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Sample records for human body louse

  1. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    While we were isolating Bartonella quintana from body lice, 40 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were also isolated and genotyped. One clone was unique and the other was ampicillin susceptible. A. baumannii DNA was later detected in 21% of 622 lice collected worldwide. These findings show an A. baumannii epidemic in human body lice.

  2. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-03-23

    Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations may allow the formation of new populations of

  3. Genotyping of Human Lice Suggests Multiple Emergences of Body Lice from Local Head Louse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Ortiz, Gabriel; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Gimenez, Gregory; Reed, David L.; Pittendrigh, Barry; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus) does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. Methods and Findings By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed) and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. Conclusions We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice), to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in human populations

  4. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kirkness, Ewen F.; Haas, Brian J.; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R.; Perotti, M. Alejandra; Clark, John M.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M.; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V.; Elsik, Christine G.; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A.; Veenstra, Jan A.; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Reese, Justin T.; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M.; Johnson, Reed M.; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; VanZee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G.; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M.; Yoon, Kyong S.; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Unger, Maria F.; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F.; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Wang, NaiKuan; Dasch, Gregory A.; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I.; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C.; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V.; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R.; Sutton, Granger G.; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Venter, J. Craig; Strausberg, Robert L.; Collins, Frank H.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2010-01-01

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens. PMID:20566863

  5. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, Ewen F; Haas, Brian J; Sun, Weilin; Braig, Henk R; Perotti, M Alejandra; Clark, John M; Lee, Si Hyeock; Robertson, Hugh M; Kennedy, Ryan C; Elhaik, Eran; Gerlach, Daniel; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Elsik, Christine G; Graur, Dan; Hill, Catherine A; Veenstra, Jan A; Walenz, Brian; Tubío, José Manuel C; Ribeiro, José M C; Rozas, Julio; Johnston, J Spencer; Reese, Justin T; Popadic, Aleksandar; Tojo, Marta; Raoult, Didier; Reed, David L; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Kraus, Emily; Krause, Emily; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M; Li, Hong-Mei; Meyer, Jason M; Johnson, Reed M; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Vanzee, Janice Pagel; Alvarez-Ponce, David; Vieira, Filipe G; Aguadé, Montserrat; Guirao-Rico, Sara; Anzola, Juan M; Yoon, Kyong S; Strycharz, Joseph P; Unger, Maria F; Christley, Scott; Lobo, Neil F; Seufferheld, Manfredo J; Wang, Naikuan; Dasch, Gregory A; Struchiner, Claudio J; Madey, Greg; Hannick, Linda I; Bidwell, Shelby; Joardar, Vinita; Caler, Elisabet; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Cameron, Stephen; Bruggner, Robert V; Regier, Allison; Johnson, Justin; Viswanathan, Lakshmi; Utterback, Terry R; Sutton, Granger G; Lawson, Daniel; Waterhouse, Robert M; Venter, J Craig; Strausberg, Robert L; Berenbaum, May R; Collins, Frank H; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2010-07-06

    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens.

  6. Transmission ratio distortion in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    McMeniman, C J; Barker, S C

    2006-01-01

    We studied inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus. The alleles of heterozygous female-parents were always inherited in a Mendelian fashion in these families. Alleles from heterozygous male-parents, however, were inherited in two different ways: (i) in a Mendelian fashion and (ii) in a non-Mendelian fashion, where males passed to their offspring only one of their two alleles, that is, 100% nonrandom transmission. In male body lice, where there was non-Mendelian inheritance, the paternally inherited set of alleles was eliminated. We interpret this pattern of inheritance as evidence for extreme transmission ratio distortion of paternal alleles in this species.

  7. Use of temperature and water immersion to control the human body louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Friger, M; Cohen, R

    2006-07-01

    Physical methods such as high and low temperatures were used in the past for the control of human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). In the current study, the minimum time necessary to kill all lice after exposing them to temperatures other than those described in the literature, the mortality of lice after immersing them in water, and the survival of lice whose legs were amputated were studied. All lice died after 6 d at 6 degrees C, after 11 d at 24 degrees C, and after 9 d at 31 degrees C. At -17 degrees C, all lice were dead after 35 min, whereas at -70 degrees C, all lice were dead after 1 min. All lice died after immersion in water within 19 h. The differences in mortality were significant but borderline between controls and lice whose two legs were amputated immediately or 24 h after feeding (3.3 versus 13.3% and 8.3 versus 21.7%). For lice whose leg was amputated 48 h after feeding, significant differences were found between controls and lice with one amputated leg (13.3 versus 48.3%), between controls and lice with two amputated legs (13.3 versus 68.3%), and between lice with one and two amputated legs (48.3 versus 68.3%).

  8. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F; Barker, Stephen C

    2009-05-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is approximately 16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3-4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes.

  9. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Barker, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is ∼16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3–4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes. PMID:19336451

  10. Chimeric mitochondrial minichromosomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus: evidence for homologous and non-homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C

    2011-02-15

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, consists of 18 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3 to 4 kb long and has 1 to 3 genes. There is unequivocal evidence for recombination between different mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. It is not known, however, how these minichromosomes recombine. Here, we report the discovery of eight chimeric mt minichromosomes in P. humanus. We classify these chimeric mt minichromosomes into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I chimeric minichromosomes contain parts of two different protein-coding genes that are from different minichromosomes. The two parts of protein-coding genes in each Group I chimeric minichromosome are joined at a microhomologous nucleotide sequence; microhomologous nucleotide sequences are hallmarks of non-homologous recombination. Group II chimeric minichromosomes contain all of the genes and the non-coding regions of two different minichromosomes. The conserved sequence blocks in the non-coding regions of Group II chimeric minichromosomes resemble the "recombination repeats" in the non-coding regions of the mt genomes of higher plants. These repeats are essential to homologous recombination in higher plants. Our analyses of the nucleotide sequences of chimeric mt minichromosomes indicate both homologous and non-homologous recombination between minichromosomes in the mitochondria of the human body louse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. What's eating you? Pediculus humanus (head louse and body louse).

    PubMed

    Elston, D M

    1999-05-01

    Head lice remain a common problem worldwide. As resistance to available therapeutic agents can emerge rapidly, there is a need for continued research to find new and better agents. Until better agents are available, clinicians may find that rotational therapy, using different agents, may help to slow the emergence of resistance. Physical modalities, such as mechanical nit and louse removal and occlusive agents to asphyxiate the lice, should not be ignored, especially in light of our limited therapeutic armamentarium. All therapeutic agents are doomed to failure if infestation is allowed to recur. Classmates, playmates, and family members of infested children should be inspected for head lice. Efforts should be directed at fomite control and nit removal. Louse infestation must be addressed as a community-wide problem. Body lice remain important vectors of disease. War, natural disaster, and poverty favor the spread of body lice. As we work to solve these seemingly eternal problems, we must develop better agents to treat infestation and prevent the spread of body lice.

  12. Decreased detoxification genes and genome size make the human body louse an efficient model to study xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Kang, Jae Soon; Min, Jee Sun; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P.; Johnson, Reed; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Margam, Venu M.; Sun, Weilin; Li, Hong-Mei; Xie, Jun; Wu, Jing; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Berenbaum, May R.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, has one of the smallest insect genomes, containing ~10,775 annotated genes (Kirkness et al. 2010). Annotation of detoxification [cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), esterase (Est), and ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter)] genes revealed that they are dramatically reduced in P. h. humanus compared to other insects except for Apis mellifera. There are 37 P450, 13 GST and 17 Est genes present in P. h. humanus, approximately half of that found in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The number of putatively functional ABC transporter genes in P. h. humanus and A. mellifera are the same (36) but both have fewer than An. gambiae (44) or D. melanogaster (65). The reduction of detoxification genes in P. h. humanus may be due to their simple life history, where they do not encounter a wide variety of xenobiotics. Neuronal component genes are highly conserved across different insect species as expected due to their critical function. Although reduced in number, P. h. humanus still retains at least a minimum repertoire of genes known to confer metabolic or toxicokinetic resistance to xenobiotics (e.g., Cyp3 clade P450s, Delta GSTs, B clade Ests and B/C subfamily ABC transporters), suggestive of its high potential for resistance development. PMID:20561088

  13. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  14. Utilization of the human louse genome to study insecticide resistance and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. Marshall; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Since sequencing the human body louse genome, substantial advances have occurred in the utilization of the information gathered from louse genomes and transcriptomes. Comparatively, the body louse genome contains far fewer genes involved in environmental response, such as xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune response. Additionally, the body louse maintains a primary bacterial endosymbiont, Candidatus Riesia pediculicola, and a number of bacterial pathogens that it vectors, which have genomes that are also reduced in size. Thus, human louse genomes offer unique information and tools for use in advancing our understanding of coevolution among vectors, endosymbionts and pathogens. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the extent of pediculicide resistance, the availability of new pediculicides and information establishing this organism as an efficient model to study how xenobiotic metabolism, which is involved in insecticide resistance, is induced and how insects modify their innate immune response upon bacterial challenge resulting in enhanced vector competence. PMID:25987230

  15. Modification of antityphus antibodies on passage through the gut of the human body louse with discussion of some epidemiologic and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Wisseman, C L; Boese, J L; Waddell, A D; Silverman, D J

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that proteolytic and perhaps other enzymes of the louse midgut, essential to the nutrition of the louse, perform molecular dissection on the antirickettsial antibodies present in the blood of a typhus-immune host that selectively destroys, along with other functions, the portion of the antibody that determines the only known function by which antirickettsial antibodies may operate in host defense mechanisms, namely, opsonization of rickettsiae for enhanced ingestion by professional phagocytes and subsequent destruction. The epidemiologic significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the progressive destruction of cells that produce digestive enzymes of the louse midgut that occurs with progressive rickettsial infection, and the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism in transmission is introduced. Speculations that involve evolutionary concepts of both convergent and divergent varieties with respect to rickettsiae, potentially operational in a system that consists of an obligate blood-sucking arthropod vector and a vertebrate host capable of adaptive responses to both vector and rickettsial agent, are presented.

  16. Detoxification of ivermectin by ATP binding cassette transporter C4 and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 6CJ1 in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Gellatly, K J; Lueke, B; Kohler, M; Nauen, R; Murenzi, E; Yoon, K S; Clark, J M

    2017-09-27

    We previously observed that ivermectin-induced detoxification genes, including ATP binding cassette transporter C4 (PhABCC4) and cytochrome P450 6CJ1 (CYP6CJ1) were identified from body lice following a brief exposure to a sublethal dose of ivermectin using a non-invasive induction assay. In this current study, the functional properties of PhABCC4 and CYP6CJ1 were investigated after expression in either X. laevis oocytes or using a baculovirus expression system, respectively. Efflux of [(3) H]-9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl) adenine ([(3) H]-PMEA), a known ABCC4 substrate in humans, was detected from PhABCC4 cRNA-injected oocytes by liquid scintillation spectrophotometric analysis and PhABCC4 expression in oocytes was confirmed using ABC transporter inhibitors. Efflux was also determined to be ATP-dependent. Using a variety of insecticides in a competition assay, only co-injection of ivermectin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane led to decreased efflux of [(3) H]-PMEA. PhABCC4-expressing oocytes also directly effluxed [(3) H]-ivermectin, which increased over time. In addition, ivermectin appeared to be oxidatively metabolized and/or sequestered, although at low levels, following functional expression of CYP6CJ1 along with cytochrome P450 reductase in Sf9 cells. Our study suggests that PhABCC4 and perhaps CYP6CJ1 are involved in the Phase III and Phase I xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin, respectively, and may play an important role in the evolution of ivermectin resistance in lice and other insects as field selection occurs. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. [The mathematical modelling of the processes in the natural multiplication of human lice (exemplified by the head louse population].

    PubMed

    Boev, B V; Barabash, V K; Tarasevich, I V

    1991-01-01

    Methods of mathematical modelling and prediction of louse propagation processes in the natural habitation medium are presented. Theoretical and experimental data on head louse ecology served the basis for the elaboration of a mathematical model predicting the population dynamics. The model structure corresponds to 3 stages of louse development cycle (eggs, larva, lice) and parameters corresponding to natural characteristics of louse propagation process: mean lifespan of each individual during each phase of the cycle, age, fertility and so forth. The model helped to study some properties of the population, assess maximum rate of head louse population growth, detect threshold effects, establish the effects of coefficients, limiting the number of louse per unit of the body surface. The model made it possible to formulate necessary data (distribution functions) for the creation of the mathematical model of Pediculosis.

  18. Detection of a Knockdown Resistance Mutation Associated with Permethrin Resistance in the Body Louse Pediculus humanus corporis by Use of Melting Curve Analysis Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir

    2012-01-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  19. Correlation between body size and fecundity in fish louse Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna, 1951 (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    PubMed

    Guha, Arun; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Samar Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The life history traits like fecundity and body size are useful predictors of life history strategies of organisms. The information on these aspects provided necessary input for control measures for ectoparasites. In view of this, the variations in the life history traits of the fish louse Argulus bengalensis Ramakrishna (1951) were assessed using age as an explanatory factor. The analyses revealed that the body weight (BW) is related to age in males as: y (BW) = 0.03 × (Age)-2.58: and in females as: y (BW) = 0.89 + 0.13x (Age). The body length and age relationship in males is observed as: y (BL) = 2.94 + 0.01x (Age) and in females as: y (BL) = 2.89 + 0.06x (Age). The degree of sexual dimorphism (DD) for BL is positively correlated (r = -0.358; df = 43; P < 0.001) with age while DD for BW is negatively correlated (r = -0.525; df = 43; P < 0.001) with age. The eggs/clutch remained between 02 and 43 for the 21st and 38th day old females. The fecundity as a function of age could be represented as: y (Eggs) = 1.62x (Age)-27.92. The increase in BW with age in female A. bengalensis favoured greater resource allocation for egg production, while in males it likely favours dispersal ability. Since body size and fecundity varied with age, the relative abundance and extent of infestation in fish host would vary with age composition of the population and recruitment of juveniles. The impacts of host specific variations on these features need to be tested further.

  20. Mitochondrial diversity in human head louse populations across the Americas.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Fane, Jackie; Kassu, Gebreyes; Toloza, Ariel C; Picollo, Maria I; González-Oliver, Angélica; Reed, David L

    2013-09-01

    Anthropological studies suggest that the genetic makeup of human populations in the Americas is the result of diverse processes including the initial colonization of the continent by the first people plus post-1492 European migrations. Because of the recent nature of some of these events, understanding the geographical origin of American human diversity is challenging. However, human parasites have faster evolutionary rates and larger population sizes allowing them to maintain greater levels of genetic diversity than their hosts. Thus, we can use human parasites to provide insights into some aspects of human evolution that may be unclear from direct evidence. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 450 head lice in the Americas. Haplotypes clustered into two well-supported haplogroups, known as A and B. Haplogroup frequencies differ significantly among North, Central and South America. Within each haplogroup, we found evidence of demographic expansions around 16,000 and 20,000 years ago, which correspond broadly with those estimated for Native Americans. The parallel timing of demographic expansions of human lice and Native Americans plus the contrasting pattern between the distribution of haplogroups A and B through the Americas suggests that human lice can provide additional evidence about the human colonization of the New World. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2017-03-01

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  3. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body lice are tiny insects (scientific name is Pediculus humanus corporis ) that are spread through close contact ... disease Images Body louse Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) Body louse, female and larvae Head louse ...

  4. [Cosmus Conrad Cuno (1652-1745) on a human ectoparasite: the head louse].

    PubMed

    Müller, G H

    1979-07-01

    Cosmus Conrad Cuno, a less well known optician and inventor of microscopes from the second half of the 17th century, published in 1734 at Augsburg his Observationes durch dessen verfertigte Microscopia where along with various observations he communicated salient details pertaining to the biology of the head louse.

  5. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Catalá, Silvia S; Ormeño, Analía del V; Żelazowska, Monika; Biliński, Szczepan M; Braig, Henk R

    2004-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later. PMID:15140268

  6. Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

  7. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments.

  8. Biology and genetics of human head and body lice.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Raoult, Didier

    2012-12-01

    Head lice and body lice have distinct ecologies and differ slightly in morphology and biology, questioning their taxonomic status. Over the past 10 years many genetic studies have been undertaken. Controversial data suggest that not only body lice but also head lice can serve as vectors of Bartonella quintana, and a better understanding of louse epidemiology is crucial. Here, we review taxonomic studies based on biology and genetics, including genomic data on lice, lice endosymbionts, and louse-transmitted bacteria. We recommend that studies of human lice employ morphological and biological characteristics in conjunction with transcriptomic date because lice seem to differ mainly in gene expression (and not in gene content), leading to different phenotypes.

  9. First report of family infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis; Insecta: Anoplura: Pthiridae) in Iran--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R

    2013-03-01

    The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country.

  10. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C.; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  11. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, Linda; Raoult, Didier

    2006-04-01

    The human body louse, the natural vector of Rickettsia prowazekii, is able to experimentally transmit the normally flea-borne rickettsia R. typhi, suggesting that the relationships between the body louse and rickettsiae are not specific. We used our experimental infection model to test the ability of body lice to transmit two prevalent tick-borne rickettsiae. Each of two rabbits was made bacteremic by injecting intravenously 2 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of either R. rickettsii or R. conorii. Four hundred body lice were infected by feeding on the bacteremic rabbit and were compared with 400 uninfected lice. Each louse group was fed once a day on a separate seronegative rabbit. The survival of infected lice was not different from that of uninfected controls. Lice remained infected for their lifespan, excreted R. rickettsii and R. conorii in their feces, but did not transmit the infection to their progeny. The nurse rabbit of uninfected lice remained asymptomatic and seronegative. Those rabbits used to feed infected lice developed bacteremia and seroconverted. Although the body louse is not a known vector of spotted fevers, it was able in our study to acquire, maintain, and transmit both R. rickettsii and R. conorii.

  12. The head and body lice of humans are genetically distinct (Insecta: Phthiraptera, Pediculidae): evidence from double infestations.

    PubMed

    Leo, N P; Hughes, J M; Yang, X; Poudel, S K S; Brogdon, W G; Barker, S C

    2005-07-01

    Little is known about the population genetics of the louse infestations of humans. We used microsatellite DNA to study 11 double infestations, that is, hosts infested with head lice and body lice simultaneously. We tested for population structure on a host, and for population structure among seven hosts that shared sleeping quarters. We also sought evidence of migration among louse populations. Our results showed that: (i) the head and body lice on these individual hosts were two genetically distinct populations; (ii) each host had their own populations of head and body lice that were genetically distinct to those on other hosts; and (iii) lice had migrated from head to head, and from body to body, but not between heads and bodies. Our results indicate that head and body lice are separate species.

  13. Heritability of resistance to infestation with the body louse, Bovicola ovis, in Romney sheep bred for differences in resistance or resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, A; Morris, C A; Green, R S; Wheeler, M; Shu, D; Bisset, S A; Vlassoff, A

    2007-12-01

    The inheritance of resistance to louse infestation and the related allergic skin disease, cockle, was examined in Romney lambs. The lambs used in the study were the 2001- and 2004-born progeny of four experimental breeding lines ("Resistant", "Susceptible", "Resilient" and "Control") developed as part of a long-term study of the genetics of host resistance (maintenance of low faecal egg count (FEC) under nematode challenge) or resilience (maintenance of health and productivity under nematode challenge irrespective of FEC) to nematode parasites in sheep. Between 13 and 22 progeny (equally distributed between males and females, where possible) from each of five sires in each line were selected each year for this trial. All lambs (n=701) were examined for lice (Bovicola ovis) before artificial infestation; in 2001 the lambs were free of natural infestation, whilst in 2004 naturally acquired infestation was evident. In November 2001 and May 2002, approximately 60 B. ovis were transferred to each lamb, followed by monitoring at approximately 2-monthly intervals until August 2002. Similar procedures, but with fewer monitoring times, were repeated on the 2004 lambs. Overall, lambs in the Control line were significantly more susceptible to louse infestation and cockle compared with those in the other three lines (P<0.001). Least squares-means (SEM) of log-transformed louse score for the control, resistant, susceptible and resilient lines, respectively, were 2.178 (0.045), 1.499 (0.050), 1.618 (0.050) and 1.587 (0.044), and for cockle score were 1.36 (0.05), 0.76 (0.05), 0.95 (0.05) and 0.78 (0.05). From all progeny together, the heritability of log-transformed louse score was 0.22 (Standard Error (SE) 0.06) in autumn and 0.34 (SE 0.08) in winter, with a value of 0.44 (SE 0.09) when these data were combined. These estimates were similar to those obtained for resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes in these breeding lines, using log-transformed FECs. Heritability estimates

  14. Isolation, amplification, and sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA obtained from human crab louse, Pthirus pubis (L.), blood meals.

    PubMed

    Lord, W D; DiZinno, J A; Wilson, M R; Budowle, B; Taplin, D; Meinking, T L

    1998-09-01

    The ability to identify individual human hosts based on analyses of blood recovered from the digestive tract of hematophagous arthropods has been a long-term pursuit in both medical and forensic entomology. Blood meal individualization techniques can bring important advancements to studies of vector-borne disease epidemiology. Forensically, these analyses may aid in assailant identification in violent crime cases where blood-feeding insects or their excreta are recovered from victims or at crime scenes. Successful isolation, amplification, and sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA obtained from adult human crab lice fed on human volunteers are reported. Adult lice were removed from recruited volunteers frequenting inner city health clinics. Live lice were killed by freezing and subsequently air dried at ambient temperature. A saliva sample was obtained from each volunteer and served as a DNA reference sample. Volunteers were afforded free, approved pediculosis treatment. Individual lice were subsequently processed using procedures developed for the extraction of mitochondrial DNA from human hair, teeth, and bone. The resulting DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Our results point to valuable avenues for future entomological research.

  15. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    PubMed

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  16. Home remedies to control head lice: assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Takano-Lee, Miwa; Edman, John D; Mullens, Bradley A; Clark, John M

    2004-12-01

    As the frequency and level of pediculicide resistance increases throughout the world, the need for novel solutions to control pediculosis has intensified. The development and registration of new pesticides has become so costly that many chemical companies are unwilling to pursue it and health-care providers now face a serious lack of new commercial pediculicides. Many infested people resort to using "home-remedy" approaches that have not been scientifically tested. In this article, we examined the potential value of six purportedly effective "home remedies" (vinegar, isopropyl alcohol, olive oil, mayonnaise, melted butter, and petroleum jelly) to treat head louse infestations and the likelihood of drowning lice by water submersion. Results indicated that only the application of petroleum jelly caused significant louse mortality but no treatment prevented lice from laying eggs. Most home remedy products did little to kill eggs, despite prolonged exposure. Petroleum jelly caused the greatest egg mortality, allowing only 6% to hatch. It was extremely difficult to drown lice, despite extended periods (i.e., 8 hr) of water submersion, suggesting that killing lice by depriving them of oxygen is inefficient. None of the home remedy products we surveyed was an effective means of louse control. This suggests that when treatment failure occurs, an increased amount of time and effort should be focused on alternative chemical pediculicides and/or manual louse removal (i.e., combing) rather than using any of these products.

  17. [Lice and lice-borne diseases in humans].

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, L; Parola, P; Raoult, D

    2005-01-01

    Among the three lice which parasite the human being, the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is a vector of infectious diseases. It lives and multiplies in clothes and human infestation is associated with cold weather and a lack of hygiene. Three pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by the body louse: 1) Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of epidemic typhus of which the most recent outbreak (and the largest since World War II) was observed during the civil war in Burundi; 2) Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever, historically responsible of massive outbreaks in Eurasia and Africa, which prevails currently in Ethiopia and neighboring countries; 3) Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and lymphadenopathy. Body louse infestation, associated with a decline in social and hygienic conditions provoked by civil unrest and economic instability, is reemergent worldwide. Recently, a forth human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, has been associated to the body louse.

  18. Effects of blood type and blood handling on feeding success, longevity and egg production in the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Danilevich, M; Zelig, O; Grinbaum, H; Friger, M; Meinking, T L

    2011-03-01

    The effects of feeding different types of human blood to human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), on feeding success, longevity and numbers of eggs laid were investigated using an artificial blood-feeding system in the laboratory. No significant differences were found between lice fed on different human blood types for any of the parameters tested. However, when lice were fed on human blood of one blood type followed immediately by a different blood type, they took significantly smaller bloodmeals, their longevity was reduced and they laid fewer eggs per female than control lice that had been fed twice on the same human blood type. When lice were fed human blood that had been stored for 1-26 weeks, the quantity of blood taken, the proportion of lice that became fully engorged and lice longevity diminished gradually as the storage time of the blood increased, but there was no effect of storage time on the mean number of eggs laid per female. However, lice would not feed on 26-week-old blood. The type of anticoagulant used had a significant effect on the proportion fed, longevity and number of eggs laid per female. Generally, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)-treated blood reduced longevity and the number of eggs laid per female to a greater degree than heparinized or citrated blood. Lice fed on rabbit blood took significantly larger amounts of blood, lived longer and laid a higher mean number of eggs per female than lice fed on human blood.

  19. Louse- and flea-borne rickettsioses: biological and genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Sobral, Bruno S.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to 15 or more validated and/or proposed tick-borne spotted fever group species, only three named medically important rickettsial species are associated with insects. These insect-borne rickettsiae are comprised of two highly pathogenic species, Rickettsia prowazekii (the agent of epidemic typhus) and R. typhi (the agent of murine typhus), as well as R. felis, a species with unconfirmed pathogenicity. Rickettsial association with obligate hematophagous insects such as the human body louse (R. prowazekii transmitted by Pediculus h. humanus) and several flea species (R. typhi and R. felis, as well as R. prowazekii in sylvatic form) provides rickettsiae the potential for further multiplications, longer transmission cycles and rapid spread among susceptible human populations. Both human body lice and fleas are intermittent feeders capable of multiple blood meals per generation, facilitating the efficient transmission of rickettsiae to several disparate hosts within urban/rural ecosystems. While taking into consideration the existing knowledge of rickettsial biology and genomic attributes, we have analyzed and summarized the interacting features that are unique to both the rickettsiae and their vector fleas and lice. Furthermore, factors that underlie rickettsial changing ecology, where native mammalian populations are involved in the maintenance of rickettsial cycle and transmission, are discussed. PMID:19036234

  20. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  1. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  2. Ovicidal Efficacy of Abametapir Against Eggs of Human Head and Body Lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bowles, Vernon M; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Barker, Stephen C; Tran, Christopher; Rhodes, Christopher; Clark, Marshall J

    2017-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the ovicidal efficacy of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (abametapir) against eggs of both human head and body lice. Head lice eggs of different ages (0-2, 3-5, and 6-8-d-old eggs) were exposed to varying concentrations of abametapir in isopropanol and concentration-dependent response relationships established based on egg hatch. One hundred percent of all abametapir-treated eggs failed to hatch at the 0.74 and 0.55% concentrations, whereas 100% of 6-8-d-old head louse eggs failed to hatch only at the 0.74% concentration. The LC50 value for abametapir varied, depending on the age of the head lice eggs, from ∼0.10% recorded for 0-2-d-old eggs and increasing to ∼0.15% for 6-8-d-old eggs. Abametapir was also evaluated once formulated into a lotion referred to as Xeglyze (0.74% abametapir) and serial dilutions made. Ovicidal efficacies were determined against head lice eggs 0-8-d-old. Results indicated 100% ovicidal activity at the 0.74, 0.55, 0.37, and 0.18% concentrations. Additional studies undertaken using body lice eggs also demonstrated that abametapir was 100% ovicidal against eggs of all ages when evaluated at a concentration of 0.37 and 0.55%. Given that ovicidal activity is a critical component of any effective treatment regime for louse control, the data presented in this study clearly demonstrate the ability of abametapir to inhibit hatching of both head and body louse eggs as assessed in vitro.

  3. Ovicidal Efficacy of Abametapir Against Eggs of Human Head and Body Lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bowles, Vernon M; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Barker, Stephen C; Tran, Christopher; Rhodes, Christopher; Clark, Marshall J

    2016-08-21

    Studies were undertaken to determine the ovicidal efficacy of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (abametapir) against eggs of both human head and body lice. Head lice eggs of different ages (0-2, 3-5, and 6-8-d-old eggs) were exposed to varying concentrations of abametapir in isopropanol and concentration-dependent response relationships established based on egg hatch. One hundred percent of all abametapir-treated eggs failed to hatch at the 0.74 and 0.55% concentrations, whereas 100% of 6-8-d-old head louse eggs failed to hatch only at the 0.74% concentration. The LC50 value for abametapir varied, depending on the age of the head lice eggs, from ∼0.10% recorded for 0-2-d-old eggs and increasing to ∼0.15% for 6-8-d-old eggs. Abametapir was also evaluated once formulated into a lotion referred to as Xeglyze (0.74% abametapir) and serial dilutions made. Ovicidal efficacies were determined against head lice eggs 0-8-d-old. Results indicated 100% ovicidal activity at the 0.74, 0.55, 0.37, and 0.18% concentrations. Additional studies undertaken using body lice eggs also demonstrated that abametapir was 100% ovicidal against eggs of all ages when evaluated at a concentration of 0.37 and 0.55%. Given that ovicidal activity is a critical component of any effective treatment regime for louse control, the data presented in this study clearly demonstrate the ability of abametapir to inhibit hatching of both head and body louse eggs as assessed in vitro.

  4. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens.

  5. Human Body (Physiology), K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethlehem Area Schools, PA.

    The physiology of the human body is one of eight subject areas covered in the K-6 Science Program of the Bethlehem Area School District. This manual is a teacher's guide to activities for each grade level. "Awareness of Senses" is treated in Kindergarten, "Body Growth and Development" in grade 1, "The Senses and Their…

  6. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. What's in a name: the taxonomic status of human head and body lice.

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Toups, Melissa A; Reed, David L

    2008-06-01

    Human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae: Pediculus) are pandemic, parasitizing countless school children worldwide due to the evolution of insecticide resistance, and human body (clothing) lice are responsible for the deaths of millions as a result of vectoring several deadly bacterial pathogens. Despite the obvious impact these lice have had on their human hosts, it is unclear whether head and body lice represent two morphological forms of a single species or two distinct species. To assess the taxonomic status of head and body lice, we provide a synthesis of publicly available molecular data in GenBank, and we compare phylogenetic and population genetic methods using the most diverse geographic and molecular sampling presently available. Our analyses find reticulated networks, gene flow, and a lack of reciprocal monophyly, all of which indicate that head and body lice do not represent genetically distinct evolutionary units. Based on these findings, as well as inconsistencies of morphological, behavioral, and ecological variability between head and body lice, we contend that no known species concept would recognize these louse morphotypes as separate species. We recommend recognizing head and body lice as morphotypes of a single species, Pediculus humanus, until compelling new data and analyses (preferably analyses of fast evolving nuclear markers in a coalescent framework) indicate otherwise.

  8. Biophoton emission of human body.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Popp, F A

    2003-05-01

    For the first time systematic measurements of the "ultraweak" photon emission of the human body (biophotons) have been performed by means of a photon detector device set up in darkness. About 200 persons have been investigated. In a particular case one person has been examined daily over several months. It turned out that this biophoton emission reflects, (i) the left-right symmetry of the human body; (ii) biological rhythms such as 14 days, 1 month, 3 months and 9 months; (iii) disease in terms of broken symmetry between left and right side; and (iv) light channels in the body, which regulate energy and information transfer between different parts. The results show that besides a deeper understanding of health, disease and body field, this method provides a new powerful tool of non-invasive medical diagnosis in terms of basic regulatory functions of the body.

  9. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Luke A.; Bateman, Andrew W.; Connors, Brendan M.; Frazer, L. Neil; Godwin, Sean C.; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; Rees, Erin E.; Revie, Crawford W.; Schlägel, Ulrike E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host–parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:26880836

  10. The life of a head louse.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian

    When children return to school after the summer holiday, cases of head lice appear to increase. Ian Burgess describes the life cycle of the head louse and dispels some of the myths about transmission of this insect. A second article discusses the detection and treatment of head lice.

