a variety of M. furfur-positive psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed by RT-PCR, for TLRs, MyD88, human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2), HBD-3 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression. When keratinocytes were infected with M. furfur, an up-regulation for TLR2, MyD88, HBD-2, HBD-3 and IL-8 mRNA was demonstrated, compared to the untreated cells. The same results were obtained when psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed. The M. furfur-induced increase in HBD-2 and IL-8 gene expression is inhibited by anti-TLR2 neutralising antibodies, suggesting that TLR2 is involved in the M. furfur-induced expression of these molecules. These findings suggest the importance of TLRs in skin protection against fungi and the importance of keratinocytes as a component of innate immunity.

  20. Functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in isogenic settings using zinc finger nuclease-driven transgenesis into a safe harbor locus in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    DeKelver, Russell C.; Choi, Vivian M.; Moehle, Erica A.; Paschon, David E.; Hockemeyer, Dirk; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.; Sancak, Yasemin; Cui, Xiaoxia; Steine, Eveline J.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Tam, Phillip; Bartsevich, Victor V.; Meng, Xiangdong; Rupniewski, Igor; Gopalan, Sunita M.; Sun, Helena C.; Pitz, Kathleen J.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Zhang, Lei; Davis, Gregory D.; Rebar, Edward J.; Cheeseman, Iain M.; Yamamoto, Keith R.; Sabatini, David M.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.

    2010-01-01

    Isogenic settings are routine in model organisms, yet remain elusive for genetic experiments on human cells. We describe the use of designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for efficient transgenesis without drug selection into the PPP1R12C gene, a “safe harbor” locus known as AAVS1. ZFNs enable targeted transgenesis at a frequency of up to 15% following transient transfection of both transformed and primary human cells, including fibroblasts and hES cells. When added to this locus, transgenes such as expression cassettes for shRNAs, small-molecule-responsive cDNA expression cassettes, and reporter constructs, exhibit consistent expression and sustained function over 50 cell generations. By avoiding random integration and drug selection, this method allows bona fide isogenic settings for high-throughput functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in essentially any transformed human cell type and in primary cells. PMID:20508142

  1. Functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in isogenic settings using zinc finger nuclease-driven transgenesis into a safe harbor locus in the human genome.

    PubMed

    DeKelver, Russell C; Choi, Vivian M; Moehle, Erica A; Paschon, David E; Hockemeyer, Dirk; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H; Sancak, Yasemin; Cui, Xiaoxia; Steine, Eveline J; Miller, Jeffrey C; Tam, Phillip; Bartsevich, Victor V; Meng, Xiangdong; Rupniewski, Igor; Gopalan, Sunita M; Sun, Helena C; Pitz, Kathleen J; Rock, Jeremy M; Zhang, Lei; Davis, Gregory D; Rebar, Edward J; Cheeseman, Iain M; Yamamoto, Keith R; Sabatini, David M; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D

    2010-08-01

    Isogenic settings are routine in model organisms, yet remain elusive for genetic experiments on human cells. We describe the use of designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for efficient transgenesis without drug selection into the PPP1R12C gene, a "safe harbor" locus known as AAVS1. ZFNs enable targeted transgenesis at a frequency of up to 15% following transient transfection of both transformed and primary human cells, including fibroblasts and hES cells. When added to this locus, transgenes such as expression cassettes for shRNAs, small-molecule-responsive cDNA expression cassettes, and reporter constructs, exhibit consistent expression and sustained function over 50 cell generations. By avoiding random integration and drug selection, this method allows bona fide isogenic settings for high-throughput functional genomics, proteomics, and regulatory DNA analysis in essentially any transformed human cell type and in primary cells.

  2. Analysis and comparison of the mouse and human immunoglobulin heavy chain JH-Cmu-Cdelta locus.

    PubMed

    Koop, B F; Richards, J E; Durfee, T D; Bansberg, J; Wells, J; Gilliam, A C; Chen, H L; Clausell, A; Tucker, P W; Blattner, F R

    1996-02-01

    We report here 23,686 bases of contiguous DNA sequences from the mouse germline immunoglobulin heavy chain (H) constant (C) mu delta region. The sequence spans the joining (JH) regions, the mu constant region (C mu), the delta constant region (C delta) coding regions, a domain relic, the mu switch region (S mu), seven blocks of simple sequence repeats, a large unique sequence inverted repeat, a large unique sequence forward repeat, and all of the intervening material. A comparison of this 23.7-kb region with the corresponding human C mu/C delta region reveals clear homology in the coding and introns of C mu but not in the 5' flanking J gene segments nor in the intergenic and C delta regions. This mixed pattern of similarity between the human and the mouse sequences contrasts with high levels of similarity found in the T-cell receptor C alpha/C delta region and alpha and beta myosin genes and the very low levels found in the gamma-crystallin, XRCC1, and beta-globin gene clusters. The human and mouse comparison further suggests the incorporation of novel sequences into expressed genes of IgD.

  3. Structural dissection of a complex Bacteroides ovatus gene locus conferring xyloglucan metabolism in the human gut

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew J.; Stepper, Judith; Sobala, Łukasz F.; Coyle, Travis; Larsbrink, Johan; Spadiut, Oliver; Goddard-Borger, Ethan D.; Stubbs, Keith A.; Brumer, Harry; Davies, Gideon J.

    2016-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours myriad bacterial species, collectively termed the microbiota, that strongly influence human health. Symbiotic members of our microbiota play a pivotal role in the digestion of complex carbohydrates that are otherwise recalcitrant to assimilation. Indeed, the intrinsic human polysaccharide-degrading enzyme repertoire is limited to various starch-based substrates; more complex polysaccharides demand microbial degradation. Select Bacteroidetes are responsible for the degradation of the ubiquitous vegetable xyloglucans (XyGs), through the concerted action of cohorts of enzymes and glycan-binding proteins encoded by specific xyloglucan utilization loci (XyGULs). Extending recent (meta)genomic, transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, significant questions remain regarding the structural biology of the molecular machinery required for XyG saccharification. Here, we reveal the three-dimensional structures of an α-xylosidase, a β-glucosidase, and two α-l-arabinofuranosidases from the Bacteroides ovatus XyGUL. Aided by bespoke ligand synthesis, our analyses highlight key adaptations in these enzymes that confer individual specificity for xyloglucan side chains and dictate concerted, stepwise disassembly of xyloglucan oligosaccharides. In harness with our recent structural characterization of the vanguard endo-xyloglucanse and cell-surface glycan-binding proteins, the present analysis provides a near-complete structural view of xyloglucan recognition and catalysis by XyGUL proteins. PMID:27466444

  4. Humanized H19/Igf2 locus reveals diverged imprinting mechanism between mouse and human and reflects Silver–Russell syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Stella K.; Freschi, Andrea; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Thorvaldsen, Joanne L.; Luense, Lacey J.; Weller, Angela H.; Berger, Shelley L.; Cerrato, Flavia; Riccio, Andrea; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin–specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus. We addressed this question at the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted locus, the misregulation of which is associated with the human imprinting disorders Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). We generated a knock-in mouse in which the endogenous H19/Igf2 ICR (mIC1) is replaced by the orthologous human ICR (hIC1) sequence, designated H19hIC1. We show that hIC1 can functionally replace mIC1 on the maternal allele. In contrast, paternally transmitted hIC1 leads to growth restriction, abnormal hIC1 methylation, and loss of H19 and Igf2 imprinted expression. Imprint establishment at hIC1 is impaired in the male germ line, which is associated with an abnormal composition of histone posttranslational modifications compared with mIC1. Overall, this study reveals evolutionarily divergent paternal imprinting at IC1 between mice and humans. The conserved maternal imprinting mechanism and function at IC1 demonstrates the possibility of modeling maternal transmission of hIC1 mutations associated with BWS in mice. In addition, we propose that further analyses in the paternal knock-in H19+/hIC1 mice will elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie SRS. PMID:27621468

  5. A radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, C.W. III; Cox, D.R.; Kapp, L.; Murnane, J. ); Cornelis, F.; Julier, C.; Lathrop, M.; James, M.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The authors describe a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 11q22-q23 containing the ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) disease gene loci. The order and intermarker distances of 32 chromosome 11q22-q23 markers were determined by a multipoint maximum likelihood method analysis of the cosegregation of markers in 100 radiation hybrids. The radiation hybrid map of polymorphic loci was consistent with genetic linkage maps of common markers. Several genes, including [alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CBL2, collagenase, dopamine receptor type 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, progesterone receptor, and stromelysins 1 and 2, were placed in relation to previously ordered, genetically mapped polymorphic loci. Five new markers ([alpha]B-crystallin, adrenal ferrodoxin, CJ52.114, CJ52.3, and D11S535) were ordered within the current published flanking markers for the AT group A and group C disease loci. A candidate AT group D gene (ATDC) identified by Kapp et al. was mapped telomeric to THY1, outside the flanking markers identified by multipoint linkage analysis for the major AT locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Rat Genome Database: a unique resource for rat, human, and mouse quantitative trait locus data.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Rajni; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Hayman, G Thomas; Smith, Jennifer R; Wang, Shur-Jen; Lowry, Timothy F; Petri, Victoria; De Pons, Jeff; Tutaj, Marek; Liu, Weisong; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Munzenmaier, Diane H; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J

    2013-09-16

    The rat has been widely used as a disease model in a laboratory setting, resulting in an abundance of genetic and phenotype data from a wide variety of studies. These data can be found at the Rat Genome Database (RGD, http://rgd.mcw.edu/), which provides a platform for researchers interested in linking genomic variations to phenotypes. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) form one of the earliest and core datasets, allowing researchers to identify loci harboring genes associated with disease. These QTLs are not only important for those using the rat to identify genes and regions associated with disease, but also for cross-organism analyses of syntenic regions on the mouse and the human genomes to identify potential regions for study in these organisms. Currently, RGD has data on >1,900 rat QTLs that include details about the methods and animals used to determine the respective QTL along with the genomic positions and markers that define the region. RGD also curates human QTLs (>1,900) and houses>4,000 mouse QTLs (imported from Mouse Genome Informatics). Multiple ontologies are used to standardize traits, phenotypes, diseases, and experimental methods to facilitate queries, analyses, and cross-organism comparisons. QTLs are visualized in tools such as GBrowse and GViewer, with additional tools for analysis of gene sets within QTL regions. The QTL data at RGD provide valuable information for the study of mapped phenotypes and identification of candidate genes for disease associations.

  7. Extensive variation in gene copy number at the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus in humans.

    PubMed

    Vendelbosch, Sanne; de Boer, Martin; Gouw, Remko A T W; Ho, Cynthia K Y; Geissler, Judy; Swelsen, Wendy T N; Moorhouse, Michael J; Lardy, Neubury M; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2013-01-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the regulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Within the human genome seventeen KIR genes are present, which all contain a large number of allelic variants. The high level of homology among KIR genes has hampered KIR genotyping in larger cohorts, and determination of gene copy number variation (CNV) has been difficult. We have designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique for genotyping and CNV determination in one single assay and validated the results by next-generation sequencing and with a KIR gene-specific short tandem repeat assay. In this way, we demonstrate in a cohort of 120 individuals a high level of CNV for all KIR genes except for the framework genes KIR3DL3 and KIR3DL2. Application of our MLPA assay in segregation analyses of families from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, previously KIR-genotyped by classical techniques, confirmed an earlier reported duplication and resulted in the identification of a novel duplication event in one of these families. In summary, our KIR MLPA assay allows rapid and accurate KIR genotyping and CNV detection, thus rendering improved transplantation programs and oncology treatment feasible, and enables more detailed studies on the role of KIRs in human (auto)immunity and infectious disease.

  8. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Assignment of the human GABA transporter gene (GABATHG) locus to chromosome 3p24-p25

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Guo, Li-He

    1995-09-01

    An essential regulatory process of synaptic transmission is the inactivation of released neurotransmitters by the transmitter-specific uptake mechanism, {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system; its activity is terminated by a high-affinity Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} -dependent specific GABA transporter (GAT), which carries the neurotransmitter to the presynaptic neuron and/or glial elements surrounding the synaptic cleft. Deficiency of the transporter may cause epilepsy and some other nervous diseases. The human GAT gene (GABATHG), approximately 25 kb in length, has been cloned and sequenced by our colleagues (7). Here the results of the in situ hybridization mapping with the gene are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Contribution of a helix 5 locus to selectivity of hallucinogenic and nonhallucinogenic ligands for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors: direct and indirect effects on ligand affinity mediated by the same locus.

    PubMed

    Almaula, N; Ebersole, B J; Ballesteros, J A; Weinstein, H; Sealfon, S C

    1996-07-01

    An important determinant of the neurobehavioral responses induced by a drug is its relative receptor selectivity. The molecular basis of ligand selectivity of hallucinogenic and nonhallucinogenic compounds of varying structural classes for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptors was investigated with the use of reciprocal site-directed mutagenesis. Because these two closely related receptor subtypes differ in the amino acid present at position 5.46 (residues 242 and 222 in the sequences, respectively), the effects of corresponding substitutions in the 5-HT2A[S5.46(242)-->A] and 5-HT2C[A5.46(222)-->S] receptors were studied in tandem. By studying both receptors, the direct and indirect effects of mutations on affinity and selectivity can be distinguished. The ergolines studied, mesulergine (selective for the 5-HT2C receptor) and d-lysergic acid diethylamide (selective for the 5-HT2A receptor), reversed their relative affinity with mutations in each receptor, supporting a direct role of this locus in the selectivity of these ligands. However, interchange mutations in either receptor led to decreased or unchanged affinity for (+/-)-1-)(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane and ketanserin, which have higher affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor, consistent with little contribution of this locus to the selectivity of these ligands. The indoleamines studied were affected differently by mutations in each receptor, suggesting that they bind differently to the two receptor subtypes. Mutation of this locus in the 5-HT2A receptor decreased the affinity of all indoleamines, whereas the interchange mutation of the 5-HT2C receptor did not affect indoleamine affinity. These results are consistent with a direct interaction between this side chain and indoleamines for the 5-HT2A receptor but not for the 5-HT2C receptor. Furthermore, this analysis shows that the higher affinity of 5-HT and tryptamine for the 5-HT2C receptor than for the 5-HT2A receptors is not

  11. Mapping of human microtubule-associated protein 1B in proximity to the spinal muscular atrophy locus at 5q13

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, L.L. Children's Hospital, Boston, MA ); Boyce, F.M.; Kunkel, L.M. ); Kleyn, P.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.C. New York State Psychiatric Inst., New York, NY ); Menninger, J.; Ward, D.C. )

    1991-09-01

    A polyclonal antiserum directed against the C-terminal domain of dystrophin was used to isolate a cDNA clone encoding an antigenically cross-reactive protein, microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP-1B). Physical mapping of the human MAP-1B locus places its chromosomal location at 5q13, in proximity to the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) locus. SMA is a degenerative disorder primarily affecting motor neurons. Genetic linkage analysis of SMA families using a human dinucleotide repeat polymorphism just 3{prime} of the MAP-1B gene has shown tight linkage to SMA mutations. These mapping data together with the postulated role of MAP-1B in neuronal morphogenesis and its localization in anterior horn motor neurons suggest a possible association with SMA.

  12. Chromatin configuration of the human CD2 gene locus during T-cell development.

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, D; Flanagan, B F; Owen, M J

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis for the tissue-specific expression of the human CD2 gene, its chromatin configuration was assessed by determining DNase I hypersensitivity and the degree of methylation during T-cell lineage commitment and development. Tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were found within the 5' promoter region and a region 3' of the gene essential for gene expression. DNase I hypersensitivity of the 5' region correlated strictly with transcriptional activity, whereas hypersensitivity of the 3' region correlated with T-cell progenitor activity or lineage commitment but not necessarily with transcription. Hha I and Hpa II sites around the 5' and 3' regions were undermethylated in CD2-expressing T cells but were more extensively methylated in other cell types. These results define likely regulatory elements both upstream and downstream of the CD2 gene that control its tissue-specific expression. Further, they show that the 3' regulatory region adopts an open chromatin configuration prior to lineage commitment and during early stages of T-cell development before the CD2 gene is transcribed. Images PMID:2567000

  13. Human dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase locus and the chromosome 9q34 region in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian. A.; Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.

    1994-09-01

    Human dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (DBH) is responsible for conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine in catecholamine neurons. Potential inhibitors of this enzyme do exist, but they are generally not effective in vivo in reducing tissue concentrations of catecholamines. The gene for DBH has been localized to 9q34 by linkage analysis and in situ hybridization. Recently there have been reports indicating a suggestive evidence of linkage between DNA markers in 9q34 region and alcoholism. In order to test for this suggestive linkage, we have genotyped a sample of 134 subjects with alcoholism, 30 alcoholic families (n=302) and 92 normal controls. The alcoholic subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained samples of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. The markers used in this study were dinucleotide repeats in the DBH gene, and two highly informative (CA) markers (D9S64, D9S66) flanking the DBH gene. A preliminary affected-sib-pair analysis was carried out under two diagnostic schemes. Regardless of whether `probable` alcoholics are classified as unaffected (t=0.63) or affected (t=1.50), these data do not reveal a significant excess in DBH marker sharing among affected-sib-pairs. However, the comparison of the DBH marker allele frequencies between the unrelated alcoholic panel and the unrelated normal control panel was significant at the p=0.04 level.

  14. Production of Human Albumin in Pigs Through CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Knockin of Human cDNA into Swine Albumin Locus in the Zygotes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Junyi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Song, Lei; Wang, Lulu; Ding, Chen; Qin, Jun; Liu, Liping; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Jianqiao; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong; Zhang, Pumin

    2015-11-12

    Precise genome modification in large domesticated animals is desirable under many circumstances. In the past it is only possible through lengthy and burdensome cloning procedures. Here we attempted to achieve that goal through the use of the newest genome-modifying tool CRISPR/Cas9. We set out to knockin human albumin cDNA into pig Alb locus for the production of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA). HSA is a widely used human blood product and is in high demand. We show that homologous recombination can occur highly efficiently in swine zygotes. All 16 piglets born from the manipulated zygotes carry the expected knockin allele and we demonstrated the presence of human albumin in the blood of these piglets. Furthermore, the knockin allele was successfully transmitted through germline. This success in precision genomic engineering is expected to spur exploration of pigs and other large domesticated animals to be used as bioreactors for the production of biomedical products or creation of livestock strains with more desirable traits.

  15. Localization of a novel natural killer triggering receptor locus to human chromosome 3p23-p21 and mouse chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.A.; Jenkins, N.A.; Copeland, N.G.; Simek, S.; Lerman, M.I.; Zbar, B.; Glenn, G.; Ortaldo, J.R.; Anderson, S.K.

    1993-05-01

    A novel gene (NKTR) that is involved in the recognition of tumor cells by large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) has been assigned to the short arm of human chromosome 3 in the region 3p23-p21 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the murine homologue maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 9 and is closely linked to the locus coding for cholecystokinin (Cck). This region of mouse 9 shares a region of homology with human 3p. Thus, the placement of NKTR in these regions confirms and extends the relationship between these human and mouse chromosomes. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Mapping of a locus correcting lack of phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cell Ade-D mutants to human chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Barton, J W; Hart, I M; Patterson, D

    1991-02-01

    The human phosphoribosylaminoimidazole (AIR) carboxylase locus has been until this report one of the genes encoding purine biosynthetic enzymes that had not been assigned to an individual human chromosome. Characterization of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant Ade-D showed that the cell line was unable to produce IMP and accumulated AIR. CHO Ade-D cells were fused with normal human lymphocytes utilizing inactivated Sendai virus and the resulting hybrid cell lines were selected for purine prototrophy. Cytogenetic analysis showed a 100% concordance value for chromosome 4. Two of the isolated subclones contained only the long arm of chromosome 4 translocated onto a CHO chromosome, providing evidence for a regional assignment of the Ade-D gene to the long arm of chromosome 4. Two of the subclones containing chromosome 4 were subjected to the BrdU visible light segregation. All of the isolated purine auxotrophic cell lines showed a loss of the q arm of chromosome 4. The localization of the Ade-D locus to the long arm of chromosome 4 may reveal further clustering of the mammalian purine genes since the Ade-A locus has previously been regionally assigned to 4pter-q21.

  17. Rescue of retinal morphology and function in a humanized mouse at the mouse retinol-binding protein locus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shen, Jingling; Wakana, Shigeharu; Araki, Kimi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Lei, Lei; Li, Zhenghua

    2017-01-30

    Retinol-binding protein RBP4 is the specific carrier for retinol in the blood. We previously produced a Rbp4-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mouse that showed electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities, accompanied by histological and electron-microscopic changes such as fewer synapses in the inner plexiform layer in the central retina. To address whether human RBP4 gene expression can rescue the phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice, we produced a humanized (Rbp4(hRBP4orf/ hRBP4orf)) mouse with a human RBP4 open reading frame in the mouse Rbp4 locus using a Cre-mutant lox recombination system. In Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice, the tissue-specific expression pattern of hRBP4orf was roughly the same as that of mouse Rbp4. ERG and morphological abnormalities observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice were rescued in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice as early as 7 weeks of age. The temporal expression pattern of hRBP4orf in the liver of Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice was similar to that of mouse Rbp4 in Rbp4(+/+)mice. In contrast, hRBP4orf expression levels in eyes were significantly lower at 6 and 12 weeks of age compared with mouse Rbp4 but were restored to the control levels at 24 weeks. The serum hRBP4 levels in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice were approximately 30% of those in Rbp4(+/+) at all ages examined. In accordance with this finding, the plasma retinol levels remained low in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Retinol accumulation in the liver occurred in control and Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice but was higher in Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice at 30 weeks of age. Mouse transthyretin expression was not altered in Rbp4(-/-) or Rbp4(hRBP4orf/hRBP4orf) mice. Taken together, 30% of the serum RBP4 level was sufficient to correct the abnormal phenotypes observed in Rbp4(-/-) mice.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 30 January 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.156.

  18. A Two-locus DNA Sequence Database for Typing Plant and Human Pathogens Within the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex ...

  19. Loss of heterozygosity at the SS receptor type 5 locus in human GH- and TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Filopanti, M; Ballarè, E; Lania, A G; Bondioni, S; Verga, U; Locatelli, M; Zavanone, L M; Losa, M; Gelmini, S; Peri, A; Orlando, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2004-11-01

    SS receptor types 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) are involved in the control of secretion and proliferation of normal and tumoral somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. The mechanisms leading to reduced responsiveness to SS analogues in patients with pituitary tumors are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to verify the possible loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the sst5 gene locus in somatotroph and thyrotroph adenomas by screening leukocyte and tumor DNA for two single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. C1004T leading to P335L change and T-461C in the 5'-upstream region. Among the 13 informative samples, 1 GH- and 1 TSH-secreting adenoma showed LOH at sst5 gene locus with the retention of Leu335 variant. By analyzing other polymorphic markers spanning from telomere to 16p13.3-13.2 boundaries, DNA deletion of at least 1 megabase was found in both tumors. LOH in thyrotroph adenoma was associated with unusual tumor aggressiveness that required a second surgery and resistance to SS analogs, while no obvious phenotype was identified in the case of the somatotroph adenoma. In conclusions, LOH at the sst5 gene locus is a rare phenomenon, occurring in about 10% of pituitary tumors, that seems to be associated with an aggressive phenotype, at least in thyrotroph adenomas. Further studies are required to confirm this association and to identify the genes, in addition to sst5, lost in these tumors.

  20. Nonredundant and locus-specific gene repression functions of PRC1 paralog family members in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, Vincent; Rozenveld-Geugien, Marjan; Bonardi, Francesco; Malanga, Donatella; van Gosliga, Djoke; Heijink, Anne Margriet; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Morrone, Giovanni; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2013-03-28

    The Polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is a key factor in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic stem cell self-renewal and functions in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). In humans, each of the 5 subunits of PRC1 has paralog family members of which many reside in PRC1 complexes, likely in a mutually exclusive manner, pointing toward a previously unanticipated complexity of Polycomb-mediated silencing. We used an RNA interference screening approach to test the functionality of these paralogs in human hematopoiesis. Our data demonstrate a lack of redundancy between various paralog family members, suggestive of functional diversification between PcG proteins. By using an in vivo biotinylation tagging approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify PcG interaction partners, we confirmed the existence of multiple specific PRC1 complexes. We find that CBX2 is a nonredundant CBX paralog vital for HSC and progenitor function that directly regulates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, independently of BMI1 that dominantly controls expression of the INK4A/ARF locus. Taken together, our data show that different PRC1 paralog family members have nonredundant and locus-specific gene regulatory activities that are essential for human hematopoiesis.

  1. A T-cell specific transcriptional enhancer element 3 prime of C sub. alpha. in the human T-cell receptor. alpha. locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Icheng; Yang, Lihsuan; Morle, G.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1989-09-01

    A transcriptional enhancer element has been identified 4.5 kilobases 3{prime} of C{sub {alpha}} (constant region {alpha} chain) in the human T-cell receptor (TCR) {alpha}-chain locus. This enhancer is active on both a TCR V{sub {alpha}} (variable region {alpha} chain) promoter and the minimal simian virus 40 promoter in TCR {alpha}/{beta} Jurkat and EL4 cells but is inactive on a V{sub {alpha}} promoter TCR {gamma}/{delta} PEER and Molt-13 cells, clone 13 B cells, and HeLa fibroblasts. The enhancer has been localized to a 116-base-pair BstXI/Dra I restriction enzyme fragment, which lacks immunoglobulin octamer and {kappa}B enhancer motifs but does contain a consensus cAMP-response element (CRE). DNase I footprint analyses demonstrated that the minimal enhancer contains two binding sites for Jurkat nuclear proteins. One of these sites corresponds to the CRE, while the other does not correspond to a known transcriptional enhancer motif. These data support a model in which TCR {alpha} gene transcription is regulated by a unique set of cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors, which are differentially active in cells of the TCR {alpha}/{beta} lineage. In addition, the TCR {alpha} enhancer may play a role in activating oncogene expression in T-lymphoblastoid tumors that have previously been shown to display chromosomal translocations into the human TCR {alpha} locus.

  2. Generation of mastitis resistance in cows by targeting human lysozyme gene to β-casein locus using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Tian, Yuchen; Yu, Yuan; Gao, Mingqing; Hu, Guangdong; Su, Feng; Pan, Shaohui; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-07

    Mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars annually and is the most consequential disease of dairy cattle. Transgenic cows secreting an antimicrobial peptide demonstrated resistance to mastitis. The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. Recent studies found that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) stimulated the integration of exogenous DNA stretches into a pre-determined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Here, we used ZFNs to target human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus, resulting in hLYZ knock-in of approximately 1% of ZFN-treated bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs). Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In vitro assays demonstrated that the milk secreted by transgenic cows had the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. Our findings open a unique avenue for the creation of transgenic cows from genetic engineering by providing a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improving the health and welfare of livestock.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-W locus transcription in multiple sclerosis brain lesions by high-throughput amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katja; Richter, Christin; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Ruprecht, Klemens; Mayer, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) of the HERV-W group comprise hundreds of loci in the human genome. Deregulated HERV-W expression and HERV-W locus ERVWE1-encoded Syncytin-1 protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the actual transcription of HERV-W loci in the MS context has not been comprehensively analyzed. We investigated transcription of HERV-W in MS brain lesions and white matter brain tissue from healthy controls by employing next-generation amplicon sequencing of HERV-W env-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR products, thus revealing transcribed HERV-W loci and the relative transcript levels of those loci. We identified more than 100 HERV-W loci that were transcribed in the human brain, with a limited number of loci being predominantly transcribed. Importantly, relative transcript levels of HERV-W loci were very similar between MS and healthy brain tissue samples, refuting deregulated transcription of HERV-W env in MS brain lesions, including the high-level-transcribed ERVWE1 locus encoding Syncytin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR likewise did not reveal differences in MS regarding HERV-W env general transcript or ERVWE1- and ERVWE2-specific transcript levels. However, we obtained evidence for interindividual differences in HERV-W transcript levels. Reporter gene assays indicated promoter activity of many HERV-W long terminal repeats (LTRs), including structurally incomplete LTRs. Our comprehensive analysis of HERV-W transcription in the human brain thus provides important information on the biology of HERV-W in MS lesions and normal human brain, implications for study design, and mechanisms by which HERV-W may (or may not) be involved in MS.

  4. Human pedigree-based quantitative-trait-locus mapping: localization of two genes influencing HDL-cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Almasy, L; Hixson, J E; Rainwater, D L; Cole, S; Williams, J T; Mahaney, M C; VandeBerg, J L; Stern, M P; MacCluer, J W; Blangero, J

    1999-01-01

    Common disorders with genetic susceptibilities involve the action of multiple genes interacting with each other and with environmental factors, making it difficult to localize the specific genetic loci responsible. An important route to the disentangling of this complex inheritance is through the study of normal physiological variation in quantitative risk factors that may underlie liability to disease. We present an analysis of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), which is inversely correlated with risk of heart disease. A variety of HDL subphenotypes were analyzed, including HDL particle-size classes and the concentrations and proportions of esterified and unesterified HDL-C. Results of a complete genomic screen in large, randomly ascertained pedigrees implicated two loci, one on chromosome 8 and the other on chromosome 15, that influence a component of HDL-C-namely, unesterified HDL2a-C. Multivariate analyses of multiple HDL phenotypes and simultaneous multilocus analysis of the quantitative-trait loci identified permit further characterization of the genetic effects on HDL-C. These analyses suggest that the action of the chromosome 8 locus is specific to unesterified cholesterol levels, whereas the chromosome 15 locus appears to influence both HDL-C concentration and distribution of cholesterol among HDL particle sizes. PMID:10330356

  5. Genetic mapping of human heart-skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide translocator and its relationship to the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Y.; Chung, A.B.; Torroni, A.; Stepien, G.; Shoffner, J.M.; Costigan, D.A.; Polak, M.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Altherr, M.R.; Winokur, S.T.

    1993-05-01

    The mitochondrial heart-skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1) was regionally mapped to 4q35-qter using somatic cell hybrids containing deleted chromosome 4. The regional location was further refined through family studies using ANT1 intron and promoter nucleotide polymorphisms recognized by the restriction endonucleases MboII, NdeI, and HaeIII. Two alleles were found, each at a frequency of 0.5. The ANT1 locus was found to be closely linked to D4S139, D4S171, and the dominant skeletal muscle disease locus facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). A crossover that separated D4S171 and ANT1 from D4S139 was found. Since previous studies have established the chromosome 4 map order as centromere-D4S171-D4S139-FSHD, it was concluded that ANT1 is located on the side of D4S139, that is opposite from FSHD. This conclusion was confirmed by sequencing the exons and analyzing the transcripts of ANT1 from several FSHD patients and finding no evidence of aberration. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Assignment of the gene encoding the 5-HT{sub 1E} serotonin receptor (S31) (locus HTR1E) to human chromosome 6q14-q15

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, F.O.; Tasken, K.; Solberg, R.

    1994-08-01

    The human gene for the 5-HT{sub 1E} serotonin receptor was recently cloned, but no chromosomal assignment has yet been given to this gene (locus HTR1E). In this work, we demonstrate by two independent polymerase chain reactions on a panel of human-hamster somatic cell hybrid genomic DNA that the 5-HT{sub 1E} serotonin receptor gene is localized on human chromosome 6. Furthermore, by means of in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes, using the cloned 5-HT{sub 1E} receptor gene (phage clone {lambda}-S31) as a probe, we demonstrate that this gene is localized to the q14-q15 region on chromosome 6. Screening of genomic DNA from 15 unrelated Caucasian individuals, using as a probe the open reading frame of the cloned 5-HT{sub 1E} receptor gene, did not reveal any restriction fragment length polymorphisms with the enzymes BamHI, BanII, BglII, EcoRI, HincII, HindIII, HinfI, MspI, PstI, and PvuII. Since the 5-HT{sub 1E} receptor is found mainly in the cerebral cortex and abnormal function of the serotonergic system has been implicated in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, the precise chromosomal assignment of the 5-HT{sub 1E} receptor gene is the crucial first step toward the evaluation of this locus as a candidate for mutations in such syndromes. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Characterization of the DNF15S2locus on human chromosome 3: Identification of a gene coding for four kringle domains with homology to hepatocytes growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su; Stuart, L.A.; Degen, S.J.F. )

    1991-10-08

    A human genomic DNA library was screened by using conditions of reduced stringency with a bovine cDNA probe coding for the kringle domains in prothrombin in order to isolate the human prothrombin gene. Twelve positives were identified, three of which coded for prothrombin. Phage L5 was characterized in more detail because of its strong hybridization to the cDNA probe and its unique restriction map compare to the gene coding for human prothrombin. The gene in L5 was sequenced and found to code for a kringle-containing protein. A human liver cDNA library was screened by using a genomic probe from the gene in L5. cDNAs were isolated that contained sequence identical with regions in the gene in L5. Comparison of the cDNA with the gene indicated that the gene in L5 was composed of 18 exons separated by 17 intervening sequences and is 4,690 bp in length. The putative protein encoded by the gene in L5 contains four kringle domains followed by a serine protease-like domain. The authors propose that the putative L5 protein be tentatively called HGF-like protein until a function is identified. The DNA sequence of the gene and cDNA and its translated amino acid sequence were compared against GenBank and NBRF databases. The DNF15S2 locus has been proposed to code for one or more tumor suppressor genes since this locus is deleted in DNA from small cell lung carcinoma, other lung cancers, renal cell carcinoma, and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

  8. Rapid and Efficient Generation of Recombinant Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by Recombinase-mediated Cassette Exchange in the AAVS1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Chen, Yemiao; Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Helsen, Nicky; Vanhove, Jolien; Berckmans, Pieter; Cai, Qing; Vanuytsel, Kim; Raitano, Susanna; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Even with the revolution of gene-targeting technologies led by CRISPR-Cas9, genetic modification of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is still time consuming. Comparative studies that use recombinant lines with transgenes integrated into safe harbor loci could benefit from approaches that use site-specific targeted recombinases, like Cre or FLPe, which are more rapid and less prone to off-target effects. Such methods have been described, although they do not significantly outperform gene targeting in most aspects. Using Zinc-finger nucleases, we previously created a master cell line in the AAVS1 locus of hPSCs that contains a GFP-Hygromycin-tk expressing cassette, flanked by heterotypic FRT sequences. Here, we describe the procedures to perform FLPe recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) using this line. The master cell line is transfected with a RMCE donor vector, which contains a promoterless Puromycin resistance, and with FLPe recombinase. Application of both a positive (Puromycin) and negative (FIAU) selection program leads to the selection of RMCE without random integrations. RMCE generates fully characterized pluripotent polyclonal transgenic lines in 15 d with 100% efficiency. Despite the recently described limitations of the AAVS1 locus, the ease of the system paves the way for hPSC transgenesis in isogenic settings, is necessary for comparative studies, and enables semi-high-throughput genetic screens for gain/loss of function analysis that would otherwise be highly time consuming. PMID:27911376

  9. Non-methylated CpG-rich islands at the human alpha-globin locus: implications for evolution of the alpha-globin pseudogene.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, A P; Taggart, M H; Nicholls, R D; Higgs, D R

    1987-01-01

    We have analysed CpG frequency and CpG methylation across part of the human alpha-globin locus. Clusters of CpG at the alpha 1 and alpha 2 genes resemble the 'HpaII tiny fragment (HTF) islands' that are characteristic of mammalian 'housekeeping' genes: CpG frequency is not suppressed; testable CpGs are not methylated in DNA from erythroid or nonerythroid tissues, although flanking CpGs are methylated; CpG clusters are approximately 1.5 kb long and extend both upstream and downstream of the alpha-globin transcription start site. These features are not found at genes of the beta-globin locus. The alpha-globin pseudogene (psi alpha 1) is highly homologous to the alpha 2 and alpha 1 genes, but it lacks an HTF island. Sequence comparison shows that a high proportion of CpGs in the alpha 2 gene are substituted by TpG or CpA in the pseudogene. This strongly suggests that an ancestral HTF island at the pseudogene became methylated in the germline, and was lost due to the mutability of 5-methylcytosine. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3595568

  10. Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M.; Zingg, B. C.; Mohrenweiser, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Individuals with 50% of expected triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity have been previously identified in families during the screening of approximately 2,000 newborn children for quantitative variation in activity of 12 erythrocyte enzymes. The frequency of the trait was 9/1,713 individuals in the Caucasian population and 7/168 individuals among the African-American population studied. Genetic transmission of the trait was confirmed in all families. The frequency of the presumptive deficiency allele(s) at the TPI locus was greater than expected, given the reported incidence of clinical TPI deficiency. We report the molecular characterization of the variant alleles from seven African-American and three Caucasian individuals in this group of unrelated individuals. Three amino acid substitutions--a Gly-->Ala substitution at residue 72, a Val-->Met at residue 154, and a previously described Glu-->Asp substitution at residue 104--were identified in the Caucasian individuals. The substitutions occur at residues that are not directly involved in the active site but are highly conserved through evolutionary time, suggesting important roles for these residues in maintenance of subunit structure and conformation. The variant allele in the seven African-American individuals had nucleotide changes at positions -8 and -5 (5' of) from the transcription-initiation site. In three of these individuals, an additional T-->G substitution was detected in a TATA box-like sequence located 24 nucleotides 5' of the transcription-initiation site and on the same chromosome as the -5/-8 substitutions. Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified. Images Figure 3 PMID:8571957

  11. Molecular analysis of a series of alleles in humans with reduced activity at the triosephosphate isomerase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, M.; Zingg, B.C.; Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1996-02-01

    Individuals with 50% of expected triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) enzyme activity have been previously identified in families during the screening of {approximately}2,000 newborn children for quantitative variation in activity of 12 erythrocyte enzymes. The frequency of the trait was 9/1,713 individuals in the Caucasian population and 7/168 individuals among the African-American population studied. Genetic transmission of the trait was confirmed in all families. The frequency of the presumptive deficiency allele(s) at the TPI locus was greater than expected, given the reported incidence of clinical TPI deficiency. We report the molecular characterization of the variant alleles from seven African-American and three Caucasian individuals in this group of unrelated individuals. Three amino acid substitutions - a Gly {yields} Ala substitution at residue 72, a Val {yields} Met at residue 154, and a previously described Glu {yields} Asp substitution at residue 104 - were identified in the Caucasian individuals. The substitutions occur at residues that are not directly involved in the active site but are highly conserved through evolutionary time, suggesting important roles for these residues in maintenance of subunit structure and conformation. The variant allele in the seven African-American individuals had nucleotide changes at positions -8 and -5 (5{prime} of) from the transcription-initiation site. In three of these individuals, an additional T {yields} G substitution was detected in a TATA box-like sequence located 24 nucleotides 5{prime} of the transcription-initiation site and on the same chromosome as the -5/-8 substitutions. Thus, molecular alterations at the TPI locus were detected in 10 unrelated individuals in whom segregation of a phenotype of reduced TPI activity previously had been identified. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Genomic organization of the human osteopontin gene: Exclusion of the locus from a causative role in the pathogenesis of dentinogenesis imperfecta type II.