  11. Phages in the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference. PMID:28421059

  12. Phages in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ferran; Muniesa, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, have re-emerged as powerful regulators of bacterial populations in natural ecosystems. Phages invade the human body, just as they do other natural environments, to such an extent that they are the most numerous group in the human virome. This was only revealed in recent metagenomic studies, despite the fact that the presence of phages in the human body was reported decades ago. The influence of the presence of phages in humans has yet to be evaluated; but as in marine environments, a clear role in the regulation of bacterial populations could be envisaged, that might have an impact on human health. Moreover, phages are excellent vehicles of genetic transfer, and they contribute to the evolution of bacterial cells in the human body by spreading and acquiring DNA horizontally. The abundance of phages in the human body does not pass unnoticed and the immune system reacts to them, although it is not clear to what extent. Finally, the presence of phages in human samples, which most of the time is not considered, can influence and bias microbiological and molecular results; and, in view of the evidences, some studies suggest that more attention needs to be paid to their interference.

  13. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  14. Variability in human body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  15. [Wireless human body communication technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2014-12-01

    The Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a key part of the wearable monitoring technologies, which has many communication technologies to choose from, like Bluetooth, ZigBee, Ultra Wideband, and Wireless Human Body Communication (WHBC). As for the WHBC developed in recent years, it is worthy to be further studied. The WHBC has a strong momentum of growth and a natural advantage in the formation of WBAN. In this paper, we first briefly describe the technical background of WHBC, then introduce theoretical model of human-channel communication and digital transmission machine based on human channel. And finally we analyze various of the interference of the WHBC and show the AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping) technology which can effectively deal with the interference.

  16. What determines human body odour?

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kaoru; Haruyama, Sanehito; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kayo; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2014-05-01

    Human body odour and earwax type are genetically dependent on a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the ABCC11 gene. So far, it still remains to be clear how SNP in the ABCC11 gene is associated with human malodour. In a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology, Baumann et al. propose one of the underlying molecular pathways. Although one of the amino acid conjugated of the odorants, Cys-Gly-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexanol (3M3SH), was not taken up by the transporter ABCC11, glutathione conjugate of 3MSH (SG-3MSH) was transported by ABCC11. Moreover, SG-3MSH was processed to 3M3SH by γ-glutamyl-transferase 1 (GGT1), which was abundantly expressed in apocrine sweat glands. These findings may pave a way for the pharmacogenetics of human body odour and the development of innovative deodorant products.

  17. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2006-05-01

    Of the pediculicides on the market, most are not 100% ovicidal and don't have a residual activity of more than 2 days. Therefore, at least 2 treatments are necessary to control the entire louse population. In order for a pediculicide to be effective it should kill all active stages of the louse after a single treatment. Otherwise remaining lice will continue laying eggs and the following treatments will not be fully effective, at least against the eggs. However, there is no general consensus as to when the second treatment should be conducted. Taking into consideration that head louse eggs hatch between 5 to 11 days, it is suggested that a second treatment should be administered 10 days after the beginning of the treatment. This might also explain why most of the clinical trials that were conducted by treating the patients twice with an interval of 6, 7, or 8 days showed a poor efficacy, and clinical trials where the pediculicide was applied with an interval of 10 days showed an efficacy level of more than 90%.

  18. Human body may produce bacteria.

    PubMed

    Salerian, Alen J

    2017-06-01

    "Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C. Physical laws suggest any previously observed phenomenon or action will occur again (life began on earth; a non living thing). D. Animal muscle cells may generate energy (fermentation). E. Sterilized food products (i.e. boiled eggs), may produce bacteria and fungus under special conditions and without any exposure to foreign living cells. "Human body may produce bacteria" may challenge the current medical paradigm that views human infectious disorders as the exclusive causative byproducts of invading foreign cells. It may also introduce new avenues to treat infectious disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Endotoxin in the Pathogenesis of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever and in the Mechanism of the Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Following Treatment of Louse-borne Relapsing Fever

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Louse-borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted to man by infected body lice...shown to contain lipopolysaccharide (46), but extracted spirochetal lipopolysaccharides contained no pyrogenic activity for rabbits (47). Borreliae have...investigators. Mergenhagen et al extracted lipopolysaccharides from Borrelia vincentii, B. buccalis, and small oral treponemes and found them to be

  20. Distinguishing Body Lice from Head Lice by Multiplex Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Phum_PHUM540560 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Boutellis, Amina; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Body louse or head louse? Once removed from their environment, body and head lice are indistinguishable. Neither the morphological criteria used since the mid-18th century nor the various genetic studies conducted since the advent of molecular biology tools have allowed body lice and head lice to be differentiated. In this work, using a portion of the Phum_PHUM540560 gene from the body louse, we aimed to develop a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to differentiate between body and head lice in a single reaction. Materials and Methods A total of 142 human lice were collected from mono-infested hosts from 13 countries on five continents. We first identified the louse clade using a cytochrome b (CYTB) PCR sequence alignment. We then aligned a fragment of the Phum_PHUM540560 gene amplified from head and body lice to design-specific TaqMan© FAM- and VIC-labeled probes. Results All the analyzed lice were Clade A lice. A total of 22 polymorphisms between the body and head lice were characterized. The multiplex real-time PCR analysis enabled the body and head lice to be distinguished in two hours. This method is simple, with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Conclusions We confirmed that the Phum_PHUM540560 gene is a useful genetic marker for the study of lice. PMID:23469145

  1. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  2. Pyrethroid tolerance in the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F; Wall, R

    2012-08-13

    Equine pediculosis is a significant health and welfare issue, particularly in elderly and chronically debilitated animals. Currently infestation is controlled predominantly using topically applied pyrethroid insecticides, allowing limited scope for the rotation of drugs and increasing the risk of selection for resistance. Here the insecticidal efficacies of two pyrethroid-based products against the louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys were examined in vitro. The products were cypermethrin (Deosect™, Pfizer Ltd., 5% (w/v) cypermethrin, cutaneous spray) and permethrin (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on). The pyrethroid efficacy was contrasted with that of the organophosphate diazinon, since the louse populations examined were unlikely to have had prior exposure to this compound. The efficacy of diluted pure permethrin, the excipient, butyl dioxitol and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in the presence of the pyrethroids, were also considered. At the concentrations recommended for animal application, neither 4% (w/v) permethrin, nor 0.1% (w/v) cypermethrin had any significant effect on the mortality of B. ocellatus and neither induced significantly more mortality than an acetone-only control. In contrast, 0.04% diazinon caused 70% mortality within 4h and 100% mortality after 24h exposure. The addition of a potential pyrethroid synergist, piperonyl butoxide, in combination with cypermethrin and permethrin, resulted in no significant increase in mortality. It is concluded that the population of lice tested display a high level of pyrethroid tolerance which is likely to reflect the development of resistance. Twenty-four hours after routine treatment of 10 donkeys with a pour-on permethrin product (Switch™, VetPlus Ltd., 4% (w/v) permethrin, pour-on) hair tufts taken from their flanks were not significantly insecticidal compared with hair from the midline application site, implying a low level of insecticide distribution

  3. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  4. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  5. The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  7. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cedric; Ranque, Stephane; Badiaga, Sekene; Rovery, Clarisse; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    The mainstays of treatment of body-louse infestation in humans in a community setting are insecticides and the removal of infested clothing. We report here the dramatic effect that 3 doses of oral ivermectin (12 mg each), administered at 7-day intervals, have in reducing the total number of body lice in a cohort of homeless men from a shelter in Marseilles, France. We identified a baseline total of 1898 lice in the cohort. Over a 14-day period, this number fell to 6 lice; the prevalence of infested individuals fell from 84.9% to 18.5%. Although this effect was not sustained at day 45, it establishes that ivermectin plays a novel role in the control of body-louse infestation in humans.

  8. A Human Body Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girondel, Vincent; Bonnaud, Laurent; Caplier, Alice

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a system for human body analysis (segmentation, tracking, face/hands localisation, posture recognition) from a single view that is fast and completely automatic. The system first extracts low-level data and uses part of the data for high-level interpretation. It can detect and track several persons even if they merge or are completely occluded by another person from the camera's point of view. For the high-level interpretation step, static posture recognition is performed using a belief theory-based classifier. The belief theory is considered here as a new approach for performing posture recognition and classification using imprecise and/or conflicting data. Four different static postures are considered: standing, sitting, squatting, and lying. The aim of this paper is to give a global view and an evaluation of the performances of the entire system and to describe in detail each of its processing steps, whereas our previous publications focused on a single part of the system. The efficiency and the limits of the system have been highlighted on a database of more than fifty video sequences where a dozen different individuals appear. This system allows real-time processing and aims at monitoring elderly people in video surveillance applications or at the mixing of real and virtual worlds in ambient intelligence systems.

  9. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  10. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

    2014-04-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation.

  11. Neural correlates of human body perception.

    PubMed

    Aleong, Rosanne; Paus, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential sex differences in the neural response to human bodies using fMRI carried out in healthy young adults. We presented human bodies in a block-design experiment to identify body-responsive regions of the brain, namely, extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). In a separate event-related "adaptation" experiment, carried out in the same group of subjects, we presented sets of four human bodies of varying body size and shape. Varying levels of body morphing were introduced to assess the degree of morphing required for adaptation release. Analysis of BOLD signal in the block-design experiment revealed significant Sex x Hemisphere interactions in the EBA and the FBA responses to human bodies. Only women showed greater BOLD response to bodies in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere for both EBA and FBA. The BOLD response in right EBA was higher in women compared with men. In the adaptation experiment, greater right versus left hemisphere response for EBA and FBA was also identified among women but not men. These findings are particularly novel in that they address potential sex differences in the lateralization of EBA and FBA responses to human body images. Although previous studies have found some degree of right hemisphere dominance in body perception, our results suggest that such a functional lateralization may differ between men and women.

  12. Electric Shock and the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses electricity's documented effects on the human body, including both the dangers to human health and the medical application of electrical stimulation to heart problems. Discusses the teaching of such physics topics to potential medical students. (TW)

  13. Normative aspects of the human body.

    PubMed

    Siep, Ludwig

    2003-04-01

    In cultural history the human body has been the object of a great variety of opposing valuations, ranging from "imago dei" to "the devil's tool". At present, the body is commonly regarded as a mere means to fulfill the wishes of its "owner". According to these wishes it can be technically improved in an unlimited way. Against this view the text argues for a conception of the human body as a valuable "common heritage". The "normal" human body as the result of natural and cultural history is an essential condition of the modern social and legal order. The consequences of its technical alteration should be the subject of public debates and common decisions.

  14. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  15. Modeling Forces on the Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Drake, Russel; Morgan, Michael; Peters, Todd; Riddle, Chris; Rollins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Presents five models of the human body as a mechanical system which can be used in introductory physics courses: human arms as levers, humans falling from small heights, a model of the human back, collisions during football, and the rotating gymnast. Gives ideas for discussions and activities, including Interactive Physics (TM) simulations. (WRM)

  16. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  17. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  18. Human body surface area: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hihara, Eiji

    2004-04-01

    Knowledge of the human body surface area has important applications in medical practice, garment design, and other engineering sizing. Therefore, it is not surprising that several expressions correlating body surface area with direct measurements of body mass and length have been reported in the literature. In the present study, based on the assumption that the exterior shape of the human body is the result of convex and concave deformations from a basic cylinder, we derive a theoretical equation minimizing body surface area (BSA) at a fixed volume (V): BSA=(9pi VL)(0.5), where L is the reference length of the body. Assuming a body density value of 1,000 kg.m(-3), the equation becomes BSA=(BM.BH/35.37)(0.5), where BSA is in square meters, BM is the body mass in kilograms, and BH is the body height in meters. BSA values calculated by means of this equation fall within +/-7% of the values obtained by means of the equations available in the literature, in the range of BSA from children to adults. It is also suggested that the above equation, which is obtained by minimizing the outer body surface at a fixed volume, implies a fundamental relation set by the geometrical constraints governing the growth and the development of the human body.

  19. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    PubMed

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  20. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  1. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  2. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  3. Scratching an ancient itch: an Eocene bird louse fossil.

    PubMed Central

    Wappler, Torsten; Smith, Vincent S; Dalgleish, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Out of the 30 extant orders of insects, all but one, the parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera), have a confirmed fossil record. Here, we report the discovery of what appears to be the first bird louse fossil: an exceptionally well-preserved specimen collected from the crater of the Eckfeld maar near Manderscheid, Germany. The 44-million-year-old specimen shows close phylogenetic affinities with modern feather louse ectoparasites of aquatic birds. Preservation of feather remnants in the specimen's foregut confirms its association as a bird ectoparasite. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the specimen and palaeoecological data, we suggest that this louse was the parasite of a large ancestor to modern Anseriformes (swans, geese and ducks) or Charadriiformes (shorebirds). The crown group position of this fossil in the phylogeny of lice confirms the group's long coevolutionary history with birds and points to an early origin for lice, perhaps inherited from early-feathered theropod dinosaurs. PMID:15503987

  4. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  5. A bacteriophages journey through the human body.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The human body is colonized by a diverse collective of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The smallest entity of this microbial conglomerate are the bacterial viruses. Bacteriophages, or phages for short, exert significant selective pressure on their bacterial hosts, undoubtedly influencing the human microbiome and its impact on our health and well-being. Phages colonize all niches of the body, including the skin, oral cavity, lungs, gut, and urinary tract. As such our bodies are frequently and continuously exposed to diverse collections of phages. Despite the prevalence of phages throughout our bodies, the extent of their interactions with human cells, organs, and immune system is still largely unknown. Phages physically interact with our mucosal surfaces, are capable of bypassing epithelial cell layers, disseminate throughout the body and may manipulate our immune system. Here, I establish the novel concept of an "intra-body phageome," which encompasses the collection of phages residing within the classically "sterile" regions of the body. This review will take a phage-centric view of the microbiota, human body, and immune system with the ultimate goal of inspiring a greater appreciation for both the indirect and direct interactions between bacteriophages and their mammalian hosts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Automated fudicial labeling on human body data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewark, Erick A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1998-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner generates a high- resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The acquisition of anthropometric data from this data set is important for the development of custom sizing for the apparel industry. Software for locating anthropometric landmarks from a cloud of more than 200,000 three-dimensional data points, captured from a human subject, is presented. The first phase of identification is to locate externally placed fudicials on the human body using luminance information captured at scan time. The fudicials are then autonomously labeled and categorized according to their general position and anthropometric significance in the scan. Once registration of the landmarks is complete, body measurements may be extracted for apparel sizing.

  7. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-05-07

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.

  8. Evidence for an African cluster of human head and body lice with variable colors and interbreeding of lice between continents.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Boutellis, Amina; Merhej, Vicky; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Human head lice and body lice have been classified based on phenotypic characteristics, including geographical source, ecotype (preferred egg laying site hair or clothes), shape and color. More recently, genotypic studies have been based on mitochondrial genes, nuclear genes and intergenic spacers. Mitochondrial genetic analysis reclassified lice into three genotypes (A, B and C). However, no previous study has attempted to correlate both genotypic and phenotypic data. Lice were collected in four African countries: Senegal, Burundi, Rwanda and Ethiopia and were photographed to compare their colors. The Multi-Spacer-Typing (MST) method was used to genotype lice belonging to the worldwide Clade A, allowing a comparison of phenotypic and genotypic data. No congruence between louse color and genotype has been identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the spacer PM2, performed including lice from other sources, showed the existence of an African cluster of human lice. However, the analysis of other spacers suggested that lice from different areas are interbreeding. We identified two geotypes of Clade A head and body lice including one that is specifically African, that can be either black or grey and can live on the head or in clothing. We also hypothesized that lice from different areas are interbreeding.

  9. Functional Neuronal Processing of Human Body Odors

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Johan N.; Olsson, Mats J.

    2013-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. PMID:20831940

  10. Functional neuronal processing of human body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Olsson, Mats J

    2010-01-01

    Body odors carry informational cues of great importance for individuals across a wide range of species, and signals hidden within the body odor cocktail are known to regulate several key behaviors in animals. For a long time, the notion that humans may be among these species has been dismissed. We now know, however, that each human has a unique odor signature that carries information related to his or her genetic makeup, as well as information about personal environmental variables, such as diet and hygiene. Although a substantial number of studies have investigated the behavioral effects of body odors, only a handful have studied central processing. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated that the human brain responds to fear signals hidden within the body odor cocktail, is able to extract kin specific signals, and processes body odors differently than other perceptually similar odors. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of how the human brain processes body odors and the potential importance these signals have for us in everyday life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Guanaco Louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps: Insights into the Ancestral Mitochondrial Karyotype of Sucking Lice (Anoplura, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215

  12. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  13. Transmission of vertical whole body vibration to the human body.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, Juha; Heinonen, Ari; Järvinen, Teppo L; Kannus, Pekka; Sievänen, Harri

    2008-08-01

    According to experimental studies, low-amplitude high-frequency vibration is anabolic to bone tissue, whereas in clinical trials, the bone effects have varied. Given the potential of whole body vibration in bone training, this study aimed at exploring the transmission of vertical sinusoidal vibration to the human body over a wide range of applicable amplitudes (from 0.05 to 3 mm) and frequencies (from 10 to 90 Hz). Vibration-induced accelerations were assessed with skin-mounted triaxial accelerometers at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar spine in four males standing on a high-performance vibration platform. Peak vertical accelerations of the platform covered a range from 0.04 to 19 in units of G (Earth's gravitational constant). Substantial amplification of peak acceleration could occur between 10 and 40 Hz for the ankle, 10 and 25 Hz for the knee, 10 and 20 Hz for the hip, and at 10 Hz for the spine. Beyond these frequencies, the transmitted vibration power declined to 1/10th-1/1000 th of the power delivered by the platform. Transmission of vibration to the body is a complicated phenomenon because of nonlinearities in the human musculoskeletal system. These results may assist in estimating how the transmission of vibration-induced accelerations to body segments is modified by amplitude and frequency and how well the sinusoidal waveform is maintained. Although the attenuation of vertical vibration at higher frequencies is fortunate from the aspect of safety, amplitudes >0.5 mm may result in greater peak accelerations than imposed at the platform and thus pose a potential hazard for the fragile musculoskeletal system.

  14. [The solidarity of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bioy, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).

  15. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    PubMed

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  16. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  17. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  18. Thermodynamics of Cooling a (Live) Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Presents a practical problem to students in a junior-level thermodynamics course in which a human body regulates its own internal temperature. This problem can be utilized as well (with modification) in an introductory physics course for life science majors. (HM)

  19. Visuals and Visualisation of Human Body Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathai, Sindhu; Ramadas, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of diagrams and text in middle school students' understanding and visualisation of human body systems. We develop a common framework based on structure and function to assess students' responses across diagram and verbal modes. Visualisation is defined in terms of understanding transformations on structure and relating…

  20. A prototype for cartographic human body analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elizabeth; Marcos, Adérito; Santos, Maribel Yasmina; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2008-01-01

    A cartographic-oriented model uses algebraic map operations to perform spatial analysis of medical data relative to the human body. A prototype system uses 3D visualization techniques to deliver analysis results. A prototype implementation suggests the model might provide the basis for a medical application tool that introduces new information insight.

  1. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter

    2012-05-01

    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  2. [Microbiota and representations of the human body].

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty

    2016-11-01

    Although the presence of an intestinal flora has been known for a long time, the discovery of the role of gut microbiota in human health and disease has been widely recognized as one of the most important advances in the recent years. Chronic diseases may result from dysbiosis, i.e. a disruption of the balance within the bacterial population hosted by the human body. These developments open new prospects in terms of prevention and treatment, including the design of adapted diets, the development of functional foods and fecal transplantation. These discoveries have profoundly altered our view of microbes, of health and disease, of self and non-self, as well as our representations of the body and its relationship with its ecosystem. Gut microbiota is now generally considered as an organ in its own right. A model of the "microbiotic person" thus arises, in which the human organism is defined as an ecosystem, a chimeric superorganism with a double genome, both human and microbial. Thought should be given to the way in which these new paradigms modify lay perceptions of the human body.

  3. Efficacy of the LouseBuster, a new medical device for treating head lice (Anoplura:Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Rock, Alex N; Jones, Sherri L; Malenke, Jael R; Clayton, Dale H

    2011-01-01

    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) occur worldwide and infest millions of children and adults every year. Head lice infestations, which are known as pediculosis capitis, are psychologically stressful, physically irritating, and are one of the leading causes of K-6 school absence. The prevalence of head lice in many countries is increasing rapidly because of resistance to chemicals used in many head lice treatments. We tested the efficacy of an alternative method for controlling head lice, the LouseBuster, a custom-built medical device designed to kill head lice and their eggs using controlled, heated air. A total of 56 infested subjects was treated with the LouseBuster, and the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing the viability of lice and eggs on randomly assigned pre- and posttreatment sides of each subject's scalp. We evaluate treatment efficacy in the hands of novice versus experienced operators. We also evaluate treatment efficacy on different hair types and at different ambient humidities. Overall mortality of lice and eggs was 94.8% after treatment by experienced operators. Novice operators also achieved good results after a short training session; their results did not differ significantly from those of experienced operators. No adverse events were associated with the LouseBuster treatment. The LouseBuster is efficacious for killing head lice and their eggs. The use of heated air is appealing because it is a fast, safe, nonchemical treatment. Head lice are also unlikely to evolve resistance to desiccation, which is the apparent mode of action.

  4. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  5. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  6. The dynamics of human body weight change.

    PubMed

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2008-03-28

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass.

  7. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  8. Kinematic analysis of human body motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yuhei; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Watanabe, Naoki; Yanagi, Shigeru

    1997-03-01

    The knowledge of analyzing a human motion can contribute to the treatment and the prevention of sports injuries or the investigation of welfare equipment. It is important to know the human motion by not only the medical field but the mechanical knowledge. The mechanical knowledge is expected to prevent the sports injuries or to design such as an artificial equipment. Here, we suggest a basic procedure to analyze a human motion from the view of the dynamical knowledge. Although the human body is composed of a lot of element and joint, if the slight movement on the joint such as dislocation and distortion is neglected, the human body can be replaced by a mechanical links system. On this assumption, we analyze an actual simple human motion. We take a picture of a simple arm motion from video cameras. And at the same time, we directly measure the vertical acceleration of the hand by an accelerometer. From the video image, we get the vertical acceleration of the hand with assuming the arm as two-links system. On the process of resolving the vertical acceleration of the hand, we introduce the Fourier series for filtering. Finally, we confirm the propriety of our suggested procedure by comparing the calculated acceleration of hand with the directly measured acceleration.

  9. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  10. Extracting Feature Points of the Human Body Using the Model of a 3D Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeongeun; Ozawa, Shinji

    The purpose of this research is to recognize 3D shape features of a human body automatically using a 3D laser-scanning machine. In order to recognize the 3D shape features, we selected the 23 feature points of a body and modeled its 3D features. The set of 23 feature points consists of the motion axis of a joint, the main point for the bone structure of a human body. For extracting feature points of object model, we made 2.5D templates neighbor for each feature points were extracted according to the feature points of the standard model of human body. And the feature points were extracted by the template matching. The extracted feature points can be applied as body measurement, the 3D virtual fitting system for apparel etc.

  11. Urate Handling in the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Liu, Sha; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2016-06-01

    Elevated serum urate concentration is the primary cause of gout. Understanding the processes that affect serum urate concentration is important for understanding the etiology of gout and thereby understanding treatment. Urate handing in the human body is a complex system including three major processes: production, renal elimination, and intestinal elimination. A change in any one of these can affect both the steady-state serum urate concentration as well as other urate processes. The remarkable complexity underlying urate regulation and its maintenance at high levels in humans suggests that this molecule could potentially play an interesting role other than as a mere waste product to be eliminated as rapidly as possible.

  12. [The microbiotics of the human body].

    PubMed

    Bik, E M

    2008-03-22

    --Our bodies are home to complex microbial communities. --In most samples, a greater microbial diversity is revealed by using culture-independent, molecular techniques than by conventional methods. --The composition of the human-associated microbiota differs in each individual, and at each anatomical site within an individual. --The intestinal colonization of newborn infants seems to be driven by environmental factors and random processes, rather than by the composition of the parent's microbial communities. --A set of fraternal twins showed almost identical microbial communities. --Investigating the composition of the human-associated microbiota will enable us to better understand the role of commensals in health and disease.

  13. [An interactive three-dimensional model of the human body].

    PubMed

    Liem, S L

    2009-01-01

    Driven by advanced computer technology, it is now possible to show the human anatomy on a computer. On the internet, the Visible Body programme makes it possible to navigate in all directions through the anatomical structures of the human body, using mouse and keyboard. Visible Body is a wonderful tool to give insight in the human structures, body functions and organs.

  14. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  15. Assessment methods in human body composition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  16. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  17. Human gut microbiome: the second genome of human body.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoli; Wang, Xin; Li, Lanjuan

    2010-08-01

    The human body is actually a super-organism that is composed of 10 times more microbial cells than our body cells. Metagenomic study of the human microbiome has demonstrated that there are 3.3 million unique genes in human gut, 150 times more genes than our own genome, and the bacterial diversity analysis showed that about 1000 bacterial species are living in our gut and a majority of them belongs to the divisions of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes. In addition, most people share a core microbiota that comprises 50-100 bacterial species when the frequency of abundance at phylotype level is not considered, and a core microbiome harboring more than 6000 functional gene groups is present in the majority of human gut surveyed till now. Gut bacteria are not only critical for regulating gut metabolism, but also important for host immune system as revealed by animal studies.

  18. Post-human body and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria Teresa; Di Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The article calls into question the very possibility of a post-human aesthetics, starting from the following premise: rather than post-human, it is more correct to speak of post-natural, indicating by this expression a reality produced through a new type of evolution, which does not simply change human nature, but de-natures it, radically transforming it into an artefact. This post-nature which aspires to be perfect, immortal, invulnerable, is entirely devoid of beauty. In fact, while there may be an aesthetic of the artificial and of the artefact if it is in relation to objects, there is, however, no aesthetic of the post-human body. This is because is configured as a non-body and does not have the characteristics for what is commonly intended as beauty (harmony between matter and form, a reflection of inner life, uniqueness). Also in this case, it is more correct to speak of post-beauty, which in its properties appears to be the mirror image of beauty and ultimately, represents its complete dissolution.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide in the human body.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, B; Clement, M V; Long, L H

    2000-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is widely regarded as a cytotoxic agent whose levels must be minimized by the action of antioxidant defence enzymes. In fact, H(2)O(2) is poorly reactive in the absence of transition metal ions. Exposure of certain human tissues to H(2)O(2) may be greater than is commonly supposed: substantial amounts of H(2)O(2) can be present in beverages commonly drunk (especially instant coffee), in freshly voided human urine, and in exhaled air. Levels of H(2)O(2) in the human body may be controlled not only by catabolism but also by excretion, and H(2)O(2) could play a role in the regulation of renal function and as an antibacterial agent in the urine. Urinary H(2)O(2) levels are influenced by diet, but under certain conditions might be a valuable biomarker of 'oxidative stress'.

  20. Resourcifying human bodies--Kant and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Michio

    2005-01-01

    This essay roughly sketches two major conceptions of autonomy in contemporary bioethics that promote the resourcification of human body parts: (1) a narrow conception of autonomy as self-determination; and (2) the conception of autonomy as dissociated from human dignity. In this paper I will argue that, on the one hand, these two conceptions are very different from that found in the modern European tradition of philosophical inquiry, because bioethics has concentrated on an external account of patient's self-determination and on dissociating dignity from internal human nature. However, on the other hand, they are consistent with more recent European philosophy. In this more recent tradition, human dignity has gradually been dissociated from contextual values, and human subjectivity has been dissociated from objectivity and absolutized as never to be objectified. In the concluding part, I will give a speculative sketch in which Kant's internal inquiry of maxim of ends, causality and end, and dignity as iirreplaceability is recombined with bioethics' externalized one and used to support an extended human resourcification.

  1. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. PMID:27529073

  2. Management and Treatment of Human Lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.

  3. [The human body in Michelangelo's Moses].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    What grips us so powerfully to a work of art is the artist's intention, if he succeeds to express it in his work and we are able to understand it. Michelangelo's Moses established the essential structures of an animate organism and the embodiment of consciousness in the world. Since the body is an expressive unit, it is possible to reconstruct a highly feasible sequence of movements that might have preceded the moment caught in the statue. It is an expression of the highest ideal of mental and spiritual achievement through the controlled tension between action and restraint. The phenomenon of embodiment and feeling the body as own is the basis of concrete human existence.

  4. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  5. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  6. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  7. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis.

  8. Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

    2005-07-01

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects.

  9. Nanogenerators for Human Body Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Proto, Antonino; Penhaker, Marek; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio

    2017-07-01

    Humans generate remarkable quantities of energy while performing daily activities, but this energy usually dissipates into the environment. Here, we address recent progress in the development of nanogenerators (NGs): devices that are able to harvest such body-produced biomechanical and thermal energies by exploiting piezoelectric, triboelectric, and thermoelectric physical effects. In designing NGs, the end-user's comfort is a primary concern. Therefore, we focus on recently developed materials giving flexibility and stretchability to NGs. In addition, we summarize common fabrics for NG design. Finally, the mid-2020s market forecasts for these promising technologies highlight the potential for the commercialization of NGs because they may help contribute to the route of innovation for developing self-powered systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adiposity and human regional body temperature.

    PubMed

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2009-11-01

    Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Obese [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or = 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18-25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography-measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C compared with 28.6 +/- 0.9 degrees C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography-measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C compared with 32.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in obesity. This trial was

  11. Adiposity and human regional body temperature123

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, David M; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Brady, Sheila M; Reynolds, James C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human obesity is associated with increased heat production; however, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. To maintain normothermia, therefore, obese individuals must increase their heat dissipation. Objective: The objective was to test the hypothesis that temperature in a heat-dissipating region of the hand is elevated in obese adults. Design: Obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥ 30] and normal-weight (NW; body mass index = 18–25) adults were studied under thermoneutral conditions at rest. Core body temperature was measured by using ingested telemetric capsules. The temperatures of the third fingernail bed of the right hand and of abdominal skin from an area 1.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus were determined by using infrared thermography. Abdominal skin temperatures were also measured via adhesive thermistors that were placed over a prominent skin-surface blood vessel and over an adjacent nonvessel location. The groups were compared by analysis of covariance with age, sex, race, and room temperature as covariates. Results: Core temperature did not differ significantly between the 23 obese and 13 NW participants (P = 0.74). However, infrared thermography–measured fingernail-bed temperature was significantly higher in obese subjects than in NW subjects (33.9 ± 0.7°C compared with 28.6 ± 0.9°C; P < 0.001). Conversely, infrared thermography–measured abdominal skin temperature was significantly lower in obese subjects than in NW subjects (31.8 ± 0.2°C compared with 32.8 ± 0.3°C; P = 0.02). Nonvessel abdominal skin temperatures measured by thermistors were also lower in obese subjects (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese adults may provide a significant insulating layer that blunts abdominal heat transfer. Augmented heat release from the hands may offset heat retention in areas of the body with greater adiposity, thereby helping to maintain normothermia in

  12. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  13. Neuroproteomic profiling of human body fluids.

    PubMed

    Häggmark, Anna; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of protein expression and abundance provides a possibility to extend the current knowledge on disease-associated processes and pathways. The human brain is a complex organ and dysfunction or damage can give rise to a variety of neurological diseases. Although many proteins potentially reflecting disease progress are originating from brain, the scarce availability of human tissue material has lead to utilization of body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood in disease-related research. Within the most common neurological disorders, much effort has been spent on studying the role of a few hallmark proteins in disease pathogenesis but despite extensive investigation, the signatures they provide seem insufficient to fully understand and predict disease progress. In order to expand the view the field of neuroproteomics has lately emerged alongside developing technologies, such as affinity proteomics and mass spectrometry, for multiplexed and high-throughput protein profiling. Here, we provide an overview of how such technologies have been applied to study neurological disease and we also discuss some important considerations concerning discovery of disease-associated profiles.

  14. Essential oils in the management of the donkey louse, Bovicola ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Sands, B; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2016-05-01

    Chewing lice are widespread and clinically compromising parasites of livestock and equids. Their management is complicated by growing levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Hence, the development of novel approaches to their control is of major clinical interest. To assess the effects of incorporating the essential oils of tea tree and lavender into a grooming programme for populations of donkeys with natural infestations of Bovicola ocellatus in the UK and Ireland when louse populations were at their winter seasonal peak. In vivo field trial. Suspensions of 5% (v/v) tea tree or lavender oil or an excipient only control were groomed into the coats of winter-housed donkeys (n = 198) on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. Louse counts were conducted before each application and 2 weeks later. After 2 applications, the groups groomed with lavender or tea tree oil suspensions had a significant reduction in louse intensity, with a mean decline in louse abundance of 78% (95% confidence interval 76-80%). Louse numbers in the groups groomed with excipient only either did not change or increased significantly. Donkey hair length had no effect on the decline in louse numbers. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of essential oil suspensions during grooming can be used to manage louse populations successfully. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Facilitated early cortical processing of nude human bodies.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Salminen, Nelli; Sams, Mikko; Hietanen, Jari K; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging has identified specialized neural systems supporting human body perception. Responses to nude vs. clothed bodies within this system are amplified. However, it remains unresolved whether nude and clothed bodies are processed by same cerebral networks or whether processing of nude bodies recruits additional affective and arousal processing areas. We recorded simultaneous MEG and EEG while participants viewed photographs of clothed and nude bodies. Global field power revealed a peak ∼145ms after stimulus onset to both clothed and nude bodies, and ∼205ms exclusively to nude bodies. Nude-body-sensitive responses were centered first (100-200ms) in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas, and subsequently (200-300ms) in affective-motivational areas including insula and anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that visibility of sexual features facilitates early cortical processing of human bodies, the purpose of which is presumably to trigger sexual behavior and ultimately ensure reproduction.

  16. Human pathogens in body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Guidran, Jo; Kelly, Patrick J; Raoult, Didier

    2002-12-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis in 841 body lice collected from various countries. We detected R. prowazekii in body lice from Burundi in 1997 and in lice from Burundi and Rwanda in 2001; B. quintana infections of body lice were widespread. We did not detect B. recurrentis in any lice.

  17. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  18. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  19. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  20. [The gift of human body's products: philosophical and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Baertschi, B

    2014-09-01

    In continental Europe, there is a very strong moral condemnation against putting parts or products of the human body on sale-and, consequently, against putting sperms and oocytes on sale. Only a gift is morally permissible. The situation is different in Anglo-Saxon countries. Who is right? Above all, it must be noticed that two views of the human body are facing each other here: for the first, the human body is a part of the person (so, it partakes of the person's dignity), whereas for the second, the human body is a possession of the person (the person is the owner of his/her body). In my opinion, the argument of dignity comes up against serious objections, and the property argument is more consistent. However, it does not follow that it would be judicious to put parts and products of the human body for sale on a market.

  1. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  2. Human body and head characteristics as a communication medium for Body Area Network.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Yonatan; Hun-Seok Kim; Yoo, Jerald

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the Body Channel Communication (BCC) under the environment set according to the IEEE 802.15.6 Body Area Network (BAN) standard is conducted to observe and characterize the human body as a communication medium. A thorough measurement of the human head as part of the human channel is also carried out. Human forehead, head to limb, and ear to ear channel is characterized. The channel gain of the human head follows the same bandpass profile of the human torso and limbs with the maximum channel gain occurring at 35MHz. The human body channel gain distribution histogram at given frequencies, while all the other parameters are held constant, exhibits a maximum variation of 2.2dB in the channel gain at the center frequency of the bandpass channel gain profile.

  3. Specialised structural descriptions for human body parts: Evidence from autotopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, L J; Coslett, H B

    2001-06-01

    Previous accounts of autotopagnosia (e.g., Ogden, 1985; Pick, 1908; Semenza, 1988) propose that the disorder is attributable to deficits in "mental images," visual body schema, or semantic representations. A recent account (Sirigu, Grafman, Bressler, & Sunderland, 1991b) posits deficits in visual structural descriptions of the human body and its parts, in the context of spared semantic and proprioceptivespatio-motor body representations, but provides no evidence bearing on the nature or format of the putatively damaged representation. We report data from a man with autotopagnosia consequent to lefthemisphere brain damage which bear directly on the nature of the representation impaired in the disorder. The subject, GL, is unable to localise body parts on himself or others, whether cued by verbal or visual input. In contrast, he uses body parts precisely in reaching and grasping tasks, correctly matches items of clothing to body parts, and localises the parts of animals and man-made objects without error. We also demonstrate that GL is unable to match pictured or real human body parts across shifts in orientation or changes in visual appearance, but can perform analogous matching tasks with animal body parts and man-made object parts. The data extend the account of Sirigu et al. (1991b) in suggesting that human body part localisation depends upon structural descriptions of human (but not animal) bodies that enable viewpoint-independent body part recognition and participate in the calculation of equivalence between the body parts of self and others across transformations in orientation.

  4. Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle; Sim, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Two studies investigated development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. Results indicated that 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes in line drawings, while 12- and 15-month-olds did not respond differentially. In condition using photographs, only 18-month-olds had reliable…

  5. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  6. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  7. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  8. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  9. New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS New Record of Lipoptena cervi and Updated Checklist of the Louse Flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea HEUNG...Republic of Korea. A total of Þve females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer ,Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from...collection records, and repositories are also noted. KEY WORDS louse ßy, Lipoptena cervi, Hippoboscidae, water deer , Korea Both sexes of louse ßies or

  10. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  11. Anatomical variations in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P

    1988-01-01

    The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707

  12. Comparison of the proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana between body and head lice following oral challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Previte, D J; Yoon, K S; Murenzi, E; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R; Lee, S H; Clark, J M

    2017-06-01

    Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice. Nevertheless, the viability of B. quintana was significantly higher in body louse faeces. Comparison of immune responses in alimentary tract tissues revealed that basal transcription levels of peptidoglycan recognition protein and defensins were lower in body lice and the transcription of defensin 1 was up-regulated by oral challenge with wild-type B. quintana in head but not in body lice. In addition, the level of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species generated by epithelial cells was significantly lower in body lice. Although speculative at this time, the reduced immune response is consistent with the higher vector competence seen in body vs. head lice in terms of B. quintana infection. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. [A vertical vibration model of human body in supine position].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-gong; Niu, Fu; Qi, Jian-cheng; Li, Ruo-xin

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish the models of head, abdomen, and chest of supine human body respectively under vertical vibration. Method. The mechanical impedance of 12 healthy volunteers aged 24-56 was measured under vertical white noise stimulus in the frequency range of 2-35 Hz. To explain these findings, the model of head was proposed, the models of abdomen and chest were computed by way of an optimization procedure. Result. The models of abdomen and chest are three-degree-of-freedom and the head is rigid. Conclusion. The mechanical impedance of the supine human body is linear and sole. The established models of head, abdomen and chest of supine human body when subjected to vertical vibration are useful for calculating and evaluating the comfort of supine human body under whole-body vibration.

  14. "Scientific peep show": the human body in contemporary science museums.

    PubMed

    Canadelli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on the discourse about the human body developed by contemporary science museums with educational and instructive purposes directed at the general public. These museums aim mostly at mediating concepts such as health and prevention. The current scenario is linked with two examples of past museums: the popular anatomical museums which emerged during the 19th century and the health museums thrived between 1910 and 1940. On the museological path about the human body self-care we went from the emotionally involving anatomical Venuses to the inexpressive Transparent Man, from anatomical specimens of ill organs and deformed subjects to the mechanical and electronic models of the healthy body. Today the body is made transparent by the new medical diagnostics and by the latest discoveries of endoscopy. The way museums and science centers presently display the human body involves computers, 3D animation, digital technologies, hands-on models of large size human parts.

  15. Human body segmentation via data-driven graph cut.

    PubMed

    Li, Shifeng; Lu, Huchuan; Shao, Xingqing

    2014-11-01

    Human body segmentation is a challenging and important problem in computer vision. Existing methods usually entail a time-consuming training phase for prior knowledge learning with complex shape matching for body segmentation. In this paper, we propose a data-driven method that integrates top-down body pose information and bottom-up low-level visual cues for segmenting humans in static images within the graph cut framework. The key idea of our approach is first to exploit human kinematics to search for body part candidates via dynamic programming for high-level evidence. Then, by using the body parts classifiers, obtaining bottom-up cues of human body distribution for low-level evidence. All the evidence collected from top-down and bottom-up procedures are integrated in a graph cut framework for human body segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative experiment results demonstrate the merits of the proposed method in segmenting human bodies with arbitrary poses from cluttered backgrounds.

  16. Pelvic dimorphism in relation to body size and body size dimorphism in humans.

    PubMed

    Kurki, Helen K

    2011-12-01

    Many mammalian species display sexual dimorphism in the pelvis, where females possess larger dimensions of the obstetric (pelvic) canal than males. This is contrary to the general pattern of body size dimorphism, where males are larger than females. Pelvic dimorphism is often attributed to selection relating to parturition, or as a developmental consequence of secondary sexual differentiation (different allometric growth trajectories of each sex). Among anthropoid primates, species with higher body size dimorphism have higher pelvic dimorphism (in converse directions), which is consistent with an explanation of differential growth trajectories for pelvic dimorphism. This study investigates whether the pattern holds intraspecifically in humans by asking: Do human populations with high body size dimorphism also display high pelvic dimorphism? Previous research demonstrated that in some small-bodied populations, relative pelvic canal size can be larger than in large-bodied populations, while others have suggested that larger-bodied human populations display greater body size dimorphism. Eleven human skeletal samples (total N: male = 229, female = 208) were utilized, representing a range of body sizes and geographical regions. Skeletal measurements of the pelvis and femur were collected and indices of sexual dimorphism for the pelvis and femur were calculated for each sample [ln(M/F)]. Linear regression was used to examine the relationships between indices of pelvic and femoral size dimorphism, and between pelvic dimorphism and female femoral size. Contrary to expectations, the results suggest that pelvic dimorphism in humans is generally not correlated with body size dimorphism or female body size. These results indicate that divergent patterns of dimorphism exist for the pelvis and body size in humans. Implications for the evaluation of the evolution of pelvic dimorphism and rotational childbirth in Homo are considered.

  17. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  18. Study of electrical properties of meridian on human body surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Uematsu, Haruyuki; Otani, Nobuo

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the subcutaneous electrical impedance on the human body surface. Measurements of the electrical impedance on five adult male subjects were carried out and analyzed for the possible detection of the acupuncture meridian lines of ancient Chinese medicine on the human body. The distribution of electrical impedance measured at 40 points over the volar side of the right upper limb of the subjects. The results show that electrical impedance varies at different locations of the human body surface, and the locations with lower electrical impedance coincide with the locations where the meridian is believed to exist.

  19. Globalization and the trade in human body parts.

    PubMed

    Harrison, T

    1999-02-01

    Since the early 1980s, the number and variety of organ transplantations has increased enormously worldwide. Accompanying this increase has been the emergence of a market for human body parts. This paper argues that, while the trade in human body parts is conditioned by technological advances, it must be understood in the broader context of globalization, specifically the extension and intensification of a capitalist mode of exchange. In this regard, it is argued that the trade in human body parts mirrors the "normal" system of unequal exchanges that mark other forms of trade between the developed and undeveloped regions of the world.

  20. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  1. In vivo measurement of human body composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Price, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    The female bed rest study has shown that, the response of women to prolonged recumbency of 2 to 3 weeks duration is very similar to that displayed by men. Some of the key findings in the women after 17 days of continuous recumbency are: (1) a decrease in plasma volume of 12-13 per cent; (2) a small decrease in total body water; (3) a decrease in total body potassium of 3 to 4 per cent; (4) a decrease in plasma potassium concentration of 4 to 5 per cent; (5) a decrease in total circulating plasma protein of 11 to 12 per cent; (6) a decrease in urinary norepinephrine excretion rate of 27 to 28 per cent; (7) a possible increase in urinary magnesium, calcium, and phosphate excretion rates; and (8) a possible increase in urinary citrate excretion rate.

  2. Estimation of human body built in Egyptians.

    PubMed

    El-Meligy, Manal M S; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Maaboud, Ragaa M; Mohamed, Zaghloul T

    2006-05-25

    Identification of an unknown body and prediction of growth from specific body measurements are very important tasks in the fields of physical anthropology and forensic medicine. Height and weight are two factors among others required to establish individuality of an unidentified body. In the present work, an attempt has been made to calculate the stature and weight from percutaneous tibial length and bimalleolar breadth. The study was carried out on 1000 living Egyptian individuals comprising 500 males and 500 females; their age was between 19 and 21 years. A significant positive correlation between stature and tibial length in both sexes was recorded. The coefficient of determination showed that 56% of variation in stature was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females the coefficient of determination was 23%. On the other hand, the coefficient of determination for weight showed that 11% of variability in weight was due to tibial length and bimalleolar breadth in males, while in females it was 5%. Linear regression analysis was done for all variables in all cases. The regression equation formulae are helpful in the estimation of stature and weight of the deceased from tibial length and bimalleolar breadth when leg or foot is the only portion available for autopsy examination.

  3. Standoff Human Identification Using Body Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Lochtefeld, Darrell; Webb, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The ability to identify individuals is a key component of maintaining safety and security in public spaces and around critical infrastructure. Monitoring an open space is challenging because individuals must be identified and re-identified from a standoff distance nonintrusively, making methods like fingerprinting and even facial recognition impractical. We propose using body shape features as a means for identification from standoff sensing, either complementing other identifiers or as an alternative. An important challenge in monitoring open spaces is reconstructing identifying features when only a partial observation is available, because of the view-angle limitations and occlusion or subject pose changes. To address this challenge, we investigated the minimum number of features required for a high probability of correct identification, and we developed models for predicting a key body feature—height—from a limited set of observed features. We found that any set of nine randomly selected body measurements was sufficient to correctly identify an individual in a dataset of 4426 subjects. For predicting height, anthropometric measures were investigated for correlation with height. Their correlation coefficients and associated linear models were reported. These results—a sufficient number of features for identification and height prediction from a single feature—contribute to developing systems for standoff identification when views of a subject are limited.

  4. Bacterial endosymbiont of the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae, allied to endosymbionts of grain weevils and tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Koga, Ryuichi; Smith, Wendy A; Tanaka, Kohjiiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Sasaki-Fukatsu, Kayoko; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Dale, Colin; Clayton, Dale H

    2007-10-01

    The current study focuses on a symbiotic bacterium found in the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that the symbiont belongs to the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and is allied to Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary symbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) and also to the primary symbiont of grain weevils (Sitophilus spp.). Relative-rate tests revealed that the symbiont of C. columbae exhibits accelerated molecular evolution in comparison with the tsetse fly symbiont and the weevil symbiont. Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to localize the symbiont and determine infection dynamics during host development. In first- and second-instar nymphs, the symbionts were localized in the cytoplasm of oval bacteriocytes that formed small aggregates on both sides of the body cavity. In third-instar nymphs, the bacteriocytes migrated to the central body and were finally located in the anterior region of the lateral oviducts, forming conspicuous tissue formations called ovarial ampullae. In adult females, the symbionts were transmitted from the ovarial ampullae to developing oocytes in the ovarioles. In adult males, the bacteriocytes often disappeared without migration. A diagnostic PCR survey of insects collected from Japan, the United States, Australia, and Argentina detected 96.5% (109/113) infection, with a few uninfected male insects. This study provides the first microbial characterization of a bacteriocyte-associated symbiont from a chewing louse. Possible biological roles of the symbiont are discussed in relation to the host nutritional physiology associated with the feather-feeding lifestyle.

  5. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones. PMID:26999159

  6. Dynamic Human Body Modeling Using a Single RGB Camera.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyu; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we present a novel automatic pipeline to build personalized parametric models of dynamic people using a single RGB camera. Compared to previous approaches that use monocular RGB images, our system can model a 3D human body automatically and incrementally, taking advantage of human motion. Based on coarse 2D and 3D poses estimated from image sequences, we first perform a kinematic classification of human body parts to refine the poses and obtain reconstructed body parts. Next, a personalized parametric human model is generated by driving a general template to fit the body parts and calculating the non-rigid deformation. Experimental results show that our shape estimation method achieves comparable accuracy with reconstructed models using depth cameras, yet requires neither user interaction nor any dedicated devices, leading to the feasibility of using this method on widely available smart phones.

  7. Gravity and observer's body orientation influence the visual perception of human body postures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Christophe; Bachofner, Christelle; Mercier, Manuel; Blanke, Olaf

    2009-05-04

    Since human behavior and perception have evolved within the Earth's gravitational field, humans possess an internal model of gravity. Although gravity is known to influence the visual perception of moving objects, the evidence is less clear concerning the visual perception of static objects. We investigated whether a visual judgment of the stability of human body postures (static postures of a human standing on a platform and tilted in the roll plane) may also be influenced by gravity and by the participant's orientation. Pictures of human body postures were presented in different orientations with respect to gravity and the participant's body. The participant's body was aligned to gravity (upright) or not (lying on one side). Participants performed stability judgments with respect to the platform, imagining that gravity operates in the direction indicated by the platform (that was or was not concordant with physical gravity). Such visual judgments were influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to physical gravity. When pictures were tilted by 90 degrees with respect to physical gravity, the human postures that were tilted toward physical gravity (down) were perceived as more unstable than similar postures tilted away from physical gravity (up). Stability judgments were also influenced by the picture's orientation with respect to the participant's body. This indicates that gravity and the participant's body position may influence the visual perception of static objects.

  8. Phylogenetics and population genetics of the louse fly, Lipoptena mazamae, from Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Trout, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L

    2010-09-01

    Louse flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), infest cervids such as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus and vector pathogens such as Anaplasma and Bartonella schoenbuchensis to cattle and humans, respectively. The population genetic structure of 30 L. mazamae collected from white-tailed deer in four regions of Arkansas, U.S.A., designated by county boundaries, was examined using DNA sequences of a 259-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA rRNA 16S gene. Of the 259 nucleotide characters, 33 were variable and 6 haplotypes were identified. Two haplotypes occurred only once (haplotype 3 and 4), whereas two other haplotypes occurred in 43% (haplotype 1 in two regions) and 40% (haplotype 6 in three regions) of the samples. Phylogenetic relationships of the six L. mazamae haplotypes were constructed with other Hippoboscid and Glossinid samples and two clades resulted. Clade 1 was located in the north and western Ozarks whereas clade 2 was found in the northern and eastern Ozarks. Results from the present study indicate that Lipoptena may be a polyphyletic genus; consequently, more research into genetic variation within this genus is necessary.

  9. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2013-12-01

    Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

  10. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages

    PubMed Central

    Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

  11. [Research progress on free radicals in human body].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D

    2016-08-10

    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  12. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  13. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration.

    PubMed

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H

    2016-06-01

    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  14. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  15. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  16. Body Lice as Tools for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Reemerging Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Veronique; Raoult, Didier

    1999-01-01

    Body lice are vectors of three bacteria which cause human disease: Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of epidemic typhus; Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever; and Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever. A recrudescence of body lice is being observed as the numbers of individuals living under social conditions which predispose individuals to infestation have increased. Because this phenomenon may lead to the reemergence of infections transmitted by body lice, we aimed to assess the occurrence and prevalence of the three agents described above in more than 600 body lice collected from infested individuals in the African countries of Congo, Zimbabwe, and Burundi, in France, in Russia, and in Peru. The presence of the three bacteria in each louse was determined by specific PCR amplification, and the identities of the organisms detected were confirmed by determination of the nucleotide base sequences of the amplification products. Using this approach, we were able to confirm the presence of R. prowazekii in lice collected from refugees in Burundi, among whom typhus was epidemic, and the presence of B. quintana in lice collected from all locations except the Congo. B. recurrentis was never found. Molecular approaches are convenient tools for the detection and identification of bacterial DNA in body lice and for the epidemiological study of louse-borne bacteria from countries where no medical and biological laboratory facilities are available. PMID:9986818

  17. Human body composition: advances in models and methods.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Wang, Z; Baumgartner, R N; Ross, R

    1997-01-01

    The field of human body composition research is reaching a mature stage in its development: The three interconnected areas that define body composition research--models and their rules, methodology, and biological effects--are well-defined and are actively investigated by scientists in diverse disciplines from many different nations; and methods are available for measuring all major atomic, molecular, cellular, and tissue-system level body composition components in research, clinical, and epidemiological settings. This review summarizes main body composition research concepts, examines new component-measurement methodologies, and identifies potential areas of future research.

  18. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  19. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  20. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  1. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys.

  2. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    PubMed

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  3. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo

    PubMed Central

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area. PMID:26451147

  4. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  5. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  6. Human motor adaptation in whole body motion

    PubMed Central

    Babič, Jan; Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The main role of the sensorimotor system of an organism is to increase the survival of the species. Therefore, to understand the adaptation and optimality mechanisms of motor control, it is necessary to study the sensorimotor system in terms of ecological fitness. We designed an experimental paradigm that exposed sensorimotor system to risk of injury. We studied human subjects performing uncon- strained squat-to-stand movements that were systematically subjected to non-trivial perturbation. We found that subjects adapted by actively compensating the perturbations, converging to movements that were different from their normal unperturbed squat-to-stand movements. Furthermore, the adapted movements had clear intrinsic inter-subject differences which could be explained by different adapta- tion strategies employed by the subjects. These results suggest that classical optimality measures of physical energy and task satisfaction should be seen as part of a hierarchical organization of optimality with safety being at the highest level. Therefore, in addition to physical energy and task fulfillment, the risk of injury and other possible costs such as neural computational overhead have to be considered when analyzing human movement. PMID:27608652

  7. [How does music affect the human body?].

    PubMed

    Myskja, A; Lindbaek, M

    2000-04-10

    Music therapy has developed its practice and research approaches within a qualitative framework more related to humanistic traditions than to medical science. Music medicine has therefore developed as a separate discipline, endeavouring to incorporate the legitimate therapeutic use of music within a medical framework. This paper argues that more extensive communication and collaboration between the methods developed within the music therapy community, and research based on medical science, could lead to a better understanding of the place of music as a therapeutic tool, both as regards its efficacy and its limits. Research has shown that music may influence central physiological variables like blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response. Music influences immune and endocrine function. The existing research literature shows growing knowledge of how music can ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue and depression. There is less research done on how music, and what type of music, is utilized and administered specifically for optimum effect in specific clinical situations.

  8. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    PubMed

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  9. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  10. Natural User Interface Sensors for Human Body Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.

    2012-08-01

    The recent push for natural user interfaces (NUI) in the entertainment and gaming industry has ushered in a new era of low cost three-dimensional sensors. While the basic idea of using a three-dimensional sensor for human gesture recognition dates some years back it is not until recently that such sensors became available on the mass market. The current market leader is PrimeSense who provide their technology for the Microsoft Xbox Kinect. Since these sensors are developed to detect and observe human users they should be ideally suited to measure the human body. We describe the technology of a line of NUI sensors and assess their performance in terms of repeatability and accuracy. We demonstrate the implementation of a prototype scanner integrating several NUI sensors to achieve full body coverage. We present the results of the obtained surface model of a human body.

  11. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge of the human body: a distinct semantic domain.

    PubMed

    Coslett, H Branch; Saffran, Eleanor M; Schwoebel, John

    2002-08-13

    Patients with selective deficits in the naming and comprehension of animals, plants, and artifacts have been reported. These descriptions of specific semantic category deficits have contributed substantially to the understanding of the architecture of semantic representations. This study sought to further understanding of the organization of the semantic system by demonstrating that another semantic category, knowledge of the human body, may be selectively preserved. The performance of a patient with semantic dementia was compared with the performance of healthy controls on a variety of tasks assessing distinct types of body representations, including the body schema, body image, and body structural description. Despite substantial deficits on tasks involving language and knowledge of the world generally, the patient performed normally on all tests of body knowledge except body part naming; even in this naming task, however, her performance with body parts was significantly better than on artifacts. The demonstration that body knowledge may be preserved despite substantial semantic deficits involving other types of semantic information argues that body knowledge is a distinct and dissociable semantic category. These data are interpreted as support for a model of semantics that proposes that knowledge is distributed across different cortical regions reflecting the manner in which the information was acquired.

  13. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology.

  14. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints. PMID:28192522

  15. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    PubMed

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body.

  16. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints.

  17. Characterizing the normal proteome of human ciliary body

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ciliary body is the circumferential muscular tissue located just behind the iris in the anterior chamber of the eye. It plays a pivotal role in the production of aqueous humor, maintenance of the lens zonules and accommodation by changing the shape of the crystalline lens. The ciliary body is the major target of drugs against glaucoma as its inhibition leads to a drop in intraocular pressure. A molecular study of the ciliary body could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in glaucoma. Thus far, no large-scale proteomic investigation has been reported for the human ciliary body. Results In this study, we have carried out an in-depth LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of normal human ciliary body and have identified 2,815 proteins. We identified a number of proteins that were previously not described in the ciliary body including importin 5 (IPO5), atlastin-2 (ATL2), B-cell receptor associated protein 29 (BCAP29), basigin (BSG), calpain-1 (CAPN1), copine 6 (CPNE6), fibulin 1 (FBLN1) and galectin 1 (LGALS1). We compared the plasma proteome with the ciliary body proteome and found that the large majority of proteins in the ciliary body were also detectable in the plasma while 896 proteins were unique to the ciliary body. We also classified proteins using pathway enrichment analysis and found most of proteins associated with ubiquitin pathway, EIF2 signaling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Conclusions More than 95% of the identified proteins have not been previously described in the ciliary body proteome. This is the largest catalogue of proteins reported thus far in the ciliary body that should provide new insights into our understanding of the factors involved in maintaining the secretion of aqueous humor. The identification of these proteins will aid in understanding various eye diseases of the anterior segment such as glaucoma and presbyopia. PMID:23914977

  18. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  19. Segmentation of human upper body movement using multiple IMU sensors.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takashi; Lin, Jonathan Feng-Shun; Kulic, Dana; Venture, Gentiane

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach for the segmentation of human body movements measured by inertial measurement unit sensors. Using the angular velocity and linear acceleration measurements directly, without converting to joint angles, we perform segmentation by formulating the problem as a classification problem, and training a classifier to differentiate between motion end-point and within-motion points. The proposed approach is validated with experiments measuring the upper body movement during reaching tasks, demonstrating classification accuracy of over 85.8%.

  20. Motion capture based identification of the human body inertial parameters.

    PubMed

    Venture, Gentiane; Ayusawa, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Identification of body inertia, masses and center of mass is an important data to simulate, monitor and understand dynamics of motion, to personalize rehabilitation programs. This paper proposes an original method to identify the inertial parameters of the human body, making use of motion capture data and contact forces measurements. It allows in-vivo painless estimation and monitoring of the inertial parameters. The method is described and then obtained experimental results are presented and discussed.

  1. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  2. Gender Recognition from Unconstrained and Articulated Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition. PMID:24977203

  3. Identification of rheological properties of human body surface tissue.

    PubMed

    Benevicius, Vincas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-04-11

    According to World Health Organization obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century. It has tripled since the 1980s and the numbers of those affected continue to rise at an alarming rate, especially among children. There are number of devices that act as a prevention measure to boost person's motivation for physical activity and its levels. The placement of these devices is not restricted thus the measurement errors that appear because of the body rheology, clothes, etc. cannot be eliminated. The main objective of this work is to introduce a tool that can be applied directly to process measured accelerations so human body surface tissue induced errors can be reduced. Both the modeling and experimental techniques are proposed to identify body tissue rheological properties and prelate them to body mass index. Multi-level computational model composed from measurement device model and human body surface tissue rheological model is developed. Human body surface tissue induced inaccuracies can increase the magnitude of measured accelerations up to 34% when accelerations of the magnitude of up to 27 m/s(2) are measured. Although the timeframe of those disruptions are short - up to 0.2 s - they still result in increased overall measurement error.

  4. More-Realistic Digital Modeling of a Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Renee

    2010-01-01

    A MATLAB computer program has been written to enable improved (relative to an older program) modeling of a human body for purposes of designing space suits and other hardware with which an astronaut must interact. The older program implements a kinematic model based on traditional anthropometric measurements that do provide important volume and surface information. The present program generates a three-dimensional (3D) whole-body model from 3D body-scan data. The program utilizes thin-plate spline theory to reposition the model without need for additional scans.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and safety of 0.5% ivermectin lotion for head louse infestations.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Lydie; Berg, Jeffrey E; Bowman, James P; Murray, John V; Ryan, William G

    2013-01-01

    The safety of a novel 0.5% ivermectin lotion (IVL) and potential for ivermectin absorption after application was investigated in an open-label study in young children, and a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and cumulative irritation test (CIT) assessed any potential for cumulative dermal irritation and contact sensitization. In the pharmacokinetic and safety study, 30 head louse-infested children ages 6 months to 3 years received a 10-minute application of IVL on day 1. Blood was collected before application; 0.5, 1, and 6 hours after rinsing; and on days 2 and 8. Samples from 20 subjects were assayed for ivermectin (test sensitivity 0.05 ng/mL). Liver panel and complete blood counts were completed for all subjects. For the HRIPT/CIT, occlusive patches containing IVL or vehicle control lotion (CL) were repeatedly applied to 220 healthy adult subjects to assess contact sensitization; for cumulative dermal irritation testing, additional patches with normal saline and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were applied to 36 subjects. In the open-label study, all detected ivermectin plasma concentrations were <1 ng/mL. No safety signals emerged, and treatment was well tolerated. In the HRIPT/CIT, IVL was significantly less irritating than normal saline and SDS, with no evidence of dermal irritation or sensitization in human skin. IVL was safe when applied topically, absorption was de minimus, there was no evidence of irritation or sensitization from repeated exposures, and results support the safety of topical IVL use in children as young as 6 months. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition.

  7. Biostereometric Data Processing In ERGODATA: Choice Of Human Body Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J. C.; Mollard, R.; Sauvignon, M.; Amphoux, M.

    1983-07-01

    The definition of human body models was elaborated with anthropometric data from ERGODATA. The first model reduces the human body into a series of points and lines. The second model is well adapted to represent volumes of each segmentary element. The third is an original model built from the conventional anatomical points. Each segment is defined in space by a tri-angular plane located with its 3-D coordinates. This new model can answer all the processing possibilities in the field of computer-aided design (C.A.D.) in ergonomy but also biomechanics and orthopaedics.

  8. Stereovision for dynamic analysis of human body movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugarra Gonzalez, C. F.; Dusza, Jacek J.; Grabowski, Pawel; Lerma Caballero, Marc; Carrilero López, Vicente

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a new Stereovision Laboratory. It was designed and constructed by the authors of the paper in the University of Valencia. It consists of four cameras with its special equipment, a moving track, hardware and software for calculation and visualization. The tests carried out on the measurement stand lead to obtain the set of data describing the movement of human body. The stored data serves to analyze static and dynamic behavior of some parts of human body like arms, legs or vertebral column. Special software was design in order to do visual inspection of the movement and to select a proper data.

  9. Analysis of Human Body Bipedal Stability for Neuromotor Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Repanovici, Angela

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of different biomechanical aspects of balance and equilibrium is presented in the first part of the paper. We analyzed the posture, balance and stability of human body for a normal person and for a person with loco-motor or neuro-motor disabilities (in the second part). In the third part of the paper we presented the methodology and the experimental setup used to record the human body behavior in postural stability for persons with neuro-motors disabilities. The results and the conclusions are presented in the final part of the paper and also in the future work meant to establish the computer analysis for rehabilitation neuromotor disabilities.

  10. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  11. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanjiao; Gao, Hongyu; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A; La Rosa, Patricio S; Wylie, Kristine M; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Podar, Mircea; Warner, Barb; Tarr, Phillip I; Nelson, David E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Holland, Martin J; Burr, Sarah E; Shannon, William D; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M

    2013-01-14

    Characterizing the biogeography of the microbiome of healthy humans is essential for understanding microbial associated diseases. Previous studies mainly focused on a single body habitat from a limited set of subjects. Here, we analyzed one of the largest microbiome datasets to date and generated a biogeographical map that annotates the biodiversity, spatial relationships, and temporal stability of 22 habitats from 279 healthy humans. We identified 929 genera from more than 24 million 16S rRNA gene sequences of 22 habitats, and we provide a baseline of inter-subject variation for healthy adults. The oral habitat has the most stable microbiota with the highest alpha diversity, while the skin and vaginal microbiota are less stable and show lower alpha diversity. The level of biodiversity in one habitat is independent of the biodiversity of other habitats in the same individual. The abundances of a given genus at a body site in which it dominates do not correlate with the abundances at body sites where it is not dominant. Additionally, we observed the human microbiota exhibit both cosmopolitan and endemic features. Finally, comparing datasets of different projects revealed a project-based clustering pattern, emphasizing the significance of standardization of metagenomic studies. The data presented here extend the definition of the human microbiome by providing a more complete and accurate picture of human microbiome biogeography, addressing questions best answered by a large dataset of subjects and body sites that are deeply sampled by sequencing.