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, A.H.; Edwards, S.J.; Murray, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    Osteopontin (SPP1) is the principal phosphorylated glycoprotein of bone that is also expressed in a limited number of other tissues including dentine. In the current investigation the authors report the genomic organization of the SPP1 gene, which comprises seven exons, six of which contain coding sequence. The splice sites for exon donor and acceptor positions are in close agreement with previously published consensus sequences. Comparison of the human gene with its murine and bovine counterparts revealed a highly homologous organization. A highly informative short tandem repeat polymorphism isolated at the SPP1 locus showed no recombination with the autosomal dominant disorder dentinogenesis imperfecta type II. Nevertheless, sequencing of each exon in individuals affected by this disorder failed to reveal any disease-specific mutations. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. MAPK3 at the Autism-Linked Human 16p11.2 Locus Influences Precise Synaptic Target Selection at Drosophila Larval Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Mee; Park, Hae Ryoun; Lee, Ji Hye

    2017-01-01

    Proper synaptic function in neural circuits requires precise pairings between correct pre- and post-synaptic partners. Errors in this process may underlie development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Development of ASD can be influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we focused on a CNV occurring at the 16p11.2 locus in the human genome and investigated potential defects in synaptic connectivity caused by reduced activities of genes located in this region at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions, a well-established model synapse with stereotypic synaptic structures. A mutation of rolled, a Drosophila homolog of human mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) at the 16p11.2 locus, caused ectopic innervation of axonal branches and their abnormal defasciculation. The specificity of these phenotypes was confirmed by expression of wild-type rolled in the mutant background. Albeit to a lesser extent, we also observed ectopic innervation patterns in mutants defective in Cdk2, Gαq, and Gp93, all of which were expected to interact with Rolled MAPK3. A further genetic analysis in double heterozygous combinations revealed a synergistic interaction between rolled and Gp93. In addition, results from RT-qPCR analyses indicated consistently reduced rolled mRNA levels in Cdk2, Gαq, and Gp93 mutants. Taken together, these data suggest a central role of MAPK3 in regulating the precise targeting of presynaptic axons to proper postsynaptic targets, a critical step that may be altered significantly in ASD. PMID:28196412

  14. Targeted Gene Addition to a Safe Harbor locus in human CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Correction of X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Ravin, Suk See; Reik, Andreas; Liu, Pei-Qi; Li, Linhong; Wu, Xiaolin; Su, Ling; Raley, Castle; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Song, Alexander H.; Chan, Andy; Pearl, Jocelynn R.; Paschon, David E.; Lee, Janet; Newcombe, Hannah; Koontz, Sherry; Sweeney, Colin; Shivak, David A.; Zarember, Kol A.; Peshwa, Madhusudan V.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Malech, Harry L.

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy with genetically modified human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) may be safer using targeted integration (TI) of transgenes into a genomic ‘safe harbor’ site than random viral integration. We demonstrate that temporally optimized delivery of zinc finger nuclease mRNA via electroporation and adeno associated virus (AAV) 6 delivery of donor constructs in human HSCs approaches clinically relevant levels of TI into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Up to 58% Venus-positive HSCs with 6–16% human cell marking were observed following engraftment into mice. In HSCs from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), caused by mutations in the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase, TI of a gp91phox transgene into AAVS1 in resulted in ~15% gp91phox expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity in ex vivo–derived neutrophils. In mice transplanted with corrected HSCs, 4–11% of human cells in the bone marrow expressed gp91phox. This method for TI into AAVS1 may be broadly applicable to correction of other monogenic diseases. PMID:26950749

  15. Methionine synthase: high-resolution mapping of the human gene and evaluation as a candidate locus for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Brody, L C; Baker, P J; Chines, P S; Musick, A; Molloy, A M; Swanson, D A; Kirke, P N; Ghosh, S; Scott, J M; Mills, J L

    1999-08-01

    Periconceptual folate supplementation has been found to prevent the occurrence of many neural tube defects (NTDs). Consequently, genetic variation in folate metabolism genes is expected to contribute to the risk for neural tube defects. Methionine synthase catalyzes the vitamin B(12)-dependent conversion of homocysteine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to methionine and tetrahydrofolate. The observation that homocysteine and vitamin B(12) levels are independent predictors of NTD risk suggested that methionine synthase could be a candidate gene for NTDs. To assess the role of the MS gene in NTDs, we performed high-resolution physical mapping of the MS locus, isolated highly polymorphic markers linked to the MS gene, and tested for an association between specific MS alleles and NTDs. We mapped the MS gene to a position between 909 and 913 cR(10000) on chromosome 1 by radiation hybrid mapping. Polymorphic markers D1S1567 and D1S1568 map to locations no more than 900 and 194 kb from the MS gene, respectively. The segregation of these polymorphic markers was measured in 85 Irish NTD families. No allele of either marker showed a significant association with NTDs using the transmission disequilibrium test. A lack of association was also observed for the D1919G missense mutation within the gene. Our results suggest that inherited variation in the MS gene does not contribute to NTD risk in this population.

  16. Synthetic human beta-globin 5'HS2 constructs function as locus control regions only in multicopy transgene concatamers.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J; Talbot, D; Dillon, N; Grosveld, F

    1993-01-01

    Transgenes linked to the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) are transcribed in a copy-dependent manner that is independent of the integration site. It has previously been shown that the LCR 5'HS2 region does not require its NF-E2 dimer binding site for LCR activity. In this paper we analyse synthetic 5'HS2 core constructs containing point mutations in the other factor binding sites 3' of the NF-E2 dimer site. The results show that 5'HS2 core is a partially active LCR that functions in a concatamer of at least two copies but not when present as a single copy in transgenic mice and that no single binding site within 5'HS2 is required for position-independent expression. In addition, the H-BP factor is identical to upstream stimulatory factor (USF) and full enhancement levels by 5'HS2 core in MEL cells require a combination of all the factor binding sites. We suggest that 5'HS2 cores in a concatamer interact with each other to establish an area of open chromatin and that this process may be the basis of LCR function. Images PMID:8428573

  17. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  18. Assignment of the locus for Waardenburg syndrome type I to human chromosome 2q37 and possible homology to the Splotch mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Foy, C; Newton, V; Wellesley, D; Harris, R; Read, A P

    1990-01-01

    We have demonstrated close linkage between the locus for the autosomal dominant Waardenburg syndrome type I and the placental alkaline phosphatase locus on chromosome 2q37. In five families the peak lod score was 4.76 at a recombination fraction of .023. In the mouse the Splotch locus maps to near the homologous position. Splotch mice have white spotting and hearing defects, suggesting that Splotch may be the murine homologue of Waardenburg syndrome type I. PMID:2339698

  19. Efficient Modification of the CCR5 Locus in Primary Human T Cells With megaTAL Nuclease Establishes HIV-1 Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Romano Ibarra, Guillermo S; Paul, Biswajit; Sather, Blythe D; Younan, Patrick M; Sommer, Karen; Kowalski, John P; Hale, Malika; Stoddard, Barry; Jarjour, Jordan; Astrakhan, Alexander; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rawlings, David J

    2016-01-01

    A naturally occurring 32-base pair deletion of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 has demonstrated protection against HIV infection of human CD4+ T cells. Recent genetic engineering approaches using engineered nucleases to disrupt the gene and mimic this mutation show promise for HIV therapy. We developed a megaTAL nuclease targeting the third extracellular loop of CCR5 that we delivered to primary human T cells by mRNA transfection. The CCR5 megaTAL nuclease established resistance to HIV in cell lines and disrupted the expression of CCR5 on primary human CD4+ T cells with a high efficiency, achieving up to 80% modification of the locus in primary cells as measured by molecular analysis. Gene-modified cells engrafted at levels equivalent to unmodified cells when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, genetically modified CD4+ cells were preferentially expanded during HIV-1 infection in vivo in an immunodeficient mouse model. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting CCR5 in primary T cells using an engineered megaTAL nuclease, and the potential to use gene-modified cells to reconstitute a patient's immune system and provide protection from HIV infection. PMID:27741222

  20. A boundary of long-range G+C% mosaic domains in the human MHC locus: Pseudoautosomal boundary-like sequence exists near the boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Sugaya, Kimihiko; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi

    1995-01-01

    The human genome is composed of long-range G+C% (GC%) mosaic structures related to chromosome bands. We found the human MHC locus to be an example of megabase-level GC% mosaic structures and predicted a possible boundary of the megabase-level domains within an undercharacterized 450-kb region harboring the junction of MHC classes II and III. Chromosome walking of the 450-kb region and base-compositional analysis precisely located the boundary of the mosaic domains, disclosing a sharp GC% transition. Near the transition point there was a 20-kb dense Alu cluster, a 30-kb dense LINE-1 cluster, and a sequence highly homologous with the pseudoautosomal boundary of the short arms of human sex chromosomes (PAB1X and PAB1Y); PAB1X and PAB1Y are the interface between sex-specific and pseudoautosomal regions. Many PAB1XY-like sequences (PABLs) were detected by hybridization against genomic DNA, and the new sequences defined the complete form of PABLs to be about 650 nt. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lei; Carr, Aprell L.; Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary; Li, Lei

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  2. General implications for CpG hot spot mutations: methylation patterns of the human iduronate-2-sulfatase gene locus.

    PubMed

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Orii, Koji O; Bi, Y; Gutierrez, Monica A; Nishioka, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Kondo, Naomi; Orii, Tadao; Noguchi, Akihiko; Sly, William S

    2004-06-01

    The methylation pattern at CpG sites of a housekeeping gene correlates with the likelihood of mutation. Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type II, an X-linked disorder, results from the deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). In these patients, over 35% of independent point mutations at the IDS gene locus were found at CpG sites as transitional events. To gain insight into the relationship between methylation status and CpG hot spot mutations, we investigated patterns of cytosine methylation in the entire IDS gene, except for introns 4-8. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was performed on the normal leukocyte DNA. Our data show that: 1) cytosine methylation at the CpG sites was extensive, except for those present from the promoter region to a portion of intron 3; 2) a sharp boundary of methylated-nonmethylated regions was observed at the 5'-flanking region, whereas a gradual change in methylation was observed in the 2.0-kb segment in the 3'-flanking region; 3) the boundary of the 5'-flanking region contained multiple Sp1 sites and the TATA box; 4) the CpG sites in exons 1 and 2 were hypomethylated and were associated only with rare transitional mutations, while the CpG sites in exon 3 were also hypomethylated, yet were associated with a high rate of transitional mutations; 5) there was no striking sex difference in the methylation patterns in active alleles; and, 6) the methylation in both strands was symmetrical, except at the boundary of methylated-unmethylated regions.

  3. Two Functional Copies of the DGCR6 Gene Are Present on Human Chromosome 22q11 Due to a Duplication of an Ancestral Locus

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Lisa; Stankiewicz, Pavel; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Pandita, Raj K.; Shaffer, Lisa; Lupski, James; Morrow, Bernice E.

    2001-01-01

    The DGCR6 (DiGeorge critical region) gene encodes a putative protein with sequence similarity to gonadal (gdl), a Drosophila melanogaster gene of unknown function. We mapped the DGCR6 gene to chromosome 22q11 within a low copy repeat, termed sc11.1a, and identified a second copy of the gene, DGCR6L, within the duplicate locus, termed sc11.1b. Both sc11.1 repeats are deleted in most persons with velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), and they map immediately adjacent and internal to the low copy repeats, termed LCR22, that mediate the deletions associated with VCFS/DGS. We sequenced genomic clones from both loci and determined that the putative initiator methionine is located further upstream than originally described, but in a position similar to the mouse and chicken orthologs. DGCR6L encodes a highly homologous, functional copy of DGCR6, with some base changes rendering amino acid differences. Expression studies of the two genes indicate that both genes are widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues. Evolutionary studies using FISH mapping in several different species of ape combined with sequence analysis of DGCR6 in a number of different primate species indicate that the duplication is at least 12 million years old and may date back to before the divergence of Catarrhines from Platyrrhines, 35 mya. These data suggest that there has been selective evolutionary pressure toward the functional maintenance of both paralogs. Interestingly, a full-length HERV-K provirus integrated into the sc11.1a locus after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans. PMID:11157784

  4. An Intronic Locus Control Region Plays an Essential Role in the Establishment of an Autonomous Hepatic Chromatin Domain for the Human Vitamin D-Binding Protein Gene▿

    PubMed Central

    Hiroki, Tomoko; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Cooke, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    The human vitamin D-binding protein (hDBP) gene exists in a cluster of four liver-expressed genes. A minimal hDBP transgene, containing a defined set of liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs), is robustly expressed in mouse liver in a copy-number-dependent manner. Here we evaluate these HSs for function. Deletion of HSI, located 5′ to the promoter (kb −2.1) had no significant effect on hDBP expression. In contrast, deletion of HSIV and HSV from intron 1 repressed hDBP expression and eliminated copy number dependency without a loss of liver specificity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed peaks of histone H3 and H4 acetylation coincident with HSIV in the intact hDBP locus. This region contains a conserved array of binding sites for the liver-enriched transcription factor C/EBP. In vitro studies revealed selective binding of C/EBPα to HSIV. In vivo occupancy of C/EBPα at HSIV was demonstrated in hepatic chromatin, and depletion of C/EBPα in a hepatic cell line decreased hDBP expression. A nonredundant role for C/EBPα was confirmed in vivo by demonstrating a reduction of hDBP expression in C/EBPα-null mice. Parallel studies revealed in vivo occupancy of the liver-enriched factor HNF1α at HSIII (at kb 0.13) within the hDBP promoter. These data demonstrate a critical role for elements within intron 1 in the establishment of an autonomous and productive hDBP chromatin locus and suggest that this function is dependent upon C/EBPα. Cooperative interactions between these intronic complexes and liver-restricted complexes within the target promoter are likely to underlie the consistency and liver specificity of the hDBP activation. PMID:17785430

  5. Two functional copies of the DGCR6 gene are present on human chromosome 22q11 due to a duplication of an ancestral locus.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, L; Stankiewicz, P; Spiteri, E; Pandita, R K; Shaffer, L; Lupski, J R; Morrow, B E; Lupski, J

    2001-02-01

    The DGCR6 (DiGeorge critical region) gene encodes a putative protein with sequence similarity to gonadal (gdl), a Drosophila melanogaster gene of unknown function. We mapped the DGCR6 gene to chromosome 22q11 within a low copy repeat, termed sc11.1a, and identified a second copy of the gene, DGCR6L, within the duplicate locus, termed sc11.1b. Both sc11.1 repeats are deleted in most persons with velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS), and they map immediately adjacent and internal to the low copy repeats, termed LCR22, that mediate the deletions associated with VCFS/DGS. We sequenced genomic clones from both loci and determined that the putative initiator methionine is located further upstream than originally described, but in a position similar to the mouse and chicken orthologs. DGCR6L encodes a highly homologous, functional copy of DGCR6, with some base changes rendering amino acid differences. Expression studies of the two genes indicate that both genes are widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues. Evolutionary studies using FISH mapping in several different species of ape combined with sequence analysis of DGCR6 in a number of different primate species indicate that the duplication is at least 12 million years old and may date back to before the divergence of Catarrhines from Platyrrhines, 35 mya. These data suggest that there has been selective evolutionary pressure toward the functional maintenance of both paralogs. Interestingly, a full-length HERV-K provirus integrated into the sc11.1a locus after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans.

  6. A melanocyte-specific gene, Pmel 17, maps near the silver coat color locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is in a syntenic region on human chromosome 12

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Chintamaneni, C.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kim, K.K. ); Kozak, C.A. ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N. ); Barton, D.; Francke, U. )

    1991-10-15

    Melanocytes preferentially express an mRNA species, Pmel 17, whose protein product cross-reacts with anti-tyrosinase antibodies and whose expression correlates with the melanin content. The authors have now analyzed the deduced protein structure and mapped its chromosomal location in mouse and human. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the Pmel 17 cDNA showed that the protein is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 68,600. The Pmel 17 protein contains a putative leader sequence and a potential membrane anchor segment, which indicates that this may be a membrane-associated protein in melanocytes. The deduced protein contains five potential N-glycosylation sites and relatively high levels of serine and threonine. Three repeats of a 26-amino acid motif appear in the middle of the molecule. The human Pmel 17 gene, designated D12S53E, maps to chromosome 12, region 12pter-q21; and the mouse homologue, designated D12S53Eh, maps to the distal region of mouse chromosome 10, a region also known to carry the coat color locus si (silver).

  7. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  8. Population genetic analysis of the DARC locus (Duffy) reveals adaptation from standing variation associated with malaria resistance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Taravella, Angela M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Sikora, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The human DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes a membrane-bound chemokine receptor crucial for the infection of red blood cells by Plasmodium vivax, a major causative agent of malaria. Of the three major allelic classes segregating in human populations, the FY*O allele has been shown to protect against P. vivax infection and is at near fixation in sub-Saharan Africa, while FY*B and FY*A are common in Europe and Asia, respectively. Due to the combination of strong geographic differentiation and association with malaria resistance, DARC is considered a canonical example of positive selection in humans. Despite this, details of the timing and mode of selection at DARC remain poorly understood. Here, we use sequencing data from over 1,000 individuals in twenty-one human populations, as well as ancient human genomes, to perform a fine-scale investigation of the evolutionary history of DARC. We estimate the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the most common FY*O haplotype to be 42 kya (95% CI: 34–49 kya). We infer the FY*O null mutation swept to fixation in Africa from standing variation with very low initial frequency (0.1%) and a selection coefficient of 0.043 (95% CI:0.011–0.18), which is among the strongest estimated in the human genome. We estimate the TMRCA of the FY*A mutation in non-Africans to be 57 kya (95% CI: 48–65 kya) and infer that, prior to the sweep of FY*O, all three alleles were segregating in Africa, as highly diverged populations from Asia and ≠Khomani San hunter-gatherers share the same FY*A haplotypes. We test multiple models of admixture that may account for this observation and reject recent Asian or European admixture as the cause. PMID:28282382

  9. Nuclear cap binding protein maps close to the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) locus in human and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, B.P.; Obermayr, F.; Frischauf, A.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the localization of the nuclear cap binding protein (NCBP) to human chromosome 9 and mouse chromosome 4 using somatic cell hybridization analysis. NCBP plays an important role in the splicing and transport of messenger-RNA. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  10. In vivo Cigarette Smoke Exposure Decreases CCL20, SLPI, and BD-1 Secretion by Human Primary Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jukosky, James; Gosselin, Benoit J.; Foley, Leah; Dechen, Tenzin; Fiering, Steven; Crane-Godreau, Mardi A.

    2016-01-01

    Smokers and individuals exposed to second-hand cigarette smoke have a higher risk of developing chronic sinus and bronchial infections. This suggests that cigarette smoke (CS) has adverse effects on immune defenses against pathogens. Epithelial cells are important in airway innate immunity and are the first line of defense against infection. Airway epithelial cells not only form a physical barrier but also respond to the presence of microbes by secreting antimicrobials, cytokines, and chemokines. These molecules can lyse infectious microorganisms and/or provide signals critical to the initiation of adaptive immune responses. We examined the effects of CS on antimicrobial secretions of primary human nasal epithelial cells (PHNECs). Compared to non-CS-exposed individuals, PHNEC from in vivo CS-exposed individuals secreted less chemokine ligand (C-C motif) 20 (CCL20), Beta-defensin 1 (BD-1), and SLPI apically, less BD-1 and SLPI basolaterally, and more CCL20 basolaterally. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure in vitro decreased the apical secretion of CCL20 and beta-defensin 1 by PHNEC from non-CS-exposed individuals. Exposing PHNEC from non-CS exposed to CSE also significantly decreased the levels of many mRNA transcripts that are involved in immune signaling. Our results show that in vivo or in vitro exposure to CS alters the secretion of key antimicrobial peptides from PHNEC, but that in vivo CS exposure is a much more important modifier of antimicrobial peptide secretion. Based on the gene expression data, it appears that CSE disrupts multiple immune signaling pathways in PHNEC. Our results provide mechanistic insight into how CS exposure alters the innate immune response and increases an individual’s susceptibility to pathogen infection. PMID:26793127

  11. Insights into the molecular mechanism for type 2 diabetes susceptibility at the KCNQ1 locus from temporal changes in imprinting status in human islets.

    PubMed

    Travers, Mary E; Mackay, Deborah J G; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Berry, Andrew; Johnson, Paul R; Hanley, Neil; Groop, Leif C; McCarthy, Mark I; Gloyn, Anna L

    2013-03-01

    The molecular basis of type 2 diabetes predisposition at most established susceptibility loci remains poorly understood. KCNQ1 maps within the 11p15.5 imprinted domain, a region with an established role in congenital growth phenotypes. Variants intronic to KCNQ1 influence diabetes susceptibility when maternally inherited. By use of quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of human adult islet and fetal pancreas samples, we investigated the imprinting status of regional transcripts and aimed to determine whether type 2 diabetes risk alleles influence regional DNA methylation and gene expression. The results demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ by developmental stage. CDKN1C showed monoallelic expression in both adult and fetal tissue, whereas PHLDA2, SLC22A18, and SLC22A18AS were biallelically expressed in both tissues. Temporal changes in imprinting were observed for KCNQ1 and KCNQ1OT1, with monoallelic expression in fetal tissues and biallelic expression in adult samples. Genotype at the type 2 diabetes risk variant rs2237895 influenced methylation levels of regulatory sequence in fetal pancreas but without demonstrable effects on gene expression. We demonstrate that CDKN1C, KCNQ1, and KCNQ1OT1 are most likely to mediate diabetes susceptibility at the KCNQ1 locus and identify temporal differences in imprinting status and methylation effects, suggesting that diabetes risk effects may be mediated in early development.

  12. Molecular mapping of a recombination hotspot located in the second intron of the human TAP2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M.; Erlich, H.

    1995-06-01

    Recombination across the HLA class II region is not randomly distributed, as indicated by both strong linkage disequilibrium within the 100 kb encompassing the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 loci and complete equilibrium between TAP1 and TAP2, the closest variant sites of which are <15 kb. In an attempt to explain these observations, 39 novel polymorphic markers in a region encompassing the TAP, LMP, and DOB genes were used to delineate the site of crossover in 11 class II recombinant chromosomes. SSCP demonstrated that two recombination events occurred within an 850-bp interval in the second intron of TAP2, which separates the variant sites of TAP1 and TAP2. These data indicate the presence of a recombination hotspot, the first to be identified from the analysis of familial transmission in the human major histocompatibility complex. The region of crossover was cloned and sequenced from one of the recombinants, further defining the crossover site to a 138-bp segment nested within the 850-bp region. This represents the most precisely defined region of recombination in the human genome. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. An historical perspective on "The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus".

    PubMed

    Kidd, Kenneth K; Pakstis, Andrew J; Yun, Libing

    2014-04-01

    Human population genetics is a completely different science today compared to two decades ago, at least at the empiric level. Our paper [Chang (Hum Genet 98:91-101, 1996a)] demonstrated that three different alleles were common when one considered many populations although other low frequency alleles occurred. Because previous work had been largely done on European subjects, our findings involved 36 distinct populations and showed that East Asian populations had nearly lost the 7-repeat allele, and that Native American populations had the highest frequencies of that allele globally, was a significant early empiric demonstration of the potential magnitude of population variation at important genes. There are thousands of loci tested on many of the same populations and the gene frequency pattern seen for the DRD4 7-repeat allele is seen at other loci, arguing that this pattern commonly reflects the pattern of divergence of populations and accumulated random genetic drift.

  14. Identification of three microsatellites at the human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) locus, a gene potentially involved in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borot, N.; Dolbois, L.; Coppin, H.

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding MOG is located on the short arm of chromosome 6, less than 120 kb telomeric to HLA-F. We have cloned the MOG gene from a cosmid library. Using tandemly repeated dinucleotides, we probed the genomic region containing the human MOG gene in order to identify and localize polymorphic markers: three microsatellites were characterized in that region. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based technique, we studied length variability for these three markers among 173 healthy individuals and 167 multiple sclerosis patients. Heterozygosity varied from 50% to 60% according to the marker. Pairwise studies showed significant linkage disequilibrium between some alleles. Multiple sclerosis patients and controls were not shown to have statistically significant differences in the MOG region. Further studies on the coding regions are in progress in order to exclude any involvement of the MOG gene in multiple sclerosis.

  15. Impact of Global Fxr Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis and Genetic Variation in the FXR Locus in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nijmeijer, Rian M.; Schaap, Frank G.; Smits, Alexander J. J.; Kremer, Andreas E.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Kroese, Alfons B. A.; Rijkers, Ger. T.; Schipper, Marguerite E. I.; Verheem, André; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Erpecum, Karel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious complications often occur in acute pancreatitis, related to impaired intestinal barrier function, with prolonged disease course and even mortality as a result. The bile salt nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is expressed in the ileum, liver and other organs including the pancreas, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB activation and is implicated in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity and preventing bacterial overgrowth and translocation. Here we explore, with the aid of complementary animal and human experiments, the potential role of FXR in acute pancreatitis. Methods Experimental acute pancreatitis was induced using the CCK-analogue cerulein in wild-type and Fxr-/- mice. Severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed using histology and a semi-quantitative scoring system. Ileal permeability was analyzed in vitro by Ussing chambers and an in vivo permeability assay. Gene expression of Fxr and Fxr target genes was studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Serum FGF19 levels were determined by ELISA in acute pancreatitis patients and healthy volunteers. A genetic association study in 387 acute pancreatitis patients and 853 controls was performed using 9 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the complete FXR gene and two additional functional SNPs. Results In wild-type mice with acute pancreatitis, ileal transepithelial resistance was reduced and ileal mRNA expression of Fxr target genes Fgf15, SHP, and IBABP was decreased. Nevertheless, Fxr-/- mice did not exhibit a more severe acute pancreatitis than wild-type mice. In patients with acute pancreatitis, FGF19 levels were lower than in controls. However, there were no associations of FXR SNPs or haplotypes with susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, or its course, outcome or etiology. Conclusion We found no evidence for a major role of FXR in acute human or murine pancreatitis. The observed altered Fxr activity during the course of disease may be a

  16. Comment on "Modafinil shifts human locus coeruleus to low-tonic, high-phasic activity during functional MRI" and "Homeostatic sleep pressure and responses to sustained attention in the suprachiasmatic area".

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Snyder, Abraham Z; Shulman, Gordon L; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2010-04-16

    Minzenberg et al. (Reports, 12 December 2008, p. 1700) and Schmidt et al. (Reports, 24 April 2009, p. 516) reported blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the human locus coeruleus (LC). Here, we show that these LC responses do not correspond to the anatomical location of the LC and present cautionary data concerning the quality of BOLD signals measured from the LC using standard functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition parameters.

  17. Molecular analysis and comparison of radiation-induced large deletions of the HPRT locus in primary human skin fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Y.; Park, M. S.; Okinaka, R. T.; Chen, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic alterations in gamma-ray- and alpha-particle-induced HPRT mutants were examined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. A total of 39-63% of gamma-ray-induced and 31-57% of alpha-particle-induced mutants had partial or total deletions of the HPRT gene. The proportion of these deletion events was dependent on radiation dose, and at the resolution limits employed there were no significant differences between the spectra induced by equitoxic doses of alpha particles (0.2-0.4 Gy) and gamma rays (3 Gy). The molecular nature of the deletions was analyzed by the use of sequence tagged site (STS) primers and PCR amplification as a "probe" for specific regions of the human X chromosome within the Xq26 region. These STSs were closely linked and spanned regions approximately 1.7 Mbp from the telomeric side and 1.7 Mbp from the centromeric side of the HPRT gene. These markers include: DXS53, 299R, DXS79, yH3L, 3/19, PR1, PR25, H2, yH3R, 1/44, 1/67, 1/1, DXS86, D8C6, DXS10 and DXS144. STS analyses indicated that the maximum size of total deletions in radiation-induced HPRT mutants can be greater than 2.7 Mbp and deletion size appears to be dependent on radiation dose. There were no apparent differences in the sizes of the deletions induced by alpha particles or gamma rays. On the other hand, deletions containing portions of the HPRT gene were observed to be 800 kbp or less, and the pattern of the partial deletion induced by alpha particles appeared to be different from that induced by gamma rays.

  18. Image simulation using LOCUS

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Roberts, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The LOCUS data base program has been used to simulate images and to solve simple equations. This has been accomplished by making each record (which normally would represent a data entry)represent sequenced or random number pairs.

  19. Pretreatment with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor virus replication and inflammation in a perinatal lamb model of RSV infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increasingly recognized as a perinatal regulator of lung maturation and surfactant protein expression. Innate immune components including surfactant proteins A and D, and beta defensins have putative antimicrobial activity against pulmonary pathogens inc...

  20. Ethylene oxide: induction of specific-locus mutations in the ad-3 region of heterokaryon 12 of Neurospora crassa and implications for genetic risk assessment of human exposure in the workplace.

    PubMed

    de Serres, F J; Brockman, H E

    1995-04-01

    mutagenic specificity of other chemical mutagens and carcinogens in the ad-3 forward-mutation assay in Neurospora. The utilization of the Neurospora specific-locus data on ETO and those from experiments in the mouse and Drosophila, by others, is discussed for genetic risk assessment of germ-cell effects resulting from human exposure to ETO in the workplace.

  1. Improving resolution of public health surveillance for human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection: 3 years of prospective multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone unrecognised, as well as sources of sporadic and outbreak cases. This paper describes the dynamics of human STM infection in a prospective study of STM MLVA typing for public health surveillance. Methods During a three-year period between August 2007 and September 2010 all confirmed STM isolates were fingerprinted using MLVA as part of the New South Wales (NSW) state public health surveillance program. Results A total of 4,920 STM isolates were typed and a subset of 4,377 human isolates was included in the analysis. The STM spectrum was dominated by a small number of phage types, including DT170 (44.6% of all isolates), DT135 (13.9%), DT9 (10.8%), DT44 (4.5%) and DT126 (4.5%). There was a difference in the discriminatory power of MLVA types within endemic phage types: Simpson's index of diversity ranged from 0.109 and 0.113 for DTs 9 and 135 to 0.172 and 0.269 for DTs 170 and 44, respectively. 66 distinct STM clusters were observed ranging in size from 5 to 180 cases and in duration from 4 weeks to 25 weeks. 43 clusters had novel MLVA types and 23 represented recurrences of previously recorded MLVA types. The diversity of the STM population remained relatively constant over time. The gradual increase in the number of STM cases during the study was not related to significant changes in the number of clusters or their size. 667 different MLVA types or patterns were observed. Conclusions Prospective MLVA typing of STM allows the detection of community outbreaks and demonstrates the sustained level of STM diversity that accompanies the increasing incidence of human STM infections. The monitoring of novel and persistent MLVA types offers a new benchmark for STM surveillance. A part of this study was presented at the MEEGID × (Molecular Epidemiology

  2. Specific-locus mutation rates in the mouse following inhalation of ethylene oxide, and application of the results to estimation of human genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Russell, L B; Cumming, R B; Hunsicker, P R

    1984-12-01

    Male (101 X C3H)F1 mice were exposed in an inhalation chamber to ethylene oxide (EtO) in air at a concentration of (generally) 255 ppm. After accumulating total exposures of 101 000 or 150 000 ppm.h in 16-23 weeks, the males were mated to T-stock females for a standard specific-locus mutation-rate study in which 71387 offspring were observed. The spermatogonial stem-cell mutation rate at each exposure level, as well as the combined result, does not differ significantly from the historical control frequency. At the lower and higher exposure levels, the results rule out (at the 5% significance level) an induced frequency that is, respectively, 0.97 and 6.33 times the spontaneous rate; the combined results rule out a multiple of 1.64. The relationship between mouse spermatogonial stem-cell mutation rates and EtO-induced testis ethylations was compared with the relationship between Drosophila post-stem-cell mutation rates and sperm ethylations (Lee, 1980). The comparison does not rule out equal mutability per ethylation; but it cannot prove parallelism. An assessment of the mouse-Drosophila relationship will require a more efficient alkylator than EtO and the use of comparable germ-cell stages. More meaningful conclusions may be drawn by utilizing the data for direct estimation of human risk by expressing the induced mutation frequency that is ruled out (at the 5% significance level) as a multiple of control rate and extrapolating to human exposure levels. The probable absence of major stem-cell killing (and thus, possibly, cell selection) by EtO indicates that such extrapolation probably does not produce an underestimate. For a human exposure concentration of 0.1 ppm on working days during the reproductive lifespan, the mouse experimental results rule out (at the 5% significance level) an induced spermatogonial stem-cell gene mutation rate greater than 8% of the spontaneous rate; for 1.0 ppm, they rule out an induced rate roughly equal to the spontaneous rate. The

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

    2008-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

  4. Distribution and factors associated with Salmonella enterica genotypes in a diverse population of humans and animals in Qatar using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu C; Scaria, Joy; Ibraham, Mariamma; Doiphode, Sanjay; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of bacterial foodborne illness around the world. Understanding the sources of this pathogen and the associated factors that exacerbate its risk to humans will help in developing risk mitigation strategies. The genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates recovered from human gastroenteritis cases and food animals in Qatar were investigated in the hope of shedding light on these sources, their possible transmission routes, and any associated factors. A repeat cross-sectional study was conducted in which the samples and associated data were collected from both populations (gastroenteritis cases and animals). Salmonella isolates were initially analyzed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the genetic diversity and clonality. The relatedness among the isolates was assessed using the minimum spanning tree (MST). Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs) were identified in this study; among them, seven were novel, including ST1695, ST1696, ST1697, ST1698, ST1699, ST1702, and ST1703. The pattern of overall ST distribution was diverse; in particular, it was revealed that ST11 and ST19 were the most common sequence types, presenting 29.5% and 11.5% within the whole population. In addition, 20 eBurst Groups (eBGs) were identified in our data, which indicates that ST11 and ST19 belonged to eBG4 and eBG1, respectively. In addition, the potential association between the putative risk factors and eBGs were evaluated. There was no significant clustering of these eBGs by season; however, a significant association was identified in terms of nationality in that Qataris were six times more likely to present with eBG1 compared to non-Qataris. In the MST analysis, four major clusters were presented, namely, ST11, ST19, ST16, and ST31. The linkages between the clusters alluded to a possible transmission route. The results of the study have provided insight into the ST distributions of S. enterica and

  5. Genetic mapping in human and mouse of the locus encoding TRBP, a protein that binds the TAR region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, C.A.; Gatignol, A.; Graham, K.

    1995-01-01

    Productive infection with HIV-1, the virus responsible for AIDS, requires the involvement of host cell factors for completion of the replicative cycle, but the identification of these factors and elucidation of their specific functions has been difficult. A human cDNA, TRBP, was recently cloned and characterized as a positive regulator of gene expression that binds to the TAR region of the HIV-1 genome. Here we demonstrate that this factor is encoded by a gene, TARBP2, that maps to human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 15, and we also identify and map one human pseudogene (TARBP2P) and two mouse TRBP-related sequences. The map location of the expressed gene identifies it as a candidate for the previously identified factor encoded on human chromosome 12 that has been shown to be important for expression of HIV-1 genes. Western blotting indicates that despite high sequence conservation in human and mouse, the TARBP2 protein differs in apparent size in primate and rodent cells. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. An extremely polymorphic locus on the short arm of the human X chromosome with homology to the long arm of the Y chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, R G; Nelson, C A; Brown, V A; Page, D C; Donis-Keller, H

    1989-01-01

    A genomic DNA clone named CRI-S232 reveals an array of highly polymorphic restriction fragments on the X chromosome as well as a set of non-polymorphic fragments on the Y chromosome. Every individual has multiple bands, highly variable in length, in every restriction enzyme digest tested. One set of bands is found in all males, and co-segregates with the Y chromosome in families. These sequences have been regionally localized by deletion mapping to the long arm of the Y chromosome. Segregation analysis in families shows that all of the remaining fragments co-segregate as a single locus on the X chromosome, each haplotype consisting of three or more polymorphic fragments. This locus (designated DXS278) is linked to several markers on Xp, the closest being dic56 (DXS143) at a distance of 2 cM. Although it is outside the pseudoautosomal region, the S232 X chromosome locus shows linkage to pseudoautosomal markers in female meiosis. In determining the X chromosome S232 haplotypes of 138 offspring among 19 families, we observed three non-parental haplotypes. Two were recombinant haplotypes, consistent with a cross-over among the S232-hybridizing fragments in maternal meiosis. The third was a mutant haplotype arising on a paternal X chromosome. The locus identified by CRI-S232 may therefore be a recombination and mutation hotspot. Images PMID:2911472

  7. Correlation between genotypic diversity, lipooligosaccharide gene locus class variation and Caco-2 invasion potential of Campylobacter jejuni from human and chicken meat origin: a contribution to virulotyping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant interest in studying the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Campylobacter jejuni stemmed from its potential role in post-infection paralytic disorders. In this study we present PCR screening of five LOS locus classes (A, B, C, D, and E), for a collection of 117 C. jejuni strains from chicken m...

  8. Characterization of a human X-linked gene from the DXS732E locus in the candidate region for the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) gene (Xq13.1)

    SciTech Connect

    Gault, J.; Zonana, J.; Zeltinger, J.

    1994-09-01

    A conserved mouse genomic clone was used to identify a homologous human genomic clone (the DXS732E locus), which was subsequently employed to isolate cDNAs from a human fetal brain library. Nine unique overlapping cDNAs were isolated, and sequences analysis of 3.9 kb identified a putative 1 kb ORF. GRAIL analysis of the sequence supported the hypothesis that the putative ORF was coding sequence, and Prosite analysis of the putative ORF identified potential glycosylation and phosphorylation sites. The 5{prime} end of the gene maps within a CpG island, and comparison of cDNA sequences indicate the gene is alternatively spliced at its 3{prime} end. Northern analysis and RT-PCR indicate that two different sized messages appear to be expressed with the gene expressed in human fetal kidney, intestine, brain, and muscle. The gene is expressed in 77 day human skin, a time when hair follicle formation occurs. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) results in the abnormal morphogenesis of hair, teeth and eccrine sweat glands. A positional cloning strategy towards cloning the EDA gene had been used, and deletion and X-autosome translocation patients have been useful in further delimiting the EDA region. The present gene at the DXS732E locus is partially deleted in one EDA patient who does not have other apparent abnormalities. No rearrangements of the gene have been detected in two female X-autosome translocation EDA patients, nor in four additional male patients with submicroscopic molecular deletions.

  9. Determination of Hyaluronan Molecular Mass Distribution in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Han; Amin, Ripal; Ye, Xin; De La Motte, Carol A.; Cowman, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) in human milk mediates host responses to microbial infection, via TLR4- and CD44-dependent signaling. Signaling by HA is generally size-specific. Because pure HA with average molecular mass (M) of 35 kDa can elicit a protective response in intestinal epithelial cells, it has been proposed that human milk HA may have a bioactive low M component. Here we report the size distribution of HA in human milk samples from twenty unique donors. A new method for HA analysis, employingion exchange (IEX) chromatography to fractionate HA by size, and specific quantification of each size fraction by competitive Enzyme Linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA), was developed. When separated into four fractions, milk HA with M ≤ 20 kDa, M ≈20-60 kDa, and M ≈ 60-110 kDa comprised an average of 1.5%, 1.4% and 2% of the total HA, respectively. The remaining 95% was HA with M≥110 kDa. Electrophoretic analysis of the higher M HA from thirteen samples showed nearly identical M distributions, with an average M of ∼440 kDa. This higher M HA component in human milk is proposed to bind to CD44 and to enhance human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) induction by the low M HA components. PMID:25579786

  10. Recurrent mutation, gene conversion, or recombination at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase locus: evidence in French-Canadians and a catalog of mutations.

    PubMed Central

    John, S W; Rozen, R; Scriver, C R; Laframboise, R; Laberge, C

    1990-01-01

    The codon 408 mutation (CGG----TGG, Arg----Trp) in exon 12 of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene occurs on haplotype 1 in French-Canadians; elsewhere this mutation (R408W) occurs on haplotype 2. A CpG dinucleotide is involved. The finding is compatible with a recurrent mutation, gene conversion, or a single recombination between haplotypes 2 and 1. A tabulation of 20 known mutations at the PAH locus reveals three instances of putative recurrent mutation. PMID:1971147

  11. Susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a locus (IDDM11) on human chromosome 14q24.3-q31

    SciTech Connect

    Field, L.L.; Tobias, R.; Thomson, G.

    1996-04-01

    To locate genes predisposing to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), an autoimmune disorder resulting from destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells, we are testing linkage of IDDM susceptibility to polymorphic markers across the genome using families with two or more IDDM children. A new susceptibility locus (IDDM11) has been localized to chromosome 14q24.3-q31 by detection of significant linkage to microsatellite D14S67, using both maximum likelihood methods D14S67, using both maximum likelihood methods (LOD{sub max} = 4.0 at {theta} = 0.20) and affected sib pair (ASP) methods (P = 1 x 10{sup -5}). This represents the strongest reported evidence for linkage to any IDDM locus outside the HLA region. The subset of families in which affected children did not show increased sharing of HLA genes (HLA sharing {le}50%) provided most of the support for D14S67 linkage (LOD{sub max}4.6 at {theta} = 0.12;ASP P < 5 x 10{sup -6}). There was significant linkage heterogeneity between the HLA-defined subsets of families (P = 0.009), suggesting that IDDM11 may be an important susceptibility locus in families lacking strong HLA region predisposition. 52 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Targeting of the human F8 at the multicopy rDNA locus in Hemophilia A patient-derived iPSCs using TALENickases.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jialun; Wu, Yong; Li, Zhuo; Hu, Zhiqing; Wang, Xiaolin; Hu, Xuyun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xionghao; Zhou, Miaojin; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yanchi; Feng, Mai; Liang, Desheng

    2016-03-25

    Hemophilia A (HA) is a monogenic disease due to lack of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII). This deficiency may lead to spontaneous joint hemorrhages or life-threatening bleeding but there is no cure for HA until very recently. In this study, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with severe HA and used transcription activator-like effector nickases (TALENickases) to target the factor VIII gene (F8) at the multicopy ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus in HA-iPSCs, aiming to rescue the shortage of FVIII protein. The results revealed that more than one copy of the exogenous F8 could be integrated into the rDNA locus. Importantly, we detected exogenous F8 mRNA and FVIII protein in targeted HA-iPSCs. After they were differentiated into endothelial cells (ECs), the exogenous FVIII protein was still detectable. Thus, it is showed that the multicopy rDNA locus could be utilized as an effective target site in patient-derived iPSCs for gene therapy. This strategy provides a novel iPSCs-based therapeutic option for HA and other monogenic diseases.

  13. A suppressor locus for MODY3-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Carette, Claire; Bagattin, Alessia; Chiral, Magali; Makinistoglu, Munevver Parla; Garbay, Serge; Prévost, Géraldine; Madaras, Cécile; Hérault, Yann; Leibovici, Michel; Pontoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 3 (MODY3), linked to mutations in the transcription factor HNF1A, is the most prevalent form of monogenic diabetes mellitus. HNF1alpha-deficiency leads to defective insulin secretion via a molecular mechanism that is still not completely understood. Moreover, in MODY3 patients the severity of insulin secretion can be extremely variable even in the same kindred, indicating that modifier genes may control the onset of the disease. With the use of a mouse model for HNF1alpha-deficiency, we show here that specific genetic backgrounds (C3H and CBA) carry a powerful genetic suppressor of diabetes. A genome scan analysis led to the identification of a major suppressor locus on chromosome 3 (Moda1). Moda1 locus contains 11 genes with non-synonymous SNPs that significantly interacts with other loci on chromosomes 4, 11 and 18. Mechanistically, the absence of HNF1alpha in diabetic-prone (sensitive) strains leads to postnatal defective islets growth that is remarkably restored in resistant strains. Our findings are relevant to human genetics since Moda1 is syntenic with a human locus identified by genome wide association studies of fasting glycemia in patients. Most importantly, our results show that a single genetic locus can completely suppress diabetes in Hnf1a-deficiency. PMID:27667715

  14. Intra-and inter-population genetic diversity at the HLA-DQA1 locus and their implications for parentage analysis and human identification

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, F. |; Cerda-Flores, R. |; Zhong, Y.

    1994-09-01

    HLA-DQA1 locus, studied by PCR-based sequence specific oligonucleotide probes, is highly polymorphic in all populations thus far studied. From the literature we compiled genotype and allele frequency data at this locus for 87 populations to examine the pattern of intra- and inter- population genetic diversity. In general, allele frequency variations in populations are consistent with their ethno-history, although small isolated populations (e.g. Pacific Islanders) exhibit somewhat disparate variations of allele frequencies. A nested gene diversity analysis of 41 populations, classified into 5 ethnic groups (African, n = 3; Caucasian, n = 18; American Native, n = 3; Asian, n = 8; Pacific Islanders, n = 9) showed that the total gene diversity (80.4%) is largely (95%) due to intra-population variation. Only 3% of the gene diversity is due to inter-population within ethnic group variation, with the remaining 2% due to between ethnic group variation. In terms of average heterozygosity, probability of paternity exlusion, and probability of individual identification, the inter-ethnic group variation is larger than that between poulation samples within the ethnic groups. No significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations of genotype frequencies was observed in any population. With an average heterozygosity of 77% around the world, this locus provides a 57% chance of exclusion of a falsely accused person from paternity, and is able to exclude 91% of individuals for identification purposes. In terms of allele fequencies, the geometric positions of the admixed populations (e.g. African-Americans and American-Hispanics) are consistent with their admixture estimates in their gene pool.

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides in Human Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; van Meegern, Anne; Doemming, Sabine; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1–3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs) 1–3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP 1–3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP 1–3, lactoferrin, BPI, and heparin-binding protein are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1–11 (hLF 1–11) possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin [talactoferrin alpha (TLF)] has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe infections

  16. Cloning of a human ortholog (RPH3AL) of (RNO)Rph3al from a candidate 17p13.3 medulloblastoma tumor suppressor locus.

    PubMed

    Smith, J S; Tachibana, I; Allen, C; Chiappa, S A; Lee, H K; McIver, B; Jenkins, R B; Raffel, C

    1999-07-01

    Allelic loss of 17p13.3 is observed in approximately 40% of medulloblastomas, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this region. Deletion mapping has defined a region of common loss flanking the telomeric marker D17S34, and a recent report delineated a 9-kb homozygous deletion within the D17S34 locus in one such tumor. Using cDNA selection, we have identified a transcript spanning this deletion, designated (HSA)RPH3AL (rabphillin-3A-like), based on its 77% overall amino acid identity with a recently cloned rat gene, (RNO)Rph3al (originally termed Noc2), a gene putatively involved in regulated endocrine exocytosis through its interactions with the cytoskeleton. We determined the exon-intron boundaries of RPH3AL and screened the coding region for mutations by direct sequencing in DNA extracted from 33 tumor samples with allelic loss of 17p13, including 10 medulloblastoma, 14 follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), and 9 ovarian cancer specimens. No mutations were identified. Thus, despite its location in a homozygously deleted 17p13.3 locus, it is unlikely that RPH3AL is a gene involved in the oncogenesis of medulloblastoma, FTC, or ovarian cancer.

  17. Genetic recombination at the human RH locus: A family study of the red-cell Evans phenotype reveals a transfer of exons 2-6 from the RHD to the RHCE gene

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.H.; Chen, Y.; Reid, M.; Ghosh, S.

    1996-10-01

    The human RH locus appears to consist of two structural genes, D and CE, which map on the short arm p34-36 of chromosome 1 and specify a most complex system of blood-group genetic polymorphisms. Here we describe a family study of the Evans (also known as {open_quotes}D..{open_quotes}) phenotype, a codominant trait associated with both qualitative and quantitative changes in D-antigen expression. A cataract-causing mutation was also inherited in this family and was apparently cotransmitted with Evans, suggesting a chromosomal linkage of these two otherwise unrelated traits. Southern blot analysis and allele-specific PCR showed the linkage of Evans with a SphI RFLP marker and the presence of a hybrid gene in the RH locus. To delineate the pattern of gene expression, the composition and structure of Rh-polypeptide transcripts were characterized by reverse transcriptase-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. This resulted in the identification of a novel Rh transcript expressed only in the Evans-positive erythroid cells. Sequence analysis showed that the transcript maintained a normal open reading frame but occurred as a CE-D-CE composite in which exons 2-6 of the CE gene were replaced by the homologous counterpart of the D gene. This hybrid gene was predicted to encode a CE-D-CE fusion protein whose surface expression correlates with the Evans phenotype. The mode and consequence of such a recombination event suggest the occurrence, in the RH locus, of a segmental DNA transfer via the mechanism of gene conversion. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Effect of Calcipotriol on the Expression of Human β Defensin-2 and LL-37 in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Joon; Rho, Yong Kwan; Lee, Hye In; Jeong, Mi Sook; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2009-01-01

    Background. Vitamin D has been reported to regulate innate immunity by controlling the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Objective. We investigated the effect of calcipotriol on the expression of AMPs in human cultured keratinocytes. Methods. Keratinocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α, Calcipotriol and irradiated with UVB, cultured, and harvested. To assess the expression of human beta defensin-2 and LL-37 in the control group, not exposed to any stimulants, the experimental group was treated with LPS, TNF-α, or UVB, and another group was treated again with calcipotriol; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Results. In the experimental group treated with LPS, UVB irradiation, and TNF-α, the expression of β-defensin and LL-37 was increased more than in the control group and then decreased in the experimental group treated with calcipotriol. Conclusions. Calcipotriol suppressed HBD-2 and LL-37, which were stimulated by UVB, LPS, and TNF-α. PMID:20182640

  19. Localization of the CYP2D gene locus to human chromosome 22q13. 1 by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gouch, A.C.; Howell, S.M.; Bryant, S.P.; Spurr, N.K. ); Smith, C.A.D.; Wolf, C.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Using a combination of somatic cell hybrids, in situ hybridization, and linkage mapping, we have been able to localize the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene to chromosome 22 in the region q13.1. Linkage analysis, using locus-specific primers, showed a maximum sex-average lod score of 8.12 ([theta] = 0.00) between the marker pH130 (D22S64) and CYPsD6, of 6.92 ([theta] - 0.00) between the marker KI839 (D22S95) and CYP2D6, and 4.80 ([theta] = 0.036) between the platelet-derived growth factor [beta] subunit gene (PDGFB) and CYP2D6. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Locus of Control Orientation: Parents, Peers, and Place.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Lobo Antunes, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth.

  1. Human endopeptidase (THOP1) is localized on chromosome 19 within the linkage region for the late-onset Alzheimer disease AD2 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Meckelein, B.; Abraham, C.R.; De Silva, H.A.R.

    1996-01-15

    A cDNA encoding the rat endopeptidase 24.15 was used to determine the chromosomal localization of the respective human gene. Hybridization to DNA from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids assigned the human gene to chromosome 19. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on human metaphase chromosomes localized the human endopeptidase 24.15 to 19q13.3. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Pheasant and Quail Avian Beta Defensin 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptides play significant roles in physiology as hormones, neurotransmitters, growth, antimicrobial, and signal transducing factors. Identification of their tissue specific occurrence and abundance may lead to a better understanding of their physiological significance. Previously, we identified matu...

  3. Identification and structural characterization of avian beta-defensin 2 peptides from pheasant and quail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheasant and quail orthologues of avian ß-defensin 2 (AVBD2) were identified in methanol extracts of heterophil and bone marrow using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). We used comparative pattern profiling before and after reduction/alkyla...

  4. The location of a disease-associated polymorphism and genomic structure of the human 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus (SSA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugu, H.; Horowitz, R.; Gibson, N.

    1994-12-01

    Sera from approximately 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contain high titers of autoantibodies that bind to the 52-kDa Ro/SSA protein. We previously detected polymorphisms in the 52-kDa Ro/SSA gene (SSA1) with restriction enzymes, one of which is strongly associated with the presence of SLE (P < 0.0005) in African Americans. A higher disease frequency and more severe forms of the disease are commonly noted among these female patients. To determine the location and nature of this polymorphism, we obtained two clones that span 8.5 kb of the 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus including its upstream regulatory region. Six exons were identified, and their nucleotide sequences plus adjacent noncoding regions were determined. No differences were found between these exons and the coding region of one of the reported cDNAs. The disease-associated polymorphic site suggested by a restriction enzyme map and confirmed by DNA amplification and nucleotide sequencing was present upstream of exon 1. This polymorphism may be a genetic marker for a disease-related variation in the coding region for the protein or in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. Although this RFLP is present in Japanese, it is not associated with lupus in this race. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. ); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. ); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. )

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Homology Requirements for Efficient, Footprintless Gene Editing at the CFTR Locus in Human iPSCs with Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Donna J; Grove, Nathan C; Ing, Jordan; Crane, Ana M; Venken, Koen; Davis, Brian R; Ng, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors mediate high efficiency gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells without needing a designer nuclease thereby avoiding off-target cleavage. Because of their large cloning capacity of 37 kb, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with long homology arms are used for gene editing. However, this makes vector construction and recombinant analysis difficult. Conversely, insufficient homology may compromise targeting efficiency. Thus, we investigated the effect of homology length on helper-dependent adenoviral vector targeting efficiency at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator locus in induced pluripotent stem cells and found a positive correlation. With 23.8 and 21.4 kb of homology, the frequencies of targeted recombinants were 50–64.6% after positive selection for vector integration, and 97.4–100% after negative selection against random integrations. With 14.8 kb, the frequencies were 26.9–57.1% after positive selection and 87.5–100% after negative selection. With 9.6 kb, the frequencies were 21.4 and 75% after positive and negative selection, respectively. With only 5.6 kb, the frequencies were 5.6–16.7% after positive selection and 50% after negative selection, but these were more than high enough for efficient identification and isolation of targeted clones. Furthermore, we demonstrate helper-dependent adenoviral vector-mediated footprintless correction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations through piggyBac excision of the selectable marker. However, low frequencies (≤ 1 × 10−3) necessitated negative selection for piggyBac-excision product isolation. PMID:27727248

  7. Genome annotation of a 1.5 Mb region of human chromosome 6q23 encompassing a quantitative trait locus for fetal hemoglobin expression in adults

    PubMed Central

    Close, James; Game, Laurence; Clark, Barnaby; Bergounioux, Jean; Gerovassili, Ageliki; Thein, Swee Lay

    2004-01-01

    Background Heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a common multifactorial trait characterized by a modest increase of fetal hemoglobin levels in adults. We previously localized a Quantitative Trait Locus for HPFH in an extensive Asian-Indian kindred to chromosome 6q23. As part of the strategy of positional cloning and a means towards identification of the specific genetic alteration in this family, a thorough annotation of the candidate interval based on a strategy of in silico / wet biology approach with comparative genomics was conducted. Results The ~1.5 Mb candidate region was shown to contain five protein-coding genes. We discovered a very large uncharacterized gene containing WD40 and SH3 domains (AHI1), and extended the annotation of four previously characterized genes (MYB, ALDH8A1, HBS1L and PDE7B). We also identified several genes that do not appear to be protein coding, and generated 17 kb of novel transcript sequence data from re-sequencing 97 EST clones. Conclusion Detailed and thorough annotation of this 1.5 Mb interval in 6q confirms a high level of aberrant transcripts in testicular tissue. The candidate interval was shown to exhibit an extraordinary level of alternate splicing – 19 transcripts were identified for the 5 protein coding genes, but it appears that a significant portion (14/19) of these alternate transcripts did not have an open reading frame, hence their functional role is questionable. These transcripts may result from aberrant rather than regulated splicing. PMID:15169551

  8. Homology Requirements for Efficient, Footprintless Gene Editing at the CFTR Locus in Human iPSCs with Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Donna J; Grove, Nathan C; Ing, Jordan; Crane, Ana M; Venken, Koen; Davis, Brian R; Ng, Philip

    2016-10-11

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors mediate high efficiency gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells without needing a designer nuclease thereby avoiding off-target cleavage. Because of their large cloning capacity of 37 kb, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with long homology arms are used for gene editing. However, this makes vector construction and recombinant analysis difficult. Conversely, insufficient homology may compromise targeting efficiency. Thus, we investigated the effect of homology length on helper-dependent adenoviral vector targeting efficiency at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator locus in induced pluripotent stem cells and found a positive correlation. With 23.8 and 21.4 kb of homology, the frequencies of targeted recombinants were 50-64.6% after positive selection for vector integration, and 97.4-100% after negative selection against random integrations. With 14.8 kb, the frequencies were 26.9-57.1% after positive selection and 87.5-100% after negative selection. With 9.6 kb, the frequencies were 21.4 and 75% after positive and negative selection, respectively. With only 5.6 kb, the frequencies were 5.6-16.7% after positive selection and 50% after negative selection, but these were more than high enough for efficient identification and isolation of targeted clones. Furthermore, we demonstrate helper-dependent adenoviral vector-mediated footprintless correction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations through piggyBac excision of the selectable marker. However, low frequencies (≤ 1 × 10(-3)) necessitated negative selection for piggyBac-excision product isolation.

  9. Homology Requirements for Efficient, Footprintless Gene Editing at the CFTR Locus in Human iPSCs with Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Donna J; Grove, Nathan C; Ing, Jordan; Crane, Ana M; Venken, Koen; Davis, Brian R; Ng, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors mediate high efficiency gene editing in induced pluripotent stem cells without needing a designer nuclease thereby avoiding off-target cleavage. Because of their large cloning capacity of 37 kb, helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with long homology arms are used for gene editing. However, this makes vector construction and recombinant analysis difficult. Conversely, insufficient homology may compromise targeting efficiency. Thus, we investigated the effect of homology length on helper-dependent adenoviral vector targeting efficiency at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator locus in induced pluripotent stem cells and found a positive correlation. With 23.8 and 21.4 kb of homology, the frequencies of targeted recombinants were 50-64.6% after positive selection for vector integration, and 97.4-100% after negative selection against random integrations. With 14.8 kb, the frequencies were 26.9-57.1% after positive selection and 87.5-100% after negative selection. With 9.6 kb, the frequencies were 21.4 and 75% after positive and negative selection, respectively. With only 5.6 kb, the frequencies were 5.6-16.7% after positive selection and 50% after negative selection, but these were more than high enough for efficient identification and isolation of targeted clones. Furthermore, we demonstrate helper-dependent adenoviral vector-mediated footprintless correction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations through piggyBac excision of the selectable marker. However, low frequencies (≤ 1 × 10(-3)) necessitated negative selection for piggyBac-excision product isolation.

  10. Retroviral transfer of a human beta-globin/delta-globin hybrid gene linked to beta locus control region hypersensitive site 2 aimed at the gene therapy of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Takekoshi, K J; Oh, Y H; Westerman, K W; London, I M; Leboulch, P

    1995-01-01

    Human gamma-globin and delta-globin chains have been previously identified as strong inhibitors of the polymerization of hemoglobin S, in contrast to the beta-globin chain, which exerts only a moderate antisickling effect. However, gamma-globin and delta-globin are normally expressed at very low levels in adult erythroid cells, in contrast to beta-globin. We report the design of a beta-globin/delta-globin hybrid gene, beta/delta-sickle cell inhibitor 1 (beta/delta-SCI1) and its transduction by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. The beta/delta-SCI1-encoding gene retains the overall structure of the human beta-globin gene, while incorporating specific amino acid residues from the delta chain previously found responsible for its enhanced antisickling properties. To achieve high expression levels of beta/delta-SCI1 in adult erythrocytes, the hybrid gene was placed under the transcriptional control of the human beta-globin promoter and the DNase I hypersensitive site 2 of the human beta locus control region. High-titer retroviruses were generated, and stable proviral transmission was achieved in infected cells. The mRNA expression levels of the beta/delta-SCI1 gene in infected, dimethyl sulfoxide-induced murine erythroleukemia cells approached 85% of the endogenous murine beta maj-globin mRNA, on a per gene basis, evidence that high gene expression levels were achieved in adult erythroid cells. Further evaluation of this strategy in transgenic animal models of sickle cell disease should assess its efficacy for the gene therapy of human patients. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7708766

  11. Molecular cloning of a novel human gene encoding a 63-kDa protein and its sublocalization within the 11q13 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Perelman, B.; Dafni, N.; Naiman, T.

    1997-05-01

    A human cDNA previously isolated by virtue of its ability to complement partially the ultraviolet sensitivity of a xeroderma pigmentosum cell line was further characterized. The transcription unit is expressed as a single 4.0-kb mRNA that encodes a novel 63-kDa cytoplasmic protein, possibly initiating from an internal AUG codon. The gene encoding this protein, named UVRAG, has been extremely well conserved during evolution, implying an important role for this gene product in cell metabolism. The transcribed mRNA is constitutively expressed in a wide variety of human tissues. The protein encoded by this gene is predicted to contain a coiled-coil structure and is likely to be metabolically unstable based on the occurrence of a strong PEST domain. UVRAG was assigned to human chromosome 11 by Southern hybridization to a somatic cell hybrid panel. Fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with PCR analysis of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids containing segments of human chromosome 11 has localized this gene to a subregion of 11q13 in between the D11S916 and the D11S906 loci. Importantly, this region has been shown to be amplified in a variety of human malignancies, including breast cancer. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Effects of AV119, a natural sugar from avocado, on Malassezia furfur invasiveness and on the expression of HBD-2 and cytokines in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Giovanna; Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Auricchio, Lucia; De Filippis, Anna; Cozza, Valentina; Msika, Philippe; Piccardi, Nathalie; Tufano, Maria Antonietta

    2007-11-01

    AV119 is a patented blend of two sugars from avocado that can induce human beta-defensin-2 production by normal human keratinocytes. In this study, we analysed the effect of AV119 on growth and invasiveness of Malassezia furfur, a dimorphic, lipid-dependent yeast that is part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora. The ability to modulate the expression of the proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines in normal human keratinocytes was also investigated. Microbiological assay demonstrated that this sugar induced the aggregation of yeast cells and inhibited the invasiveness of M. furfur, without affecting its growth. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that AV119 was able to modulate the HBD-2 response in treated keratinocytes, reaching a maximum after 48-h treatment, and to induce the recovery of a satisfactory proinflammatory response in human keratinocytes. As AV119 can induce aggregation of yeast cells, thus inhibiting their penetration into the keratinocytes, the sugar could be used in the preparation of cosmetics or pharmacological drugs to inhibit colonization of the skin by pathogenic strains of M. furfur.

  13. cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C{beta}4 (PLCB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Ghalayini, A.J.; Anderson, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in the Drosophila norpA (no receptor potential A) gene encoding a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) block invertebrate phototransduction and lead to retinal degeneration. The mammalian homolog, PLCB4, is expressed in rat brain, bovine cerebellum, and the bovine retina in several splice variants. To determine a possible role of PLCB4 gene defects in human disease, we isolated several overlapping cDNA clones from a human retina library. The composite cDNA sequence predicts a human PLC{beta}4 polypeptide of 1022 amino acid residues (MW 117,000). This PLC{beta}4 variant lacks a 165-amino-acid N-terminal domain characteristic for the rat brain isoforms, but has a distinct putative exon 1 unique for human and bovine retina isoforms. A PLC{beta}4 monospecific antibody detected a major (130 kDa) and a minor (160 kDa) isoform in retina homogenates. Somatic cell hybrids and deletion panels were used to localize the PCLB4 gene to the short arm of chromosome 20. The gene was further sublocalized to 20p12 by florescence in situ hybridization. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) from human breast milk activates PAR-2 receptors, of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins.

    PubMed

    Barrera, G J; Tortolero, G Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factors are effector molecules in gastrointestinal tract physiology. Each one improves healing of the gastrointestinal tract. Trefoil factors may be grouped into three classes: the gastric peptides (TFF1), spasmolytic peptide (TFF2) and intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3). Significant amounts of TFF3 are present in human breast milk. Previously, we have reported that trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk produces down regulation of cytokines and promotes human beta defensins expression in intestinal epithelial cells. This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanism involved. Here we showed that the presence of TFF3 strongly correlated with protease activated receptors 2 (PAR-2) activation in human intestinal cells. Intracellular calcium ((Ca2+)i)mobilization was induced by the treatment with: 1) TFF3, 2) synthetic PAR-2 agonist peptide. The co-treatment with a synthetic PAR-2 antagonist peptide and TFF3 eliminates the latter's effect. Additionally, we demonstrated the existence of interactions among TFF3 and PAR-2 receptors through far Western blot and co-precipitation. Finally, down regulation of PAR-2 by siRNA resulted in a decrease of TFF3 induced intracellular (Ca2+)i mobilization, cytokine regulation and defensins expression. These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal cells through PAR-2 (Fig. 4, Ref. 19).

  15. Altered CSMD1 Expression Alters Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference: Mutual Support for a Complex Locus from Human and Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Singhal, Sulabh; Johnson, Kennedy; Kessler, Brice; Troncoso, Juan; Uhl, George R

    2015-01-01

    The CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene harbors signals provided by clusters of nearby SNPs with 10-2 > p > 10-8 associations in genome wide association (GWAS) studies of addiction-related phenotypes. A CSMD1 intron 3 SNP displays p < 10-8 association with schizophrenia and more modest associations with individual differences in performance on tests of cognitive abilities. CSDM1 encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development, connections and plasticity of brain circuits in which it is expressed. We tested association between CSMD1 genotypes and expression of its mRNA in postmortem human brains (n = 181). Expression of CSMD1 mRNA in human postmortem cerebral cortical samples differs 15-25%, in individuals with different alleles of simple sequence length and SNP polymorphisms located in the gene's third/fifth introns, providing nominal though not Bonferroni-corrected significance. These data support mice with altered CSMD1 expression as models for common human CSMD1 allelic variation. We tested baseline and/or cocaine-evoked addiction, emotion, motor and memory-related behaviors in +/- and -/- csmd1 knockout mice on mixed and on C57-backcrossed genetic backgrounds. Initial csmd1 knockout mice on mixed genetic backgrounds displayed a variety of coat colors and sizable individual differences in responses during behavioral testing. Backcrossed mice displayed uniform black coat colors. Cocaine conditioned place preference testing revealed significant influences of genotype (p = 0.02). Homozygote knockouts displayed poorer performance on aspects of the Morris water maze task. They displayed increased locomotion in some, though not all, environments. The combined data thus support roles for common level-of-expression CSMD1 variation in a drug reward phenotype relevant to addiction and in cognitive differences that might be relevant to schizophrenia. Mouse model results can complement data from human association findings of modest magnitude that

  16. Effect of temperature on the shift of Pseudomonas fluorescens from an environmental microorganism to a potential human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, G; Buommino, E; Fusco, A; Paoletti, I; Auricchio, L; Tufano, M A

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium generally considered of scarce clinical significance. However, in the last few years, the isolation of P. fluorescens as the causative agent of nosocomial infections has rapidly increased. P. fluorescens is a psychrophile microorganism which grows at an optimal temperature of 25-30 degrees Celcius. In spite of this constraint, it has recently been reported that the human physiological temperature does not appear to be a barrier for this microorganism. In this study we examined the ability of P. fluorescens, grown at 28 degrees C or at 37 degrees C, to adhere to cultured human A549 pulmonary cells and to form biofilm. The ability of P. fluorescens to induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines, beta-defensin 2 and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was also investigated. Our results clearly indicate that inflammatory mediators are induced when the microorganism is grown at a lower temperature, while biofilm is formed only at 37 degrees C. The results presented are consistent with previous reports indicating P. fluorescens as an opportunistic pathogen and underscore the urgent need for further studies to better characterize the virulence of this microorganism.

  17. Recurrent deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 in human renal cell carcinoma: shift of the c-raf 1 locus.

    PubMed

    Teyssier, J R; Henry, I; Dozier, C; Ferre, D; Adnet, J J; Pluot, M

    1986-12-01

    A cytogenetic study performed on 6 human renal cell carcinomas after short-term culture on extracellular matrix with serum-free medium showed aneuploidy without structural changes in 2 tumors and a rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 3 in 4 tumors, including deletions and a translocation involving the 3p14 and 3p21 bands. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with a c-raf 1 probe demonstrated that in 2 renal cancers with del3(p14 or 21) the cellular oncogene had shifted from 3p25 to 3p14 as a result of an interstitial deletion.

  18. Human laminin B1 chain. A multidomain protein with gene (LAMB1) locus in the q22 region of chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Pikkarainen, T; Eddy, R; Fukushima, Y; Byers, M; Shows, T; Pihlajaniemi, T; Saraste, M; Tryggvason, K

    1987-08-05

    We report the isolation and characterization of six overlapping cDNA clones that provide the first and complete amino acid sequence of the human laminin B1 chain. The cDNA clones cover 5613 nucleotides with 5358 nucleotides in an open reading frame encoding 1786 amino acids, including a 21-residue signal peptide-like sequence. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of two types of internal homology repeats that were found in clusters within the polypeptide chain. The type A repeats contain about 50 amino acids of which 8 are cysteine. These repeats are present in two clusters toward the NH2-terminal end of the chain and are separated from each other by about 220 amino acids. The two clusters contain five and eight consecutive repeats each. There are two copies of consecutive type B repeats of about 40 amino acids close to the COOH-terminal end. Computer analysis of the amino acid sequence of the B1 chain revealed the presence of structurally distinct domains that contain cysteine-rich repeats, globular regions, and helical structures. Using somatic cell hybrid methodology and in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes it was established that the human laminin B1 gene (LAMB1) is located in the q22 region of chromosome 7.

  19. Exclusion of the locus for autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 from the mineralocorticoid receptor gene region on human chromosome 4q by linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E.; Hanukoglu, A.; Rees, M.; Thompson, R.; Gardiner, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is an uncommon inherited disorder characterized by salt-wasting in infancy arising from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Clinical expression of the disease varies from severely affected infants who may die to apparently asymptomatic individuals. Inheritance is Mendelian and may be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. A defect in the mineralocortiocoid receptor has been implicated as a likely cause of PHA1. The gene for human mineralocorticoid receptor (MLR) has been cloned and physically mapped to human chromosome 4q31.1-31.2. The etiological role of MLR in autosomal recessive PHA1 was investigated by performing linkage analysis between PHA1 and three simple sequence length polymorphisms (D4S192, D4S1548, and D4S413) on chromosome 4q in 10 consanguineous families. Linkage analysis was carried out assuming autosomal recessive inheritance with full penetrance and zero phenocopy rate using the MLINK program for two-point analysis and the HOMOZ program for multipoint analysis. Lod scores of less than -2 were obtained over the whole region from D4S192 to D4S413 encompassing MLR. This provides evidence against MLR as the site of mutations causing PHA1 in the majority of autosomal recessive families. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  1. Construction of a transcription map of a 300 kb region around the human G6PD locus by direct cDNA selection.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, Z; Korn, B; Konecki, D S; Siebenhaar, R; Coy, J F; Kioschis, P; Poustka, A

    1993-11-01

    A transcription map covering a 300 kb region around the G6PD gene in the human Xq28 region was constructed by the direct cDNA selection method and the analysis of the resulting region-specific enriched cDNA sublibrary. Seven new genes and two loci of endogenous retrovirus HERV-K were identified. The distribution of the genes across the region is strongly non-uniform and follows the non-uniform distribution of GpG islands in the area. While one of the novel genes was found to be highly homologous to bovine smg p25A GDP-dissociation inhibitor, the remaining genes did not detect any homology to known genes. The analysis of region-specific cDNA sublibraries represents a simple, rapid and efficient tool for the generation of a regional transcription map.

  2. The Effect of Locus of Control on Message Acceptance and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Catherine A.; Singh, Surendra

    Locus of control is a personality trait that influences human behavior in many situations. Internal-external control reactions to a persuasive message and the recall of the message were examined in two studies. In the first study, 35 undergraduate students' locus of control was measured using Duttweiler's Internal Control Measure. On the basis of…

  3. Epidemiological and Phylogenetic Analysis of Spanish Human Brucella melitensis Strains by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing, Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting, and rpoB Typing▿

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Navarro, Ana; Villalón, Pilar; Carrasco, Gema; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The severe morbidity of human brucellosis is one of the main reasons for using molecular typing in the epidemiological surveillance of this worldwide zoonosis. Multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis (MLVA-16), hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprinting (HOOF-print), and the differences in the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (codons 1249 and 1309) of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) were used to type a human Brucella melitensis population (108 strains) collected from throughout Spain over 13 years. Eighty-six MLVA types (discriminatory index, 0.99) were detected, with a wide-ranging genetic similarity coefficient (37.2 to 93.7%). The population clustered into the following groups: American, with genotypes 47 (1 strain), 48 (13 strains), 53 (12 strains), 55 (2 strains), 80 (1 strain), and a new genotype (2 strains), Western Mediterranean, with genotype 51 (9 strains), and Eastern Mediterranean, with genotypes 42 (60 strains), 43 (4 strains), and 63 (4 strains). Two profession-related and two foodborne acquisitions were confirmed. Distributed throughout Spain, Eastern Mediterranean genotype 42 was the most common (55%). The low MLVA-16 allelic polymorphism (genetic similarity range, 75 to 94%) of the genotype 42 strains suggests that they recently evolved from a common ancestor. rpoB typing grouped the strains as rpoB type 1 (1249-ATG/1309-CTG; 28.7%), rpoB type 2 (1249-ATG/1309-CTA; 62.9%), and rpoB type 3 (1249-ATA/1309-CTG; 8.3%). According to the MLVA-16 results, the population clustered by rpoB type. Given the correlation between B. melitensis MLVA groups and rpoB types (American and rpoB type 1, Eastern Mediterranean and rpoB type 2, and Western Mediterranean and rpoB type 3), the rpoB type could be used as an initial marker for the epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis. PMID:20554816

  4. Locus of Control and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, C. A.; Strongman, K. T.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed delinquent and nondelinquent male adolescents (N=43) on locus of control and intellectual achievement responsibilty. Results supported a multidimensional model. There was no difference in expectancy of control for negative academic events between delinquents and nondelinquents. Birth order and delinquency were the most important…

  5. Locus of Control and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Predicted that an external locus of control would characterize undersocialization. Tested this hypothesis on a random sample of secondary school children (N=97). Scores from the Child Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Scale were found to predict undersocialization in the expected direction. Suggested several possible interpretations of this…

  6. Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, István; Pivarcsi, Andor; Kis, Kornélia; Koreck, Andrea; Bodai, László; McDowell, Andrew; Seltmann, Holger; Patrick, Sheila; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kemény, Lajos

    2006-07-01

    Acne is a common skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. In addition to genetic, hormonal and environmental factors, abnormal colonization by Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the occurrence of acne via the induction of inflammatory mediators. To gain more insight into the role that sebocytes play in the innate immune response of the skin, particularly in acne, we compared the antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression at mRNA and protein levels, as well as the viability and differentiation of SZ95 sebocytes in response to co-culture with representative isolates of P. acnes type IA and type IB as well as Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that, in vitro, P. acnes type IA and IB isolates and LPS induced human beta-defensin-2 and proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression, and influenced sebocyte viability and differentiation. Our results provide evidence that sebocytes are capable of producing proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and antimicrobial peptides, which may have a role in acne pathogenesis. Furthermore, since P. acnes types IA and IB differentially affect both the differentiation and viability of sebocytes, our data demonstrate that different strains of P. acnes vary in their capacity to stimulate an inflammatory response within the pilosebaceous follicle.

  7. Humanizing the Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) Expression Profile in Mouse Platelets by Knocking PAR1 into the Par3 Locus Reveals PAR1 Expression Is Not Tolerated in Mouse Platelets

    PubMed Central

    French, Shauna L.; Paramitha, Antonia C.; Moon, Mitchell J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hamilton, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-platelet drugs are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy for heart attack and stroke prevention, yet improvements are continually sought. Thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets and targeting platelet thrombin receptors (protease-activated receptors; PARs) is an emerging anti-thrombotic approach. Humans express two PARs on their platelets–PAR1 and PAR4. The first PAR1 antagonist was recently approved for clinical use and PAR4 antagonists are in early clinical development. However, pre-clinical studies examining platelet PAR function are challenging because the platelets of non-primates do not accurately reflect the PAR expression profile of human platelets. Mice, for example, express Par3 and Par4. To address this limitation, we aimed to develop a genetically modified mouse that would express the same repertoire of platelet PARs as humans. Here, human PAR1 preceded by a lox-stop-lox was knocked into the mouse Par3 locus, and then expressed in a platelet-specific manner (hPAR1-KI mice). Despite correct targeting and the predicted loss of Par3 expression and function in platelets from hPAR1-KI mice, no PAR1 expression or function was detected. Specifically, PAR1 was not detected on the platelet surface nor internally by flow cytometry nor in whole cell lysates by Western blot, while a PAR1-activating peptide failed to induce platelet activation assessed by either aggregation or surface P-selectin expression. Platelets from hPAR1-KI mice did display significantly diminished responsiveness to thrombin stimulation in both assays, consistent with a Par3-/- phenotype. In contrast to the observations in hPAR1-KI mouse platelets, the PAR1 construct used here was successfully expressed in HEK293T cells. Together, these data suggest ectopic PAR1 expression is not tolerated in mouse platelets and indicate a different approach is required to develop a small animal model for the purpose of any future preclinical testing of PAR antagonists as anti-platelet drugs. PMID

  8. Organization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lindsay A; Luo, Liqun

    2015-11-02

    The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine throughout the mammalian brain is important for modulating attention, arousal, and cognition during many behaviors. Furthermore, disruption of norepinephrine-mediated signaling is strongly associated with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders in humans, emphasizing the clinical importance of this system. Most of the norepinephrine released in the brain is supplied by a very small, bilateral nucleus in the brainstem called the locus coeruleus. The goal of this minireview is to emphasize the complexity of the locus coeruleus beyond its primary definition as a norepinephrine-producing nucleus. Several recent studies utilizing innovative technologies highlight how the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system can now be targeted with increased accuracy and resolution, in order to better understand its role in modulating diverse behaviors.

  9. Locus of Control and Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Miriam Roza; Haller, Archibald O.

    Utilizing data derived from 277 rural, male respondents initially enrolled in Lenawee County, Michigan high schools, the Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was employed to test the hypothesis that locus of control will have interactive rather than additive effects on the process of status attainment. Locus of control was defined as…

  10. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen locus as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Natasha Z. R.; Geier, Ethan G.; Damotte, Vincent; Boehme, Kevin L.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K.; Kauwe, John S. K.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Hollenbach, Jill A.; Huang, Yadong

    2017-01-01

    Background Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive disorder that affects cognitive function. There is increasing support for the role of neuroinflammation and aberrant immune regulation in the pathophysiology of AD. The immunoregulatory human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex has been linked to susceptibility for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD; however, studies to date have failed to consistently identify a risk HLA haplotype for AD. Contributing to this difficulty are the complex genetic organization of the HLA region, differences in sequencing and allelic imputation methods, and diversity across ethnic populations. Methods and findings Building on prior work linking the HLA to AD, we used a robust imputation method on two separate case–control cohorts to examine the relationship between HLA haplotypes and AD risk in 309 individuals (191 AD, 118 cognitively normal [CN] controls) from the San Francisco-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Memory and Aging Center (collected between 1999–2015) and 11,381 individuals (5,728 AD, 5,653 CN controls) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC), a National Institute on Aging (NIA)-funded national data repository (reflecting samples collected between 1984–2012). We also examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker measures for patients seen between 2005–2007 and longitudinal cognitive data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 346, mean follow-up 3.15 ± 2.04 y in AD individuals) to assess the clinical relevance of identified risk haplotypes. The strongest association with AD risk occurred with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype A*03:01~B*07:02~DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02 (p = 9.6 x 10−4, odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval] = 1.21 [1.08–1.37]) in the combined UCSF + ADGC cohort. Secondary analysis suggested that this effect may be driven primarily by individuals who are negative for the established AD genetic risk

  11. Which Sry locus is the hypertensive Y chromosome locus?

    PubMed

    Turner, Monte E; Farkas, Joel; Dunmire, Jeff; Ely, Daniel; Milsted, Amy

    2009-02-01

    The Y chromosome of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) contains a genetic component that raises blood pressure compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) Y chromosome. This research tests the Sry gene complex as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome. The Sry loci were sequenced in 1 strain with a hypertensive Y chromosome (SHR/Akr) and 2 strains with a normotensive Y chromosome (SHR/Crl and WKY/Akr). Both SHR strains have 7 Sry loci, whereas the WKY strain has 6. The 6 loci in common between SHR and WKY strains were identical in the sequence compared (coding region, 392-bp 5' prime flanking, 1200-bp 3' flanking). Both SHR strains have a locus (Sry3) not found in WKY rats, but this locus is different between SHR/Akr and SHR/Crl rats. Six mutations have accumulated in Sry3 between the SHR strains, whereas the other 6 Sry loci are identical. This pattern of an SHR-specific locus and mutation in this locus in SHR/Crl coinciding with the loss of Y chromosome hypertension is an expected pattern if Sry3 is the Y chromosome-hypertensive component. The SHR/y strain showed a significant increase in total Sry expression in the kidney between 4 and 15 weeks of age. There are significant differences in Sry expression between adrenal glands and the kidney (15 to 30 times higher in kidneys) but no significant differences between strains. These results, along with previous studies demonstrating an interaction of Sry with the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and increased blood pressure with exogenous Sry expression, suggest the Sry loci as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome.