  12. Biogeography of the ecosystems of the healthy human body

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Characterizing the biogeography of the microbiome of healthy humans is essential for understanding microbial associated diseases. Previous studies mainly focused on a single body habitat from a limited set of subjects. Here, we analyzed one of the largest microbiome datasets to date and generated a biogeographical map that annotates the biodiversity, spatial relationships, and temporal stability of 22 habitats from 279 healthy humans. Results We identified 929 genera from more than 24 million 16S rRNA gene sequences of 22 habitats, and we provide a baseline of inter-subject variation for healthy adults. The oral habitat has the most stable microbiota with the highest alpha diversity, while the skin and vaginal microbiota are less stable and show lower alpha diversity. The level of biodiversity in one habitat is independent of the biodiversity of other habitats in the same individual. The abundances of a given genus at a body site in which it dominates do not correlate with the abundances at body sites where it is not dominant. Additionally, we observed the human microbiota exhibit both cosmopolitan and endemic features. Finally, comparing datasets of different projects revealed a project-based clustering pattern, emphasizing the significance of standardization of metagenomic studies. Conclusions The data presented here extend the definition of the human microbiome by providing a more complete and accurate picture of human microbiome biogeography, addressing questions best answered by a large dataset of subjects and body sites that are deeply sampled by sequencing. PMID:23316946

  13. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  14. Pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), collected by dry-ice trap.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takeo; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sato, Yukita; Murata, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    During a mosquito collection, a female of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.

  15. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions.

  16. [Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes in the human body].

    PubMed

    Siniak, Iu E; Grigor'ev, A I; Skuratov, V M; Ivanova, S M; Pokrovskiĭ, B G

    2006-01-01

    Fractionation of hydrogen stable isotopes was studied in 9 human subjects in a chamber with normal air pressure imitating a space cabin. Mass-spectrometry of isotopes in blood, urine, saliva, and potable water evidenced increases in the contents of heavy H isotope (deuterium) in the body liquids as compared with water. These results support one of the theories according to which the human organism eliminates heavy stable isotopes of biogenous chemical elements.

  17. A long term model of circulation. [human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative approach to modeling human physiological function, with a view toward ultimate application to long duration space flight experiments, was undertaken. Data was obtained on the effect of weightlessness on certain aspects of human physiological function during 1-3 month periods. Modifications in the Guyton model are reviewed. Design considerations for bilateral interface models are discussed. Construction of a functioning whole body model was studied, as well as the testing of the model versus available data.

  18. Human and animal sounds influence recognition of body language.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-11-25

    In naturalistic settings emotional events have multiple correlates and are simultaneously perceived by several sensory systems. Recent studies have shown that recognition of facial expressions is biased towards the emotion expressed by a simultaneously presented emotional expression in the voice even if attention is directed to the face only. So far, no study examined whether this phenomenon also applies to whole body expressions, although there is no obvious reason why this crossmodal influence would be specific for faces. Here we investigated whether perception of emotions expressed in whole body movements is influenced by affective information provided by human and by animal vocalizations. Participants were instructed to attend to the action displayed by the body and to categorize the expressed emotion. The results indicate that recognition of body language is biased towards the emotion expressed by the simultaneously presented auditory information, whether it consist of human or of animal sounds. Our results show that a crossmodal influence from auditory to visual emotional information obtains for whole body video images with the facial expression blanked and includes human as well as animal sounds.

  19. Identification of Novel Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Mutations in Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Firooziyan, Samira; Sadaghianifar, Ali; Taghilou, Behrooz; Galavani, Hossein; Ghaffari, Eslam; Gholizadeh, Saber

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increase of head louse infestation in Iran (7.4%) and especially in West-Azerbaijan Province (248%) has raised the hypothesis of insecticide resistance development. There are different mechanisms of resistance to various groups of insecticides, and knockdown resistance (kdr) is a prominent mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids, an insecticide group which is used conventionally for pediculosis control. For detection of kdr-type well-known amino acid substitutions (M815I-T917I-L920F) and additional sodium channel mutations potentially associated with kdr resistance in head and body lice, louse populations were collected from West-Azerbaijan and Zanjan Provinces of Iran. Six novel mutations were found to be located in the IIS1-2 extracellular loop (H813P) and IIS5 (I927F, L928A, R929V, L930M, and L932M) of the α-subunit. Genotyping results showed that all specimens (100%) have at least one of these or the well-known mutations. Therefore, the presence of kdr-related and novel mutations in the sodium channel is likely to be the reason for the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides due to treatment failure against lice. Further studies are now required to evaluate the prevalence of the kdr-like mutant allele for monitoring of insecticide resistance and the management of head and body lice in other provinces of the country. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  1. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    SciTech Connect

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-06-05

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  2. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  3. A low power wearable transceiver for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Lian-Kang; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a low power transceiver designed for wearable medical healthcare system. Based on a novel energy-efficient wideband wireless communication scheme that uses human body as a transmission medium, the transceiver can achieve a maximum 15 Mbps data rate with total receiver sensitivity of -30 dBm. The chip measures only 0.56 mm(2) and was fabricated in the SMIC 0.18um 1P6M RF CMOS process. The RX consumes 5mW and TX dissipates 1mW with delivering power up to 10uW, which is suitable for the body area network short range application. Real-time medical information collecting through the human body is fully simulated. Architecture of the chip together with the detail characterizes from its wireless analog front-end are presented.

  4. Noninvasive measurement system for human respiratory condition and body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Eiji; Sekiguchi, Sadamu; Nishimatsu, Toyonori

    1995-06-01

    A special chromel (C) and alumel wire (A) thermopile has been developed which can measure the human respiratory condition and body temperature without directly contacting a sensor to the human body. The measurement system enables high speed, real time, noninvasive, and simultaneous measurement of respiratory rates and body temperature with the same sensor. The special CA thermopile, with each sensing junction of approximately 25 μm, was constructed by using spot welded thermopile junctions. The thermoelectric power of 17 pairs of special CA thermopile is 0.7 mV/ °C. The special CA thermopile provides high sensitivity and fine frequency characteristics, of which the gain is flat to approximately 10 Hz.

  5. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  6. Sex differences in chronometric mental rotation with human bodies.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Jansen, Petra

    2016-11-01

    The present experiment investigated sex differences across stimulus types in a chronometric mental rotation task. The working hypothesis was that human bodies as stimuli would reduce the magnitude of sex differences compared to cubes as stimuli, from the embodied cognition perspective. One hundred and twenty participants, 60 men and 60 women solved chronometric mental rotation items with Shepard-Metzler cube figures, head-cubes, and human bodies, all designed so that they were similar in shape. Two figures of a given stimulus type were presented on the screen and participants had to judge if both items were mirrored or non-mirrored. Results showed better mental rotation performance with human bodies than with other types of stimuli for both sexes, although the effect of stimulus type was more pronounced in men than in women. Furthermore, regardless of stimulus type, men were more accurate than women. Altogether, the results suggest that sex differences are not reduced when human bodies are used as stimuli in a chronometric task. Implications for accounts of sex differences in mental rotations are discussed.

  7. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  8. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  9. Biostereometric Analysis Of Spine Curvatures On Living Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, J.-C.; Ignazi, G.; Prudent, J.

    1986-07-01

    An analysis of the external and internal curvatures of spine was carried out on a sample of nine males from biostereometric measurements for different imposed postures. The results concerning the modifications of the external shape of the curves are used for the 3-D human body modeling in C.A.D. applications.

  10. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  11. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  12. THE SRI CHAKRA AS A SYMBOL OF THE HUMAN BODY

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sri Chakra is the celebrated Yantra used in the worship of the primordial energy. The Chakra is conceived as a symbol of the human body. Some salient features of this symbolism are discussed in this article. An attempt has also been made to provide a short introduction to the Bhavanopanishad Prayogavidhi devised by Bhaskararaya, the doyen of Sri charka worshippers. PMID:22556608

  13. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  14. Human vocal attractiveness as signaled by body size projection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.

  15. Of Human Bodies in Scientific Communication and Enculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, SungWon; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    How do students become enculturated and come to enact culture in ways that are new to them? This study probes the dialectical processes of enculturation, the central aspect of which is the role of human bodies in communication. For students, as for any individual, culture exists in terms of action possibilities that presuppose their…

  16. Young Scientists Explore the Human Body. Book 11 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities specifically focus on the human body and encourage a positive self-concept. The theme of the first section is air--the breath of…

  17. Language Functions and Medical Communication: The Human Body as Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantz, Deirdre; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a field experiment in medical English with first-year medical students at the University of Pavia, Northern Italy. Working in groups of 8-10, the students were asked to produce a corpus of medical texts in English demonstrating how the human body is itself a meaningful text (Baldry and Thibault 2006: Ch. 1).…

  18. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  19. Science Teachers' Drawings of What Is inside the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia G.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report United States of America (USA) science teachers' understandings of the internal structures of the human body. The 71 science teachers who participated in this study attended a frog/pig, two-hour dissection workshop at the 2004 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) conference in Atlanta, Georgia. The…

  20. Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Lee, Albert; Wu, Wing-Li; Liu, Xuan; Birkholz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language. PMID:23638065

  1. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  2. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    PubMed

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  3. Combined volatolomics for monitoring of human body chemistry.

    PubMed

    Broza, Yoav Y; Zuri, Liat; Haick, Hossam

    2014-04-09

    Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising approach for non-invasive, fast and potentially inexpensive diagnostics. Here, we present a new methodology for profiling the body chemistry by using the volatile fraction of molecules in various body fluids. Using mass spectrometry and cross-reactive nanomaterial-based sensors array, we demonstrate that simultaneous VOC detection from breath and skin would provide complementary, non-correlated information of the body's volatile metabolites profile. Eventually with further wide population validation studies, such a methodology could provide more accurate monitoring of pathological changes compared to the information provided by a single body fluid. The qualitative and quantitative methods presented here offers a variety of options for novel mapping of the metabolic properties of complex organisms, including humans.

  4. Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genomes of human lice and ticks revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C; Burger, Thomas D; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation.

  5. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  6. Gradual inversion affects the processing of human body shapes.

    PubMed

    Minnebusch, Denise A; Keune, Philipp M; Suchan, Boris; Daum, Irene

    2010-02-01

    Inversion (rotation around 180 degrees ) impairs body recognition and affects early electrophysiological responses (especially the N170). However, the relationship between electrophysiological responses and behavior is as yet unclear. Furthermore, the presence of the head seems to have an impact on body recognition performances as well as on related electrophysiological responses. The present study aimed to investigate the course of behavioral and electrophysiological body inversion effects depending upon the degree of deviation from the upright position (0 degrees , 360 degrees ) to the inverted position (180 degrees ). Body stimuli were presented either with heads (masked face) or without heads in a delayed matching task. For human bodies presented with and without heads, there was a quadratic relationship between the angle of rotation and the behavioral performance as well as the N170 amplitude, with maximum performance disruption at 180 degrees deviation from the upright stimulus. The data indicate that configural body processing occurs during the structural encoding of body stimuli. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Evidence That Head and Body Lice on Homeless Persons Have the Same Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Veracx, Aurélie; Rivet, Romain; McCoy, Karen D.; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice), but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus) and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A). Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals. We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons. We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters. PMID:23049889

  9. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Rivet, Romain; McCoy, Karen D; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice), but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus) and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A). Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals.We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons.We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters.

  10. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Equivalent dose rate by muons to the human body.

    PubMed

    Băcioiu, I

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, the relative sensitivity from different human tissues of the human body, at a ground level, from muon cosmic radiation has been studied. The aim of this paper was to provide information on the equivalent dose rates received from atmospheric muons to human body, at the ground level. The calculated value of the effective dose rate by atmospheric muons plus the radiation levels of the natural annual background radiation dose, at the ground level, in the momentum interval of cosmic ray muon (0.2-120.0 GeV/c) is about 2.106±0.001 mSv/y, which is insignificant in comparison with the values of the doses from the top of the atmosphere.

  12. The Genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the Agent of Deadly Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever, Is a Degraded Subset of Tick-Borne Borrelia duttonii

    PubMed Central

    Lescot, Magali; Audic, Stéphane; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Thi Tien; Blanc, Guillaume; Cutler, Sally J.; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to understand how a tick-borne pathogen adapts to the body louse, we sequenced and compared the genomes of the recurrent fever agents Borrelia recurrentis and B. duttonii. The 1,242,163–1,574,910-bp fragmented genomes of B. recurrentis and B. duttonii contain a unique 23-kb linear plasmid. This linear plasmid exhibits a large polyT track within the promoter region of an intact variable large protein gene and a telomere resolvase that is unique to Borrelia. The genome content is characterized by several repeat families, including antigenic lipoproteins. B. recurrentis exhibited a 20.4% genome size reduction and appeared to be a strain of B. duttonii, with a decaying genome, possibly due to the accumulation of genomic errors induced by the loss of recA and mutS. Accompanying this were increases in the number of impaired genes and a reduction in coding capacity, including surface-exposed lipoproteins and putative virulence factors. Analysis of the reconstructed ancestral sequence compared to B. duttonii and B. recurrentis was consistent with the accelerated evolution observed in B. recurrentis. Vector specialization of louse-borne pathogens responsible for major epidemics was associated with rapid genome reduction. The correlation between gene loss and increased virulence of B. recurrentis parallels that of Rickettsia prowazekii, with both species being genomic subsets of less-virulent strains. PMID:18787695

  13. Human body scents: do they influence our behavior?

    PubMed

    Mildner, Sophie; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Pheromonal communication in the animal world has been of great research interest for a long time. While extraordinary discoveries in this field have been made, the importance of the human sense of smell was of far lower interest. Humans are seen as poor smellers and therefore research about human olfaction remains quite sparse compared with other animals. Nevertheless amazing achievements have been made during the past 15 years. This is a collection of available data on this topic and a controversial discussion on the role of putative human pheromones in our modem way of living. While the focus was definitely put on behavioral changes evoked by putative human pheromones this article also includes other important aspects such as the possible existence of a human vomeronasal organ. If pheromones do have an influence on human behavior there has to be a receptor organ. How are human body scents secreted and turned into odorous substances? And how can con-specifics detect those very odors and transmit them to the brain? Apart from that the most likely candidates for human pheromones are taken on account and their impact on human behavior is shown in various detail.

  14. Effects of MDMA on body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a severe complication associated with the recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In this review, the clinical laboratory studies that tested the effects of MDMA on body temperature are summarized. The mechanisms that underlie the hyperthermic effects of MDMA in humans and treatment of severe hyperthermia are presented. The data show that MDMA produces an acute and dose-dependent rise in core body temperature in healthy subjects. The increase in body temperature is in the range of 0.2-0.8°C and does not result in hyperpyrexia (>40°C) in a controlled laboratory setting. However, moderately hyperthermic body temperatures >38.0°C occur frequently at higher doses, even in the absence of physical activity and at room temperature. MDMA primarily releases serotonin and norepinephrine. Mechanistic clinical studies indicate that the MDMA-induced elevations in body temperature in humans partially depend on the MDMA-induced release of norepinephrine and involve enhanced metabolic heat generation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, resulting in impaired heat dissipation. The mediating role of serotonin is unclear. The management of sympathomimetic toxicity and associated hyperthermia mainly includes sedation with benzodiazepines and intravenous fluid replacement. Severe hyperthermia should primarily be treated with additional cooling and mechanical ventilation. PMID:27626046

  15. Recovering 3D human body configurations using shape contexts.

    PubMed

    Mori, Greg; Malik, Jitendra

    2006-07-01

    The problem we consider in this paper is to take a single two-dimensional image containing a human figure, locate the joint positions, and use these to estimate the body configuration and pose in three-dimensional space. The basic approach is to store a number of exemplar 2D views of the human body in a variety of different configurations and viewpoints with respect to the camera. On each of these stored views, the locations of the body joints (left elbow, right knee, etc.) are manually marked and labeled for future use. The input image is then matched to each stored view, using the technique of shape context matching in conjunction with a kinematic chain-based deformation model. Assuming that there is a stored view sufficiently similar in configuration and pose, the correspondence process will succeed. The locations of the body joints are then transferred from the exemplar view to the test shape. Given the 2D joint locations, the 3D body configuration and pose are then estimated using an existing algorithm. We can apply this technique to video by treating each frame independently--tracking just becomes repeated recognition. We present results on a variety of data sets.

  16. The Effect of Body Mass on Outdoor Adult Human Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Spencer, Jessica R; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2017-02-23

    Forensic taphonomy explores factors impacting human decomposition. This study investigated the effect of body mass on the rate and pattern of adult human decomposition. Nine males and three females aged 49-95 years ranging in mass from 73 to 159 kg who were donated to the Complex for Forensic Anthropology Research between December 2012 and September 2015 were included in this study. Kelvin accumulated degree days (KADD) were used to assess the thermal energy required for subjects to reach several total body score (TBS) thresholds: early decomposition (TBS ≥6.0), TBS ≥12.5, advanced decomposition (TBS ≥19.0), TBS ≥23.0, and skeletonization (TBS ≥27.0). Results indicate no significant correlation between body mass and KADD at any TBS threshold. Body mass accounted for up to 24.0% of variation in decomposition rate depending on stage, and minor differences in decomposition pattern were observed. Body mass likely has a minimal impact on postmortem interval estimation.

  17. Selectivity for the human body in the fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Downing, Paul E

    2005-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed human brain regions, notably in the fusiform gyrus, that respond selectively to images of faces as opposed to other kinds of objects. Here we use fMRI to show that the mid-fusiform gyrus responds with nearly the same level of selectivity to images of human bodies without faces, relative to tools and scenes. In a group-average analysis (n = 22), the fusiform activations identified by contrasting faces versus tools and bodies versus tools are very similar. Analyses of within-subjects regions of interest, however, show that the peaks of the two activations occupy close but distinct locations. In a second experiment, we find that the body-selective fusiform region, but not the face-selective region, responds more to stick figure depictions of bodies than to scrambled controls. This result further distinguishes the two foci and confirms that the body-selective response generalizes to abstract image formats. These results challenge accounts of the mid-fusiform gyrus that focus solely on faces and suggest that this region contains multiple distinct category-selective neural representations.

  18. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. [Dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate to different impacts under 30 degrees supine position].

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Guo, Yao-yu; Yang, Hong-hui; Jiang, Shi-zhong

    2005-04-01

    To study the difference between the dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate under 30 degrees supine position, and to discuss impact probability of substituting human body with human surrogate in impact tests. Five volunteers experienced half-sine impact pulses, averaged 4.76, 8.96, 11.33 G, lasting for 40-60 ms on an impact tower. The human surrogate was exposed to half-sine impact pulses, averaged 6.77, 10.39, 16.93, 21.11, 24.98, 31.11 G, lasting for 40-60 ms, two times for each G level. ECG changes of the volunteers were continuously monitored before, during and after each impact. Output responses at forehead and chest of human body and human surrogate increased with input increments. But there was obvious difference of the dynamic responses between human body and the surrogate to impact of low G levels. Heart rate of each volunteer had temporary increase during the process of impact, and returned to normal level soon after the impact. There is difference in a certain extend between the dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate. The ECG changes are induced mainly by mental stress during process of impact.

  20. Sensing power transfer between the human body and the environment.

    PubMed

    Veltink, Peter H; Kortier, Henk; Schepers, H Martin

    2009-06-01

    The power transferred between the human body and the environment at any time and the work performed are important quantities to be estimated when evaluating and optimizing the physical interaction between the human body and the environment in sports, physical labor, and rehabilitation. It is the objective of the current paper to present a concept for estimating power transfer between the human body and the environment during free motions and using sensors at the interface, not requiring measurement systems in the environment, and to experimentally demonstrate this principle. Mass and spring loads were moved by hand over a fixed height difference via varying free movement trajectories. Kinematic and kinetic quantities were measured in the handle between the hand and the load. 3-D force and moments were measured using a 6 DOF force/moment sensor module, 3-D movement was measured using 3-D accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. The orientation was estimated from the angular velocity, using the initial orientation as a begin condition. The accelerometer signals were expressed in global coordinates using this orientation information. Velocity was estimated by integrating acceleration in global coordinates, obtained by adding gravitational acceleration to the accelerometer signals. Zero start and end velocities were used as begin and end conditions. Power was calculated as the sum of the inner products of velocity and force and of angular velocity and moment, and work was estimated by integrating power over time. The estimated performed work was compared to the potential energy difference corresponding to the change in height of the loads and appeared to be accurate within 4% for varying movements with net displacements and varying loads (mass and spring). The principle of estimating power transfer demonstrated in this paper can be used in future interfaces between the human body and the environment instrumented with body-mounted miniature 3-D force and

  1. [Changes in the number of deer louse-flies Lipoptena cervi (Hippoboscidae) in the forests of northwestern Russia].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    1996-01-01

    Long term observations of the abundance fluctuations of the deer louse-fly Lipoptena cervi were carried out in forest areas of the Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov provinces in 1988-1995. The registration of the winged individuals was held in the period of the mass flight in August by the number of deer louse-flies attacking a collector man during 1 km of the pathway. The abundance of deer louse-flies was being high everywhere up to 1993, while it decreased by 8-29 times in 1994-1995. The reason of the abundance decrease of deer louse-flies is the abrupt abundance decrease of the main host, the elk Alces alces.

  2. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  3. The body republic: social order and human body in Renaissance medical thought.

    PubMed

    Barona, J L

    1993-01-01

    The representation of the human body built by medicine had historical references and analogical relations with other compounds of the culture of each particular period. The organic model, the coordinated and hierarchical dependence of the body parts, its subordination to a prevailing element (the brain or the heart, depending on the authors and times) guided directly by a soul infused by God... These are some of the aspects which reflect the relation between the image of the body and the justification of the ideological and social order, as a natural one. Among the numerous sources of Renaissance medicine that could bring significant facts about this theme, the present work is based on anatomical treatises and books of natural philosophy like those written by Bernardino Montaña de Monserrate, Alonso de Fuentes, Realdo Colombo, Hieronimus Montaltus, Andrea Cesalpino and Miguel Sabuco, all of whom are good exponents of Renaissance anatomy and physiological thought.

  4. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    PubMed

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  5. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  6. Vanadium in foods and in human body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Byrne, A R; Kosta, L

    1978-07-01

    Using neutron activation analysis, vanadium was analysed in a range of foods, human body fluids and tissues. On the basis of these results and those of other workers, it was concluded that daily dietary intake amounts to some tens of micrograms. Analysis of body fluids (including milk, blood and excreta) and organs and tissues provided an estimate for the total body pool of vanadium in man of about 100 microgram. Vanadium was not detectable in blood and urine at the level of 0.3 ng/g, while low levels were found in muscle, fat, bone, teeth and other tissues. The relationship between dietary intake to pulmonary absorption is discussed in relation to the occurrence of vanadium in man-made air particulates. The very low levels found in milks and eggs suggest minimal vanadium requirements in growth. The findings are discussed in the light of previous results and also in relation to the possible essentiality of vanadium.

  7. On the dynamics of a human body model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. L.; Passerello, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Equations of motion for a model of the human body are developed. Basically, the model consists of an elliptical cylinder representing the torso, together with a system of frustrums of elliptical cones representing the limbs. They are connected to the main body and each other by hinges and ball and socket joints. Vector, tensor, and matrix methods provide a systematic organization of the geometry. The equations of motion are developed from the principles of classical mechanics. The solution of these equations then provide the displacement and rotation of the main body when the external forces and relative limb motions are specified. Three simple example motions are studied to illustrate the method. The first is an analysis and comparison of simple lifting on the earth and the moon. The second is an elementary approach to underwater swimming, including both viscous and inertia effects. The third is an analysis of kicking motion and its effect upon a vertically suspended man such as a parachutist.

  8. Property and the human body: a proposal for posthumous conception.

    PubMed

    Ball, Eli Byron Stuart

    2008-02-01

    There is no greater error in law and bioethics than the continuing opposition to applying the concept of property to posthumous conception cases and the human body generally. The aim of this article is to challenge this error and the assumptions underpinning it. The language of property, conceived of as a "web of interests", can be used to capture and identify the social, moral and ethical concerns that arise in cases concerning the human body, a position that finds support from a correct reading of the early High Court of Australia's decision in Doodeward v Spence (1908) 6 CLR 406. However, a key issue on which the language of property is silent is how to quantify the various competing interests in the posthumous conception case: the concept is useful only insofar as it provides the device for capturing the entirety of the posthumous conception problem.

  9. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    PubMed

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.

  10. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  11. A topological multilayer model of the human body.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Antonio; Painho, Marco; Cabral, Pedro; O'Neill, João

    2015-11-04

    Geographical information systems deal with spatial databases in which topological models are described with alphanumeric information. Its graphical interfaces implement the multilayer concept and provide powerful interaction tools. In this study, we apply these concepts to the human body creating a representation that would allow an interactive, precise, and detailed anatomical study. A vector surface component of the human body is built using a three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction methodology. This multilayer concept is implemented by associating raster components with the corresponding vector surfaces, which include neighbourhood topology enabling spatial analysis. A root mean square error of 0.18 mm validated the three-dimensional reconstruction technique of internal anatomical structures. The expansion of the identification and the development of a neighbourhood analysis function are the new tools provided in this model.

  12. Single-friction-surface triboelectric generator with human body conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Han, Mengdi; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-03-10

    We present a transparent single-friction-surface triboelectric generator (STEG) employing human body as the conduit, making the applications of STEG in portable electronics much more practical and leading to a significant output improvement. The STEG with micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane surface achieved an output voltage of over 200 V with a current density of 4.7 μA/cm{sup 2}. With human body conduit, the output current increased by 39% and the amount of charge that transferred increased by 34% compared to the results with grounded electrode. A larger increment of 210% and 81% was obtained in the case of STEG with a large-size flat polyethylene terephthalate surface.

  13. Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (∼10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

  14. Host behaviour drives parasite genetics at multiple geographic scales: population genetics of the chewing louse, Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sheree E; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W; Calhoun, Courtney S

    2015-08-01

    Pocket gophers and their symbiotic chewing lice form a host-parasite assemblage known for a high degree of cophylogeny, thought to be driven by life history parameters of both host and parasite that make host switching difficult. However, little work to date has focused on determining whether these life histories actually impact louse populations at the very fine scale of louse infrapopulations (individuals on a single host) at the same or at nearby host localities. We used microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data to make comparisons of chewing-louse (Thomomydoecus minor) population subdivision over time and over geographic space where there are different potential amounts of host interaction surrounding a zone of contact between two hybridizing pocket-gopher subspecies. We found that chewing lice had high levels of population isolation consistent with a paucity of horizontal transmission even at the very fine geographic scale of a single alfalfa field. We also found marked genetic discontinuity in louse populations corresponding with host subspecies and little, if any, admixture in the louse genetic groups even though the lice are closely related. The correlation of louse infrapopulation differentiation with host interaction at multiple scales, including across a discontinuity in pocket-gopher habitat, suggests that host behaviour is the primary driver of parasite genetics. This observation makes sense in light of the life histories of both chewing lice and pocket gophers and provides a powerful explanation for the well-documented pattern of parallel cladogenesis in pocket gophers and chewing lice.

  15. Landing sites on the human body preferred by Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Yoshikazu; Funada, Hisashi; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Seki, Taisuke; Morohashi, Masaaki

    2002-06-01

    The landing sites on the human body preferred by Aedes albopictus were examined. Five male volunteers wearing only shorts stood in a mosquito net enclosure containing 120 proboscis-amputated Ae. albopitus. In separate tests, 9 male volunteers and 1 female volunteer lay supine during the test. The number of mosquitoes landing on each site of the volunteer's body was counted, and after completion of the test, his or her body temperature was recorded. When the subject was upright, the landing site most preferred by mosquitoes was the foot. When volunteers were supine, the foot also was the most preferred landing site, but the proportion of mosquitoes landing on the foot in this position in comparison with other sites was lower than when the Volunteer was in the upright position. The 2nd most preferred landing site was the hand, followed by the face. No correlation was found between preferred landing sites and body temperature. Factors other than temperature (e.g., human emanation) may influence mosquito behavior and landing site.

  16. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju

    2009-01-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy–fluid metabolism and the water–food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong–Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong–Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM. PMID:19745009

  17. Perspective of the human body in sasang constitutional medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junhee; Jung, Yongjae; Yoo, Junghee; Lee, Euiju; Koh, Byunghee

    2009-09-01

    The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney). Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies) found in SCM.

  18. Telomerase RNA accumulates in Cajal bodies in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yusheng; Tomlinson, Rebecca L; Lukowiak, Andrew A; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The RNA component of the enzyme (hTR) provides the template for telomere synthesis, which is catalyzed by telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Little is known regarding the subcellular localization of hTR and hTERT and the pathway by which telomerase is assembled. Here we report the first glimpse of the detailed subcellular localization of endogenous hTR in human cells, which we obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our studies have revealed a distinctive hTR localization pattern in cancer cells. We have found that hTR accumulates within intranuclear foci called Cajal bodies in all typical tumor-derived cell lines examined (in which telomerase is active), but not in primary or ALT cells (where little or no hTERT is present). Accumulation of hTR in the Cajal bodies of primary cells is induced when hTERT is ectopically expressed. Moreover, we report that hTERT is also found in Cajal bodies. Our data suggest that Cajal bodies are involved in the assembly and/or function of human telomerase.

  19. The role of human body movements in mate selection.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Nadine; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2010-02-18

    It is common scientific knowledge, that most of what we say within a conversation is not only expressed by the words' meaning alone, but also through our gestures, postures, and body movements. This non-verbal mode is possibly rooted firmly in our human evolutionary heritage, and as such, some scientists argue that it serves as a fundamental assessment and expression tool for our inner qualities. Studies of nonverbal communication have established that a universal, culture-free, non-verbal sign system exists, that is available to all individuals for negotiating social encounters. Thus, it is not only the kind of gestures and expressions humans use in social communication, but also the way these movements are performed, as this seems to convey key information about an individual's quality. Dance, for example, is a special form of movement, which can be observed in human courtship displays. Recent research suggests that people are sensitive to the variation in dance movements, and that dance performance provides information about an individual's mate quality in terms of health and strength. This article reviews the role of body movement in human non-verbal communication, and highlights its significance in human mate preferences in order to promote future work in this research area within the evolutionary psychology framework.

  20. Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Mougabure Cueto, G; Picollo, M I

    2009-07-01

    Human pediculosis is produced by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). Laboratory-reared body lice, susceptible to insecticides, were used as reference in toxicological studies on head lice. In this work, we evaluated the survival of both subspecies at different temperatures and relative humidities and we propose the optimal conditions for comparative bioassays. Moreover, we used these conditions to test the activity of three monoterpenoids against both lice. The results showed differential response to changes in temperature and humidity between both organisms. The survival of body lice ranged between 83% and 100% and was not affected for the tested conditions. The survival of head lice depended on temperature, humidity, and exposure time. The optimal conditions for head lice were 18 masculineC and 97% relative humidity at 18 h of exposition. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenoids (pulegone, linalool, and 1,8-cineole), evaluated according the selected conditions by topical application, showed no significant differences between males of body and head lice. To conclude, as head lice required more special laboratory conditions than body lice, the optimal head lice conditions should be used in both organisms in comparative bioassays. Body louse is an appropriate organism for testing products against of head louse.

  1. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-04

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  2. [Problems in the measurement of human body temperature].

    PubMed

    Shakhov, E K; Mel'nikov, A A; Dolgova, I A

    2008-01-01

    The problems arising in the measurement of human body temperature are discussed. The results of the experimental research are described. The effect of the initial sensor temperature on the results of measurement is explained. It is shown that the thermal or cold irritation of skin when brought in contact with the sensor also has an effect on the measurement results. Recommendations for optimizing the temperature sensor size are given.