  12. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    PubMed

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  13. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Paolillo, Rossella; Romano Carratelli, Caterina; Sorrentino, Sabato; Mazzola, Nello; Rizzo, Antonietta

    2009-10-01

    Probiotics, defined as live microbial food supplements which improve the health of the host, have obtained increasing medical importance. In the intestine they may prevent the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, increase the resistance of the gut to invasion by pathogens and ameliorate disease processes by inducting the secretion of soluble factors such as cytokines and antimicrobial beta-peptides. One important class of human antimicrobial peptides is the family of defensins. Human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) is a major inducible peptide which plays an important role in host defense and represents a link between innate and adaptive immune responses. This linkage is in part mediated through the recognition of conserved bacterial products or bacteria by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on intestinal epithelial cells. We found that Caco-2 cells exposed to L. plantarum bacteria significantly induced HBD-2 mRNA expression and HBD-2 secretion in a dose- (16+/-1.4 pg/ml and 31.5+/-2.3 pg/ml at MOI 10 and 50, respectively) and time-dependent manner, but not HBD-3, compared to controls; in addition, when LPS was added to cells for 48 h, the interleukin (IL)-23 secretion (850+/-5.4 pg/ml) and IL-23 mRNA expression increased; while it was reduced when LPS was cocultured with L. plantarum (330+/-4.2 pg/ml). The L. plantarum-induced increase in HBD-2 expression is inhibited by anti-TLR-2 neutralizing antibodies, in the same way the pre-treatment with the anti-TLR-2 antibody inhibited the production of IL-23 induced by LPS in Caco-2 cells. The results of our study help to achieve a better understanding of how the intestinal epithelium participates in the innate immune response to commensal bacteria and pathogens in the gut.

  15. Haemophilus ducreyi SapA contributes to cathelicidin resistance and virulence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mount, Kristy L B; Townsend, Carisa A; Rinker, Sherri D; Gu, Xiaoping; Fortney, Kate R; Zwickl, Beth W; Janowicz, Diane M; Spinola, Stanley M; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E

    2010-03-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is an extracellular pathogen of human epithelial surfaces that resists human antimicrobial peptides (APs). The organism's genome contains homologs of genes sensitive to antimicrobial peptides (sap operon) in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. In this study, we characterized the sap-containing loci of H. ducreyi 35000HP and demonstrated that sapA is expressed in broth cultures and H. ducreyi-infected tissue; sapA is also conserved among both class I and class II H. ducreyi strains. We constructed a nonpolar sapA mutant of H. ducreyi 35000HP, designated 35000HPsapA, and compared the percent survival of wild-type 35000HP and 35000HPsapA exposed to several human APs, including alpha-defensins, beta-defensins, and the cathelicidin LL-37. Unlike an H. influenzae sapA mutant, strain 35000HPsapA was not more susceptible to defensins than strain 35000HP was. However, we observed a significant decrease in the survival of strain 35000HPsapA after exposure to LL-37, which was complemented by introducing sapA in trans. Thus, the Sap transporter plays a role in resistance of H. ducreyi to LL-37. We next compared mutant strain 35000HPsapA with strain 35000HP for their ability to cause disease in human volunteers. Although both strains caused papules to form at similar rates, the pustule formation rate at sites inoculated with 35000HPsapA was significantly lower than that of sites inoculated with 35000HP (33.3% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007). Together, these data establish that SapA acts as a virulence factor and as one mechanism for H. ducreyi to resist killing by antimicrobial peptides. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanism contributes to bacterial virulence in humans.

  16. Mechanisms Underlying the Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus Mcs5a

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Mcs5a2) down regulates the expression of the Fbxo10 gene in the T cells and that this reduced expression is associated with reduced mammary tumor...in primary T cells is conserved between rat and human. We demonstrate that the function of the non-coding Mcs5a locus likely is repressive gene ...regulation. We present a model that begins to explain how the Fbxo10 gene could be regulated in T cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mammary carcinogenesis

  17. Linkage analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and microsatellite loci spanning 61 cM of human chromosome 6p in 19 nuclear pedigrees provides no evidence for a susceptibility locus in this region

    SciTech Connect

    Elmslie, F.V.; Williamson, M.P.; Rees, M.

    1996-09-01

    Linkage analysis in separately ascertained families of probands with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has previously provided evidence both for and against the existence of a locus (designated {open_quotes}EJM1{close_quotes}), on chromosome 6p, predisposing to a trait defined as either clinical JME, its associated electroencephalographic abnormality, or idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage analysis was performed in 19 families in which a proband and at least one first- or two second-degree relatives have clinical JME. Family members were typed for seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 6p: D6S260, D6S276, D6S291, D6S271, D6S465, D6S257, and D6S254. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out under the assumptions of autosomal dominant inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance and autosomal recessive inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage to the clinical trait of JME was obtained for any locus. The region formally excluded (LOD score <-2) by using multipoint analysis varies depending on the assumptions made concerning inheritance parameters and the proportion of linked families, {alpha} - that is, the degree of locus heterogeneity. Further analysis either classifying all unaffected individuals as unknown or excluding a subset of four families in which pyknoleptic absence seizures were present in one or more individuals did not alter these conclusions. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Factors Determining Adolescent Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others

    Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…

  19. The locus of microRNA-10b

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  20. Locus-specific gene repositioning in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leshner, Marc; Devine, Michelle; Roloff, Gregory W.; True, Lawrence D.; Misteli, Tom; Meaburn, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Genes occupy preferred spatial positions within interphase cell nuclei. However, positioning patterns are not an innate feature of a locus, and genes can alter their localization in response to physiological and pathological changes. Here we screen the radial positioning patterns of 40 genes in normal, hyperplasic, and malignant human prostate tissues. We find that the overall spatial organization of the genome in prostate tissue is largely conserved among individuals. We identify three genes whose nuclear positions are robustly altered in neoplastic prostate tissues. FLI1 and MMP9 position differently in prostate cancer than in normal tissue and prostate hyperplasia, whereas MMP2 is repositioned in both prostate cancer and hyperplasia. Our data point to locus-specific reorganization of the genome during prostate disease. PMID:26564800

  1. Endotoxin responsiveness of human airway epithelia is limited by low expression of MD-2.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hong Peng; Kline, Joel N; Penisten, Andrea; Apicella, Michael A; Gioannini, Theresa L; Weiss, Jerrold; McCray, Paul B

    2004-08-01

    The expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides, such as human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) by epithelia, comprises a component of innate pulmonary defenses. We hypothesized that HBD-2 induction in airway epithelia is linked to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that primary cultures of well-differentiated human airway epithelia express the mRNA for TLR-4, but little or no MD-2 mRNA, and display little HBD-2 expression in response to treatment with purified endotoxin +/- LPS binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14. Expression of endogenous MD-2 by transduction of airway epithelial cells with an adenoviral vector encoding MD-2 or extracellular addition of recombinant MD-2 both increased the responses of airway epithelia to endotoxin + LBP and sCD14 by >100-fold, as measured by NF-kappaB-luciferase activity and HBD-2 mRNA expression. MD-2 mRNA could be induced in airway epithelia by exposure of these cells to specific bacterial or host products (e.g., killed Haemophilus influenzae, the P6 outer membrane protein from H. influenzae, or TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma). These findings suggest that MD-2, either coexpressed with TLR-4 or secreted when produced in excess of TLR-4 from neighboring cells, is required for airway epithelia to respond sensitively to endotoxin. The regulation of MD-2 expression in airway epithelia and pulmonary macrophages may serve as a means to modify endotoxin responsiveness in the airway.

  2. Identification of three novel avian beta-defensins from goose and their significance in the pathogenesis of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Zhang, Mingyue; Zhang, Kexin; Liu, Xiaoli; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Shengwang

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report the characterization of three avian β-defensins (AvBDs) from the goose, named anser_AvBD1, AvBD3, and AvBD6, respectively. All of anser_AvBDs exhibited broad antibacterial activity. In addition, the antibacterial activity of all of the AvBDs against Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis decreased significantly in the presence of 100mM NaCl (P<0.01). None of the AvBDs showed hemolytic activity. In order to assess the significance of these anser_AvBDs in the infection of Salmonella enteritidis, mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and anser_AvBDs in tissues of both control and infected geese was evaluated. We observed a significant up-regulation of TLR4, anser_AvBD1, 3, and 6 in some immune tissues evaluated, in response to S. enteritidis infection. These data demonstrated that TLR4 may serve a possible role in eliciting host immune responses to pathogens, and β-defensins may play a pivotal role in the host defense mechanisms of the goose.

  3. Host Avian Beta-Defensin and Toll-Like Receptor Responses of Pigeons following Infection with Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Xu, Qianqian; Zhang, Tingting; Gao, Mengying; Wang, Qiuling; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality in pigeons caused by pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) highlights the need for new insights into the host immune response and novel treatment approaches. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are key components of the innate immune system. In this study, three novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs 2, 7, and 10) were characterized in pigeons and shown to possess direct antiviral activity against PPMV-1 in vitro. In addition, we evaluated the mRNA expression of these AvBDs and other immune-related genes in tissues of 2-month-old infected pigeons at 3 and 7 days postinfection. We observed that the expression of AvBD2 in the cecal tonsil, lungs, and proventriculus, as well as the expression of AvBD10 in the spleen, lungs, proventriculus, and kidneys, was upregulated in infected pigeons. Similarly, the expression of both Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7 was increased in the spleen, trachea, and proventriculus, while TLR15 expression was increased only in the lungs of infected pigeons. In addition, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was upregulated in the spleen, the bursa of Fabricius, the trachea, and the proventriculus of infected pigeons. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation between the expression of AvBD2 and the expression of either TLR7 or TLR15, as well as between AvBD10 expression and either TLR3 or TLR7 expression in respective tissues. The results suggest that PPMV-1 infection can induce innate host responses characterized by the activation of TLRs, particularly TLR3 and TLR7, AvBDs (2 and 10), and iNOS in pigeons. PMID:26162868

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation studies and in vitro site directed mutagenesis of avian beta-defensin Apl_AvBD2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Defensins comprise a group of antimicrobial peptides, widely recognized as important elements of the innate immune system in both animals and plants. Cationicity, rather than the secondary structure, is believed to be the major factor defining the antimicrobial activity of defensins. To test this hypothesis and to improve the activity of the newly identified avian β-defensin Apl_AvBD2 by enhancing the cationicity, we performed in silico site directed mutagenesis, keeping the predicted secondary structure intact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were done to predict the activity. Mutant proteins were made by in vitro site directed mutagenesis and recombinant protein expression, and tested for antimicrobial activity to confirm the results obtained in MD simulation analysis. Results MD simulation revealed subtle, but critical, structural variations between the wild type Apl_AvBD2 and the more cationic in silico mutants, which were not detected in the initial structural prediction by homology modelling. The C-terminal cationic 'claw' region, important in antimicrobial activity, which was intact in the wild type, showed changes in shape and orientation in all the mutant peptides. Mutant peptides also showed increased solvent accessible surface area and more number of hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules. In functional studies, the Escherichia coli expressed, purified recombinant mutant proteins showed total loss of antimicrobial activity compared to the wild type protein. Conclusion The study revealed that cationicity alone is not the determining factor in the microbicidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. Factors affecting the molecular dynamics such as hydrophobicity, electrostatic interactions and the potential for oligomerization may also play fundamental roles. It points to the usefulness of MD simulation studies in successful engineering of antimicrobial peptides for improved activity and other desirable functions. PMID:20122244

  5. Host Avian Beta-Defensin and Toll-Like Receptor Responses of Pigeons following Infection with Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Xu, Qianqian; Zhang, Tingting; Gao, Mengying; Wang, Qiuling; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-09-01

    The high morbidity and mortality in pigeons caused by pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) highlights the need for new insights into the host immune response and novel treatment approaches. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are key components of the innate immune system. In this study, three novel avian β-defensins (AvBDs 2, 7, and 10) were characterized in pigeons and shown to possess direct antiviral activity against PPMV-1 in vitro. In addition, we evaluated the mRNA expression of these AvBDs and other immune-related genes in tissues of 2-month-old infected pigeons at 3 and 7 days postinfection. We observed that the expression of AvBD2 in the cecal tonsil, lungs, and proventriculus, as well as the expression of AvBD10 in the spleen, lungs, proventriculus, and kidneys, was upregulated in infected pigeons. Similarly, the expression of both Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7 was increased in the spleen, trachea, and proventriculus, while TLR15 expression was increased only in the lungs of infected pigeons. In addition, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was upregulated in the spleen, the bursa of Fabricius, the trachea, and the proventriculus of infected pigeons. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation between the expression of AvBD2 and the expression of either TLR7 or TLR15, as well as between AvBD10 expression and either TLR3 or TLR7 expression in respective tissues. The results suggest that PPMV-1 infection can induce innate host responses characterized by the activation of TLRs, particularly TLR3 and TLR7, AvBDs (2 and 10), and iNOS in pigeons.

  6. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...can be found on next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS schwannomatosis, tumor suppressor gene, NF2, molecular genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  7. The SCL gene is formed from a transcriptionally complex locus.

    PubMed Central

    Aplan, P D; Begley, C G; Bertness, V; Nussmeier, M; Ezquerra, A; Coligan, J; Kirsch, I R

    1990-01-01

    We describe the structural organization of the human SCL gene, a helix-loop-helix family member which we believe plays a fundamental role in hematopoietic differentiation. The SCL locus is composed of eight exons distributed over 16 kb. SCL shows a pattern of expression quite restricted to early hematopoietic tissues, although in malignant states expression of the gene may be somewhat extended into later developmental stages. A detailed analysis of the transcript(s) arising from the SCL locus revealed that (i) the 5' noncoding portion of the SCL transcript, which resides within a CpG island, has a complex pattern of alternative exon utilization as well as two distinct transcription initiation sites; (ii) the 5' portions of the SCL transcript contain features that suggest a possible regulatory role for these segments; (iii) the pattern of utilization of the 5' exons is cell lineage dependent; and (iv) all of the currently studied chromosomal aberrations that affect the SCL locus either structurally or functionally eliminate the normal 5' transcription initiation sites. These data suggest that the SCL gene, and specifically its 5' region, may be a target for regulatory interactions during early hematopoietic development. Images PMID:2247063

  8. Characterization of frequently deleted 6q locus in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Srikantan, Vasantha; Ma, Lanfeng; Li, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Makarem, Mazen; Strovel, Jeffrey W; Horrigan, Stephen G; Augustus, Meena; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Moul, Judd W; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Zou, Zhiqiang; Srivastava, Shiv

    2006-11-01

    The long arm of chromosome 6 is frequently deleted in diverse human neoplasms. Our previous study showed a minimum deletion region between markers D6S1056 and D6S300 on chromosome 6q in primary prostate cancer (CaP). In this study, we further refined a 200-kb minimal region of deletion (6qTSG1) centered around D6S1013 marker. The 6qTSG1 transcripts contained complex multiple splicing variants with low or absent expression in CaP cells. None of the transcripts identified contained open reading frames that code for a protein in the NCBI database. The expression of 6qTSG transcripts revealed interesting hormonal regulation relevant to CaP biology. Expression of 6q TSG transcript was induced in LNCaP cells that were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum medium suggesting an upregulation of 6qTSG transcript by androgen ablation and cell growth inhibition/apoptosis. Induction of 6qTSG1 expression in response to androgen ablation was abrogated in androgen-independent derivatives of LNCaP cells. In summary, we have defined a candidate CaP suppressor locus on chromosome 6q16.1, and deletions of this locus are frequently associated with prostate tumorigenesis. In the light of emerging role of noncoding RNAs in cancer biology including CaP, future investigations of 6qTSG11 locus is warranted.

  9. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families.

  10. Ancient roots for polymorphism at the HLA-DQ. alpha. locus in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllensten, U.B.; Erlich, H.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The genes encoding the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) exhibit a remarkable degree of polymorphism as revealed by immunologic and molecular analyses. This extensive sequence polymorphism either may have been generated during the lifetime of the human species or could have arisen before speciation and been maintained in the contemporary human population by selection or, possibly, by genetic drift. These two hypotheses were examined using the polymerase chain reaction method to amplify polymorphic sequences from the DQ{alpha} locus, as well as the DX{alpha} locus, an homologous but nonexpressed locus, in a series of primates that diverged at known times. In general, the amino acid sequence of a specific human DQ{alpha} allelic type is more closely related to its chimpanzee or gorilla counterpart than to other human DQ{alpha} alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of the silent nucleotide position changes shows that the similarity of allelic types between species is due to common ancestry rather than convergent evolution. Thus, most of the polymorphism at the DQ{alpha} locus in the human species was already present at least 5 million years ago in the ancestral species that gave rise to the chimpanzee, gorilla, and human lineages. However, one of the DQ{alpha} alleles may have arisen after speciation by recombination between two ancestral alleles.

  11. Early type I Interferon response induces upregulation of human β-defensin 1 during acute HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Antonella C.; Körner, Christian; Schiff, Abigail E.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is able to evade innate antiviral responses during acute infection to establish a chronic systemic infection which, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), typically progresses to severe immunodeficiency. Understanding these early innate immune responses against HIV-1 and their mechanisms of failure is relevant to the development of interventions to better prevent HIV-1 transmission. Human beta defensins (HBDs) are antibacterial peptides but have recently also been associated with control of viral replication. HBD1 and 2 are expressed in PBMCs as well as intestinal tissue, but their expression in vivo during HIV-1 infection has not been characterized. We demonstrate that during acute HIV-1 infection, HBD1 but not HBD2 is highly upregulated in circulating monocytes but returns to baseline levels during chronic infection. HBD1 expression in monocytes can be induced by HIV-1 in vitro, although direct infection may not entirely account for the increase in HBD1 during acute infection. We provide evidence that HIV-1 triggers antiviral IFN-α responses, which act as a potent inducer of HBD1. Our results show the first characterization of induction of an HBD during acute and chronic viral infection in humans. HBD1 has been reported to have low activity against HIV-1 compared to other defensins, suggesting that in vivo induced defensins may not significantly contribute to the robust early antiviral response against HIV-1. These data provide important insight into the in vivo kinetics of HBD expression, the mechanism of HBD1 induction by HIV-1, and the role of HBDs in the early innate response to HIV-1 during acute infection. PMID:28253319

  12. Development of Highly Sensitive and Specific mRNA Multiplex System (XCYR1) for Forensic Human Body Fluids and Tissues Identification

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples. PMID:24991806

  13. Development of highly sensitive and specific mRNA multiplex system (XCYR1) for forensic human body fluids and tissues identification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Jianhui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huaigu; Ping, Yuan; Chen, Liankang; Gu, Lihua; Hu, Wei; Bi, Gang; Ge, Jianye; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    The identification of human body fluids or tissues through mRNA-based profiling is very useful for forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown mRNA biomarkers are effective to identify the origin of biological samples. In this study, we selected 16 tissue specific biomarkers to evaluate their specificities and sensitivities for human body fluids and tissues identification, including porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), hemoglobin beta (HBB) and Glycophorin A (GLY) for circulatory blood, protamine 2 (PRM2) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) for semen, mucin 4 (MUC4) and human beta defensin 1(HBD1) for vaginal secretion, matrix metalloproteinases 7 and 11 (MMP7 and MMP11) for menstrual blood, keratin 4(KRT4) for oral mucosa, loricrin (LOR) and cystatin 6 (CST6) for skin, histatin 3(HTN3) for saliva, statherin (STATH) for nasal secretion, dermcidin (DCD) for sweat and uromodulin (UMOD) for urine. The above mentioned ten common forensic body fluids or tissues were used in the evaluation. Based on the evaluation, a reverse transcription (RT) PCR multiplex assay, XCYR1, which includes 12 biomarkers (i.e., HBB, GLY, HTN3, PRM2, KRT4, MMP11, MUC4, DCD, UMOD, MMP7, TGM4, and STATH) and 2 housekeeping genes [i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and 18SrRNA], was developed. This assay was further validated with real casework samples and mock samples (with both single source and mixture) and it was approved that XCYR1 is effective to identify common body fluids or tissues (i.e., circulatory blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, menstrual blood, oral mucosa, nasal secretion, sweat and urine) in forensic casework samples.

  14. A 4. 5-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig from human chromosome 13q14. 3 ordering 9 polymorphic microsatellites (22 sequence-tagged sites) tightly linked to the Wilson disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Barnes, R. ); Stewart, E.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. ); Le Paslier, D. ); Weissenbach, J. ); Farrer, L. ); Bowcock, A. Eugene McDermott Center of Human Growth and Development, Dallas, TX )

    1993-11-15

    The authors have previously performed a genetic analysis of multiply affected families to map a locus responsible for Wilson disease (WND) to a 0.3-centimorgan (cM) region within chromosome 13q14.3, between D12S31 and D13S59. Here they describe the construction of a contig of [approx]4.5 Mb, which spans this region and extends from D13S25 to D13S59. This contig consists of 28 genomic yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones. Five critical crossover events have been defined in this interval in two unaffected (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain) and three WND families. The combination of sequence tagged site content mapping of YACs with both polymorphic and nonpolymorphic markers and recombination breakpoint mapping resulted in the following order of polymorphic markers: centromere-RB1-D13S25-AFM205vh2-D13S31-D13S227-D13S228-AFM238vc3-D13S133-AFM084xc5-D13S137-D13S169, D13S155-D13S59-telomere. The recombination/physical distance ratio varies from [approx] 3000 kb per cM in the region between D13S31 and D13S25 to 6000 kb per cM in the region between D13S31 and D13S59. Three WND families exhibiting recombination between the disease locus and D13S31 or D13S59 were genotyped for additional markers in this region and further refined the location of the WND gene to between D13S155 and D13S133. Nine of the markers in this region of <1 cM are polymorphic microsatellites (seven have observed heterozygosities of 70% or above) that will be extremely useful in prenatal and preclinical diagnosis of this disease. This physical map is an essential step in the isolation of the WND gene and is a framework for the identification of candidate genes.

  15. Comparative mapping of the Grpr locus on the X chromosomes of man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, G.Ll.; Boyd, Y. )

    1993-07-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor has been previously cloned from both humans and mice. The authors have mapped the mouse gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (Grpr) locus using a polymorphic CA[sub n] repeat located in the 5[prime] untranslated region of the gene and a Mus spretus/Mus musculus interspecific backcross. The Grpr locus mapped between the Pdha-1 and Amg loci on the mouse X chromosome. Studies in man indicate that GRPR maps to the Xp21.2-p22.3 region of the human X chromosome and not to the Xp11-q11 interval as previously reported. The assignment of the GRPR locus to the distal Xp region is supported by the comparative map position in the mouse. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed

    Bultman, S J; Michaud, E J; Woychik, R P

    1992-12-24

    The agouti (a) locus acts within the microenvironment of the hair follicle to regulate coat color pigmentation in the mouse. We have characterized a gene encoding a novel 131 amino acid protein that we propose is the one gene associated with the agouti locus. This gene is normally expressed in a manner consistent with a locus function, and, more importantly, its structure and expression are affected by a number of representative alleles in the agouti dominance hierarchy. In addition, we found that the pleiotropic effects associated with the lethal yellow (Ay) mutation, which include pronounced obesity, diabetes, and the development of neoplasms, are accompanied by deregulated overexpression of the agouti gene in numerous tissues of the adult animal.

  17. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Eric P; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J

    2011-06-15

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30-80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes.

  18. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Eric P.; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30–80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes. PMID:21459774

  19. RefSeq and LocusLink: NCBI gene-centered resources.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, K D; Maglott, D R

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of genes have been painstakingly identified and characterized a few genes at a time. Many thousands more are being predicted by large scale cDNA and genomic sequencing projects, with levels of evidence ranging from supporting mRNA sequence and comparative genomics to computing ab initio models. This, coupled with the burgeoning scientific literature, makes it critical to have a comprehensive directory for genes and reference sequences for key genomes. The NCBI provides two resources, LocusLink and RefSeq, to meet these needs. LocusLink organizes information around genes to generate a central hub for accessing gene-specific information for fruit fly, human, mouse, rat and zebrafish. RefSeq provides reference sequence standards for genomes, transcripts and proteins; human, mouse and rat mRNA RefSeqs, and their corresponding proteins, are discussed here. Together, RefSeq and LocusLink provide a non-redundant view of genes and other loci to support research on genes and gene families, variation, gene expression and genome annotation. Additional information about LocusLink and RefSeq is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/.

  20. Organization of the murine Cd22 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Che-Leung; Torres, R.M.; Sundeberg, H.A.; Clark, E.A ); Parkhouse, R.M.E. ); Brannan, C.I.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-07-01

    Murine CD22 (mCD22) is a B cell-associated adhesion protein with seven extracellular Ig-like domains that has 62% amino acid identify to its human homologue. Southern analysis on genomic DNA isolated from tissues and cell lines from several mouse strains using mCD22 cDNA demonstrated that the Cd22 locus encoding mCD22 is a single copy gene of [le]30 kb. Digestion of genomic DNA preparations with four restriction endonucleases revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H strains vs DBA/2j, NZB, and NZC strains, suggesting the presence of two or more Cd22 alleles. Using a mCD22 cDNA clone derived from the BALB/c strain, the authors isolated genomic clones from a DBA/2 genomic library that contained all the exons necessary to encode the full length mCD22 cDNA. Fifteen exons, including exon 3 that encodes the translation start codon, were identified. Each extracellular Ig-like domain of mCD22 is encoded by a single exon. A comparison between the nucleotide sequences of the BALB/c CD22 cDNA and the exons of the DBA/2j CD22 genomic clones revealed an 18-nucleotide deletion in exon 4 (encoding the most distal Ig-like domain 1 of mCD22) of the DBA/2j genomic sequence in addition to a number of substitutions, insertions, and deletions in other exons. These nucleotide differences were also present in a cDNA clone isolated from total RNA of LPS-activated DBA/2j splenocytes mosome 7, a region sytenic to human chromosome 19q, close to the previously reported loci, Lyb-8 and Mag (a homologue of Cd22). An antibody (CY34) against the Lyb-8.2 B cell marker reacted with a BHK transfectant expressing the full length mCd22 cDNA, thus demonstrating that Lyb-8 and Cd22 loci are identical. Furthermore, a rat anti-mCD22 mAb, NIM-R6, bound to slgM[sup +] DBA/2j B cells, confirming the expression of a CD22 protein by the Cd22[sup a]/lyb-8[sup a] allele. 63 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Antecedents of Locus of Control Orientation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Kincheloe, Amy Ransom; Osborn, Albert F.

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control (LOC) is related to many aspects of human behavior, yet relatively little is known about what factors in early childhood may dispose a child to develop an internal or external LOC orientation. Data from a British epidemiological, longitudinal, cohort study of 12,463 children and their mothers were used to identify, from a wide…

  2. Dental Outpatients: Health Locus of Control Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludenia, Krista; Donham, Greg W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among specific personality variables, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales, and criterion-based ratings by staff dentists with dental outpatients (N=101). Found a consistent relationship between the perception that health is maintained by engaging in health-related behaviors and individual difference measures…

  3. The Preconscious: Locus for Significant Written Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Alvin D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that the preconscious is the true locus of significant prose because of its greater amount of freedom to gather, compare, and rearrange ideas, and that the ultimate challenge to teachers of composition is to give freedom to their students' preconscious processes. (KC)

  4. Exercise Adherence and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geshuri, Yosef; Glahn, Ronald

    In 1990, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between students' locus of control and the extent to which they participated in a voluntary exercise program. First-time participants in the "Shape Up" program offered at the Porterville College Fitness Center during the summer and fall semesters of 1990 were identified through the…

  5. Intrahaplotype polymorphism at the Brassica S locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miege, C; Ruffio-Châble, V; Schierup, M H; Cabrillac, D; Dumas, C; Gaude, T; Cock, J M

    2001-01-01

    The S locus receptor kinase and the S locus glycoproteins are encoded by genes located at the S locus, which controls the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In class II self-incompatibility haplotypes, S locus glycoproteins can be encoded by two different genes, SLGA and SLGB. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of these genes in several independently isolated plants, all of which carry the same S haplotype (S(2)). Two groups of S(2) haplotypes could be distinguished depending on whether SRK was associated with SLGA or SLGB. Surprisingly, SRK alleles from the two groups could be distinguished at the sequence level, suggesting that recombination rarely occurs between haplotypes of the two groups. An analysis of the distribution of polymorphisms along the S domain of SRK showed that hypervariable domains I and II tend to be conserved within haplotypes but to be highly variable between haplotypes. This is consistent with these domains playing a role in the determination of haplotype specificity. PMID:11606555

  6. Locus of Control, Social Class, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, James A.

    The relationship between locus of control, social class, and learning processes were reviewed by analyzing: (1) externality as a function of socioeconomic status, i.e., the lower the status, the greater the degree of externality; (2) the impact of the early home environment on the child's learning and development; (3) classroom and teacher…

  7. Role of a Putative Polysaccharide Locus in Bordetella Biofilm Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Gina; Mishra, Meenu; Itoh, Yoshikane; Romeo, Tony; Deora, Rajendar

    2007-01-01

    Bordetellae are gram-negative bacteria that colonize the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. We and others have recently shown that these bacteria are capable of living as sessile communities known as biofilms on a number of abiotic surfaces. During the biofilm mode of existence, bacteria produce one or more extracellular polymeric substances that function, in part, to hold the cells together and to a surface. There is little information on either the constituents of the biofilm matrix or the genetic basis of biofilm development by Bordetella spp. By utilizing immunoblot assays and by enzymatic hydrolysis using dispersin B (DspB), a glycosyl hydrolase that specifically cleaves the polysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc), we provide evidence for the production of poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc by various Bordetella species (Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, and B. parapertussis) and its role in their biofilm development. We have investigated the role of a Bordetella locus, here designated bpsABCD, in biofilm formation. The bps (Bordetella polysaccharide) locus is homologous to several bacterial loci that are required for the production of poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc and have been implicated in bacterial biofilm formation. By utilizing multiple microscopic techniques to analyze biofilm formation under both static and hydrodynamic conditions, we demonstrate that the bps locus, although not essential at the initial stages of biofilm formation, contributes to the stability and the maintenance of the complex architecture of Bordetella biofilms. PMID:17114249

  8. Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; De Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671–1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep.html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins. PMID:10858242

  9. Genetic locus for streptolysin S production by group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Nizet, V; Beall, B; Bast, D J; Datta, V; Kilburn, L; Low, D E; De Azavedo, J C

    2000-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671-1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep. html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins.

  10. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  11. High-resolution analysis of cis-acting regulatory networks at the α-globin locus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jim R; Lower, Karen M; Dunham, Ian; Taylor, Stephen; De Gobbi, Marco; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A; McGowan, Simon; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Vernimmen, Douglas; Gibbons, Richard J; Higgs, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    We have combined the circular chromosome conformation capture protocol with high-throughput, genome-wide sequence analysis to characterize the cis-acting regulatory network at a single locus. In contrast to methods which identify large interacting regions (10-1000 kb), the 4C approach provides a comprehensive, high-resolution analysis of a specific locus with the aim of defining, in detail, the cis-regulatory elements controlling a single gene or gene cluster. Using the human α-globin locus as a model, we detected all known local and long-range interactions with this gene cluster. In addition, we identified two interactions with genes located 300 kb (NME4) and 625 kb (FAM173a) from the α-globin cluster.

  12. Molecular genetic diversity and evolution at the MHC DQB locus in four species of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hoelzel, A R; Stephens, J C; O'Brien, S J

    1999-05-01

    Variation was investigated at exon 2 (including part of the putative peptide-binding region) of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB locus for two congeneric phocid seal species and two congeneric otariid seal species. Polymorphism in one phocid species, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), was comparable to that seen in human populations, while the other phocid, the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), has been through a severe population bottleneck and exhibited much less variation at this locus. A phylogenetic comparison of the four species was consistent with the trans-specific pattern of evolution described for other taxa at this locus, and relative nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates suggest the maintenance of polymorphisms by natural selection. A comparison of sequence patterns also suggested that some variation could have been generated through recombinational events, primarily within genera. These results suggest a pattern of evolution of the immune response in pinnipeds similar to that in terrestrial mammal species.

  13. Analysis of meiotic segregation, using single-sperm typing: Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Leeflang, E.P.; Arnheim, N.; McPeek, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus has recently been suggested as being responsible for maintaining the frequency, in the human population, of DM chromosomes capable of expansion to the disease state. In order to test this hypothesis, we have studied samples of single sperm from three individuals heterozygous at the DM locus, each with one allele larger and one allele smaller than 19 CTG repeats. To guard against the possible problem of differential PCR amplification rates based on the lengths of the alleles, the sperm were also typed at another closely linked marker whose allele size was unrelated to the allele size at the DM locus. Using statistical models specifically designed to study single-sperm segregation data, we find no evidence of meiotic segregation distortion. The upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the estimate of the common segregation probability for the three donors is at or below .515 for all models considered, and no statistically significant difference from .5 is detected in any of the models. This suggests that any greater amount of segregation distortion at the myotonic dystrophy locus must result from events following sperm ejaculation. The mathematical models developed make it possible to study segregation distortion with high resolution by using sperm-typing data from any locus. 26 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations between the rs2149954 minor allele and a decreased risk of heart attack and heart failure as well as increased physical functioning were found in the long-lived individuals. In the middle-aged and elderly individuals, rs2149954 minor allele carriers had a lower risk of hypertension. Our results thereby confirm a role of the 5q33.3 locus in cardiovascular health and, interestingly, they also suggest a role in physical functioning. PMID:28100865

  15. Locus of control and the fundamental dimensions of moods.

    PubMed

    Henson, H N; Chang, E C

    1998-06-01

    The present study examined the association between locus of control and positive and negative moods in 253 college students. Using the PANAS-X, designed by Watson and Clark, individuals scoring high on internal locus of control also scored higher across different dimensions of positive mood. Conversely, individuals scoring high on external locus of control had higher scores across different dimensions of negative mood.

  16. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  17. Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Locus of Control and Positive Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline

    This study tests the hypothesis that individual differences in locus of control orientation may mediate elementary school students' responses to positive verbal feedback. A total of 30 kindergarten through fourth grade subjects were assessed for locus of control orientation using the Bialer Children's Locus of Control Questionnaire. To establish a…

  18. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  19. Fine mapping reveals that promotion susceptibility locus 1 (Psl1) is a compound locus with multiple genes that modify susceptibility to skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Angel, Joe M; Abel, Erika L; Riggs, Penny K; McClellan, S Alex; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-04-03

    Although it is well known that the majority of human cancers occur as the result of exposure to environmental carcinogens, it is clear that not all individuals exposed to a specific environmental carcinogen have the same risk of developing cancer. Considerable evidence indicates that common allelic variants of low-penetrance, tumor susceptibility genes are responsible for this interindividual variation in risk. We previously reported a skin tumor promotion susceptibility locus, Psl1, which maps to the distal portion of chromosome 9, that modified skin tumor promotion susceptibility in the mouse. Furthermore, Psl1 was shown to consist of at least two subloci (i.e., Psl1.1 and Psl1.2) and that glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4), which maps to Psl1.2, is a skin tumor promotion susceptibility gene. Finally, variants of human GSTA4 were found to be associated with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer. In the current study, a combination of nested and contiguous C57BL/6 congenic mouse strains, each inheriting a different portion of the Psl1 locus from DBA/2, were tested for susceptibility to skin tumor promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These analyses indicate that Psl1 is a compound locus with at least six genes, including Gsta4, that modify skin tumor promotion susceptibility. More than 550 protein-coding genes map within the Psl1 locus. Fine mapping of the Psl1 locus, along with two-strain haplotype analysis, gene expression analysis, and the identification of genes with amino acid variants, has produced a list of fewer than 25 candidate skin tumor promotion susceptibility genes.

  20. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the {beta}-globin locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} The {beta}-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. {yields} Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. {yields} Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. {yields} Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human {beta}-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human {beta}-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the {beta}-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  1. Role of Oculoproprioception in Coding the Locus of Attention.

    PubMed

    Odoj, Bartholomaeus; Balslev, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    The most common neural representations for spatial attention encode locations retinotopically, relative to center of gaze. To keep track of visual objects across saccades or to orient toward sounds, retinotopic representations must be combined with information about the rotation of one's own eyes in the orbits. Although gaze input is critical for a correct allocation of attention, the source of this input has so far remained unidentified. Two main signals are available: corollary discharge (copy of oculomotor command) and oculoproprioception (feedback from extraocular muscles). Here we asked whether the oculoproprioceptive signal relayed from the somatosensory cortex contributes to coding the locus of attention. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over a human oculoproprioceptive area in the postcentral gyrus (S1EYE). S1EYE-cTBS reduces proprioceptive processing, causing ∼1° underestimation of gaze angle. Participants discriminated visual targets whose location was cued in a nonvisual modality. Throughout the visual space, S1EYE-cTBS shifted the locus of attention away from the cue by ∼1°, in the same direction and by the same magnitude as the oculoproprioceptive bias. This systematic shift cannot be attributed to visual mislocalization. Accuracy of open-loop pointing to the same visual targets, a function thought to rely mainly on the corollary discharge, was unchanged. We argue that oculoproprioception is selective for attention maps. By identifying a potential substrate for the coupling between eye and attention, this study contributes to the theoretical models for spatial attention.

  2. The locus for bovine dilated cardiomyopathy maps to chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Guziewicz, K E; Owczarek-Lipska, M; Küffer, J; Schelling, C; Tontis, A; Denis, C; Eggen, A; Leeb, T; Dolf, G; Braunschweig, M H

    2007-06-01

    Bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (BDCMP) is a severe and terminal disease of the heart muscle observed in Holstein-Friesian cattle over the last 30 years. There is strong evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for BDCMP. The objective of this study was to genetically map BDCMP, with the ultimate goal of identifying the causative mutation. A whole-genome scan using 199 microsatellite markers and one SNP revealed an assignment of BDCMP to BTA18. Fine-mapping on BTA18 refined the candidate region to the MSBDCMP06-BMS2785 interval. The interval containing the BDCMP locus was confirmed by multipoint linkage analysis using the software loki. The interval is about 6.7 Mb on the bovine genome sequence (Btau 3.1). The corresponding region of HSA19 is very gene-rich and contains roughly 200 genes. Although telomeric of the marker interval, TNNI3 is a possible positional and a functional candidate for BDCMP given its involvement in a human form of dilated cardiomyopathy. Sequence analysis of TNNI3 in cattle revealed no mutation in the coding sequence, but there was a G-to-A transition in intron 6 (AJ842179:c.378+315G>A). The analysis of this SNP using the study's BDCMP pedigree did not conclusively exclude TNNI3 as a candidate gene for BDCMP. Considering the high density of genes on the homologous region of HSA19, further refinement of the interval on BTA18 containing the BDCMP locus is needed.

  3. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...COVERED (Leave blank) July 2004 Annual (1 Jul 2003 - 30 Jun 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis...linkage and loss of heterozygosity analyses. 3. To determine the molecular mechanism of tumor formation in these patients using complementary molecular

  4. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Targeting of locus ceruleus noradrenergic neurons expressing human interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit in transgenic mice by a recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38: a study for exploring noradrenergic influence upon anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Naoya; Suzuki, Saya; Sawada, Keisuke; Das, Gopal; Uchida, Katsuya; Fuse, Toshimitsu; Ohara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2011-04-20

    The noradrenergic (NA) neurons in the locus ceruleus (LC) were ablated with a high degree of selectivity by immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting. Transgenic mice were used in which the human interleukin-2 receptor-α subunit (hIL-2Rα; Tac) is expressed under the promoter of dopamine β-hydroxylase. The recombinant immunotoxin, which is composed of the Fv fragment of an anti-hIL-2Rα monoclonal antibody fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin [anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38], was injected bilaterally into the LC of the mouse. As a result, the LC-NA neurons disappeared almost completely, and tissue noradrenaline was depleted in brain regions that receive NA inputs from the LC. The decrement of tissue noradrenaline content was more profound compared with that in mice treated with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), a neurotoxin capable of ablating axons originating from the LC-NA neurons. Mice treated with either the immunotoxin or DSP-4 presented increased anxiety-like behaviors; in contrast, only the immunotoxin-treated mice, and not the DSP-4-treated mice, showed increased depression-like behavior. The immunotoxin-mediated neuronal targeting may provide a means for further unraveling the links between the LC and pathological manifestations of neurological disorders.

  6. Identification and quantification of innate immune system mediators in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Armogida, Sheila A; Yannaras, Niki M; Melton, Alton L; Srivastava, Maya D

    2004-01-01

    Breast-feeding decreases the risk of breast cancer in mothers and infection, allergy, and autoimmunity in infants. The presence of mediators of the innate immune system in human milk, including soluble defensins, cathelicidins, and toll-like receptors (TLRs), has not been researched thoroughly. The whey fractions of colostrum and transitional and mature milk (n = 40) from normal mothers (n = 18) and from mothers with autoimmune or allergic diseases (n = 22) were analyzed for defensins by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for defensins, TLRs, and cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) by cells in breast milk was determined by semiquantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In whey, human neutrophil-derived a-defensin 1 (HNP-1) and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) were present in the highest concentrations (median, 33.0 and 31.3 microg/mL, respectively), human alpha-defensin 6 (HD-6) was present in moderate amounts (3.1 microg/mL), and HD-5 and HBD-1 were present in the lowest concentrations (2.4 and 1.7 microg/mL, respectively). There was great variability of defensin levels between subjects, but there was no relation to autoimmune or allergic diagnosis. HNP-1, HD-5, and HD-6 were present in significantly higher levels in colostrum than in mature milk. Regarding defensin mRNA expression in the breast milk cells, 95% of the samples (n = 41) were positive for HBD-1, 68% were positive for HD-5, 22% were positive for HBD-3, 15% were positive for HBD-2, 5% were positive for HBD-4, and 2% were positive for HD-6; 88% (14/16) were positive for HNP-1. Breast milk cells also expressed mRNA for TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9, CD14, and LL-37. Human breast milk contains high concentrations of multiple defensin proteins and cells in breast milk express mRNA for these defensins, multiple TLRs, and LL-37. The innate immune system in breast milk is complex and likely provides protection

  7. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  8. A root locus based flutter synthesis procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, P.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient generalized constraint is proposed in the context of a nonlinear mathematical programming approach for the minimum weight design of wing structures for flutter considerations. The approach is based on a root locus analysis procedure that is better suited for flutter redesign than the conventionally used V-g method. The proposed flutter constraint does not require an actual computation of the flutter speed, allows prescription of meaningful margins of safety in the optimized design and lends itself to elegant computation of sensitivity information. The approach is implemented and results presented for representative structural models.

  9. Root Locus Algorithms for Programmable Pocket Calculators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Two algorithms are described which allow the plotting of individual points on a root locus diagram with or without time delay. The development was performed during the design of a continuous phase shifter used in the Baseband Antenna Combiner for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The algorithms, which are expected to be useful in similar DSN efforts, are simple enough to be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator. The coordinates of the open-loop zeros and poles, the gain constant K, and the time delay T are the data inputs.

  10. Locus- and cell type-specific epigenetic switching during cellular differentiation in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Tao; Fasolino, Maria; Zhou, Zhaolan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epigenomic reconfiguration, including changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications, is crucial for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into somatic cells. However, the extent to which the epigenome is reconfigured and the interplay between components of the epigenome during cellular differentiation remain poorly defined. METHODS We systematically analyzed and compared DNA methylation, various histone modification, and transcriptome profiles in ESCs with those of two distinct types of somatic cells from human and mouse. RESULTS We found that global DNA methylation levels are lower in somatic cells compared to ESCs in both species. We also found that 80% of regions with histone modification occupancy differ between human ESCs and the two human somatic cell types. Approximately 70% of the reconfigurations in DNA methylation and histone modifications are locus- and cell type-specific. Intriguingly, the loss of DNA methylation is accompanied by the gain of different histone modifications in a locus- and cell type-specific manner. Further examination of transcriptional changes associated with epigenetic reconfiguration at promoter regions revealed an epigenetic switching for gene regulation—a transition from stable gene silencing mediated by DNA methylation in ESCs to flexible gene repression facilitated by repressive histone modifications in somatic cells. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate that the epigenome is reconfigured in a locus- and cell type-specific manner and epigenetic switching is common during cellular differentiation in both human and mouse. PMID:28261266

  11. TALEN/CRISPR-Mediated eGFP Knock-In Add-On at the OCT4 Locus Does Not Impact Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Krentz, Nicole A. J.; Nian, Cuilan; Lynn, Francis C.

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have great promise as a source of unlimited transplantable cells for regenerative medicine. However, current progress on producing the desired cell type for disease treatment has been limited due to an insufficient understanding of the developmental processes that govern their differentiation, as well as a paucity of tools to systematically study differentiation in the lab. In order to overcome these limitations, cell-type reporter hESC lines will be required. Here we outline two strategies using Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-Associated protein (Cas) to create OCT4-eGFP knock-in add-on hESC lines. Thirty-one and forty-seven percent of clones were correctly modified using the TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 systems, respectively. Further analysis of three correctly targeted clones demonstrated that the insertion of eGFP in-frame with OCT4 neither significantly impacted expression from the wild type allele nor did the fusion protein have a dramatically different biological stability. Importantly, the OCT4-eGFP fusion was easily detected using microscopy, flow cytometry and western blotting. The OCT4 reporter lines remained equally competent at producing CXCR4+ definitive endoderm that expressed a panel of endodermal genes. Moreover, the genomic modification did not impact the formation of NKX6.1+/SOX9+ pancreatic progenitor cells following directed differentiation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate for the first time that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to modify OCT4 and highlight the feasibility of creating cell-type specific reporter hESC lines utilizing genome-editing tools that facilitate homologous recombination. PMID:25474420

  12. Functional and genetic analysis of haplotypic sequence variation at the nicastrin genomic locus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gillian; Killick, Richard; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Pankratz, V Shane; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Powell, John F; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Nicastrin (NCSTN) is a component of the γ-secretase complex and therefore potentially a candidate risk gene for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we have developed a novel functional genomics methodology to express common locus haplotypes to assess functional differences. DNA recombination was used to engineer 5 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to each express a different haplotype of the NCSTN locus. Each NCSTN-BAC was delivered to knockout nicastrin (Ncstn(-/-)) cells and clonal NCSTN-BAC(+)/Ncstn(-/-) cell lines were created for functional analyses. We showed that all NCSTN-BAC haplotypes expressed nicastrin protein and rescued γ-secretase activity and amyloid beta (Aβ) production in NCSTN-BAC(+)/Ncstn(-/-) lines. We then showed that genetic variation at the NCSTN locus affected alternative splicing in human postmortem brain tissue. However, there was no robust functional difference between clonal cell lines rescued by each of the 5 different haplotypes. Finally, there was no statistically significant association of NCSTN with disease risk in the 4 cohorts. We therefore conclude that it is unlikely that common variation at the NCSTN locus is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. The protective influence of the locus ceruleus on the blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Harik, S.I.; McGunigal, T. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    The functions of the putative noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus remain ambiguous. Although most evidence indicates that such innervation does not have a major role in the control of cerebral blood flow, there are increasing indications that it modulates transport and permeability functions of the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated the effect of unilateral chemical lesioning of the locus ceruleus on the leakage of radioiodinated human serum albumin across the blood-brain barrier. Experiments were performed in awake and restrained rats under steady-state conditions and during drug-induced systemic arterial hypertension, and in anesthetized and paralyzed rats during bicuculline-induced seizures. Both hypertension and seizures are known to be associated with increased leakage of macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier. Albumin leakage into norepinephrine-depleted forebrain structures ipsilateral to the locus ceruleus lesion was compared with that of the contralateral side. There were no side-to-side differences in blood-brain barrier permeability to albumin under steady-state conditions, the stress of restraint, or angiotensin-induced hypertension, or after isoproterenol administration. Norepinephrine-induced hypertension and seizures, however, caused significant increases in albumin leakage into forebrain structures ipsilateral to the lesion. These results suggest that noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the locus ceruleus helps preserve the integrity of the blood-brain barrier during pathophysiological states associated with hypertension and increased circulating catecholamines.

  14. Relationships between locus of control and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Newby, Robert W; Davis, Jessica Boyette

    2004-06-01

    The present study investigated the associations between scores on paranormal beliefs, locus of control, and certain psychological processes such as affect and cognitions as measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Analysis yielded significant correlations between scores on Locus of Control and two subscales of Tobacyk's (1988) Revised Paranormal Beliefs Scale, New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs. A step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that Locus of Control was significantly related to New Age Philosophy. Other correlations were found between Tobacyk's subscales, Locus of Control, and three processes measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

  15. Impact of locus of control on health message effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying; Shen, Fuyuan

    2011-10-01

    This article examined how individuals' locus of control might moderate the effect of health message frames. An experiment was conducted whereby participants read either individual- or social-responsibility message frames after their locus of control was primed. Results indicated that messages presented in individual-responsibility frames were more persuasive when people were primed with internal locus of control, whereas social-responsibility framed appeals were more persuasive when people were primed with external locus of control. These results were found for individuals in both high and low cognitive load conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wieland; Aanensen, David M.; Boekhout, Teun; Cogliati, Massimo; Diaz, Mara R.; Esposto, Maria Carmela; Fisher, Matthew; Gilgado, Felix; Hagen, Ferry; Kaocharoen, Sirada; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Mitchell, Thomas G.; Simwami, Sitali P.; Trilles, Luciana; Viviani, Maria Anna; Kwon-Chung, June

    2010-01-01

    This communication describes the consensus multi-locus typing scheme established by the Cryptococcal Working Group I (Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) using seven unlinked genetic loci for global strain genotyping. These genetic loci include the housekeeping genes CAP59, GPD1, LAC1, PLB1, SOD1, URA5 and the IGS1 region. Allele and sequence type information are accessible at http://www.mlst.net/. PMID:19462334

  17. Incorporating Single-Locus Tests into Haplotype Cladistic Analysis in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Papasian, Chris; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1) conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2) single-locus allele-based analysis, (3) original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC) by Durrant et al., and (4) our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method has practical

  18. The Cajal Body and Histone Locus Body

    PubMed Central

    Nizami, Zehra; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cajal body (CB) is a nuclear organelle present in all eukaryotes that have been carefully studied. It is identified by the signature protein coilin and by CB-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). CBs contain high concentrations of splicing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and other RNA processing factors, suggesting that they are sites for assembly and/or posttranscriptional modification of the splicing machinery of the nucleus. The histone locus body (HLB) contains factors required for processing histone pre-mRNAs. As its name implies, the HLB is associated with the genes that code for histones, suggesting that it may function to concentrate processing factors at their site of action. CBs and HLBs are present throughout the interphase of the cell cycle, but disappear during mitosis. The biogenesis of CBs shows the features of a self-organizing structure. PMID:20504965

  19. Identifying a novel locus for psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Bowes, John

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have identified genetic risk loci for PsA, the majority of which also confer risk for psoriasis. The stronger heritability of PsA in comparison with psoriasis suggests that there should be risk loci that are specific for PsA. Identifying such loci could potentially inform therapy development to provide more effective treatments for PsA patients, especially with a considerable proportion being non-responsive to current therapies. Evidence of a PsA-specific locus has been previously found at HLA-B27 within the MHC region. A recent study has provided evidence of non-HLA risk loci that are specific for PsA at IL23R, PTPN22 and on chromosome 5q31. Functional characterization of these loci will provide further understanding of the pathways underlying PsA, and enable us to apply genetic findings for patient benefit. PMID:26255310

  20. Acculturation and Health Locus of Control among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    1998-01-01

    Health locus of control was investigated across culture of origin (Mexicanism), mainstream culture (Americanism), and bicultural linguistic-acculturation domains among 424 Mexican-American adolescents. Belief in powerful others' external control was the strongest explanation of locus of control in the culture-of-origin domain; internal control was…

  1. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  2. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  3. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…

  4. Externality and Locus of Control in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbitsky, Joyce Renee; White, Donna Romano

    1981-01-01

    Significant sex differences indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weighted children were not differentiated by their performance on either food-related measures nor by their locus of control expectancies. (Author/MP)

  5. Characterization of a hypoxia-response element in the Epo locus of the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Tohari, Sumanty; Ho, Adrian; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2010-06-01

    Animals respond to hypoxia by increasing synthesis of the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) which in turn stimulates the production of red blood cells. The gene encoding Epo has been recently cloned in teleost fishes such as the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes (fugu) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). It has been shown that the transcription levels of Epo in teleost fishes increase in response to anemia or hypoxia in a manner similar to its human ortholog. However, the cis-regulatory element(s) mediating the hypoxia response of Epo gene in fishes has not been identified. In the present study, using the human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B), we have identified and characterized a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the fugu Epo locus. The sequence of the fugu HRE (ACGTGCTG) is identical to that of the HRE in the human EPO locus. However, unlike the HRE in the mammalian Epo locus, which is located in the 3' region of the gene, the fugu HRE is located in the 5' flanking region and on the opposite strand of DNA. This HRE is conserved in other teleosts such as Tetraodon and zebrafish in a similar location. A 365-bp fragment containing the fugu HRE was able to drive GFP expression in the liver of transgenic zebrafish. However, we could not ascertain if the expression of transgene is induced by hypoxia in vivo due to the low and variable levels of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish. Our investigations also revealed that the Epo locus has experienced extensive rearrangements during vertebrate evolution.

  6. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the Merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed

    PubMed Central

    Hédan, Benoit; Corre, Sébastien; Hitte, Christophe; Dréano, Stéphane; Vilboux, Thierry; Derrien, Thomas; Denis, Bernard; Galibert, Francis; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coat colours in canines have many natural phenotypic variants. Some of the genes and alleles involved also cause genetic developmental defects, which are also observed in humans and mice. We studied the genetic bases of the merle phenotype in dogs to shed light on the pigmentation mechanisms and to identify genes involved in these complex pathways. The merle phenotype includes a lack of eumelanic pigmentation and developmental defects, hearing impairments and microphthalmia. It is similar to that observed in microphthalmia mouse mutants. Results Taking advantage of the dog as a powerful genetic model and using recently available genomic resources, we investigated the segregation of the merle phenotype in a five-generation pedigree, comprising 96 sampled Australian shepherd dogs. Genetic linkage analysis allowed us to identify a locus for the merle phenotype, spanning 5.5 megabases, at the centromeric tip of canine chromosome 10 (CFA10). This locus was supported by a Lod score of 15.65 at a recombination fraction θ = 0. Linkage analysis in three other breeds revealed that the same region is linked to the merle phenotype. This region, which is orthologous to human chromosome 12 (HSA12 q13-q14), belongs to a conserved ordered segment in the human and mouse genome and comprises several genes potentially involved in pigmentation and development. Conclusion This study has identified the locus for the merle coat colour in dogs to be at the centromeric end of CFA10. Genetic studies on other breeds segregating the merle phenotype should allow the locus to be defined more accurately with the aim of identifying the gene. This work shows the power of the canine system to search for the genetic bases of mammalian pigmentation and developmental pathways. PMID:16504149

  7. Effects of preferred retinal locus placement on text navigation and development of advantageous trained retinal locus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gale R; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William R; Watkins, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Sixty readers were evaluated for visual function and text-navigation ability. The visual field and preferred retinal locus (PRL) were measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). We found significant differences in text-navigation ability based on scotoma and PRL placement. Readers with a PRL to the left of or above a scotoma had significantly less text-navigation abilities. Readers with a PRL to the left of a scotoma tended to misread words with similar beginnings and omit the last word on a line. Readers with a PRL above a scotoma tended to skip a line or reread the same line twice. In a follow-up study, seven subjects with a nonadvantageous PRL quickly developed a trained retinal locus (TRL) during instruction with an SLO. Although the readers developed the TRL in about 15 minutes, they read slower with the TRL than the PRL. This TRL research provides promising pilot data.

  8. Inter-ethnic polymorphism of the beta-globin gene locus control region (LCR) in sickle-cell anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Périchon, B; Ragusa, A; Lapouméroulie, C; Romand, A; Moi, P; Ikuta, T; Labie, D; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1993-06-01

    Sequence polymorphisms within the 5'HS2 segment of human locus control region is described among sickle cell anemia patients. Distinct polymorphic patterns of a simple sequence repeat are observed in strong linkage disequilibrium with each of the five major beta s haplotypes. Potential functional relevance of this polymorphic region in globin gene expression is discussed.

  9. Burnout in Health Care Professionals as a Function of Coping Profiles, Locus of Control, and Self Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, F. Jane; And Others

    Registered nurses, interns, and residents from five hospitals in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey were administered the Maslach Human Services Survey, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, Newman's Alpha Omega Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Results strongly suggested that an individual with high self-esteem and…

  10. The relevance of paternity analysis in Romanian population using the D1S80 locus.

    PubMed

    Ceacăreanu, A C; Ceacăreanu, B

    1999-01-01

    At present, DNA fingerprinting for human identification and paternity testing is a necessary and usual procedure. D1S80 is one of the best known polymorphic loci showing a VNTR, and exhibiting a high heterozygosity. This genetic locus, with a Tsp 509 I polymorphism of its 5' flanking sequence (1, 9), have been successfully amplified from human genomic DNA isolated from blood. The Tsp 509 I polymorphism was detected by restriction after PCR amplification. We tested the relevance of paternity analysis using the D1S80 locus considering the allele frequency distribution characteristic for our country. Paternal and maternal bands were compared with the children's DNA patterns. Our data include a comparison between D1S80 alleles amplified from mother, child and the supposed father for three tested families. This study was the first of this type made in Romania. We concluded a good power of discrimination and exclusion for this locus. It can be used successfully in the case of subtypes with low frequencies, and this is frequent for our population because of the high heterozygosity of D1S80 subtypes in Romanian population. We recommend the D1S80 use for exclusion paternity tests in Romanian population, as a very useful molecular tool, but we also recommend a complete set of molecular markers for confirmation paternity test in the same population.

  11. Localization of a locus responsible for the bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism (bcd) on chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, K; Moritomo, Y; Takami, M; Hirata, S; Kikukawa, Y; Kunieda, T

    1999-06-01

    A hereditary chondrodysplastic dwarfism caused by an autosomal recessive gene has been reported in a population of Japanese Brown cattle. Affected calves show an insufficiency of endochondral ossification at the long bones of the limbs. In the present study, we mapped the locus responsible for the disease (bcd) by linkage analysis, using microsatellite markers and a single paternal half-sib pedigree obtained from commercial herds. Linkage analysis revealed a significant linkage between the bcd locus and marker loci on the distal region of bovine Chromosome (Chr) 6. The bcd locus was mapped in the interval between microsatellite markers BM9257 and BP7 or BMS511 with a recombination fraction of 0.05 and 0.06, and a lod score of 8.6 and 10.1, respectively. A comparison of genetic maps between bovine Chr 6 and human Chr 4 or mouse Chr 5 indicates possible candidate genes including FGFR3 and BMP3 genes, which are responsible for human chondrodysplasias and associated with bone morphogenesis, respectively.

  12. Bloom syndrome: An analysis of consanguineous families assigns the locus mutated to chromosome band 15q26. 1

    SciTech Connect

    German, J.; Roe, A.M.; Ellis, N.A. ); Leppert, M.F. )

    1994-07-05

    By the principle of identity by descent, parental consanguinity in individuals with rare recessively transmitted disorders dictates homozygosity not just at the mutated disease-associated locus but also at sequences that flank that locus closely. In 25 of 26 individuals with Bloom syndrome examined whose parents were related, a polymorphic tetranucleotide repeat in an intron of the protooncogene FES was homozygous far more often than expected (P < 0.0001 by x[sup 2]). Therefore, BLM, the gene that when mutated gives rise to Bloom syndrome, is tightly linked to FES, a gene whose chromosome position is known to be 15q26.1. This successful approach to the assignment of the Bloom syndrome locus to one short segment of the human genome simultaneously (i) demonstrates the power of homozygosity mapping and (ii) becomes the first step in a [open quotes]reverse[close quotes] genetics definition of the primary defect in Bloom syndrome.

  13. CTCF-mediated reduction of vigilin binding affects the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Yan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Wen-Quan; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Yang

    2014-05-02

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, and vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein, participates in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We previously showed that CTCF interacts with vigilin. Here, we show that human vigilin, but not CTCF, colocalizes with HP1α on heterochromatic satellite 2 and β-satellite repeats. CTCF up-regulates the transcription of satellite 2, while vigilin down-regulates it. Vigilin depletion or CTCF overexpression reduces the binding of HP1α on the satellite 2 locus. Furthermore, overexpression of CTCF resists the loading of vigilin onto the satellite 2 locus. Thus CTCF may regulate vigilin behavior and thus indirectly influence the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

  14. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism locus maps to chromosome 15q11. 2-q12

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, M.; Colman, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Zwane, E.; Kromberg, J.; Jenkins, T. ); Garral, M.

    1992-10-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA), an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin biosynthetic pathway, is the most common type of albinism occurring worldwide. In southern African Bantu-speaking negroids it has an overall prevalence of about 1/3,900. Since the basic biochemical defect is unknown, a linkage study with candidate loci, candidate chromosomal regions, and random loci was undertaken. The ty-pos OCA locus was found to be linked to two arbitrary loci, D15S10 and D15S13, in the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosomal region on chromosome 15q11.2-q12. The pink-eyed dilute locus, p, on mouse chromosome 7, maps close to a region of homology on human chromosome 15q, and we postulate that the ty-pos OCA and p loci are homologous. 43 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  16. AKT as locus of fragility in robust cancer system.

    PubMed

    Radisavljevic, Ziv

    2008-08-15

    Metastatic cancer is a complex positive feedback loop system. Such as system has a tendency to acquire extreme robustness. Signaling pathways controlling that robustness can fail completely if an essential element from the signaling is removed. That element is a locus of fragility. Targeting that locus represents the best way to target the cancer robustness. This prospect presents another locus of fragility in signaling complex system network, controlling the cell cycle progression through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/RAN pathway and cell migration and angiogenesis through the VEGF/PI3K/AKT/NO/ICAM-1 pathway. The locus of fragility of these pathways is AKT, which is regulated by a balance of catalase/H2O2 or by AKT inhibitor. Tiny and trivial perturbations such as change in redox state in the cells by antioxidant enzyme catalase, scavenging H2O2 signaling molecule, regulates robust signaling molecule AKT, abolishing its phosporilation and inducing cascading failure of robust signaling pathways for cell growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. An anticancer effect of the antioxidant is achieved through the AKT locus, by abolishing signals from growth factors VEGF, HGF, HIF-1alpha and H2O2. Previously reported locus of fragility nitric oxide (NO) and locus AKT are close in the complex signaling interactome network, but they regulate distinct signaling modules. Simultaneously targeted loci represents new principles in cancer robustness chemotherapy by blocking cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and inducing rather slow then fast apoptosis leading to slow eradication of cancer.

  17. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  18. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521

  19. A Quantitative Trait Locus Influencing Anxiety in the Laboratory Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Escorihuela, Rosa M.; Gray, Jeffrey A.; Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Tobeña, Adolf; Bhomra, Amarjit; Nicod, Alison; Mott, Richard; Driscoll, Peter; Dawson, Gerard R.; Flint, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    A critical test for a gene that influences susceptibility to fear in animals is that it should have a consistent pattern of effects across a broad range of conditioned and unconditioned models of anxiety. Despite many years of research, definitive evidence that genetic effects operate in this way is lacking. The limited behavioral test regimes so far used in genetic mapping experiments and the lack of suitable multivariate methodologies have made it impossible to determine whether the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected to date specifically influence fear-related traits. Here we report the first multivariate analysis to explore the genetic architecture of rodent behavior in a battery of animal models of anxiety. We have mapped QTLs in an F2 intercross of two rat strains, the Roman high and low avoidance rats, that have been selectively bred for differential response to fear. Multivariate analyses show that one locus, on rat chromosome 5, influences behavior in different models of anxiety. The QTL influences two-way active avoidance, conditioned fear, elevated plus maze, and open field activity but not acoustic startle response or defecation in a novel environment. The direction of effects of the QTL alleles and a coincidence between the behavioral profiles of anxiolytic drug and genetic action are consistent with the QTL containing at least one gene with a pleiotropic action on fear responses. As the neural basis of fear is conserved across species, we suggest that the QTL may have relevance to trait anxiety in humans. PMID:11932246

  20. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Mark F; Purpura, Dominick P

    2009-03-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modulation linked to the core behavioral features of autism. Fever transiently restores the modulatory functions of the LC-NA system and ameliorates autistic behaviors. Fever-induced reversibility of autism suggests preserved functional integrity of widespread neural networks subserving the LC-NA system and specifically the subsystems involved in mediating the cognitive and behavioral repertoires compromised in ASD. Alterations of complex gene-environmental interactions and associated epigenetic mechanisms during seminal developmental critical periods are viewed as instrumental in LC-NA dysregulation as emphasized by the timing and severity of prenatal maternal stressors on autism prevalence. Our hypothesis has implications for a rational approach to further interrogate the interdisciplinary etiology of ASD and for designing novel biological detection systems and therapeutic agents that target the LC-NA system's diverse network of pre- and postsynaptic receptors, intracellular signaling pathways and dynamic epigenetic remodeling processes involved in their regulation and functional plasticity.

  1. THE LOCUS COERULEUS AND CENTRAL CHEMOSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Gargaglioni, Luciane H.; Hartzler, Lynn K.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO2-induced increased ventilation. The output of LC is modulated by both serotonergic and glutamatergic inputs. A large percentage of LC neurons are intrinsically activated by hypercapnia. This percentage and the magnitude of their response are highest in young neonates and decrease dramatically after postnatal day P10. The cellular bases for intrinsic chemosensitivity of LC neurons are comprised of multiple factors, primary among them being reduced extracellular and intracellular pH, which inhibit inwardly rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels, and activate L-type Ca2+ channels. Activation of KCa channels in LC neurons may limit their ultimate response to hypercapnia. Finally, the LC mediates central chemosensitivity and contains pH-sensitive neurons in amphibians, suggesting that the LC has a long-standing phylogenetic role in respiratory control. PMID:20435170

  2. Locus of control and cerebral asymmetry.

    PubMed

    De Brabander, B; Boone, C; Gerits, P

    1992-08-01

    Data about the lack of synchronism of flexor carpi ulnaris peak EMG values of bimanual reactions during a semantic and during a visuospatial discrimination reaction time task are reported. The effects of type of task as well as the presence or absence of an unexpected stimulus preceding the reaction stimulus on lack of synchronism clearly depend upon the locus of control of the subjects, as measured on Rotter's I-E scale. On the basis of several arguments it is proposed that the measure of lack of synchronism reflects in an opposite sense the amount of dopaminergic activation or motor readiness in the sense in which Pribram and McGuinness in 1975 and Tucker and Williamson in 1984 have defined these concepts. The results for 15 women and 18 men show that more internally oriented subjects are more activated by a semantic task and by an unexpected preparatory stimulus in this type of task than more externally oriented subjects. The opposite appears to hold on the visuospatial task and unexpected preparatory stimuli therein. Together with earlier findings about reaction times and a number of relevant findings in the literature, the results are interpreted as indicative of basic differences in asymmetric tonic activation of the cerebral hemispheres between more internally and more externally oriented subjects. A model is proposed to explain phasic activating effects which ensue when tonically more left- or right-activated subjects perform left- or right-hemisphere tasks and when supplementary irrelevant stimuli are received.

  3. Is Racial Attitude Change a Function of Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Vijay

    1977-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between counselors' locus of control and the degree of change on racial attitudes followed by a structured awareness program and counseling experience on racial and multi-ethnic cultures. (Author)

  4. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables.

  5. The internet and locus of control in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert J.; Harris, Kimberly D.; Wabby, James

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how training older adults to find medical information using the Internet affects their locus of control. METHODS: Quantitative methods were utilized. Specifically, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control survey was distributed at the onset of each seminar and again at the conclusion. RESULTS: Paired t-tests revealed that the subjects did not change their locus of control regarding their health beliefs over the period of the seminar. However, there was statistical significance with regard to eight specific questions. CONCLUSION: Subjects scored high on their level of internal locus of control coming into the study. The majority of subjects had already learned to use the computer, owned a home computer, and had access to the Internet, but had not used the Internet to search for healthcare information. The challenge continues to be reaching those older adults who have not encountered the computer and the Internet. PMID:12463794

  6. Mapping of the X-linked agammaglobulinemia locus by use of restriction fragment-length polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, S P; Kunkel, L; Bruns, G; Wedgwood, R J; Latt, S; Rosen, F S

    1986-01-01

    A molecular linkage analysis in 11 families with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) localized the XLA gene to the proximal part of the long arm of the human X chromosome. Significant linkage was detected between XLA and loci defined by two polymorphic DNA probes called 19-2 for the DXS3 locus and S21 for the DXS17 locus. Both localize to the region Xq21.3-Xq22. Most likely recombination distances (theta) and associated logarithm of the odds (lod) scores for the XLA-DXS3 and XLA-DXS17 pairs were theta = 0.04 morgans (lod, 3.65) and theta = 0 (lod, 2.17), respectively. Tight linkage between XLA and the locus DXS43 defined by the X short arm probe D2 (localized to Xp22-Xp21) was strongly excluded and we obtained no evidence for significant linkage between XLA and any other X short arm probe. The probe pair 19-2 and S21 should be informative for molecular linkage-based analysis of XLA segregation in the majority of families afflicted with this disorder. Images PMID:3003164

  7. Molecular and genetic analyses of the putative Proteus O antigen gene locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ruan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xiaoting; Rozalski, Antoni; Shao, Zhujun; Guo, Xi; Zhou, Haijian; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Proteus species are well-characterized opportunistic pathogens primarily associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) of humans. The Proteus O antigen is one of the most variable constituents of the cell surface, and O antigen heterogeneity is used for serological classification of Proteus isolates. Even though most Proteus O antigen structures have been identified, the O antigen locus has not been well characterized. In this study, we identified the putative Proteus O antigen locus and demonstrated this region's high degree of heterogeneity by comparing sequences of 40 Proteus isolates using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This analysis identified five putative Proteus O antigen gene clusters, and the probable functions of these O antigen-related genes were proposed, based on their similarity to genes in the available databases. Finally, Proteus-specific genes from these five serogroups were identified by screening 79 strains belonging to the 68 Proteus O antigen serogroups. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of the putative Proteus O antigen locus, and we describe a novel molecular classification method for the identification of different Proteus serogroups.

  8. DFNB79: reincarnation of a nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q34.3.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid Yar; Riazuddin, Saima; Shahzad, Mohsin; Ahmed, Nazir; Zafar, Ahmad Usman; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Morell, Robert J; Griffith, Andrew J; Ahmed, Zubair M; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analysis of an inbred Pakistani family PKDF280, segregating prelingual severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, provided evidence for a DFNB locus on human chromosome 9q34.3. Co-segregation of the deafness trait with marker D9SH159 was determined by a two-point linkage analysis (LOD score 9.43 at theta=0). Two additional large families, PKDF517 and PKDF741, co-segregate recessive deafness with markers linked to the same interval. Haplotype analyses of these three families refined the interval to 3.84 Mb defined by D9S1818 (centromeric) and D9SH6 (telomeric). This interval overlaps with the previously reported DFNB33 locus whose chromosomal map position has been recently revised and assigned to a new position on chromosome 10p11.23-q21.1. The nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q segregating in family PKDF280 was designated DFNB79. We are currently screening the 113 candidate DFNB79 genes for mutations and have excluded CACNA1B, EDF1, PTGDS, EHMT1, QSOX2, NOTCH1, MIR126 and MIR602.

  9. Fine structure of the FMR-1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Eichler, E.E.; Richards, S.; Gibbs, R.A.

    1994-07-15

    The fragile X syndrome is due to a CGG triplet expansion in the first exon of FMR-1, resulting in hypermethylation and extinction of gene expression. To further understanding of the gene`s involvement in the syndrome, we have determined the physical structure of this locus. A high resolution restriction map of cosmids from the region has been prepared encompassing approximately 50 kb. Using exon-exon PCR and restriction analysis, the FMR-1 gene has been determined to consist of 17 exons spanning 38 kb of Xq27.3. Each intron-exon boundary has been sequenced. In general, the splice donors and acceptors located in the 5{prime} portion of the gene demonstrate greater adherence to consensus than those in the 3{prime} end, providing a possible explanation for the finding of alternative splicing in FMR-1. Sequence analysis of the region immediately flanking the CGG triplet repeat demonstrated both tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. Additional sequence is being obtained from the overlapping cosmids spanning the gene, and extending 20 kb proximal and approximately 30 kb distal as part of a larger project to determine sequence on the megabase scale in the Xq27.3-q28 region. These sequences are being characterized from normal and affected individuals to assess polymorphisms and the role (if any) of peculiar sequences in the generation of fragile X CGG instability. The elucidation of the structure and composition of the FMR-1 gene as well as its flanking region will enhance detection of other mutations possible in fragile X phenocopy individuals.

  10. Two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tienari, P.J. Univ. of Helsinki ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. ); Palo, J. ); Peltonen, L. )

    1994-01-15

    One of the major challenges in genetic linkage analyses is the study of complex diseases. The authors demonstrate here the use of two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial disease with a complex mode of inheritance. In a set of Finnish multiplex families, they have previously found evidence for linkage between MS susceptibility and two independent loci, the myelin basic protein gene (MBP) on chromosome 18 and the HLA complex on chromosome 6. This set of families provides a unique opportunity to perform linkage analysis conditional on two loci contributing to the disease. In the two-trait-locus/two-marker-locus analysis, the presence of another disease locus is parametrized and the analysis more appropriately treats information from the unaffected family member than single-disease-locus analysis. As exemplified here in MS, the two-locus analysis can be a powerful method for investigating susceptibility loci in complex traits, best suited for analysis of specific candidate genes, or for situations in which preliminary evidence for linkage already exists or is suggested. 41 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Strategies for conditional two-locus nonparametric linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Angquist, Lars; Hössjer, Ola; Groop, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this article we deal with two-locus nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis, mainly in the context of conditional analysis. This means that one incorporates single-locus analysis information through conditioning when performing a two-locus analysis. Here we describe different strategies for using this approach. Cox et al. [Nat Genet 1999;21:213-215] implemented this as follows: (i) Calculate the one-locus NPL process over the included genome region(s). (ii) Weight the individual pedigree NPL scores using a weighting function depending on the NPL scores for the corresponding pedigrees at speci fi c conditioning loci. We generalize this by conditioning with respect to the inheritance vector rather than the NPL score and by separating between the case of known (prede fi ned) and unknown (estimated) conditioning loci. In the latter case we choose conditioning locus, or loci, according to prede fi ned criteria. The most general approach results in a random number of selected loci, depending on the results from the previous one-locus analysis. Major topics in this article include discussions on optimal score functions with respect to the noncentrality parameter (NCP), and how to calculate adequate p values and perform power calculations. We also discuss issues related to multiple tests which arise from the two-step procedure with several conditioning loci as well as from the genome-wide tests.

  12. Fixation probability in a two-locus intersexual selection model.

    PubMed

    Durand, Guillermo; Lessard, Sabin

    2016-06-01

    We study a two-locus model of intersexual selection in a finite haploid population reproducing according to a discrete-time Moran model with a trait locus expressed in males and a preference locus expressed in females. We show that the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a male ornament introduced at random at the trait locus given any initial frequency state at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and recombination, weak or strong. Moreover, this probability exceeds the initial frequency of the mutant allele even in the case of a costly male ornament if intersexual selection is not too weak. On the other hand, the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a female preference towards a male ornament introduced at random at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and weak recombination if the female preference is not costly, and is strong enough in the case of a costly male ornament. The analysis relies on an extension of the ancestral recombination-selection graph for samples of haplotypes to take into account events of intersexual selection, while the symbolic calculation of the fixation probabilities is made possible in a reasonable time by an optimizing algorithm.

  13. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  14. The population structure of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis in Iran analyzed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Rainak; Tadayon, Keyvan; Avagyan, Sargis; Khaki, Pejvak; Bidhendi, Soheila Moradi; Forbes, Ken James; Mosavari, Nader; Toroghi, Mohammad Reza; Moosakhani, Farhad; Banihashemi, Reza; Sekhavati, Mohamad; Karimnasab, Nasim

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica Enteritidis is the most frequent etiological agent of salmonellosis in humans and poultry. To understand the genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis in Iran, we examined 69 chicken isolates from 18 broiler farms and six non-epidemic human isolates from six geographically distant provinces by multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Among SE2, SE3, SE5, SE7, SE8, SENTR4, and SENTR7, only SE5 with four and SENTR7 with two alleles, respectively, proved variable giving estimates of locus genetic diversity of 0.58 and 0. In all, six closely related MLVA profiles were identified among which three were commonly represented by human and chicken isolates. This population homogeneity contrasts with the high diversity at these loci reported elsewhere and is likely a consequence of a single clone of S. Enteritidis distributed across Iran.

  15. Lipooligosaccharide locus class of Campylobacter jejuni: sialylation is not needed for invasive infection.

    PubMed

    Ellström, P; Feodoroff, B; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse enteropathogen that is commonly detected worldwide. It can sometimes cause bacteraemia, but the bacterial characteristics facilitating bloodstream infection are not known. A total of 73 C. jejuni isolates, consecutively collected from blood-borne infections during a 10-year period all over Finland and for which detailed clinical information of the patients were available, were included. We screened the isolates by PCR for the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus class and for the presence of the putative virulence genes ceuE, ciaB, fucP, and virB11. The isolates were also tested for γ-glutamyl transpeptidase production. The results were analysed with respect to the clinical characteristics of the patients, and the multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) and serum resistance of the isolates. LOS locus classes A, B, and C, which carry genes for sialylation of LOS, were detected in only 23% of the isolates. These isolates were not more resistant to human serum than those with the genes of non-sialylated LOS locus classes, but were significantly more prevalent among patients with underlying diseases (p 0.02). The fucose permease gene fucP was quite uncommon, but was associated with the isolates with the potential to sialylate LOS (p <0.0001). LOS locus classes and some of the putative virulence factors were associated with MLST clonal complexes. Although some of the bacterial characteristics studied here have been suggested to be important for the invasiveness of C. jejuni, they did not explain why the clinical isolates in the present study were able to cause bacteraemia.

  16. A "successful allele" at Campylobacter jejuni contingency locus Cj0170 regulates motility; "successful alleles" at locus Cj0045 are strongly associated with mouse colonization.

    PubMed

    Artymovich, Katherine; Kim, Joo-Sung; Linz, John E; Hall, David F; Kelley, Lauren E; Kalbach, Harrison L; Kathariou, Sophia; Gaymer, Jean; Paschke, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important foodborne pathogen of humans and its primary reservoir is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens. Our previous studies demonstrated that phase variation to specific "successful alleles" at C. jejuni contingency loci Cj0045 (successful alleles carry 9G or 10G homopolymeric tracts) and Cj0170 (successful allele carries a 10G homopolymeric tract) in C. jejuni populations is strongly associated with colonization and enteritis in C57BL/6 IL-10 deficient mice. In the current study, we strengthened the association between locus Cj0170, Cj0045, and mouse colonization. We generated 8 independent strains derived from C. jejuni 11168 strain KanR4 that carried a Cj0170 gene disruption and these were all non motile. Two randomly chosen strains with the Cj0170 gene disruption (DM0170-2 and DM0170-6) were gavaged into mice. DM0170-2 and DM0170-6 failed to colonize mice while the control strain that carried a "successful"Cj0170 10G allele was motile and did colonize mice. In parallel studies, when we inoculated C. jejuni strain 33292 into mice, the "unsuccessful"Cj0045 11G allele experienced phase variation to "successful" 9G and 10G alleles in 2 independent experiments prior to d4 post inoculation in mice while the "successful" 9G allele in the control strain remained stable through d21 post inoculation or shifted to other successful alleles. These data confirm that locus Cj0170 regulates motility in C. jejuni strain KanR4 and is a virulence factor in the mouse model. The data also support a possible role of locus Cj0045 as a virulence factor in strain 33292 in infection of mice.