  3. [The role of macro-elements in the human body].

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Béla; Balla, József; Vinkler, Péter; Szentmihályi, Klára

    2006-05-21

    The authors summarize the role of essential macro metal elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) in human body: their homeostasis, absorption, transport, storage and excretion. Metabolism of macro-elements, daily requirements, cause of metal deficiencies and diseases caused by deficiencies are also discussed. Messenger and prooxidant effect of Ca2+-ions, indirect antioxidant effect of Mg2+-ions and the adjuvant application of magnesium are also reviewed.

  4. In-to-out body path loss for wireless radio frequency capsule endoscopy in a human body.

    PubMed

    Vermeeren, G; Tanghe, E; Thielens, A; Martens, L; Joseph, W

    2016-08-01

    Physical-layer characterization is important for design of in-to-out body communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs). This paper numerically investigates the path loss of an in-to-out body radio frequency (RF) wireless link between an endoscopy capsule and a receiver outside the body using a 3D electromagnetic solver. A spiral antenna in the endoscopy capsule is tuned to operate in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band at 402 MHz, accounting for the properties of the human body. The influence of misalignment, rotation of the capsule, and human body model are investigated. Semi-empirical path loss models for various homogeneous tissues and 3D realistic human body models are provided for manufacturers to evaluate the performance of in-to-out-body WBAN systems.

  5. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - "The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main levels that are arranged "pyramid" style, in an ascending order of difficulty: 1. Analysis of system components—the ability to identify the components and processes existing in the human body system; 2. Synthesis of system components—ability to identify dynamic relations within the system; 3. Implementation—ability to generalize and identify patterns in the system, and to identify its hidden dimensions. The students in this study proved largely incapable of achieving systems thinking beyond the primary STH level of identifying components. An overwhelming majority if their responses corresponded to this level of the STH model, further indicating a pronounced favoring of structure over process, and of larger, macro elements over microscopic ones.

  6. The construction of human body--from model to reality.

    PubMed

    Motoc, A; Motoc, Marilena; Bolintineanu, S; Muşuroi, Corina; Munteanu, M

    2005-01-01

    The human body building represented a complex research topic for the scientist in the most diverse domains. Although their interests and reasons were different, the goal was always the same: establishing a relation to verify the ratio between the dimensions of the constituent segments It appears that the mystery was solved out in the XIX-th century by Adolf Zeising, a German, who, using the statistic calculus, defined the division of a segment by the gold section. This purely mathematic logic confirms the human body's integration in proportion to the finest segments, thus providing the technical instrument of building a fully harmonious human body. The present study aims to compare the ideal, the calculated perfection to the reality, namely the theoretically obtained values to the average values of an 18-year-old male. It appears that the differences refer especially to the limbs; both the superior ones and the inferior ones being longer comparing to the ideal pattern while the bust is shorter and broader.

  7. Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Hill, D A

    1985-01-01

    Further studies of human whole-body radiofrequency (RF) absorption rates were carried out using a TEM-cell exposure system. Experiments were done at one frequency near the grounded resonance frequency (approximately 40 MHz), and at several below-resonance frequencies. Absorption rates are small for the K and H orientations of the body, even when grounded. For the body trunk in an E orientation, the absorption rate of a sitting person is about half of the rate for the same person standing with arms at the sides; the latter in turn is about half the rate for the same subject standing with arms over the head. Two-body interactions cause no increase in absorption rates for grounded people. They do, however, increase the absorption rates for subjects in an E orientation in free space; the largest interaction occurs when one subject is lambda/2 behind the other (as seen by the incident wave). When these results are applied to practical occupational exposure situations, the whole-body specific absorption rate does not exceed the ANSI limit of 0.4 W/kg for exposures permitted by the ANSI standard (C95.1-1982) at frequencies from 7 to 40 MHz.

  8. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  9. Pilot study to reduce dioxins in the human body.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Todaka, Emiko; Saito, Yasushi; Mori, Chisato

    2004-09-01

    The accumulation of dioxins, characterized by its lipophilicity and persistency in human tissue, is a great concern since many of these compounds elicit adverse health effects and developmental toxicity. Although the half-life of dioxins in the human body have been described to be as long as 3-25 years, there are very few drugs or methods that can exclude them from the human body. Thus, it is necessary to establish a new method to reduce them and prevent adverse health effects. Here, a pilot study to reduce the dioxins accumulated in the human body using the cholesterol-lowering drug, colestimide, is reported. Eight male and two female subjects were investigated. All of them were treated with colestimide for six months, and the dioxin level of the blood samples was assessed before and after the treatment. The dioxins in the blood samples were measured by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nine out of the ten subjects completed the treatment, and their blood samples were analyzed. The mean dioxin level in the blood samples before the treatment was 44.0 +/- 8.22 pg-TEQ/g-fat. Six months later, the mean dioxin level was lowered about 20% on average to 34.7 +/- 5.49 pg-TEQ/g-fat. Previous studies have reported that the blood dioxin level increases with age. In this study, the results suggest that colestimide can decrease the blood dioxin level of humans. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical study including large numbers of subjects are needed to confirm the present result.

  10. Ecogeography, genetics, and the evolution of human body form.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Charles C; Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic resemblances among groups are non-randomly distributed in humans. This population structure may influence the correlations between traits and environmental drivers of natural selection thus complicating the interpretation of the fossil record when modern human variation is used as a referential model. In this paper, we examine the effects of population structure and natural selection on postcranial traits that reflect body size and shape with application to the more general issue of how climate - using latitude as a proxy - has influenced hominin morphological variation. We compare models that include terms reflecting population structure, ascertained from globally distributed microsatellite data, and latitude on postcranial phenotypes derived from skeletal dimensions taken from a large global sample of modern humans. We find that models with a population structure term fit better than a model of natural selection along a latitudinal cline in all cases. A model including both latitude and population structure terms is a good fit to distal limb element lengths and bi-iliac breadth, indicating that multiple evolutionary forces shaped these morphologies. In contrast, a model that included only a population structure term best explained femoral head diameter and the crural index. The results demonstrate that population structure is an important part of human postcranial variation, and that clinally distributed natural selection is not sufficient to explain among-group differentiation. The distribution of human body form is strongly influenced by the contingencies of modern human origins, which calls for new ways to approach problems in the evolution of human variation, past and present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bio-ecology of the louse, Upupicola upupae, infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007-08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75-82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented.

  12. Bio-Ecology of the Louse, Upupicola upupae, Infesting the Common Hoopoe, Upupa epops

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, G. P; Ahmad, Aftab; Rashmi, Archna; Arya, Gaurav; Bansal, Nayanci; Saxena, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The population characteristics of the louse, Upupicola upupae (Shrank) (Mallophaga: Philopteridae: Ishnocera), infesting the Common Hoopae, Upupa epops L. (Aves: Upupiformes), were recorded during 2007–08 in District Rampur, Uttar Pradesh India. The pattern of frequency distribution of the louse conformed to the negative binomial model. The lice and its nits were reared in vitro at 35 ± 1° C, 75–82 % RH, on a feather diet. The data obtained was used to construct the life table and to determine the intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.035 female/day), the net reproductive rate was 3.67 female eggs/female, the generation time was 37 days, and the doubling time of the population was 19 days. The chaetotaxy of the three nymphal instars has also been noted to record their diagnostic characteristics. Information on egg morphology and antennal sensilla is also presented. PMID:21861650

  13. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2010-03-01

    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2 Nit Removal System, Clear Lice Egg Remover, RID Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner.

  14. Tool use induces complex and flexible plasticity of human body representations.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Serino, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    Plasticity of body representation fundamentally underpins human tool use. Recent studies have demonstrated remarkably complex plasticity of body representation in humans, showing that such plasticity (1) occurs flexibly across multiple time scales and (2) involves multiple body representations responding differently to tool use. Such findings reveal remarkable sophistication of body plasticity in humans, suggesting that Vaesen may overestimate the similarity of such mechanisms in humans and non-human primates.

  15. Localization of activities in the human body with a whole-body counter.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H; Schlagbauer, M

    2007-01-01

    The whole-body counter of the Radiation Protection Unit at the ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH has two HP Ge-detectors for measuring radionuclides, which are internally deposited in the human body. The detector system has a scanning geometry, where one detector is placed below the bed and the other detector above the bed. The body counter is placed in a massive shielded chamber. This device is especially used for measuring radioactive exposed workers with the possibility of intake by inhalation and ingestion. In the most cases whole-body counters are calibrated with anthropomorphic phantoms where activity is homogenously distributed. However, in some cases radioactivity can be located as a 'Hot Spot' in an organ. The localisation of 'Hot spots' at least in one dimension was the topic of this work. Experiments were done by means of a water-filled bottle phantom where three point sources (137Cs, 133Ba and 60Co) were placed at different positions. Measurements show that these radionuclides can be located within 1.5 cm along the longitudinal axis of the phantom with activities for 137Cs of at least 240 Bq, 133Ba of at least 670 Bq and 60Co of at least 140 Bq.

  16. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  17. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in

  18. A new species and an annotated world list of the sucking louse genus Neohaematopinus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae).

    PubMed

    Durden, L A

    1991-09-01

    A new species of sucking louse, Neohaematopinus sundasciuri, collected from the tree squirrel, Sundasciurus juvencus, is described from Palawan Island, Philippines. An updated world list of the genus Neohaematopinus is presented; this documents descriptive citations, known hosts, and geographical distributions with interpretive annotations for each of the 32 species now included in the genus. The geographical distributions of Neohaematopinus sciuri and N. sciurinus are discussed.

  19. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  20. Ontogeny of modern human longitudinal body and transverse shoulder proportions.

    PubMed

    Frelat, Mélanie A; Coquerelle, Michael; Trinkaus, Erik

    2017-03-01

    Whereas variation of modern human adult body size and shape has been widely studied in the context of ecogeographical clines, little is known about the differential growth patterns of transverse and longitudinal dimensions among human populations. Our study explored the ontogenetic variation of those body proportions in modern humans. We compared results from four different approaches to study cross-sectional skeletal samples of Africans (n = 43), Amerindians (n = 69) and Europeans (n = 40) from 0 to 14 years of age. Clavicle, humerus, and femur intermetaphyseal lengths, and femoral distal metaphyseal breadth, were measured. Average ontogenetic trajectories were computed in order to compare the growth patterns of the three groups. Our findings demonstrated that the three geographical groups shared similar absolute and relative patterns of change with age for the four dimensions considered. Although interpopulation differences existed in transverse to longitudinal as well as in interlimb proportions, those differences did not seem to remain constant throughout ontogeny, similar to what has been shown for intralimb proportions. Growth rates of transverse shoulder proportions differed between populations from different regions after 10 years, whereas those for longitudinal proportions were very similar. The ontogeny of transverse shoulder proportions is more complex than what is observed for bi-iliac breadth, suggesting that transverse shoulder to limb proportions are not solely influenced by ecogeographical conditions. Our analysis demonstrates that methodologies that incorporate critical dimensions of body form could shed new light on human adaptation in both paleontological and neontological contexts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Regional brain responses in humans during body heating and cooling

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional brain imaging of responses to thermal challenge in humans provides a viable method to implicate widespread neuroanatomical regions in the processes of thermoregulation. Thus far, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used infrequently in humans to investigate thermoregulation, although preliminary outcomes have been informative and certainly encourage further forays into this field of enquiry. At this juncture, sustained regional brain activations in response to prolonged changes in body temperature are yet to be definitively characterized, but it would appear that thermoregulatory regions are widely distributed throughout the hemispheres of the human brain. Of those autonomic responses to thermal challenge investigated so far, the loci of associated brainstem responses in human are homologous with other species. However, human imaging studies have also implicated a wide range of forebrain regions in thermal sensations and autonomic responses that extend beyond outcomes reported in other species. There is considerable impetus to continue human functional neuroimaging of thermoregulatory responses because of the unique opportunities presented by the method to survey regions across the whole brain in compliant, conscious participants. PMID:27857952

  2. Modeling the human body shape in bioimpedance vector measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeoijin; Chung, Sochung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    Human body shape, called somatotype, has described physique of humans in health and sports applications, relating anthropometric measurements to fatness, muscularity and linearity in a structured way. Here we propose a new method based on bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) of R/H and Xc/H to represent the cross-sectional area and the body cell mass in a given surface area (m(2)) respectively. Data from six gymnasts, ten dancers, and five fashion models, groups whose physiques and BMI ranges were distinct from one another, were measured for somatotype and BIVA. The models had highest values of the R/H and gymnasts the lowest. Xc/H was lower in models than in the dancers and gymnasts (p < 0.05). Phase angle was lowest in the models and highest in gymnasts significantly (p < 0.05). Pattern analysis from BIVA corresponded to the calculated anthropometric somatotype supporting the hypothesis that BIA's resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) are meaningful discriminates of body size and function which relate to physique in a purposive way.

  3. Topographic approach to the study of the human body.

    PubMed

    Burykh, Michael P

    2004-07-01

    Recent developments in medical imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been explosive. These modalities provide 3D information about the human body and assess tissue damage in various pathological conditions. To complement the diagnostic usefulness of these imaging techniques, we have designed a system of topographic coordinates based on the principles of global projection cartography in which lines of latitude and longitudes are assigned to the surface of the human body. We designated the median sagittal plane as corresponding to the Greenwich Meridian (zero longitude) in global cartography. From the median sagittal plane (M0), vertical lines of longitude or "great circles" divide the body into 12 zones that are 30 degrees apart. Parallel lines of latitude are assigned according to surface anatomy landmarks. Studying the 3D reconstruction of anatomical structures is important for: 1) devising a system of coordinates; 2) allowing biomedical measurements to be made; and 3) drawing maps that may be useful in some clinical procedures (e.g., biopsies).

  4. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  5. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%–24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations. PMID:25479101

  6. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Brown, Christine M; Lee, Peter N

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4% dimeticone lotion for treatment of head louse infestation. Design Randomised controlled equivalence trial. Setting Community, with home visits. Participants 214 young people aged 4 to 18 years and 39 adults with active head louse infestation. Interventions Two applications seven days apart of either 4.0% dimeticone lotion, applied for eight hours or overnight, or 0.5% phenothrin liquid, applied for 12 hours or overnight. Outcome measures Cure of infestation (no evidence of head lice after second treatment) or reinfestation after cure. Results Cure or reinfestation after cure occurred in 89 of 127 (70%) participants treated with dimeticone and 94 of 125 (75%) treated with phenothrin (difference -5%, 95% confidence interval -16% to 6%). Per protocol analysis showed that 84 of 121 (69%) participants were cured with dimeticone and 90 of 116 (78%) were cured with phenothrin. Irritant reactions occurred significantly less with dimeticone (3/127, 2%) than with phenothrin (11/125, 9%; difference -6%, -12% to -1%). Per protocol this was 3 of 121 (3%) participants treated with dimeticone and 10 of 116 (9%) treated with phenothrin (difference -6%, -12% to -0.3%). Conclusion Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. PMID:15951310

  7. Bioimpedance measurements of human body composition: critical analysis and outlook.

    PubMed

    Matthie, James R

    2008-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy represents one of the largest emerging medical device technologies. The method is generally known as impedance spectroscopy and is an inexpensive, yet extremely powerful, analytical technique for studying the electrical properties of materials. Much of what we know about biological cells and tissues comes from use of this technique in vitro. Due to the high impedance of the cell membrane, current flow through the cell is frequency dependent and this allows the fluid volume inside versus outside the body's cells to be determined. The fluid outside the cells is primarily related to fluid volume status while the intracellular fluid also relates to the body's cellular mass. Technical advances have removed much of the method's basic complexities. The first commercial bioimpedance spectroscopy device for in vivo human body composition studies was introduced in 1990. Major strides have been made and the method is now poised to enter mainstream clinical medicine but the field is only in its infancy. This paper attempts to fully describe the current use of impedance in the body composition field.

  8. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  9. ABC proteins protect the human body and maintain optimal health.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2011-01-01

    Human MDR1, a multi-drug transporter gene, was isolated as the first of the eukaryote ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins from a multidrug-resistant carcinoma cell line in 1986. To date, over 25 years, many ABC proteins have been found to play important physiological roles by transporting hydrophobic compounds. Defects in their functions cause various diseases, indicating that endogenous hydrophobic compounds, as well as water-soluble compounds, are properly transported by transmembrane proteins. MDR1 transports a large number of structurally unrelated drugs and is involved in their pharmacokinetics, and thus is a key factor in drug interaction. ABCA1, an ABC protein, eliminates excess cholesterol in peripheral cells by generating HDL. Because ABCA1 is a key molecule in cholesterol homeostasis, its function and expression are highly regulated. Eukaryote ABC proteins function on the body surface facing the outside and in organ pathways to adapt to the extracellular environment and protect the body to maintain optimal health.

  10. [Radon and ionizing radiation in the human body].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Belowska-Bień, Kinga

    2004-03-08

    Spa health care became a medical discipline just as the development of other sciences created sufficient grounds for it. The basic and oldest method of spa treatment is balneotherapy. Among the medicinal waters, those with radon arouse the most controversy, these being the source of ionizing radiation. Radon is the one of the most important natural sources of radiation on earth. The exact mechanism of radon's effect on the human body is not completely understood. The hormesis theory is the best explanation of the advantageous biological effect of ionizing radiation in low doses. Radon significantly influences free oxygen radical transformations, nucleic acid repair, immunological processes, etc. It is a rare gas and does not react chemically with any compound in the body. It is known that radon is effective in treating chronic pain syndromes, endocrine disorders, and diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems.

  11. Body Topography Parcellates Human Sensory and Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; Dinse, Juliane; Jakobsen, Estrid; Long, Xiangyu; Schäfer, Andreas; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Villringer, Arno; Sereno, Martin I; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    The cytoarchitectonic map as proposed by Brodmann currently dominates models of human sensorimotor cortical structure, function, and plasticity. According to this model, primary motor cortex, area 4, and primary somatosensory cortex, area 3b, are homogenous areas, with the major division lying between the two. Accumulating empirical and theoretical evidence, however, has begun to question the validity of the Brodmann map for various cortical areas. Here, we combined in vivo cortical myelin mapping with functional connectivity analyses and topographic mapping techniques to reassess the validity of the Brodmann map in human primary sensorimotor cortex. We provide empirical evidence that area 4 and area 3b are not homogenous, but are subdivided into distinct cortical fields, each representing a major body part (the hand and the face). Myelin reductions at the hand-face borders are cortical layer-specific, and coincide with intrinsic functional connectivity borders as defined using large-scale resting state analyses. Our data extend the Brodmann model in human sensorimotor cortex and suggest that body parts are an important organizing principle, similar to the distinction between sensory and motor processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions.

  13. The cortical shell architecture of human cervical vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, M M; Chen, N C; Shin, E K; Wang, J L

    2001-11-15

    An anatomic study of cervical vertebral bodies. To provide quantitative information on the cortical shell architecture of the middle and lower cervical vertebral bodies. Some external dimensions have been measured, but little quantitative data exists for the cortical shell architecture of the vertebral bodies of the cervical spine. Twenty-one human cervical vertebral bodies (C3-C7) were sectioned along parasagittal planes into five 1.7-mm thin slices for each vertebra. Radiographs of each slice were digitized, and external and internal dimensions were measured. Averages and standard deviations were computed. Single factor analysis of variance was used to determine significant (P < 0.05) differences between the vertebral levels. The superior endplate was thickest in the posterior region (range 0.74-0.89 mm) and thinnest in the anterior region (range 0.44-0.56 mm). The inferior endplate was thickest in the anterior region (range 0.61-0.81 mm) and thinnest in the posterior region (range 0.49-0.62 mm). In the central region, the superior endplate (range 0.42-0.58 mm) was thinner than the inferior endplate (range 0.53-0.64 mm). Variation with vertebral level was dependent on the dimension studied. Comprehensive quantitative anatomic data of the middle and lower cervical vertebral bodies have been obtained. This may be useful in improving the understanding of the three-column and other vertebral-fracture theories, the fidelity of the finite element models of cervical spine, and the designs of surgical instrumentation.

  14. Lead poisoning due to bullets lodged in the human body

    PubMed Central

    Manotas Artuz, Rafael Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    With the increased violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, as well as severe signs such as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and bullets in the human body. We must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology. PMID:24893198

  15. Diamond stabilization of ice multilayers at human body temperature.

    PubMed

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2007-08-01

    Diamond is a promising material for wear-resistant medical coatings. Here we report a remarkable increase in the melting point of ice resting on a diamond (111) surface modified with a submonolayer of Na+. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the interfacial ice bilayer melts at a temperature 130 K higher than in free ice, and relatively thick ice films (2.6 nm at 298 K and 2.2 nm at 310 K ) are stabilized by dipole interactions with the substrate. This unique physical effect may enable biocompatibility-enhancing ice overcoatings for diamond at human body temperature.

  16. [A graphic study of levers in the human body].

    PubMed

    Basso, M; Soardo, G P

    1989-02-01

    A graphical method is proposed which permits one to determine by a simple drawing procedure for any lever in the human body the intensity of the muscular force and of the force acting on the fulcrum (i.e. on the joint) and the direction of this latter. The method is compared with the conventional one, in which muscular force is first determined by a calculation in which the geometrical lever arms are measured, and then fulcrum force is obtained by means of a vector construction. The new graphic method permits one to simultaneously obtain the intensity and the direction of the forces acting on the lever, without measuring or computing torque values.

  17. Lead poisoning due to bullets lodged in the human body.

    PubMed

    Gerstner Garcés, Juan Bernardo; Manotas Artuz, Rafael Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    With the increased violence and use of firearms in Colombia, we may see more cases of lead poisoning in our environment, and must be prepared to diagnose and treat them. Subtle signs and symptoms as unexplained anemia, gastro-intestinal discomfort and abdominal cramps, as well as severe signs such as changes in behavior and neurological status, nephropathy, and unexplained death, may be associated with a history of gunshot wounds and bullets in the human body. We must offer the patient knowledge and management strategies of pathology.

  18. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  19. [Adaptive effects of repeated immersion exposure on the human body].

    PubMed

    Shul'zhenko, E B; Kozlova, V G; Aleksandrova, E A; Kudrin, K A

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intermittent immersion on orthostatic tolerance, fluid-electrolyte metabolism and neuromuscular system was investigated. Control and experimental immersions were used. Experimental immersion was preceded by 12-hour exposure to immersion at night for three times. Experimental immersion was accompanied by reduced renal excretion of fluid, sodium and potassium and normalization of the muscle tone. After experimental immersion orthostatic tolerance approached the control level. The difference in the physiological effects of control and experimental immersions seem to be associated with the capacity of the human body to adapt to immersion, if it is applied intermittently.

  20. A statistical frame based TDMA protocol for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zedong; Li, Zhao; Huang, Renwei; Liu, Yuhang; Li, Jingzhen; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-09

    Human body communication (HBC) using the human body as the transmission medium, which has been regarded as one of the most promising short-range communications in wireless body area networks (WBAN). Compared to the traditional wireless networks, two challenges are existed in HBC based WBAN. (1) Its sensor nodes should be energy saving since it is inconvenient to replace or recharge the battery on these sensor nodes; (2) the coordinator should be able to react dynamically and rapidly to the burst traffic triggered by sensing events. Those burst traffic conditions include vital physical signal (electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram etc.) monitoring, human motion detection (fall detection, activity monitoring, gesture recognition, motion sensing etc.) and so on. To cope with aforementioned challenges, a statistical frame based TDMA (S-TDMA) protocol with multi-constrained (energy, delay, transmission efficiency and emergency management) service is proposed in this paper. The scenarios where burst traffic is often triggered rapidly with low power consumption and low delay is handled in our proposed S-TDMA. A beacon frame with the contained synchronous and poll information is designed to reduce the possibility of collisions of request frames. A statistical frame which broadcasts the unified scheduling information is adopted to avoid packet collisions, idle listening and overhearing. Dynamic time slot allocation mechanism is presented to manage the burst traffic and reduce the active period in each beacon period. An emergency mechanism is proposed for vital signals to be transmitted. The theory analysis is proceed and the result is evaluated in the hardware platform. To verify its feasibility, S-TDMA was fully implemented on our independently-developed HBC platform where four sensor nodes and a coordinator are fastened on a human body. Experiment results show that S-TDMA costs 89.397 mJ every 20 s when the payload size is 122 bytes, 9.51% lower than Lightweight MAC

  1. Oxidant-antioxidant system: role and significance in human body.

    PubMed

    Irshad, M; Chaudhuri, P S

    2002-11-01

    Present article gives a holistic view of the causes, role and conrol of oxidative stress in the development and progression of various human diseases. Several types of reactive species are generated in the body as a result of metabolic reactions in the form of free radicals or non-radicals. These species may be either oxygen derived or nitrogen derived and called prooxidants. They attack macromolecules including protein, DNA and lipid etc. causing cellular/tissue damage. To counter their effect, the body is endowed with another category of compounds called antioxidants. These antioxidants are produced either endogenously or received from exogenous sources and include enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, minerals like Se, Mn, Cu and Zn, and vitamins like vitamin A, C and E. Other compounds with antioxidant activity include glutathione, flavonoids, bilirubin and uric acid etc.. In a healthy body, prooxidants and antioxidants maintain a ratio and a shift in this ratio towards prooxidants gives rise to oxidative stress. This oxidative stress may be either mild or severe depending on the extent of shift and remains the cause of several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, malignancies, renal diseases, diabetes, inflammatory problems, skin diseases, aging, respiratory diseases, liver diseases and different types of viral infections. As more and more reports are pouring in, a lot of information is being unfolded about oxidative stress in relation to several other diseases.

  2. Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-12-18

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = -10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of -4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.

  3. Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Zedong; Ma, Jingjing; Li, Zhicheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks. PMID:23250278

  4. Mechanical Impedance of the Human Body in the Horizontal Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, P.; Lundström, R.

    1998-08-01

    The mechanical impedance of the seated human body in horizontal directions (fore-and-aft and lateral) was measured during different experimental conditions, such as vibration level (0·25-1·4 m/s2r.m.s.), frequency (1·13-80 Hz), body weight (54-93 kg), upper body posture (relaxed and erect) and gender. The outcome showed that impedance, normalized by the sitting weight, varies with direction, level, posture and gender. Generally the impedance spectra show one peak for the fore-and-aft (X) direction while two peaks are found in the lateral (Y) direction. Males showed a lower normalized impedance than females. Increasing fore-and-aft vibration decreases the frequency at which maximum impedance occurs but also reduces the overall magnitude. For the lateral direction a more complex pattern was found. The frequency of impedance peaks are constant with increasing vibration level. The magnitude of the second peak decreases when changing posture from erect to relaxed. Males showed a higher impedance magnitude than females and a greater dip between the two peaks. The impedance spectra for the two horizontal directions have different shapes. This supports the idea of treating them differently; such as with respect to risk assessments and development of preventative measures.

  5. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  6. [Morphometric evaluation of relative adipose tissue content in the human body].

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the mathematical models of the human body composition revealed main shortcomings of body mass index (A. Quetelet, 1832). This allowed to offer more accurate body mass index (BMI = M/H3), body build index [BBI = (BMI)1/2] and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2), where (M), (H) and (C) signified the mass, height and wrist circumference correspondingly.

  7. Elimination of persistent toxicants from the human body.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that various chemical agents are important determinants of myriad health afflictions--several xenobiotics have the potential to disrupt reproductive, developmental, and neurological processes and some agents in common use have carcinogenic, epigenetic, endocrine-disrupting, and immune-altering action. Some toxicants appear to have biological effect at miniscule levels and certain chemical compounds are persistent and bioaccumulative within the human body. Despite escalating public health measures to preclude further exposures, many people throughout the world have already accrued a significant body burden of toxicants, placing them at potential health risk. As a result, increasing discussion is underway about possible interventions to facilitate elimination of persistent toxicants from the human organism in order to obviate health affliction and to potentially ameliorate chronic degenerative illness. An overview of the clinical aspects of detoxification is presented with discussion of established and emerging interventions for the elimination of persistent xenobiotics. Potential therapies to circumvent enterohepatic recirculation and a case report highlighting a clinical outcome associated with detoxification are also presented for consideration.

  8. Dissection of human vitreous body elements for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Skeie, Jessica M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2011-01-23

    The vitreous is an optically clear, collagenous extracellular matrix that fills the inside of the eye and overlies the retina. (1,2) Abnormal interactions between vitreous substructures and the retina underlie several vitreoretinal diseases, including retinal tear and detachment, macular pucker, macular hole, age-related macular degeneration, vitreomacular traction, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and inherited vitreoretinopathies. (1,2) The molecular composition of the vitreous substructures is not known. Since the vitreous body is transparent with limited surgical access, it has been difficult to study its substructures at the molecular level. We developed a method to separate and preserve these tissues for proteomic and biochemical analysis. The dissection technique in this experimental video shows how to isolate vitreous base, anterior hyaloid, vitreous core, and vitreous cortex from postmortem human eyes. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE analyses of each vitreous component showed that our dissection technique resulted in four unique protein profiles corresponding to each substructure of the human vitreous body. Identification of differentially compartmentalized proteins will reveal candidate molecules underlying various vitreoretinal diseases.

  9. Cellular properties and chemosensory responses of the human carotid body

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; Pardal, Ricardo; Levitsky, Konstantin; Villadiego, Javier; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana Belén; Durán, Rocío; Bonilla-Henao, Victoria; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; Sobrino, Verónica; Ordóñez, Antonio; Oliver, María; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José

    2013-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the major peripheral arterial chemoreceptor in mammals that mediates the acute hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The CB grows in response to sustained hypoxia and also participates in acclimatisation to chronic hypoxaemia. Knowledge of CB physiology at the cellular level has increased considerably in recent times thanks to studies performed on lower mammals, and rodents in particular. However, the functional characteristics of human CB cells remain practically unknown. Herein, we use tissue slices or enzymatically dispersed cells to determine the characteristics of human CB cells. The adult human CB parenchyma contains clusters of chemosensitive glomus (type I) and sustentacular (type II) cells as well as nestin-positive progenitor cells. This organ also expresses high levels of the dopaminotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We found that GDNF production and the number of progenitor and glomus cells were preserved in the CBs of human subjects of advanced age. Moreover, glomus cells exhibited voltage-dependent Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents that were qualitatively similar to those reported in lower mammals. These cells responded to hypoxia with an external Ca2+-dependent increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and quantal catecholamine secretion, as reported for other mammalian species. Interestingly, human glomus cells are also responsive to hypoglycaemia and together these two stimuli can potentiate each other's effects. The chemosensory responses of glomus cells are also preserved at an advanced age. These new data on the cellular and molecular physiology of the CB pave the way for future pathophysiological studies involving this organ in humans. PMID:24167224

  10. Topography of Lymphatic Markers in Human Iris and Ciliary Body.

    PubMed

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schrödl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Motloch, Karolina; Bruckner, Daniela; Laimer, Martin; Schlereth, Simona L; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-07-01

    Reports of lymphatics in the anterior human uvea are contradictory. This might be caused due to a certain topography, which has not been considered yet. Therefore, here we systematically analyze iris and adjacent ciliary body with immunohistochemistry by combining various lymphatic markers. Human iris and ciliary body were obtained from cornea donors and prepared for cryosectioning. Cross sections of tissue blocks at 12/3/6/9 o'clock position and at corresponding intersections (1:30/4:30/7:30/10:30) were processed for immunohistochemistry of LYVE-1, PDPN, PROX1, FOXC2, VEGFR3, and CCL21, and when necessary, these lymphatic markers were combined with CD31, α-smooth muscle-actin, CD68, and 4',6-diamidino-2 phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI). Double, triple, and quadruple marker combinations were documented using confocal microscopy. Numerous podoplanin+ cells were mainly located at the anterior border of the iris while LYVE-1+ cells were distributed throughout the nonpigmented part. Both cell populations were PROX1/FOXC2/CCL21/VEGFR3-. Blood vessels, iris smooth muscles, and individual cells were VEGFR3+. While PDPN+ cells were rarely detected posteriorly of the iris root, many LYVE-1+ cells were present within the ciliary body muscle and villi. Within the muscle, occasionally PDPN+ vessel-like structures were detectable, but these were never colocalized with LYVE-1. Similar vessel-like structures were VEGFR3+/PROX1-/CCL21-, but CD31+. Further, ciliary muscle fibers and ciliary epithelium were immunoreactive for VEGFR3/CCL21, but were LYVE-1/PDPN-. A certain topography of structures at the various uvea-positions investigated was not obvious. The majority of LYVE-1+ cells displayed immunoreactivity for CD68. Lymphatic vessels colocalizing for at least two lymphatic markers were not detectable. Therefore, if present, putative lymphatic channels of the anterior uvea might display a different marker panel than generally presumed.