  17. The Increasing Complexity of the Oncofetal H19 Gene Locus: Functional Dissection and Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Matouk, Imad; Raveh, Eli; Ohana, Patricia; Lail, Rasha Abu; Gershtain, Eitan; Gilon, Michal; De Groot, Nathan; Czerniak, Abraham; Hochberg, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The field of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is advancing rapidly. Currently, it is one of the most popular fields in the biological and medical sciences. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the majority of the human transcriptome has little or no-protein coding capacity. Historically, H19 was the first imprinted non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcript identified, and the H19/IGF2 locus has served as a paradigm for the study of genomic imprinting since its discovery. In recent years, we have extensively investigated the expression of the H19 gene in a number of human cancers and explored the role of H19 RNA in tumor development. Here, we discuss recently published data from our group and others that provide further support for a central role of H19 RNA in the process of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we focus on major transcriptional modulators of the H19 gene and discuss them in the context of the tumor-promoting activity of the H19 RNA. Based on the pivotal role of the H19 gene in human cancers, we have developed a DNA-based therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers that have upregulated levels of H19 expression. This approach uses a diphtheria toxin A (DTA) protein expressed under the regulation of the H19 promoter to treat tumors with significant expression of H19 RNA. In this review, we discuss the treatment of four cancer indications in human subjects using this approach, which is currently under development. This represents perhaps one of the very few examples of an existing DNA-based therapy centered on an lncRNA system. Apart from cancer, H19 expression has been reported also in other conditions, syndromes and diseases, where deregulated imprinting at the H19 locus was obvious in some cases and will be summarized below. Moreover, the H19 locus proved to be much more complicated than initially thought. It houses a genomic sequence that can transcribe, yielding various transcriptional outputs, both in sense and antisense directions. The major

  18. CD33 Alzheimer's disease locus: altered monocyte function and amyloid biology.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Chibnik, Lori B; Keenan, Brendan T; Ottoboni, Linda; Raj, Towfique; Tang, Anna; Rosenkrantz, Laura L; Imboywa, Selina; Lee, Michelle; Von Korff, Alina; Morris, Martha C; Evans, Denis A; Johnson, Keith; Sperling, Reisa A; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L

    2013-07-01

    In our functional dissection of the CD33 Alzheimer's disease susceptibility locus, we found that the rs3865444(C) risk allele was associated with greater cell surface expression of CD33 in the monocytes (t50 = 10.06, P(joint) = 1.3 × 10(-13)) of young and older individuals. It was also associated with diminished internalization of amyloid-β 42 peptide, accumulation of neuritic amyloid pathology and fibrillar amyloid on in vivo imaging, and increased numbers of activated human microglia.

  19. cap alpha. -chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor is involved in the t(10; 14) chromosome translocation of T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Finan, J.; Letofsky, J.; Besa, E.C.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Human leukemic T cells carrying a t(10;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation were fused with mouse leukemic T cells, and the hybrids were examined for genetic markers of human chromosomes 10 and 14. Hybrids containing the human 10q+ chromosome had the human genes for terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase that has been mapped at 10q23-q25 and for C/sub ..cap alpha../ (the constant region of TCRA (the ..cap alpha..-chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor gene)), but not for V/sub ..cap alpha../ (the variable region of TCRA). Hybrids containing the human 14q- chromosome retained the V/sub ..cap alpha../genes. Thus the 14q11 breakpoint in the t(10;14) chromosome translocation directly involves TCRA, splitting the locus in a region between the V/sub ..cap alpha../ and the C/sub ..cap alpha../ genes. These results suggest that the translocation of the C/sub ..cap alpha../ locus to a putative cellular protooncogene located proximal to the breakpoint at 10q24, for which the authors propose the name TCL3, results in its deregulation, leading to T-cell leukemia. Since hybrids with the 10q+ chromosome also retained the human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene, it is further concluded that the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase locus is proximal to the TCL3 gene, at band 10q23-q24.

  20. Altered locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function following single prolonged stress.

    PubMed

    George, Sophie A; Knox, Dayan; Curtis, Andre L; Aldridge, J Wayne; Valentino, Rita J; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-03-01

    Data from preclinical and clinical studies have implicated the norepinephrine system in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder. The primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain is the locus coeruleus (LC); however, LC activity cannot be directly measured in humans, and previous research has often relied upon peripheral measures of norepinephrine to infer changes in central LC-norepinephrine function. To directly assess LC-norepinephrine function, we measured single-unit activity of LC neurons in a validated rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder - single prolonged stress (SPS). We also examined tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels in the LC of SPS and control rats as an index of norepinephrine utilisation. For electrophysiological recordings, 92 LC neurons were identified from 19 rats (SPS, 12; control, 7), and spontaneous and evoked responses to a noxious event (paw compression) were recorded. Baseline and restraint stress-evoked tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were measured in SPS and control rats (n = 16 per group) in a separate experiment. SPS rats showed lower spontaneous activity but higher evoked responses, leading to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of LC neurons, accompanied by impaired recovery from post-stimulus inhibition. In concert, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the LC of SPS rats tended to be lower at baseline, but was exaggerated following restraint stress. These data demonstrate persistent changes in LC function following stress/trauma in a rat model of post-traumatic stress, as measured by differences in both the electrophysiological properties of LC neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA transcription.

  1. The Lbw2 locus promotes autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Scatizzi, John C; Haraldsson, Maria K; Pollard, K Michael; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N; Kono, Dwight H

    2012-04-01

    The lupus-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) strain uniquely develops a genetically imposed severe spontaneous autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that is very similar to the corresponding human disease. Previous studies have mapped anti-erythrocyte Ab (AEA)-promoting NZB loci to several chromosomal locations, including chromosome 4; however, none of these have been analyzed with interval congenics. In this study, we used NZB.NZW-Lbw2 congenic (designated Lbw2 congenic) mice containing an introgressed fragment of New Zealand White (NZW) on chromosome 4 encompassing Lbw2, a locus previously linked to survival, glomerulonephritis, and splenomegaly, to investigate its role in AIHA. Lbw2 congenic mice exhibited marked reductions in AEAs and splenomegaly but not in anti-nuclear Abs. Furthermore, Lbw2 congenics had greater numbers of marginal zone B cells and reduced expansion of peritoneal cells, particularly the B-1a cell subset at early ages, but no reduction in B cell response to LPS. Analysis of a panel of subinterval congenic mice showed that the full effect of Lbw2 on AEA production was dependent on three subloci, with splenomegaly mapping to two of the subloci and expansions of peritoneal cell populations, including B-1a cells to one. These results directly demonstrated the presence of AEA-specific promoting genes on NZB chromosome 4, documented a marked influence of background genes on autoimmune phenotypes related to Lbw2, and further refined the locations of the underlying genetic variants. Delineation of the Lbw2 genes should yield new insights into both the pathogenesis of AIHA and the nature of epistatic interactions of lupus-modifying genetic variants.

  2. Rapid asymmetric evolution of a dual-coding tumor suppressor INK4a/ARF locus contradicts its function

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Heringa, Jaap; Pond, Sergei Kosakovsky; Nekrutenko, Anton

    2007-01-01

    INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus encodes two protein products, INK4a and ARF, essential for controlling tumorigenesis and mutated in more than half of human cancers. There is no resemblance between the two proteins: their coding regions are assembled by alternative splicing of two mutually exclusive 5′ exons into a constitutive one containing overlapping out-of-phase reading frames. We show that the dual-coding arrangement conflicts with the high cost of mutations within INK4a/ARF. Unexpectedly, the locus evolves rapidly and asymmetrically, with ARF accumulating the majority of amino acid replacements. Rapid evolution drives both INK4a and ARF proteins out of sync with other members of the RB and p53 tumor suppressor pathways, both of which are controlled by the locus. Yet, the asymmetric behavior may be an intrinsic property of dual-coding exons: INK4a/ARF closely mimics the evolution of 90 newly identified genes with similar dual-coding structure. Thus, the strong link between mutations in INK4a/ARF and cancer may be a direct consequence of the architecture of the locus. PMID:17652172

  3. A Novel High-Resolution Single Locus Sequence Typing Scheme for Mixed Populations of Propionibacterium acnes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Christian F. P.; Jensen, Anders; Lomholt, Hans B.; Brüggemann, Holger; Kilian, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a prevalent member of the normal skin microbiota of human adults. In addition to its suspected role in acne vulgaris it is involved in a variety of opportunistic infections. Multi-locus sequence-typing (MLST) schemes identified distinct phylotypes associated with health and disease. Being based on 8 to 9 house-keeping genes these MLST schemes have a high discriminatory power, but their application is time- and cost-intensive. Here we describe a single-locus sequence typing (SLST) scheme for P. acnes. The target locus was identified with a genome mining approach that took advantage of the availability of representative genome sequences of all known phylotypes of P. acnes. We applied this SLST on a collection of 188 P. acnes strains and demonstrated a resolution comparable to that of existing MLST schemes. Phylogenetic analysis applied to the SLST locus resulted in clustering patterns identical to a reference tree based on core genome sequences. We further demonstrate that SLST can be applied to detect multiple phylotypes in complex microbial communities by a metagenomic pyrosequencing approach. The described SLST strategy may be applied to any bacterial species with a basically clonal population structure to achieve easy typing and mapping of multiple phylotypes in complex microbiotas. The P. acnes SLST database can be found at http://medbac.dk/slst/pacnes. PMID:25111794

  4. Tension versus ecological zones in a two-locus system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    Previous theories show that tension and ecological zones are indistinguishable in terms of gene frequency clines. Here I analytically show that these two types of zones can be distinguished in terms of genetic statistics other than gene frequency. A two-locus cline model is examined with the assumptions of random mating, weak selection, no drift, no mutation, and multiplicative viabilities. The genetic statistics for distinguishing the two types of zones are the deviations of one- or two-locus genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or from random association of gametes (RAG), and the deviations of additive and dominance variances from the values at HWE. These deviations have a discontinuous distribution in space and different extents of interruptions in the ecological zone with a sharp boundary, but exhibit a continuous distribution in the tension zone. Linkage disequilibrium enhances the difference between the deviations from HWE and from RAG for any two-locus genotypic frequency.

  5. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait. PMID:22408732

  6. Controlling-Element Events at the Shrunken Locus in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Burr, B.; Burr, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined insertions of the controlling element Ds at the Shrunken locus of maize. A cDNA probe complementary to a portion of the Shrunken locus mRNA was prepared. This probe recognizes a unique sequence in maize DNA. Using lines carrying derivatives of the same short arm of chromosome 9, we have detected modifications at the nucleic acid level caused by Ds. The changes appear to be large insertions, one of which may be more than 20 kilobase pairs in length. These observations provide a basis for the isolation and molecular characterization of one of the maize controlling elements. PMID:17249083

  7. Neighborhood Vigilance, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180

  8. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Goriaux, Coline; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

  9. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. PMID:25136352

  10. Organization, complexity and allelic diversity of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda locus.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, John C; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized the organization, complexity, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa domestica) immunoglobulin lambda (IGL) light chain locus, which accounts for about half of antibody light chain usage in swine, yet is nearly totally unknown. Twenty-two IGL variable (IGLV) genes were identified that belong to seven subgroups. Nine genes appear to be functional. Eight possess stop codons, frameshifts, or both, and one is missing the V-EXON. Two additional genes are missing an essential cysteine residue and are classified as ORF (open reading frame). The IGLV genes are organized in two distinct clusters, a constant (C)-proximal cluster dominated by genes similar to the human IGLV3 subgroup, and a C-distal cluster dominated by genes most similar to the human IGLV8 and IGLV5 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the porcine IGLV8 subgroup genes have recently expanded, suggesting a particularly effective role in immunity to porcine-specific pathogens. Moreover, expression of IGLV genes is nearly exclusively restricted to the IGLV3 and IGLV8 genes. The constant locus comprises three tandem cassettes comprised of a joining (IGLJ) gene and a constant (IGLC) gene, whereas a fourth downstream IGLJ gene has no corresponding associated IGLC gene. Comparison of individual BACs generated from the same individual revealed polymorphisms in IGLC2 and several IGLV genes, indicating that allelic variation in IGLV further expands the porcine antibody light chain repertoire.

  11. Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection.

    PubMed

    Eyquem, Justin; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Giavridis, Theodoros; van der Stegen, Sjoukje J C; Hamieh, Mohamad; Cunanan, Kristen M; Odak, Ashlesha; Gönen, Mithat; Sadelain, Michel

    2017-03-02

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic receptors that redirect and reprogram T cells to mediate tumour rejection. The most successful CARs used to date are those targeting CD19 (ref. 2), which offer the prospect of complete remission in patients with chemorefractory or relapsed B-cell malignancies. CARs are typically transduced into the T cells of a patient using γ-retroviral vectors or other randomly integrating vectors, which may result in clonal expansion, oncogenic transformation, variegated transgene expression and transcriptional silencing. Recent advances in genome editing enable efficient sequence-specific interventions in human cells, including targeted gene delivery to the CCR5 and AAVS1 loci. Here we show that directing a CD19-specific CAR to the T-cell receptor α constant (TRAC) locus not only results in uniform CAR expression in human peripheral blood T cells, but also enhances T-cell potency, with edited cells vastly outperforming conventionally generated CAR T cells in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We further demonstrate that targeting the CAR to the TRAC locus averts tonic CAR signalling and establishes effective internalization and re-expression of the CAR following single or repeated exposure to antigen, delaying effector T-cell differentiation and exhaustion. These findings uncover facets of CAR immunobiology and underscore the potential of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to advance immunotherapies.

  12. Global Genetic Architecture of an Erythroid Quantitative Trait Locus, HMIP-2

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Stephan; Rooks, Helen; Zelenika, Diana; Mtatiro, Siana N; Gnanakulasekaran, Akshala; Drasar, Emma; Cox, Sharon; Liu, Li; Masood, Mariam; Silver, Nicholas; Garner, Chad; Vasavda, Nisha; Howard, Jo; Makani, Julie; Adekile, Adekunle; Pace, Betty; Spector, Tim; Farrall, Martin; Lathrop, Mark; Thein, Swee Lay

    2014-01-01

    HMIP-2 is a human quantitative trait locus affecting peripheral numbers, size and hemoglobin composition of red blood cells, with a marked effect on the persistence of the fetal form of hemoglobin, HbF, in adults. The locus consists of multiple common variants in an enhancer region for MYB (chr 6q23.3), which encodes the hematopoietic transcription factor cMYB. Studying a European population cohort and four African-descended groups of patients with sickle cell anemia, we found that all share a set of two spatially separate HbF-promoting alleles at HMIP-2, termed “A” and “B.” These typically occurred together (“A–B”) on European chromosomes, but existed on separate homologous chromosomes in Africans. Using haplotype signatures for “A” and “B,” we interrogated public population datasets. Haplotypes carrying only “A” or “B” were typical for populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The “A–B” combination was frequent in European, Asian, and Amerindian populations. Both alleles were infrequent in tropical regions, possibly undergoing negative selection by geographical factors, as has been reported for malaria with other hematological traits. We propose that the ascertainment of worldwide distribution patterns for common, HbF-promoting alleles can aid their further genetic characterization, including the investigation of gene–environment interaction during human migration and adaptation. PMID:25069958

  13. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  14. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Analytical Framework for Identifying and Differentiating Recent Hitchhiking and Severe Bottleneck Effects from Multi-Locus DNA Sequence Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, Ori

    2012-05-25

    Hitchhiking and severe bottleneck effects have impact on the dynamics of genetic diversity of a population by inducing homogenization at a single locus and at the genome-wide scale, respectively. As a result, identification and differentiation of the signatures of such events from DNA sequence data at a single locus is challenging. This study develops an analytical framework for identifying and differentiating recent homogenization events at multiple neutral loci in low recombination regions. The dynamics of genetic diversity at a locus after a recent homogenization event is modeled according to the infinite-sites mutation model and the Wright-Fisher model of reproduction with constant population size. In this setting, I derive analytical expressions for the distribution, mean, and variance of the number of polymorphic sites in a random sample of DNA sequences from a locus affected by a recent homogenization event. Based on this framework, three likelihood-ratio based tests are presented for identifying and differentiating recent homogenization events at multiple loci. Lastly, I apply the framework to two data sets. First, I consider human DNA sequences from four non-coding loci on different chromosomes for inferring evolutionary history of modern human populations. The results suggest, in particular, that recent homogenization events at the loci are identifiable when the effective human population size is 50000 or greater in contrast to 10000, and the estimates of the recent homogenization events are agree with the “Out of Africa” hypothesis. Second, I use HIV DNA sequences from HIV-1-infected patients to infer the times of HIV seroconversions. The estimates are contrasted with other estimates derived as the mid-time point between the last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive screening tests. Finally, the results show that significant discrepancies can exist between the estimates.

  16. Analytical Framework for Identifying and Differentiating Recent Hitchhiking and Severe Bottleneck Effects from Multi-Locus DNA Sequence Data

    DOE PAGES

    Sargsyan, Ori

    2012-05-25

    Hitchhiking and severe bottleneck effects have impact on the dynamics of genetic diversity of a population by inducing homogenization at a single locus and at the genome-wide scale, respectively. As a result, identification and differentiation of the signatures of such events from DNA sequence data at a single locus is challenging. This study develops an analytical framework for identifying and differentiating recent homogenization events at multiple neutral loci in low recombination regions. The dynamics of genetic diversity at a locus after a recent homogenization event is modeled according to the infinite-sites mutation model and the Wright-Fisher model of reproduction withmore » constant population size. In this setting, I derive analytical expressions for the distribution, mean, and variance of the number of polymorphic sites in a random sample of DNA sequences from a locus affected by a recent homogenization event. Based on this framework, three likelihood-ratio based tests are presented for identifying and differentiating recent homogenization events at multiple loci. Lastly, I apply the framework to two data sets. First, I consider human DNA sequences from four non-coding loci on different chromosomes for inferring evolutionary history of modern human populations. The results suggest, in particular, that recent homogenization events at the loci are identifiable when the effective human population size is 50000 or greater in contrast to 10000, and the estimates of the recent homogenization events are agree with the “Out of Africa” hypothesis. Second, I use HIV DNA sequences from HIV-1-infected patients to infer the times of HIV seroconversions. The estimates are contrasted with other estimates derived as the mid-time point between the last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive screening tests. Finally, the results show that significant discrepancies can exist between the estimates.« less

  17. Relationships among Impulsiveness, Locus of Control, Sex, and Music Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study is an investigation of relationships among impulsiveness, locus of control, sex, observed practice behaviors, practice effectiveness, and self-reported practice habits in a sample of 40 college brass players. Practice effectiveness was defined by the amount of change in pretest and posttest performance achievement scores over one…

  18. Reminiscences of a mouse specific-locus test addict.

    PubMed

    Russell, W L

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the historical events surrounding the development of and achievements with the mouse specific-locus test in radiation and chemical mutagenesis. Some ongoing and future contributions of the test to research in molecular genetics are also mentioned.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of sil Locus in Clinical Streptococcus pyogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

  20. Relationship between Locus of Control and Health-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffeo, Lisa Cotlar; Silvestri, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Locus of Control (LOC) deals with an individual's personal attribution of successful or failure. Those with internal LOC believe that events in their lives are under their personal control while individuals with external LOC feel that their lives are dominated by the environment. The theory has been applied to achievement and health-related issues…

  1. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of the Phaseolus vulgaris P locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean market classes are distinguished by their many seed colors, patterns, and size. At least 23 genes, acting independently or in an epistatic manner, affect the seed coat color and pattern. The P locus which is described as the “ground factor” by Emerson, has multiple alleles and controls a...

  3. The Locus of the Focus of a Rolling Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Anurag; Marengo, James

    2010-01-01

    The catenary is usually introduced as the shape assumed by a hanging flexible cable. This is a "physical" description of a catenary. In this article we give a "geometrical" description of a catenary. Specifically we show that the catenary is the locus of the focus of a certain parabola as it rolls on the x-axis.

  4. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  5. Relationships Among Locus of Control, Grades, and Student Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steven V.; Froman, Robin D.

    This research examines the interaction between college students' control orientation and a discrepancy score of GPA minus expected grade in course, on the dependent measure of 13 student rating items. It was hypothesized that students with an external locus of control who also showed a discrepancy between expected and actual grades would distort…

  6. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  7. Locus of Control Correlates in an Alcoholic Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Hopper, Allen E.

    1974-01-01

    Assesses the locus of control orientation within an alcoholic population and relates this orientation to the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Results suggest that female alcoholics, specifically those who need inpatient treatment, may be a relatively more disturbed group compared to alcoholic male inpatients. (Author/PC)

  8. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition…

  9. Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labs, Sharon M.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of the Fetal Health Locus of Control scale, the scale's utility in predicting maternal health-related behavior during pregnancy, normative data, and information on factor structure and internal consistency. Reports that cigarette and caffeine consumption during pregnancy, and women's intentions to participate in prepared…

  10. Locus of Control and Completion in an Adult Retraining Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    Since attrition is often a problem in adult training programs, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and course completion of adults enrolled in a retraining program. Rotter's Social Learning Theory of Personality was used as a starting point for the study. The study population was a sample of 108…

  11. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  12. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  13. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Toni, Chiara; Tempestini, Elena; Verdiani, Simonetta; Casarino, Lucia; Spinetti, Isabella; Stefano, Francesco De; Domenici, Ranieri; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2002-01-01

    Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi) depend on locus heterozygosity (H), and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals. PMID:12441003

  14. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  15. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  16. Validation of a Five-Level Locus of Control Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Genevieve; Jeanrie, Chantale

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 1,011 students and employed adults explored seven work-related themes: decision making, self-knowledge, meaning of work, career planning, social/work environment, educational institutions, and job market. Results supported the validity of the Vocational Locus of Control Scale. (SK)

  17. The transcriptional control of the perforin locus

    PubMed Central

    Pipkin, Matthew E.; Rao, Anjana; Lichtenheld, Mathias G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) use cytotoxic granules containing perforin and granzymes to lyse infected or malignant host cells and provide immunity to intracellular microbes and tumors. Perforin is essential for cytotoxic granule-mediated killing. Perforin expression is regulated transcriptionally and correlates tightly with the development of cells that can exhibit cytotoxic activity. Although a number of genes transcribed by T cells and NK cells have been studied, the cell-specificity of perforin gene expression makes it an ideal model system in which to clarify the transcriptional mechanisms that guide the development and activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss what is known about perforin expression and its regulation, then elaborate on recent studies that utilized chromosome transfer and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenics to define a comprehensive set of cis-regulatory regions that control transcription of the human PRF1 gene in a near-physiological context. In addition, we compare the human and murine Prf1 loci and discuss how transcription factors known to be important for driving CTL differentiation might also directly regulate the cis-acting domains that control Prf1. Our review emphasizes how studies of PRF1/Prf1 gene transcription can illuminate not only the mechanisms of cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation but also some basic principles of transcriptional regulation. PMID:20536555

  18. [Drug compliance and health locus of control in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Combes, C; Feral, F

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent disorder since it affects about 1% of the general population. Drug compliance, that is to say patients' adherence to their treatment, remains rather poor concerning this disease with, on an average, one patient out of two not complying with his/her medication. Among the factors influencing drug compliance, we focused on patients' beliefs in terms of health control, a concept known as health locus of control. This is a concept that originated from social psychology and derived from the Rotters' original concept of locus of control: it corresponds to the type of connexion established by an individual between subsequent events in the history of his/her disease and internal (personal abilities) or external factors (chance, powerful others). Nowadays, the tridimensional structure of this concept is commonly admitted as being in three dimensions: internality, chance externality and powerful others externality, the latter group being divided between doctors and others. We have assumed that there is a correlation between the degree of drug compliance and the internal and/or doctors' external health locus of control. For this purpose, we have determined the quality of drug compliance by using the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the type of health locus of control by using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale among 65 schizophrenic patients. We have also considered it was important to evaluate patients' insight by using the Amador's scale (Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder) because many researchers have established a strong correlation between insight and drug compliance in schizophrenia. Associations between the four dimensions of health locus of control ("internal", "chance external", "others external" and "doctors' external") and drug compliance were assessed by estimating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) and its degree of significance (p). These associations were judged significant at an alpha

  19. Candidate regions for Waardenburg syndrome type II: Search for a second WS locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, W.E.; Pandya, A.; Blanton, S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness and pigmentary abnormalities such as heterochromia of irides, hypopigmented skin patches, white forlock and premature graying. Clinically the syndrome has been classified into three types. Type II differs from type I in that dystopia canthorum is generally absent, and type III has associated limb anomalies. Recently linkage analysis localized the gene for WSI to chromosome 2q. PAX-3, which is a human analogue of the murine pax-3 locus, maps to this region and mutations in this gene have been found to segregate with WSI. However genetic heterogeneity clearly exists: most if not all WSII families are unlinked to PAX-3 while most if not all WSI cases are linked. We ascertained a four-year-old female child with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 who had features of WS including bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pale blue irides and pinched nostrils as well as hypertelorism microcephaly, bilateral eyelid ptosis, digitalization of thumbs and fifth finger clinodactyly. High resolution chromosomal analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion of 13q22-33.2. There was no family history of WS or retardation. A similar deletion in the region of 13q21-32 has been described in a 13-year-old boy with features of WSII. These two cases strongly suggested that this chromosomal region may include a second locus for WS. We have identified eight families with clinical features of WS type I which have been excluded from linkage to the PAX-3 locus. We have typed these families for microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13. Linkage between WSII and the chromosome 13 markers was excluded in these families. Hirschsprung disease has been associated with WS and it has recently been mapped to chromosome 10q11.2-q21.1. We are currently typing the 8 families for microsatellites in this region.

  20. A locus of group A Streptococcus involved in invasive disease and DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Grass, Carlos; Ravins, Miriam; Dan-Goor, Mary; Jaffe, Joseph; Moses, Allon E; Hanski, Emanuel

    2002-10-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes diseases ranging from benign to severe infections such as necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The reasons for the differences in severity of streptococcal infections are unexplained. We developed the polymorphic-tag-lengths-transposon-mutagenesis (PTTM) method to identify virulence genes in vivo. We applied PTTM on an emm14 strain isolated from a patient with NF and screened for mutants of decreased virulence, using a mouse model of human soft-tissue infection. A mutant that survived in the skin but was attenuated in its ability to reach the spleen and to cause a lethal infection was identified. The transposon was inserted into a small open reading frame (ORF) in a locus termed sil, streptococcal invasion locus. sil contains at least five genes (silA-E) and is highly homologous to the quorum-sensing competence regulons of Streptococcus pneumoniae. silA and silB encode a putative two-component system whereas silD and silE encode two putative ABC transporters. silC is a small ORF of unknown function preceded by a combox promoter. Insertion and deletion mutants of sil had a diminished lethality in the animal model. Virulence of a deletion mutant of silC was restored when injected together with the avirulent emm14-deletion mutant, but not when these mutants were injected into opposite flanks of a mouse. DNA transfer between these mutants occurred in vivo but could not account for the complementation of virulence. DNA exchange between the emm14-deletion mutant and mutants of sil occurred also in vitro, at a frequency of approximately 10-8 for a single antibiotic marker. Whereas silC and silD mutants exchanged markers with the emm14 mutant, silB mutant did not. Thus, we identified a novel locus, which controls GAS spreading into deeper tissues and could be involved in DNA transfer.

  1. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  2. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  3. Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the CAI microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (CAI) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the CAI genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the CAI locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the CAI microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans.

  4. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-07-28

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes.

  5. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  6. Multiple-Locus Departures from Panmictic Equilibrium within and between Village Gene Pools of Amerindian Tribes at Different Stages of Agglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Smouse, Peter E.; Neel, James V.; Liu, Wanda

    1983-01-01

    A comparative analysis of departures from multiple-locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is presented for a set of four tribal Indian groups (the Yanomama, Makiritare, Wapishana and Ticuna) from the lowlands of South America. These tribes span a range of agglomeration and acculturation from the most traditional, swidden horticulturalists to frontier townspeople. The small-group social organization typical of traditional horticulturalists leads to substantial departures from tribal panmixia, as manifested by the distribution of multiple-locus genotypes both within and between villages. Within villages, the departures from single-locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are small and nonsignificant, but the departures from gametic equilibrium (independence of loci) are substantial, even for the unlinked loci we have used to characterize these populations. The departures from single-locus homogeneity across villages are also substantial. One of the normal concomitants of increasing acculturation in this setting is an increase in agglomeration. As agglomeration increases, the departures from multiple-locus panmixia decrease, a process that can be very rapid. We discuss both the shifting balance theory of evolution and punctuated evolutionary rates in light of the small group social organization that must have obtained throughout most of human evolution. PMID:6862182

  7. The locus of microRNA-10b: a critical target for breast cancer insurgence and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell's life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment.

  8. Functional expression of SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) protects retinal dopaminergic cells from neurotoxin-induced degeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingling; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell; Wang, Xiaokai; DeLaPaz, April; Sun, Lei; Lee, Eric; Tomei, Erika; Li, Lei

    2013-01-11

    We previously isolated a dominant mutation, night blindness b (nbb), which causes a late onset of retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration in zebrafish. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish nbb locus. Sequencing results revealed that nbb is a homolog of the vertebrate SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil). The Stil gene has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of vertebrate embryonic neural development and human cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that functional expression of Stil is also required for neural survival. In zebrafish, decreased expression of Stil resulted in increased toxic susceptibility of retinal dopaminergic cells to 6-hydroxydopamine. Increases in Stil-mediated Shh signaling transduction (i.e. by knocking down the Shh repressor Sufu) prevented dopaminergic cell death induced by neurotoxic insult. The data suggest that the oncogene Stil also plays important roles in neural protection.

  9. Genomic organization of the DCTN1-SLC4A5 locus encoding both NBC4 and p150(Glued).

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A; Abuladze, N; Newman, D; Tatishchev, S; Kurtz, I

    2001-01-01

    In eukaryotes, it is rare for a single gene to encode two functionally unrelated proteins. p150(Glued) is a component of the dynactin heteromultimeric complex of proteins which is required for dynein-mediated vesicle and organelle transport by microtubules. NBC4 is an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, which regulates intracellular pH. Here we report that NBC4 and p150(Glued) are encoded by the same locus, DCTN1-SLC4A5. We have characterized the genomic organization of the human DCTN1-SLC4A5 locus which spans approximately 230 kilobases on chromosome 2p13 and contains 66 exons. This information should allow the study of potential genomic alterations of DCTN1-SLC4A5 in patients with diseases mapping to this genomic region.

  10. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  11. Adolescent Values Clarification: A Positive Influence on Perceived Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    Used locus of control assessments to monitor specific aspect of adolescent chemical dependency treatment program. Used song lyric analysis activities to note short-term modifications in experimental group's (N=10) perceived locus of control. No improvements were noted in matched control group's locus of control. Findings suggest that addictions…

  12. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  13. On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Saldana, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…

  14. Map-based quantitative trait locus identification.

    PubMed

    Hillel, J

    1997-08-01

    Poultry gene mappers chose microsatellites as the main source of genetic markers for poultry genome mapping, similar to the marker type used for other farm animals, laboratory animals, and humans. Optimal strategies for applying DNA markers in poultry populations are discussed, including the number of markers to be used, genome representation, population structure, choice of markers, population size, statistical stringency for association between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and biological verification of a linkage. It is shown that an efficient strategy should be based on a combination of a low stringent statistical test for the existence of linkage between a marker and QTL and an appropriate genetic test for the discrimination between true and false linkage. The source of the genetic variation to be used is discussed and, as an illustration, three types of resource populations are presented. The informativeness of different matings using various genotypes of the parents are considered and it appears that selection of markers based on the heterozygosity of the sire is the most efficient marker screening approach.

  15. COMT gene locus: new functional variants

    PubMed Central

    Meloto, Carolina B.; Segall, Samantha K.; Smith, Shad; Parisien, Marc; Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia M.; Gauthier, Josée; Tsao, Douglas; Convertino, Marino; Piltonen, Marjo H.; Slade, Gary Dmitri; Fillingim, Roger B.; Greenspan, Joel D.; Ohrbach, Richard; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Zaykin, Dmitri; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Reenilä, Ilkka; Männistö, Pekka T.; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. Numerous studies have linked COMT to pivotal brain functions such as mood, cognition, response to stress, and pain. Both nociception and risk of clinical pain have been associated with COMT genetic variants, and this association was shown to be mediated through adrenergic pathways. Here, we show that association studies between COMT polymorphic markers and pain phenotypes in 2 independent cohorts identified a functional marker, rs165774, situated in the 3′ untranslated region of a newfound splice variant, (a)-COMT. Sequence comparisons showed that the (a)-COMT transcript is highly conserved in primates, and deep sequencing data demonstrated that (a)-COMT is expressed across several human tissues, including the brain. In silico analyses showed that the (a)-COMT enzyme features a distinct C-terminus structure, capable of stabilizing substrates in its active site. In vitro experiments demonstrated not only that (a)-COMT is catalytically active but also that it displays unique substrate specificity, exhibiting enzymatic activity with dopamine but not epinephrine. They also established that the pain-protective A allele of rs165774 coincides with lower COMT activity, suggesting contribution to decreased pain sensitivity through increased dopaminergic rather than decreased adrenergic tone, characteristic of reference isoforms. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of the (a)-COMT isoform in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in (a)-COMT isoforms may contribute to individual variability in pain phenotypes. PMID:26207649

  16. COMT gene locus: new functional variants.

    PubMed

    Meloto, Carolina B; Segall, Samantha K; Smith, Shad; Parisien, Marc; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia M; Gauthier, Josée; Tsao, Douglas; Convertino, Marino; Piltonen, Marjo H; Slade, Gary Dmitri; Fillingim, Roger B; Greenspan, Joel D; Ohrbach, Richard; Knott, Charles; Maixner, William; Zaykin, Dmitri; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Reenilä, Ilkka; Männistö, Pekka T; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-10-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. Numerous studies have linked COMT to pivotal brain functions such as mood, cognition, response to stress, and pain. Both nociception and risk of clinical pain have been associated with COMT genetic variants, and this association was shown to be mediated through adrenergic pathways. Here, we show that association studies between COMT polymorphic markers and pain phenotypes in 2 independent cohorts identified a functional marker, rs165774, situated in the 3' untranslated region of a newfound splice variant, (a)-COMT. Sequence comparisons showed that the (a)-COMT transcript is highly conserved in primates, and deep sequencing data demonstrated that (a)-COMT is expressed across several human tissues, including the brain. In silico analyses showed that the (a)-COMT enzyme features a distinct C-terminus structure, capable of stabilizing substrates in its active site. In vitro experiments demonstrated not only that (a)-COMT is catalytically active but also that it displays unique substrate specificity, exhibiting enzymatic activity with dopamine but not epinephrine. They also established that the pain-protective A allele of rs165774 coincides with lower COMT activity, suggesting contribution to decreased pain sensitivity through increased dopaminergic rather than decreased adrenergic tone, characteristic of reference isoforms. Our results provide evidence for an essential role of the (a)-COMT isoform in nociceptive signaling and suggest that genetic variations in (a)-COMT isoforms may contribute to individual variability in pain phenotypes.

  17. Meta analysis of candidate gene variants outside the LPA locus with Lp(a) plasma levels in 14,500 participants of six White European cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Zabaneh, Delilah; Kumari, Meena; Sandhu, Manj; Wareham, Nick; Wainwright, Nick; Papamarkou, Theodore; Hopewell, Jemma; Clarke, Robert; Li, KaWah; Palmen, Jutta; Talmud, Philippa J; Kronenberg, Florian; Lamina, Claudia; Summerer, Monika; Paulweber, Bernhard; Price, Jackie; Fowkes, Gerry; Drenos, Marlene Stewart Fotios; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Casas, Juan Pablo; Kivimaki, Mika; Whittaker, John; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2014-01-01

    Background Both genome-wide association studies and candidate gene studies have reported that the major determinant of plasma levels of the Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] reside within the LPA locus on chromosome 6. We have used data from the Human CVD bead chip to explore the contribution of other candidate genes determining Lp(a) levels. Methods 48,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Illumina Human CVD bead chip were genotyped in 5,059 participants of the Whitehall II study (WHII) of randomly ascertained healthy men and women. SNPs showing association with Lp(a) levels of p< 10−4 outside the LPA locus were selected for replication in a total of an additional 9,463 participants of five European based studies (EAS, EPIC-Norfolk, NPHSII, PROCARDIS, and SAPHIR) Results In Whitehall II, apart from the LPA locus (where p values for several SNPs were < 10−30) there was significant association at four loci GALNT2, FABP1, PPARGC1A and TNFRSFF11A. However, a meta-analysis of the six studies did not confirm any of these findings. Conclusion Results from this meta analysis of 14,522 participants revealed no candidate genes from the Human CVD bead chip outside the LPA locus to have an effect on Lp(a) levels. Further studies with genome-wide and denser SNP coverage are required to confirm or refute this finding. PMID:21592478

  18. Multiple Hepatic Regulatory Variants at the GALNT2 GWAS Locus Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Roman, Tamara S; Marvelle, Amanda F; Fogarty, Marie P; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Gonzalez, Arlene J; Buchkovich, Martin L; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fuchsberger, Christian; Jackson, Anne U; Wu, Ying; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J; Gaulton, Kyle J; Sethupathy, Praveen; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Collins, Francis S; Laakso, Markku; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-12-03

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 150 loci associated with blood lipid and cholesterol levels; however, the functional and molecular mechanisms for many associations are unknown. We examined the functional regulatory effects of candidate variants at the GALNT2 locus associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fine-mapping and conditional analyses in the METSIM study identified a single locus harboring 25 noncoding variants (r(2) > 0.7 with the lead GWAS variants) strongly associated with total cholesterol in medium-sized HDL (e.g., rs17315646, p = 3.5 × 10(-12)). We used luciferase reporter assays in HepG2 cells to test all 25 variants for allelic differences in regulatory enhancer activity. rs2281721 showed allelic differences in transcriptional activity (75-fold [T] versus 27-fold [C] more than the empty-vector control), as did a separate 780-bp segment containing rs4846913, rs2144300, and rs6143660 (49-fold [AT(-) haplotype] versus 16-fold [CC(+) haplotype] more). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed differential CEBPB binding to rs4846913, and we confirmed this binding in a native chromatin context by performing chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines of differing genotypes. Additionally, sequence reads in HepG2 DNase-I-hypersensitivity and CEBPB ChIP-seq signals spanning rs4846913 showed significant allelic imbalance. Allelic-expression-imbalance assays performed with RNA from primary human hepatocyte samples and expression-quantitative-trait-locus (eQTL) data in human subcutaneous adipose tissue samples confirmed that alleles associated with increased HDL-C are associated with a modest increase in GALNT2 expression. Together, these data suggest that at least rs4846913 and rs2281721 play key roles in influencing GALNT2 expression at this HDL-C locus.

  19. Haplotype frequencies at the DRD2 locus in populations of the East European Plain

    PubMed Central

    Flegontova, Olga V; Khrunin, Andrey V; Lylova, Olga I; Tarskaia, Larisa A; Spitsyn, Victor A; Mikulich, Alexey I; Limborska, Svetlana A

    2009-01-01

    Background It was demonstrated previously that the three-locus RFLP haplotype, TaqI B-TaqI D-TaqI A (B-D-A), at the DRD2 locus constitutes a powerful genetic marker and probably reflects the most ancient dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Results We investigated TaqI B, BclI, MboI, TaqI D, and TaqI A RFLPs in 17 contemporary populations of the East European Plain and Siberia. Most of these populations belong to the Indo-European or Uralic language families. We identified three common haplotypes, which occurred in more than 90% of chromosomes investigated. The frequencies of the haplotypes differed according to linguistic and geographical affiliation. Conclusion Populations in the northwestern (Byelorussians from Mjadel'), northern (Russians from Mezen' and Oshevensk), and eastern (Russians from Puchezh) parts of the East European Plain had relatively high frequencies of haplotype B2-D2-A2, which may reflect admixture with Uralic-speaking populations that inhabited all of these regions in the Early Middle Ages. PMID:19793394

  20. Variants at chromosome 10q26 locus and the expression of HTRA1 in the retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaofeng; Dubovy, Sander R; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Schwartz, Stephen G; Agarwal, Anita; Scott, William K; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A

    2013-07-01

    Variations in a locus at chromosome 10q26 are strongly associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The most significantly associated haplotype includes a nonsynonymous SNP rs10490924 in the exon 1 of ARMS2 and rs11200638 in the promoter region of HTRA1. It is under debate which gene(s), ARMS2, HTRA1 or some other genes are functionally responsible for the genetic association. To verify whether the associated variants correlate with a higher HTRA1 expression level as previously reported, HTRA1 mRNA and protein were measured in a larger human retina-RPE-choroid samples (n = 82). Results show there is no significant change of HTRA1 mRNA level among genotypes at rs11200638, rs10490924 or an indel variant of ARMS2. Furthermore, two AMD-associated synonymous SNPs rs1049331 and rs2293870 in HTRA1 exon 1 do not change its protein level either. These results suggest that the AMD-associated variants in the chromosome 10q26 locus do not significantly affect the expression of HTRA1.

  1. The cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 16: development of a serotype-specific PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaicheng; Fan, Weixing; Wisselink, Henk; Lu, Chengping

    2011-12-15

    Streptococcus suis serotype 16 can infect pigs and humans. We describe the identification and the characterization of the capsular polysaccharides synthesis locus of S. suis serotype 16. Using PCR primers flanking the capsular polysaccharides synthesis locus, a 30,101-bp fragment was amplified. Twenty-nine open reading frames related to transcriptional regulation, glycosyl transfer, oligosaccharide repeat unit polymerization, polysaccharide transport, sialic acid synthesis and modification were identified. The data suggests that the serotype 16 capsule is synthesized by a Wzy-dependent pathway. So far, no rapid and sensitive diagnostic method is available for detection of serotype 16 isolates. A serotype specific PCR test for the rapid and sensitive detection of S. suis serotype 16 was developed. Cross hybridization experiments of individual cps genes with chromosomal DNAs of 33 serotypes showed that the cps16G and cps16K genes hybridized with serotype 16 only. Primers based on cps16G were used to develop a serotype 16 specific PCR. The PCR assay was successfully used to identify S. suis serotype 16 in the 99 Chinese S. suis clinical isolates and 8 European isolates.

  2. Segregation distortion of the CTG repeats at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Stivers, D.N.; Deka, R.; Yu, Ling M.; Shriver, M.D.; Ferrell, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disease, is caused by a CTG-repeat expansion, with affected individuals having {ge}50 repeats of this trinucleotide, at the DMPK locus of human chromosome 19q13.3. Severely affected individuals die early in life; the milder form of this disease reduces reproductive ability. Alleles in the normal range of CTG repeats are not as unstable as the (CTG){sub {ge}50} alleles. In the DM families, anticipation and parental bias of allelic expansions have been noted. However, data on mechanism of maintenance of DM in populations are conflicting. We present a maximum-likelihood model for examining segregation distortion of CTG-repeat alleles in normal families. Analyzing 726 meiotic events in 95 nuclear families from the CEPH panel pedigrees, we find evidence of preferential transmission of larger alleles (of size {le}29 repeats) from females (the probability of transmission of larger alleles is .565 {plus_minus} 0.03, different from .5 at P {approx} .028). There is no evidence of segregation distortion during male meiosis. We propose a hypothesis that preferential transmission of larger CTG-repeat alleles during female meiosis can compensate for mutational contraction of repeats within the normal allelic size range, and reduced viability and fertility of affected individuals. Thus, the pool of premutant alleles at the DM locus can be maintained in populations, which can subsequently mutate to the full mutation status to give rise to DM. 31 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Refined Mapping of the Renal Failure Rf-3 Quantitative Trait Locus

    PubMed Central

    O'Meara, Caitlin C.; Lazar, Jozef; Hoffman, Matthew; Moreno, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Rf-3, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on rat chromosome 3, affects the development of CKD in Fawn-Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats. This QTL spans 110 Mb and approximately 1400 genes; therefore, narrowing the position of this locus is necessary to elucidate potential candidate genes. Here, we used congenic models and comparative genomics to refine the Rf-3 candidate region. We generated congenic lines carrying smaller intervals (subcongenics) of the Rf-3 region and used these lines to reduce the Rf-3 candidate region by 94% (to 7.1 Mb). We used comparative genomics to identify QTL for both nephropathy and albuminuria in the syntenic region of this interval for both human and mouse. We also used the overlapping homologous regions to reduce the number of likely positional candidate genes to 13 known or predicted genes. By combining congenic models and cross-species studies, we narrowed the list of candidate genes to a level that we could sequence the whole interval to further identify the causative gene in future studies. PMID:21127141

  4. Role of the sar locus of Staphylococcus aureus in induction of endocarditis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A L; Yeaman, M R; Sullam, P M; Witt, M D; Bayer, A S

    1994-01-01

    A regulatory locus on the Staphylococcus aureus chromosome, designated sar, is involved in the expression of cell wall proteins, some of which are potentially important in the pathogenesis of endocarditis. For instance, mutant 11D2 (sar::Tn917LTV1) was found to bind substantially less to matrix proteins (i.e., fibrinogen and fibronectin) than parent strain DB. Remarkably, these two strains did not differ in other phenotypes considered important in the initiation of endocarditis (e.g., binding to platelets and resistance to platelet-derived microbicidal proteins). The isogenic pair were compared for pathogenicity in a rabbit endocarditis model. There were significant differences in infectivity rates between the two strains (71 and 88% for DB versus 17 and 42% for mutant 11D2 at inocula of 10(3) and 10(4) CFU, respectively). In early adherence studies, parent DB adhered substantially better than the mutant to valvular vegetations at an inoculum of 10(6) CFU (P = 0.05). Southern blot analysis of colonies indicated that the location of the Tn917LTV1 insert in mutant 11D2 remained stable after animal passage. In vitro adherence assays revealed that mutant 11D2 was less adherent to cultured human endothelium than parent DB. These studies suggest that the sar locus is involved in the initial adherence of S. aureus to the fibrin-platelet-endothelium matrix on damaged valvular endothelium. Images PMID:8168933

  5. Control over speeded actions: a common processing locus for micro- and macro-trade-offs?

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Ines; Leuthold, Hartmut

    2006-08-01

    Cognitive control processes associated with long- and short-term adjustments of human behaviour have attracted much interest recently. It is still unclear, however, whether the mechanisms underlying these adjustments share a common locus within the chain of stimulus-response processing. In order to address this issue, the present study employed a speed-accuracy instruction producing a macro-trade-off, whereas micro-trade-off was studied by means of posterror slowing in reaction time (RT). Participants performed a spatially compatible or incompatible four-stimuli-to-two-response alternative choice RT task. Reliable variations in micro-and macro-trade-off as well as effects of spatial compatibility were found in RT and error rate. Most importantly, posterror slowing was larger when instruction stressed accuracy rather than speed, an effect being independent of spatial compatibility. Because the influence of speed-accuracy instruction and posterror slowing on performance was strongest for response alternations, together present findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying micro- and macro-trade-offs have one common locus at the level of motor processing. Additional influences of macro-trade-off on premotoric processing are likely.

  6. C. albicans Growth, Transition, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expression Modulation by Antimicrobial Decapeptide KSL-W

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-07

    is essential to biofilm formation [4]. The involvement of HWP1 in C. albicans adhesion is supported by the EAP1 gene which encodes a glucan -crosslinked...KSL-W. Furthermore, the EAP1 gene, which encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol- anchored, glucan -crosslinked cell wall protein in both ad- hesion and...control in agriculture. J Sci Food Agric 2013, 93:1525–1536. 27. Dhople V, Krukemeyer A, Ramamoorthy A: The human beta -defensin-3, an antibacterial

  7. COMMON POLYMORPHISMS AT THE CYP17A1 LOCUS ASSOCIATE WITH STEROID PHENOTYPE: SUPPORT FOR BLOOD PRESSURE GWAS SIGNALS AT THIS LOCUS

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Robert; McManus, Frances; Freel, E. Marie; Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; McClure, John D.; Friel, Elaine C.; Hanley, Neil A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Connell, John M.; Davies, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicate the CYP17A1 gene in human blood pressure regulation although the causative polymorphisms are as yet unknown. We sought to identify common polymorphisms likely to explain this association. We sequenced the CYP17A1 locus in 60 normotensive individuals and observed 24 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with minor allele frequency >0.05. From these, we selected for further study 7 polymorphisms located up to 2 kilobases upstream of the CYP17A1 transcription start site. In vitro reporter gene assays identified three of these (rs138009835, rs2150927 and rs2486758) as having significant functional effects. We then analysed association between the 7 polymorphisms and urinary steroid metabolites in a hypertensive cohort (n=232). Significant associations included that of rs138009835 with aldosterone metabolite excretion; rs2150927 associated with the ratio of tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone to tetrahydrodeoxycortisol, which we employed as an index of 17α-hydroxylation. Linkage analysis showed rs138009835 to be the only one of the 7 polymorphisms in strong linkage disequilibrium with the blood pressure-associated polymorphisms identified in previous studies. In conclusion, we have identified, characterised and investigated common polymorphisms at the CYP17A1 locus that have functional effects on gene transcription in vitro and associate with corticosteroid phenotype in vivo. Of these, rs138009835 – which we associate with changes in aldosterone level – is in strong linkage disequilibrium with polymorphisms linked by genome-wide association studies to blood pressure regulation. This finding clearly has implications for the development of high blood pressure in a large proportion of the population and justifies further investigation of rs138009835 and its effects. PMID:26902494

  8. An investigation on the mediating role of coping strategies on locus of control-- wellbeing relationship.

    PubMed

    Thiruchelvi, Arunachalam; Supriya, Mangatvadakkeveetil V

    2012-03-01

    The relationship among coping strategies, locus of control, and workplace wellbeing is examined. The model hypothesizes that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place well being. To test the model, data was collected from 154 software professionals using separate tools to assess coping strategies, locus of control and work place wellbeing. Model fit for the collected data was examined using structural equation modeling technique with the help of AMOS. Results support the view that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place wellbeing. While the path between locus of control and wellbeing is significant, the path between coping distraction and wellbeing is not significant.

  9. Teacher psychological needs, locus of control and engagement.

    PubMed

    Betoret, Fernando Doménech

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among psychological needs, locus of control and engagement in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher needs were identified based on the study of Bess (1977) and on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the construct selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by conducting hierarchical regression analyses. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression reveals that psychological needs have significant positive effects on the three engagement dimensions (vigor, dedication and absorption). Furthermore, the results show the moderator role played by locus of control in the relationship between teacher psychological needs and the so-called core of engagement (vigor and dedication). Finally, practical implications are discussed.

  10. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the reptile Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Gambón Deza, Francisco; Sánchez Espinel, Christian; Magadán Mompó, Susana

    2009-05-01

    We describe the entire immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus from the reptile Anolis carolinensis. The heavy chain constant (C(H)) region includes C mu, C delta and C upsilon genes. This is the first description of a C upsilon gene in the reptilian class. Variable (V(H)), diversity (D(H)) and joining (J(H)) genes are located 5' from the constant (C(H)) chain complex locus. The C mu and C upsilon genes encode antibodies with four immunoglobulin domains. The C delta gene encoded an 11 domain delta heavy chain as in Eublepharis macularius. Seventy V(H) genes, belonging to 28 families, were identified, and they can be sorted into five broader groups. The similarity of the organization of the reptilian genes with those of amphibians and mammals suggests the existence of a process of heavy chain genomic reorganization before the radiation of tetrapod vertebrates.

  11. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F.; Gal, A.

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. A locus affecting nucleoid segregation in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, M B

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen temperature-sensitive lethal mutations of Salmonella typhimurium map near metC at 65 min and form the clmF (conditional lethal mutation) locus. The mutations in this region were ordered by three-point transduction crosses. After a shift to the nonpermissive temperature, many of these clmF mutants failed to complete the segregation of nucleoids into daughter cells; daughter nucleoids appeared incompletely separated and asymmetrically positioned within cells. Some clmF mutants showed instability of F' episomes at permissive growth temperatures yet showed no detectable defect with smaller multicopy plasmids such as pSC101 or pBR322. In addition, many of the clmF mutants rapidly lost viability yet continued DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. These results suggest that the clmF locus encodes at least one indispensable gene product that is required for faithful partitioning of the bacterial nucleoid and F-plasmid replicons. Images PMID:2203751

  13. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  14. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus

    PubMed Central

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K.; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  15. Genetic analysis of the claret locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, W.; Nelson, C.R.; Szauter, P. )

    1989-11-01

    The claret (ca) locus of Drosophila melanogaster comprises two separately mutable domains, one responsible for eye color and one responsible for proper disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis and early cleavage divisions. Previously isolated alleles are of three types: (1) alleles of the claret (ca) type that affect eye color only, (2) alleles of the claret-nondisjunctional (ca{sup nd}) type that affect eye color and chromosome behavior, and (3) a meiotic mutation, non-claret disjunctional (ncd), that affects chromosome behavior only. In order to investigate the genetic structure of the claret locus, the authors have isolated 19 radiation-induced alleles of claret on the basis of the eye color phenotype. Two of these 19 new alleles are of the ca{sup nd} type, while 17 are of the ca type, demonstrating that the two domains do not often act as a single target for mutagenesis. This suggests that the two separately mutable functions are likely to be encoded by separate or overlapping genes rather than by a single gene. One of the new alleles of the ca{sup nd} type is a chromosome rearrangement with a breakpoint at the position of the claret locus. If this breakpoint is the cause of the mutant phenotype and there are no other mutations associated with the rearrangement, the two functions must be encoded by overlapping genes.

  16. Measurement methodology in children's health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Bases, Hugh; Schonfeld, David J

    2002-06-01

    Health locus of control scales for children are often constructed in an agree/disagree format. It was hypothesized that the structure of the instrument may be in part responsible for the finding that young children (7-8 yr) have an external health locus of control relevant to children several years older. The original version and a revised version, using a choice of attribution format, were both administered to 444 students (98% of eligible students) attending 10 second-grade classes. Although the mean scores for the two formats were the same, 32.0 (SD = 3.3), item level analyses showed poor agreement (kappa, -.005-.41) and significant bias in disagreements on 15 of the 20 items. Changes in the wording of the questions led to different results, indicating possible limitations in either format. The observation that young children likely have a mixed health locus of control indicates that health educators may benefit from employing both internal and external sources of reinforcement to promote healthy behaviors in young children.

  17. Congenic mapping and sequence analysis of the Renin locus

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Reddy, Prajwal; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Renin was the first blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapped by linkage analysis in the rat. Subsequent BP linkage and congenic studies capturing different portions of the renin region have returned conflicting results, suggesting that multiple interdependent BP loci may be residing in the chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. We used SS-13BN congenic strains to map 2 BP loci in the Renin region (chr13:45.2–49.0 Mb). We identified a 1.1 Mb protective Brown Norway (BN) region around Renin (chr13:46.1–47.2 Mb) that significantly decreased BP by 32 mmHg. The Renin protective BP locus was offset by an adjacent hypertensive locus (chr13:47.2–49.0 Mb) that significantly increased BP by 29 mmHg. Sequence analysis of the protective and hypertensive BP loci revealed 1,433 and 2,063 variants between Dahl salt-sensitive/Mcwi (SS) and BN rats, respectively. To further reduce the list of candidate variants, we re-genotyped an overlapping SS-13SR congenic strain (S/renrr) with a previously reported BP phenotype. Sequence comparison between SS, Dahl R (SR), and BN reduced the number of candidate variants in the 2 BP loci by 42% for further study. Combined with previous studies, these data suggest that at least 4 BP loci reside within the 30 cM chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. PMID:23460292

  18. Transvection at the vestigial locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Alistair B; Nolan, Nadia; Bell, John B; Hilliker, Arthur J

    2005-08-01

    Transvection is a phenomenon wherein gene expression is effected by the interaction of alleles in trans and often results in partial complementation between mutant alleles. Transvection is dependent upon somatic pairing between homologous chromosome regions and is a form of interallelic complementation that does not occur at the polypeptide level. In this study we demonstrated that transvection could occur at the vestigial (vg) locus by revealing that partial complementation between two vg mutant alleles could be disrupted by changing the genomic location of the alleles through chromosome rearrangement. If chromosome rearrangements affect transvection by disrupting somatic pairing, then combining chromosome rearrangements that restore somatic pairing should restore transvection. We were able to restore partial complementation in numerous rearrangement trans-heterozygotes, thus providing substantial evidence that the observed complementation at vg results from a transvection effect. Cytological analyses revealed this transvection effect to have a large proximal critical region, a feature common to other transvection effects. In the Drosophila interphase nucleus, paired chromosome arms are separated into distinct, nonoverlapping domains. We propose that if the relative position of each arm in the nucleus is determined by the centromere as a relic of chromosome positions after the last mitotic division, then a locus will be displaced to a different territory of the interphase nucleus relative to its nonrearranged homolog by any rearrangement that links that locus to a different centromere. This physical displacement in the nucleus hinders transvection by disrupting the somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes and gives rise to proximal critical regions.

  19. Interarticulator phasing, locus equations, and degree of coarticulation.

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, A

    1999-10-01

    A locus equation plots the frequency of the second formant at vowel onset against the target frequency of the same formant for the vowel in a consonant-vowel sequence, across different vowel contexts. It has generally been assumed that the slope of the locus equation reflects the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel, with a steeper slope showing more coarticulation. This study examined the articulatory basis for this assumption. Four subjects participated and produced VCV sequences of the consonants /b, d, g/ and the vowels /i, a, u/. The movements of the tongue and the lips were recorded using a magnetometer system. One articulatory measure was the temporal phasing between the onset of the lip closing movement for the bilabial consonant and the onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel in a VCV sequence. A second measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement during the oral stop closure, averaged across four receivers on the tongue. A third measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement from the onset of the second vowel to the tongue position for that vowel. When compared with the corresponding locus equations, no measure showed any support for the assumption that the slope serves as an index of the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel.

  20. The Effects of Locus of Control and Task Difficulty on Procrastination.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Tracy; Carton, John S

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the effects of locus of control expectancies and task difficulty on procrastination. Forty-two college students were administered an academic locus of control scale and a task that was similar to a typical college homework assignment. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 task difficulty levels. Although none of the results involving task difficulty was significant, several results involving locus of control were significant. Specifically, analyses revealed that students with internal locus of control expectancies tended to begin working on the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control expectancies. In addition, students with internal locus of control completed and returned the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control. The results are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter's (1966, 1975, 1982) social learning theory.

  1. Mapping of the Domestic Cat “SILVER” Coat Color Locus Identifies a Unique Genomic Location for Silver in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    David, Victor A.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Roelke, Melody E.; Ghaffari, Helya; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The SILVER locus has been mapped in the domestic cat, identifying a unique genomic location distinct from that of any known reported gene associated with silver or hypopigmentation in mammals. A demonstrated lack of linkage to SILV, the strong candidate gene for silver, led to the initiation of a genome scan utilizing 2 pedigrees segregating for silver coat color. Linkage mapping defined a genomic region for SILVER as a 3.3-Mb region, (95.87–99.21 Mb) on chromosome D2, (peak logarithm of the odds = 10.5, θ = 0), which displays conserved synteny to a genomic interval between 118.58 and 121.85 Mb on chromosome 10 in the human genome. In the domestic cat, mutations at the SILVER locus suppress the development of pigment in the hair, but in contrast to other mammalian silver variants, there is an apparently greater influence on the production of pheomelanin than eumelanin pigment. The mapping of a novel locus for SILVER offers much promise in identifying a gene that may help elucidate aspects of pheomelanogenesis, a pathway that has been very elusive, and illustrates the promise of the cat genome project in increasing our understanding of basic biological processes of general relevance for mammals. PMID:19398491

  2. Disruption of a novel regulatory locus results in decreased Bdnf expression, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sha, Haibo; Xu, Jingyue; Tang, Jing; Ding, Jun; Gong, Jianfeng; Ge, Xiaomei; Kong, Dong; Gao, Xiang

    2007-10-22

    Mutants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with obesity. However, the regulatory mechanism of BDNF expression is still unclear. We developed a novel mutant mouse line, transgenic insertional mutants with obesity, named Timo, in which a potential regulatory locus of Bdnf was disrupted by transgene insertion. The insertion site was identified and lies 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene. The disrupted genomic locus is conserved across the mouse, rat, dog, and human genome and contains several highly conserved elements that are able to upregulate reporter gene expression in vitro. Along with downregulation of BDNF to approximately 30% of wild-type animals, Timo/Timo mice exhibited increased body weight and fat content with hepatic steatosis and elevated serum levels of leptin, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. These mutant mice also showed obesity-independent insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, age-dependent hyperglycemia, and shortened life span. Molecular and phenotype analysis of Timo/Timo mice indicated the existence of a genome locus, lying 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene, that regulates BDNF expression, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

  3. Identification and Potential Regulatory Properties of Evolutionary Conserved Regions (ECRs) at the Schizophrenia-Associated MIR137 Locus.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Olympia; Griffiths, Daniel; Myers, Paul; Collier, David A; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a region at chromosome 1p21.3, containing the microRNA MIR137, to be among the most significant associations for schizophrenia. However, the mechanism by which genetic variation at this locus increases risk of schizophrenia is unknown. Identifying key regulatory regions around MIR137 is crucial to understanding the potential role of this gene in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. Through alignment of vertebrate genomes, we identified seven non-coding regions at the MIR137 locus with conservation comparable to exons (>70 %). Bioinformatic analysis using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS dataset for schizophrenia showed five of the ECRs to have genome-wide significant SNPs in or adjacent to their sequence. Analysis of available datasets on chromatin marks and histone modification data showed that three of the ECRs were predicted to be functional in the human brain, and three in development. In vitro analysis of ECR activity using reporter gene assays showed that all seven of the selected ECRs displayed transcriptional regulatory activity in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. This data suggests a regulatory role in the developing and adult brain for these highly conserved regions at the MIR137 schizophrenia-associated locus and further that these domains could act individually or synergistically to regulate levels of MIR137 expression.

  4. Evidence of genotypic adaptation to the exposure to volcanic risk at the dopamine receptor DRD4 locus

    PubMed Central

    Faurie, Charlotte; Mettling, Clement; Ali Bchir, Mohamed; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; Heitz, Carine; Lestari, Evi Dwi; Raymond, Michel; Willinger, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Humans have colonized and adapted to extremely diverse environments, and the genetic basis of some such adaptations, for example to high altitude, is understood. In some cases, local or regional variation in selection pressure could also cause behavioural adaptations. Numerous genes influence behaviour, such as alleles at the dopamine receptor locus D4 (DRD4), which are associated with attitude toward risk in experimental settings. We demonstrate genetic differentiation for this gene, but not for five unlinked microsatellite loci, between high- and low risk environments around Mount Merapi, an active volcano in Java, Indonesia. Using a behavioural experiment, we further show that people inhabiting the high risk environment are significantly more risk averse. We provide evidence of a genetic basis for this difference, showing that heterozygotes at the DRD4 locus are more risk averse than either homozygotes. In the high risk environment, allele frequencies are equilibrated, generating a high frequency of heterozygotes. Thus it appears that overdominance (i.e. selective advantage of heterozygotes) generates negative frequency dependent selection, favouring the rarer allele at this locus. Our results therefore provide evidence for adaptation to a marginal habitat through the selection of a neurocognitive trait with a genetic basis. PMID:27905471

  5. High-resolution genetic mapping of the sucrose octaacetate taste aversion (Soa) locus on mouse Chromosome 6.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, A A; Li, X; Li, S; Neira, M; Beauchamp, G K; Azen, E A

    2001-09-01

    An acetylated sugar, sucrose octaacetate (SOA), tastes bitter to humans and has an aversive taste to at least some mice and other animals. In mice, taste aversion to SOA depends on allelic variation of a single locus, Soa. Three Soa alleles determine 'taster' (Soa(a)), 'nontaster' (Soa(b)), and 'demitaster' (Soa(c)) phenotypes of taste sensitivity to SOA. Although Soa has been mapped to distal Chromosome (Chr) 6, the limits of the Soa region have not been defined. In this study, mice from congenic strains SW.B6-Soa(b), B6.SW-Soa(a), and C3.SW-Soa(a/c) and from an outbred CFW strain were genotyped with polymorphic markers on Chr 6. In the congenic strains, the limits of introgressed donor fragments were determined. In the outbred mice, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analyses were conducted. Positions of the markers were further resolved by using radiation hybrid mapping. The results show that the Soa locus is contained in an approximately 1-cM (3.3-4.9 Mb) region including the Prp locus.

  6. Evidence of genotypic adaptation to the exposure to volcanic risk at the dopamine receptor DRD4 locus.

    PubMed

    Faurie, Charlotte; Mettling, Clement; Ali Bchir, Mohamed; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; Heitz, Carine; Lestari, Evi Dwi; Raymond, Michel; Willinger, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Humans have colonized and adapted to extremely diverse environments, and the genetic basis of some such adaptations, for example to high altitude, is understood. In some cases, local or regional variation in selection pressure could also cause behavioural adaptations. Numerous genes influence behaviour, such as alleles at the dopamine receptor locus D4 (DRD4), which are associated with attitude toward risk in experimental settings. We demonstrate genetic differentiation for this gene, but not for five unlinked microsatellite loci, between high- and low risk environments around Mount Merapi, an active volcano in Java, Indonesia. Using a behavioural experiment, we further show that people inhabiting the high risk environment are significantly more risk averse. We provide evidence of a genetic basis for this difference, showing that heterozygotes at the DRD4 locus are more risk averse than either homozygotes. In the high risk environment, allele frequencies are equilibrated, generating a high frequency of heterozygotes. Thus it appears that overdominance (i.e. selective advantage of heterozygotes) generates negative frequency dependent selection, favouring the rarer allele at this locus. Our results therefore provide evidence for adaptation to a marginal habitat through the selection of a neurocognitive trait with a genetic basis.

  7. Genetic analysis of molecular markers for propamocarb residue in Cucumis sativus using quantitative trait locus mapping.

    PubMed

    Xin, M; Wang, L; Ma, B H; Qin, Z W; Zhou, X Y

    2016-11-03

    The use of pesticides to protect plants against harmful organisms, such as pathogenic microorganisms, is one of the most effective ways to improve agricultural production. However, the continuous use of pesticides might present a risk to human health, animals, and the environment. In this study, two cucumber (Cucumis sativus) varieties containing different levels of pesticide residues, D9320 and D0351, were selected to establish an F2 population. A genetic model and genetic linkage map were constructed. The results showed that the heredity of pesticide residues was dominated by an additive effect and was significantly influenced by non-additive factors in cucumber. QCp1 was detected as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that might be involved in regulating the levels of pesticide residue in cucumber. Moreover, the cucumber genetic map was compared with the LG6 map, and the results indicated that this QTL was closely related to the level of pesticide residue in cucumber.

  8. Dual Fluorescent Reporter Pig for Cre Recombination: Transgene Placement at the ROSA26 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shun; Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kurome, Mayuko; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Kessler, Barbara; Saur, Dieter; Kind, Alexander; Wolf, Eckhard; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Schnieke, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    We are extending the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system to pigs, focussing on conditional and tissue-specific expression of oncogenic mutations to model human cancers. Identifying the location, pattern and extent of Cre recombination in vivo is an important aspect of this technology. Here we report pigs with a dual fluorochrome cassette under the control of the strong CAG promoter that switches expression after Cre-recombination, from membrane-targeted tandem dimer Tomato to membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein. The reporter cassette was placed at the porcine ROSA26 locus by conventional gene targeting using primary mesenchymal stem cells, and animals generated by nuclear transfer. Gene targeting efficiency was high, and analysis of foetal organs and primary cells indicated that the reporter is highly expressed and functional. Cre reporter pigs will provide a multipurpose indicator of Cre recombinase activity, an important new tool for the rapidly expanding field of porcine genetic modification. PMID:25025770

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the CST2 locus coding for cystatin SA.

    PubMed

    Shintani, M; Minaguchi, K; Isemura, S; Saitoh, E; Sanada, K; Semba, T

    1994-07-01

    A new genetic polymorphism of cystatin SA has been identified in human submandibular-sublingual saliva by means of basic gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-cystatin S. Two proteins, SA1 and SA2, are given by two alleles of CST2, viz., CST2*1 and CST*2. Inheritance is controlled by two codominant alleles at an autosomal locus. This hypothesis is supported by studies of 16 families 32 children. Gene frequencies for CST2*1 and CST2*2 are 0.935 and 0.065, respectively (n = 341). Eighteen amino acids determined among 20 N-terminal residues of cystatin SA2 are identical with the sequence encoded by CST2. Three forms of cystatin S (mono-phosphorylated cystatin S, di-phosphorylated cystatin S, and non-phosphorylated cystatin S) are present in the 341 saliva samples tested.

  10. Prostate cancer risk locus at 8q24 as a regulatory hub by physical interactions with multiple genomic loci across the genome.

    PubMed

    Du, Meijun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Schilter, Kala F; Dittmar, Rachel L; Mackinnon, Alexander; Huang, Xiaoyi; Tschannen, Michael; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; Xia, Shu; Gao, Jianzhong; Tillmans, Lori; Lu, Yan; Liu, Pengyuan; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 8q24 locus contains regulatory variants that modulate genetic risk to various cancers including prostate cancer (PC). However, the biological mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. Here, we developed a chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based multi-target sequencing technology and systematically examined three PC risk regions at the 8q24 locus and their potential regulatory targets across human genome in six cell lines. We observed frequent physical contacts of this risk locus with multiple genomic regions, in particular, inter-chromosomal interaction with CD96 at 3q13 and intra-chromosomal interaction with MYC at 8q24. We identified at least five interaction hot spots within the predicted functional regulatory elements at the 8q24 risk locus. We also found intra-chromosomal interaction genes PVT1, FAM84B and GSDMC and inter-chromosomal interaction gene CXorf36 in most of the six cell lines. Other gene regions appeared to be cell line-specific, such as RRP12 in LNCaP, USP14 in DU-145 and SMIN3 in lymphoblastoid cell line. We further found that the 8q24 functional domains more likely interacted with genomic regions containing genes enriched in critical pathways such as Wnt signaling and promoter motifs such as E2F1 and TCF3. This result suggests that the risk locus may function as a regulatory hub by physical interactions with multiple genes important for prostate carcinogenesis. Further understanding genetic effect and biological mechanism of these chromatin interactions will shed light on the newly discovered regulatory role of the risk locus in PC etiology and progression.

  11. The 1.5-Mb region spanning the myotonic dystrophy locus shows uniform recombination frequency.

    PubMed

    Shutler, G G; MacKenzie, A E; Korneluk, R G

    1994-01-01

    The myotonic dystrophy (DM) mutation has been identified as a heritable unstable CTG trinucleotide repeat sequence. The intergenerational amplification of this sequence is an example of a new class of dynamic mutations responsible for human genetic diseases. To ascertain whether recombination activity influences, or is affected by, the presence of this unique sequence, a comprehensive study of the physical and genetic mapping data for the 1.5-Mb region of human chromosome 19q13.3, which contains the DM locus, was conducted. The recombination rate for this region was examined by correlating genetic distance to physical distance for six selected marker loci. The following markers span the DM region: 19qCEN-p alpha 1.4 (D19S37)-APOC2-CKM-pE0.8 (D19S115)-pGB2.6 (DM)-p134c (D19S51)-19qTER. Initial linear regression analysis of these two parameters failed to reveal a significant linear correlation (coefficient of determination, r2 = .19), suggesting nonuniform rates of recombination. However, the presence of a recombination hot spot was believed to be unlikely, as the marker-to-marker pairs that showed the greatest deviation in recombination frequency were not restricted to a specific region of the 1.5 Mb studied and had relatively broad confidence intervals, as reflected by low LOD values. A second linear regression analysis using only marker intervals with high LOD scores (Zmax > 22) showed linear correlation (r2 = .68) for the entire 1.5-Mb region. This analysis indicated a relatively uniform recombination frequency in the 1.5-Mb region spanning the DM locus. Furthermore, the recombinations observed were neither under- nor overrepresented on DM chromosomes. Consequently, recombination activity is unlikely to influence, or be affected by, the presence of the DM mutation.

  12. A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection.

    PubMed

    Band, Gavin; Rockett, Kirk A; Spencer, Chris C A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2015-10-08

    The high prevalence of sickle haemoglobin in Africa shows that malaria has been a major force for human evolutionary selection, but surprisingly few other polymorphisms have been proven to confer resistance to malaria in large epidemiological studies. To address this problem, we conducted a multi-centre genome-wide association study (GWAS) of life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum infection (severe malaria) in over 11,000 African children, with replication data in a further 14,000 individuals. Here we report a novel malaria resistance locus close to a cluster of genes encoding glycophorins that are receptors for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. We identify a haplotype at this locus that provides 33% protection against severe malaria (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.76, P value = 9.5 × 10(-11)) and is linked to polymorphisms that have previously been shown to have features of ancient balancing selection, on the basis of haplotype sharing between humans and chimpanzees. Taken together with previous observations on the malaria-protective role of blood group O, these data reveal that two of the strongest GWAS signals for severe malaria lie in or close to genes encoding the glycosylated surface coat of the erythrocyte cell membrane, both within regions of the genome where it appears that evolution has maintained diversity for millions of years. These findings provide new insights into the host-parasite interactions that are critical in determining the outcome of malaria infection.

  13. A conserved interaction that is essential for the biogenesis of histone locus bodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-cui; Sabath, Ivan; Kunduru, Lalitha; van Wijnen, Andre J; Marzluff, William F; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2014-12-05

    Nuclear protein, ataxia-telangiectasia locus (NPAT) and FLICE-associated huge protein (FLASH) are two major components of discrete nuclear structures called histone locus bodies (HLBs). NPAT is a key co-activator of histone gene transcription, whereas FLASH through its N-terminal region functions in 3' end processing of histone primary transcripts. The C-terminal region of FLASH contains a highly conserved domain that is also present at the end of Yin Yang 1-associated protein-related protein (YARP) and its Drosophila homologue, Mute, previously shown to localize to HLBs in Drosophila cells. Here, we show that the C-terminal domain of human FLASH and YARP interacts with the C-terminal region of NPAT and that this interaction is essential and sufficient to drive FLASH and YARP to HLBs in HeLa cells. Strikingly, only the last 16 amino acids of NPAT are sufficient for the interaction. We also show that the C-terminal domain of Mute interacts with a short region at the end of the Drosophila NPAT orthologue, multi sex combs (Mxc). Altogether, our data indicate that the conserved C-terminal domain shared by FLASH, YARP, and Mute recognizes the C-terminal sequence of NPAT orthologues, thus acting as a signal targeting proteins to HLBs. Finally, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of human FLASH can be directly joined with its N-terminal region through alternative splicing. The resulting 190-amino acid MiniFLASH, despite lacking 90% of full-length FLASH, contains all regions necessary for 3' end processing of histone pre-mRNA in vitro and accumulates in HLBs.

  14. Locus minimization in breed prediction using artificial neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Iquebal, M A; Ansari, M S; Sarika; Dixit, S P; Verma, N K; Aggarwal, R A K; Jayakumar, S; Rai, A; Kumar, D

    2014-12-01

    Molecular markers, viz. microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms, have revolutionized breed identification through the use of small samples of biological tissue or germplasm, such as blood, carcass samples, embryos, ova and semen, that show no evident phenotype. Classical tools of molecular data analysis for breed identification have limitations, such as the unavailability of referral breed data, causing increased cost of collection each time, compromised computational accuracy and complexity of the methodology used. We report here the successful use of an artificial neural network (ANN) in background to decrease the cost of genotyping by locus minimization. The webserver is freely accessible (http://nabg.iasri.res.in/bisgoat) to the research community. We demonstrate that the machine learning (ANN) approach for breed identification is capable of multifold advantages such as locus minimization, leading to a drastic reduction in cost, and web availability of reference breed data, alleviating the need for repeated genotyping each time one investigates the identity of an unknown breed. To develop this model web implementation based on ANN, we used 51,850 samples of allelic data of microsatellite-marker-based DNA fingerprinting on 25 loci covering 22 registered goat breeds of India for training. Minimizing loci to up to nine loci through the use of a multilayer perceptron model, we achieved 96.63% training accuracy. This server can be an indispensable tool for identification of existing breeds and new synthetic commercial breeds, leading to protection of intellectual property in case of sovereignty and bio-piracy disputes. This server can be widely used as a model for cost reduction by locus minimization for various other flora and fauna in terms of variety, breed and/or line identification, especially in conservation and improvement programs.

  15. Differential innate immune responses of a living skin equivalent model colonized by Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Holland, Diana B; Bojar, Richard A; Farrar, Mark D; Holland, Keith T

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a commensal on skin, whereas Staphylococcus aureus is a transient pathogen. The aim was to determine whether the skin's innate defence systems responded differently to these microorganisms. Differential gene expression of a human skin equivalent (SE) model was assessed by microarray technology, in response to colonization by S. epidermidis or S. aureus. Only a small number of transcripts were significantly (P<0.0001) increased (12) or decreased (35) with gene expression changes of >2-fold on SEs colonized with S. epidermidis compared with controls (no colonization). Expression of one innate defence gene, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), was upregulated, while psoriasin, S100A12, S100A15, beta defensin 4, beta defensin 3, lipocalin 2 and peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 were downregulated. In contrast, large numbers of transcripts were significantly increased (480) or decreased (397) with gene expression changes of >2-fold on SEs colonized with S. aureus compared with controls. There was upregulation in gene expression of many skin defence factors including Toll-like receptor 2, beta defensin 4, properdin, PTX3, proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-17C, IL-20, IL-23A and chemokines IL-8, CCL4, CCL5, CCL20 and CCL27. These differences may partly explain why S. epidermidis is a normal skin resident and S. aureus is not.

  16. A novel method for detection of preferred retinal locus (PRL) through simple retinal image processing using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalikivayi, V.; Pal, Sudip; Ganesan, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    simple and new technique for detection of `Preferred Retinal Locus' (PRL) in human eye is proposed in this paper. Simple MATLAB algorithms for estimating RGB pixel intensity values of retinal images were used. The technique proved non-existence of `S' cones in Fovea Centralis and also proposes that rods are involved in blue color perception. Retinal images of central vision loss and normal retina were taken for image processing. Blue minimum, Red maximum and Red+Green maximum were the three methods used in detecting PRL. Comparative analyses were also performed for these methods with patient's age and visual acuity.

  17. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype.

  18. Semiparametric approach to match probability calculations using single locus probes.

    PubMed

    Cao, R; Alemany, J; Cabrero, C; Carracedo, A; Díez, A; Valverde, E

    1996-01-01

    A semiparametric approach to match probability calculations using single locus probes has been developed and compared graphically with other standard methods by a one-sample simulation. The density functions obtained using this method are closer to the real distributions than those obtained by conventional approaches. Our method does not need to establish an arbitrary match threshold, which has been a source of problems in practical applications of standard methods. Moreover, it can be adjusted to any particular conditions by setting the experimental error and correlation of each laboratory. To assess the practical performance of this method we carried out a comparison experiment using a sample of 229 individuals analysed in duplicate.

  19. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  20. Locus of control and home mortgage loan behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingji; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of locus of control on home mortgage loan behaviours. The results showed that participants with stronger external control were more likely to purchase a lower priced home, have a lower ratio of mortgage loan amount to the total home value, and have a shorter term of mortgage loan. Moreover, among participants who have owned a home, those not using mortgage loans showed more external control than those using mortgage loans; among participants who have not owned a home but want to buy a home, those not planning to use mortgage loans showed more external control than those planning to use mortgage loans.

  1. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  2. Role of health locus of control between uncertainty and uncertainty appraisal among patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Younhee

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of health locus of control in the model of uncertainty in illness among patients with atrial fibrillation. This study employed a descriptive, correlational survey. A total of 81 patients with atrial fibrillation were recruited from two large medical centers in the United States. Only the interaction term of uncertainty and internal health locus of control had a significant moderating effect on appraisal of danger. Greater internal health locus of control was associated with greater appraisal of danger at the given degree of uncertainty. Therefore, the internal health locus of control played a significant role in magnifying the relationship of uncertainty on appraisal of danger. However, health locus of control did not moderate the relationship between uncertainty and appraisal of opportunity. Finally, this study concluded that internal health locus of control had a moderating effect on the relationship between uncertainty and appraisal of danger.

  3. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  4. 19p13.1 is a triple negative-specific breast cancer susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459

  5. Order of six loci at 2q24-q31 and orientation of the HOXD locus

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, E.; Floridia, G.; Zuffardi, O.