  11. Fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Francesco; Ghidini, Valentina; Tafi, Maria Carla; Boaretti, Marzia; Lleo, Maria M

    2013-07-01

    During the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. These substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. Suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme pH) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their division capability but allowing them to stay alive. These "dormant" bacteria can be reactivated in particular circumstances and would be able to express their virulence traits. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of some environmental conditions, such as optimal and suboptimal temperatures, direct light and antibiotic sub-inhibitory concentrations doses of antibiotic, on the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis when incubated in fluids accumulated in the body of patients with different pathologies. It is shown that inoculation in a number of accumulated body fluids and the presence of gentamicin, reliable conditions encountered during pathological states, induce stress-responding strategies enabling bacteria to persist in microcosms mimicking the human body. Significant differences were detected in Gram-negative and Gram-positive species with E. faecalis surviving, as starved or viable but non-culturable forms, in any microcosm and condition tested and E. coli activating a viable but non-culturable state only in some clinical samples. The persistence of bacteria under these conditions, being non-culturable, might explain some recurrent infections without isolation of the causative agent after application of the standard microbiological methods.

  12. Evidence of a Louse-Borne Outbreak Involving Typhus in Douai, 1710-1712 during the War of Spanish Succession

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Hieu, Tung; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Rigeade, Catherine; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background The new field of paleomicrobiology allows past outbreaks to be identified by testing dental pulp of human remains with PCR. Methods We identified a mass grave in Douai, France dating from the early XVIIIth century. This city was besieged during the European war of Spanish succession. We tested dental pulp from 1192 teeth (including 40 from Douai) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for R. prowazekii and B. quintana. We also used ultra-sensitive suicide PCR to detect R. prowazekii and genotyped positive samples. Results and Discussion In the Douai remains, we identified one case of B. quintana infection (by qPCR) and R. prowazekii (by suicide PCR) in 6/21 individuals (29%). The R. prowazekii was genotype B, a genotype previously found in a Spanish isolate obtained in the first part of the XXth century. Conclusion Louse-borne outbreaks were raging during the XVIIIth century; our results support the hypothesis that typhus was imported into Europe by Spanish soldiers from America. PMID:21060879

  13. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanghao; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yang; Du, Sidan

    2013-01-01

    Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24064597

  14. Human body shape index based on an experimentally derived model of human growth.

    PubMed

    Lebiedowska, Maria K; Alter, Katharine E; Stanhope, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    To test the assumption of geometrically similar growth by developing experimentally derived models of human body growth during the age interval of 5 to 18 years; to use these derived growth models to establish a new human body shape index (HBSI) based on natural age-related changes in human body shape (HBS); and to compare various metrics of relative body weight (body mass index [BMI], ponderal index [PI], and HBSI) in a sample of 5- to 18-year-old children. Nondisabled Polish children (n = 847) participated in this descriptive study. To model growth, the best fit between body height (H) and body mass (M) was calculated for each sex using the allometric equation M = m(i) H(chi). HBSI was calculated separately for girls and boys, using sex-specific values for chi and a general HBSI from combined data. The customary BMI and PI were calculated and compared with HBSI values. The models of growth were M = 13.11H(2.84) (R2 = 0.90) for girls and M = 13.64H(2.68) (R2 = 0.91) for boys. HBSI values contained less inherent variability and were less influenced by growth (age and height) compared with BMI and PI. Age-related growth during childhood is sex-specific and not geometrically similar. Therefore, indices of HBS formulated from experimentally derived models of human growth are superior to customary geometric similarity-based indices for characterizing HBS in children during the formative growth years.

  15. Tracking human position and lower body parts using Kalman and particle filters constrained by human biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Martinez del Rincon, Jesús; Makris, Dimitrios; Orrite Urunuela, Carlos; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for visual tracking of human body parts is introduced. The approach presented demonstrates the feasibility of recovering human poses with data from a single uncalibrated camera by using a limb-tracking system based on a 2-D articulated model and a double-tracking strategy. Its key contribution is that the 2-D model is only constrained by biomechanical knowledge about human bipedal motion, instead of relying on constraints that are linked to a specific activity or camera view. These characteristics make our approach suitable for real visual surveillance applications. Experiments on a set of indoor and outdoor sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on tracking human lower body parts. Moreover, a detail comparison with current tracking methods is presented.

  16. Triglycerides in the Human Kidney Cortex: Relationship with Body Size

    PubMed Central

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Lotan, Yair; Zhang, Jianning; Rosenthal, Tara R.; Rogers, John T.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk for kidney disease and uric acid nephrolithiasis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning these associations are incompletely understood. Animal experiments have suggested that renal lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity may play a role, but whether lipid accumulation occurs in humans with increasing body mass index (BMI) is unknown. The association between obesity and abnormal triglyceride accumulation in non-adipose tissues (steatosis) has been described in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but not in the human kidney. We used a quantitative biochemical assay to quantify triglyceride in normal kidney cortex samples from 54 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma. In subsets of the study population we evaluated the localization of lipid droplets by Oil Red O staining and measured 16 common ceramide species by mass spectrometry. There was a positive correlation between kidney cortex trigyceride content and BMI (Spearman R = 0.27, P = 0.04). Lipid droplets detectable by optical microscopy had a sporadic distribution but were generally more prevalent in individuals with higher BMI, with predominant localization in proximal tubule cells and to a lesser extent in glomeruli. Total ceramide content was inversely correlated with triglycerides. We postulate that obesity is associated with abnormal triglyceride accumulation (steatosis) in the human kidney. In turn, steatosis and lipotoxicity may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated kidney disease and nephrolithiasis. PMID:25170827

  17. Lipid body formation during maturation of human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Kovanen, Petri T

    2011-12-01

    Lipid droplets, also called lipid bodies (LB) in inflammatory cells, are important cytoplasmic organelles. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics and functions of LBs in human mast cells (MC). Here, we have analyzed the genesis and components of LBs during differentiation of human peripheral blood-derived CD34(+) progenitors into connective tissue-type MCs. In our serum-free culture system, the maturing MCs, derived from 18 different donors, invariably developed triacylglycerol (TG)-rich LBs. Not known heretofore, the MCs transcribe the genes for perilipins (PLIN)1-4, but not PLIN5, and PLIN2 and PLIN3 display different degrees of LB association. Upon MC activation and ensuing degranulation, the LBs were not cosecreted with the cytoplasmic secretory granules. Exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) enhanced LB genesis in Triacsin C-sensitive fashion, and it was found to be preferentially incorporated into the TGs of LBs. The large TG-associated pool of AA in LBs likely is a major precursor for eicosanoid production by MCs. In summary, we demonstrate that cultured human MCs derived from CD34(+) progenitors in peripheral blood provide a new tool to study regulatory mechanisms involving LB functions, with particular emphasis on AA metabolism, eicosanoid biosynthesis, and subsequent release of proinflammatory lipid mediators from these cells.

  18. Quantitative Validation of a Human Body Finite Element Model Using Rigid Body Impacts.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Davis, Matthew L; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2015-09-01

    Validation is a critical step in finite element model (FEM) development. This study focuses on the validation of the Global Human Body Models Consortium full body average male occupant FEM in five localized loading regimes-a chest impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal impact, and a pelvic impact. Force and deflection outputs from the model were compared to experimental traces and corridors scaled to the 50th percentile male. Predicted fractures and injury severity measures were compared to evaluate the model's injury prediction capabilities. The methods of ISO/TS 18571 were used to quantitatively assess the fit of model outputs to experimental force and deflection traces. The model produced peak chest, shoulder, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and pelvis forces of 4.8, 3.3, 4.5, 5.1, and 13.0 kN compared to 4.3, 3.2, 4.0, 4.0, and 10.3 kN in the experiments, respectively. The model predicted rib and pelvic fractures related to Abbreviated Injury Scale scores within the ranges found experimentally all cases except the abdominal impact. ISO/TS 18571 scores for the impacts studied had a mean score of 0.73 with a range of 0.57-0.83. Well-validated FEMs are important tools used by engineers in advancing occupant safety.

  19. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation?

    PubMed

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav

    2008-05-01

    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  20. The mechanism of aspirin reactions in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Alan; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Sohlberg, Karl; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2001-03-01

    We report first-principles (density functional theory) calculations of possible reaction pathways for the break-up of aspirin that leads to pain relief in the human body. An aspirin molecule consists of an acetyl group attached to a salicylate. Upon entering a membrane protein known as COX, the aspirin molecule is pulled apart. The acetyl group of the aspirin molecule attaches to SER-530, a serine residue that is located near the entrance of the COX protein channel. The resulting acetyl-serine residue effectively forms a gate within the COX channel blocking certain fatty acids from reaching the protein active site where they are converted into prostaglandins, the molecules that are responsible for the sensation of pain. An important new finding is that the aspirin molecule undergoes a transformation prior to breaking up.

  1. Calculations of aspirin reaction mechanisms in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Alan; Sohlberg, Karl; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    1999-11-01

    We report quantum mechanical calculations of possible reaction pathways for the breakup of aspirin that lead to pain relief in the human body. Animations of the reactions will be shown. An aspirin molecule consists of an acetyl group attached to a salicylate. Upon entering a membrane protein known as COX, the aspirin molecule is pulled apart. The acetyl group of the aspirin molecule attaches to SER-530, a serine residue that is located near the entrance of the COX protein channel. The resulting acetyl-serine residue effectively forms a gate within the COX channel blocking certain fatty acids from reaching the protein active site where the fatty acids are converted into prostaglandins, the molecules that are responsible for inflammation and the sensation of pain.

  2. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  3. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  4. Trace elements in human body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Versieck, J

    1985-01-01

    Published figures for trace element concentrations in body fluids and tissues of apparently healthy subjects are widely divergent. For a considerable time, the apparent disparities were readily ascribed to biological sources of variation such as age, sex, dietary habits, physiological conditions, environmental exposure, geographical circumstances, or similar influences. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this interpretation may be seriously questioned in numerous instances. First, values obtained in reference materials leave no doubt that some previous studies must have been subject to gross analytical inaccuracies. Second, it has now been thoroughly documented that inadequate sample collection and manipulation may drastically distort the intrinsic trace element content of biological matrices. This review scrutinizes data reported by a number of investigators. In an effort to settle the currently flourishing confusion, critically selected reference values are set forth for trace element levels in human blood plasma or serum, packed blood cells, urine, lung, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle tissue.

  5. Earthsickness: circumnavigation and the terrestrial human body, 1520-1800.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Joyce E

    2012-01-01

    From their distinctive experience of going around the world, maritime circumnavigators concluded that their characteristic disease, sea scurvy, must result from their being away from land too long, much longer than any other sailors. They offered their scorbutic bodies as proof that humans were terrestrial creatures, physically suited to the earthly parts of a terraqueous globe. That arresting claim is at odds with the current literature on the cultural implications of European expansion, which has emphasized early modern colonists' and travelers' fear of alien places, and has concluded that they had a small and restricted geographic imagination that fell short of the planetary consciousness associated with the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But circumnavigators did conceive of themselves as actors on a planetary scale, as creatures adapted to all of the land on Earth, not just their places of origin.

  6. The human body as field of conflict between discourses.

    PubMed

    Kimsma, Gerrit K; Leeuwen, Evert van

    2005-01-01

    The approach to AIDS as a disease and a threat for social discrimination is used as an example to illustrate a conceptual thesis. This thesis is a claim that concerns what we call a medical issue or not, what is medicalised or needs to be demedicalised. In the friction between medicalisation and demedicalisation as discursive strategies the latter approach can only be effected through the employment of discourses or discursive strategies other than medicine, such as those of the law and of economics. These discourses each realise different values, promote a different subject, and have a different concept of man. The concept of discourse is briefly outlined against concepts such as the linear growth concept of science and the growth model of science as changes in paradigm. The issue of testing for AIDS shows a conflict between the medical and the legal discourse and illustrates the title of our contribution: the human body as field of conflict between discourses.

  7. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  8. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  10. Body odor quality predicts behavioral attractiveness in humans.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S Craig; Kralevich, Alexandra; Ferdenzi, Camille; Saxton, Tamsin K; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Havlicek, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Growing effort is being made to understand how different attractive physical traits co-vary within individuals, partly because this might indicate an underlying index of genetic quality. In humans, attention has focused on potential markers of quality such as facial attractiveness, axillary odor quality, the second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio and body mass index (BMI). Here we extend this approach to include visually-assessed kinesic cues (nonverbal behavior linked to movement) which are statistically independent of structural physical traits. The utility of such kinesic cues in mate assessment is controversial, particularly during everyday conversational contexts, as they could be unreliable and susceptible to deception. However, we show here that the attractiveness of nonverbal behavior, in 20 male participants, is predicted by perceived quality of their axillary body odor. This finding indicates covariation between two desirable traits in different sensory modalities. Depending on two different rating contexts (either a simple attractiveness rating or a rating for long-term partners by 10 female raters not using hormonal contraception), we also found significant relationships between perceived attractiveness of nonverbal behavior and BMI, and between axillary odor ratings and 2D:4D ratio. Axillary odor pleasantness was the single attribute that consistently predicted attractiveness of nonverbal behavior. Our results demonstrate that nonverbal kinesic cues could reliably reveal mate quality, at least in males, and could corroborate and contribute to mate assessment based on other physical traits.

  11. Comparison of Biodynamic Responses in Standing and Seated Human Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2000-12-01

    The dynamic responses of the human body in a standing position and in a sitting position have been compared. The apparent mass and transmissibilities to the head, six locations along the spine, and the pelvis were measured with eight male subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration. In both postures, the principal resonance in the apparent mass occurred in the range 5-6 Hz, with slightly higher frequencies and lower apparent mass in the standing posture. There was greater transmission of vertical vibration to the pelvis and the lower spine and greater relative motion within the lower spine in the standing posture than in the sitting posture at the principal resonance and at higher frequencies. Transmissibilities from the supporting surface (floor or seat) to the thoracic region had similar magnitudes for both standing and sitting subjects. The lumbar spine has less lordosis and may be more compressed and less flexible in the sitting posture than in the standing posture. This may have reduced the relative motions between lumbar vertebrae and both the supporting vibrating surface and the other vertebrae in the sitting posture. The characteristics of the vibration transmitted to the pelvis may have differed in the two postures due to different transmission paths. Increased forward rotation of the pelvis in the standing posture may have caused the differences in responses of the pelvis and the lower spine that were observed between the two postures.

  12. Body-scaled transitions in human grip configurations.

    PubMed

    Cesari, P; Newell, K M

    2000-10-01

    This article reports two experiments that were set up to examine the preferred human grip configuration used to displace cubes that varied in length (Lc), mass (Mc), and density (ML3). In particular, the authors sought to provide a more precise test of a dimensional relation between the object and the hand that had previously been shown to predict the grip configuration used to transport an object from one location to another. The experiments examined 2 grip transitions (from 3 digits to 4 digits and from 1 hand to 2 hands) within 2 sets of object conditions. In Experiment 1, cubes with a low density and a small increment in size (1 mm) were used, whereas in Experiment 2, cubes with 2 fixed sizes and small increments in mass were used. The results showed that the body-scaled equation K = logLc + (logMc/a + bMh + cLh), where Mh and Lh are the anthropometric measures of the hand mass and length and a, b, and c are empirical constants, is the body-scaled information that predicts the grip configurations used to displace objects.

  13. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed. PMID:27713277

  14. Foreign bodies associated with peri-implantitis human biopsies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas G; Valderrama, Pilar; Burbano, Maria; Blansett, Jonathan; Levine, Robert; Kessler, Harvey; Rodrigues, Danieli C

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition that can lead to implant loss. The aim of this descriptive retrospective study is to describe the histopathologic findings in soft tissue biopsies of implants with peri-implantitis. Thirty-six human peri-implantitis biopsies were analyzed using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of foreign materials found in the tissues was assessed using an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. At the LM level, the inflammatory lesion of peri-implantitis was in most cases a mixture of subacute and chronic inflammation dominated by plasma cells. At the SEM level, radiopaque foreign bodies were identified in 34 of the 36 biopsies. The predominant foreign bodies found were titanium and dental cement. These foreign materials were surrounded by inflammatory cells. At present, the exact mechanism for introduction of these materials and their role in peri-implantitis is unknown. Further research is warranted to determine their etiology and potential role in pathogenesis.

  15. Targeting ADAM12 in human disease: head, body or tail?

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, J; Wewer, U M

    2009-01-01

    ADAM12/meltrin alpha is a type I transmembrane multidomain protein involved in tumor progression and other severe diseases, including osteoarthritis, and as such could be considered as a potential drug target. In addition to protease activity, ADAM12 possesses cell binding and cell signaling properties. This functional trinity is reflected in the structure of ADAM12, which can be divided into head, body, and tail. The head of the protein (consisting of the pro and catalytic domains) mediates processing of growth factors and cytokines and has been implicated in epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling. The body of the protein (consisting of the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and EGF-like domains) is involved in contacts with the extracellular matrix and other cells through interactions with integrins and syndecans. Finally, the tail of the protein (consisting of the cytoplasmic domain) is engaged in interactions with intracellular signaling molecules. In many studies, ADAM12 overexpression has been correlated with disease, and ADAM12 has been shown to promote tumor growth and progression in cancer. On the other hand, protective effects of ADAM12 in disease have also been reported. Future investigations should address the precise mechanisms of ADAM12 in disease and biology in order to counterbalance the benefits from targeting ADAM12 therapeutically with possible side effects. This review describes the biology of ADAM12, its association with disease, and evaluates the possible approaches to targeting ADAM12 in human disease.

  16. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  17. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  18. Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher S; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Sridhar, Shilpa; Cameron, Noël; Churchill, Steven E

    2017-05-02

    Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins

  19. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) using RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bekaert, Michaël; Taggart, John B; Christie, Hayden R L; Bassett, David I; Bron, James E; Skuce, Philip J; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  20. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  1. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  2. Visual Coding of Human Bodies: Perceptual Aftereffects Reveal Norm-Based, Opponent Coding of Body Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this…

  3. Can head louse repellents really work? Field studies of piperonal 2% spray

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christine M.; Burgess, Nazma A.; Kaufman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory of a repellent activity for piperonal provided the basis for developing a spray product to repel lice. Methods. A proof of principle field study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, compared the effect of using 2% piperonal spray with that of a placebo in 105 children and adults from three communities with infestation levels close to 100%. All participants were treated for infestation and subsequent incidence of reinfestation monitored daily by investigators. A second randomised, controlled, double blind, study in North London, UK, evaluated the effect of the product in normal use. One hundred and sixty-three children from schools with a high level (20–25%) of infestation were treated and confirmed louse free and randomly divided between 2% piperonal, a placebo spray, and a control group for up to 22 weeks. Parents applied the spray and monitored for infestation. Regular investigator visits confirmed the parental monitoring and replenished supplies of spray. Results. In Dhaka, over 18 days there were only 4 infestations in the piperonal group and 8 in the placebo group. This difference was not significant (p = 0.312). In North London, there were 41 cases of infestation over the course of the study. Although there were fewer infestations in the piperonal group, analysis of time to first infestation showed a no significant (p = 0.4368) difference between groups. Conclusion. Routine use of 2% piperonal spray in communities with a high prevalence of head louse infestation may provide some protection from infestation. However, the difference between use of the product and no active intervention was sufficiently small that regular checking for presence of lice is likely to be a more practical and cost effective approach

  4. Louse-borne bacterial pathogens in lice (Phthiraptera) of rodents and cattle from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Moriarity, John R; Loftis, Amanda D; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-04-01

    We collected 1,023 lice, representing 5 species, from rats and domestic cattle throughout 13 governorates in Egypt and tested these lice for Anaplasma marginale, Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Borrelia recurrentis, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Five different louse-borne bacterial agents were detected in lice from rodents or cattle, including "Bartonella rattimassiliensis", "B. phoceensis", and Bartonella sp. near Bartonella tribocorum, Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia typhi. More lice from governorates bordering the Mediterranean and Red Seas contained pathogens. Our data indicate that lice of urban and domestic animals harbor pathogenic or potentially pathogenic bacterial agents throughout Egypt.

  5. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Finland in two asylum seekers from Somalia.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo

    2017-01-01

    We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe.

  6. Building "Bob": A Project Exploring the Human Body at Western Illinois University Preschool Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouette, Scott

    2008-01-01

    When the children at Western Illinois University Preschool Center embarked on a study of human bodies, they decided to build a life-size model of a body, organ by organ from the inside out, to represent some of the things they were learning. This article describes the building of "Bob," the human body model, highlighting the children's…

  7. Acute normobaric hypoxia reduces body temperature in humans.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Dana M; Kolkhorst, Fred W; Buono, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Anapyrexia is the regulated decrease in body temperature during acute exposure to hypoxia. This study examined resting rectal temperature (Trec) in adult humans during acute normobaric hypoxia (NH). Ten subjects breathed air consisting of 21% (NN), 14% (NH14), and 12% oxygen (NH12) for 30 min each in thermoneutral conditions while Trec and blood oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured. Linear regression indicated that Spo2 was progressively lower in NH14 (p=0.0001) and NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN, and that Spo2 in NH14 was different than NH12 (p=0.00001). Trec was progressively lower during NH14 (p=0.014) and in NH12 (p=0.0001) compared to NN. The difference in Trec between NH14 and NH12 was also significant (p=0.0287). Spo2 was a significant predictor of Trec such that for every 1% decrease in Spo2, Trec decreased by 0.15°C (p=0.0001). The present study confirmed that, similar to many other species, human adults respond to acute hypoxia exposure by lowering rectal temperature.

  8. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions.

  9. The identification of a dismembered human body: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Yaşar; Kedici, P Sema; Alakoç, Yeşim Dogan; Ulküer, K Uner; Ilkyaz, Yücel Y

    2003-11-26

    A criminal case was directed to a multidisciplinary forensic team for identification, concerning a victim whose head, having two gunshot wounds, had been separated by a sharp instrument and was recovered 6 months later. The purpose of this research was to determine the sex and age of the victim for human identification. Primarily, macroscopic examination of the skull, tooth, and DNA analysis was conducted for sex determination. A rough assessment of age was made from the skull based on anthropological findings, however a more definitive result of age estimation was determined utilizing dental morphology. The dental data showed an age range of 32-37 from the mineral examination and the formulation of microscopic measurements. The results obtained from the skull and dental analysis matched with the physical characteristics of the victim's body, the known personal data of this person, and with the superposition of the photos gathered by a formal request. Besides, the result of DNA profiling of the victim showed male gender and direct relationship with the victim's presumed wife and daughter. Generally, research on human identification consists of sex and age determination. The sex characteristics can be precisely proved from DNA tests. However, age can be estimated by skeletal, and dental analysis. In this case the performed sex and age analysis lead the research to the selective matching of the missing person's identity.

  10. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  11. The biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in the human body.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R W

    2008-01-25

    This paper reviews information on the biological behavior of inorganic cobalt in humans and laboratory animals and proposes a model of the systemic biokinetics of inorganic cobalt in adult humans. The model was developed as part of an effort to update the models of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for addressing intakes of radionuclides by workers but is also applicable to environmental or medical exposures to inorganic forms of radiocobalt. The model can be used in conjunction with any respiratory, gastrointestinal, or wound model that provides predictions of the time-dependent feed of cobalt to blood. In contrast to the ICRP's current systemic model for cobalt, which is a simple open catenary system, the proposed model is constructed within a physiologically realistic framework that depicts recycling of cobalt between blood and tissues and transfer from blood to excretion pathways. Compared with the ICRP's current model, the proposed model yields similar predictions of whole-body retention but substantially different predictions of the systemic distribution of cobalt as a function of time after uptake to blood.

  12. An Alternative Representation of a Simulated Human Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Distribution List 13 iv List of Figures Figure 1. Graphical representation of the ICEM body model with body parts separated and labeled...representations. (a) The vertices of the ICEM body model. (b) The FragFly body model... ICEM lower leg. (b) Convex hull of the ICEM lower leg. (c) Two convex hulls of a separated ICEM lower leg

  13. Genome sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, endosymbiont of chimpanzee lice, and genomic comparison of recently acquired endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L

    2014-09-11

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse's diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  14. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  15. A finite-element simulation of galvanic coupling intra-body communication based on the whole human body.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-10-09

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz-5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication.

  16. A Finite-Element Simulation of Galvanic Coupling Intra-Body Communication Based on the Whole Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Hao, Qun; Hu, Lanxin; Wang, Jingwen; Shang, Fuzhou

    2012-01-01

    Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz–5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication. PMID:23202010

  17. Feasibility study of in vivo partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie

    This work investigates partial body potassium determination in the human body using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Potassium is an essential element in the human body that controls many of the enzyme systems and intra- and extra-cellular water flow. Potassium is symptomatic to several disease cases and has gender and ethnic variability. This work assesses the feasibility to measure partial body potassium in three specific regions: brain, arm, and leg, that are of interest to multiple sclerosis, chronic renal failure, and spinal cord injury, respectively. Three detector systems were constructed and their capabilities assessed. System characterization and analytical procedure for potassium evaluation and determination are presented together with experimental and initial clinical results. The results indicate that partial body potassium measurement is viable, statistically reproducible, and has potential clinical significance.

  18. Visual coding of human bodies: perceptual aftereffects reveal norm-based, opponent coding of body identity.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Boeing, Alexandra; Calder, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    Despite the discovery of body-selective neural areas in occipitotemporal cortex, little is known about how bodies are visually coded. We used perceptual adaptation to determine how body identity is coded. Brief exposure to a body (e.g., anti-Rose) biased perception toward an identity with opposite properties (Rose). Moreover, the size of this aftereffect increased with adaptor extremity, as predicted by norm-based, opponent coding of body identity. A size change between adapt and test bodies minimized the effects of low-level, retinotopic adaptation. These results demonstrate that body identity, like face identity, is opponent coded in higher-level vision. More generally, they show that a norm-based multidimensional framework, which is well established for face perception, may provide a powerful framework for understanding body perception.

  19. Louse-borne relapsing fever profile at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Louse- borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and is transmitted by body lice, Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease has occurred as epidemic in different parts of the country.Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was conducted to assess the LBRF profile for the last four years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with LBRF admitted from 2009–2012 at Felegehiwot referral hospital. The diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory methods. Patients with strong clinical suspicion of LBRF and positive for Borrelia species in their blood was diagnosed as LBRF cases. Data was collected from all patients with LBRF- like symptoms in their registration book. Data was checked for completeness, coded and analysed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was considered significant for comparison. Results Of the 4559 patients admitted with LBRF- like symptoms, 4178 (91.6%) were males and 381 (8.4%) were females. Most of the patients (74.2%) were within age groups 11–20 years. The majority of patients (94.4%) were from urban residence. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 225 (4.9%) and the highest prevalence 171 (5.1%) was observed in age groups of 11–20 years. The association between seasonal variation and prevalence of LBRF showed that more patients with positive for Borrelia species were recorded in dry 27 (9.7%) than wet 198 (4.6%) seasons (P < 0.001). Finally, a trend in prevalence of LBRF for the last four years showed that the highest numbers of cases were documented in 2010. Conclusion The overall prevalence of LBRF was high and the highest prevalence was observed in young age groups. Moreover, most of the patients with LBRF were from urban dwellers. Therefore, health education should be delivered towards LBRF prevention in the city. PMID:24742342

  20. Mathematical modeling of the human body during water replacement and dehydration: body water changes.

    PubMed

    Downey, D; Seagrave, R C

    2000-03-01

    A model of the human body that integrates the variables involved in temperature regulation and blood gas transport within the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is presented here. It expands upon previous work to describe the competition between skin and muscles when both require increased blood flows during exercise and/or heat stress. First, a detailed study of the control relations used to predict skin blood flow was undertaken. Four other control relations employed in the model were also examined and modified as indicated by empirical results found in literature. Internal responses to exercise and/or heat stress can affect both thermoregulation and the cardiorespiratory system. Dehydration was studied in addition to complete water replacement during similar environmental and exercise situations. Control relations for skin blood flow and evaporative heat loss were modified and a water balance was added to study how the loss of water through sweat can be limiting. Runoff from sweating as a function of relative humidity was introduced along with evaporation, and these results were compared to data to validate the model.

  1. Analysis of non-linear response of the human body to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Tarabini, Marco; Solbiati, Stefano; Moschioni, Giovanni; Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The human response to vibration is typically studied using linear estimators of the frequency response function, although different literature works evidenced the presence of non-linear effects in whole-body vibration response. This paper analyses the apparent mass of standing subjects using the conditioned response techniques in order to understand the causes of the non-linear behaviour. The conditioned apparent masses were derived considering models of increasing complexity. The multiple coherence function was used as a figure of merit for the comparison between the linear and the non-linear models. The apparent mass of eight male subjects was studied in six configurations (combinations of three vibration magnitudes and two postures). The contribution of the non-linear terms was negligible and was endorsed to the change of modal parameters during the test. Since the effect of the inter-subject variability was larger than that due to the increase in vibration magnitude, the biodynamic response should be more meaningfully modelled using a linear estimator with uncertainty rather than looking for a non-linear modelling.

  2. Topographic representation of the human body in the occipitotemporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Tanya; Makin, Tamar R; Zohary, Ehud

    2010-11-04

    Large-scale topographic representations of the body have long been established in the somatosensory and motor cortices. Using functional imaging, we identified a topographically organized body part map within the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC), with distinct clusters of voxels showing clear preference for different visually presented body parts. This representation was consistent both across hemispheres and participants. Using converging methods, the preference for specific body parts was demonstrated to be robust and did not merely reflect shape differences between the categories. Finally, execution of (unseen) movements with different body parts resulted in a limited topographic representation of the limbs and trunk, which partially overlapped with the visual body part map. This motor-driven activation in the OTC could not be explained solely by visual or motor imagery of the body parts. This suggests that visual and motor-related information converge within the OTC in a body part specific manner. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-07

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations.

  4. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  5. Ionotropic receptors signal host recognition in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Grotmol, Sindre; Nilsen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A remarkable feature of many parasites is a high degree of host specificity but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. A major challenge for parasites is to identify and infect a suitable host. Many species show a high degree of host specificity, being able to survive only on one or a few related host species. To facilitate transmission, parasite’s behavior and reproduction has been fine tuned to maximize the likelihood of infection of a suitable host. For some species chemical cues that trigger or attract the parasite in question have been identified but how metazoan parasites themselves receive these signals remains unknown. In the present study we show that ionotropic receptors (IRs) in the salmon louse are likely responsible for identification of a specific host. By using RNAi to knock down the expression level of different co-receptors, a significant change of infectivity and settlement of lice larvae was achieved on Atlantic salmon. More remarkably, knock down of the IRs changed the host specificity of the salmon louse and lice larvae settled at a significant rate on host that the wild type lice rejected within minutes. To our knowledge, this has never before been demonstrated for any metazoan parasite. Our results show that the parasites are able to identify the host quickly upon settlement, settle and initiate the parasitic life style if they are on the right host. This novel discovery opens up for utilizing the host recognition system for future parasite control. PMID:28582411

  6. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  7. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life.

  8. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  9. Detecting and measuring human bodies over wide work fields by using stereo cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Hamajima, Kyoko; Tuladhar, Subarna Lata

    2005-08-01

    In factory-automation, in order to avoid collision between human-bodies and autonomous mobile machines, a stereo-camera based method was proposed to implement an intelligent sensing method for human-bodies. An experimental system for this purpose was complemented, and an evaluation experiment was performed. The experiment shows that the accurate results were obtained in the case that no object other than human-body enters/exits to the monitored area.

  10. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  11. The Influence of Human Body Orientation on Distance Judgments.

    PubMed

    Jung, Edgard; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi; de la Rosa, Stephan; Butz, Martin V; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Meilinger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    People maintain larger distances to other peoples' front than to their back. We investigated if humans also judge another person as closer when viewing their front than their back. Participants watched animated virtual characters (avatars) and moved a virtual plane toward their location after the avatar was removed. In Experiment 1, participants judged avatars, which were facing them as closer and made quicker estimates than to avatars looking away. In Experiment 2, avatars were rotated in 30 degree steps around the vertical axis. Observers judged avatars roughly facing them (i.e., looking max. 60 degrees away) as closer than avatars roughly looking away. No particular effect was observed for avatars directly facing and also gazing at the observer. We conclude that body orientation was sufficient to generate the asymmetry. Sensitivity of the orientation effect to gaze and to interpersonal distance would have suggested involvement of social processing, but this was not observed. We discuss social and lower-level processing as potential reasons for the effect.

  12. Wearable thermoelectric generator for harvesting human body heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Lee, Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the realization of a wearable thermoelectric generator (TEG) in fabric for use in clothing. A TEG was fabricated by dispenser printing of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 and Bi2Se0.3Te2.7 in a polymer-based fabric. The prototype consisted of 12 thermocouples connected by conductive thread over an area of 6 × 25 mm2. The device generated a power of 224 nW for a temperature difference of 15 K. When the TEG was used on the human body, the measured output power was 224 nW in an ambient temperature of 5 °C. The power of the TEG was affected by the movement of the wearer. A higher voltage was maintained while walking than in a stationary state. In addition, the device did not deform after it was bent and stretched several times. The prospect of using the TEG in clothing applications was confirmed under realistic conditions.

  13. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  14. Constraint, natural selection, and the evolution of human body form.

    PubMed

    Savell, Kristen R R; Auerbach, Benjamin M; Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-23

    Variation in body form among human groups is structured by a blend of natural selection driven by local climatic conditions and random genetic drift. However, attempts to test ecogeographic hypotheses have not distinguished between adaptive traits (i.e., those that evolved as a result of selection) and those that evolved as a correlated response to selection on other traits (i.e., nonadaptive traits), complicating our understanding of the relationship between climate and morphological distinctions among populations. Here, we use evolutionary quantitative methods to test if traits previously identified as supporting ecogeographic hypotheses were actually adaptive by estimating the force of selection on individual traits needed to drive among-group differentiation. Our results show that not all associations between trait means and latitude were caused by selection acting directly on each individual trait. Although radial and tibial length and biiliac and femoral head breadth show signs of responses to directional selection matching ecogeographic hypotheses, the femur was subject to little or no directional selection despite having shorter values by latitude. Additionally, in contradiction to ecogeographic hypotheses, the humerus was under directional selection for longer values by latitude. Responses to directional selection in the tibia and radius induced a nonadaptive correlated response in the humerus that overwhelmed its own trait-specific response to selection. This result emphasizes that mean differences between groups are not good indicators of which traits are adaptations in the absence of information about covariation among characteristics.

  15. Odorant receptor-based discovery of natural repellents of human lice.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Xu, Pingxi; Yoon, Kyong S; Clark, John M; Leal, Walter S

    2015-11-01

    The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite and an important insect vector that mediates the transmission of diseases to humans. The analysis of the body louse genome revealed a drastic reduction of the chemosensory gene repertoires when compared to other insects, suggesting specific olfactory adaptations to host specialization and permanent parasitic lifestyle. Here, we present for the first time functional evidence for the role of odorant receptors (ORs) in this insect, with the objective to gain insight into the chemical ecology of this vector. We identified seven putative full-length ORs, in addition to the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco), and expressed four of them in the Xenopus laevis oocytes system. When screened with a panel of ecologically-relevant odorants, PhumOR2 responded to a narrow set of compounds. At the behavior level, both head and body lice were repelled by the physiologically-active chemicals. This study presents the first evidence of the OR pathway being functional in lice and identifies PhumOR2 as a sensitive receptor of natural repellents that could be used to develop novel efficient molecules to control these insects.

  16. The Human Carotid Body Gene Expression and Function in Signaling of Hypoxia and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Eriksson, Lars I; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson

    2015-01-01

    Although animal carotid body oxygen sensing and signaling has been extensively investigated, the human carotid body remains essentially uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to study the human carotid body in terms of morphology, global and specific expression of sensing and signaling genes as well as inflammatory genes. The human carotid body response to brief or prolonged hypoxia was studied in carotid body slices from adult surgical patients and ACh, ATP and cytokine release was analyzed. We demonstrate that the human carotid body expresses key oxygen sensing and signaling genes in similarity with animal carotid bodies with a few diverging data. The human carotid body moreover shows enrichment of genes in the inflammatory response and releases pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to prolonged hypoxia. In response to acute hypoxia the human carotid body releases ACh and ATP and we thus translate previous findings in animal models to human tissue. We conclude that by releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during hypoxia the human carotid body displays a structural and functional capacity to participate in sensing and mediating systemic inflammation.

  17. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  18. Treatment of natural infestations of the biting louse (Werneckiella equi) on horses using triflumuron, a benzoylurea derivative insect growth regulator.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Stewart; Gray, Stephen; Dawson, Kim

    2007-09-30

    The horse biting louse (Werneckiella equi) is a common global equine ectoparasite. To our knowledge, benzoyl(phenyl)urea insecticides (triflumuron, diflubenzuron) commonly used as sheep lousicides, have not been evaluated for efficacy against W. equi. The aim of this study was to determine louse control efficacy, general wellness and dermal safety following triflumuron application as a backline pour-on to horses. Two efficacy trials using 25 adult naturally infested lousy horses, and a dermal safety trial using 10 adult louse-free horses were conducted over a 14-month period. Lousy animals were selected by assessment of their lice status prior to treatment. For the efficacy trial, the triflumuron product was applied at a dose of 2.5mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (1 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). For the safety study, triflumuron was applied at a 3x clinical dose of 7.5 mg triflumuron per kg bodyweight (3 mL product per 10 kg bodyweight). In our first efficacy trial, 100% lousicidal efficacy was achieved by day 44 post-treatment. In our second trial, no lice were identified on horses by day 71 post-treatment. In the safety trial, no adverse effects were seen. Results of this study demonstrate that the off-label, experimental pour-on application of triflumuron at 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight is convenient, highly effective and safe (at 3x the clinical dose) for the treatment of the horse biting louse, W. equi.

  19. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  20. Chlorpyrifos for control of the short-nosed cattle louse, Haematopinus eurysternus (Nitzsch) (Anoplura, Haematopinidae) during winter.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M A; Schaalje, G B

    1985-01-01

    Two groups (A and C) of range cows were treated in February with chlorpyrifos (16 mL Dursban 44/cow) for the control of heavy infestations of the short-nosed cattle louse. Group A was treated in 1977 and group C in 1979 and each treated group was compared with a separate untreated group. Some of the treated cows were identified as carriers of louse infestation (subgroups A1 and C1), while others were noncarriers (subgroups A2 and C2). The maximum level of reduction in louse populations was 99% at week 4 posttreatment in subgroup A1, 99% from weeks 2-16 posttreatment in subgroup A2, 92% at week 3 posttreatment in subgroup C1 and 100% at weeks 15-17 in subgroup C2. Clinically, the treated cows, which were anemic at the time of treatment, recovered from anemia during the posttreatment period of 25 weeks for group A and 17 weeks for group C. Remission of anemia also occurred in the two untreated groups, possibly because of natural summer decline in louse population. The treatment had no effect on the whole blood cholinesterase of the cows and the treated cows showed no signs of organophosphorous toxicity. PMID:2416414

  1. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis—Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases—specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively—that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  2. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  3. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated.

  4. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  5. Body symmetry and physical strength in human males.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Manning, John T; Trivers, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Body symmetry and physical strength in males have been related to aspects of mate "quality"-women seem to prefer men who display both "good genes" (as indexed by high symmetry/developmental health) and fighting ability (as indexed by physical strength). Here we show that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the body and physical strength are negatively correlated. Body FA (from 12 paired traits) and handgrip strength (HGS; a measure of muscular power and force) were measured in a sample of 69 heterosexual, right-handed men (18-42 years). There were positive correlations of body symmetry with HGS after controlling for the effect of body-mass-index. We conclude that in males, body symmetry and physical strength are correlated such that symmetric individuals tend to develop higher strength, which may contribute to their success in inter- and intra-sexual selection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A cortical area selective for visual processing of the human body.

    PubMed

    Downing, P E; Jiang, Y; Shuman, M; Kanwisher, N

    2001-09-28

    Despite extensive evidence for regions of human visual cortex that respond selectively to faces, few studies have considered the cortical representation of the appearance of the rest of the human body. We present a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealing substantial evidence for a distinct cortical region in humans that responds selectively to images of the human body, as compared with a wide range of control stimuli. This region was found in the lateral occipitotemporal cortex in all subjects tested and apparently reflects a specialized neural system for the visual perception of the human body.

  7. Remarks on 3D human body posture reconstruction from multiple camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yusuke; Ohta, Takako; Mutsuji, Yukiko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masafumi

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes a human body posture estimation method based on back projection of human silhouette images extracted from multi-camera images. To achieve real-time 3D human body posture estimation, a server-client system is introduced into the multi-camera system, improvements of the background subtraction and back projection are investigated. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method, 3D estimation experiments of human body posture are carried out. The experimental system with six CCD cameras is composed and the experimental results confirm both the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system in the 3D human body posture estimation in real-time. By using the 3D reconstruction of human body posture, the simple walk-through application of virtual reality system is demonstrated.

  8. Human body buoyancy: a study of 98 men.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, E R; Minnigerode, S C

    1977-07-01

    The specific gravity and buoyancy of 98 men were calculated at various lung volumes. The data indicated that all subjects would be capable of floating in either freshwater or seawater at total lung capacity. At functional residual capacity, the value approximating the lung volume of a recently dead body, 69% of the subjects would float in seawater, whereas only 7% would float in freshwater. Results of this study indicate that while drowned bodies are more likely to sink than bodies dead of other causes, no conclusion regarding the cause of death can be made on the basis of whether bodies float or sink.

  9. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  10. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  11. A review of the volatiles from the healthy human body.

    PubMed

    de Lacy Costello, B; Amann, A; Al-Kateb, H; Flynn, C; Filipiak, W; Khalid, T; Osborne, D; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-03-01

    A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.

  12. [Ibogaine - structure, influence on human body, clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kuszczak, Bartłomiej; Olszak, Natalia

    2016-07-29

    Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people. After oral application, 80% of ibogaine is subjected to the Odemethylation into noribogaine; main catalyzing enzyme is cytochrome CYP2D6. Research suggests, that ibogaine acts in many places within central nervous system. NMDA receptors seem to play main role in its anti-addiction properties. It is important to mention the side effects of the compound, which are cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity, what makes it harder to use its beneficial properties. Because of this, Ibogaine is included among the dangerous substance. However, there are a few clinics in the world which specializes in the use of the compound in order to interrupt the sypmtoms acute opioid withdrawal syndrome as well as a substance benficial in curing other addictions. There is more hope with synthetic derivatives of ibogaine, which although are less toxic still keep their anti-addiction properties. The aim is to collect the available knowledge related to the structure and effects on human body of alkaloid Tabernanthe iboga and consider the possibility of commercial medical use.

  13. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  14. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  15. The human carotid body releases acetylcholine, ATP and cytokines during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kåhlin, Jessica; Mkrtchian, Souren; Ebberyd, Anette; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Nordlander, Britt; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Prabhakar, Nanduri; Poellinger, Lorenz; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2014-08-01

    Studies on experimental animals established that the carotid bodies are sensory organs for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and that the ensuing chemosensory reflex is a major regulator of cardiorespiratory functions during hypoxia. However, little information is available on the human carotid body responses to hypoxia. The present study was performed on human carotid bodies obtained from surgical patients undergoing elective head and neck cancer surgery. Our results show that exposing carotid body slices to hypoxia for a period as brief as 5 min markedly facilitates the release of ACh and ATP. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia for 1 h induces an increased release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that type 1 cells of the human carotid body express an array of cytokine receptors as well as hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ACh and ATP are released from the human carotid body in response to hypoxia, suggesting that these neurotransmitters, as in several experimental animal models, play a role in hypoxic signalling also in the human carotid body. The finding that the human carotid body releases cytokines in response to hypoxia adds to the growing body of information suggesting that the carotid body may play a role in detecting inflammation, providing a link between the immune system and the nervous system.

  16. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  17. Representational Momentum for the Human Body: Awkwardness Matters, Experience Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Margaret; Lancaster, Jessy; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Perception of the human body appears to involve predictive simulations that project forward to track unfolding body-motion events. Here we use representational momentum (RM) to investigate whether implicit knowledge of a learned arbitrary system of body movement such as sign language influences this prediction process, and how this compares to…

  18. The story of the body and the story of the person: towards an ethics of representing human bodies and body-parts.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2005-01-01

    Western culture has a few traditions of representing the human body - among them mortuary art (gisants), the freak show, the culture of the relics, renaissance art and pre-modern and modern anatomy. A historical analysis in the spirit of Norbert Elias is offered with regard to body - person relationship in anatomy. Modern anatomy is characterized by separating the story of the person from the story of the body, a strategy that is incompatible with the bio-psycho-social paradigm of clinical medicine. The paper discusses different aspects of the above traditions and how they might bear on this conflict and on contemporary bioethics and bedside practice.

  19. Contorted and ordinary body postures in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Emilie C.; Wolford, George; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2009-01-01

    Social interaction and comprehension of non-verbal behaviour requires a representation of people’s bodies. Research into the neural underpinnings of body representation implicates several brain regions including extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The different roles played by these regions in parsing familiar and unfamiliar body postures remain unclear. We examined the responses of this body observation network to static images of ordinary and contorted postures by using a repetition suppression design in functional neuroimaging. Participants were scanned whilst observing static images of a contortionist or a group of objects in either ordinary or unusual configurations, presented from different viewpoints. Greater activity emerged in EBA and FBA when participants viewed contorted compared to ordinary body postures. Repeated presentation of the same posture from different viewpoints lead to suppressed responses in the fusiform gyrus as well as three regions that are characteristically activated by observing moving bodies, namely STS, IFG and IPL. These four regions did not distinguish the image viewpoint or the plausibility of the posture. Together, these data define a broad cortical network for processing static body postures, including regions classically associated with action observation. PMID:19943038

  20. Detection of Bartonella quintana in African Body and Head Lice

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C.; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice. PMID:24935950

  1. Detection of Bartonella quintana in African body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice.

  2. Bartonella quintana in body lice and head lice from homeless persons, San Francisco, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Denise L; Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2009-06-01

    Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007-2008, 33.3% of body lice-infested persons and 25% of head lice-infested persons had lice pools infected with B. quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana-infected lice.

  3. Optimal frequency range for medical radar measurements of human heartbeats using body-contact radar.

    PubMed

    Brovoll, Sverre; Aardal, Øyvind; Paichard, Yoann; Berger, Tor; Lande, Tor Sverre; Hamran, Svein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the optimal frequency range for heartbeat measurements using body-contact radar is experimentally evaluated. A Body-contact radar senses electromagnetic waves that have penetrated the human body, but the range of frequencies that can be used are limited by the electric properties of the human tissue. The optimal frequency range is an important property needed for the design of body-contact radar systems for heartbeat measurements. In this study heartbeats are measured using three different antennas at discrete frequencies from 0.1 - 10 GHz, and the strength of the received heartbeat signal is calculated. To characterize the antennas, when in contact with the body, two port S-parameters(†) are measured for the antennas using a pork rib as a phantom for the human body. The results shows that frequencies up to 2.5 GHz can be used for heartbeat measurements with body-contact radar.

  4. Computerized Simulation Of Whole Body Dynamics: Aspects Of Human Movement Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, Ronald L.; Zernicke, Ronald F.

    1982-02-01

    Recent developments in the modeling of multi-body system dynamics are incorporated into an integrated, computer-oriented method for analyzing human body motion. The formulation, which represents the human body as a set of 17 finite, rigid-body segments including hands, feet, arms, legs, head, neck, and upper and lower torso, also accounts for the effects of connective tissues and muscles with non-linear springs and dampers at the connections of the linked rigid-bodies. Specific application of this biomathematical modeling of the body segments includes the estimation of musculoskeletal injury potential during aircraft and land vehicular crashes. With the integration of the output dynamics of the model, the injury profiles of the occupants, and human tissue tolerance limits, a more complete analysis and reconstruction of the details of the human occupant trajectory responses and injury incurrence can be made.

  5. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  6. [Measurement of human body composition: in vivo techniques and related evaluation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiangpu; Fu, Tingliang; Ou, Kun; Shi, Qizhi

    2007-08-01

    The in vivo techniques for studying human body composition have built up an important field and are continuing to be developed. This review provides an overview of the present status of this field and describes the in vivo techniques used in mearsuring human body composition such as anthropometry, metabolites method, densitometry, dilution method, total body potassium, neutron activation analysis, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual energy X ray absorptiometry and imaging method. The review also introduces the principle, method and value of these techniques.

  7. Tensor body: real-time reconstruction of the human body and avatar synthesis from RGB-D.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2013-10-01

    Real-time 3-D reconstruction of the human body has many applications in anthropometry, telecommunications, gaming, fashion, and other areas of human-computer interaction. In this paper, a novel framework is presented for reconstructing the 3-D model of the human body from a sequence of RGB-D frames. The reconstruction is performed in real time while the human subject moves arbitrarily in front of the camera. The method employs a novel parameterization of cylindrical-type objects using Cartesian tensor and b-spline bases along the radial and longitudinal dimension respectively. The proposed model, dubbed tensor body, is fitted to the input data using a multistep framework that involves segmentation of the different body regions, robust filtering of the data via a dynamic histogram, and energy-based optimization with positive-definite constraints. A Riemannian metric on the space of positive-definite tensor splines is analytically defined and employed in this framework. The efficacy of the presented methods is demonstrated in several real-data experiments using the Microsoft Kinect sensor.

  8. Optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai Ming; Wu, Jie; Li, Jin Yi; Zhou, Jian Li; He, Li Jun; Xu, Xian Fang

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To further study the properties of bile liquid crystals, and probe into the relationship between bile liquid crystals and gallbladder stone formation, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cholecystolithiasis. METHODS: The optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body were determined by the method of crystal optics under polarizing microscope with plane polarized light and perpendicular polarized light. RESULTS: Under a polarizing microscope with plane polarized light, bile liquid crystals scattered in bile appeared round, oval or irregularly round. The color of bile liquid crystals was a little lighter than that of the bile around. When the stage was turned round, the color of bile liquid crystals or the darkness and lightness of the color did not change obviously. On the border between bile liquid crystals and the bile around, brighter Becke-Line could be observed. When the microscope tube is lifted, Becke-Line moved inward, and when lowered, Becke-Line moved outward. Under a perpendicular polarized light, bile liquid crystals showd some special interference patterns, called Malta cross. When the stage was turning round at an angle of 360°, the Malta cross showed four times of extinction. In the vibrating direction of 45° angle of relative to upper and lower polarizing plate, gypsum test-board with optical path difference of 530 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malt a cross appeared to be blue, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared orange. When mica test-board with optical path difference of 147 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malta cross appeared yellow, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared dark grey. CONCLUSION: The bile liquid crystals were distributed in bile in the form of global grains. Their polychroism and absorption were slight, but the edge and Becke*Line were very clear. Its refractive index was larger than that of the bile. These liquid crystals were

  9. A functional-based segmentation of human body scans in arbitrary postures.

    PubMed

    Werghi, Naoufel; Xiao, Yijun; Siebert, Jan Paul

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a general framework that aims to address the task of segmenting three-dimensional (3-D) scan data representing the human form into subsets which correspond to functional human body parts. Such a task is challenging due to the articulated and deformable nature of the human body. A salient feature of this framework is that it is able to cope with various body postures and is in addition robust to noise, holes, irregular sampling and rigid transformations. Although whole human body scanners are now capable of routinely capturing the shape of the whole body in machine readable format, they have not yet realized their potential to provide automatic extraction of key body measurements. Automated production of anthropometric databases is a prerequisite to satisfying the needs of certain industrial sectors (e.g., the clothing industry). This implies that in order to extract specific measurements of interest, whole body 3-D scan data must be segmented by machine into subsets corresponding to functional human body parts. However, previously reported attempts at automating the segmentation process suffer from various limitations, such as being restricted to a standard specific posture and being vulnerable to scan data artifacts. Our human body segmentation algorithm advances the state of the art to overcome the above limitations and we present experimental results obtained using both real and synthetic data that confirm the validity, effectiveness, and robustness of our approach.

  10. Human telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins share a unique specificity of Sm protein association.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dragony; Collins, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Cajal bodies are nuclear structures that host RNA modification and assembly reactions. Some RNAs transit Cajal bodies, while others must concentrate in Cajal bodies to function. Here we report that at least a subfraction of human telomerase RNA and individual resident Cajal body RNAs is associated with Sm proteins. Surprisingly, of seven Sm proteins assembled into a heteroheptameric ring, only a subset copurifies telomerase and Cajal body ribonucleoproteins. We show that a Cajal body RNA localization motif determines this specificity. These discoveries expand the cellular repertoire of Sm protein assemblies and their involvement in ribonucleoprotein localization and function.

  11. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Michel P.; Cicchino, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long. PMID:26798280

  12. The Common Swift Louse Fly, Crataerina pallida: An Ideal Species for Studying Host-Parasite Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark D.; Rotherham, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the life-history of many parasitic species. This hinders a full understanding of host-parasitic interactions. The common swift louse fly, Crataerina pallida Latreille (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), an obligate haematophagous parasite of the Common Swift, Apus apus Linnaeus 1758, is one such species. No detrimental effect of its parasitism upon the host has been found. This may be because too little is known about C. pallida ecology, and therefore detrimental effects are also unknown. This is a review of what is known about the life-history of this parasite, with the aim of promoting understanding of its ecology. New, previously unreported observations about C. pallida made from personal observations at a nesting swift colony are described. Unanswered questions are highlighted, which may aid understanding of this host-parasite system. C. pallida may prove a suitable model species for the study of other host-parasite relationships. PMID:21268705

  13. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long.

  14. Arbovirus of Marine Mammals: a New Alphavirus Isolated from the Elephant Seal Louse, Lepidophthirus macrorhini

    PubMed Central

    La Linn, May; Gardner, Joy; Warrilow, David; Darnell, Grant A.; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Ian; Hyatt, Alex D.; Slade, Robert W.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    A novel alphavirus was isolated from the louse Lepidophthirus macrorhini, collected from southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, on Macquarie Island, Australia. The virus displayed classic alphavirus ultrastructure and appeared to be serologically different from known Australasian alphaviruses. Nearly all Macquarie Island elephant seals tested had neutralizing antibodies against the virus, but no virus-associated pathology has been identified. Antarctic Division personnel who have worked extensively with elephant seals showed no serological evidence of exposure to the virus. Sequence analysis illustrated that the southern elephant seal (SES) virus segregates with the Semliki Forest group of Australasian alphaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of known alphaviruses suggests that alphaviruses might be grouped according to their enzootic vertebrate host class. The SES virus represents the first arbovirus of marine mammals and illustrates that alphaviruses can inhabit Antarctica and that alphaviruses can be transmitted by lice. PMID:11287559

  15. [Some traditional representations of the human body in Basque].

    PubMed

    Duvert, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work is a selection of ethnographic data chiefly collected in the North of the Basque Country. It suggests restoring the traditional image of body and proposes interpretation of "historical meanings".

  16. Bovicola tibialis (Phthiraptera:Trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in North America.

    PubMed

    Mertins, James W; Mortenson, Jack A; Bernatowicz, Jeffrey A; Hall, P Briggs

    2011-01-01

    Through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western North America, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, Bovicola tibialis (Piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. The earliest known collection was from Salt Spring Island, Canada, in 1941. We found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced European fallow deer (Dama dama L.), and on Asian chital (Axis axis [Erxleben] ), native Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus [Richardson] ), and Rocky Mountain mule deer (O. h. hemionus [Rafinesque]) x black-tailed deer hybrids. Chital and the hybrid deer are new host records. All identified hosts were known to be or probably were exposed to fallow deer. Geographic records include southwestern British Columbia, Canada; Marin and Mendocino Counties, California; Deschutes, Lincoln, and Linn Counties, Oregon; Yakima and Kittitas Counties, Washington; Curry County, New Mexico; and circumstantially, at least, Kerr County, Texas. All but the Canadian and Mendocino County records are new. Bovicola tibialis displays a number of noteworthy similarities to another exotic deer-chewing louse already established in the region, that is, Damalinia (Cervicola) sp., which is associated with a severe hair-loss syndrome in black-tailed deer. We discuss longstanding problems with proper identification of B. tibialis, the probability that it occurs even more widely in the United States, and the prospects for it to cause health problems for North American deer. Additional information gathered since our active survey establishes further new distribution and host records for B. tibialis.

  17. Three new species of the sucking louse genus Hoplopleura (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) from rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Haylee J

    2017-03-23

    Three new species of the rodent louse genus Hoplopleura (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) are described and illustrated from Australia: H. melomydis new species from Melomys burtoni (Muridae: Hydromyini, grassland melomys) and M. capensis (Muridae: Hydromyini, Cape York melomys) from Queensland; H. notomydis new species and H. setosa new species from Notomys alexis (Muridae: Hydromyini, spinifex hopping mouse) from the Northern Territory. These new louse species are the first lice recorded from each of the three host rodent species.

  18. Effect of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengzhi, Li; Yi, Li

    2005-09-01

    The influence of clothing material on thermal responses of the human body are investigated by using an integrated model of a clothed thermoregulatory human body. A modified 25-nodes model considering the sweat accumulation on the skin surface is applied to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The heat and moisture coupled transfer mechanisms, including water vapour diffusion, the moisture evaporation/condensation, the moisture sorbtion/desorption by fibres, liquid sweat transfer under capillary pressure, and latent heat absorption/release due to phase change, are considered in the clothing model. On comparing prediction results with the experimental data in the literature, the proposed model seems able to predict dynamic heat and moisture transfer between the human body and the clothing system. The human body's thermal responses and clothing temperature and moisture variations are compared for different clothing materials during transient periods. We concluded that the hygroscopicity of clothing materials influences the human thermoregulation process significantly during environmental transients.

  19. Validation of Human Body Model VIRTHUMAN and its Implementation in Crash Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroslav Maňas, Ing.; Luděk Kovář, Ing.; Jan Petřík, Ing.; Hana Čechová, Ing.; Stanislav Špirk, Ing.

    Standard virtual prototyping approach of passive safety field is based on virtual models of dummies, but human body models become to be more and more important for specific crash scenarios. VIRTHUMAN is human body model based on MBS (Multi-Body Structure) approach. The model consists of movable rigid segments, which represent proper mass of each human part and enables to evaluate injury criteria describing safety risks during crash scenarios. There is evident advantage of the MBS approach in simple preparation of crash configuration—human body positioning, reasonable calculation times and mainly its applicability for robust designs development respecting variety of human population. The project VIRTHUMAN is directed on development of scaling technique enabling to generate human model based on the standard anthropometric inputs. The contribution describes status of the VIRTHUMAN model, procedures of its validation and results in standard crash scenarios.

  20. Brazilian legal and bioethical approach about donation for research and patents of human body parts.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Silla, Lúcia; Goldim, José Roberto; Martins-Costa, Judith

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the Brazilian legal system does not accept commercialization or commodification of human body parts, including genes or cells. As a consequence, in Brazil, the donation of human body parts for research-including basic or translational-must be made altruistically. For the same reason, the Brazilian patent system cannot be applied to human parts, cells or genes. Here, we present a qualitative analysis of juridical, bioethical, and social reasoning related to the legal status of human body parts especially in biobanks, as well as a description of the Brazilian legal system for clarification. Our aim is to discuss the responsibility of researchers for making available the scientific information resulting from scientific research and biobank storage of human body parts and to ensure the free utilization of knowledge in human health research.

  1. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  2. Predicting total body water and extracellular fluid volumes from bioelectrical measurements of the human body.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H L; Virk, S P; Mayclin, P; Barbieri, T

    1992-10-01

    Two biological impedance analyzers, a 50 kHz (RJL) and 20-100 kHz (BMA) instrument, and a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) instrument were used to estimate total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) fluid volumes by repeated measurements of 16 normal men (19-38 years old) to assess which, if any, would provide the best estimates. At 3-week intervals, TBW was determined by deuterium dilution, ECF by bromide dilution, ICF by difference (TBW-ECF) and lean body mass by density. Prediction equations were obtained by regression; predicted values for the body fluid volumes were calculated and the results were statistically evaluated. Both the TOBEC and the BMA provided rapid and reliable estimates for body fluid volumes with standard errors of the estimates of about 0.5-1.1 L for ECF, 1.0-1.8 L for TBW, and 1.0-1.3 L for ICF. Part of the error was attributable to standard tracer-dilution methods.

  3. A model of salmon louse production in Norway: effects of increasing salmon production and public management measures.

    PubMed

    Heuch, P A; Mo, T A

    2001-06-20

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer have caused disease problems in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. since the mid-1970s in Norway. High infection intensities and premature return of wild sea trout Salmo trutta L. were first reported in 1992. Later emaciated wild Atlantic salmon smolts carrying large amounts of lice have been observed both in fjords and offshore. The Norwegian Animal Health Authority regulations to control the problem, which came into operation in 1998, included compulsory louse level monitoring in farms and maximum legal numbers of lice per fish. Here, we present a model of salmon louse egg production in Norway and show that the effect of the current public management strategy is critically dependent on the yearly increase in salmon production. This is because the infection pressure is the product of the number of fish in the system, and the number of lice per fish. Due to the much larger number of farmed than wild salmonids, it is highly likely that lice originating from farmed salmon infect wild stock. Estimated tolerance limits for wild salmonids vary widely, and the level of louse egg production in farms which would be needed to decimate wild populations is not known. Two possible thresholds for total lice egg production are investigated: (1) 1986 to 1987 level (i.e. before adverse effects on sea trout were recorded), and (2) a level corresponding to a doubling of the estimated natural infection pressure. The farm lice per fish limits that would have to be observed to keep louse production within the 2 thresholds are calculated for the period 1986 to 2005. A steady decrease in the permitted number of lice per fish may keep the total louse production stable, but the number of salmon required for verification of lice numbers will increase as the prevalence to be verified is decreased. At threshold (2), the model estimated that lice limits should have been 0.05 louse per fish in 1999. This would require 60 fish from each pen to be

  4. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p < .001), and daily fruit consumption was associated with body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  5. 3D and 4D atlas system of living human body structure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Takatsu, A; Hattori, A; Ezumi, T; Oda, S; Yanai, T; Tominaga, H

    1998-01-01

    A reference system for accessing anatomical information from a complete 3D structure of the whole body "living human", including 4D cardiac dynamics, was reconstructed with 3D and 4D data sets obtained from normal volunteers. With this system, we were able to produce a human atlas in which sectional images can be accessed from any part of the human body interactively by real-time image generation.

  6. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone increases body weight and lean body mass in patients with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I; Nordgren, S; Bengtsson, B A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of low dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on body composition and absorptive capacity in patients with short bowel syndrome from Crohn's disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with short bowel syndrome usually are malnourished because of malabsorption. The anabolic effects of high doses of rhGH have been tested in different clinical catabolic conditions, recently including patients with short bowel syndrome. The authors have investigated the effects of low-dose rhGH in short bowel syndrome in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. METHODS: Ten patients were treated with daily subcutaneous doses of rhGH/placebo (0.5 international units/kg-1 per week-1 = 0.024 mg/kg-1 per day-1) for 8 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a minimum of 12 weeks wash-out. Absorptive capacity and biochemical parameters were investigated in a metabolic ward before treatment and during first and last week of treatment. Body composition was determined by DEXA-Scan (Lunar DPX, Scanexport Medical, Helsingborg, Sweden), impedance analysis, and whole body potassium counting. RESULTS: Low-dose rhGH doubled serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and increased body weight, lean body mass, and total body potassium by 5% (p < 0.05). Fat-free mass and total body water increased by 6% (p = 0.008). Increases in IGF-1 levels correlated with increases in fat-free mass (r = 0.77, p < 0.02). No significant changes in absorptive capacity of water, energy, or protein were detected. CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of low-dose rhGH treatment leads to increases in body weight, lean body mass, and fat-free mass in patients with short bowel syndrome, correlated to increases in IGF-1 levels. PMID:8998124

  7. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products.