    1994-11-01

    HOXD, a gene cluster of 9 homeobox genes of the Antennapedia class: EVX2, a homeobox gene related to Drosophila-even-skipped gene; DLX1 and DLX2, two homeobox genes related to the Drosophila distal-less gene: and TTN and NEB, the genes for the two giant molecules titin and nebulin, both involved in the sarcomere structure, have been previously mapped to human 2q31-q32 and to mouse chromosome 2. They studied their relative order in human by applying FISH to three balanced chromosome rearrangements each with a breakpoint at 2q31. Unambiguous results led to mapping these genes and to orienting the HOXD locus along chromosome 2 according to the following order: cen, NEB, DLX1-DLX2-EVX2, HOXD (5{prime}-3{prime}), TTN, tel. All of these genes are part of a syntenic region covering 5-10 cM and conserved since the divergence of humans and rodents, and thus the same loci order should be present in mouse. FISH in metaphases of approximately 500 bands localized NEB to 2q24.1-124.2, while HOXD and TTN were localized to 2q31. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A novel locus for alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR2) maps to chromosome 3q26.2-q26.31.

    PubMed

    Wali, A; John, P; Gul, A; Lee, K; Chishti, M S; Ali, G; Hassan, M J; Leal, S M; Ahmad, W

    2006-09-01

    Congenital alopecia may occur either alone or in association with ectodermal and other abnormalities. On the bases of such associations, several different syndromes featuring congenital alopecia can be distinguished. Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome (APMR) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, clinically characterized by total or partial hair loss and mental retardation. In the present study, a five-generation Pakistani family with multiple affected individuals with APMR was ascertained. Patients in this family exhibited typical features of APMR syndrome. The disease locus was mapped to chromosome 3q26.2-q26.31 by carrying out a genome scan followed by fine mapping. A maximum two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 2.93 at theta=0.0 was obtained at markers D3S3053 and D3S2309. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 4.57 with several markers, which supports the linkage. The disease locus was flanked by markers D3S1564 and D3S2427, which corresponds to 9.6-cM region according to the Rutgers combined linkage-physical map of the human genome (build 35) and contains 5.6 Mb. The linkage interval of the APMR locus identified here does not overlap with the one described previously; therefore, this locus has been designated as APMR2.

  7. A new and simple method to construct root locus of general fractional-order systems.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mukesh D; Vyawahare, Vishwesh A; Bhole, Manisha K

    2014-03-01

    Recently fractional-order (FO) differential equations are widely used in the areas of modeling and control. They are multivalued in nature hence their stability is defined using Riemann surfaces. The stability analysis of FO linear systems using the technique of Root Locus is the main focus of this paper. Procedure to plot root locus of FO systems in s-plane has been proposed by many authors, which are complicated, and analysis using these methods is also difficult and incomplete. In this paper, we have proposed a simple method of plotting root locus of FO systems. In the proposed method, the FO system is transformed into its integer-order counterpart and then root locus of this transformed system is plotted. It is shown with the help of examples that the root locus of this transformed system (which is obviously very easy to plot) has exactly the same shape and structure as the root locus of the original FO system. So stability of the FO system can be directly deduced and analyzed from the root locus of the transformed IO system. This proposed procedure of developing and analyzing the root locus of FO systems is much easier and straightforward than the existing methods suggested in the literature. This root locus plot is used to comment about the stability of FO system. It also gives the range for the amplifier gain k required to maintain this stability. The reliability of the method is verified with analytical calculations.

  8. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  9. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training.

  10. The Locus analytical framework for indoor localization and tracking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, Olga E.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining location information can be of paramount importance in the context of pervasive and context-aware computing applications. Many systems have been proposed to date, e.g. GPS that has been proven to offer satisfying results in outdoor areas. The increased effect of large and small scale fading in indoor environments, however, makes localization a challenge. This is particularly reflected in the multitude of different systems that have been proposed in the context of indoor localization (e.g. RADAR, Cricket etc). The performance of such systems is often validated on vastly different test beds and conditions, making performance comparisons difficult and often irrelevant. The Locus analytical framework incorporates algorithms from multiple disciplines such as channel modeling, non-uniform random number generation, computational geometry, localization, tracking and probabilistic modeling etc. in order to provide: (a) fast and accurate signal propagation simulation, (b) fast experimentation with localization and tracking algorithms and (c) an in-depth analysis methodology for estimating the performance limits of any Received Signal Strength localization system. Simulation results for the well-known Fingerprinting and Trilateration algorithms are herein presented and validated with experimental data collected in real conditions using IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee modules. The analysis shows that the Locus framework accurately predicts the underlying distribution of the localization error and produces further estimates of the system's performance limitations (in a best-case/worst-case scenario basis).

  11. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10−8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  12. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed. PMID:15040901

  13. Histamine excites noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Tatiana M; Sergeeva, Olga A; Ponomarenko, Alexei A; Haas, Helmut L

    2005-07-01

    Histamine is implicated in the control of many brain functions, in particular the control of arousal. Histaminergic neurons send dense projections through the entire brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC)--the main noradrenergic (NAergic) nucleus. In this study, we have examined the effect of bath-applied histamine on cells in the LC by single-unit recordings in slices and the expression of histamine receptors in this area by single-cell RT-PCR. Histamine (10 microM) increased the firing of NAergic cells to 130+/-9% of control, 100 microM to 256+/-58% of control. This excitation was unaffected by blocking synaptic transmission. Histamine-mediated excitation was blocked by an H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, in 78% of cells and by cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, in 42% of cells, but not by the H3 receptor antagonist, thioperamide. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA for the H1 receptor was expressed in 77% of isolated LC neurons, mRNA for the H2 receptor in 41% of LC neurons and H3 receptors in 29%. These findings underline the coordination between aminergic systems and suggest that the arousal induced by the histamine system could involve excitation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus.

  14. Locus equations and coarticulation in three Australian languages.

    PubMed

    Graetzer, Simone; Fletcher, Janet; Hajek, John

    2015-02-01

    Locus equations were applied to F2 data for bilabial, alveolar, retroflex, palatal, and velar plosives in three Australian languages. In addition, F2 variance at the vowel-consonant boundary, and, by extension, consonantal coarticulatory sensitivity, was measured. The locus equation slopes revealed that there were place-dependent differences in the magnitude of vowel-to-consonant coarticulation. As in previous studies, the non-coronal (bilabial and velar) consonants tended to be associated with the highest slopes, palatal consonants tended to be associated with the lowest slopes, and alveolar and retroflex slopes tended to be low to intermediate. Similarly, F2 variance measurements indicated that non-coronals displayed greater coarticulatory sensitivity to adjacent vowels than did coronals. Thus, both the magnitude of vowel-to-consonant coarticulation and the magnitude of consonantal coarticulatory sensitivity were seen to vary inversely with the magnitude of consonantal articulatory constraint. The findings indicated that, unlike results reported previously for European languages such as English, anticipatory vowel-to-consonant coarticulation tends to exceed carryover coarticulation in these Australian languages. Accordingly, on the F2 variance measure, consonants tended to be more sensitive to the coarticulatory effects of the following vowel. Prosodic prominence of vowels was a less significant factor in general, although certain language-specific patterns were observed.

  15. Drosophila histone locus bodies form by hierarchical recruitment of components

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne E.; Burch, Brandon D.; Yang, Xiao-cui; Gasdaska, Pamela Y.; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear bodies are protein- and RNA-containing structures that participate in a wide range of processes critical to genome function. Molecular self-organization is thought to drive nuclear body formation, but whether this occurs stochastically or via an ordered, hierarchical process is not fully understood. We addressed this question using RNAi and proteomic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify and characterize novel components of the histone locus body (HLB), a nuclear body involved in the expression of replication-dependent histone genes. We identified the transcription elongation factor suppressor of Ty 6 (Spt6) and a homologue of mammalian nuclear protein of the ataxia telangiectasia–mutated locus that is encoded by the homeotic gene multisex combs (mxc) as novel HLB components. By combining genetic manipulation in both cell culture and embryos with cytological observations of Mxc, Spt6, and the known HLB components, FLICE-associated huge protein, Mute, U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and MPM-2 phosphoepitope, we demonstrated sequential recruitment and hierarchical dependency for localization of factors to HLBs during development, suggesting that ordered assembly can play a role in nuclear body formation. PMID:21576393

  16. Mox: a novel modifier of the tomato Xa locus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, P W; Yoder, J I

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated a novel mutation that caused variegated leaf color in a tomato plant which had multiple maize Ac transposable elements and the tomato Xa allele. Xa is a previously characterized semi-dominant mutation that causes tomato leaves to be bright yellow when heterozygous (Xa/xa+). The mutation responsible for the new phenotype was named Mox (Modifier of Xa). The Mox mutation modified the Xa/xa+ yellow leaf phenotype in two ways: it compensated for the Xa allele resulting in a plant with a wildtype green color, and it caused somatic variegation which appeared as white and yellow sectors on the green background. Somatic variegation was visible only if the plant contained both the Mox and Xa loci. Genetic studies indicated that the Mox locus was linked in repulsion to Xa and that the Mox locus was genetically transmitted at a reduced frequency through the male gamete. Molecular characterization of the Ac elements in lines segregating for Mox identified an Ac insertion that appeared to cosegregate with Mox variegation. We propose a model in which the Mox mutation consists of a duplication of the xa+ allele and subsequent Ac-induced breakage of the duplicated region causes variegation.

  17. Synaptic potentials in locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Williams, J T; Bobker, D H; Harris, G C

    1991-01-01

    Neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) fire action potentials spontaneously in vitro in the absence of any stimulation. This spontaneous activity is thought to arise from intrinsic membrane properties that include a balance between at least two ion conductances. One is a persistent inward sodium current that is active near the threshold for action potential generation. The second is a calcium-dependent potassium current that is activated following the entry of calcium during the action potential, is responsible for the after-hyperpolarization following the action potential, and decays over a period of 1-2 sec following the action potential. The spontaneous activity of LC neurons can be altered by both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. One excitatory input has been described that is mediated by glutamate receptors of both the non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. Inhibitory synaptic potentials include those mediated by GABA (acting on GABAA-receptors), glycine (acting on a strychnine-sensitive receptor) and noradrenaline (acting on alpha 2-adrenoceptors). The presence of synaptic potentials mediated by these transmitters, studied in vitro, correlate with studies made in vivo and with histochemical identification of synaptic inputs to the locus coeruleus.

  18. Norepinephrine and its metabolites are involved in the synthesis of neuromelanin derived from the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Tabuchi, Keisuke; Ojika, Makoto; Zucca, Fabio A; Zecca, Luigi; Ito, Shosuke

    2015-11-01

    In order to elucidate the chemical structure of black to brown pigments, neuromelanins (NMs), in the substantia nigra (SN) and the locus coeruleus (LC) in the central nervous system of humans and other mammalian species during aging, chemical degradative methods are powerful tools. HPLC analysis after hydroiodic acid hydrolysis detected aminohydroxyphenylethylamines, aminohydroxyphenylacetic acids, and aminohydroxyethylbenzenes, which confirmed that SN-NM and LC-NM contain melanin derived not only from dopamine and norepinephrine (NE) but also from several other catecholic metabolites, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol, in addition to the corresponding Cys-derivatives in varying degrees. However, hydroiodic acid hydrolysis showed that LC-NM produced the same degradation products as were detected in SN-NM. Thus, we needed to develop a new chemical detection method to validate the existence of NE in LC-NM. In the present study, we report that HCl hydrolysis of LC-NM in the presence of thioglycolic acid yields new products arising from substitution of the hydroxyl group by thioglycolic acid at the benzyl position of NE and cysteinyl-NE. This is the first chemical evidence showing that NE and cysteinyl-NE are incorporated into LC-NM. Using the chemical degradation methods for the determination of catechols in neuromelanin (NM), we have shown that dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPE), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) are mainly responsible for the structure of NM from substantia nigra (SN), while norepinephrine (NE), 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol (DOPEG) are additionally responsible for the structure of NM from locus coeruleus (LC).

  19. Multilocus patterns of genetic variation across Cryptosporidium species suggest balancing selection at the gp60 locus.

    PubMed

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Bello, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2013-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan protozoan that lives in most vertebrates, including humans. Its gp60 gene is functionally involved in its attachment to host cells, and its high level of genetic variation has made it the reference marker for sample typing in epidemiological studies. To understand the origin of such high diversity and to determine the extent to which this classification applies to the rest of the genome, we analysed the patterns of variation at gp60 and nine other nuclear loci in isolates of three Cryptosporidium species. Most loci showed low genetic polymorphism (πS <1%) and similar levels of between-species divergence. Contrastingly, gp60 exhibited very different characteristics: (i) it was nearly ten times more variable than the other loci; (ii) it displayed a significant excess of polymorphisms relative to between-species differences in a maximum-likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguadé test; (iii) gp60 subtypes turned out to be much older than the species they were found in; and (iv) showed a significant excess of polymorphic variants shared across species from random expectations. These observations suggest that this locus evolves under balancing selection and specifically under negative frequency-dependent selection (FDS). Interestingly, genetic variation at the other loci clusters very well within the groups of isolates defined by gp60 subtypes, which may provide new tools to understand the genome-wide patterns of genetic variation of the parasite in the wild. These results suggest that gp60 plays an active and essential role in the life cycle of the parasite and that genetic variation at this locus might be essential for the parasite's long-term success.

  20. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Confers BRG1 Dependency on the CIITA Locus.

    PubMed

    Abou El Hassan, Mohamed; Yu, Tao; Song, Lan; Bremner, Rod

    2015-05-15

    CIITA (or MHC2TA) coordinates constitutive and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II genes. IFN-γ responsiveness of CIITA requires BRG1 (SMARCA4), the ATPase engine of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex (also called BAF). SWI/SNF is defective in many human cancers, providing a mechanism to explain IFN-γ resistance. BRG1 dependency is mediated through remote elements. Short CIITA reporters lacking these elements respond to IFN-γ, even in BRG1-deficient cells, suggesting that BRG1 counters a remote repressive influence. The nature of this distal repressor is unknown, but it would represent a valuable therapeutic target to reactivate IFN-γ responsiveness in cancer. In this article, we show that the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components EZH2 and SUZ12, as well as the associated histone mark H3K27me3, are codetected at interenhancer regions across the CIITA locus. IFN-γ caused a BRG1-dependent reduction in H3K27me3, associated with nucleosome displacement. SUZ12 knockdown restored IFN-γ responsiveness in BRG1-null cells, and it mimicked the ability of BRG1 to induce active histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me) at the -50-kb enhancer. Thus, PRC2 confers BRG1 dependency on the CIITA locus. Our data suggest that, in addition to its known roles in promoting stemness and proliferation, PRC2 may inhibit immune surveillance, and it could be targeted to reactivate CIITA expression in SWI/SNF deficient cancers.

  1. The induction of H3K9 methylation by PIWIL4 at the p16{sup Ink4a} locus

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Kage, Hidenori; Aki, Naomi; Sano, Atsushi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Takahide; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya . E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    The field of epigenetics has made progress by the identification of the small RNA-mediated epigenetic modification. However, little is known about the key proteins. Here, we report that the human PIWI-like family is a candidate protein that is involved in the pathway responsible for chromatin remodeling. The PIWI-like family proteins, expressed as the Flag-fusion proteins, formed a bulky body and localized to the nuclear periphery. Transient transfection of PIWI-like 4 (PIWIL4), only member of the PIWI-like family that was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, induced histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at the p16{sup Ink4a} (CDKN2A) locus. The elevated level of histone methylation resulted in the downregulation of the p16{sup Ink4a} gene. These results suggest PIWIL4 plays important roles in the chromatin-modifying pathway in human somatic cells.

  2. Cia27 is a novel non-MHC arthritis severity locus on rat chromosome 10 syntenic to the rheumatoid arthritis 17q22-q25 locus.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Laragione, T; Yarlett, N C; Li, W; Mello, A; Gulko, P S

    2006-07-01

    Cia27 on rat chromosome 10 is a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) severity quantitative trait locus originally identified in a study of (DA x ACI) F2. As an initial step towards the positional cloning of the Cia27 gene, a 17 cM (21 Mb) interval from the DA strain (arthritis-susceptible) containing the two-logarithm of odds support interval comprising Cia27 was introgressed into the ACI (arthritis-resistant) background through genotype-guided congenic breeding. ACI.DA(Cia27) congenics developed a significantly more severe form of arthritis (CIA), with a 5.9-fold increase in median arthritis severity index, a parameter known to correlate with synovial inflammation, and cartilage and bone erosions, compared with ACI (P< or =0.001). The arthritis severity enhancing effect could be detected from day 21 onwards. Rats heterozygous at the congenic interval developed a disease similar to ACI rats, suggesting that DA alleles operate in a recessive manner. Levels of autoantibodies anti-rat type II collagen did not correlate with arthritis severity. Synovial tissue mRNA levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were significantly increased in ACI.DA(Cia27) congenics compared with ACI. These results demonstrate that Cia27 harbors a novel arthritis severity regulatory gene. The identification of this gene should facilitate the identification of the rheumatoid arthritis gene mapped to the human syntenic region on chromosome 17q22-q25.

  3. CDKN2B expression and subcutaneous adipose tissue expandability: Possible influence of the 9p21 atherosclerosis locus

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Per-Arne; Wahlstrand, Björn; Olsson, Maja; Froguel, Philippe; Falchi, Mario; Bergman, Richard N.; McTernan, Philip G.; Hedner, Thomas; Carlsson, Lena M.S.; Jacobson, Peter

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B is highly expressed in human adipose tissue. • Risk alleles at the 9p21 locus modify CDKN2B expression in a BMI-dependent fashion. • There is an inverse relationship between expression of CDKN2B and adipogenic genes. • CDKN2B expression influences to postprandial triacylglycerol clearance. • CDKN2B expression in adipose tissue is linked to markers of hepatic steatosis. - Abstract: Risk alleles within a gene desert at the 9p21 locus constitute the most prevalent genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease. Previous research has demonstrated that 9p21 risk variants influence gene expression in vascular tissues, yet the biological mechanisms by which this would mediate atherosclerosis merits further investigation. To investigate possible influences of this locus on other tissues, we explored expression patterns of 9p21-regulated genes in a panel of multiple human tissues and found that the tumor suppressor CDKN2B was highly expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). CDKN2B expression was regulated by obesity status, and this effect was stronger in carriers of 9p21 risk alleles. Covariation between expression of CDKN2B and genes implemented in adipogenesis was consistent with an inhibitory effect of CDKN2B on SAT proliferation. Moreover, studies of postprandial triacylglycerol clearance indicated that CDKN2B is involved in down-regulation of SAT fatty acid trafficking. CDKN2B expression in SAT correlated with indicators of ectopic fat accumulation, including markers of hepatic steatosis. Among genes regulated by 9p21 risk variants, CDKN2B appears to play a significant role in the regulation of SAT expandability, which is a strong determinant of lipotoxicity and therefore might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  4. Expression of hemoglobin-α and β subunits in human vaginal epithelial cells and their functional significance

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debarchana; Koli, Swanand; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2). It consists of Hb-α and Hb-β subunits, which are normally expressed by cells of erythroid lineage. However, till recently, it was not known whether non-erythroid cells like vaginal cells synthesize Hb and whether it has any functional significance. Therefore, we designed the following objectives: (1) to establish in-vitro culture system of human primary vaginal epithelial cells (hPVECs), (2) to determine whether Hb-α and Hb-β proteins are truly synthesized by hPVECs, (3) to evaluate the effect of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) on the expression of Hb-α and Hb-β proteins (4) to decipher the significance of the Hb-α and Hb-β expression in hPVECs and (5) to determine the molecular mechanism regulating the expression of Hb-α in hPVECs. To accomplish these studies, we applied a battery of assays such as RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, Flow cytometry, western blot, and immunofluorescence, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The results revealed the expression of Hb-α and Hb-β at both mRNA and protein level in hPVECs. The expression was significantly upregulated following LPS treatment (10μg/ml for 6 hrs) and these results are comparable with the expression induced by LPS in human vaginal epithelial cell line (VK2/E6E7). These cells constitutively produced low levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. Also, the response of phosphorylated (p65)-NF-κB to LPS was upregulated with increased expression of IL-6, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and human beta defensin-1 (hBD-1) in hPVECs and VK2/E6E7 cells. However, Bay 11–7082 treatment (5μM for 24 hrs) could neutralize the effect of LPS-induced p65-NF-κB activity and represses the production`of Hb-α and Hb-β. The results of EMSA revealed the presence of putative binding sites of NF-κB in the human Hb-α promoter region (nt-115 to -106). ChIP analysis confirmed the binding of NF

  5. Hitch-hiking to a locus under balancing selection: high sequence diversity and low population subdivision at the S-locus genomic region in Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria Valeria; Jacquemin, Bertrand; Castric, Vincent; Vekemans, Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Hitch-hiking to a site under balancing selection is expected to produce a local increase in nucleotide polymorphism and a decrease in population differentiation compared with the background genomic level, but empirical evidence supporting these predictions is scarce. We surveyed molecular diversity at four genes flanking the region controlling self-incompatibility (the S-locus) in samples from six populations of the herbaceous plant Arabidopsis halleri, and compared their polymorphism with sequences from five control genes unlinked to the S-locus. As a preliminary verification, the S-locus flanking genes were shown to co-segregate with SRK, the gene involved in the self-incompatibility reaction at the pistil level. In agreement with theory, our results demonstrated a significant peak of nucleotide diversity around the S-locus as well as a significant decrease in population genetic structure in the S-locus region compared with both control genes and a set of seven unlinked microsatellite markers. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that balancing selection is increasing the effective migration rate in subdivided populations. Although only four S-locus flanking genes were investigated, our results suggest that these two signatures of the hitch-hiking effect are localized in a very narrow genomic region.

  6. [Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies: molecular structure and function].

    PubMed

    Khodiuchenko, T A; Krasikova, A V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides modern classification of evolutionarily conserved coilin-containing nuclear bodies of somatic and germ cells that is based on the characteristic features of their molecular composition and the nature of their functions. The main differences between Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies, which are involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear spliceosomal and nucleolar RNAs and in the 3'-end processing of histone precursor messenger RNA, respectively, are considered. It is shown that a significant contribution to the investigation of the diversity of coilin-containing bodies was made by the studies on the architecture of the RNA processing machinery in oocyte nuclei in a number of model organisms. The characteristics features of the molecular composition of coilin-containing bodies in the nuclei of growing oocytes (the so-called germinal vesicles) of vertebrates, including amphibians and birds, are described.

  7. Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies in Drosophila and Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Z F; Deryusheva, S; Gall, J G

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the cell nucleus into specialized compartments is important for nuclear function. We address the significance of compartmentalization by studying the Cajal body, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear organelle proposed to be involved in such diverse functions as assembly of the spliceosome, assembly of the transcription machinery, and modification of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs. The Cajal body is typically identified by the presence of coilin, a protein of poorly defined function. Here, we demonstrate that coilin is not a unique Cajal body marker but also occurs in a related yet distinct nuclear organelle known as the histone locus body in both Drosophila and Xenopus. We stress the importance of multiple markers not only for identification of nuclear bodies but also for assessing their functional significance.

  8. Haplotype mapping of the bronchiolitis susceptibility locus near IL8.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy; Rowlands, Kate; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharland, Mike; Moore, Catrin; Hanchard, Neil; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2004-02-01

    Susceptibility to viral bronchiolitis, the commonest cause of infant admissions to hospital in the industrialised world, is associated with polymorphism at the IL8 locus. Here we map the genomic boundaries of the disease association by case-control analysis and TDT in 580 affected UK infants. Markers for association mapping were chosen after determining patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the surrounding region of chromosome 4q, a 550-kb segment containing nine genes, extending from AFP to PPBP. The region has three major clusters of high linkage disequilibrium and is notable for its low haplotypic diversity. We exclude adjacent chemokine genes as the cause of the association, and identify a disease-associated haplotype that spans a 250-kb region from AFM to IL8. In between these two genes there is only one structural feature of interest, a novel gene RASSF6, which is predicted to encode a Ras effector protein.

  9. Evolution of an expanded sex-determining locus in Volvox.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Patrick; Olson, Bradley J S C; De Hoff, Peter L; Douglass, Stephen; Casero, David; Prochnik, Simon; Geng, Sa; Rai, Rhitu; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Nishii, Ichiro; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pellegrini, Matteo; Umen, James G

    2010-04-16

    Although dimorphic sexes have evolved repeatedly in multicellular eukaryotes, their origins are unknown. The mating locus (MT) of the sexually dimorphic multicellular green alga Volvox carteri specifies the production of eggs and sperm and has undergone a remarkable expansion and divergence relative to MT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a closely related unicellular species that has equal-sized gametes. Transcriptome analysis revealed a rewired gametic expression program for Volvox MT genes relative to Chlamydomonas and identified multiple gender-specific and sex-regulated transcripts. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor homolog MAT3 is a Volvox MT gene that displays sexually regulated alternative splicing and evidence of gender-specific selection, both of which are indicative of cooption into the sexual cycle. Thus, sex-determining loci affect the evolution of both sex-related and non-sex-related genes.

  10. Evolution of an Expanded Sex Determining Locus in Volvox

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Patrick; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.; De Hoff, Peter L.; Douglass, Stephen; Diaz-Cano, David Casero; Prochnik, Simon; Geng, Sa; Rai, Rhitu; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Nishii, Ichiro; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pellegrini, Matteo; Umen, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although dimorphic sexes have evolved repeatedly in multicellular eukaryotes, their origins are unknown. The mating locus (MT) of the sexually dimorphic multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, specifies the production of eggs and sperm and has undergone a remarkable expansion and divergence relative to MT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a closely related unicellular species that has equal-sized gametes. Transcriptome analysis revealed a rewired gametic expression program for Volvox MT genes relative to Chlamydomonas, and identified multiple gender-specific and sex-regulated transcripts. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor homolog MAT3 is a Volvox MT gene that displays sexually regulated alternative splicing and evidence of gender-specific selection, both indicative of cooption into the sexual cycle. Thus, sex-determining loci impact the evolution of both sex-related and non-sex-related genes. PMID:20395508

  11. Chromosomal locus that affects pathogenicity of Rhodococcus fascians.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Danny; Cornelis, Karen; Temmerman, Wim; Jaziri, Mondher; Van Montagu, Marc; Holsters, Marcelle; Goethals, Koen

    2002-02-01

    The gram-positive plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians provokes leafy gall formation on a wide range of plants through secretion of signal molecules that interfere with the hormone balance of the host. Crucial virulence genes are located on a linear plasmid, and their expression is tightly controlled. A mutant with a mutation in a chromosomal locus that affected virulence was isolated. The mutation was located in gene vicA, which encodes a malate synthase and is functional in the glyoxylate shunt of the Krebs cycle. VicA is required for efficient in planta growth in symptomatic, but not in normal, plant tissue, indicating that the metabolic requirement of the bacteria or the nutritional environment in plants or both change during the interaction. We propose that induced hyperplasia on plants represents specific niches for the causative organisms as a result of physiological alterations in the symptomatic tissue. Hence, such interaction could be referred to as metabolic habitat modification.

  12. Heterologous transposon tagging of the DRL1 locus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, I; Jones, J D; Dean, C

    1993-01-01

    The development of heterologous transposon tagging systems has been an important objective for many laboratories. Here, we demonstrate the use of a Dissociation (Ds) derivative of the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) to tag the DRL1 locus of Arabidopsis. The drl1 mutant shows highly abnormal development with stunted roots, few root hairs, lanceolate leaves, and a highly enlarged, disorganized shoot apex that does not produce an inflorescence. The mutation was shown to be tightly linked to a transposed Ds, and somatic instability was observed in the presence of the transposase source. Some plants showing somatic reversion flowered and produced large numbers of wild-type progeny. These revertant progeny always inherited a DRL1 allele from which Ds had excised. Analysis of the changes in DNA sequence induced by the insertion and excision of the Ds element showed that they were typical of those induced by Ac and Ds in maize. PMID:8392411

  13. CSGRqtl: A Comparative Quantitative Trait Locus Database for Saccharinae Grasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Conventional biparental quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has led to some successes in the identification of causal genes in many organisms. QTL likelihood intervals not only provide "prior information" for finer-resolution approaches such as GWAS but also provide better statistical power than GWAS to detect variants with low/rare frequency in a natural population. Here, we describe a new element of an ongoing effort to provide online resources to facilitate study and improvement of the important Saccharinae clade. The primary goal of this new resource is the anchoring of published QTLs for this clade to the Sorghum genome. Genetic map alignments translate a wealth of genomic information from sorghum to Saccharum spp., Miscanthus spp., and other taxa. In addition, genome alignments facilitate comparison of the Saccharinae QTL sets to those of other taxa that enjoy comparable resources, exemplified herein by rice.

  14. Multipoint mapping of the central core disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmle, S.; Wolff, K.; Grimm, T.; Mueller, C.R. ); Palmucci, L.M. ); Lehmann-Horn, F. ); Huebner, Ch. ); Hauser, E. ); Iles, D.E. ); MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A linkage analysis with 12 DNA markers from proximal 19q was performed in eight families with central core disease (CCO). Two-point analysis gave a peak lod score of Z = 4.95 at [theta] = 0.00 for the anonymous marker D19S190 and of Z = 2.53 at [theta] = 0.00 for the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) candidate gene. Multipoint linkage data place the CCO locus at 19q13.1, flanked proximally by D19S191/D19S28 and distally by D19S47. This map location includes the RYR1 gene. The results of the linkage study present no evidence for genetic heterogeneity of CCO. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A strabismus susceptibility locus on chromosome 7p

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vaishali; Shugart, Yin Yao; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Zhang, Jie; Li, Lan; Williams, John; Hayden, David; Craig, Brian; Capo, Hilda; Chamblee, Denise; Chen, Cathy; Collins, Mary; Dankner, Stuart; Fiergang, Dean; Guyton, David; Hunter, David; Hutcheon, Marcia; Keys, Marshall; Morrison, Nancy; Munoz, Michelle; Parks, Marshall; Plotsky, David; Protzko, Eugene; Repka, Michael X.; Sarubbi, Maria; Schnall, Bruce; Siatkowski, R. Michael; Traboulsi, Elias; Waeltermann, Joanne; Nathans, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Strabismus has been known to have a significant genetic component, but the mode of inheritance and the identity of the relevant genes have been enigmatic. This paper reports linkage analysis of nonsyndromic strabismus. The principal results of this study are: (i) the demonstrated feasibility of identifying and recruiting large families in which multiple members have (or had) strabismus; (ii) the linkage in one large family of a presumptive strabismus susceptibility locus to 7p22.1 with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 4.51 under a model of recessive inheritance; and (iii) the failure to observe significant linkage to 7p in six other multiplex families, consistent with genetic heterogeneity among families. These findings suggest that it will be possible to localize and ultimately identify strabismus susceptibility genes by linkage analysis and mutation screening of candidate genes. PMID:14519848

  16. NcoI RFLP at the creatine kinase-muscle type gene locus (CKMM, chromosome 19)

    SciTech Connect

    Coerwinkel-Driessen, M.; Schepens, J.; van Zandvoort, P.; van Oost, B.; Mariman, E.; Wieringa, B. )

    1988-09-12

    A 3.2 kbp human genomic DNA fragment (BamHI-Sau3A) of the 3{prime} untranslated and 3{prime} flanking region of the CKMM gene was isolated and subcloned into the BamHI site of vector pSP64. The CKMM 3{prime}-probe identifies a 2-allele polymorphism with bands at 2.3 and 1.0 kbp (allele A) and 3.3 kbp (allele B). In addition a weak constant 4.2 kbp band is observed. This probe also detects a 2-allele TaqI RFLP reported previously, as either a 4.3 kbp (A) or a 4.2 kbp (B) band. The CKMM locus previously has been assigned to 19q13.2-q13.3. By Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids containing unique subregional fragments of chromosome 19 of man the authors have assigned the gene to 19q13.2. Co-dominant segregation was observed in 8 families with 3 generations.

  17. Linkage mapping of the primary disease locus for collie eye anomaly.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jennifer K; Kukekova, Anna V; Kirkness, Ewen F; Langlois, Mariela C; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2003-07-01

    Collie eye anomaly (cea) is a hereditary ocular disorder affecting development of the choroid and sclera segregating in several breeds of dog, including rough, smooth, and Border collies and Australian shepherds. The disease is reminiscent of the choroidal hypoplasia phenotype observed in humans in conjunction with craniofacial or renal abnormalities. In dogs, however, the clinical phenotype can vary significantly; many dogs exhibit no obvious clinical consequences and retain apparently normal vision throughout life, while severely affected animals develop secondary retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage, and blindness. We report genetic studies establishing that the primary cea phenotype, choroidal hypoplasia, segregates as an autosomal recessive trait with nearly 100% penetrance. We further report linkage mapping of the primary cea locus to a 3.9-cM region of canine chromosome 37 (LOD = 22.17 at theta = 0.076), in a region corresponding to human chromosome 2q35. These results suggest the presence of a developmental regulatory gene important in ocular embryogenesis, with potential implications for other disorders of ocular vascularization.

  18. Mapping of a further malignant hyperthermia susceptibility locus to chromosome 3q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Sudbrak, R.; Deufel, T.; Procaccio, V.; Lunardi, J.; Klausnitzer, M.; Mueller, C.R.; Hartung, E.J.; Curran, J.L.; Stewart, A.D.

    1995-03-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially lethal pharmacogenetic disease for which MH susceptibility (MHS) is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. A potentially life-threatening MH crisis is triggered by exposure to commonly used inhalational anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants. The first malignant hyperthermia susceptibility locus (MHS1) was identified on human chromosome 19{sub q}13.1, and evidence has been obtained that defects in the gene for the calcium-release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (ryanodine receptor; RYR1) can cause some forms of MH. However, MH has been shown to be genetically heterogeneous, and additional loci on chromosomes 17q and 7q have been suggested. In a collaborative search of the human genome with polymorphic microsatellite markers, we now found linkage of the MHS phenotype, as assessed by the European in vitro contracture test protocol, to markers defining a 1-cM interval on chromosome 3q13.1. A maximum multipoint lod score of 3.22 was obtained in a single German pedigree with classical MH, and none of the other pedigrees investigated in this study showed linkage to this region. Linkage to both MHS1/RYR1 and putative loci on chromosome 17q and 7q were excluded. This study supports the view that considerable genetic heterogeneity exists in MH. 47 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    PubMed

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping.

  20. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  1. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…

  2. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  3. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  4. Identification of heat resistant Escherichia coli by qPCR for the locus of heat resistance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Angela; Chui, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Three qPCR assays targeting the locus of heat resistance to identify heat resistant clinical Escherichia coli isolates are described. Of 613 isolates, 3 (0.5%) possessed the locus. The assays are a rapid, highly sensitive and specific alternative to screening by heat shock and can be used in food safety surveillance.

  5. Student Locus of Control and Response to Expectations About Self and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Undergraduate subjects with either an internal or external locus of control were used to investigate the relationship between locus of control and responsiveness to expectations regarding their own and their teacher's competence. As predicted, internal subjects were more receptive to the expectation regarding self than external subjects.…

  6. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  7. Social Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control, and Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…

  8. Locus of Control, Attributional Style and Discipline Problems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tony, Tam Shui Kee

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study hypothesizing that school discipline problems are a maladaptive response to the demand of the school environment as a result of deficits in the area of locus of control and attributional style. The findings indicate that an external orientation of locus of control and a passive pattern of attribution…

  9. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  10. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  11. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  12. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  13. Differences in Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Women Who Seek Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda V.; Robinson, Sharon E.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of women who varied in abortion status were formed to investigate the self-concept and locus of control of a total of 90 women. No significant differences in self-concept were found among the three groups, nor was there a relationship between locus of control and repeated abortion. (Author/ABB)

  14. A biochemical specific locus mutation system in mice.

    PubMed

    Malling, H V; Valcovic, L R

    1977-09-21

    Two mouse strains DBA/2J and C57BL/6J are heteromorphic with respect to the electrophoretic mobility of at least 8 enzymes and the beta-hemoglobin chain. The genotype of DBA/2J for these markers is: Es-1, Es-3, Gpd-1, Gpi-1, Id-1, Mod-1, Pmg-1, Dip-1 and Hbb; and of C57B1/6J: Es-1, Es-3, Gpd-1, Gpi-1, Id-1, Mod-1, Pgm-1, Dip-1 and Hbb. Electrophoresis on tissues of interstrain hybrids will show the two parental bands and additional hybrid bands if the enzyme is a polymeric structure. In specific locus mutations which result in loss of activity (deletions, nonsense mutations), the hybrid resembles the non-mutated parent. In the mutation results in a change in electrophoretic mobility, some of the bands on the gel will either run faster or slower compared to the hybrid bands in a normal F1 animal. Fifty DBA/2J males were irradiated with gamma-rays from a Co60 source with two doses of 500 R at 24-h intervals at a dose rate of 95 R/min. After this irradiation the males were sterile for approximately 3 months. After the males regained their fertility, they were continuously mated to C57BL/6 females. Thus far somewhat over 2600 animals have been tested and four new mutations detected, giving a frequency of approximately 1.7 X 10(-4) mutations per locus per generation. The four mutations are: two independent mutations at Hbb, one at Mod-1 and one at Id-1.

  15. Role of CTCF Protein in Regulating FMR1 Locus Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis. PMID:23874213

  16. Role of CTCF protein in regulating FMR1 locus transcription.

    PubMed

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis.

  17. [Application of VNTR D17S30 locus polymorphism in the paternity test].

    PubMed

    Feng, M; Feng, Z; Lu, Q; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; Ji, Y; Chen, R

    1998-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid PCR-based technique was adopted to genotype the VNTR D17S30 locus. It was confirmed through the genetic analysis of 20 normal families that the inheritance of D17S30 locus coincides with Mendelian law as simple co-dominant. Retrospective analysis of 100 paternity cases demonstrated that D17S30 locus could be used in forensic paternity test in our country. The exclusion probability estimated from allele frequencies of D17S30 locus (74.04%) does not differ significantly from the observed rate of exclusion (80.00%) in these cases. In all excluded paternity cases there are two in which the exclusion evidence is solely provided by the D17S30 locus.

  18. Biochemical Analysis of Genome Functions Using Locus-Specific Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    To isolate specific genomic regions that retain their molecular interactions, allowing direct identification of chromatin-bound molecules, we developed two locus-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation (locus-specific ChIP) technologies, insertional ChIP (iChIP) and engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated ChIP (enChIP) using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system or transcription activator-like (TAL) proteins. Essentially, a locus-specific ChIP consists of locus-tagging and affinity purification and can be combined with downstream analyses to identify molecules associated with the target genomic regions. In this review, we discuss the applications of locus-specific ChIP to analyze the genome functions, including transcription and epigenetic regulation. PMID:26819551

  19. Is the novel SCKL3 at 14q23 the predominant Seckel locus?

    PubMed

    Kilinç, Mehmet Okyay; Ninis, Vasiliki Ninidu; Ugur, Sibel Aylin; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Seven, Mehmet; Balci, Sevim; Goodship, Judith; Tolun, Aslihan

    2003-11-01

    Seckel syndrome (SCKL) is a rare disease with wide phenotypic heterogeneity. A locus (SCKL1) has been identified at 3q and another (SCKL2) at 18p, both in single kindreds afflicted with the syndrome. We report here a novel locus (SCKL3) at 14q by linkage analysis in 13 Turkish families. In total, 18 affected and 10 unaffected sibs were included in the study. Of the 10 informative families, nine with parental consanguinity and one reportedly nonconsanguineous but with two affected sibs, five were indicative of linkage to the novel locus. One of those families also linked to the SCKL1 locus. A consanguineous family with one affected sib was indicative of linkage to SCKL2. The novel gene locus SCKL3 is 1.18 cM and harbors ménage a trois 1, a gene with a role in DNA repair.

  20. Influence of locus of control on mood state disturbance after short-term sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Welch, J E; Godfrey, J A

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-eight healthy university students were classified as having either an internal (n = 14) or external (n = 14) locus of control. Before and after 26-30 hours of sleep deprivation, their mood state was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. There was a significant sleep status x locus of control interaction effect on mood state disturbance (p = 0.049). In the individuals with an external locus of control, there was an increase (p < 0.001) in total mood disturbance from (mean +/- standard deviation) 115 +/- 23 during baseline testing to 148 +/- 22 after sleep loss (effect size = 1.4). Sleep loss did not significantly affect total mood disturbance in the subjects with an internal locus of control (115 +/- 26 vs. 128 +/- 34). These results suggest that locus of control is a factor that influences the degree of mood state disturbance caused by short-term sleep deprivation.