  8. Heteroplasmy in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Human Lice and Ticks Revealed by High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C.; Burger, Thomas D.; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation. PMID:24058467

  9. The personification of animals: coding of human and nonhuman body parts based on posture and function.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals.

  10. Experiments in the combustibility of the human body.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M

    2002-05-01

    This paper provides possible explanations for two previously misunderstood circumstances surrounding cases of so-called "spontaneous human combustion"--the nearly complete cremation of human bone, and the failure of such fires to spread to nearby combustibles. Two experiments were conducted. The first involved the cremation of "healthy" and "osteoporotic" human bone and observing the resulting fragmentation and color change. Osteoporotic elements consistently displayed more discoloration and a greater degree of fragmentation than healthy ones. The second experiment involved the combustion of a sample of human tissue and observation of the flame height and burning area in order to calculate the effective heat of combustion. The resulting heat was 17kJ/g indicating a fire that is unlikely to spread. These results, which are among the first obtained for human samples, lend further support and credence to previous scientific explanations for "spontaneous human combustion."

  11. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    New densitometer installation requires cross-calibration for accurate longitudinal assessment. When replacing a unit with the same model, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry recommends cross-calibrating by scanning phantoms 10 times on each instrument and states that spine bone mineral density (BMD) should be within 1%, whereas total body lean, fat, and %fat mass should be within 2% of the prior instrument. However, there is limited validation that these recommendations provide adequate total body cross-calibration. Here, we report a total body cross-calibration experience with phantoms and humans. Cross-calibration between an existing and new Lunar iDXA was performed using 3 encapsulated spine phantoms (GE [GE Lunar, Madison, WI], BioClinica [BioClinica Inc, Princeton, NJ], and Hologic [Hologic Inc, Bedford, MA]), 1 total body composition phantom (BioClinica), and 30 human volunteers. Thirty scans of each phantom and a total body scan of human volunteers were obtained on each instrument. All spine phantom BMD means were similar (within 1%; <-0.010 g/cm2 bias) between the existing and new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry unit. The BioClinica body composition phantom (BBCP) BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) values were within 2% with biases of 0.005 g/cm2 and -3.4 g. However, lean and fat mass and %fat differed by 4.6%-7.7% with biases of +463 g, -496 g, and -2.8%, respectively. In vivo comparison supported BBCP data; BMD and BMC were within ∼2%, but lean and fat mass and %fat differed from 1.6% to 4.9% with biases of +833 g, -860 g, and -1.1%. As all body composition comparisons exceeded the recommended 2%, the new densitometer was recalibrated. After recalibration, in vivo bias was lower (<0.05%) for lean and fat; -23 and -5 g, respectively. Similarly, BBCP lean and fat agreement improved. In conclusion, the BBCP behaves similarly, but not identical, to human in vivo measurements for densitometer cross-calibration. Spine phantoms, despite good

  12. Creating a Tiny Human Body on a Chip

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, Maren; Soscia, Dave; Moya, Monica

    2016-01-27

    LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the iChip (In-vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. "One application of the iChip system would be to develop new pharmaceutical drugs," explains Dave Soscia, LLNL postdoc. "When you test in a mouse for example, it's not as close to the human system as you can get. If we can take human cells and put them on devices and actually mimic the structure and function of the organ systems in the human, we can actually replace animal testing and even make a better system for testing pharmaceutical drugs."

  13. Creating a Tiny Human Body on a Chip

    ScienceCinema

    Hunsberger, Maren; Soscia, Dave; Moya, Monica

    2016-07-12

    LLNL science communicator Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the iChip (In-vitro Chip-based Human Investigational Platform) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. "One application of the iChip system would be to develop new pharmaceutical drugs," explains Dave Soscia, LLNL postdoc. "When you test in a mouse for example, it's not as close to the human system as you can get. If we can take human cells and put them on devices and actually mimic the structure and function of the organ systems in the human, we can actually replace animal testing and even make a better system for testing pharmaceutical drugs."

  14. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  15. Analysis of human body motion by Lattice theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uragami, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yurika

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method of applying lattice algebra to the analysis of multivariate time series data. We measured the body motion of a Shorinji-Kempo kata using acceleration sensors at five positions on the body. The proposed analysis was applied to the time series data obtained from the sensors. As a result, a correlation was observed between the skill levels and the number of elements of the lattice generated using the time series data. We observed that highly skilled subjects executed more complex motions; thus, we consider the number of lattice elements as an index of complexity of the space-time pattern.

  16. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  17. [Human body meridian spatial decision support system for clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    The spatial position and distribution of human body meridian are expressed limitedly in the decision support system (DSS) of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, which leads to the failure to give the effective quantitative analysis on the spatial range and the difficulty for the decision-maker to provide a realistic spatial decision environment. Focusing on the limit spatial expression in DSS of acupuncture and moxibustion, it was proposed that on the basis of the geographic information system, in association of DSS technology, the design idea was developed on the human body meridian spatial DSS. With the 4-layer service-oriented architecture adopted, the data center integrated development platform was taken as the system development environment. The hierarchical organization was done for the spatial data of human body meridian via the directory tree. The structured query language (SQL) server was used to achieve the unified management of spatial data and attribute data. The technologies of architecture, configuration and plug-in development model were integrated to achieve the data inquiry, buffer analysis and program evaluation of the human body meridian spatial DSS. The research results show that the human body meridian spatial DSS could reflect realistically the spatial characteristics of the spatial position and distribution of human body meridian and met the constantly changeable demand of users. It has the powerful spatial analysis function and assists with the scientific decision in clinical treatment and teaching of acupuncture and moxibustion. It is the new attempt to the informatization research of human body meridian.

  18. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  19. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems. PMID:18053201

  20. Dietary protein adequacy and lower body versus whole body resistive training in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wayne W; Trappe, Todd A; Jozsi, Alison C; Kruskall, Laura J; Wolfe, Robert R; Evans, William J

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of long-term consumption of the United States Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein by older people who were sedentary or performed resistive training (RT) on body composition, skeletal muscle size and protein metabolism, and if the number of muscle groups trained influenced the muscle hypertrophy response to RT. Twelve men and 17 women (age range 54–78 years) completed this 14 week controlled diet and exercise study. Throughout the study, each subject completely consumed daily euenergetic menus that provided the RDA of 0.8 g protein kg−1 day−1. From study weeks 3–14 (weeks RT1-RT12), 10 subjects (four men, six women) performed whole body RT (WBRT), nine subjects (four men, five women) performed lower body RT (LBRT) and 10 subjects (four men, six women) remained sedentary (SED). Both the LBRT and WBRT groups performed knee extension and flexion exercises, and the WBRT group also performed chest press and arm pull exercises (three sets per exercise at 80 % of one repetition maximum, 3 days per week for 12 weeks). From week 2 (baseline) to week RT12, muscle strength increased in muscle groups trained in the LBRT and WBRT groups, and was not changed in the SED group. From baseline to week RT12, whole body muscle mass and protein-mineral mass were not changed, fat-free mass (P = 0.004) and total body water (P = 0.013) were decreased, and percentage body fat was increased (P = 0.011) in these weight-stable older people, independent of group assignment. The RT-induced increases in mid-thigh muscle area (from computed tomography scans) were comparable in the LBRT and WBRT groups (2.13 ± 1.26 cm2 and 2.17 ± 1.24 cm2, respectively), and were different from those in the SED group, which lost muscle area (-1.74 ± 0.57 cm2; group-by-time P < 0.05). From baseline to week RT12, 24 h urinary total nitrogen excretion decreased (P < 0.001), nitrogen balance shifted from near equilibrium to positive, whole body leucine oxidation

  1. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  2. Carbon offers advantages as implant material in human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of such characteristics as high strength and long-term biocompatability, aerospace carbonaceous materials may be used as surgical implants to correct pathological conditions in the body resulting from disease or injury. Examples of possible medical uses include bone replacement, implantation splints and circulatory bypass implants.

  3. Taking a "Giant Tour" to Explore the Human Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Helping children to visualise what is inside them and how their bodies work can be a challenge, since teachers are often reliant on secondary sources or investigations that can only measure outward signs (such as pulse rate). Another way is to involve the children in an imaginative role-play exercise where they explore the insides of a…

  4. [Inclusion Bodies are Formed in SFTSV-infected Human Macrophages].

    PubMed

    Jin, Cong; Song, Jingdong; Han, Ying; Li, Chuan; Qiu, Peihong; Liang, Mifang

    2016-01-01

    The severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a new member in the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae identified in China. The SFTSV is also the causative pathogen of an emerging infectious disease: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Using immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy, the intracellular distribution of nucleocapsid protein (NP) in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells was investigated with serial doses of SFTSV at different times after infection. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrafine intracellular structure of SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells at different times after infection. SFTSV NP could form intracellular inclusion bodies in infected THP-1 cells. The association between NP-formed inclusion bodies and virus production was analyzed: the size of the inclusion body formed 3 days after infection was correlated with the viral load in supernatants collected 7 days after infection. These findings suggest that the inclusion bodies formed in SFTSV-infected THP-1 cells could be where the SFTSV uses host-cell proteins and intracellular organelles to produce new viral particles.

  5. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  6. Human body surface area: measurement and prediction using three dimensional body scans.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, P; Meunier, P; Jubenville, C E

    2001-08-01

    The development of three dimensional laser scanning technology and sophisticated graphics editing software have allowed an alternative and potentially more accurate determination of body surface area (BSA). Raw whole-body scans of 641 adults (395 men and 246 women) were obtained from the anthropometric data base of the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource project. Following surface restoration of the scans (i.e. patching and smoothing), BSA was calculated. A representative subset of the entire sample population involving 12 men and 12 women (G24) was selected for detailed measurements of hand surface area (SAhand) and ratios of surface area to volume (SA/VOL) of various body segments. Regression equations involving wrist circumference and arm length were used to predict SAhand of the remaining population. The overall [mean (SD)] of BSA were 2.03 (0.19) and 1.73 (0.19) m2 for men and women, respectively. Various prediction equations were tested and although most predicted the measured BSA reasonably closely, residual analysis revealed an overprediction with increasing body size in most cases. Separate non-linear regressions for each sex yielded the following best-fit equations (with root mean square errors of about 1.3%): BSA (cm2) = 128.1 x m0.44 x h0.60 for men and BSA = 147.4 x m0.47 x h0.55 for women, where m, body mass, is in kilograms and h, height, is in centimetres. The SA/VOL ratios of the various body segments were higher for the women compared to the men of G24, significantly for the head plus neck (by 7%), torso (19%), upper arms (15%), forearms (20%), hands (18%), and feet (11%). The SA/VOL for both sexes ranged from approximately 12.m-1 for the pelvic region to 104-123.m-1 for the hands, and shape differences were a factor for the torso and lower leg.

  7. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career.

    PubMed

    Jungers, William L; Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Richmond, Brian G

    2016-07-05

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the 'best' for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'.

  8. The evolution of body size and shape in the human career

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological property of organisms, and documenting body size variation in hominin evolution is an important goal of palaeoanthropology. Estimating body mass appears deceptively simple but is laden with theoretical and pragmatic assumptions about best predictors and the most appropriate reference samples. Modern human training samples with known masses are arguably the ‘best’ for estimating size in early bipedal hominins such as the australopiths and all members of the genus Homo, but it is not clear if they are the most appropriate priors for reconstructing the size of the earliest putative hominins such as Orrorin and Ardipithecus. The trajectory of body size evolution in the early part of the human career is reviewed here and found to be complex and nonlinear. Australopith body size varies enormously across both space and time. The pre-erectus early Homo fossil record from Africa is poor and dominated by relatively small-bodied individuals, implying that the emergence of the genus Homo is probably not linked to an increase in body size or unprecedented increases in size variation. Body size differences alone cannot explain the observed variation in hominin body shape, especially when examined in the context of small fossil hominins and pygmy modern humans. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298459

  9. Revisiting the importance of common body motion in human action perception.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Human actions are complex dynamic stimuli comprised of two principle motion components: 1) common body motion, which represents the translation of the body when a person moves through space, and 2) relative limb movements, resulting from articulation of limbs after factoring out common body motion. Historically, most research in biological motion has focused primarily on relative limb movements while discounting the role of common body motion in human action perception. The current study examined the relative contribution of posture change resulting from relative limb movements and translation of body position resulting from common body motion in discriminating human walking versus running actions. We found that faster translation speeds of common body motion evoked significantly more responses consistent with running when discriminating ambiguous actions morphed between walking and running. Furthermore, this influence was systematically modulated by the uncertainty associated with intrinsic cues as determined by the degree of limited-lifetime spatial sampling. The contribution of common body motion increased monotonically as the reliability of inferring posture changes on the basis of intrinsic cues decreased. These results highlight the importance of translational body movements and their interaction with posture change as a result of relative limb movements in discriminating human actions when visual input information is sparse and noisy.

  10. The Knee Joint Loose Body as a Source of Viable Autologous Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, J.

    2016-01-01

    Loose bodies are fragments of cartilage or bone present in the synovial fluid. In the present study we assessed if loose bodies could be used as a source of autologous human chondrocytes for experimental purposes. Histochemical examination of loose bodies and differential enzymatic digestions were undertaken, the isolated cells were cultured in alginate bead microspheres and immunolocalisations were undertaken for chondrogenic markers such as aggrecan, and type II collagen. Isolated loose body cells had high viability (≥90% viable), expressed chondrogenic markers (aggrecan, type II collagen) but no type I collagen. Loose bodies may be a useful source of autologous chondrocytes of high viability. PMID:27349321

  11. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P<0.001); bone and bone mineral mass scaled to height with powers >2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  12. Human female attractiveness: waveform analysis of body shape.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, Martin J; Hancock, Peter J B; Mahmoodi, Sasan; Singleton, Ben R R; Cornelissen, Piers L

    2002-01-01

    Two putative cues to female physical attractiveness are body mass index (BMI) and shape (particularly the waist-hip ratio or WHR). To determine the relative importance of these cues we asked 23 male and 23 female undergraduates to rate a set of 60 pictures of real women's bodies in front-view for attractiveness. In our set of images, the relative ranges of BMI and WHR favoured WHR. We based these ranges on a sample of 457 women. We did not limit the WHR range, although we kept the BMI range to 0.5 s.d. either side of the sample means. As a result, WHR averaged 1.65 s.d. either side of its sample mean. However, even with these advantages, WHR was less important than BMI as a predictor of attractiveness ratings for bodies. BMI is far more strongly correlated with ratings of attractiveness than WHR (BMI approximately 0.5, WHR approximately 0.2). To further explore the relative importance of BMI and WHR, we deliberately chose a subset of these images that demonstrated an inverse correlation of BMI and WHR (i.e. a group in which as images get heavier they also become more curvaceous). If WHR is the most important determinant of attractiveness, then the more curvaceous (but higher BMI) images should be judged most attractive. However, if BMI is a better predictor, then the opposite should be true. We found that the more curvaceous (but higher BMI) images were judged least attractive, thereby inverting the expected rating pattern. This strongly suggests that viewers' judgements were influenced more by BMI than WHR. Finally, it is possible that body shape is an important cue to attractiveness, but that simple ratios (such as WHR) are not adequately capturing it. Therefore, we treated the outline of the torso as a waveform and carried out a set of waveform analyses on it to allow us to quantify body shape and correlate it with attractiveness. The waveform analyses address the complexity of the whole torso shape, and reveal innate properties of the torso shape and not shape

  13. Inversion Reveals Perceptual Asymmetries in the Configural Processing of Human Body.

    PubMed

    Marzoli, Daniele; Lucafò, Chiara; Padulo, Caterina; Prete, Giulia; Giacinto, Laura; Tommasi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous human bodies performing unimanual/unipedal actions are perceived more frequently as right-handed/footed rather than left-handed/footed, which suggests a perceptual and attentional bias toward the right side of others' body. A bias toward the right arm of human bodies could be adaptive in social life, most social interactions occurring with right-handed individuals, and the implicit knowledge that the dominant hand of humans is usually placed on their right side might also be included in body configural information. Given that inversion disrupts configural processing for human bodies, we investigated whether inversion reduces the bias toward the right side of human bodies. Consistent with our hypothesis, when presented with ambiguous stimuli depicting humans performing lateralized actions or movements, participants perceived a greater proportion of right-handed figures when the stimuli were shown upright than when the stimuli were shown inverted. The present findings seem to confirm our hypothesis that body configural information may include some form of knowledge about the probable handedness of other individuals, although alternative accounts involving the role of experience cannot be ruled out.

  14. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Steinmetz, N; Lorenz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2002-09-01

    Forced-air warming with upper body blankets has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with upper body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of eight complete upper body warming systems and to gain more insight into the principles of forced-air warming. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows: Qdot;=h. DeltaT. A, where Qdot;= heat flux [W], h=heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT=temperature gradient between the blanket and surface [ degrees C], and A=covered area [m2]. We tested eight different forced-air warming systems: (1) Bair Hugger and upper body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc. Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and upper body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) Thermacare (Gaymar Industries) with reusable Optisan upper body blanket (Willy Rüsch AG, Kernen, Germany); (4) WarmAir and upper body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (5) Warm-Gard and single use upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (6) Warm-Gard and reusable upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); (7) WarmTouch and CareDrape upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO); and (8) WarmTouch and reusable MultiCover trade mark upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc.) on a previously validated copper manikin of the human body. Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 11 thermocouples. The temperature gradient between the blanket and surface (DeltaT) was varied between -8 and +8 degrees C, and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, as similar mean skin surface temperatures have been found in volunteers. The covered area was estimated to be 0

  15. First record of chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Boopidae) on stray dogs from northern region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E

    2014-06-01

    Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.

  16. Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Position of Two New Species in Rhabdoviridae Infecting the Parasitic Copepod, Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11 600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses. PMID:25402203

  17. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    PubMed

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  18. Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeonhwa; Yun, Sujin; Yang, Hye Jin; Yoon, A Young; Kim, Haekwon

    2012-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×10(4) as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×10(4) as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids.

  19. Aggregation of Human Eyelid Adipose-derived Stem Cells by Human Body Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonhwa; Yun, Sujin; Yang, Hye Jin; Yoon, A Young; Kim, Haekwon

    2012-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most frequently used serum for the cultivation of mammalian cells. However, since animal-derived materials might not be appropriate due to safety issues, allogeneic human serum (HS) has been used to replace FBS, particularly for the culture of human cells. While there has been a debate about the advantages of HS, its precise effect on human adult stem cells have not been clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HS on the human eyelid adipose stem cells (HEACs) in vitro. When HEACs were cultivated in a medium containing 10% HS, many cells moved into several spots and aggregated there. The phenomenon was observed as early as 9 days following 10% HS treatment, and 12 days following 5% HS plus 5% FBS treatment. However, the aggregation was never observed when the same cells were cultivated with 10% FBS or bovine serum albumin. To examine whether cell density might affect the aggregation, cells were seeded with different densities on 12-well dish. Until the beginning of aggregation, cells seeded at low densities exhibited the longest culture period of 16 days whereas cells seeded at high densities showed the shortest period of 9 days to form aggregation. The number of cells was 15.1±0.2×104 as the least for the low density group, and 29.3±2.8×104 as the greatest for the high density group. When human cord blood serum or normal bovine serum was examined for the same effect on HEACs, interestingly, cord blood serum induced the aggregation of cells whereas bovine serum treatment has never induced. When cells were cultivated with 10% HS for 9 days, they were obtained and analyzed by RT-PCR. Compared to FBS-cultivated HEACs, HS-cultivated HEACs did not express VIM, and less expressed GATA4, PALLD. On the other hand, HS-cultivated HEACs expressed MAP2 more than FBS-cultivated HEACs. In conclusion, human adult stem cells could move and form aggregates by the treatment with human body fluids. PMID:25949109

  20. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm‑3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  1. [Immobilization and skeletal system of the human body].

    PubMed

    Kisała, Aleksander; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Shaping the process of evolution musculoskeletal and nervous systems in animals has allowed these organisms steady increase mobility and mastery of new environments to life. Movement is the essence of life and health. But health is not a permanent condition. Its absence often results in limited mobility of the body. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of immobilization on the state of the skeletal system and the evaluation of the effectiveness of various measures to reduce this impact.

  2. Fourth case of louse-borne relapsing fever in Young Migrant, Sicily, Italy, December 2015. Mini Review Article.

    PubMed

    Colomba, C; Scarlata, F; Di Carlo, P; Giammanco, A; Fasciana, T; Trizzino, M; Cascio, A

    2016-10-01

    Currently louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is primarily found in limited endemic foci in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan; no case of imported LBRF has been reported in Europe in the 9 years prior to 2015. The aim of our paper is to describe a new case of imported LBRF detected in Sicily, Italy, and to review all cases reported in migrants arrived in Europe in the last 10 years. Mini review of all published cases of louse-borne relapsing fever in Europe in the last 10 years. A computerized search without language restriction was conducted using PubMed combining the terms '(louse-borne relapsing fever or LBRF or recurrentis) and (refugee or Europe or migrant)' without limits. Furthermore, the 'Ahead-of-Print Articles' of the top 10 journals (ranked by Impact factor - Web of Science) of Infectious diseases and of Epidemiology were checked. Our search identified 26 cases of LBRF between July and October 2015 in migrants recently arrived in Europe: 8 had been described in Italy; 1 in Switzerland; 2 in the Netherlands; 15 in Germany. We describe data regarding the clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, therapy and outcome of these patients and of the new case. LBRF by Borrelia recurrentis should be considered among the clinical hypotheses in migrants presenting with fever, headache, chills, sweating, arthralgia, myalgia, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of manual and semi-automatic DNA extraction protocols for the barcoding characterization of hematophagous louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    The barcoding of life initiative provides a universal molecular tool to distinguish animal species based on the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. Obtaining good quality DNA for barcoding purposes is a limiting factor, especially in studies conducted on small-sized samples or those requiring the maintenance of the organism as a voucher. In this study, we compared the number of positive amplifications and the quality of the sequences obtained using DNA extraction methods that also differ in their economic costs and time requirements and we applied them for the genetic characterization of louse flies. Four DNA extraction methods were studied: chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, HotShot procedure, Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue and Blood Kit and DNA Kit Maxwell(®) 16LEV. All the louse flies were morphologically identified as Ornithophila gestroi and a single COI-based haplotype was identified. The number of positive amplifications did not differ significantly among DNA extraction procedures. However, the quality of the sequences was significantly lower for the case of the chloroform/isoamyl alcohol procedure with respect to the rest of methods tested here. These results may be useful for the genetic characterization of louse flies, leaving most of the remaining insect as a voucher. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. An attempt to model the human body as a communication channel.

    PubMed

    Wegmueller, Marc Simon; Kuhn, Andreas; Froehlich, Juerg; Oberle, Michael; Felber, Norbert; Kuster, Niels; Fichtner, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    Using the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals offers novel data communication in biomedical monitoring systems. In this paper, galvanic coupling is presented as a promising approach for wireless intra-body communication between on-body sensors. The human body is characterized as a transmission medium for electrical current by means of numerical simulations and measurements. Properties of dedicated tissue layers and geometrical body variations are investigated, and different electrodes are compared. The new intra-body communication technology has shown its feasibility in clinical trials. Excellent transmission was achieved between locations on the thorax with a typical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 20 dB while the attenuation increased along the extremities.

  5. Cajal body number and nucleolar size correlate with the cell body mass in human sensory ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Berciano, Maria T; Novell, Mariona; Villagra, Nuria T; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Val-Bernal, J Fernado; Lafarga, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    This paper studies the cell size-dependent organization of the nucleolus and Cajal bodies (CBs) in dissociated human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons from autopsy tissue samples of patients without neurological disease. The quantitative analysis of nucleoli with an anti-fibrillarin antibody showed that all neurons have only one nucleolus. However, the nucleolar volume and the number of fibrillar centers per nucleolus significantly increase as a function of cell body size. Immunostaining for coilin demonstrated the presence of numerous CBs in DRG neurons (up to 20 in large size neurons). The number of CBs per neuron correlated positively with the cell body volume. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemical analysis revealed the concentration of coilin, snRNPs, SMN and fibrillarin in CBs of DRG neurons. CBs were frequently associated with the nucleolus, active chromatin domains and PML bodies, but not with telomeres. Our results support the view that the nucleolar volume and number of both fibrillar centers and CBs depend on the cell body mass, a parameter closely related to transcriptional and synaptic activity in mammalian neurons. Moreover, the unusual large number of CBs could facilitate the transfer of RNA processing components from CBs to nucleolar and nucleoplasmic sites of RNA processing.

  6. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  7. Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin P; Bush, Sarah E; Clayton, Dale H

    2005-08-01

    Large-bodied species of hosts often harbor large-bodied parasites, a pattern known as Harrison's rule. Harrison's rule has been documented for a variety of animal parasites and herbivorous insects, yet the adaptive basis of the body-size correlation is poorly understood. We used phylogenetically independent methods to test for Harrison's rule across a large assemblage of bird lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). The analysis revealed a significant relationship between louse and host size, despite considerable variation among taxa. We explored factors underlying this variation by testing Harrison's rule within two groups of feather-specialist lice that share hosts (pigeons and doves). The two groups, wing lice (Columbicola spp.) and body lice (Physconelloidinae spp.), have similar life histories, despite spending much of their time on different feather tracts. Wing lice showed strong support for Harrison's rule, whereas body lice showed no significant correlation with host size. Wing louse size was correlated with wing feather size, which was in turn correlated with overall host size. In contrast, body louse size showed no correlation with body feather size, which also was not correlated with overall host size. The reason why body lice did not fit Harrison's rule may be related to the fact that different species of body lice use different microhabitats within body feathers. More detailed measurements of body feathers may be needed to explore the precise relationship of body louse size to relevant components of feather size. Whatever the reason, Harrison's rule does not hold in body lice, possibly because selection on body size is mediated by community-level interactions between body lice.

  8. A Science and Technology Excursion-based Unit of Work: The Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit of work based on a few systems of the human body. Stretches students' learning beyond the classroom into the local community by going on an excursion to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital. (ASK)

  9. A Science and Technology Excursion-based Unit of Work: The Human Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unit of work based on a few systems of the human body. Stretches students' learning beyond the classroom into the local community by going on an excursion to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital. (ASK)

  10. Genes and spleens: property, contract, or privacy rights in the human body?

    PubMed

    Rao, Radhika

    2007-01-01

    This article compares three frameworks for legal regulation of the human body. Property law systematically favors those who use the body to create commercial products. Yet contract and privacy rights cannot compete with the property paradigm, which alone affords a complete bundle of rights enforceable against the whole world. In the face of researchers' property rights, the theoretical freedom to contract and the meager interest in privacy leave those who supply body parts vulnerable to exploitation.

  11. Human Body Epigenome Maps Reveal Noncanonical DNA Methylation Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Matthew D.; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W.; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A.; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D.; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual’s cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could play tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns1,2. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals’ phased genome3, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in multiple genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues. PMID:26030523

  12. Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Matthew D; He, Yupeng; Whitaker, John W; Hariharan, Manoj; Mukamel, Eran A; Leung, Danny; Rajagopal, Nisha; Nery, Joseph R; Urich, Mark A; Chen, Huaming; Lin, Shin; Lin, Yiing; Jung, Inkyung; Schmitt, Anthony D; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ren, Bing; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Wang, Wei; Ecker, Joseph R

    2015-07-09

    Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant methylation patterns. Here we report high coverage methylomes that catalogue cytosine methylation in all contexts for the major human organ systems, integrated with matched transcriptomes and genomic sequence. By combining these diverse data types with each individuals' phased genome, we identified widespread tissue-specific differential CG methylation (mCG), partially methylated domains, allele-specific methylation and transcription, and the unexpected presence of non-CG methylation (mCH) in almost all human tissues. mCH correlated with tissue-specific functions, and using this mark, we made novel predictions of genes that escape X-chromosome inactivation in specific tissues. Overall, DNA methylation in several genomic contexts varies substantially among human tissues.

  13. Evaluation of Human Body Fluids for the Diagnosis of Fungal Infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Because the etiologic agents of these infections are abundant in nature, their isolation from biopsy material or sterile body fluids is needed to document infection. This review evaluates and discusses different human body fluids used to diagnose fungal infections. PMID:23984401

  14. Ideas about the Human Body among Secondary Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granklint Enochson, Pernilla; Redfors, Andreas; Dempster, Edith R.; Tibell, Lena A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on how South African students' ideas about the human body are constituted in their descriptions of three different scenarios involving the pathway of a sandwich, a painkiller and a glass of water through the body. In particular, we have studied the way in which the students transferred ideas between the sandwich and the…

  15. Coming to Know about the Body in Human Movement Studies Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varea, Valeria; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of undergraduate Human Movement Studies (HMS) students learnt to know about the body during their four-year academic programme at an Australian university. When students begin an undergraduate programme in HMS they bring with them particular constructions, ideas and beliefs about their own bodies and about the body…

  16. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  17. [Detection of carotenoids in the vitreous body of the human eye during prenatal development].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, M A; Panova, I G; Fel'dman, T B; Zak, P P; Tatikolov, A S; Sukhikh, G T; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids were found for the first time in the vitreous body of human eye during the fetal period from week 15 until week 28. Their maximum content was timed to week 16-22. No carotenoids were found the vitreous body of 31-week fetuses, as well as adult humans, which corresponds to the published data. It was shown using HPLC that chromatographic characteristics of these carotenoids correspond to those of lutein and zeaxanthin, characteristic pigments of the retinal yellow macula.

  18. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that telomerase assembly occurs in the absence of Cajal bodies. Moreover, dispersed hTR aggregates and forms foci specifically during S and G2 phase in coilin-KO cells. Colocalization of these hTR foci with telomeres implies proper telomerase trafficking, independent of Cajal bodies. Therefore, telomerase adds similar numbers of TTAGGG repeats to telomeres in coilin-KO and controls cells. Overexpression of TPP1-OB-fold blocks cell cycle-dependent formation of hTR foci and inhibits telomere extension. These findings suggest that telomerase assembly, trafficking and extension occur with normal efficiency in Cajal bodies deficient human cells. Thus, Cajal bodies, as such, are not essential in these processes, although it remains possible that non-coilin components of Cajal bodies and/or telomere binding proteins (e.g. TPP1) do play roles in telomerase biogenesis and telomere homeostasis.

  19. Human cells lacking coilin and Cajal bodies are proficient in telomerase assembly, trafficking and telomere maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanlian; Deng, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Hu, Qian; Liu, Haiying; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The RNA component of human telomerase (hTR) localizes to Cajal bodies, and it has been proposed that Cajal bodies play a role in the assembly of telomerase holoenzyme and telomerase trafficking. Here, the role of Cajal bodies was examined in Human cells deficient of coilin (i.e. coilin-knockout (KO) cells), in which no Cajal bodies are detected. In coilin-KO cells, a normal level of telomerase activity is detected and interactions between core factors of holoenzyme are preserved, indicating that telomerase assembly occurs in the absence of Cajal bodies. Moreover, dispersed hTR aggregates and forms foci specifically during S and G2 phase in coilin-KO cells. Colocalization of these hTR foci with telomeres implies proper telomerase trafficking, independent of Cajal bodies. Therefore, telomerase adds similar numbers of TTAGGG repeats to telomeres in coilin-KO and controls cells. Overexpression of TPP1-OB-fold blocks cell cycle-dependent formation of hTR foci and inhibits telomere extension. These findings suggest that telomerase assembly, trafficking and extension occur with normal efficiency in Cajal bodies deficient human cells. Thus, Cajal bodies, as such, are not essential in these processes, although it remains possible that non-coilin components of Cajal bodies and/or telomere binding proteins (e.g. TPP1) do play roles in telomerase biogenesis and telomere homeostasis. PMID:25477378

  20. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-04-10

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.